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Sample records for patient treatment room

  1. SU-E-T-387: Achieving Optimal Patient Setup Imaging and Treatment Workflow Configurations in Multi-Room Proton Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Prado, K; Langen, K; Yi, B; Mehta, M; Regine, W; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To simulate patient flow in proton treatment center under uncertainty and to explore the feasibility of treatment preparation rooms to improve patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Methods: Three center layout scenarios were modeled: (S1: In-Tx room imaging) patient setup and imaging (planar/volumetric) performed in treatment room, (S2: Patient setup in preparation room) each treatment room was assigned with preparation room(s) that was equipped with lasers only for patient setup and gross patient alignment, and (S3: Patient setup and imaging in preparation room) preparation room(s) was equipped with laser and volumetric imaging for patient setup, gross and fine patient alignment. A 'snap' imaging was performed in treatment room. For each scenario, the number of treatment rooms and the number of preparation rooms serving each treatment room were varied. We examined our results (average of 100 16-hour (two shifts) working days) by evaluating patient throughput and cyclotron utilization. Results: When the number of treatment rooms increased ([from, to]) [1, 5], daily patient throughput increased [32, 161], [29, 184] and [27, 184] and cyclotron utilization increased [13%, 85%], [12%, 98%], and [11%, 98%] for scenarios S1, S2 and S3 respectively. However, both measures plateaued after 4 rooms. With the preparation rooms, the throughput and the cyclotron utilization increased by 14% and 15%, respectively. Three preparation rooms were optimal to serve 1-3 treatment rooms and two preparation rooms were optimal to serve 4 or 5 treatment rooms. Conclusion: Patient preparation rooms for patient setup may increase throughput and decrease the need for additional treatment rooms (cost effective). Optimal number of preparation rooms serving each gantry room varies as a function of treatment rooms and patient setup scenarios. A 5th treatment room may not be justified by throughput or utilization.

  2. Compliance with antihypertensive treatment in consultation rooms for hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Balazovjech, I; Hnilica, P

    1993-12-01

    Compliance with antihypertensive therapy was examined by a questionnaire in 124 essential hypertension patients in an outpatient hypertension clinic. It was found that antihypertensive drugs were used regularly by only 62% of patients, with forgetting and feeling of well-being without therapy the principal reasons given for irregular drug taking. Treatment of hypertension is reported to have a deleterious effect on physical and mental activity, routine activities, sexual activity, memory, athletics and family life in only 2% of patients. Patients who were aware that increased BP reduces life span used the prescribed drugs more regularly and came regularly for checkups compared with patients lacking the relevant information. Patients over 60 years of age and smokers exhibited the worst compliance. No significant differences were found for sex or duration of treatment. With regard to nonpharmacological measures, most patients were willing to begin a programme of regular physical exercise, reduce weight, learn relaxation techniques and reduce alcohol intake: smokers, however were unable to stop the habit.

  3. Radiation Dosimetry in the BNCT Patient Treatment Room at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.; Reciniello, R.; Hu, J.

    2006-01-01

    The BMRR was a 3 MW light water reactor that had an epithermal neutron beam that was used to perform clinical trials on patients with malignant brain tumors. A series of measurements and calculations had been performed in the treatment room both prior to the trials and during the trials. The details of the measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations are presented and compared.

  4. Emergency room assessment and adrenaline treatment of patients with acute asthma of different severity.

    PubMed

    Limthongkul, S

    1989-06-01

    The adequacy of emergency room assessment and treatment of patients with acute severe asthmatic attacks was evaluated by analyzing the course of 451 visits of 348 patients to Chulalongkorn hospital's Emergency Room. Eighty-five per cent of the patients had an initial index score of greater than or equal to 4 and an average peak expiratory flow rate of 92.16 +/- 46.3 L/min. The discharge index score was 85 per cent with a score of less than or equal to 3 and an average peak expiratory flow rate of 192 +/- 40.3 L/min. Our study indicated that the predictive index proposed by Fischl et al correlated with the severity of airway obstruction; however, the initial index did not help with emergency room decision-making in predicting which patients might be hospitalized, have a relapse or be discharged. In fact, in our emergency room department, the index score to determine airway obstruction and the pattern of response to treatment were better predictors of the outcome, which was classified into three categories: non-responsive or minimally responsive, responsive, and partially responsive. By using conventional clinical criteria (i.e. recumbent position with elimination of laboured breathing, disappearance of dyspnea and reduction of wheezing), there was a 93 per cent accurate determination in the episodes of patients who responded sufficiently to the emergency room treatment to allow their discharge. The remaining 7 per cent of those seeking emergency treatment were hospitalized, which is a lower incidence than that of others series.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Self-Medication: Initial Treatments Used by Patients Seen in an Ophthalmologic Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Regina Souza; Kara-José, Newton; Temporini, Edméa Rita; Kara-Junior, Newton; Noma-Campos, Regina

    2009-01-01

    OJECTIVE This study seeks to identify practices of self-medication in the treatment of ocular emergencies. We examine patients’ use of both homemade preparations and manufactured products before seeking specialized care. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional analytic survey of consecutive patients seen in the ophthalmology emergency room of a teaching hospital. RESULTS The sample included 561 subjects, 51.3% males and 48.7% females, with a mean age of 39.8 years. Prior to seeking emergency care, 40.5% reported self-medicating; 29.4% used a homemade preparation (13.9% referred to an industrialized product like boric acid as a homemade preparation), and 11.1% used a manufactured product. The most frequently used products included a boric acid solution (53.3%), a normal saline solution (35.7%), herbal infusions (6.1%) and breast milk (4.8%). Viral conjunctivitis was the most frequent diagnosis (24.4%), followed by the presence of a corneal foreign body (7.4%). No significant differences were found in the self-treatment of ocular injuries according to gender (p = 0.95), level of education (p = 0.21) or age (p = 0.14). In addition, self-medication practices were not related to the medically judged severity of the condition. CONCLUSION Patients often attempt to treat conditions that require ophthalmologic emergency care by self-medicating with homemade or manufactured products. The most widely used products include boric acid, normal saline, leaf infusions and breast milk. This behavior occurs independently of educational level, gender, age or the nature of the ocular condition. Self-medication is a culturally driven practice that is used even in cases of acute ocular injuries. PMID:19690656

  6. RADIATION DOSIMETRY IN THE BNCT PATIENT TREATMENT ROOM AT THE BMRR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.; RECINIELLO, R.N.; HU, J.-P.

    2005-05-08

    The Medical Research Reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BMRR) was a heterogeneous, tank type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was operated on demand at a power level up to 3 mega-watts (MW) for medical and biological research [1]. The reactor first went critical on March 15, 1959, with 17 fresh fuel elements (2.52 kg uranium-235 in a total of 2.7 kg uranium) in the center core. The BMRR had two treatment rooms on opposite sides of the core. It had a predominately thermal neutron beam in the Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNE) on the west side of the core. By early 1990, a redesigned beam line had a predominately epithermal neutron beam in the Epithermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (ENIF) on the east side of the core [2]. The ENP was approximately 11 feet by 21 feet in size with its focal point consisting of a bismuth plate mounted in the wall adjacent to the reactor shield about 36 inches above the floor. The beam originated at a shutter constructed of 0.75 inch steel filled with concrete and weighing {approx}21 tons. Access to the ENIF was through a pair of hand operated steel shielding doors, each 42 inches wide, 84 inches high and 5 inches thick. The inner door had a 4-inch thick layer of paraffin on the side facing the reactor. The doors 5000 pounds weighed each. Additional shielding material had been added to the entire beam port at reactor wall within the ENIF. The shielding material consisted of 2-inch thick polyethylene sheets, which were impregnated with 95%-enriched {sup 6}Li in lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The shielding sheets around the port face were designed to allow the insertion of a variety of different beam collimators.

  7. "Noninvasive" oral treatment of asthma in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Aelony, Y

    1985-06-01

    One hundred forty consecutive patients with acute asthmatic episodes presenting to the emergency room were studied prospectively to assess the efficacy of oral therapy. After the emergency room staff was oriented to the pharmacologic action of hydroalcoholic elixir of theophylline, oral terbutaline, and a metered-dose hand-held nebulizer (metaproterenol), use of oral therapy as initial therapy rose from 12 percent to 76 percent (p = 0.005). More than half of these patients were discharged without receiving any of the traditional more invasive therapies of subcutaneous epinephrine, intravenous hydrating fluids with aminophylline, and machine-delivered sympathomimetic aerosols. Oral therapy did not substantially alter the total time spent in the emergency room. Only 4 percent treated with oral therapy required further treatment in the emergency room within 48 hours; 2 percent vomited after treatment. Oral therapy is safe and effective for most asthmatic patients presenting to the emergency room, as they generally are undermedicated with regard to theophyllines and sympathomimetic drugs. Use of oral therapy in the emergency room is a potent tool for educating asthmatic patients in the use of medication available for home use. The patients who require emergency room treatment despite being well-medicated at home (a small minority) need a higher level of care including intermittent positive-pressure breathing, corticosteroids, and often hospitalization.

  8. Neutron distribution and induced activity inside a Linac treatment room.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2015-01-01

    Induced radioactivity and photoneutron contamination inside a radiation therapy bunker of a medical linear accelerator (Linac) is investigated in this work. The Linac studied is an Elekta Precise electron accelerator which maximum treatment photon energy is 15 MeV. This energy exceeds the photonuclear reaction threshold (around 7 MeV for high atomic number metals). The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 has been used for quantifying the neutron contamination inside the treatment room for different gantry rotation configuration. Walls activation processes have also been simulated. The approach described in this paper is useful to prevent the overexposure of patients and medical staff. PMID:26737878

  9. The Impact of Patient-to-Patient Interaction in Health Facility Waiting Rooms on Their Perception of Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Willis, William Kent; Ozturk, Ahmet Ozzie; Chandra, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Patients have to wait in waiting rooms prior to seeing the physician. But there are few studies that demonstrate what they are actually doing in the waiting room. This exploratory study was designed to investigate the types of discussions that patients in the waiting room typically engage in with other patients and how the conversations affected their opinion on general reputation of the clinic, injections/blocks as treatment procedures, waiting time, time spent with the caregiver, overall patient satisfaction, and the pain medication usage policy. The study demonstrates that patient interaction in the waiting room has a positive effect on patient opinion of the pain clinic and the caregivers.

  10. Asymptomatic blood methanol in emergency room patients.

    PubMed

    Wargotz, E S; Werner, M

    1987-06-01

    Over a four-month period, methanol was found in the blood of 18 patients among 687 sequential emergency room admissions screened for alcohols by gas chromatography. In the patients with positive results, blood ethanol ranged from 6 to 570 mg/dL (1.3-123.7 mmol/L), blood methanol from 2.3 to 4.0 mg/dL (0.72-1.25 mmol/L). Methanol exposure during preparation of the sampling site or in the course of specimen handling, ingestion of denatured alcohol, as well as methanol production from the metabolism of aspartame are ruled out as causes for these findings. The authors conclude that endogenous methanol production is the probable major cause, while methanol as a fermentation congener may be a contributory minor cause.

  11. 14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Water treatment plant interior view of chlorination room. View to N - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  12. Arterial oxygen saturation in anaesthetised patients during transfer from induction room to operating room.

    PubMed

    Riley, R H; Davis, N J; Finucane, K E; Christmas, P

    1988-05-01

    There is no published study that examines oxygenation of anaesthetised patients during transport from anaesthesia induction room to operating room. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured in twenty-five anaesthetised patients before and during transfer to an adjacent operating room and continuously recorded on a calibrated chart recorder. A telemetry ECG recorder was used to detect cardiac dysrhythmias. All anaesthetists followed their usual anaesthetic practice. Patients ventilated via face-mask and via endotracheal tube were studied. During transfer patients were either apnoeic (n = 8) or breathing room air spontaneously (n = 17). Mean SaO2 before induction was 95.4 (SD 2.5)%, was higher after induction of anaesthesia, 98.5 (SD 1.4)% and fell after transfer, 95.7 (SD 2.6)%. A fall in SaO2 was recorded for 21 patients. No SaO2 value below 90% was seen. The decrease in SaO2 was related to the time taken to transfer the patients and spontaneous ventilation (Multiple regression analysis); it was not related to the body mass index although two of the greatest decreases were seen in obese patients. Transfer time averaged 51 seconds (range: 24-97 s). No changes in cardiac rhythm were seen. Transfer of anaesthetised patients was accompanied by variable falls in SaO2 which related to duration of transfer and spontaneous breathing of room air and which were not associated with new dysrhythmias.

  13. 18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. PLAIN OFFICE; SHOWS WOODWORK AND WALL TREATMENT. ROOM 2662, SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Processing & Electronics Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Acoustical criteria for hospital patient rooms: Resolving competing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Bennett M.

    2003-10-01

    The acoustical criteria for patient rooms in hospitals, nursing homes, and rehabilitation facilities may be based on several needs. One important requirement is that noise levels in the room be conducive to restful sleep. Also, caregivers must have easy auditory and visual access to the patients, and be able to hear vital sign monitor alarms. This often means that patient rooms are located near central nurse stations and that patient room doors are left open. Further, the recently published federal privacy standards developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HSS) under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) require that ``appropriate physical safeguards'' be put in place to protect the confidentiality of patient health information. The simultaneous and competing requirements for speech privacy, caregiver access, and good sleeping conditions present a serious acoustical challenge to health care facility designers. Specific facility design issues and potential solution strategies are presented.

  15. 20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT CONTROL ROOM IN BUILDING 374. THE BUILDING 371/374 COMPLEX WAS DESIGNED TO EMPHASIZE AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED, REMOTELY OPERATED PROCESSES. (1/80) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Diagnostic errors in emergency room medicine: physical illness in patients labeled "psychiatric" and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Leeman, C P

    1975-01-01

    Patients coming to general hospital emergency rooms often present mixed physical and psychological problems. An unfortunate tendency of physicians caring for these patients to "label" them as either "organic" or "psychiatric," based on initial impressions, may lead to inadequate diagnosis and improper treatment. Four case examples are discussed, in which diagnostic errors resulted either from ignoring psychological and social factors, or by focusing on emotional factors to the exclusion of organic disease. The provision of quality medical care in a hospital emergency room requires that attention be directed coordinately to both physical and emotional factors in each patient's illness.

  17. 33 CFR 149.685 - May a medical treatment room be used for other purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other purposes? A medical treatment room may be used as a sleeping space if the room meets the requirements of this subpart for both medical treatment rooms and sleeping spaces. It may also be used as an office. However, when used for medical purposes, the room may not be used as a sleeping space or...

  18. 33 CFR 149.685 - May a medical treatment room be used for other purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other purposes? A medical treatment room may be used as a sleeping space if the room meets the requirements of this subpart for both medical treatment rooms and sleeping spaces. It may also be used as an office. However, when used for medical purposes, the room may not be used as a sleeping space or...

  19. 33 CFR 149.685 - May a medical treatment room be used for other purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other purposes? A medical treatment room may be used as a sleeping space if the room meets the requirements of this subpart for both medical treatment rooms and sleeping spaces. It may also be used as an office. However, when used for medical purposes, the room may not be used as a sleeping space or...

  20. 33 CFR 149.685 - May a medical treatment room be used for other purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other purposes? A medical treatment room may be used as a sleeping space if the room meets the requirements of this subpart for both medical treatment rooms and sleeping spaces. It may also be used as an office. However, when used for medical purposes, the room may not be used as a sleeping space or...

  1. 33 CFR 149.685 - May a medical treatment room be used for other purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other purposes? A medical treatment room may be used as a sleeping space if the room meets the requirements of this subpart for both medical treatment rooms and sleeping spaces. It may also be used as an office. However, when used for medical purposes, the room may not be used as a sleeping space or...

  2. Quantification of Influenza Virus RNA in Aerosols in Patient Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Nancy H. L.; Zhou, Jie; Chu, Daniel K. W.; Yu, Han; Lindsley, William G.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Yen, Hui-Ling; Li, Yuguo; Seto, Wing-Hong; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential for human influenza viruses to spread through fine particle aerosols remains controversial. The objective of our study was to determine whether influenza viruses could be detected in fine particles in hospital rooms. Methods and Findings We sampled the air in 2-bed patient isolation rooms for four hours, placing cyclone samplers at heights of 1.5m and 1.0m. We collected ten air samples each in the presence of at least one patient with confirmed influenza A virus infection, and tested the samples by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We recovered influenza A virus RNA from 5/10 collections (50%); 4/5 were from particles>4 μm, 1/5 from 1–4 μm, and none in particles<1 μm. Conclusions Detection of influenza virus RNA in aerosols at low concentrations in patient rooms suggests that healthcare workers and visitors might have frequent exposure to airborne influenza virus in proximity to infected patients. A limitation of our study was the small sample size. Further studies should be done to quantify the concentration of viable influenza virus in healthcare settings, and factors affecting the detection of influenza viruses in fine particles in the air. PMID:26849130

  3. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  4. Improving Patients Experience in Peadiatric Emergency Waiting Room.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, Frederic; Siebert, Johan; Wipfli, Rolf; Duret, Cyrille; Gervaix, Alain; Lovis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    When visiting the emergency department, the perception of the time spent in the waiting room before the beginning of the care, may influence patients' experience. Based on models of service evaluation, highlighting the importance of informing people about their waiting process and their place in the queue, we have developed an innovative information screen aiming at improving perception of time by patients. Following an iterative process, a group of experts including computer scientists, ergonomists and caregivers designed a solution adapted to the pediatric context. The solution includes a screen displaying five lanes representing triage levels. Patients are represented by individual avatars, drawn sequentially in the appropriate line. The interface has been designed using gamification principle, aiming at increasing acceptance, lowering learning curve and improving satisfaction. Questionnaire based evaluation results revealed high satisfaction from the 278 respondents even if the informative content was not always completely clear. PMID:27332258

  5. Outpatient education reduces emergency room use by patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Franchette T; Hoang, Kathy; Hollen, Christopher; Swearingen, Richard; Hakimi, Andrea S; King, Jeanne Ann; Thompson, David

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a costly diagnosis, with emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions comprising a large portion of total direct cost. An educational intervention to decrease the number of ER visits was implemented on outpatients with epilepsy, using educational handouts and DVD. The number of ER visits declined significantly in the four months following intervention compared with the preceding four months. This finding supports patient education as a valuable tool to reduce ER use, which may, in turn, cut down on health-care cost. PMID:25499153

  6. Radiometric survey of teletherapy treatment rooms in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, E; Giannoni, R A; Velasco, A F; Brito, R R A; Dovales, A C M; de Sá, L V; da Rosa, L A R

    2010-03-01

    The Brazilian national regulatory authority, National Commission of Nuclear Energy, requires that dose rates in the vicinity of teletherapy treatment rooms do not exceed the permissible limits for workers as well as members of the public, depending on the place considered. At the end of 2005, the Brazilian national regulatory authority reduced the permissible dose limit for controlled areas from 1000 to 400 microSv week(-1). Therefore, the aim of this work is to verify the adequacy of structural shielding to this new limit for telecobalt units that had their sources changed and clinic linear accelerators (ALs) installed before the end of 2005. Considering the ALs, measurements of dose rates in controlled areas did not exceed the new permissible limit, excepting for a single case. In the case of (60)Co units, a similar situation is observed for controlled areas, although several non-conformities to the limit of uncontrolled area could be observed. PMID:19926674

  7. The multifunctional therapy room of the future: image guidance, interdisciplinarity, integration and impact on patient pathways.

    PubMed

    Jacob, A L; Regazzoni, P; Steinbrich, W; Messmer, P

    2000-01-01

    With few exceptions the interventional rooms of the present are either imaging suites or sterile operating rooms. Their users are restricted to either percutaneous procedures or to two-staged image-guided surgery without intra-operative imaging control. Since interventional therapy of the future will be minimally invasive and since minimally invasive therapy is essentially image-guided therapy, a new physical place for these activities has to be devised: the multifunctional therapy room of the future integrates sophisticated imaging and image guidance modalities together with advanced surgical and life-support equipment in a sterile environment [1, 2, 3]. Even given a high degree of integration, this will be a complex and costly piece of medical technology. These two factors--complexity and cost-- require interdisciplinary technological and medical collaboration to bring it into existence, distribute its cost and maximize usage and medical benefit. Yet another dimension of multifunctionality will be introduced and a significant impact on the care of vitally threatened patients will be exerted by using this room not only for elective image-guided therapy but also for emergent one-stop diagnosis and treatment. Motivation, technology, implementation strategies and funding of this image-guided, integrated and interdisciplinary therapy room, as well as a comprehensive approach combining emergency care and elective computer-assisted therapy (CAT), are discussed in this paper.

  8. Islam and the healthcare environment: designing patient rooms.

    PubMed

    Kopec, D A K; Han, Li

    2008-01-01

    Islam and the Muslim population are often the source of much misunderstanding and media-influenced misconceptions. Muslim patients who enter the healthcare environment are often weak and likely to experience feelings of vulnerability. Because of the complex and interwoven nature of culture and religion in a person's identity, it is important to consider patient belief systems and values when designing a patient's immediate environment. Through an exploration of literature related to culture and diversity and the beliefs and value system of the Muslim population, the authors were able to identify flexible design initiatives that could accommodate an array of cultural and spiritual practices. Islam and the Muslim population were chosen as the points of reference for this study because of the strong influence of the religion on the culture, and because of the many nuances that differ from the dominant culture within the United States. From these points of reference, a hypothetical design was developed for a patient room that considers differing notions of privacy, alternatives for cultural and religious practices, and ways to include symbolic meaning derived from attributes such as color.

  9. Treatment of pediatric migraine in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Amy A; Goadsby, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Migraine constitutes a relatively common reason for pediatric emergency room visits. Given the paucity of randomized trials involving pediatric migraineurs in the emergency department setting compared with adults, recommendations for managing these children are largely extrapolated from adult migraine emergency room studies and trials involving outpatient home pediatric migraine therapy. We review current knowledge about pediatric migraineurs presenting at the emergency room and their management, and summarize the best evidence available to guide clinical decision-making.

  10. Early prediction of poor outcome in patients with acute asthma in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, F; Fernandes, A K; Avila, E M; Nogueira, F L; Steinhorst, A M P; Saucedo, D Z; Machado, F J; Raymundi, M G; Dalcin, P T R; Menna Barreto, S S

    2002-01-01

    Early identification of patients who need hospitalization or patients who should be discharged would be helpful for the management of acute asthma in the emergency room. The objective of the present study was to examine the clinical and pulmonary functional measures used during the first hour of assessment of acute asthma in the emergency room in order to predict the outcome. We evaluated 88 patients. The inclusion criteria were age between 12 and 55 years, forced expiratory volume in the first second below 50% of predicted value, and no history of chronic disease or pregnancy. After baseline evaluation, all patients were treated with 2.5 mg albuterol delivered by nebulization every 20 min in the first hour and 60 mg of intravenous methylprednisolone. Patients were reevaluated after 60 min of treatment. Sixty-five patients (73.9%) were successfully treated and discharged from the emergency room (good responders), and 23 (26.1%) were hospitalized or were treated and discharged with relapse within 10 days (poor responders). A predictive index was developed: peak expiratory flow rates after 1 h < or =0% of predicted values and accessory muscle use after 1 h. The index ranged from 0 to 2. An index of 1 or higher presented a sensitivity of 74.0, a specificity of 69.0, a positive predictive value of 46.0, and a negative predictive value of 88.0. It was possible to predict outcome in the first hour of management of acute asthma in the emergency room when the index score was 0 or 2.

  11. Acinetobacter baumannii: association between environmental contamination of patient rooms and occupant status.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Namias, Nicholas; Cleary, Timothy; Fajardo-Aquino, Yovanit; Depascale, Dennise; Arheart, Kristopher L; Rivera, Jesabel I; Doi, Yohei

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to determine the association between the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii in patient rooms and the carrier status of the occupants. Fifty-six (39%) of 143 rooms with A. baumannii-positive patients had results positive for A. baumannii. Only 49 (10%) of 485 rooms with A. baumannii-negative patients were positive (odds ratio, 5.72 [95% confidence interval, 3.66-8.96]; [Formula: see text]). Clinical and environmental isolates shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.

  12. Acuity-adaptable patient room improves length of stay and cost of patients undergoing renal transplant: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonuel, Nena; Degracia, Alma; Cesario, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The acuity-adaptable patient room concept is an emerging care model where patient is cared for in the same room from admission through discharge regardless of the patient level of acuity. After implementation of the care cluster strategy to support the implementation of an acuity-adaptable patient room, a descriptive study was conducted looking at so whether there will be a decreased length of stay and cost on patient cared for in the acuity-adaptable patient room compared to patients cared for in a transitional care process. Result of the study showed decreased length of stay of kidney transplant patients from 9.6 (11.0) days (before acuity-adaptable patient room) to 4.1 (1.3) days (acuity-adaptable patient room). Not only that the acuity-adaptable patient room improves patient outcome and cost but with the nursing competency preparation to support the implementation of the acuity-adaptable patient room, a hybrid nurse was created who possessed both critical care and medical-surgical skills. This can be a potential trend in the professional nurse model to address the health care challenges we face today in terms of nursing shortage, abbreviated plan of care, and facility operation efficiency. PMID:23470704

  13. Acuity-adaptable patient room improves length of stay and cost of patients undergoing renal transplant: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonuel, Nena; Degracia, Alma; Cesario, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The acuity-adaptable patient room concept is an emerging care model where patient is cared for in the same room from admission through discharge regardless of the patient level of acuity. After implementation of the care cluster strategy to support the implementation of an acuity-adaptable patient room, a descriptive study was conducted looking at so whether there will be a decreased length of stay and cost on patient cared for in the acuity-adaptable patient room compared to patients cared for in a transitional care process. Result of the study showed decreased length of stay of kidney transplant patients from 9.6 (11.0) days (before acuity-adaptable patient room) to 4.1 (1.3) days (acuity-adaptable patient room). Not only that the acuity-adaptable patient room improves patient outcome and cost but with the nursing competency preparation to support the implementation of the acuity-adaptable patient room, a hybrid nurse was created who possessed both critical care and medical-surgical skills. This can be a potential trend in the professional nurse model to address the health care challenges we face today in terms of nursing shortage, abbreviated plan of care, and facility operation efficiency.

  14. Radiation shielding design of BNCT treatment room for D-T neutron source.

    PubMed

    Pouryavi, Mehdi; Farhad Masoudi, S; Rahmani, Faezeh

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that D-T neutron generator can be used as a proper neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of deep-seated brain tumors. In this paper, radiation shielding calculations have been conducted based on the computational method for designing a BNCT treatment room for a recent proposed D-T neutron source. By using the MCNP-4C code, the geometry of the treatment room has been designed and optimized in such a way that the equivalent dose rate out of the treatment room to be less than 0.5μSv/h for uncontrolled areas. The treatment room contains walls, monitoring window, maze and entrance door. According to the radiation protection viewpoint, dose rate results of out of the proposed room showed that using D-T neutron source for BNCT is safe.

  15. A system model of work flow in the patient room of hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junwen; Li, Jingshan; Howard, Patricia K

    2013-12-01

    Modeling and analysis of patient flow in hospital emergency department (ED) is of significant importance. In a hospital ED, the patients spend most of their time in the patient room and most of the care delivery services are carried out during this time period. In this paper, we propose a system model to study patient (or work) flow in the patient room of an ED when the resources are partially available. A closed and re-entrant process model is developed to characterize the care service activities in the patient room with limited resources of doctors, nurses, and diagnosis tests. Analytical calculation of patient's length of stay in the patient room is derived, and monotonic properties with respect to care service parameters are investigated.

  16. Comparison of Environmental MRSA Levels on High-Touch Surfaces in Contact Isolation and Noncontact Isolation Patient Rooms.

    PubMed

    Villamaria, Frank C; Berlanga, Gemma; Liao, I-Chia; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Environmental samples were collected from 100 hospital rooms, 32 noncontact rooms, and 68 contact isolation rooms. We isolated 202 and 1,830 MRSA colonies in noncontact and contact isolation rooms, respectively. The study identified MRSA isolates in hospital rooms of patients without colonization or infection with MRSA. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1472-1475.

  17. "Unless you went in with your head under your arm": patient perceptions of emergency room visits.

    PubMed

    Wellstood, Katie; Wilson, Kathi; Eyles, John

    2005-12-01

    There is increasing concern in Canada regarding growing pressures on emergency room care. Frequent media reports call attention to overcrowding, lengthy waiting times and the re-routing of ambulances due to the closure of emergency rooms during periods of overcrowding. Much of this information, however, is anecdotal. As such, little is known about patients' experiences in emergency rooms in Canada. The purpose of this study is to explore patients' perceptions of their most recent emergency room visit. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 men and women from two socially distinct neighbourhoods in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Much of the previous work on experiences in emergency room care is international in scope and uses quantitative methods to examine patient satisfaction with emergency care. This study considers patient experiences more broadly and looks beyond satisfaction to examine reasons for seeking emergency room care and the factors that shape experiences. The findings show that most patients describe their experiences in negative terms. The aspects of emergency room care that were most often linked with negative experiences were waiting times, patient perceptions of the quality of care received and staff-patient interactions. The findings are discussed in the context of recent health care reforms in Canada, which we argue have not addressed adequately the 'crisis' in emergency rooms.

  18. Do patients in hospitals benefit from single rooms? A literature review.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Irene; de Roode, Stanny; Goossensen, Anne

    2007-12-01

    In the context of growing attention for 'healing environments' and 'evidence based design' an increasing number of hospitals have decided to provide single-bedded rooms. However it remains unclear to what extent these policy decisions are based on scientific evidence. The aim of this study is to review the literature on benefits of single patient rooms for patients. The following outcome measures were used: privacy and dignity, patient satisfaction with care, noise and quality of sleep, hospital infection rates, recovery rates, and patient safety issues. We selected 25 studies for review. Randomized controlled trials on this subject were scarce, but other empirical studies have been found. We found that single rooms have a moderate effect on patient satisfaction with care, noise and quality of sleep, and the experience of privacy and dignity. Conflicting results have been found on hospital infection rates. Some studies did not show significant differences, while others concluded that single rooms decrease the risk of hospital infections. Evidence on recovery rates and patient safety was lacking. Too few sound studies were found to evaluate the effects of single patient rooms thoroughly. Future research should build the body of knowledge on single-bedded rooms in order to explore their impact on well-being and healing on both patients and staff. Also consequences of single rooms to management of care should be explored. Research should support policy making by exploring, indicating and initiating improvements in patient housing and quality of care.

  19. Evaluation of Injuries Caused by Penetrating Chest Traumas in Patients Referred to the Emergency Room.

    PubMed

    Aghaei Afshar, M; Mangeli, F; Nakhaei, A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of different injuries caused by penetrating chest traumas, and also the cause and type of trauma and its accompanying injuries. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, carried out on all patients referred to the emergency room of Shahid Bahonar Hospital, Kerman, from March 2000 to September 2008, due to penetrating chest trauma. The required information including age, sex, cause of trauma, type and site of injury, and accompanying injury was obtained and used to fill out a questionnaire and then was analyzed. 828 patients were included in the study; most of them were in the age range of 20-29. Of the patients, 97.6 % were males. The most frequent cause of trauma was stabbing, and the most frequent injuries following the trauma were pneumothorax and hemothorax. Orthopedic trauma was the most frequent accompanying injury. The most commonly used diagnostic method was plain chest radiography. In 93 % of the patients, the chest tube was placed and thoracotomy was performed for 97 % of the patients. Shahid Bahonar Hospital is a referral Trauma Centre and treats large number of chest trauma patients. Most patients need only chest tube placement as a definitive treatment. PMID:26246700

  20. Introducing therapeutic lasers in the hospitals and treatment rooms in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siposan, Dan G.; Manastireanu, Dan I.

    2005-11-01

    Background: Presently, there is no unanimous consensus regarding the methods to introduce laser therapy, on a large scale, into a medical assistance system. These methods may vary from one country to another, depending on some factors. Although, there are some compulsory stages that must be reached. Purpose: This paper's purpose is to present the necessary stages, in our opinion, to successfully introduce laser therapy in hospitals and treatment rooms in our country. They include, among others: an information of the public at large, by brochures or other informative materials, on therapeutic lasers' action; the introducing in high level medicine schools of courses on the biological action of low-level lasers; laboratory studies on action mechanisms of low level laser radiation on live tissues; establishing the more objective methods of patients' assessment; obtaining approval from the Bioethics Committee for clinical studies on volunteers, according to current legislation. Materials and methods: There had been done a preliminary clinical study on volunteers (over 100 in number), using mainly subjective methods of evaluation. The patients have been also monitored also after the treatment, during one to six months. We present briefly a method of monitoring and objective assessment, by optical means, for laser therapy results, which we intend to use in the near future. Results:-There are presented the stages we reached till now. In the preliminary clinical study we have treated patients with various pathologies: skin diseases, dental, surgical and neuralgic pathology etc. We observed an amelioration or total remission on the most patients and also a good mood after the treatments. There are presented a few cases with significant results. Discussion and conclusion: We estimate the success rate of our treatments with over 60 percents. We hope this study shall be useful for the purpose mentioned in the paper's title. In a country where living standard is low, laser

  1. Patient health information materials in waiting rooms of family physicians: do patients care?

    PubMed Central

    Moerenhout, Tania; Borgermans, Liesbeth; Schol, Sandrina; Vansintejan, Johan; Van De Vijver, Erwin; Devroey, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient health information materials (PHIMs), such as leaflets and posters are widely used by family physicians to reinforce or illustrate information, and to remind people of information received previously. This facilitates improved health-related knowledge and self-management by patients. Objective This study assesses the use of PHIMs by patient. It also addresses their perception of the quality and the impact of PHIMs on the interaction with their physician, along with changes in health-related knowledge and self-management. Methods Questionnaire survey among patients of family practices of one town in Belgium, assessing: (1) the extent to which patients read PHIMs in waiting rooms (leaflets and posters) and take them home, (2) the patients’ perception of the impact of PHIMs on interaction with their physician, their change in health-related knowledge and self-management, and (3) the patients judgment of the quality of PHIMs. Results We included 903 questionnaires taken from ten practices. Ninety-four percent of respondents stated they read PHIMs (leaflets), 45% took the leaflets home, and 78% indicated they understood the content of the leaflets. Nineteen percent of respondents reportedly discussed the content of the leaflets with their physician and 26% indicated that leaflets allowed them to ask fewer questions of their physician. Thirty-four percent indicated that leaflets had previously helped them to improve their health-related knowledge and self-management. Forty-two percent reportedly discussed the content of the leaflets with others. Patient characteristics are of significant influence on the perceived impact of PHIMS in physician interaction, health-related knowledge, and self-management. Conclusion This study suggests that patients value health information materials in the waiting rooms of family physicians and that they perceive such materials as being helpful in improving patient–physician interaction, health-related knowledge, and

  2. Three-dimensional conformal setup (3D-CSU) of patients using the coordinate system provided by three internal fiducial markers and two orthogonal diagnostic X-ray systems in the treatment room

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, Hiroki . E-mail: hshirato@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Oita, Masataka; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Onimaru, Rikiya; Uegaki, Shinji; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Kato, Norio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To test the accuracy of a system for correcting for the rotational error of the clinical target volume (CTV) without having to reposition the patient using three fiducial markers and two orthogonal fluoroscopic images. We call this system 'three-dimensional conformal setup' (3D-CSU). Methods and materials: Three 2.0-mm gold markers are inserted into or adjacent to the CTV. On the treatment couch, the actual positions of the three markers are calculated based on two orthogonal fluoroscopies crossing at the isocenter of the linear accelerator. Discrepancy of the actual coordinates of gravity center of three markers from its planned coordinates is calculated. Translational setup error is corrected by adjustment of the treatment couch. The rotation angles ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) of the coordinates of the actual CTV relative to the planned CTV are calculated around the lateral (x), craniocaudal (y), and anteroposterior (z) axes of the planned CTV. The angles of the gantry head, collimator, and treatment couch of the linear accelerator are adjusted according to the rotation of the actual coordinates of the tumor in relation to the planned coordinates. We have measured the accuracy of 3D-CSU using a static cubic phantom. Results: The gravity center of the phantom was corrected within 0.9 {+-} 0.3 mm (mean {+-} SD), 0.4 {+-} 0.2 mm, and 0.6 {+-} 0.2 mm for the rotation of the phantom from 0-30 degrees around the x, y, and z axes, respectively, every 5 degrees. Dose distribution was shown to be consistent with the planned dose distribution every 10 degrees of the rotation from 0-30 degrees. The mean rotational error after 3D-CSU was -0.4 {+-} 0.4 (mean {+-} SD), -0.2 {+-} 0.4, and 0.0 {+-} 0.5 degrees around the x, y, and z axis, respectively, for the rotation from 0-90 degrees. Conclusions: Phantom studies showed that 3D-CSU is useful for performing rotational correction of the target volume without correcting the position of the patient on the treatment couch

  3. Microbial surface contamination after standard operating room cleaning practices following surgical treatment of infection.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Rishi; Nayfeh, Tariq; Adams, Kerri L; Belkoff, Stephen M; Riedel, Stefan; Mears, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    At the authors' institution, some joint arthroplasty surgeons require the operating room to be terminally cleaned before using the room after infected cases, in theory to decrease exposure to excessive microbial contamination for the subsequent patient. The authors found no guidance in the literature to support this practice. To test this theory, the authors measured microbial surface contamination from 9 surfaces in operating rooms after standard operating room turnover following 14 infected cases vs 16 noninfected cases. A check was made for an association between organisms isolated intraoperatively from infected surgical patients immediately preceding standard cleaning and organisms isolated from common operating room surfaces. Colony counts were made at 24 and 48 hours, and organisms were identified. No significant difference was noted in colony counts between infected and noninfected cases, and no relationship was found between organisms isolated from infected cases and those from operating room surfaces. Furthermore, the largest colony count from both groups (0.08 cfu/cm(2)) was an order of magnitude less than the recently proposed 5 cfu/cm(2) threshold for surface hygiene in hospitals. This finding indicates that standard operating room turnover results in minimal surface contamination, regardless of the previous case's infection status, and that there is no need for a more extensive terminal cleaning after an infected case.

  4. Ventilation Rates and Airflow Pathways in Patient Rooms: A Case Study of Bioaerosol Containment and Removal.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Ehsan S; Grosskopf, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Most studies on the transmission of infectious airborne disease have focused on patient room air changes per hour (ACH) and how ACH provides pathogen dilution and removal. The logical but mostly unproven premise is that greater air change rates reduce the concentration of infectious particles and thus, the probability of airborne disease transmission. Recently, a growing body of research suggests pathways between pathogenic source (patient) and control (exhaust) may be the dominant environmental factor. While increases in airborne disease transmission have been associated with ventilation rates below 2 ACH, comparatively less data are available to quantify the benefits of higher air change rates in clinical spaces. As a result, a series of tests were conducted in an actual hospital to observe the containment and removal of respirable aerosols (0.5-10 µm) with respect to ventilation rate and directional airflow in a general patient room, and, an airborne infectious isolation room. Higher ventilation rates were not found to be proportionately effective in reducing aerosol concentrations. Specifically, increasing mechanical ventilation from 2.5 to 5.5 ACH reduced aerosol concentrations only 30% on average. However, particle concentrations were more than 40% higher in pathways between the source and exhaust as was the suspension and migration of larger particles (3-10 µm) throughout the patient room(s). Computational analyses were used to validate the experimental results, and, to further quantify the effect of ventilation rate on exhaust and deposition removal in patient rooms as well as other particle transport phenomena.

  5. Decontamination of targeted pathogens from patient rooms using an automated ultraviolet-C-emitting device.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Deverick J; Gergen, Maria F; Smathers, Emily; Sexton, Daniel J; Chen, Luke F; Weber, David J; Rutala, William A

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE. To determine the effectiveness of an automated ultraviolet-C (UV-C) emitter against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Clostridium difficile, and Acinetobacter spp. in patient rooms. DESIGN. Prospective cohort study. SETTING. Two tertiary care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS. Convenience sample of 39 patient rooms from which a patient infected or colonized with 1 of the 3 targeted pathogens had been discharged. INTERVENTION. Environmental sites were cultured before and after use of an automated UV-C-emitting device in targeted rooms but before standard terminal room disinfection by environmental services. RESULTS. In total, 142 samples were obtained from 27 rooms of patients who were colonized or infected with VRE, 77 samples were obtained from 10 rooms of patients with C. difficile infection, and 10 samples were obtained from 2 rooms of patients with infections due to Acinetobacter. Use of an automated UV-C-emitting device led to a significant decrease in the total number of colony-forming units (CFUs) of any type of organism (1.07 log10 reduction; P < .0001), CFUs of target pathogens (1.35 log10 reduction; P < .0001), VRE CFUs (1.68 log10 reduction; P < .0001), and C. difficile CFUs (1.16 log10 reduction; P < .0001). CFUs of Acinetobacter also decreased (1.71 log10 reduction), but the trend was not statistically significant (P = .25). CFUs were reduced at all 9 of the environmental sites tested. Reductions similarly occurred in direct and indirect line of sight. CONCLUSIONS. Our data confirm that automated UV-C-emitting devices can decrease the bioburden of important pathogens in real-world settings such as hospital rooms.

  6. Listening to "How the Patient Presents Herself": A Case Study of a Doctor-Patient Interaction in an Emergency Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbene, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    This is a case-study based on a micro-ethnography analyzing a doctor-patient interaction in an emergency room (ER) in New York City. Drawing on the framework of narrative medicine (Charon, 2006), the study examines how a phenomenological approach to listening to the patient facilitated the patient's narrative orientation not only to relevant…

  7. Group Therapy with Patients in the Waiting Room of an Oncology Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnowitz, Edward; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a therapy group for cancer patients, conducted by cotherapists in an oncology waiting room. Group members provided mutual support and shared concerns and coping methods. Medical staff members became more involved and were more able to address the affective needs of the patients and their families. (JAC)

  8. Detection of Common Respiratory Viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Patient-Occupied Rooms in Pediatric Wards.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have assessed viral contamination in the rooms of hospital wards. This cross-sectional study evaluated the air and objects in patient-occupied rooms in pediatric wards for the presence of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.Air samplers were placed at a short (60-80 cm) and long (320 cm) distance from the head of the beds of 58 pediatric patients, who were subsequently confirmed to be infected with enterovirus (n = 17), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 13), influenza A virus (n = 13), adenovirus (n = 9), or M pneumoniae (n = 6). Swab samples were collected from the surfaces of 5 different types of objects in the patients' rooms. All air and swab samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of the above pathogens.All pathogens except enterovirus were detected in the air, on the objects, or in both locations in the patients' rooms. The detection rates of influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae for the long distance air sampling were 15%, 67%, and 17%, respectively. Both adenovirus and M pneumoniae were detected at very high rates, with high concentrations, on all sampled objects.The respiratory pathogens RSV, influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae were detected in the air and/or on the objects in the pediatric ward rooms. Appropriate infection control measures should be strictly implemented when caring for such patients.

  9. Detection of Common Respiratory Viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Patient-Occupied Rooms in Pediatric Wards.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have assessed viral contamination in the rooms of hospital wards. This cross-sectional study evaluated the air and objects in patient-occupied rooms in pediatric wards for the presence of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.Air samplers were placed at a short (60-80 cm) and long (320 cm) distance from the head of the beds of 58 pediatric patients, who were subsequently confirmed to be infected with enterovirus (n = 17), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 13), influenza A virus (n = 13), adenovirus (n = 9), or M pneumoniae (n = 6). Swab samples were collected from the surfaces of 5 different types of objects in the patients' rooms. All air and swab samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of the above pathogens.All pathogens except enterovirus were detected in the air, on the objects, or in both locations in the patients' rooms. The detection rates of influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae for the long distance air sampling were 15%, 67%, and 17%, respectively. Both adenovirus and M pneumoniae were detected at very high rates, with high concentrations, on all sampled objects.The respiratory pathogens RSV, influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae were detected in the air and/or on the objects in the pediatric ward rooms. Appropriate infection control measures should be strictly implemented when caring for such patients. PMID:27057827

  10. [Treatment of patients with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients.

  11. [Treatment of patients with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients. PMID:24467960

  12. TREC-Rio trial: a randomised controlled trial for rapid tranquillisation for agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms [ISRCTN44153243

    PubMed Central

    Huf, Gisele; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Adams, Clive E

    2002-01-01

    Background Agitated or violent patients constitute 10% of all emergency psychiatric treatment. Management guidelines, the preferred treatment of clinicians and clinical practice all differ. Systematic reviews show that all relevant studies are small and none are likely to have adequate power to show true differences between treatments. Worldwide, current treatment is not based on evidence from randomised trials. In Brazil, the combination haloperidol-promethazine is frequently used, but no studies involving this mix exist. Methods TREC-Rio (Tranquilização Rápida-Ensaio Clínico [Translation: Rapid Tranquillisation-Clinical Trial]) will compare midazolam with haloperidol-promethazine mix for treatment of agitated patients in emergency psychiatric rooms of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. TREC-Rio is a randomised, controlled, pragmatic and open study. Primary measure of outcome is tranquillisation at 20 minutes but effects on other measures of morbidity will also be assessed. TREC-Rio will involve the collaboration of as many health care professionals based in four psychiatric emergency rooms of Rio as possible. Because the design of this trial does not substantially complicate clinical management, and in several aspects simplifies it, the study can be large, and treatments used in everyday practice can be evaluated. PMID:12383353

  13. LPT. Shield test facility (TAN646) interior. Water treatment room contains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Shield test facility (TAN-646) interior. Water treatment room contains water softeners, deionizers, and display panel. Note metal ceiling and walls. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: February 20, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-856 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Detection of Common Respiratory Viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Patient-Occupied Rooms in Pediatric Wards

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have assessed viral contamination in the rooms of hospital wards. This cross-sectional study evaluated the air and objects in patient-occupied rooms in pediatric wards for the presence of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Air samplers were placed at a short (60–80 cm) and long (320 cm) distance from the head of the beds of 58 pediatric patients, who were subsequently confirmed to be infected with enterovirus (n = 17), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 13), influenza A virus (n = 13), adenovirus (n = 9), or M pneumoniae (n = 6). Swab samples were collected from the surfaces of 5 different types of objects in the patients’ rooms. All air and swab samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of the above pathogens. All pathogens except enterovirus were detected in the air, on the objects, or in both locations in the patients’ rooms. The detection rates of influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae for the long distance air sampling were 15%, 67%, and 17%, respectively. Both adenovirus and M pneumoniae were detected at very high rates, with high concentrations, on all sampled objects. The respiratory pathogens RSV, influenza A virus, adenovirus, and M pneumoniae were detected in the air and/or on the objects in the pediatric ward rooms. Appropriate infection control measures should be strictly implemented when caring for such patients. PMID:27057827

  15. Evaluation of Access, a Primary Care Program for Indigent Patients: Inpatient and Emergency Room Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Richard A.; Giancola, Angela; Gast, Andrea; Ho, Janice; Waddell, Rhondda

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of Accessing Community Care through Eastside Social Services (ACCESS), a program that provided indigent patients with free primary care, on inpatient admissions, emergency room (ER) visits, and subsequent charges. Data on 19 people before and after program enrollment showed significant decreases in ER visits following…

  16. Use of Critical Access Hospital Emergency Rooms by Patients with Mental Health Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David; Ziller, Erika C.; Loux, Stephenie L.; Gale, John A.; Lambert, David; Yousefian, Anush E.

    2007-01-01

    Context: National data demonstrate that mental health (MH) visits to the emergency room (ER) comprise a small, but not inconsequential, proportion of all visits; however, we lack a rural picture of this issue. Purpose: This study investigates the use of critical access hospital (CAH) ERs by patients with MH problems to understand the role these…

  17. Does privacy matter? Former patients discuss their perceptions of privacy in shared hospital rooms.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Helen A

    2005-03-01

    As a relative concept, privacy is difficult to define in universal terms. In the New Zealand setting recent legislation aims to protect patients' privacy but anecdotal evidence suggests that these policies are not well understood by some providers and recipients of health care. This qualitative study set out to identify some of the issues by exploring former patients' perceptions of privacy in shared hospital rooms. The findings suggest a conditional acceptance of a loss of privacy in an environment dictated by architectural structure and by fiscal and time constraints. Participants indicated an awareness that personal information could be overheard and that their preference for a choice of setting for serious discussions was desirable. Some enjoyed the support offered in shared rooms, while, for others, overhearing another person's health issues caused unnecessary distress. The participants suggested that knowing they could be overheard constrained information disclosure. This withholding of information has implications for health professionals' ability to diagnose and treat patients appropriately.

  18. Impacting patient outcomes through design: acuity adaptable care/universal room design.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine Kay; Gallant, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    To succeed in today's challenging healthcare environment, hospitals must examine their impact on customers--patients and families--staff and physicians. By using competitive facility design and incorporating evidence-based concepts such as the acuity adaptable care delivery model and the universal room, the hospital will realize an impact on patient satisfaction that will enhance market share, on physician satisfaction that will foster loyalty, and on staff satisfaction that will decrease turnover. At the same time, clinical outcomes such as a reduction in mortality and complications and efficiencies such as a reduction in length of stay and minimization of hospital costs through the elimination of transfers can be gained. The results achieved are dependent on the principles used in designing the patient room that should focus on maximizing patient safety and improving healing. This article will review key design elements that support the success of an acuity adaptable unit such as the use of a private room with zones dedicated to patients, families, and staff, healing environment, technology, and decentralized nursing stations that support the success of the acuity adaptable unit. Outcomes of institutions currently utilizing the acuity adaptable concept will be reviewed.

  19. An automated information system for families of patients in the operation room based on EMR data.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eun-mi

    2013-01-01

    When children undergo surgery, the parents waiting for them outside the room feel extreme anxiety. SNUH was a full EMR hospital. But nurses had to manually operate an electronic display board which provided information regarding the progresses of the operations. The parents had to be located in front of the board. It was a unilateral and passive system. Therefore, we were about to improve the system to provide efficient information satisfying both parents and nurses. This service, which connected to the EMR system to provide real time location of patients undergoing operations, provide information through an electronic display board outside the operating room and SMS messages. We could reduce uneasiness of patients' families, increase satisfactions, and further, not only contribute to establishing the improved service of SNUH but also lessening unnecessary duties of nurses.

  20. Thermal neutron fluence in a treatment room with a Varian linear accelerator at a medical university hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Shan; Changlai, Sheng-Pin; Pan, Lung-Kwang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chen, Chien-Yi

    2011-09-01

    The indium foil activation technique has been employed to measure thermal neutron fluences ( Φth) among various locations in the treatment room with a 20×20 cm 2 field size and a 15 and 10 MV X-ray beam. Spatial Φth are visualized using colored three-dimensional graphical representations; intensities are up to (1.97±0.13)×10 5 and (1.46±0.13)×10 4 n cm -2/Gy-X at isocenter, respectively. The Φth is found to increase with the X-ray energy of the LINAC and decreases as it moves away from the beam center. However, thermal neutron exposure is not assessed in routine dosimetry planning and radiation assessment of patients since neutron dose contributes <1% of the given therapy dose. However, unlike the accelerated beam limited within the gantry window, photoneutrons are widely spread in the treatment room. Distributions of Φth were measured in water phantom irradiated with 15 MV X-ray beams. The shielding effect of the maze was also evaluated. The experimentally estimated Φth along the maze distance was fitted explicate and the tenth-value layer (TVL) was calculated and discussed. Use of a 10 cm-thick polyethylene door placed at the maze was suitable for radiation shielding.

  1. Hospital treatment of HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ola, Samuel Olawale

    2006-12-01

    Treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has progressed from the stage of inactivity, unconcern, abandonment and neglect to the present stage of holistic care involving treatment of the infection with Highly Active Anti Retroviral Agents, complications of the disease and side effects of antiretroviral therapy as well as that of human behavioural responses towards the disease with hope and promising outcome. The goal of the treatment is to prolong the patient's life while maintaining the best possible quality of health and life. It is now a continuum of care between the hospital and the different sectors of the community. Hospital treatment of patients with HIV-AIDS is complex and yet a simple task if there is healthy interaction of the patients and health care providers in a milieu of well equipped hospital setting with available treatment facilities for proper management of diseases. Similarly, for the care to achieve its goal, it requires a joint participation of the community and the commitment of the government not only on curtailment of the reservoir of HIV infection by antiretroviral therapy but total eradication of diseases, poverty and ignorance in all its entirety. PMID:18050774

  2. [Treatment of elderly diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Rušavý, Zdeněk; Žourek, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic disease over the past 50 years. Its incidence increases the most rapidly in the senior population, i.e. among people older than 65. In a number of countries 1/4 of the people with diabetes are now older than 65 years. Geriatrics now examines numerous differences regarding the senior patients, which often lead to somewhat different therapeutic procedures as compared to the treatment of other adult patients. This paper aims to show some different aspects of the treatment of an elderly patient with diabetes. The intensity of diabetes treatment in the elderly is mainly defined by the incidence of symptoms caused by diabetic decompensation which negatively affect quality of life and are likely to increase mortality. The treatment goals expressed by HbA1c, fasting and post-prandial glycemia, should be set individually based on age, initial HbA1c, present comorbidities and the level of frailty of an elderly patient. An effort to reduce weight regarding people at an older age is probably inappropriate and maybe even harmful, while physical activity reduces mortality and slows muscle catabolism at every age. Ideal is normal walking for 20-30 minutes a day. Except for "very fit elders" without renal insufficiency, the sulfonylurea treatment is unsuitable and perhaps even harmful. It significantly increases the incidence of different types of hypoglycemia and very likely overall mortality as well. The basis of diabetes treatment for the elderly is the effort to perform any regular exercise. In regard to medication treatment it is recommended to choose metformin or gliptin following the rule "start low, go slow", i.e. start with low medication doses and increase them at a slow pace. The main goal of the treatment is to maintain the good quality of life as long as possible, without symptoms associated with hyperglycemia with minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia development. PMID:25894262

  3. Insufflation using carbon dioxide versus room air during colonoscopy: comparison of patient comfort, recovery time, and nursing resources.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Isabelle; Hayes, Ann; Buffum, Martha D; Conners, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    The standard of practice for colonoscopy is room air insufflation. Recent research demonstrates safety and significant decrease in postcolonoscopy discomfort from distention when carbon dioxide (CO2) is used during insufflation. Reducing abdominal pain after colonoscopy may lead to increased acceptance of colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer. This study aims to compare patient comfort intra- and postprocedure, length of recovery, and nursing time in patients undergoing colonoscopy using room air vs. CO2 insufflation. This study uses an experimental design with patients randomly assigned to either room air or CO2 during colonoscopy. Physician endoscopists, postprocedure nurses, and patients were blinded to assignment. Prior bowel surgery, inflammatory bowel disease, or inability to consent excluded participants. Outcome measures included discomfort assessment, nursing tasks, and recovery time.Of 191 participants, 177 were men and 14 were women; 94 received room air; 97 received CO2. Patients insufflated with room air reported higher levels of some measures of discomfort: (a) during colonoscopy (p = .02), (b) on admission to recovery (p = .001), and (c) on discharge from recovery (p = .001). Patients receiving room air required more nursing tasks in recovery (p = .001) and more total nursing time (p = .001).Compared with room air, CO2 insufflation increases patient comfort and decreases nursing tasks and time.

  4. Ultrafast Room-Temperature Crystallization of TiO2 Nanotubes Exploiting Water-Vapor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Andrea; Chiodoni, Angelica; Shahzad, Nadia; Bianco, Stefano; Quaglio, Marzia; Pirri, Candido F.

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript a near-room temperature crystallization process of anodic nanotubes from amorphous TiO2 to anatase phase with a fast 30 minutes treatment is reported for the first time. This method involves the exposure of as-grown TiO2 nanotubes to water vapor flow in ambient atmosphere. The water vapor-crystallized samples are deeply investigated in order to gain a whole understanding of their structural, physical and chemical properties. The photocatalytic activity of the converted material is tested by dye degradation experiment and the obtained performance confirms the highly promising properties of this low-temperature processed material. PMID:25589038

  5. Telesurveillance of elderly patients by use of passive infra-red sensors in a 'smart' room.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Steenkeste, F; Couturier, P; Debray, M; Franco, A

    2003-01-01

    We have developed an automated surveillance system based on passive infra-red sensors. Eight sensors were installed in a hospital room. A computer automatically captured data from the sensors every night from 21:00 until 06:00 the following morning. The sensors were polled twice per second and when a sensor was activated by movement, the event and time were recorded in a data file. At the end of the surveillance period the program analysed the data and generated a report showing the activities taking place in the room and their times. Four elderly patients were observed for a total of 97 nights. A total of 1637 possible sequences of movements by the patient and the hospital staff were detected. The computer was able to identify 1450 sequences (89%) correctly, in comparison with manual analysis. Only 10 movements (0.6%) were undetected by the system; all were very short sequences (five or six activations of the sensors). The system was generally capable of detecting and classifying all major movements in the room.

  6. Two loose screws: near-miss fall of a morbidly obese patient after an operating room table failure.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Russell K; Booth, Robert T; Bittenbinder, Timothy M

    2016-09-01

    Operating room surgical table failure is a rare event but can lead to a dangerous situation when it does occur. The dangers can be compounded in the presence of obesity, especially in the anesthetized or sedated patient. We present a case of a near-miss fall of a morbidly obese patient while turning the patient in preparation to transfer from the operating room table to the hospital bed when 2 fractured bolts in the tilt cylinder mechanism led to an operating room table failure.

  7. Escherichia coli inactivation by pressurized CO2 treatment methods at room temperature: Critical issues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongji; Huang, Doudou; Zhou, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to increase the inactivation efficiency of CO2 against Escherichia coli under mild conditions to facilitate the application of pressurized CO2 technology in water disinfection. Based on an aerating-cycling apparatus, three different treatment methods (continuous aeration, continuous reflux, and simultaneous aeration and reflux) were compared for the same temperature, pressure (0.3-0.7MPa), initial concentration, and exposure time (25min). The simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment (combined method) was shown to be the best method under optimum conditions, which were determined to be 0.7MPa, room temperature, and an exposure time of 10min. This treatment achieved 5.1-log reduction after 25min of treatment at the pressure of 0.3MPa and 5.73-log reduction after 10min at 0.7MPa. Log reductions of 4.4 and 5.0 occurred at the end of continuous aeration and continuous reflux treatments at 0.7MPa, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggested that cells were ruptured after the simultaneous aeration and reflux treatment and the continuous reflux treatment. The increase of the solubilization rate of CO2 due to intense hydraulic conditions led to a rapid inactivation effect. It was found that the reduction of intracellular pH caused by CO2 led to a more lethal bactericidal effect. PMID:27155435

  8. Impact of healthcare design on patients' perception of a rheumatology outpatient infusion room: an interventional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Gunhild; Tommerup, Anne Marie Munk; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2015-07-01

    Evidence-based healthcare design is a concept aimed at reducing stress factors in the physical environment for the benefit of patients and the medical staff. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of room modifications on patients' perception of an outpatient infusion room used for treating rheumatologic diseases. Patient and nurse interviews, a staff workshop and field observations were performed to identify environmental room factors important for the patients, and the room was modified accordingly. The changes included the colours, atmosphere and functionality of the room. Artificial plants and a water bubble wall were added to the room. Forty-four patients receiving intravenous biologic therapy for inflammatory arthritis completed a questionnaire before and after the intervention. The agreement with 25 statements regarding the environmental room factors was scored (range 0-4). A total score was calculated as the sum of all 25 scores (range 0-100). The median (range) age was 55 (28-78) years. Seventeen out of 25 scores improved significantly (p < 0.000-0.050), none deteriorated. The amount of decorating and room colours, for example, was scored significantly higher after the intervention (p < 0.000), and the atmosphere was considered significantly more comfortable and "safe" (p < 0.005). The total score increased from 63.0 (34-88) to 81.0 (48-100) (p < 0.000). The study suggests that room modifications according to the principles of evidence-based healthcare design may have the potential to improve patients' perception of outpatient infusion rooms used for treating rheumatologic diseases. PMID:24705819

  9. Impact of healthcare design on patients' perception of a rheumatology outpatient infusion room: an interventional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Gunhild; Tommerup, Anne Marie Munk; Madsen, Ole Rintek

    2015-07-01

    Evidence-based healthcare design is a concept aimed at reducing stress factors in the physical environment for the benefit of patients and the medical staff. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of room modifications on patients' perception of an outpatient infusion room used for treating rheumatologic diseases. Patient and nurse interviews, a staff workshop and field observations were performed to identify environmental room factors important for the patients, and the room was modified accordingly. The changes included the colours, atmosphere and functionality of the room. Artificial plants and a water bubble wall were added to the room. Forty-four patients receiving intravenous biologic therapy for inflammatory arthritis completed a questionnaire before and after the intervention. The agreement with 25 statements regarding the environmental room factors was scored (range 0-4). A total score was calculated as the sum of all 25 scores (range 0-100). The median (range) age was 55 (28-78) years. Seventeen out of 25 scores improved significantly (p < 0.000-0.050), none deteriorated. The amount of decorating and room colours, for example, was scored significantly higher after the intervention (p < 0.000), and the atmosphere was considered significantly more comfortable and "safe" (p < 0.005). The total score increased from 63.0 (34-88) to 81.0 (48-100) (p < 0.000). The study suggests that room modifications according to the principles of evidence-based healthcare design may have the potential to improve patients' perception of outpatient infusion rooms used for treating rheumatologic diseases.

  10. Obesity increases operating room times in patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadry, Bassam; Press, Christopher D; Alosh, Hassan; Opper, Isaac M; Orsini, Joe; Popov, Igor A; Brodsky, Jay B; Macario, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity impacts utilization of healthcare resources. The goal of this study was to measure the relationship between increasing body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) with different components of operating room (OR) time. Methods. The Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) was utilized to identify all ASA PS 2 or 3 patients who underwent primary THA at Stanford Medical Center from February 1, 2008 through January 1, 2013. Patients were divided into five groups based on the BMI weight classification. Regression analysis was used to quantify relationships between BMI and the different components of total OR time. Results. 1,332 patients were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, height, and ASA PS classification between the BMI groups. Normal-weight patients had a total OR time of 138.9 min compared 167.9 min (P < 0.001) for morbidly obese patients. At a BMI > 35 kg/m(2) each incremental BMI unit increase was associated with greater incremental total OR time increases. Conclusion. Morbidly obese patients required significantly more total OR time than normal-weight patients undergoing a THA procedure. This increase in time is relevant when scheduling obese patients for surgery and has an important impact on health resource utilization.

  11. Obesity increases operating room times in patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kadry, Bassam; Press, Christopher D.; Alosh, Hassan; Opper, Isaac M.; Orsini, Joe; Popov, Igor A.; Macario, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity impacts utilization of healthcare resources. The goal of this study was to measure the relationship between increasing body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) with different components of operating room (OR) time. Methods. The Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) was utilized to identify all ASA PS 2 or 3 patients who underwent primary THA at Stanford Medical Center from February 1, 2008 through January 1, 2013. Patients were divided into five groups based on the BMI weight classification. Regression analysis was used to quantify relationships between BMI and the different components of total OR time. Results. 1,332 patients were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, height, and ASA PS classification between the BMI groups. Normal-weight patients had a total OR time of 138.9 min compared 167.9 min (P < 0.001) for morbidly obese patients. At a BMI > 35 kg/m2 each incremental BMI unit increase was associated with greater incremental total OR time increases. Conclusion. Morbidly obese patients required significantly more total OR time than normal-weight patients undergoing a THA procedure. This increase in time is relevant when scheduling obese patients for surgery and has an important impact on health resource utilization. PMID:25210656

  12. Understanding the effects of nurses, patients' hospital rooms, and patients' perception of control on the perceived quality of a hospital.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, J B

    2000-01-01

    Service marketing researchers suggest that the physical environment, the people, and the process strongly affect consumers' judgements when they evaluate services. Previous research has rarely applied this general framework to help identify specific hospital variables that affect the perceived quality of a hospital. This article presents a proposed model and empirical evidence that is based upon this general framework. That is, this article reports the results of a study which found that the physical environment (i.e., patients' perception of their hospital rooms) and people (i.e., patients' perception of nurses) affected patients' perception of hospital quality. The process (i.e., patients' perception of control over the process) did not directly affect their perception of hospital quality. However, patients' perception of control over the process and their perception of their hospital rooms affected their perception of their nurses. Consequently, this research suggests that the general framework identified by service marketing researchers can be applied to help understand how patients develop their perception of hospital quality. PMID:11184431

  13. Understanding the effects of nurses, patients' hospital rooms, and patients' perception of control on the perceived quality of a hospital.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, J B

    2000-01-01

    Service marketing researchers suggest that the physical environment, the people, and the process strongly affect consumers' judgements when they evaluate services. Previous research has rarely applied this general framework to help identify specific hospital variables that affect the perceived quality of a hospital. This article presents a proposed model and empirical evidence that is based upon this general framework. That is, this article reports the results of a study which found that the physical environment (i.e., patients' perception of their hospital rooms) and people (i.e., patients' perception of nurses) affected patients' perception of hospital quality. The process (i.e., patients' perception of control over the process) did not directly affect their perception of hospital quality. However, patients' perception of control over the process and their perception of their hospital rooms affected their perception of their nurses. Consequently, this research suggests that the general framework identified by service marketing researchers can be applied to help understand how patients develop their perception of hospital quality.

  14. A new active method for the measurement of slow-neutron fluence in modern radiotherapy treatment rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Sánchez Doblado, F.

    2010-02-01

    This work focuses on neutron monitoring at clinical linac facilities during high-energy modality radiotherapy treatments. Active in-room measurement of neutron fluence is a complex problem due to the pulsed nature of the fluence and the presence of high photon background, and only passive methods have been considered reliable until now. In this paper we present a new active method to perform real-time measurement of neutron production around a medical linac. The device readout is being investigated as an estimate of patient neutron dose exposure on each radiotherapy session. The new instrument was developed based on neutron interaction effects in microelectronic memory devices, in particular using neutron-sensitive SRAM devices. This paper is devoted to the description of the instrument and measurement techniques, presenting the results obtained together with their comparison and discussion. Measurements were performed in several standard clinical linac facilities, showing high reliability, being insensitive to the photon fluence and EM pulse present inside the radiotherapy room, and having detector readout statistical relative uncertainties of about 2% on measurement of neutron fluence produced by 1000 monitor units irradiation runs.

  15. Norovirus GII.4 Detection in Environmental Samples from Patient Rooms during Nosocomial Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified. PMID:24759712

  16. Norovirus GII.4 detection in environmental samples from patient rooms during nosocomial outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Nancy P; Hannoun, Charles; Svensson, Lennart; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Westin, Johan; Bergström, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an important cause of nosocomial gastroenteric outbreaks. This 5-month study was designed to characterize NoV contamination and airborne dispersal in patient rooms during hospital outbreaks. Air vents, overbed tables, washbasins, dust, and virus traps designed to collect charged particles from the air were swabbed to investigate the possibility of NoV contamination in patient rooms during outbreaks in seven wards and in an outbreak-free ward. Symptomatic inpatients were also sampled. Nucleic acid extracts of the samples were examined for NoV RNA using genogroup I (GI) and GII real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The NoV strains were characterized by RT-PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase-N/S capsid-coding region (1,040 nucleotides [nt]). Patient strains from two outbreaks in one ward were sequenced across the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase major capsid-coding region (2.5 kb), including the hypervariable P2 domain. In the outbreak wards, NoV GII was detected in 48 of 101 (47%) environmental swabs and 63 of 108 patients (58%); NoV genotype II.4 was sequenced from 18 environmental samples, dust (n = 8), virus traps (n = 4), surfaces (n = 6), and 56 patients. In contrast, NoV GII was detected in 2 (GII.4) of 28 (7%) environmental samples and in 2 (GII.6 and GII.4) of 17 patients in the outbreak-free ward. Sequence analyses revealed a high degree of similarity (>99.5%, 1,040 nt) between NoV GII.4 environmental and patient strains from a given ward at a given time. The strains clustered on 11 subbranches of the phylogenetic tree, with strong correlations to time and place. The high nucleotide similarity between the NoV GII.4 strains from patients and their hospital room environment provided molecular evidence of GII.4 dispersal in the air and dust; therefore, interventional cleaning studies are justified.

  17. Noise in hospital rooms and sleep disturbance in hospitalized medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Marn Joon; Yoo, Jee Hee; Cho, Byung Wook; Kim, Ki Tae; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Hospitalized patients are vulnerable to sleep disturbances because of environmental stresses including noise. While most previous studies on hospital noise and sleep have been performed for medical machines in intensive care units, there is a limited data for patients hospitalized in medical wardrooms. The purpose of present study was to measure noise level of medical wardrooms, identify patient-perceived sources of noise, and to examine the association between noise levels and sleep disturbances in hospitalized patients. Methods Noise dosimeters were used to measure noise level in 29 inpatient wardrooms at a university hospital. Sleep pattern and disturbance were assessed in 103 hospitalized patients, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Results The mean equivalent continuous noise level for 24 hours was 63.5 decibel A (dBA), which was far higher than 30 dBA recommended by the World Health Organization for hospital wardrooms. Other patients sharing a room were perceived as the most common source of noise by the patients, which was usually preventable. Of the patients in the study, 86% had bad sleep as assessed by the PSQI. The sleep disturbance was significantly correlated with increasing noise levels in a dose response manner. Conclusions Systemic organizational interventions are needed to keep wardrooms private and quiet to reduce sleep disturbance. PMID:25163680

  18. Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

  19. Room-temperature susceptometry predicts biopsy-determined hepatic iron in patients with elevated serum ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Maliken, Bryan D.; Avrin, William F.; Nelson, James E.; Mooney, Jody; Kumar, Sankaran; Kowdley, Kris V.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing clinical need for novel methods to measure hepatic iron content (HIC) noninvasively. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) methods have previously shown promise for estimation of HIC, but these methods can be expensive and are not widely available. Room-temperature susceptometry (RTS) represents an inexpensive alternative and was previously found to be strongly correlated with HIC estimated by SQUID measurements among patients with transfusional iron overload related to thalassemia. Aim The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between RTS and biochemical HIC measured in liver biopsy specimens in a more varied patient cohort. Methods Susceptometry was performed in a diverse group of patients with hyperferritinemia due to hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) (n=2), secondary iron overload (n=3), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n=2), and chronic viral hepatitis (n=3) within one month of liver biopsy in the absence of iron depletion therapy. Results The correlation coefficient between HIC estimated by susceptometry and by biochemical iron measurement in liver tissue was 0.71 (p=0.022). Variance between liver iron measurement and susceptometry measurement was primarily related to reliance on the patient’s body-mass index (BMI) to estimate the magnetic susceptibility of tissue overlying the liver. Conclusions In conclusion, we believe RTS holds promise for noninvasive measurement of HIC. Improved measurement techniques, including more accurate overlayer correction, may further improve the accuracy of liver susceptometry in patients with liver disease. PMID:22166564

  20. [Evaluation of Radiation Dose during Stent-graft Treatment Using a Hybrid Operating Room System].

    PubMed

    Haga, Yoshihiro; Chida, Kouichi; Kaga, Yuji; Saitou, Kazuhisa; Arai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Kumasaka, Eriko; Kataoka, Nozomi; Satou, Naoto; Abe, Mitsuya

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, aortic aneurysm treatment with stent graft grafting in the X-ray fluoroscopy is increasing. This is an endovascular therapy, because it is a treatment which includes the risk of radiation damage, having to deal with radiation damage, to know in advance is important. In this study, in order to grasp the trend of exposure stent graft implantation in a hybrid operating room (OR) system, focusing on clinical data (entrance skin dose and fluoroscopy time), was to count the total. In TEVAR and EVAR, fluoroscopy time became 13.40 ± 7.27 minutes, 23.67 ± 11.76 minutes, ESD became 0.87 ± 0.41 mGy, 1.11 ± 0.57 mGy. (fluoroscopy time of EVAR was 2.0 times than TEVAR. DAP of EVAR was 1.2 times than TEVAR.) When using the device, adapted lesions and usage are different. This means that care changes in exposure-related factors. In this study, exposure trends of the stent graft implantation was able to grasp. It can be a helpful way to reduce/optimize the radiation dose in a hybrid OR system.

  1. Capturing patient benefits of treatment.

    PubMed

    Carr, Alan; Wolfaardt, John; Garrett, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Findings from the Academy of Osseointegration State of the Science on Implant Dentistry Conference clearly demonstrate that data are lacking regarding both quality of design and adequate outcome measures (standardization, validity, and relevance to patient) to support an evidence-based systematic evaluation of implant efficacy. Despite the dearth of controlled trials and the variability in defining implant survival/success, the preponderance of evidence is viewed as lending support for consideration of dental implant therapy as a safe and predictable alternative to conventional restorations for many applications. However, this minimal conclusion undermines the best intentions of the dental profession, which is striving to substantiate to the patient, third-party providers, and the government the relative benefits and risks of various prosthetic treatment alternatives. The conclusions of multiple consensus conferences have repeatedly stressed that additional research with good strength of evidence following a broad spectrum of outcomes is vital to extend the breadth of conclusions regarding dental implant treatment efficacy. However, without a set of consensus-based core outcome measures addressing pertinent clinical and patient-centered factors, future expensive, time-consuming, and technically complex clinical studies may suffer the same critical flaws seen in the current body of research. It may be possible and useful to establish a core set of well-defined, discriminatory, and feasible outcome measures for common utilization and a hierarchy of additional recommended outcome measures for specific benefit categories. Such a standardized group of outcome measures would be likely to significantly enhance the potential for future research. In addition, with the formation of consensus guidelines, there would be an opportunity for scientific journals to promote the quality of implant dentistry research by suggesting the inclusion of these core outcome measures in

  2. Recruiting diverse patients to a breast cancer risk communication trial--waiting rooms can improve access.

    PubMed Central

    Bodurtha, Joann N.; Quillin, John M.; Tracy, Kelly A.; Borzelleca, Joseph; McClish, Donna; Wilson, Diane Baer; Jones, Resa M.; Quillin, Julie; Bowen, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Low participation among underserved populations in health research constrains progress in public health practices. From 2003 to 2005, Women's Health Clinic patients at the VCU Health System were recruited to a trial investigating breast cancer risk communication. In secondary analyses, we examined dimensions of the recruitment of these diverse women. The sample characteristics (age, insurance, race and previous mammograms) were compared to the overall clinic. Of recruitment attempts for eligible women, 45% consented; of those who declined, the top cited reasons were lack of time (40%) and lack of interest (18%). Of 899 participants, 35% qualified for the indigent care program, compared to 31% of the overall clinic (P<0.001). Forty-five percent of participants were African American, compared to 54% of overall clinic patients (P<0.001). Participants were younger (50 vs. 53 years, P<0.001) than the overall clinic population. Nonrepresentative enrollment of patients in clinical trials is common and could lead to suboptimal applicability of findings. Although there were statistically significant race and age differences between the study sample and the overall population, we demonstrate that waiting room recruitment can engage diverse women in a clinical trial and cancer risk communication. PMID:17722671

  3. The Effect of Continuity of Care on Emergency Room Use for Diabetic Patients Varies by Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiang; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Pu, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Background Although many studies have reported that high-quality continuity of care (COC) is associated with improved patient outcomes for patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated whether this positive effect of COC depends on the level of diabetes severity. Methods A total of 3781 newly diagnosed diabetic patients selected from the 2005 National Health Insurance database were evaluated for the period 2005–2011. Generalized estimating equations combined with negative binomial estimation were used to determine the influence of COC on the overall emergency room (ER) use and diabetes mellitus (DM)-specific ER use. Analyses were stratified according to diabetes severity (measured using the Diabetes Complications Severity Index [DCSI]), comorbidities (measured using the Charlson comorbidity score), and age. Results COC effects varied according to diabetes severity. Stratified analysis showed that the positive effect of COC on DM-specific ER use was the highest for a DCSI of 0 (least severe), with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.41–0.59) in the high-COC group (reference group: low-COC group). Compared with the low-COC group, high-quality COC had a significant beneficial effect on overall ER use in younger patients (IRR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39–0.66 for the youngest [18–40 years] group, and IRR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59–0.76 for the oldest [>65 years] group) and those with a high number of comorbidities. Conclusions The positive effects of high-quality COC on the treatment outcomes of patient with diabetes, based on the overall and DM-specific ER use, depends on the level of disease severity. Therefore, providing health education to enhance high-quality COC when the disease severity is low may be critical for ensuring optimal positive effects during diabetes disease progression. PMID:26902167

  4. Meanings of Being Critically Ill in a Sound-Intensive ICU Patient Room - A Phenomenological Hermeneutical Study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Lotta; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being critically ill in a sound-intensive ICU patient room, as disclosed through patients’ narratives. Patient rooms in ICUs are filled with loud activity and studies have revealed sound levels comparable to those of a busy road above the patient’s head. There is a risk that the sound or noise is disturbing and at worst a major problem for the patient, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the patients’ own experiences. Thirteen patients were asked to narrate their experiences of the sound environment in ICU patient rooms. The interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological- hermeneutical method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. Six themes emerged from the analysis. Conclusion: The meanings of being a patient in a sound- intensive environment were interpreted as never knowing what to expect next regarding noise, but also of being situated in the middle of an uncontrollable barrage of noise, unable to take cover or disappear. This condition is not to be seen as static; for some patients there is movement and change over time. The meanings indicate that the unpredictable shifts between silence and disturbing sounds stress the critically ill patient and impede sleep and recovery. Our findings indicate the need to reduce disturbing and unexpected sounds and noise around critically ill patients in high-tech environments in order to facilitate wellbeing, sleep and recovery. Nurses have a vital role in developing such an environment. PMID:22977654

  5. Identifying Patients with Bacteremia in Community-Hospital Emergency Rooms: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Taro; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Maki, Nobuyuki; Gibo, Koichiro; Tsugihashi, Yukio; Doi, Asako; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamazaki, Shin; Kajii, Eiji; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with bacteremia, using only information that is readily available in the emergency room (ER) of community hospitals, and (2) to test the validity of that rule with a separate, independent set of data. Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting To derive the clinical prediction rule we used data from 3 community hospitals in Japan (derivation). We tested the rule using data from one other community hospital (validation), which was not among the three “derivation” hospitals. Participants Adults (age ≥ 16 years old) who had undergone blood-culture testing while in the ER between April 2011 and March 2012. For the derivation data, n = 1515 (randomly sampled from 7026 patients), and for the validation data n = 467 (from 823 patients). Analysis We analyzed 28 candidate predictors of bacteremia, including demographic data, signs and symptoms, comorbid conditions, and basic laboratory data. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to derive an integer risk score (the “ID-BactER” score). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (i.e., the AUC) were computed. Results There were 241 cases of bacteremia in the derivation data. Eleven candidate predictors were used in the ID-BactER score: age, chills, vomiting, mental status, temperature, systolic blood pressure, abdominal sign, white blood-cell count, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and C-reactive protein. The AUCs was 0.80 (derivation) and 0.74 (validation). For ID-BactER scores ≥ 2, the sensitivities for derivation and validation data were 98% and 97%, and specificities were 20% and 14%, respectively. Conclusions The ID-BactER score can be computed from information that is readily available in the ERs of community hospitals. Future studies should focus on developing a score with a higher specificity while maintaining the desired sensitivity

  6. Evaluation of two organosilane products for sustained antimicrobial activity on high-touch surfaces in patient rooms.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Havill, Nancy L; Guercia, Kerri A; Schweon, Steven J; Moore, Brent A

    2014-03-01

    A controlled trial of applying 2 organosilane-based products with antimicrobial properties to high-touch surfaces was conducted in 9 patient rooms. Cultures of surfaces obtained before daily cleaning with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant showed no significant residual antimicrobial activity of the organosilane products, although a modest reduction could not be excluded.

  7. Treatment planning for the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, Alton G

    2010-12-01

    Treatment planning for pediatric dental patients is a multifactorial, complex process that requires careful consideration of three distinct areas: the patient's caries risk status, the available treatment options and the child's behavior. Components of a caries risk assessment include: a review of the child's medical and dental history in combination with the findings of the clinical and radiographic examination. All decisions regarding appropriate treatment options for the patient are guided by the outcome of the caries risk assessment. The child's behavior is another overriding consideration as it determines how the treatment can be rendered. Information obtained through careful evaluation of each area results in a treatment plan specifically designed for each child's circumstance.

  8. Operating Room to Intensive Care Unit Handoffs and the Risks of Patient Harm

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Lisa M.; Collins, Kelly M.; Koller, Felicitas L.; Khorzad, Rebeca; Abecassis, Michael M.; Holl, Jane L.; Ladner, Daniela P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess systems and processes involved in the operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU) handoff in an attempt to understand the criticality of specific steps of the handoff. Methods We performed a failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) of the OR to ICU handoff of deceased donor liver transplant recipients using in-person observations and descriptions of the handoff process from a multidisciplinary group of clinicians. For each step in the process, failures were identified along with frequency of occurrence, causes, potential effects and safeguards. A risk priority number (RPN) was calculated for each failure (Frequency x Potential effect x Safeguard; range 1-least risk to 1000-most risk). Results The FMECA identified 37 individual steps in the OR to ICU handoff process. In total, 81 process failures were identified, 22 of which were determined to be critical and 36 of which relied on weak safeguards such as informal human verification. Process failures with the highest risk of harm were lack of preliminary OR to ICU communication (RPN 504), team member absence during handoff communication (RPN 480) and transport equipment malfunction (RPN 448). Conclusions Based on the analysis, recommendations were made to reduce potential for patient harm during OR to ICU handoffs. These included automated transfer of OR data to ICU clinicians, enhanced ICU team member notification processes and revision of the postoperative order sets. The FMECA revealed steps in the OR to ICU handoff that are high risk for patient harm and are currently being targeted for process improvement. PMID:26067459

  9. Thinking in three's: changing surgical patient safety practices in the complex modern operating room.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Verna C

    2012-12-14

    The three surgical patient safety events, wrong site surgery, retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study. The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined. Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse. These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won't ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do. Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes, which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices. These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions. Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions. More often than not, even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate. This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent. Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment. This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery, RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to

  10. Travelling for radiation cancer treatment: patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I; Gray, Ross E; McGowan, Tom; Brunskill, Ian; Steggles, Shawn; Sellick, Scott; Bezjak, Andrea; McLeese, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Radiation treatment for cancer requires patients to receive frequent administrations and attend the treatment facility on a daily basis for several weeks. Travelling for radiation treatment has the potential to add to the distress an individual may be feeling. This study utilized in-depth interviews to capture 118 patients' perspectives about travelling for cancer treatment. Four themes emerged during the analysis of the data: (1) waiting was the most difficult part of the experience; (2) the idea of travelling for treatment was distressing; (3) travelling for treatment was tiring and posed difficulties for patients; and (4) being away from home had both benefits and drawbacks. Given the inevitability of travelling for radiation treatment, and the issues that arises for patients, supportive strategies need to be designed and implemented. PMID:14502591

  11. [Patient positioning using in-room kV CT for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kliton, Jorgo; Agoston, Péter; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2012-09-01

    automatic and manual image registrations were 0.31 cm and 0.26 cm in LAT, 0.27 cm and 0.27 cm in LONG and 0.24 cm and 0.33 cm in VERT directions, respectively. In case of manual image co-registration, the required PTV to CTV margins to cover at least 95% of the CTVs with at least 95% percent of the prescribed dose were calculated to 0.93 cm in LAT, 0.65 cm in LONG, and 0.89 cm in VERT directions. Patients set up can be verified with manual image co-registration based on soft tissues around the prostate using a kV CT-on-rails system installed in the treatment room. The difference between automatic and manual image co-registration was significant in LAT direction. A PTV to CTV margin <1 cm seems to be appropriate to cover the CTVs in image-guided prostate radiotherapy. These findings support our recent clinical protocol.

  12. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA.

    PubMed

    Burlon, A A; Girola, S; Valda, A A; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J; Sánchez, G

    2011-12-01

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina.

  13. Treatment Outcome in Patients Receiving Assertive Community Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C. L.; Roosenschoon, B. J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    In an observational study of severely mentally ill patients treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams, we investigated how treatment outcome was associated with demographic factors, clinical factors, and motivation for treatment. To determine psychosocial outcome, patients were routinely assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Trends over time were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures. The HoNOS total score was modeled as a function of treatment duration and patient-dependent covariates. Data comprised 637 assessments of 139 patients; mean duration of follow-up was 27.4 months (SD = 5.4). Substance abuse, higher age, problems with motivation, and lower educational level were associated with higher HoNOS total scores (i.e., worse outcome). To improve treatment outcome, we recommend better implementation of ACT, and also the implementation of additional programs targeting subgroups which seem to benefit less from ACT. PMID:19847646

  14. [Hemophilic patients. Treatment protocol in the dental office].

    PubMed

    Kouvelas, N; Vierrou, A M

    1988-01-01

    Hemophilia is an inherited hemorrhagic disease which is due to the insufficiency of Factor VIII, or Factor IX, or Factor XI. Hemophilia patients are regarded as special patients with increased dental problems. The present paper consists of two parts. In the first part the types of hemophilia, ways of transmission, severity forms, and clinical characteristics are described. In the second part a protocol concerning the dental treatment of hemophilia patients is presented. There are four basic types of hemophilia: hemophilia A or classical hemophilia or Factor VIII deficiency, hemophilia B or Christmas disease, hemophilia C and von Willebrand's disease. Hemophilia is transmitted either as a sex-linked recessive or as an autosomal dominant trait, depending on the type of the disease. The severity of hemophilia depends on the amount of the coagulation factor present. According to this amount, there are four scales of severity. The clinical characteristics of the disease also depend on the amount of the factor present and vary, from occasional bleedings to serious and even life-threatening bleeding episodes. In the second part of the paper the special psychological and physiological problems of the hemophiliacs are discussed. In addition, there is reference to the hematologic coverage these patients need, as well as to the protection measures for the dental personnel against hepatitis and AIDS. The dental treatment plan at the office is presented in detail, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment of hemophilia patients in the operating room under general anesthesia.

  15. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water-resistant material. (1) The floors shall be free from cracks or rough surfaces where water or dirt could accumulate. (2) The intersections of the walls and floors shall be impervious to water and the floor shall...

  16. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water-resistant material. (1) The floors shall be free from cracks or rough surfaces where water or dirt could accumulate. (2) The intersections of the walls and floors shall be impervious to water and the floor shall...

  17. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water-resistant material. (1) The floors shall be free from cracks or rough surfaces where water or dirt could accumulate. (2) The intersections of the walls and floors shall be impervious to water and the floor shall...

  18. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water-resistant material. (1) The floors shall be free from cracks or rough surfaces where water or dirt could accumulate. (2) The intersections of the walls and floors shall be impervious to water and the floor shall...

  19. 9 CFR 590.548 - Drying, blending, packaging, and heat treatment rooms and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rooms shall be well-lighted and have ceilings and walls of a tile surface, enamel paint, or other water-resistant material. (1) The floors shall be free from cracks or rough surfaces where water or dirt could accumulate. (2) The intersections of the walls and floors shall be impervious to water and the floor shall...

  20. [Mirtazapine in inpatient treatment of depressed patients].

    PubMed

    Bailer, U; Praschak-Rieder, N; Pezawas, L; Kasper, S

    1998-10-01

    Mirtazapine is a new antidepressant with a specific pharmacological profile which is different from all other currently available antidepressants. It is a so-called noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA). 46 in-patients were treated with mirtazapine. The mean dose was 56 mg mirtazapine per day (SD: 23; range: 15 to 90). The duration of treatment was 3.6 weeks (SD +/- 3.4). Patients presented with following diagnosis: 29 (= 63%) were diagnosed as having a unipolar depression, 26% (n = 12) suffered from a depression in the course of a bipolar disorder. 37% (n = 17) were moderately depressed, 52% (n = 24) were severely depressed. 2 patients (= 4%) met ICD-10 (international Classification of Diseases) criteria for a schizoaffective disorder, 2 patients (= 4%) suffered from dysthymia. 1 patient suffered from an organic depressive disorder. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with CGI (Clinical Global Impression), when patients were discharged from hospital. 68% of the patients were in partial or full remission (CGI 2, 3 and 4), 17% were unimproved (CGI 5 and 6), in 15% of the patients the treatment was stopped before. Our observations are indicative that mirtazapine is effective in the treatment of moderately and severely depressed patients and therefore confirm the data obtained in phase III-trials. Furthermore we found mirtazapine in either mono- or combination-therapy with various other antidepressants to be tolerated well. Side effects did not cause in a single patient a discontinuation in treatment. PMID:9816638

  1. One size fits all? Mixed methods evaluation of the impact of 100% single-room accommodation on staff and patient experience, safety and costs

    PubMed Central

    Maben, Jill; Penfold, Clarissa; Simon, Michael; Anderson, Janet E; Robert, Glenn; Pizzo, Elena; Hughes, Jane; Murrells, Trevor; Barlow, James

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives There is little strong evidence relating to the impact of single-room accommodation on healthcare quality and safety. We explore the impact of all single rooms on staff and patient experience; safety outcomes; and costs. Methods Mixed methods pre/post ‘move’ comparison within four nested case study wards in a single acute hospital with 100% single rooms; quasi-experimental before-and-after study with two control hospitals; analysis of capital and operational costs associated with single rooms. Results Two-thirds of patients expressed a preference for single rooms with comfort and control outweighing any disadvantages (sense of isolation) felt by some. Patients appreciated privacy, confidentiality and flexibility for visitors afforded by single rooms. Staff perceived improvements (patient comfort and confidentiality), but single rooms were worse for visibility, surveillance, teamwork, monitoring and keeping patients safe. Staff walking distances increased significantly post move. A temporary increase of falls and medication errors in one ward was likely to be associated with the need to adjust work patterns rather than associated with single rooms per se. We found no evidence that single rooms reduced infection rates. Building an all single-room hospital can cost 5% more with higher housekeeping and cleaning costs but the difference is marginal over time. Conclusions Staff needed to adapt their working practices significantly and felt unprepared for new ways of working with potentially significant implications for the nature of teamwork in the longer term. Staff preference remained for a mix of single rooms and bays. Patients preferred single rooms. PMID:26408568

  2. Reducing Cancer Patients' Painful Treatment

    NASA Video Gallery

    A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...

  3. Motivating patient adherence to allergic rhinitis treatments.

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G

    2015-03-01

    Patient nonadherence significantly burdens the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Fewer than half of prescribed doses of intranasal corticosteroid medication are taken. The challenges for immunotherapies are even greater. While sustained treatment for 3 to 5 years is required for full benefit, most patients receiving immunotherapy, either subcutaneous or sublingual, stop treatment within the first year. Although research into interventions to improve AR adherence is lacking, lessons learned from adherence interventions in other chronic health conditions can be applied to AR. Two well-established, overriding models of care-the chronic care model and patient-centered care-can improve adherence. The patient-centered care model includes important lessons for allergy providers in their daily practice, including understanding and targeting modifiable barriers to adherence. Additionally, recent studies have begun to leverage health information and communication technologies to reach out to patients and promote adherence, extending patient-centered interventions initiated by providers during office visits.

  4. Motivating patient adherence to allergic rhinitis treatments.

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G

    2015-03-01

    Patient nonadherence significantly burdens the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). Fewer than half of prescribed doses of intranasal corticosteroid medication are taken. The challenges for immunotherapies are even greater. While sustained treatment for 3 to 5 years is required for full benefit, most patients receiving immunotherapy, either subcutaneous or sublingual, stop treatment within the first year. Although research into interventions to improve AR adherence is lacking, lessons learned from adherence interventions in other chronic health conditions can be applied to AR. Two well-established, overriding models of care-the chronic care model and patient-centered care-can improve adherence. The patient-centered care model includes important lessons for allergy providers in their daily practice, including understanding and targeting modifiable barriers to adherence. Additionally, recent studies have begun to leverage health information and communication technologies to reach out to patients and promote adherence, extending patient-centered interventions initiated by providers during office visits. PMID:25956611

  5. Gender differences in the rate of restriction to room among Ontario forensic patients.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Krista; Hirdes, John P

    2015-07-01

    Gender can have separate and interacting effects on mental health. Gender-based analysis provides insight into these effects on mental health, and it can provide evidence to inform policy and practice to meet these gender-specific needs among persons in forensic mental health settings. Both individual and facility-level characteristics play a role in restriction to room as a form of control intervention in forensic mental health. Understanding the gender differences associated with the factors that increase a person's risk of restriction to room can allow for more targeted interventions and provide insight into policies that will help reduce these types of control interventions. PMID:26015491

  6. [Bipolar patients, structured psychotherapeutic treatment and approaches].

    PubMed

    Bonvalot, Thierry; Mazouni, Rabbah; Rivallan, Armel; Lassignardie, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    The current development of structured psychotherapy has brought gradual improvements to the treatment provided to bipolar patients. This psychotherapy may be either carried out individually or in a group. In this context, psychotherapeutic meditation seems beneficial.

  7. Initial presentation in psychiatry emergency room led to diagnosis of many urinary bladder stones in a male patient.

    PubMed

    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nagaraja, Aarathi; Mahmood, Aza K

    2013-01-01

    The first case of man who presented to psychiatry emergency room for evaluation of abnormal behavior because of urinary stones was reported. Careful evaluation of patient led to a diagnosis of 37 urinary bladder stones in an Egyptian man with obstructive uropathy and metabolic defects in the form of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects can lead to successful outcome in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery. A 61-year-old Egyptian man presented to psychiatry emergency room because he was found lying on floor in bathroom to urinate by his wife who thought her husband needed psychiatric evaluation. Patient gave history of frequent urination and dysuria on and off for 3 years. In the last 3 months before his presentation to emergency room, he got into a habit of lying down on his left side when he went to bathroom to urinate because it was easier for him to pass urine. Renal consultation requested because of presence of red blood cells in urinalysis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed bilateral hydronephrosis and multiple bladder stones. Twenty-four-hour urine collection showed low urinary citrate and high oxalate. Patient underwent open vesicolithotomy and removal of 36 stones. Stone analysis showed 75% uric acid and 25% calcium oxalate. Patient did very well after surgery, and 1 month later, he underwent transuretheral resection of prostate without any complications. Now patient has no difficulty passing urine and he has no recent attack of urinary tract infection. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of metabolic defects in men with urinary bladder stones would hopefully provide clinicians with the proper diagnostic tools to more specifically treat such patients with improved success in preventing reformation of urinary tract stones after surgery.

  8. Smoking cessation treatment among office-based buprenorphine treatment patients.

    PubMed

    Nahvi, Shadi; Blackstock, Oni; Sohler, Nancy L; Thompson, Devin; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2014-08-01

    Opioid-dependent patients smoke at high rates, and office-based buprenorphine treatment provides an opportunity to offer cessation treatment. We examined tobacco use and smoking cessation treatment patterns among office-based buprenorphine treatment patients. We reviewed records of 319 patients treated with buprenorphine from 2005 to 2010. We examined smoking status, cessation medication prescriptions, and factors associated with receipt of cessation prescriptions. Mean age was 43.9 years; most were men (74.2%) and Hispanic (70.9%). At buprenorphine initiation, 21.9% had no documentation of smoking status, while 67.4% were current, 10% former, and 0.9% never smokers. Of current smokers, 16.8% received smoking cessation prescriptions. Patients retained (vs. not retained) in buprenorphine treatment were more likely to receive smoking cessation medications (26.3% vs. 11.2%, p<0.005). We observed a high tobacco use prevalence among buprenorphine patients, and limited provision of cessation treatment. This is a missed opportunity to impact the high tobacco use burden in opioid-dependent persons.

  9. Role of the trauma-room chest x-ray film in assessing the patient with severe blunt traumatic injury

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Barry A.; Ali, Jameel; Towers, Mark J.; Sharkey, P. William

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To examine the accuracy of standard trauma-room chest x-ray films in assessing blunt abdominal trauma and to determine the significance of missed injuries under these circumstances. Design A retrospective review. Setting A regional trauma unit in a tertiary-care institution. Patients Multiply injured trauma patients admitted between January 1988 and December 1990 who died within 24 hours of injury and in whom an autopsy was done. Intervention Standard radiography of the chest. Main Outcome Measures Chest injuries diagnosed and recorded by the trauma room team from standard anteroposterior x-ray films compared with the findings at autopsy and with review of the films by a staff radiologist initially having no knowledge of the injuries and later, if injuries remained undetected, having knowledge of the autopsy findings. Results Thirty-seven patients met the study criteria, and their cases were reviewed. In 11 cases, significant injuries were noted at autopsy and not by the trauma-room team, and in 7 cases these injuries were also missed by the reviewing radiologist. Injuries missed by the team were: multiple rib fractures (11 cases), sternal fractures (3 cases), diaphragmatic tear (2 cases) and intimal aortic tear (1 case). In five cases, chest tubes were not inserted despite the presence (undiagnosed) of multiple rib fractures and need for intubation and positive-pressure ventilation. Conclusions Significant blunt abdominal trauma, potentially requiring operative management or chest-tube insertion, may be missed on the initial anteroposterior chest x-ray film. Caution must therefore be exercised in interpreting these films in the trauma resuscitation room. PMID:8599789

  10. Prosthodontic treatment of patients with hypodontia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Ling

    2006-09-01

    Hypodontia is a relatively rare occurrence that can have a significant impact on treatment planning for those patients with the condition. This paper will describe the forms of hypodontia, as well as associated dental issues. Treatment planning considerations for children, adolescents, and adults will be presented. PMID:17022297

  11. Travelling for radiation cancer treatment: patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I; Gray, Ross E; Mcgowan, Tom; Brunskill, Ian; Steggles, Shawn; Sellick, Scott; Bezjak, Andrea; McLeese, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of describing cancer patients' satisfaction with their care when they had to travel unexpectedly away from home for treatment. Ontario initiated a rereferral program for cancer patients who needed radiation therapy when the waiting lists in southern Ontario became lengthy. Patients travelled to the United States or northern Ontario for their care. A standardized survey containing 25 items with five-point Likert scale responses was mailed to all patients who participated in the rereferral program, following completion of their treatment. Items covered patient experiences before leaving home, in preparing for travel, and staying at the cancer facilities away from home. A total of 466 (55.8%) patients returned the survey. Overall, patients were satisfied with their care. However, there were a number of areas identified by patients where improvements could be made. These areas included access to support prior to leaving home, access to information about supportive care services while away from home, and sensitivity to personal needs in making arrangements for travel. Provision of information and support are important to cancer patients having to travel for cancer treatment. PMID:15969333

  12. Ofatumumab treatment in lupus nephritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Haarhaus, Malena Loberg; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Gunnarsson, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is frequently used in systemic lupus erythematosus; however, side effects such as infusion-related reactions limit its use. In this case report, we describe, for the first time, treatment with ofatumumab in four patients with lupus nephritis. The treatment was well tolerated in three of the patients, and a reduction of proteinuria was seen in all cases. This emphasizes the importance of alternative B-cell-depleting therapies in patients with an initial good response to rituximab, but who develop side effects. PMID:27478595

  13. Dental Treatment in Patients with Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Maria Inês; Grando, Liliane Janete; Gonzaga Del Moral, Joanita Ângela; da Silva Rath, Inês Beatriz; Schaefer Tavares, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Dental treatment of patients with leukemia should be planned on the basis of antineoplastic therapy which can be chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Many are the oral manifestations presented by these patients, arising from leukemia and/or treatment. In addition, performing dental procedures at different stages of treatment (before, during, or after) must follow certain protocols in relation to the haematological indices of patients, aimed at maintaining health and contributing to the effectiveness of the results of antineoplastic therapy. Through a literature review, the purpose of this study was to report the hematological abnormalities present in patients with leukemia, trying to correlate them with the feasibility of dental treatment at different stages of the disease. It is concluded in this paper that dental treatment in relation to haematological indices presented by patients with leukemia must follow certain protocols, mainly related to neutrophil and platelet counts, and the presence of the dentist in a multidisciplinary team is required for the health care of this patient. PMID:25784937

  14. Elderly patients with glioblastoma: the treatment challenge.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Alba; De Bonis, Pasquale; Chiesa, Silvia; Balducci, Mario; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    The treatment for elderly patients affected by glioblastoma represents a challenge in neuro-oncology. The recent randomized trials (the NOA-8 and the NCBTSG trials) showed an advantage of temozolomide for patients with O6-methylguanine methyltransferase methylated tumors. To date, no randomized trials compared the standard treatment (radiochemotherapy) with other therapeutic approaches, due to the idea that elderly patients do not tolerate aggressive therapy. Nonetheless, with the increased lifespan and the better quality of life, the nihilism in the treatment of elderly with cancer is obsolete. Molecular (including O6-methylguanine methyltransferase) and clinical tools (including the geriatric evaluation) are needed for choosing the proper therapy for patients over 70. PMID:24117272

  15. Invisalign treatment in periodondal patient: case report.

    PubMed

    Barlattani, A; Mampieri, G; Ottria, L; Bollero, P

    2009-10-01

    SCOPE OF WORK.: To evaluate the results obtained from the use of removable orthodontic aligners in patients with periodontal and systemic issues to improve the aesthetics of the smile. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Invisalign technique, a new technique based on the use of orthodontic removable transparent overlay representing the mechanotherapy. This technique through a dedicated software (Clin-Check) enables you to view the 3D resolution of the malocclusion. RESULTS.: In the case study examined the results support the Invisalign treatment in periodontal patients with a systemic disease, both for an easier home oral hygiene and also to maintain alignment and an aesthetic smile achieved without the use of invasive techniques. CONCLUSION.: The Invisalign orthodontic treatment is ideal for patients with periodontal problems. The removal of the masks ensures control of normal oral hygiene but also requires the cooperation of the patient during the treatment.

  16. Invisalign treatment in periodondal patient: case report

    PubMed Central

    BARLATTANI, A.; MAMPIERI, G.; OTTRIA, L.; BOLLERO, P.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Scope of work. To evaluate the results obtained from the use of removable orthodontic aligners in patients with periodontal and systemic issues to improve the aesthetics of the smile. Materials and methods. Invisalign technique, a new technique based on the use of orthodontic removable transparent overlay representing the mechanotherapy. This technique through a dedicated software (Clin-Check) enables you to view the 3D resolution of the malocclusion. Results. In the case study examined the results support the Invisalign treatment in periodontal patients with a systemic disease, both for an easier home oral hygiene and also to maintain alignment and an aesthetic smile achieved without the use of invasive techniques. Conclusion. The Invisalign orthodontic treatment is ideal for patients with periodontal problems. The removal of the masks ensures control of normal oral hygiene but also requires the cooperation of the patient during the treatment. PMID:23285373

  17. [Interdisciplinary emergency room - key to success?].

    PubMed

    Kirsch, M; Zahn, P; Happel, D; Gries, A

    2014-09-01

    In Germany, which is also faced with a scarcity of resources, the concept of central, interdisciplinary emergency rooms ("Zentrale Notfallaufnahme", ZNA) is being developed as an answer to the complex demands of modern emergency medicine with increasing numbers of patients and complexity of the medical conditions. This autonomous institution is the first point of contact for all emergency patients. The central tasks of the ZNA are triage and the interdisciplinary primary treatment of patients. The establishment of the ZNA includes specific facilities (treatment rooms, short stay units, resuscitation rooms, triage and management areas, integration of the premises on site) as well as specific processes (triage systems, specific standard operating procedures) and training for the staff (European Curriculum for Emergency Medicine). It could be shown that by establishing a ZNA along with all its structures the satisfaction of the patients (including shorter waiting times), resource management (intensive care capacity), and patient outcome could be significantly improved.

  18. The evolution of a purpose designed hybrid trauma operating room from the trauma service perspective: the RAPTOR (Resuscitation with Angiography Percutaneous Treatments and Operative Resuscitations).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Vis, Christine; Dubé, Mirette; Biesbroek, Susan; Ball, Chad G; Laberge, Jason; Shultz, Jonas; Rea, Ken; Sadler, David; Holcomb, John B; Kortbeek, John

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting

  19. The evolution of a purpose designed hybrid trauma operating room from the trauma service perspective: the RAPTOR (Resuscitation with Angiography Percutaneous Treatments and Operative Resuscitations).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Vis, Christine; Dubé, Mirette; Biesbroek, Susan; Ball, Chad G; Laberge, Jason; Shultz, Jonas; Rea, Ken; Sadler, David; Holcomb, John B; Kortbeek, John

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic injury is the leading cause of potentially preventable lost years of life in the Western world and exsanguination is the most potentially preventable cause of post-traumatic death. With mature trauma systems and experienced trauma centres, extra-abdominal sites, such as the pelvis, constitute the most frequent anatomic site of exsanguination. Haemorrhage control for such bleeding often requires surgical adjuncts most notably interventional radiology (IR). With the usual paradigm of surgery conducted within an operating room and IR procedures within distant angiography suites, responsible clinicians are faced with making difficult decisions regarding where to transport the most physiologically unstable patients for haemorrhage control. If such a critical patient is transported to the wrong suite, they may die unnecessarily despite having potentially salvageable injuries. Thus, it seems only logical that the resuscitative operating room of the future would have IR capabilities making it the obvious geographic destination for critically unstable patients, especially those who are exsanguinating. Our trauma programme recently had the opportunity to conceive, design, build, and operationalise a purpose-designed hybrid trauma operating room, designated as the resuscitation with angiographic percutaneous techniques and operative resuscitation (RAPTOR) suite, which we believe to be the first such resource designed primarily to serve the exsanguinating trauma patient. The project was initiated after consultations between the trauma programme and private philanthropists regarding the greatest potential impacts on regional trauma care. The initial capital construction costs were thus privately generated but coincided with a new hospital wing construction allowing the RAPTOR to be purpose-designed for the exsanguinating patient. Many trauma programmes around the world are now starting to navigate the complex process of building new facilities, or else retrofitting

  20. Patient Perceptions of Osteoporosis Treatment Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Neuner, Joan; Schapira, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many older patients express concerns about medication risks, and have higher risk thresholds than physicians for cardiovascular preventive medications. We hypothesized that patients have relatively high risk thresholds for fracture preventive medications. Methods Women ≥60 years old were recruited from three primary care internal medicine clinics in Wisconsin. Participants were provided information regarding fracture risks and treatment risks and benefits, followed by a series of vignettes depicting a 70 year old woman at baseline fracture risks between 5–50%. Fracture risks were shown graphically and treatment side effects were provided for each vignette, and participants were asked to respond regarding whether they would accept treatment. The association of vignette treatment acceptance with participant beliefs regarding medication risks was examined in analyses adjusted for perceived risk of medications, patient numeracy and prior respondent experience with osteoporosis. Results The mean age of women in the cohort was 69.4 (S.D. 7.29). 91% were non-Hispanic whites, 34% reported a personal history of fracture, and 20.3% a history of osteoporosis. Subjects varied substantially in their responses to vignettes, but only 51% reported they would accept prescription osteoporosis treatment at the threshold currently recommended by national physician treatment guidelines, and fewer would accept treatment at lower risks. Belief that medications are generally not worth their risks was associated with lower acceptance of treatment at all levels of fracture risk. Conclusions There is substantial variability in preferences for postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment. Presentation of individualized fracture risks as recommended by current guidelines has potential to allow better targeting to higher-risk patients, but further work is needed regarding how to present this information and counsel patients. PMID:24488417

  1. Effects of different postharvest treatments on the physiology and quality of 'Xiaobai' apricots at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Guo, Qin; Wang, Gang-Xia; Peng, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Ji-de; Che, Feng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of postharvest treatments on storage characteristics of harvested apricots in relation to fruit quality was investigated. 'Xiaobai' apricots treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), calcium, and heat in sealed container and then stored at 20 °C with 90 % relative humidity (RH) for 10 days. Results showed that the treatments could reduce respiration production and MDA content, delay softening, postharvest decay, the decrease of soluble solids (SSC), and visual changes. Furthermore, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin methylesterase (PME), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activities were reduced by treatments. Taken together, it is suggested that ClO2 treatment might be an effective way to maintain the quality of apricot fruit except 1-MCP treatment. PMID:25829606

  2. Clinician Perceptions of Operating Room to Intensive Care Unit Handoffs and Implications for Patient Safety: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Lisa M.; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Collins, Kelly M.; Abecassis, Michael M.; Holl, Jane L.; Ladner, Daniela P.; Gordon, Elisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Operating room (OR) to the intensive care unit (ICU) handoffs are known sources of medical error, yet little is known about the relationship between process failures and patient harm. Materials and Methods Interviews were conducted with clinicians involved in the OR-to-ICU handoff to characterize the relationship between handoff process failures and patient harm. Thematic analysis was used to inductively identify key themes. Results A total of 38 interviews were conducted. Dominant themes included early communication from the OR to the ICU, team member participation in the handoff, and relationships between clinicians; clinician perspectives varied depending substantially on role within the team. Conclusions The findings suggest that ambiguous roles and conflicting expectations of team members during the OR-to-ICU handoff can increase risk of patient harm. Future studies should investigate early postoperative ICU care as outcome markers of handoff quality and the effect of inter-professional education on clinician adherence to interventions. PMID:26198333

  3. Interventional treatment of congenital heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Marini, D; Agnoletti, G

    2010-02-01

    During the last 10 years the interventional treatment of congenital and structural heart diseases has known enormous changes in techniques, methods and patients management. Lesions previously treated surgically are now approached in the catheterization laboratory. The advent of multidisciplinary approach of congenital heart disease has made possible the development of hybrid techniques, of fetal medicine and of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- guided cardiac catheterization. Technological innovation has introduced new concepts in treatment of congenital heart disease patients and has allowed to adapt different techniques to single patients. The knowledge of the evolution of structural heart disease has allowed to chose the best percutaneous and/ or surgical technique and the best materials to optimize long term results. Improvement in non invasive imaging modality has allowed to diminish the radiation exposure and to provide useful information to interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. Absorbable, drug eluting tools will change the treatment and probably the natural history of congenital and structural cardiac and vascular diseases.

  4. Study of emergency room health care providers and the fixed facility physical capabilities to manage the presenting radiologically injured patient. Study report, July 1984-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    This study examined emergency room health care providers to determine if their knowledge and clinical expertise is sufficient to appropriately manage radiologically injured patient. This study posed an unannounced disaster preparedness drill to measure the ability of the emergency room staff to care for radiologically injured patients. This study produced a checklist for measurement of the care. The clinical expertise and performance were satisfactory. The instrument for measuring the abilities of the clinical staff provided useful, but required some modification.

  5. [Anemia treatment in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Janković, Nikola; Janković, Mateja

    2009-09-01

    Anemia is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and patients receiving renal replacement therapy. In this paper we will outline the prevention and treatment of anemia in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). PD patients are less anemic and more sensitive to erythropoesis-stimulating agent (ESA) than their hemodialysis (HD) counterparts and, in general, dosages required for achieving similar hemoglobin levels to those achieved in HD patients are remarkably less. Before starting with ESA treatment we have to evaluate the degree of anemia and excluded other causes which are not connected with CKD and method of treatment. Patient's compliance is crucial for a successful therapy and it can be improved by decreasing frequency of administration of ESA. Since ESAare expensive, "cost-effectivnes" studies represent an important factor in choosing a distinct drug. Subcutaneous administration provides better long-term utilization of ESA in comparison to intravenous administration and is therefore preferred in PD patients. Intraperitoneal administration is not recommended due to poor bioavailability. In some patients we can observe the reduced response to ESA therapy. The definition of reduced response is generally regarded as a failure to achieve target hemoglobin concentration of >11 g/dL. Identification of underlying cause is not always easy but every attempt should be made to investigate every patient with resistance to therapy because some causes are easily corrected. Since 2005 particular ESA drugs have been approved by Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and registered for use in Croatia. For PD patients the ESAcan be prescribed by general practitioner. The list of available drugs is available in the official government newspaper Nardone novine No.27, March 2nd, 2009. PMID:20232548

  6. [Oromaxillofacial surgical treatment in aging patients].

    PubMed

    Hausamen, J E; Schliephake, H

    1990-01-01

    The oral and maxillofacial surgical therapy of the elderly patient must include considerations of age-related physiological changes, both of inner organs and oral structures. Decreased hepatic and renal function may lead to delayed elimination of anaesthetic drugs and thereby make dose reductions necessary. Sclerosis or osteoporosis of jaw bones may render the surgical treatment of odontogenic diseases more difficult due to the increased fracture hazard. Painful ankylosis and rheumatic arthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint, tumors and fractures are common diseases of the elderly patient that a maxillofacial surgeon has to deal with. Furthermore, preprosthetic and reconstructive surgery is often required after jaw resections or severe atrophy. Due to the polypathy frequently present in elderly patients maxillofacial surgery requires particular indications, special surgical performance, and extensive postoperative care. By using all possible means, a satisfactory treatment can be achieved even in this age patients, whose quality of life can thus be improved.

  7. Behavioral treatment of violent psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, S E; Woolsey, J E; Innocent, A J; Liberman, R P

    1988-12-01

    This article reviewed major accelerative and decelerative behavioral treatments for aggressive and destructive behavior in psychiatric patients. Accelerative procedures supplant antagonistic behavior by teaching adaptive skills, and by strengthening competing responses; they are realized in token economies, social skills training, differential reinforcement of other behavior, and activity programming. Current decelerative procedures reduce violent behavior by decreasing reinforcement accessible to the patient following violent acts; they are exemplified by social extinction, response cost, time out from reinforcement, overcorrection, and contingent restraint. All behavioral interventions are applied within a philosophic framework that emphasizes observable behavior, measurement of treatment effects, and restructure of the social and physical environment to improve patients' response patterns. This approach extends beyond a problem-oriented model and presents proven techniques for developing and maintaining patients' adaptive functioning.

  8. [Massive transfusion and trauma patient management: pathophysiological approach to treatment].

    PubMed

    Zunini-Fernandez, Graciela; Rando-Huluk, Karina; Martínez-Pelayo, Francisco Javier; Castillo-Trevizo, Ara Lizeth

    2011-01-01

    Bleeding that requires massive blood transfusion is one of the main causes of cardiac arrest and death in the operating room. Its mortality varies widely between 15 and 54%, and it is strongly related to multiple factors such as acidosis, hypothermia and hypocoagulation. We undertook this study to describe the mechanisms that perpetuate bleeding during massive hemorrhage and the particular issues under the different clinical conditions of controlled and uncontrolled tissue damage. Laboratory tests for coagulation status diagnosis as well as treatment guidelines for usage of different fluid replacement solutions and hemoderivatives are described. A well-established response plan is needed by the surgical team and the blood bank in order to quickly facilitate blood products to the patient. Measures to avoid hypothermia and availability of rapid infusion systems are also necessary.

  9. [Treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Mucsi, Orsolya

    2016-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western countries. The abnormal B lymphocytes progress into the blood and infiltrate the bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. CLL is a disease of the adults and older individuals who often have coexisting conditions. It usually progresses slowly, but in patients who need treatment, CLL eventually returns. For relapsed, refractory patients treatment options are limited. The only curative treatment is bone marrow transplantation. However, the new, alternative therapeutics show superior efficacy in CLL than standard regimens. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important therapeutic aspects of CLL and to give an insight into the novel treatment options. PMID:27275639

  10. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Methods Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. Results The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. Conclusion The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department. PMID:26451241

  11. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  12. [Surgical treatment of bronchiectases in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Danilov, G P; Makeeva, R P; Shornikov, V A; Zil'ber, E K; Akopov, A L

    2010-01-01

    The authors present experiences with surgical treatment of 29 patients (aged 50-64 years) with bronchiectases. Early and late results were analyzed. It was shown that complex approach to the estimation of the findings of radiography, spiral computed tomography, investigation of the external respiration function, fibrobronchoscopy and bronchoscopy, if necessary, allowed operating the patients older than 50 years with local forms of bronchiectases which gave good results. PMID:21137257

  13. [Treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hack, Juliana; Bliemel, Christopher; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Bücking, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Hip fractures are among the most common fractures in elderly people. The annual number of femoral fractures is even expected to increase because of an aging society. Due to the high number of comorbidities, there are special challenges in treating geriatric hip fracture patients, which require a multidisciplinary management. This includes surgical treatment allowing full weight bearing in the immediate postoperative period, osteoporosis treatment and falls prevention as well as an early ortho-geriatric rehabilitation program.

  14. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.

  15. Criminological profile of patients in addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence of criminal behaviour in patients addicted to drugs who are in treatment. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment at a specialized centre was assessed. Information on criminal behaviours, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the EuropAsi), psychopathological factors (assessed by SCL-90-R) and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II) was collected. Patients presenting criminal behaviour were compared with those who were not associated with crime for all the variables studied. The rate of drug-addicted patients with criminal behaviour in this sample was 60.3% (n = 150), and it was mainly related to traffic offenses, followed by drug dealing offenses. Significant differences were observed between patients with and without criminal behaviour. Patients with criminal problems were mostly men and single. Moreover, they were more likely to report poly-consumption. Furthermore, significant differences were observed on several variables: EuropAsi, SCL-90-R and MCMI-II. According to these results, patients with associated criminal behaviour presented a more severe addiction problem. The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  16. Criminological profile of patients in addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence of criminal behaviour in patients addicted to drugs who are in treatment. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment at a specialized centre was assessed. Information on criminal behaviours, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the EuropAsi), psychopathological factors (assessed by SCL-90-R) and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II) was collected. Patients presenting criminal behaviour were compared with those who were not associated with crime for all the variables studied. The rate of drug-addicted patients with criminal behaviour in this sample was 60.3% (n = 150), and it was mainly related to traffic offenses, followed by drug dealing offenses. Significant differences were observed between patients with and without criminal behaviour. Patients with criminal problems were mostly men and single. Moreover, they were more likely to report poly-consumption. Furthermore, significant differences were observed on several variables: EuropAsi, SCL-90-R and MCMI-II. According to these results, patients with associated criminal behaviour presented a more severe addiction problem. The implications of these findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23748943

  17. [Hepatitis C treatment in special patient groups].

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Marina; Jorquera, Francisco; Ángel Serra, Miguel; Sola, Ricard; Castellano, Gregorio

    2014-07-01

    The treatment plan for chronic hepatitis C in special populations varies according to comorbidity and the current evidence on treatment. In patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfection, the results of dual therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) are poor. In patients with genotype 1 infection, triple therapy (dual therapy plus boceprevir or telaprevir) has doubled the response rate, but protease inhibitors can interact with some antiretroviral drugs and provoke more adverse effects. These disadvantages are avoided by the new, second-generation, direct-acting antiviral agents. In patients who are candidates for liver transplantation or are already liver transplant recipients, the optimal therapeutic option at present is to combine the new antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin and without interferon. The treatment of patients under hemodialysis due to chronic renal disease continues to be dual therapy (often with reduced doses of pegylated interferon and ribavirin), since there is still insufficient information on triple therapy and the new antiviral agents. In mixed cryoglobulinemia, despite the scarcity of experience, triple therapy seems to be superior to dual therapy and may be used as rescue therapy in non-responders to dual therapy. However, a decision must always be made on whether antiviral treatment should be used concomitantly or after immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. [Hepatitis C treatment in special patient groups].

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Marina; Jorquera, Francisco; Ángel Serra, Miguel; Sola, Ricard; Castellano, Gregorio

    2014-07-01

    The treatment plan for chronic hepatitis C in special populations varies according to comorbidity and the current evidence on treatment. In patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV coinfection, the results of dual therapy (pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) are poor. In patients with genotype 1 infection, triple therapy (dual therapy plus boceprevir or telaprevir) has doubled the response rate, but protease inhibitors can interact with some antiretroviral drugs and provoke more adverse effects. These disadvantages are avoided by the new, second-generation, direct-acting antiviral agents. In patients who are candidates for liver transplantation or are already liver transplant recipients, the optimal therapeutic option at present is to combine the new antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin and without interferon. The treatment of patients under hemodialysis due to chronic renal disease continues to be dual therapy (often with reduced doses of pegylated interferon and ribavirin), since there is still insufficient information on triple therapy and the new antiviral agents. In mixed cryoglobulinemia, despite the scarcity of experience, triple therapy seems to be superior to dual therapy and may be used as rescue therapy in non-responders to dual therapy. However, a decision must always be made on whether antiviral treatment should be used concomitantly or after immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25907435

  19. [Cancer treatment for patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Asao

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a disease associated with aging. In Japan, the rate of aging is estimated to be over 25%. Further, the prevalence of dementia also increases with age, and cancer patients with dementia are becoming more common. Dementia is a progressive condition characterized by impairment in memory and at least one other cognitive domain(language, praxis, gnosis, or executive function), as well as a compromised ability to perform daily functions. Impairment of short-term memory and executive function in particular are associated with an increased risk for functional decline and mortality. Assessment of cognitive function is necessary to ensure that cancer patients can provide informed consent and understand the risks, benefits, and alternatives of therapeutic treatment. The health care team needs to ascertain whether patients have the mental capacity for cancer treatment, will comply with the treatment schedule, and will understand when to seek help. Elderly cancer patients undergoing treatment need to be assessed for vulnerability with the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). PMID:25248886

  20. Patient preferences in early glottic cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Michael L; Wilke, Derek R; Taylor, S Mark

    2016-07-01

    Patients with early-stage glottic cancer are primarily treated with one of three options: endoscopic laser excision, external-beam radiation, or open conservation surgery. We sought to determine patient preferences for treatment when presented with a choice between CO2 laser resection and radiation (open conservation surgery was not offered because the endoscopic approach is preferred at our institution). This prospective cohort study was conducted at the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine in Halifax, Canada. Our patient population was made up of 54 men and 10 women, aged 30 to 84 years (mean: 65.0 ± 11.2). Their disease were staged as follows: carcinoma in situ, n = 11; T1a = 21; T1b = 6; and T2 = 26. Patients were quoted identical cure rates for the two treatment modalities. The controversial issue of voice outcomes was discussed, but no leading information was given to the study cohort. All 64 patients chose CO2 laser resection as opposed to radiation therapy for definitive treatment. PMID:27434477

  1. [Optimizing orthodontic treatment in patients taking bisphosphonates].

    PubMed

    Zahrowski, James J

    2011-09-01

    Bisphosphonates have unique pharmacological characteristics unlike those of any other drug group. Millions of adults take oral bisphosphonates for long-term treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia; some of these people will most likely also seek orthodontic treatment. Adverse dental effects from bisphosphonates have been reported, including decreased tooth movement, impaired bone healing, and osteonecrosis in the mandible and the maxilla. Osteonecrosis has been rarely observed after bisphosphonate use for osteoporosis. However, adverse drug effects might occur more frequently in orthodontic patients, and they would probably be noted before the end-stage pathology of osteonecrosis. Adverse effects during orthodontic treatment, including decreased tooth movement, could last for years after the drug therapy is stopped. Successful orthodontic treatment requires optimal bone healing to prevent excessive tooth mobility. Bisphosphonates appear to have two bone elimination rates - a fast elimination of weeks from the bone surface and a slow elimination of years after incorporation into the bone structure. This article presents methods to clinically and radiographically monitor orthodontic patients who are taking oral bisphosphonates. Efforts to minimize adverse effects and optimize orthodontic procedures with physician-approved drug holidays are discussed. The orthodontic treatment results of three patients who received bisphosphonate therapy are reported.

  2. [Insulin treatment in elder patients with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes is a highly expanding health problem in Japan, especially for older people. The prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes increases with age. A postprandial hyperglycemia is the primary clinical manifestation. In older diabetic patients, atherosclerotic complications (macroangiopathies), as well as microangiopathies, are significant problems, threatening their quality of life. Though insulin therapy requires some special considerations, insulin is indicated for any patients with a poor glycemic control with oral agents. Single or multiple dose (s) of insulin injection therapy is selected for each patient to prevent symptomatic hyperglycemia, or to achieve near-normal glycemic control. Also, to maintain the quality of life for these older patients, hypoglycemia, as well as hyperglycemia, should be avoided. Newly developed insulin analogue (s) may be more appropriate for preventing hypoglycemia. Another method of prevention and treatment of hypoglycemia are discussed in this article.

  3. Length of stay, wait time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures after the opening of a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michel; Hopman, Wilma; Yach, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background In September 2011, Kingston General Hospital (KGH) opened a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room. Previously, 1 weekend operating room (OR) was used by all surgical services. We assessed the impact this dedicated weekend trauma room had on hospital length of stay (LOS), time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures. Methods Patients admitted between Oct. 1, 2009, and Sept. 30, 2012, were identified through our trauma registry, representing the 2 years before and 1 year after the opening of the orthopedic weekend trauma room. We documented type of fracture, mode of fixation, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, time to OR, LOS, discharge disposition and 30-day mortality. We excluded patients with multiple fractures, open fractures and those requiring trauma team activation. Results Our study included 609 patients (405 pre- and 204 post–trauma room opening). Mean LOS decreased from 11.6 to 9.4 days (p = 0.005) and there was a decreasing trend in mean time to OR from 31.5 to 28.5 hours (p = 0.16). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (p = 0.24). The LOS decreased by an average of 2 days following opening of the weekend trauma room (p = 0.031) and by an average of 2.2 additional days if the patient was admitted on the weekend versus during the week (p = 0.024). Conclusion The weekend trauma OR at KGH significantly decreased the LOS and appears to have decreased wait times to surgery. Further analysis is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the current strategy, the long-term outcome of this patient population and the impact the additional orthopedic weekend trauma room has had on other surgical services (i.e., general surgery) and their patients. PMID:27668332

  4. Bisphosphonate treatment in ochronotic osteoporotic patients.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Giuseppe; Pulignano, Isabella; Pisani, Daniela; Rocchietti March, Massimiliano; Del Porto, Flavia; Proietta, Maria

    2007-05-01

    In ochronotic patients, abnormalities in bone metabolism leading to increased bone loss have been reported. Therefore, we attempted antiresorptive therapy to (almost) partially reverse bone loss in four out of five osteopenic or osteoporotic ochronotic patients, two men and two women, aged 56-82 years. Each patient was treated with a 70-mg tablet of alendronate weekly and 1,000 mg/day of elemental calcium, such as gluconolactate or carbonate, throughout 24 months. Before starting therapy, and after 1 and 2 years of treatment, the bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral subregions and at the lumbar spine was measured (in grams per square centimeter and as a T score) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A 50-year-old osteopenic ochronotic man refusing the treatment underwent the same checks. The BMD was measured in all patients on the same densitometer by the same operator. The results showed a progressive decrease of the femoral subregion BMD measurements both in the bisphosphonate-treated patients and in the untreated patient. In particular, the percentage differences with respect to the basal values of the total femur BMD measurements ranged from -0.52 to -6.72% in the first year and from -5.29 to -9.05% in the second year. The lumbar spine BMD measurements provided spuriously overestimated results. Moreover, two treated patients and the untreated patient experienced fragility fractures of the femur. The study showed that osteoporosis and fragility fractures are prominent manifestations in the natural history of ochronosis. Matrix microdamage, osteocyte viability, and collagen cross-linking impairment, due to homogentisic acid and to its polymer, might be the processes involved. For this reason, the bisphosphonate therapy was ineffective. PMID:16924393

  5. ALCOHOL AND VIOLENCE-RELATED INJURIES AMONG EMERGENCY ROOM PATIENTS IN AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol has been found to be more closely associated with violence-related injury than with injury from other causes, little data is available which documents heterogeneity in this association across countries or cultures, taking into consideration usual drinking patterns and other socio-cultural variables. Data are reported from 15 countries comprising the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project and the WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injury. Case-crossover analysis was used to analyze the risk of injury (among current drinkers) from drinking six hours prior to the event, based on frequency of usual drinking, for violence-related injuries and separately for non-violence related injuries. Relative risk (RR) for a violence-related injury was significantly greater than for injuries from other causes across all countries (pooled RR=22.22 vs. 4.33), but the magnitude of risk varied considerably (ranging from 4.68 in Spain to 942 in Canada). Pooled effect size was found to be heterogeneous across countries, and was explained, in part, by the level of detrimental drinking pattern in a country. Risk for a violence-related injury was not significantly different by age (<30 and 30+), reporting 5 or more drinks on at least one occasion during the last year, or reporting symptoms of alcohol dependence. A number of methodological concerns suggest that risk of a violence-related injury compared to injuries from other causes may be inflated, and such variables as context of drinking should be taken into consideration in establishing relative risk and alcohol attributable fraction of violence-related injury across countries and cultures. PMID:20824198

  6. [Shuttle Challenger disaster: what lessons can be learned for management of patients in the operating room?].

    PubMed

    Suva, Domizio; Poizat, Germain

    2015-02-01

    For many years hospitals have been implementing crew resource management (CRM) programs, inspired by the aviation industry, in order to improve patient safety. However, while contributing to improved patient care, CRM programs are controversial because of their limited impact, a decrease in effectiveness over time, and the underinvestment by some caregivers. By analyzing the space shuttle Challenger accident, the objective of this article is to show the potential impact of the professional culture in decision-making processes. In addition, to present an approach by cultural factors which are an essential complement to current CRM programs in order to enhance the safety of care.

  7. [Shuttle Challenger disaster: what lessons can be learned for management of patients in the operating room?].

    PubMed

    Suva, Domizio; Poizat, Germain

    2015-02-01

    For many years hospitals have been implementing crew resource management (CRM) programs, inspired by the aviation industry, in order to improve patient safety. However, while contributing to improved patient care, CRM programs are controversial because of their limited impact, a decrease in effectiveness over time, and the underinvestment by some caregivers. By analyzing the space shuttle Challenger accident, the objective of this article is to show the potential impact of the professional culture in decision-making processes. In addition, to present an approach by cultural factors which are an essential complement to current CRM programs in order to enhance the safety of care. PMID:25854048

  8. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  9. A nosocomial epidemic model with infection of patients due to contaminated rooms.

    PubMed

    Browne, Cameron; Webb, Glenn F

    2015-08-01

    A model of epidemic bacterial infections in hospitals is developed. The model incorporates the infection of patients and the contamination of healthcare workers due to environmental causes. The model is analyzed with respect to the asymptotic behavior of solutions. The model is interpreted to provide insight for controlling these nosocomial epidemics.

  10. Addiction treatment dropout: exploring patients' characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics associated with treatment dropout in substance dependence patients. A sample of 122 addicted patients (84 treatment completers and 38 treatment dropouts) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed to collect information on sociodemographic, consumption (assessed by EuropASI), psychopathological (assessed by SCL-90-R), and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II). Completers and dropouts were compared on all studied variables. According to the results, dropouts scored significantly higher on the EuropASI variables measuring employment/support, alcohol consumption, and family/social problems, as well as on the schizotypal scale of MCMI-II. Because most of the significant differences were found in EuropASI variables, three clusters analyses (2, 3, and 4 groups) based on EuropASI mean scores were carried out to determine clinically relevant information predicting dropout. The most relevant results were obtained when four groups were used. Comparisons between the four groups derived from cluster analysis showed statistically significant differences in the rate of dropout, with one group exhibiting the highest dropout rate. The distinctive characteristics of the group with highest dropout rate included the presence of an increased labor problem combined with high alcohol consumption. Furthermore, this group had the highest scores on three scales of the MCMI-II: phobic, dependent, and schizotypal. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. 

  11. Addiction treatment dropout: exploring patients' characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the characteristics associated with treatment dropout in substance dependence patients. A sample of 122 addicted patients (84 treatment completers and 38 treatment dropouts) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed to collect information on sociodemographic, consumption (assessed by EuropASI), psychopathological (assessed by SCL-90-R), and personality variables (assessed by MCMI-II). Completers and dropouts were compared on all studied variables. According to the results, dropouts scored significantly higher on the EuropASI variables measuring employment/support, alcohol consumption, and family/social problems, as well as on the schizotypal scale of MCMI-II. Because most of the significant differences were found in EuropASI variables, three clusters analyses (2, 3, and 4 groups) based on EuropASI mean scores were carried out to determine clinically relevant information predicting dropout. The most relevant results were obtained when four groups were used. Comparisons between the four groups derived from cluster analysis showed statistically significant differences in the rate of dropout, with one group exhibiting the highest dropout rate. The distinctive characteristics of the group with highest dropout rate included the presence of an increased labor problem combined with high alcohol consumption. Furthermore, this group had the highest scores on three scales of the MCMI-II: phobic, dependent, and schizotypal. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.  PMID:22211350

  12. [Nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolic phenotyping for patient evaluations in operating rooms and intensive care units].

    PubMed

    Blaise, B J; Gouel-Chéron, A; Floccard, B; Monneret, G; Plaisant, F; Chassard, D; Javouhey, E; Claris, O; Allaouchiche, B

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic phenotyping consists in the identification of subtle and coordinated metabolic variations associated with various pathophysiological stimuli. Different analytical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites. Statistical analyses of these spectra thus lead to the discrimination between samples and the identification of a metabolic phenotype corresponding to the effect under study. This approach allows the extraction of candidate biomarkers and the recovery of perturbed metabolic networks, driving to the generation of biochemical hypotheses (pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic tests, therapeutic targets…). Metabolic phenotyping could be useful in anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine for the evaluation, monitoring or diagnosis of life-threatening situations, to optimise patient managements. This review introduces the physical and statistical fundamentals of NMR-based metabolic phenotyping, describes the work already achieved by this approach in anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine. Finally, potential areas of interest are discussed for the perioperative and intensive management of patients, from newborns to adults.

  13. Association between weather conditions and the number of patients at the emergency room in an Argentine hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Bettolli, Laura M.; de los Angeles Harris, M.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between hospital emergencies and weather conditions by analysing summer and winter cases of patients requiring attention at the emergency room of a hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hospital data have been sorted into seven different diagnostic groups as follows: (1) respiratory, cardiovascular and chest-pain complaints; (2) digestive, genitourinary and abdominal complaints; (3) neurological and psychopathological disorders; (4) infections; (5) contusion and crushing, bone and muscle complaints; (6) skin and allergies and (7) miscellaneous complaints. In general, there is an increase of 16.7% in winter while, for group 2 and group 6, there are more patients in summer, 54% and 75% respectively. In summer, the total number of patients for group 6 shows a significant positive correlation with temperature and dew-point temperature, and a negative correlation with the sea-level pressure for the same day. In winter, the same relationship exists, however its correlation is not as strong. The lags observed between these three variables: maximum dew-point temperature, maximum temperature, minimum air pressure and the peaks in admissions are 1, 2 and 4 days respectively. In winter, increases in temperature and dew point and decreases in pressure are followed by a peak in admissions for group 2. In winter, there are significantly more cases in group 5 on warm, dry days and on warm, wet days in the summer.

  14. Treatment planning concepts for the ageing patient.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, R L

    2015-03-01

    There is an ageing imperative in Australia as in many other industrialized nations, and these populations are extremely heterogeneous. In young adults, the factors which influence decision making for oral health care are whether the patient has the will, the time or the finances to pay for care, while for clinicians, the decisions are whether they have the skill and the resources to carry out the treatment plan. For older adults, the decision making includes all of the previous identified factors, but they are now complicated by the patient's medical and medication problems, the side effects of the medications they are taking, their cognitive status as well as the cumulative effects of a lifetime of physiological, traumatic and iatrogenic effects on the dentition and the oral cavity. The decision-making process which has evolved has been called many names, from cost-effective care to minimal invasive dentistry to rational dental care. Fundamentally, they are similar. Rational dental care has been defined as the process of decision making, which develops a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patient after evaluating all of the modifying factors. This article will discuss the various concepts, and the strengths and weaknesses of some of these systems. It will also illustrate some of the clinical problems as there is very little evidence-based data to support any of these concepts. However, treatment planning is still an art, which can only be carried out for an individual and not a group, and the result must serve the needs of the patient and enhance the quality of his or her life. PMID:25762044

  15. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  16. Brief behavioral treatment for patients with treatment-resistant insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jihui; Wei, Qinling; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong; Li, Guanying

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of brief behavioral treatment for insomnia (BBTI) in treating patients with treatment-resistant insomnia. Methods Seventy-nine adults with treatment-resistant insomnia were randomly assigned to receive either individualized BBTI (delivered in two in-person sessions and two telephone “booster” sessions, n=40) or sleep hygiene education (n=39). The primary outcome was subjective (sleep diary) measures of self-report symptoms and questionnaire measures of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), insomnia severity index (ISI), Epworth sleeping scale (ESS), and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale (DBAS). Results The repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant time effects between pretreatment and posttreatment in the scale ratings of PSQI, ESS, DBAS, ISI, sleep latency (SL), time in bed (TIB), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in both groups and group × time interaction (FPSQI =3.893, FESS =4.500, FDBAS =5.530, FISI =15.070, FSL =8.909, FTIB =7.895, FSE =2.926, and FWASO =2.595). The results indicated significant differences between BBTI and sleep hygiene in change scores of PSQI, ESS, DBAS, ISI, SL, TIB, SE, and WASO. Effect sizes were moderate to large. Conclusion BBTI is a simple and efficacious intervention for chronic insomnia in adults. PMID:27536119

  17. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    PubMed

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully.

  18. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    PubMed

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully. PMID:26817289

  19. [Treatment of older patients with dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    González, David Fierro

    2014-05-01

    Elderly persons represent a growing percentage of the total population, and this tendency will become stronger in the coming years. To date, the little evidence available on primary and secondary prevention indicates that this population has high cholesterol levels, that few are under treatment, and that the degree of control requires improvement. Current guidelines recommend that treatment targets in older persons should be the same as those in younger patients. Nevertheless, it is important to remember certain characteristics in older persons, such as biological and metabolic changes or the higher incidence of atherogenic dyslipidemia, which will affect them. Moreover, quality of life and maintaining independence rather than mere survival are especially important in older individuals, as demonstrated by various surveys. Consequently, pravastatin -the most widely studied statin- seems to be the statin of choice for the control of triglycerides and residual risk, although fenofibrate is also useful.

  20. [Treatment of older patients with dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    González, David Fierro

    2014-05-01

    Elderly persons represent a growing percentage of the total population, and this tendency will become stronger in the coming years. To date, the little evidence available on primary and secondary prevention indicates that this population has high cholesterol levels, that few are under treatment, and that the degree of control requires improvement. Current guidelines recommend that treatment targets in older persons should be the same as those in younger patients. Nevertheless, it is important to remember certain characteristics in older persons, such as biological and metabolic changes or the higher incidence of atherogenic dyslipidemia, which will affect them. Moreover, quality of life and maintaining independence rather than mere survival are especially important in older individuals, as demonstrated by various surveys. Consequently, pravastatin -the most widely studied statin- seems to be the statin of choice for the control of triglycerides and residual risk, although fenofibrate is also useful. PMID:25263639

  1. Behavioral Treatment of the Patient with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Alamuddin, Naji; Wadden, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    Advisory panels encourage persons with obesity to lose 5% to 10% of body weight, which can be achieved with dietary change, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy. Patients participate in weekly individual or group treatment sessions delivered in-person or by telephone. Large-scale trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach, with resulting improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors. Weight regain is common. Several strategies improve weight loss maintenance, including monthly or more frequent follow-up with an interventionist. Digitally-delivered approaches are promising because they have the potential to reach more individuals. PMID:27519131

  2. Treatment satisfaction of patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa; Kromer, Christian; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Goerdt, Sergij; Peitsch, Wiebke K

    2015-05-01

    Treatment satisfaction of patients with psoriasis largely depends on the treatment modality, but evidence on preferences for specific medications is scarce. Here we assessed treatment satisfaction of 200 participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis from a German University hospital with a 5-point scale and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) and determined sociodemographic and disease-related influence factors. Participants obtaining biologicals and traditional systemic medications were significantly more satisfied than those receiving phototherapy or topical agents (TSQM = 323.3, 288.0, 260.6 or 266.8; p < 0.001). The highest TSQM score was calculated for ustekinumab (350.1), followed by acitretin (338.1), adalimumab (323.0), fumaric acid esters (304.7), infliximab (300.2), etanercept (298.8), and methotrexate (272.3; p < 0.001). High disease-related quality of life impairment (β = -0.437, p < 0.001) and psoriatic arthritis (β = -0.185, p = 0.005) were associated with decreased satisfaction. Optimising satisfaction is essential to improve adherence and outcome. We show high preferences for biologicals, particularly ustekinumab, but also good satisfaction with certain traditional medications.

  3. Drinking patterns and problems and drinking in the injury event: an analysis of emergency room patients by ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1998-12-01

    While a substantial literature exists on the association of alcohol consumption and injury, less is known about the context in which drinking occurs within specific ethnic groups in the United States. This paper analyzes drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems and drinking-in-the-event variables among a probability sample of 359 black, 528 Hispanic and 458 white patients who were breathalyzed and interviewed after admission to the emergency room. Injured patients among both Hispanics and whites were more likely to be positive on the breathalyzer and to report heavy drinking and more frequent drunkenness during the preceding year than their non-injured counterparts. Blacks were less likely than either Hispanics or whites to report a larger number of drinks prior to injury, feeling drunk at the time, or a causal association of alcohol and the injury event. These data suggest a differential role of alcohol in injury occurrence within ethnic groups, with alcohol possibly playing less of a role in the injury event for blacks than for Hispanics or whites. PMID:16203509

  4. Physicians' evaluations of patients' decisions to refuse oncological treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Kleffens, T; van Leeuwen, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight into the standards of rationality that physicians use when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. Design of the study: Qualitative design with indepth interviews. Participants: The study sample included 30 patients with cancer and 16 physicians (oncologists and general practitioners). All patients had refused a recommended oncological treatment. Results: Patients base their treatment refusals mainly on personal values and/or experience. Physicians mainly emphasise the medical perspective when evaluating patients' treatment refusals. From a medical perspective, a patient's treatment refusal based on personal values and experience is generally evaluated as irrational and difficult to accept, especially when it concerns a curative treatment. Physicians have a different attitude towards non-curative treatments and have less difficulty accepting a patient's refusal of these treatments. Thus, an important factor in the physician's evaluation of a treatment refusal is whether the treatment refused is curative or non-curative. Conclusion: Physicians mainly use goal oriented and patients mainly value oriented rationality, but in the case of non-curative treatment refusal, physicians give more emphasis to value oriented rationality. A consensus between the value oriented approaches of patient and physician may then emerge, leading to the patient's decision being understood and accepted by the physician. The physician's acceptance is crucial to his or her attitude towards the patient. It contributes to the patient's feeling free to decide, and being understood and respected, and thus to a better physician–patient relationship. PMID:15738431

  5. An Estimation for Availability of Battery less LF Band RFID Tag to Identify Patients in Operation Room from Viewpoint of Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Ryosuke

    Nowadays, medical accidents increase in Japanese patient environment. Especially, misidentification of the patients occurred in operation room of higher level hospitals. It is considered that the great deals of accidents are due to mistakes by nurse. However, the accidents are prevented by management of patients. If a suitable patient identification system is developed, the accidents are prevented. In this study, new patient identification system using battery less LF band RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) is proposed. In the method, battery less RFID tag is attached to patient. In operation room, patient is identified before operation using the proposed system. However, identification distance of RFID is small. It is important that extension of the distance. In this study, antennas of RFID tag and sensor are designed. Two types of tag are proposed. One of them is set on wristband. An antenna for the tag is designed as a circular shape with 30mm in diameter. The other one is shaped like a necklace. The antenna is also designed 220mm, 240mm and 260mm in diameter. Using necklace type new antenna, sufficient identification distance for detection of the tag in the operation room is realized. The patient identification is realized using the proposed system

  6. Likelihood of Attending Treatment for Anxiety Among Veteran Primary Care Patients: Patient Preferences for Treatment Attributes.

    PubMed

    Shepardson, Robyn L; Funderburk, Jennifer S

    2016-09-01

    Anxiety is common, but under-treated, in primary care. Behavioral health providers embedded in primary care can help address this treatment gap. Guidance on anxiety treatment preferences would help inform tailoring of clinical practice and new interventions to be more patient-centered and increase treatment engagement. We surveyed 144 non-treatment seeking Veteran primary care patients (82.6 % male, 85.4 % White, age M = 59.8 years, SD = 13.9) reporting current anxiety symptoms (M = 13.87, SD = 3.66, on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Questionnaire) on their likelihood of attending anxiety treatment featuring various levels of 11 attributes (modality, type, location, format, provider, visit frequency, visit length, treatment duration, type of psychotherapy, symptom focus, and topic/skill). Participants indicated clear preferences for individual, face-to-face treatment in primary care, occurring once a month for at least 30 min and lasting at least three sessions. They also tended to prefer a stress management approach focused on trouble sleeping or fatigue, but all topics/skills were rated equivalently. For most attributes, the highest rated options were consistent with characteristics of integrated care. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:27465641

  7. Is there room for combined modality treatments? Dosimetric comparison of boost strategies for advanced head and neck and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Góra, Joanna; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Kuess, Peter; Paskeviciute, Brigita; Georg, Dietmar

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the dosimetric difference between three emerging treatment modalities--volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), intensity-modulated proton beam therapy (IMPT) and intensity-modulated carbon ion beam therapy (IMIT)--for two tumour sites where selective boosting of the tumour is applied. For 10 patients with locally advanced head and neck (H&N) cancer and 10 with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) a VMAT plan was generated for PTV initial that included lymph node regions, delivering 50 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and 50.4 Gy (IsoE) for PC patients. Furthermore, separate boost plans (VMAT, IMPT and IMIT) were created to boost PTV boost up to 70 Gy (IsoE) and 78 Gy (IsoE) for H&N and PC cases, respectively. Doses to brainstem, myelon, larynx and parotid glands were assessed for H&N cases. Additionally, various OARs (e.g. cochlea, middle ear, masticator space) were evaluated that are currently discussed with respect to quality of life after treatment. For PC cases, bladder, rectum and femoral heads were considered as OARs. For both tumour sites target goals were easily met. Looking at OAR sparing, generally VMAT + VMAT was worst. VMAT + IMIT had the potential to spare some structures in very close target vicinity (such as cochlea, middle ear, masticator space ) significantly better than VMAT + IMPT. Mean doses for rectal and bladder wall were on average 4 Gy (IsoE) and 1.5 Gy (IsoE) higher, respectively, compared to photons plus particles scenarios. Similar results were found for parotid glands and larynx. Concerning target coverage, no significant differences were observed between the three treatment concepts. Clear dosimetric benefits were observed for particle beam therapy as boost modality. However, the clinical benefit of combined modality treatments remains to be demonstrated.

  8. Nursing the patient, the room and the doctor: Assessing New Zealand nurses' practical capability, 1900-1945.

    PubMed

    Wood, Pamela J

    2011-02-01

    Assessing nurses' practical capability was a challenge in the past as it is today. In 1901 New Zealand established state registration of nurses, with a standardised three-year hospital-based training system and state final examinations. Nurses' practical capability was assessed in an oral and practical examination and in general nursing questions in written medical and surgical nursing papers. This historical research identifies the practical component of nursing assessed in these examinations, categorising it as nursing the patient, the room and the doctor. It considers changes in the nursing profession's view, 1900-1945, of the best way to assess nurses' practical capability. This shifted from the artificial setting of the oral and practical examination held by doctors and matrons, to a process of senior nurses assessing candidates in the more realistic setting of a ward. The research also considers whether the nursing or medical profession defined nursing practice. By the end of the time period, the nursing profession was claiming for itself the right to both determine and assess the practical component of nursing.

  9. [The emergency treatment of the psychotic patient].

    PubMed

    Naumann, Ute; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald B; Juckel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Psychosis can cause multiple psychiatric and somatic emergencies. Due to the complex character of the disease the communication and accessibility of the patient can be severely disturbed. In the pre-clinical emergency medical care the etiology of a psychosis remains often unclear, the most common causes are schizophrenia and drug-induced psychosis. Frequent emergencies are states of psychomotor agitation, self-endangerment and endangerment of others including suicidal tendencies/acts as well as catatonic and manic states. Antipsychotic drugs and benzodiazepines are the most efficient pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Extrapyramidal side effects of the prescribed medication can also cause the need for urgent medical care. In any case needs to be considered a severe somatic comorbidity. It is particularly necessary that all available information at the scene of emergency should be transferred to the clinicians since the further diagnostic and therapeutic assessment will rely hereon. PMID:22744852

  10. [Psychological pain treatment in rheumatic patients.].

    PubMed

    Basler, H D

    1991-03-01

    Psychodynamic concepts postulate a psychogenesis of physical pain proposing several assumptions about the conversion of mental suffering into physical pain. Behavioural concepts, on the other hand, emphasize psychological conditions as risk factors for chronicity and describe psychological reactions to chronic pain. Patients with painful diseases and inadequate coping strategies very often display symptoms of anger, anxiety, or depression. Recently, the use of group therapy aimed at enhancing patients' ability to cope with disease-related stressful events has become widely accepted in behavioural medicine with a focus on pain-management procedures. Strategies for the improvement of coping with pain are based on behavioural, psychophysiological, and cognitive principles. The behavioural view conceptualizes pain as a behavioural problem with regard to facial and bodily expressions of pain, decreased physical and mental activity, and the consumption of pain medication. Operant conditioning is used to discourage pain behaviour and reinforce well-behaviour. The physiological concept stresses the vicious cycle of pain, increased muscle tension, and emotional reactions. Relaxation procedures are introduced in order to reduce excessive muscular activity in targeted muscles. The cognitive approach emphasizes the effect of information-processing on pain experience. Cognitive distortions are identified, and self-control management is encouraged. Having taken all of these aspects into consideration, we developed a cognitive-behavioural treatment programme in a group setting format with components of relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and the promotion of well-being. Subjects included in the study were given diagnoses of low back pain, tension headache, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Treatment effects in different diagnostic groups were compared to each other, supporting the assumption that pain reduction is greatest in low back pain and least in ankylosing

  11. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Adverse Respiratory Events in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of periodontal diseases has been associated with benefit outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no population-based cohort study has been conducted. We evaluated this relationship by retrospective cohort study using a large population data. Using the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 5562 COPD patients with periodontal diseases who had received periodontal treatment as the treatment group. The comparison group was selected at a 1:1 ratio matched by the propensity score estimated with age, sex, date of COPD diagnosis and periodontal treatment, and comorbidities. Both groups were followed up for 5 years to compare risks of acute exacerbation, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. The incidence rates of adverse respiratory events were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the comparison group: 3.79 versus 4.21 per 100 person-years for emergency room visits, 2.75 versus 3.65 per 100 person-years for hospitalizations, and 0.66 versus 0.75 per 100 person-years for intensive care unit admissions. The treatment group also had a 37% reduced risk of deaths (1.81 vs 2.87 per 100 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.52–0.62). Periodontal treatment for COPD patients could reduce the risk of adverse respiratory events and mortality. The adequate periodontal health care is important for COPD patients with periodontal diseases. PMID:27196497

  12. Emergency room referral to internal medicine wards or to coronary care units of patients with first acute myocardial infarction. Israel Study Group on First Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Drory, Y; Shapira, I; Goldbourt, U; Fisman, E Z; Villa, Y; Tenenbaum, A; Pines, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess factors associated with ward assignment in the emergency room for patients < or = 65 years old with first acute myocardial infarction. We analysed uni- and multivariate predictors for ward assignment (coronary care unit versus internal ward). Eight major centrally located Israeli hospitals provided data during one year. The study population included 1252 patients, of whom 83% were men, 37% were hypertensives, 22% were diabetics, and 14% had previous anginal syndrome. Most patients (83%) were admitted to the coronary care unit. Internal medicine ward assignment was significantly associated with advanced age, history of hypertension or diabetes, a longer time from appearance of symptoms to arrival at the hospital, and myocardial infarction type (non-Q-wave or non-anterior). The likelihood of medical ward referral increased stepwise with the increasing number of a patient's predictive factors: those with > or = 4 factors had a > 30% chance of being assigned to a medical ward compared to a < 10% chance when there were 0-3 risk factors. Exclusion of patients with thrombolysis had no effect on the results. The shortage of cardiac care unit beds apparently leads to emergency room selection acting in detriment of patients with poorest prognoses. Clear guidelines for decision making in the emergency room are needed to resolve this paradoxical situation. PMID:10998758

  13. Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Eila C

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in older patients is challenging. Definitive therapy of localized disease requires either surgery or radiation therapy, ideally combined with systemic chemotherapy. However, current population data suggest that less than half of patients older than age 70 are offered such treatments. We will review tools available to assess the fitness of older patients for surgery, alternatives, and tips for perioperative patient treatment.

  14. Treatment of small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zöchbauer-Müller, S; Pirker, R; Huber, H

    1999-01-01

    Small cell lung cancers, comprising approximately 20% of lung cancers, are rapidly growing and disseminating carcinomas which are initially chemosensitive but acquire drug resistance during the course of disease. Thus, outcome is poor with median survival of 10-16 months for patients with limited and 7-11 months for patients with extensive disease. Polychemotherapy with established drugs (platins, etoposide, anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and Vinca alkaloids) plays the major role in the treatment of this disease and results in overall response rates between 80%-95% for limited disease and 60%-80% for extensive disease. Dose-intensified chemotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood progenitor cell support were tested in several trials but their exact impact on outcome remains to be determined. New drugs including the taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel), the topoisomerase I inhibitors (topotecan, irinotecan), vinorelbine and gemcitabine are currently evaluated in clinical trials. In limited disease, thoracic radiotherapy improves survival and prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered to those with a reasonable chance of cure. PMID:10676558

  15. Uptake of Depression Treatment Recommendations among Latino Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Rachel Zack; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Alegría, Margarita; Schuman, Catherine C.; Joseph, Robert C.; Bauer, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary care providers (PCP) are the entry point for public sector depression treatment for many Latino patients. However, many Latino patients do not initiate their PCPs’ recommended treatment, which likely contributes to ethnic disparities in depression treatment. This study examined factors related to Latino patients’ uptake of their PCPs’ recommendations for depression treatment. Method Ninety Latino primary care patients who received a depression treatment recommendation from their PCP participated in a telephone interview. Patients rated their working alliance with their PCPs and their PCPs’ cultural competence. They also reported their treatment preference, the type of recommendation, and their intended and actual uptake of the recommendation. Patients were contacted at two time points (Time 1: M = 14 days after PCP appointment; Time 2: M = 84 days after PCP appointment) to report their uptake status. Results At Time 1, 23% of patients had initiated uptake of the treatment recommendation, increasing to 53% at Time 2. Patients who received a medication recommendation were more likely to have followed though on the recommendation, compared to patients who received a psychotherapy recommendation. The working alliance was positively associated with intention to follow up on a treatment recommendation, and also mediated the relationship between cultural competence and intention of following up on the recommendation. Conclusion PCP’s treatment recommendation and the PCP – patient alliance play a role in Latino primary care patients intention to follow a treatment recommendation for depression. An improved understanding of this role could enhance efforts to improve depression treatment uptake. PMID:24512538

  16. Treatment satisfaction and recovery in Saami and Norwegian patients following psychiatric hospital treatment: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sørlie, Tore; Nergård, Jens-Ivar

    2005-06-01

    Treatment, treatment satisfaction and recovery in Saami and Norwegian patients treated in a psychiatric hospital were compared. Although half of the Saami patients preferred to speak Saami with their therapists, only one patient did. The extensive use of traditional helpers was only partly recognized. Despite no differences in type and amount of treatment or symptom-change during the hospital stay, the Saami patients showed less satisfaction with all investigated treatment parameters including contact with staff, treatment alliance, information and global treatment satisfaction. There was less agreement between the ratings of the therapists and the Saami patients. Suggestions for improvements are made.

  17. Patient perceptions of multiple sclerosis and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Seze, Jérôme; Borgel, Florent; Brudon, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to improve the treatment outcome in multiple sclerosis, it is important to document the factors that influence adherence to therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine patient perceptions and awareness of multiple sclerosis and its treatment, treatment adherence, and impact on quality of life and daily living. Methods This was a cross-sectional observational study performed in France. Each participating neurologist included the first three patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who consulted after the start of the study. Data on clinical features were collected from a physician questionnaire and on disease and treatment perception and on quality of life from a patient autoquestionnaire. Results A total of 175 neurologists entered 202 patients in the study. The mean duration of disease was 8.0 ± 7.0 years, and immunomodulatory treatment had been administered for a mean duration of 3.0 ± 2.0 years. A total of 166 patients (82.2%) were treated with interferon-β preparations and 36 patients (17.8%) with glatiramer acetate. Eighty-five patients (42.1%) reported missing their injections from time to time and 36 patients (17.8%) reported “drug holidays”. The most frequently given reason for nonadherence was forgetfulness (38.7% of cases). Eighty-six patients (42.6%) and 70 patients (34.7%) claimed to be well informed about their disease and treatment, respectively. Adherence was significantly higher in well informed patients (P = 0.035). The majority of patients (176 patients, 87.1%) intended continuing their current treatment and 49.5% considered that their current treatment might reduce relapses. The most frequently reported side effect was muscle pain (124 patients, 61.4%). Conclusion Patient understanding of treatment for disease enhances treatment adherence. Greater patient involvement in disease management requires better communication between physicians and their patients. PMID:22536062

  18. The treatment of night eating: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Marcus D; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Allison, Kelly C

    2009-05-01

    Night eating (NE) is recognizable and treatable. The purpose of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction with their doctors' treatment of NE and to compare it to that of treatment of a control condition, 'headache'. An Internet-based questionnaire assessed patients' (n = 103) perceptions of their doctors' knowledge and treatment of NE versus headache, levels of treatment satisfaction and demographic and descriptive aspects of their NE. Most patients (61%) were 'not at all satisfied' with their doctors' treatment of NE. Patients reported low recognition and high levels of dismissal of NE by their doctors. Of patients who had been treated for both NE and headache by the same doctor, 29% were 'not at all satisfied' with their treatment of headache compared to 76% 'not at all satisfied' with their treatment of NE (p = 0.02). In conclusion, most patients reported that their doctors did not identify or treat NE, which led to dissatisfaction with their care.

  19. The treatment of night eating: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Marcus D; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Allison, Kelly C

    2009-05-01

    Night eating (NE) is recognizable and treatable. The purpose of this study was to assess patients' satisfaction with their doctors' treatment of NE and to compare it to that of treatment of a control condition, 'headache'. An Internet-based questionnaire assessed patients' (n = 103) perceptions of their doctors' knowledge and treatment of NE versus headache, levels of treatment satisfaction and demographic and descriptive aspects of their NE. Most patients (61%) were 'not at all satisfied' with their doctors' treatment of NE. Patients reported low recognition and high levels of dismissal of NE by their doctors. Of patients who had been treated for both NE and headache by the same doctor, 29% were 'not at all satisfied' with their treatment of headache compared to 76% 'not at all satisfied' with their treatment of NE (p = 0.02). In conclusion, most patients reported that their doctors did not identify or treat NE, which led to dissatisfaction with their care. PMID:19353556

  20. R. D. Laing and long-stay patients: discrepant accounts of the refractory ward and 'rumpus room' at Gartnavel Royal Hospital.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, David

    2007-06-01

    R. D. Laing's mental hospital experience has been considered a formative influence on his controversial views. This paper addresses a number of discrepancies in the existing accounts: important aspects of the refractory ward and 'rumpus room' were underestimated; all the 'rumpus room' patients were not discharged and readmitted as repeatedly stated; his interactions with the patients were very limited and the viewpoints of most remain unknown; and the introduction of Largactil (chlorpromazine) was not mentioned. The Kingsley Hall residential project, Laing's first book The Divided Self, and his influence on psychiatrists' attitudes are considered in the light of these findings. Pessimism about long-stay patients may have influenced the acceptance of inaccurate information. PMID:18589930

  1. Treating Insomnia: A Review of Patient Perceptions Toward Treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Saini, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Patient views about their treatment for insomnia often dictate outcome. This review explores the literature relating to the patients' global perceptions toward treatment for insomnia. A strategic literature search was conducted using five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase). The 57 research articles included for this review were mapped out chronologically across three key stages of treatment-seeking (pretreatment appraisal, actual treatment experiences, and posttreatment evaluation). Patient perceptions played an important role across these three key stages and influenced subsequent health behaviors such as the initiation of help-seeking, treatment uptake, treatment adherence, and treatment adjustment. Patients' perceptions toward treatment were heavily grounded by their psychosocial contexts. Clinical implications and future directions for including patient-centered metrics in mainstream practice and research are discussed.

  2. [Symptomatic treatment in patients with dementia: light, but not melatonin, is probably worthwhile].

    PubMed

    van Marum, R J

    2008-10-25

    A recent study in the JAMA described the effects of long-term daily treatment with whole-day bright light in elderly patients with dementia, with or without the addition of melatonin (2.5 mg daily), on cognition, mood, behavioural symptoms, activities of daily living and sleep. It was concluded that light has a modest benefit in improving some cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of dementia. The effects of melatonin were negligible. Despite the small effects found of this study, the outcomes can be used in clinical practice since other small studies also show a trend towards positive effects of bright light in dementia patients. Since current pharmacotherapy for behavioural problems in dementia has very modest effects at the risk of serious adverse effects, non-pharmacological interventions must be encouraged. Increasing light intensity in the living rooms of patients with dementia is an easy and cheap intervention with possible positive effects on at least some patients.

  3. Voluntary and involuntary treatment of aggressive patients.

    PubMed

    Madden, D J

    1977-05-01

    The author describes his experiences in treating violent patients in group therapy. Problems include the divergent goals of therapist, patient, and society; the environmental limitations on incarcerated patients; countertransference issues; and magical expectations on the part of patients. Therapeutic goals must be somewhat limited with patients who are forced into therapy. It may be dangerous to "open up" such patients, especially when they face lengthy prison terms. The author suggests that distancing tactics be avoided with violent patients, who need to encounter another person who has dealt successfully with hatred, fear, and limitations.

  4. Factors predicting a change in diagnosis in patients hospitalised through the emergency room: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Hautz, Stefanie C; Schuler, Luca; Kämmer, Juliane E; Schauber, Stefan K; Ricklin, Meret E; Sauter, Thomas C; Maier, Volker; Birrenbach, Tanja; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emergency rooms (ERs) generally assign a preliminary diagnosis to patients, who are then hospitalised and may subsequently experience a change in their lead diagnosis (cDx). In ERs, the cDx rate varies from around 15% to more than 50%. Among the most frequent reasons for diagnostic errors are cognitive slips, which mostly result from faulty data synthesis. Furthermore, physicians have been repeatedly found to be poor self-assessors and to be overconfident in the quality of their diagnosis, which limits their ability to improve. Therefore, some of the clinically most relevant research questions concern how diagnostic decisions are made, what determines their quality and what can be done to improve them. Research that addresses these questions is, however, still rare. In particular, field studies that allow for generalising findings from controlled experimental settings are lacking. The ER, with its high throughput and its many simultaneous visits, is perfectly suited for the study of factors contributing to diagnostic error. With this study, we aim to identify factors that allow prediction of an ER's diagnostic performance. Knowledge of these factors as well as of their relative importance allows for the development of organisational, medical and educational strategies to improve the diagnostic performance of ERs. Methods and analysis We will conduct a field study by collecting diagnostic decision data, physician confidence and a number of influencing factors in a real-world setting to model real-world diagnostic decisions and investigate the adequacy, validity and informativeness of physician confidence in these decisions. We will specifically collect data on patient, physician and encounter factors as predictors of the dependent variables. Statistical methods will include analysis of variance and a linear mixed-effects model. Ethics and dissemination The Bern ethics committee approved the study under KEK Number 197/15. Results will be published in

  5. Study Finds Fault with ICU Treatment of Dementia Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Study Finds Fault With ICU Treatment of Dementia Patients Hospitals put too many on ventilators, adding ... red flags about the use of ventilators among dementia patients in intensive care units. Researchers analyzed data ...

  6. Pharmacological Management of Elderly Patients with Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Syndrome: Room for Speculation?

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Daniela; Battaglia, Salvatore; Benfante, Alida; Sorino, Claudio; Scichilone, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two distinct diseases that share a condition of chronic inflammation of the airways and bronchial obstruction. In clinical settings, it is not rare to come across patients who present with clinical and functional features of both diseases, posing a diagnostic dilemma. The overlap condition has been termed asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), and mainly occurs in individuals with long-standing asthma, especially if they are also current or former smokers. Patients with ACOS have poorer health-related quality of life and a higher exacerbation rate than subjects with asthma or COPD alone. Whether ACOS is a distinct nosological entity with genetic variants or rather a condition of concomitant diseases that overlap is still a matter of debate. However, there is no doubt that extended life expectancy has increased the prevalence of asthma and COPD in older ages, and thus the probability that overlap conditions occur in clinical settings. In addition, age-associated changes of the lung create the basis for the two entities to converge on the same subject. ACOS patients may benefit from a stepwise treatment similar to that of asthma and COPD; however, the proposed therapeutic algorithms are only speculative and extrapolated from studies that are not representative of the ACOS population. Inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy, and always in conjunction with long-acting bronchodilators. The potential heterogeneity of the overlap syndrome in terms of inflammatory features (T helper-1 vs. T helper-2 pathways) may be responsible for the different responses to treatments. The interaction between respiratory drugs and concomitant diseases should be carefully evaluated. Similarly, the effect of non-respiratory drugs, such as aspirin, statins, and β-blockers, on lung function needs to be properly assessed. PMID:27138954

  7. User-Centered Design of a Tablet Waiting Room Tool for Complex Patients to Prioritize Discussion Topics for Primary Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, Andrea; Chawla, Neetu; Kowalski, Christine; McQuillan, Deanna; Bayliss, Elizabeth; Heisler, Michele; Grant, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex patients with multiple chronic conditions often face significant challenges communicating and coordinating with their primary care physicians. These challenges are exacerbated by the limited time allotted to primary care visits. Objective Our aim was to employ a user-centered design process to create a tablet tool for use by patients for visit discussion prioritization. Methods We employed user-centered design methods to create a tablet-based waiting room tool that enables complex patients to identify and set discussion topic priorities for their primary care visit. In an iterative design process, we completed one-on-one interviews with 40 patients and their 17 primary care providers, followed by three design sessions with a 12-patient group. We audiorecorded and transcribed all discussions and categorized major themes. In addition, we met with 15 key health communication, education, and technology leaders within our health system to further review the design and plan for broader implementation of the tool. In this paper, we present the significant changes made to the tablet tool at each phase of this design work. Results Patient feedback emphasized the need to make the tablet tool accessible for patients who lacked technical proficiency and to reduce the quantity and complexity of text presentation. Both patients and their providers identified specific content choices based on their personal experiences (eg, the ability to raise private or sensitive concerns) and recommended targeting new patients. Stakeholder groups provided essential input on the need to augment text with video and to create different versions of the videos to match sex and race/ethnicity of the actors with patients. Conclusions User-centered design in collaboration with patients, providers, and key health stakeholders led to marked evolution in the initial content, layout, and target audience for a tablet waiting room tool intended to assist complex patients with setting

  8. Memory's Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Liberal Arts Studiolo from the Ducal Palace at Guibbio, Italy. Discusses how the room's design and decoration mirrors its educational uses. Notes that the object of education was to provide the young person with a kind of mental library of materials that could be drawn upon quickly. (RS)

  9. Patient-adapted treatment for prosthetic hip joint infection.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard P; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Borens, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Hip joint replacement is 1 of the most successful surgical procedures of the last century and the number of replacements implanted is steadily growing. An infected hip arthroplasty is a disaster, it leads to patient suffering, surgeon's frustration and significant costs to the health system. The treatment of an infected hip replacement is challenging, healing rates can be low, functional results poor with decreased patient satisfaction. However, if a patient-adapted treatment of infected hip joints is used a success rate of above 90% can be obtained.Patient-adapted treatment is based on 5 important concepts: teamwork; understanding the biofilm; diagnostic accuracy; correct definition and classification of PJI; and patient-tailored treatment.This review presents a patient-adapted treatment strategy to prosthetic hip infection. It incorporates the best aspects of the single and staged surgical strategies and promotes the short interval philosophy for the 2-stage approach. PMID:26044528

  10. How do patients' treatment preferences compare with those of clinicians?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, A; Fahey, T

    2001-01-01

    The shared model of medical decision making has been proposed as the preferred method of determining patients' treatment. However, agreement may be more difficult to achieve if patients' and clinicians' preferences are polarised. The aim of this paper is to explore how closely patients and clinicians agree in their preferences for different treatment options. Only studies that made quantifiable estimates of preferences were included. There is some evidence that patients and health professionals often do not agree on treatment preference in the areas of cardiovascular disease, cancer, obstetrics and gynaecology, and acute respiratory illness. However, the magnitude and direction of these differences vary and may depend on the condition of interest. Most of the research to date is cross sectional; longitudinal research is required to investigate whether preferences change over time and are related to treatment choice, adherence to medication if taken, and health outcomes. Key Words: patient preference; treatment choice; decision making; patient-caregiver communication PMID:11533437

  11. [Treatment of primary hypothyroidism in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Salmela, Pasi; Metso, Saara; Moilanen, Leena; Niskanen, Leo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypothyroidism is based on the findings of an increased serum TSH (above the reference range) and decreased serum free T4 (below the reference range) concentration. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is indicated if serum THS is above 10 mU/l. For less severe forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, the treatment should be individually tailored. The treatment of choice is synthetic human levothyroxine. The goals for treatment are amelioration of symptoms and normalization of TSH and free T4 concentrations.

  12. Treatment of anxiety with ketazolam in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bresolin, N; Monza, G; Scarpini, E; Scarlato, G; Straneo, G; Martinazzoli, A; Benincà, G; Cattoni, C; De Candia, R; Belloni, G

    1988-01-01

    In a multicenter, double-blind trial, 63 elderly patients who had experienced a generalized anxiety disorder for at least one month were randomly assigned to receive 15 mg of ketazolam (n = 31) or placebo (n = 32) daily for 15 days. At the end of this period, if their total scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale had decreased by at least 25%, treatment was continued unchanged for a further 15 days. Patients who did not respond to treatment were given an additional 15 mg of ketazolam daily. During the initial 15 days, 83% of the ketazolam-treated patients and 43% of the placebo patients responded to treatment (P < 0.01). During the second 15-day period, the anxiety scores of the ketazolam-treated patients continued to decline significantly, whereas the placebo patients showed no improvement. According to the investigators' assessments of severity of anxiety and patients' ratings of treatment effectiveness, ketazolam was significantly superior to placebo.

  13. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  14. Outcome of renal replacement treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, M A; Briggs, J D; Junor, B J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the outcome of renal replacement treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus and in non-diabetic patients with end stage renal failure. DESIGN--Retrospective comparison of cases and matched controls. SETTING--Renal unit, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, providing both dialysis and renal transplantation. PATIENTS--82 Diabetic patients starting renal replacement treatment between 1979 and 1988, compared with 82 matched non-diabetic controls with renal failure and 39 different matched controls undergoing renal transplantation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient characteristics, history of smoking, prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischaemia at start of renal replacement treatment; survival of patients with renal replacement treatment and of patients and allografts with renal transplantation. RESULTS--The overall survival of the diabetic patients during the treatment was 83%, 59%, and 50% at one, three, and five years. Survival was significantly poorer in the diabetic patients than the controls (p less than 0.001). Particularly adverse features for outcome at the start of treatment were increasing age (p less than 0.01) and current cigarette smoking (relative risk (95% confidence interval) 2.28 (0.93 to 4.84), p less than 0.05). Deaths were mainly from cardiac and vascular causes. The incidence of peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was the same in diabetic patients and controls (49% in each group remained free of peritonitis after one year), and the survival of renal allografts was not significantly worse in diabetic patients (p less than 0.5). CONCLUSIONS--Renal replacement treatment may give good results in diabetic patients, although the outlook remains less favourable than for non-diabetic patients because of coexistent, progressive vascular disease, which is more severe in older patients. PMID:2207427

  15. Neutron measurements with ultra-thin 3D silicon sensors in a radiotherapy treatment room using a Siemens PRIMUS linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardiola, C.; Gómez, F.; Fleta, C.; Rodríguez, J.; Quirion, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Lousa, A.; Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.; Pombar, M.; Lozano, M.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate detection and dosimetry of neutrons in mixed and pulsed radiation fields is a demanding instrumental issue with great interest both for the industrial and medical communities. In recent studies of neutron contamination around medical linacs, there is a growing concern about the secondary cancer risk for radiotherapy patients undergoing treatment in photon modalities at energies greater than 6 MV. In this work we present a promising alternative to standard detectors with an active method to measure neutrons around a medical linac using a novel ultra-thin silicon detector with 3D electrodes adapted for neutron detection. The active volume of this planar device is only 10 µm thick, allowing a high gamma rejection, which is necessary to discriminate the neutron signal in the radiotherapy peripheral radiation field with a high gamma background. Different tests have been performed in a clinical facility using a Siemens PRIMUS linac at 6 and 15 MV. The results show a good thermal neutron detection efficiency around 2% and a high gamma rejection factor.

  16. Patient preference and willingness to pay for knee osteoarthritis treatments

    PubMed Central

    Posnett, John; Dixit, Sanjeev; Oppenheimer, Brooks; Kili, Sven; Mehin, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) received by patients across five European countries, and to obtain patients’ perceptions and willingness to pay for current treatments. Patients and methods A prospective, internet-based, double-blind survey of adults with OAK was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The questionnaire included questions about diagnosis, treatment history, and perceptions of OAK treatments, followed by a discrete choice-based conjoint exercise to identify preferred attributes of OAK treatments, evaluating 14 sets of four unbranded products. Results Two thousand and seventy-three patients with self-reported OAK completed the survey; 17.4% of patients rated their knee pain as drastically affecting their ability to perform normal daily activities, and 39.3% of employed patients reported that they had lost work time because of OAK. The most common treatments were exercise (69.7%), physical therapy (68.2%), and nonprescription oral pain medication (73.9%). Treatments perceived as most effective were: viscosupplement injections (74.1%), narcotics (67.8%), and steroid injection (67.6%). Patient co-pay, duration of pain relief, and type of therapy exhibited the largest impact on patient preference for OAK treatments. The average patient was willing to pay €35 and €64 more in co-pay for steroid and viscosupplement injections, respectively, over the cost of oral over-the-counter painkillers (per treatment course, per knee) (each P<0.05). Conclusion OAK is a debilitating condition that affects normal daily activities. In general, treatments most commonly offered to patients are not those perceived as being the most effective. Patients are willing to pay a premium for treatments that they perceive as being more effective and result in longer-lasting pain relief, and those that can be administered with fewer visits to a physician. PMID:26089650

  17. Assignment of Dental School Patients Using Periodontal Treatment Need Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, Ala

    1990-01-01

    The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)

  18. Infection prevention and treatment in patients with major burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, G

    Infection is a significant challenge in burn care, particularly for those patients who have major burn injuries. This article aims to review the literature and establish best practice in prevention and treatment of infection in patients with major burns. The article considers the causes and clinical features of wound infection, and examines systemic and local methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:21138123

  19. [Treatment results in patients with juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx].

    PubMed

    Lantsov, A A; Kovaleva, L M; Ushakov, V S; Mefodovskiĭ, A A

    1998-01-01

    Surgical and radiation treatment outcomes are available for 46 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA). Recurrences occurred in 17 (37%) of 44 operated patients. They were subjected to reoperation or radiotherapy. The latter is indicated in JNA recurrences, large-size tumors which are hard to approach, cranial cavity invasion. Immediate results of the treatment are favorable.

  20. Some folded issues related to over-shielded and unplanned rooms for medical linear accelerators - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Hussain, Amjad; Ali, Nawab; Alam, Khan; Khan, Gulzar; Matiullah; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) room must be properly shielded to limit the outside radiation exposure to an acceptable safe level defined by individual state and international regulations. However, along with this prime objective, some additional issues are also important. The current case-study was designed to unfold the issues related to over-shielded and unplanned treatment rooms for LINACs. In this connection, an apparently unplanned and over-shielded treatment room of 610 × 610 cm2 in size was compared with a properly designed treatment room of 762 × 762 cm2 in size ( i.e., by following the procedures and recommendations of the IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 47 and NCRP 151). Evaluation of the unplanned room indicated that it was over-shielded and that its size was not suitable for total body irradiation (TBI), although the license for such a treatment facility had been acquired for the installed machine. An overall 14.96% reduction in the total shielding volume ( i.e., concrete) for an optimally planned room as compared to a non-planned room was estimated. Furthermore, the inner room's dimensions were increased by 25%, in order to accommodate TBI patients. These results show that planning and design of the treatment rooms are imperative to avoid extra financial burden to the hospitals and to provide enough space for easy and safe handling of the patients. A spacious room is ideal for storing treatment accessories and facilitates TBI treatment.

  1. Room-Temperature Chemical Solution Treatment for Flexible ZnS(O,OH)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell: Improvements in Interface Properties and Metastability.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wei-Hao; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Han; Wei, Shih-Yuan; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate an effective room-temperature chemical solution treatment, by using thioacetamide (S treatment) or thioacetamide-InCl3 (In-S treatment) solution, on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) surface to engineer the ZnS(O,OH)/CIGSe interface and junction quality, leading to enhanced efficiency and minimized metastability of flexible solar cells. The control device without treatment reveals a relatively low efficiency of 8.15%, which is significantly improved to 9.74% by In-S treatment, and 10.39% by S treatment. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that S is incorporated into CIGSe surface forming CIGSSe by S treatment, whereas a thin In-S layer is formed on CIGSe surface by In-S treatment with reduced amount of S diffusing into CIGSe. PL spectra and TRPL lifetime further reveal that S incorporation into CIGS surface may substitute the OSe and/or directly occupy the vacant anion site (VSe), resulting in the effective passivation of the recombination centers at CIGSe surface. Moreover, reducing the concentrations of VSe may thereby decrease the density of (VCu-VSe) acceptors, which can minimize the metastability of ZnS(O,OH)/CIGSe solar cells. With S treatment, the light soaking (LS) time of ZnS(O,OH)/CIGSe device is reduced approximately to one-half of control one. Our approach can be potentially applied for alternative Cd-free buffer layers to achieve high efficiency and low metastability. PMID:26905219

  2. Follow up of patients who start treatment with antidepressants: treatment satisfaction, treatment compliance, efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring satisfaction with treatment has proved useful to ascertain the treatment features that are most important to the patients, and to explain increased treatment compliance. However, there are few studies that relate satisfaction to other clinical or self-perceived health status indicators. Recent studies have shown the close relationship between satisfaction with treatment, treatment compliance, and effectiveness. This study attempts to design and validate a scale to evaluate satisfaction with antidepressant drug therapy, assess treatment compliance (self-reported, validated questionnaire, drug accountability and electronic monitorization system), assess efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms and safety in patients who initiate antidepressant drug therapy, as well as to establish predictors of satisfaction, compliance and effectiveness with these drugs. Methods/design This is an observational longitudinal study with a cohort of adults initiating treatment with antidepressant drugs. A multi-centre study will be performed in which 20 Primary Care practices from Castilla-La Mancha are expected to participate. An initial interview and follow-up visits at 15 days, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months will be conducted with all study participants. 706 subjects will be studied (95% confidence interval, precision ± 3%, expected rate of non-compliance 50%, expected non-responders and lost to follow up rate 15%). The following measurements will be performed: development and validation of a scale of satisfaction with antidepressant therapy, participant and antidepressant characteristics, treatment compliance evaluation (Haynes-Sackett Test, Morisky-Green Test, drug accountability and Medication Event Monitoring System), depression symptom reduction (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), observation of adverse effects, and beliefs about treatment (The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire). Discussion Antidepressant drugs are

  3. Alcoholics and drug addicts at the emergency room of the hospital. Analysis of the staff behavior and patients' progressions.

    PubMed

    Corten, P; Pelc, I

    1986-01-01

    The statistical analysis of a large sample (1.707 cases) was carried out using objective variables. These variables consist of the key points in the progression of alcoholics and drug addicts within two emergency departments situated in general hospitals. This study pinpoints a lack of therapeutic work at the emergency room where neither medical diagnoses nor psychopathological analyses seem to be done.

  4. Craniospinal treatment with the patient supine

    SciTech Connect

    Thomadsen, Bruce; Mehta, Minesh; Howard, Steven; Das, Rupak

    2003-03-31

    Radiotherapy of the craniospinal axis in young children is frequently complicated by the need for access to the patient's airway for sedation and anesthesia delivery or by frequent, unanticipated movement. Positioning the patient supine, instead of in the conventional prone position, allows the use of immobilization facemasks with body molds and more positive patient fixation, and improved airway access. The procedure for establishing the various fields differs from the prone approach. In this paper, we describe the methodology to achieve successful supine positioning.

  5. Sparfloxacin in the treatment of leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Ishii, N; Sugita, Y; Sato, I; Nakajima, H

    1997-08-01

    Seven men (age range, 20-33 years) with leprosy visited our dermatologic clinic at Yokohama City University Hospital (Table 1) and were entered into a trial of sparfloxacin (SPFX), 100-200 mg daily for up to 1 year. Five patients were Japanese Brazilians or Paraguayan from South America, and two patients were Filipinos. Examination procedures included a detailed medical history, pretreatment, clinical examinations, and body charting of the characteristic skin lesions, areas of anesthesia, and enlarged peripheral nerves. There were no deformities observed in any patient. All had presented with eruptions and neurologic problems. The diagnosis of leprosy and its type were determined by the above examination, skin smear, and histopathologic study, as well as Mitsuda reaction. The first patient came from the Philippines and presented to our clinic in 1993. There were many elevated erythemas with central healing on his whole body. Sensory nerves were impaired. His type was lepromatous (LL) leprosy. The second patient was followed for only 1 month because of a change in residence. The third and fourth patients were brothers. The fifth patient came from Paraguay. The sixth patient was from the Philippines. The seventh patient came to our clinic in April 1995.

  6. [Streamlined treatment pathway for a colorectal cancer patient].

    PubMed

    Rantala, Arto; Ristamäki, Raija; Keränen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    The organization of colorectal cancer patient treatment, the pathway, is an important component of the quality of care of a large patient group as nearly 3000 colorectal cancer patients are diagnosed and treated annually in Finland. By designing and describing the whole pathway, the more streamlined approach can be made and thus improve patient care. Multidisciplinary team work between colorectal surgeons, oncologists, pathologists and radiologists is flexible team work, having been proven to improve overall treatment results. This method of working together is also a good tool for the development of the pathway to a better organized treatment. PMID:27483633

  7. Patients' perspectives on antidepressant treatment in consultations with physicians.

    PubMed

    Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2014-05-01

    Patient perspectives on antidepressant treatment and physician attention, and responses toward these in consultations with patients diagnosed with depression, are rarely studied. We analyzed video-recorded consultations with general practitioners (GPs) and psychiatrists. We used conversation analysis and systemic functional linguistics and found that the perspectives patients expressed related to the possibility of achieving, and the inability to retain, a sense of agency. Patients also presented indirect expressions of shame and expressions suggesting alienation toward medical treatment. GPs attended to patient perspectives by talking about medication indirectly. When patients expressed their perspectives, GPs responded by being nonauthoritative but also without prompting patients to elaborate on their reflections. Psychiatrists responded authoritatively and never urged patients to reflect on their perspectives. Shared decision making did not take place because physicians did not explore patients' perspectives in depth or offer their expertise by taking these perspectives into consideration.

  8. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; de Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Aluisio Martins; de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with Lowe syndrome. The objective of the treatment was to improve the patient's dental relationships and consequently his quality of life. This was achieved by maxillary expansion and extraction of the mandibular central incisors and maxillary deciduous canines. The teeth were aligned and leveled with a fixed orthodontic appliance. Satisfactory results were obtained at the end of treatment, with substantial improvement in dental esthetics, occlusal function, and facial profile.

  9. [Antibiotic treatment in patients amputated for ischemic diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Fernández Montequín, J I; McCook Martínez, J; Lima Santana, B; Velasco Armas, N; Montalvo Diago, J; Mahía Vilas, M

    1991-01-01

    Thirty diabetic patients submitted to a major amputation were tested by humo-celullar assays (retarded hypersensibility assays). Reactive patients were subdivided into two groups: one group was treated postoperatively with antibiotics, and the other group was not treated. Both groups were homogeneous in age, hemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, total proteins, glucemy and history of sepsis or leukocytosis. Five patients treated with antibiotics (33.3%) presented sepsis, one patient was reamputated and one patient died. Between the not treated patients, only three presented sepsis (20%) without any other complications. Authors conclude that the development of sepsis in reactive, diabetic, amputated patients is independent of antibiotic treatment. PMID:1755544

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of accessory breast cancer in 11 patients

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHUO; YU, YONG-HUA; QU, WEI; ZHANG, YONG; LI, JIA

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of accessory breast cancer, and contribute valuable information regarding this rare tumour to the current literature, ultimately facilitating the development of improved treatment strategies. The present study reported the cases of 11 patients with accessory breast cancer. The patients with accessory breast cancer were admitted between January 2002 and June 2014, and the patient records were retrospectively analysed. All patients presented with a tumour that was localised in the axilla. Out of these patients, there were 8 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and 3 patients with invasive lobular carcinoma. The follow-up periods for patients ranged between 4 and 54 months. Out of the 5 patients that experienced neoplasm metastases, 4 patients succumbed to the disease. In total, 6 patients remain alive with no evidence of disease. Accessory breast cancer is a progressive tumour, and long-term follow-up is required. A comprehensive treatment strategy may be an effective treatment option for patients; however, the optimal time at which to commence chemotherapy and the role of combined radiotherapy and endocrine therapy require additional investigation. PMID:26622750

  11. Evaluation and Treatment of the Patient with Vertigo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasscock, Michael E. III; Haynes, David S.

    1997-01-01

    The sensation of vertigo is a complex symptom that patients find difficult to describe, and physicians often find evaluating and treating patients with the vertigo a difficult task. This article outlines types and causes of vertigo and the work up, evaluation, and treatment of a patient with vertigo. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Depression Treatment Preferences in Older Primary Care Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gum, Amber M.; Arean, Patricia A.; Hunkeler, Enid; Tang, Lingqi; Katon, Wayne; Hitchcock, Polly; Steffens, David C.; Dickens, Jeanne; Unutzer, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: For depressed older primary care patients, this study aimed to examine (a) characteristics associated with depression treatment preferences; (b) predictors of receiving preferred treatment; and (c) whether receiving preferred treatment predicted satisfaction and depression outcomes. Design and Methods: Data are from 1,602 depressed older…

  13. Cuirass respirator treatment of chronic respiratory failure in scoliotic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wiers, P W; Le Coultre, R; Dallinga, O T; van Dijl, W; Meinesz, A F; Sluiter, H J

    1977-01-01

    The results are reported of domiciliary cuirass respirator treatment, using tailor-made shells, in four patients with severe thoracic scoliosis. Three of the patients had suffered from poliomyelitis. All complained of increasing dyspnoea on exertion, ultimately interfering with almost every activity of daily life; three patients had severe acute respiratory failure necessitating urgent admission to the Respiratory Care Unit. Right heart failure was present in two. Two patients required mechanical treatment via an endotracheal tube. All the patients were discharged home with a cuirass respirator. Standard type shells were used initially with low efficiency due to the poor fit of the cuirass shell to the deformed thoracic cage. Tailor-made shells were constructed from polyester reinforced with glass fibre, modelled on plaster casts of the thoracic cage. Subjectively the patients improved greatly and were able to resume and increase many activities. One patient committed suicide for reasons unconnected with treatment but the other three patients have been doing well from the time the cuirass respirator treatment was started, respectively, 3, 6, and 10 years ago. This treatment seems particularly effective in younger patients with severe paralytic scoliosis and cardiorespiratory failure, although the possibility of using it in older patients suffering from scoliosis of other aetiology should certainly be explored. Images PMID:266763

  14. Cuirass respirator treatment of chronic respiratory failure in scoliotic patients.

    PubMed

    Wiers, P W; Le Coultre, R; Dallinga, O T; van Dijl, W; Meinesz, A F; Sluiter, H J

    1977-04-01

    The results are reported of domiciliary cuirass respirator treatment, using tailor-made shells, in four patients with severe thoracic scoliosis. Three of the patients had suffered from poliomyelitis. All complained of increasing dyspnoea on exertion, ultimately interfering with almost every activity of daily life; three patients had severe acute respiratory failure necessitating urgent admission to the Respiratory Care Unit. Right heart failure was present in two. Two patients required mechanical treatment via an endotracheal tube. All the patients were discharged home with a cuirass respirator. Standard type shells were used initially with low efficiency due to the poor fit of the cuirass shell to the deformed thoracic cage. Tailor-made shells were constructed from polyester reinforced with glass fibre, modelled on plaster casts of the thoracic cage. Subjectively the patients improved greatly and were able to resume and increase many activities. One patient committed suicide for reasons unconnected with treatment but the other three patients have been doing well from the time the cuirass respirator treatment was started, respectively, 3, 6, and 10 years ago. This treatment seems particularly effective in younger patients with severe paralytic scoliosis and cardiorespiratory failure, although the possibility of using it in older patients suffering from scoliosis of other aetiology should certainly be explored.

  15. Acute myocardial imaging with TC-99m sestamibi identifies the culprit coronary artery in the emergency room assessment of patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Stowers, S.A.; Thompson, R.C.; Fulmer, H.

    1994-05-01

    Acute myocardial perfusion scintigraphy significantly increases diagnostic accuracy and provides independent predictive information in emergency room (ER) patients with typical angina and a normal or non-diagnostic ECG. We evaluated the correlation between location of perfusion defect on the acute nuclear perfusion scan and location of coronary arterial narrowing demonstrated by pre-hospital discharge coronary angiography. ER patients (n=150) with typical angina and a normal or non-diagnostic ECG had 10-30 mCi of Tc-99m Sestamibi injected while acutely symptomatic. 11 patients with a normal scan and 33 patients with an abnormal scan (total n=44) underwent pre-hospital discharge coronary angiography. Overall diagnostic accuracy in the detection of any significant ({ge}70%) angiographic stenosis was high (84%, p=.001). The diagnostic accuracy of anterior, lateral, and inferior perfusion abnormalities in the detection of significant stenosis of the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA), respectively was determined.

  16. Treatment Outcome of Patients with Buruli Ulcer Disease in Togo

    PubMed Central

    Beissner, Marcus; Arens, Nathalie; Wiedemann, Franz; Piten, Ebekalisaï; Kobara, Basile; Bauer, Malkin; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Badziklou, Kossi; Banla Kere, Abiba; Löscher, Thomas; Nitschke, Jörg; Bretzel, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Background Following introduction of antimycobacterial treatment of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD), several clinical studies evaluated treatment outcomes of BUD patients, in particular healing times, secondary lesions and functional limitations. Whereas recurrences were rarely observed, paradoxical reactions and functional limitations frequently occurred. Although systematic BUD control in Togo was established as early as 2007, treatment outcome has not been reviewed to date. Therefore, a pilot project on post-treatment follow-up of BUD patients in Togo aimed to evaluate treatment outcomes and to provide recommendations for optimization of treatment success. Methodology/Principal Findings Out of 199 laboratory confirmed BUD patients, 129 could be enrolled in the study. The lesions of 109 patients (84.5%) were completely healed without any complications, 5 patients (3.9%) had secondary lesions and 15 patients (11.6%) had functional limitations. Edema, category III ulcers >15cm, healing times >180 days and a limitation of movement at time of discharge constituted the main risk factors significantly associated with BUD related functional limitations (P<0.01). Review of all BUD related documentation revealed major shortcomings, in particular concerning medical records on adjuvant surgical and physiotherapeutic treatment. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first systematic analysis of treatment outcome of BUD patients from Togo. Median times to healing and the absence of recurrences were in line with findings reported by other investigators. The percentage of functional limitations of 11.6% was lower than in other studies, and edema, category III ulcers, healing time >180 days and limitation of movement at discharge constituted the main risk factors for functional limitations in Togolese BUD patients. Standardized treatment plans, patient assessment and follow-up, as well as improved management of medical records are recommended to allow for intensified

  17. Nutritional Aspects of Treatment in Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    SOLTANI, Danesh; GHAFFAR POUR, Majid; TAFAKHORI, Abbas; SARRAF, Payam; BITARAFAN, Sama

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by interruption of normal neuronal functions that is manifested by behavioral disorders, changing of awareness level, and presence of some sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms or signs. It is resulted from many different causes. Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to manage epileptic attacks. Some of them change metabolism and absorption of many nutrients. Therefore, epileptic patients may be in higher risk of nutrient deficiency and its unwelcome effects. In the present paper, we intend to review the relationship between nutrition and epilepsy in two aspects. In one aspect we discuss the nutritional status in epileptic patients, the causes of nutritional deficiencies and the way of compensation of the nutrient deficiencies. It will guide these patients to have a healthy life. In another aspect we explain the role of some nutrients and specific diets in management of epileptic attacks. It can help to better control of epileptic attacks in these patients. PMID:27375750

  18. Nonpharmacological treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M; Ebersbach, Georg

    2015-09-15

    Since 2013, a number of studies have enhanced the literature and have guided clinicians on viable treatment interventions outside of pharmacotherapy and surgery. Thirty-three randomized controlled trials and one large observational study on exercise and physiotherapy were published in this period. Four randomized controlled trials focused on dance interventions, eight on treatment of cognition and behavior, two on occupational therapy, and two on speech and language therapy (the latter two specifically addressed dysphagia). Three randomized controlled trials focused on multidisciplinary care models, one study on telemedicine, and four studies on alternative interventions, including music therapy and mindfulness. These studies attest to the marked interest in these therapeutic approaches and the increasing evidence base that places nonpharmacological treatments firmly within the integrated repertoire of treatment options in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26274930

  19. Direct feedback with the ATP luminometer as a process improvement tool for terminal cleaning of patient rooms.

    PubMed

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Robillard, Ernie; McCarthy, Gary; Gupta, Kalpana

    2014-02-01

    We assessed the adenosine triphosphate luminometer as a tool for point-of-cleaning education. Following a terminal cleaning, infection preventionists met with cleaning staff and used the luminometer to evaluate multiple surfaces; 820 surfaces in 210 rooms were sampled. The mean proportion of clean surfaces improved significantly over the study period, P = .012. These findings suggest that direct measurement and education at the point of cleaning with an objective tool is useful for improving terminal cleaning.

  20. Starting treatment: caring for patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Williams, G; Alarcon, E; Jittimanee, S; Walusimbi, M; Sebek, M; Berga, E; Villa, T S

    2008-05-01

    The standards presented in this section focus on providing physical, social and psychological care for the patient at the point he or she is diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) and starts treatment. Detailed guidance is included with regard to organising directly observed treatment (DOT) safely and acceptably for both the patient and the management unit. The aim is to give the patient the best possible chance of successfully completing treatment according to a regimen recommended by the World Health Organization. If the health service where the patient is diagnosed cannot offer ongoing treatment and care due to a lack of facilities, overcrowding or inaccessibility, the patient needs to be referred to a designated TB management unit (BMU) elsewhere. The patient may also receive treatment from a facility outside a BMU. However care is organised, it is essential for all patients who are diagnosed with TB to be registered at an appropriate BMU so that their progress can be routinely monitored and programme performance can be assessed. To avoid the risk of losing contact with the patient at any stage of their care, good communication is essential between all parties involved, from the patient him/herself to the person supervising their DOT to the BMU.

  1. Re-treatment of patients with hepatitis C who failed to respond (nonresponders) to previous treatment.

    PubMed

    Sharvadze, L G; Gogichaishvili, Sh Sh; Sakandelidze, Ts G; Zhamutashvili, M T; Chkhartishvili, N I

    2009-01-01

    The aim of four-year follow up study was evaluation of re-treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who failed to respond (non responders) to previous therapy. Study enrolled 29 patients, aged 21-59 with HCV infection (15 had HCV genotype 1, and 14 had HCV non-genotype1), who previously were treated with unmodified interferon alfa (conventional interferon) 2a or 2b 5 MIU TIW plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) and who failed under this therapy. Study subjects were randomized into two groups: in group I were included 17 patients--relapsers (patient in whom HCV RNA becomes undetectable on treatment and is undetectable at the end of therapy, but is detected again after discontinuation of treatment). Group II was composed of 12 patients: 4 were non responders (patient in whom HCV RNA levels remain stable on treatment), 4--partial responders (HCV RNA levels decline by >2 logs, but never become undetectable during treatment) and 4--breakthrough non responders (HCV RNA become undetectable during treatment, but before-treatment termination again become detectable). The diagnosis of HCV infection was made based on detection of HCV antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by RIBA. Detection of HCV RNA (qualitative) and HCV RNA Viral load--by Real time PCR technique (COBAS TaqMan Test). HCV genotypes were detected by INNO-Lipa method. In group I--rapid virological response (RVR) was observed in 10 (58%) patients, early viral response (EVR) in 12 patients (70%). Among them 9 (52%) patients remained HCV RNA undetectable by the end of treatment. After 6 months sustained viral response (SVR) was received in 7 (41%) patients from group I. In group II--RVR was observed in 5 (41%), EVR in 6 (50%) patients. Among them 5 (41%) patients remained HCV RNA undetectable by the end of treatment. After 6 months Sustained Viral Response was received in 3 (25%) patients. Re-treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C who failed to responds

  2. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-08-01

    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  3. Effects of Program and Patient Characteristics on Retention of Drug Treatment Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Joshi, Vandana; Maglione, Margaret; Chou, Chih Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effects of program and patient characteristics on patient retention in residential, out-patient, and methadone maintenance drug treatment programs. Data for 26,047 patients in 87 programs show that threshold retention rates were generally low for all 3 program types, although program practice and service provision played important…

  4. [Aspirin treatment for patients with Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Hiromichi

    2014-09-01

    Aspirin was first used for patients with Kawasaki disease(KD) at 1970s. Favorable outcomes of KD patients treated with aspirin were reported in 1970-80s and now it is one of the standard therapeutic agents for KD. Its anti-inflammation effects suppress vascular wall inflammation of KD at acute phase. In addition, its antiplatelet effects heal endothelial dysfunction and prevent clot formation in coronary arteries at sub-acute and convalescent phase. Long-term dosage for patients with coronary artery aneurysms(CAA) is also important, however, there are few evidences of risk-benefit assessment for its long-term use especially for middle-aged and senior adults with KD and CAA. PMID:25518411

  5. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  6. Negotiating treatment preferences: Physicians' formulations of patients' stance.

    PubMed

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Svennevig, Jan; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Eliciting patients' values and treatment preferences is an essential element in models of shared decision making, yet few studies have investigated the interactional realizations of how physicians do this in authentic encounters. Drawing on video-recorded encounters from Norwegian secondary care, the present study uses the fine-grained empirical methodology of conversation analysis (CA) to identify one conversational practice physicians use, namely, formulations of patients' stance, in which physicians summarize or paraphrase their understanding of the patient's stance towards treatment. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to explore what objectives formulations of patients' stance achieve while negotiating treatment and (2) to discuss these objectives in relation to core requirements in shared decision making. Our analysis demonstrates that formulating the patient's stance is a practice physicians use in order to elicit, check, and establish patients' attitudes towards treatment. This practice is in line with general recommendations for making shared decisions, such as exploring and checking patients' preferences and values. However, the formulations may function as a device for doing more than merely checking and establishing common ground and bringing up patients' preferences and views: Accompanied by subtle deprecating expressions, they work to delegitimize the patients' stances and indirectly convey the physicians' opposing stance. Once established, these positions can be used as a basis for challenging and potentially altering the patient's attitude towards the decision, thereby making it more congruent with the physician's view. Therefore, in addition to bringing up patients' views towards treatment, we argue that physicians may use formulations of patients' stance as a resource for directing the patient towards decisions that are congruent with the physician's stance in situations with potential disagreement, whilst (ostensibly) avoiding a more

  7. Negotiating treatment preferences: Physicians' formulations of patients' stance.

    PubMed

    Landmark, Anne Marie Dalby; Svennevig, Jan; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2016-01-01

    Eliciting patients' values and treatment preferences is an essential element in models of shared decision making, yet few studies have investigated the interactional realizations of how physicians do this in authentic encounters. Drawing on video-recorded encounters from Norwegian secondary care, the present study uses the fine-grained empirical methodology of conversation analysis (CA) to identify one conversational practice physicians use, namely, formulations of patients' stance, in which physicians summarize or paraphrase their understanding of the patient's stance towards treatment. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to explore what objectives formulations of patients' stance achieve while negotiating treatment and (2) to discuss these objectives in relation to core requirements in shared decision making. Our analysis demonstrates that formulating the patient's stance is a practice physicians use in order to elicit, check, and establish patients' attitudes towards treatment. This practice is in line with general recommendations for making shared decisions, such as exploring and checking patients' preferences and values. However, the formulations may function as a device for doing more than merely checking and establishing common ground and bringing up patients' preferences and views: Accompanied by subtle deprecating expressions, they work to delegitimize the patients' stances and indirectly convey the physicians' opposing stance. Once established, these positions can be used as a basis for challenging and potentially altering the patient's attitude towards the decision, thereby making it more congruent with the physician's view. Therefore, in addition to bringing up patients' views towards treatment, we argue that physicians may use formulations of patients' stance as a resource for directing the patient towards decisions that are congruent with the physician's stance in situations with potential disagreement, whilst (ostensibly) avoiding a more

  8. The Management of Patients after Surgical Treatment of Maxillofacial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rolski, D.; Zawadzki, P.; Życińska, K.; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and functional disturbances induced by postsurgical defects and loss of tissues in the stomatognathic system due to the treatment of tumors in the maxillofacial region determine the therapeutic needs of patients. The study aimed at clinical and epidemiological evaluation of patients under prosthetic treatment in order to establish the algorithm for rehabilitation. The study group was composed of the patients after midface surgery (45.74%); surgery in a lower part of the face (47.38%); mixed postoperative losses (3.44%); loss of face tissues and surgery in other locations in the head and neck region (3.44%). The supplementary treatment was applied in 69.63% of patients. Clinical and additional examinations were performed to obtain the picture of postoperative loss, its magnitude, and location to plan the strategy of prosthetic rehabilitation. The management algorithm for prosthetic rehabilitation in patients after surgical treatment of maxillofacial neoplasms was based on its division in stages. The location and magnitude of postoperative losses, as well as the implementation of supplementary treatment of the patients after treatment of maxillofacial tumors, influence the planning of prosthetic rehabilitation that plays a key role and facilitates the patients' return to their prior living situation, occupational and family lives. PMID:27747229

  9. The impact of cancer treatment on the diets and food preferences of patients receiving outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha I; Epstein, Joel B; Ettinger, David; Jatoi, Aminah; McManus, Kathy; Platek, Mary E; Price, Wendy; Stewart, Meghan; Teknos, Theodoros N; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing cancer treatment experience a multitude of symptoms that can influence their ability to complete treatment as well as their quality of life during and after treatment. This cross-sectional study sought to describe the dietary changes experienced by cancer patients and to identify associations between these changes and common treatment symptoms. A convenience sample of 1199 cancer patients aged 18 yr and older undergoing active treatment were recruited from 7 cancer centers to complete a self-administered paper-and-pencil survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence of dietary changes and chi-squared tests were used to examine associations between dietary changes and health outcomes. Approximately 40% of patients reported a decreased appetite since beginning treatment, and 67.2% of patients reported at least 1 chemosensory alteration. Increased taste sensitivities were more common than decreased taste sensitivities, with increased sensitivity to metallic being the most common taste sensitivity (18.6%). Patients also had increased sensitivities to certain smells including cleaning solutions (23.4%), perfume (22.4%), and food cooking (11.4%). Patients reported a wide range of food preferences and aversions. Patients who had less energy or lost weight since beginning treatment were more likely than others to report treatment-related dietary changes.

  10. The impact of cancer treatment on the diets and food preferences of patients receiving outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha I; Epstein, Joel B; Ettinger, David; Jatoi, Aminah; McManus, Kathy; Platek, Mary E; Price, Wendy; Stewart, Meghan; Teknos, Theodoros N; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing cancer treatment experience a multitude of symptoms that can influence their ability to complete treatment as well as their quality of life during and after treatment. This cross-sectional study sought to describe the dietary changes experienced by cancer patients and to identify associations between these changes and common treatment symptoms. A convenience sample of 1199 cancer patients aged 18 yr and older undergoing active treatment were recruited from 7 cancer centers to complete a self-administered paper-and-pencil survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence of dietary changes and chi-squared tests were used to examine associations between dietary changes and health outcomes. Approximately 40% of patients reported a decreased appetite since beginning treatment, and 67.2% of patients reported at least 1 chemosensory alteration. Increased taste sensitivities were more common than decreased taste sensitivities, with increased sensitivity to metallic being the most common taste sensitivity (18.6%). Patients also had increased sensitivities to certain smells including cleaning solutions (23.4%), perfume (22.4%), and food cooking (11.4%). Patients reported a wide range of food preferences and aversions. Patients who had less energy or lost weight since beginning treatment were more likely than others to report treatment-related dietary changes. PMID:25664980

  11. Treatment for patients with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    PAN, TAO; LIU, XIAOYUN; XIANG, SHOUGUI; JI, WENLI

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are common but have become increasingly resistant to drugs. The aim of the present study was to examine the combined treatment of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in 30 cases of pulmonary infection with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Patients were divided into groups A and B according to drug treatments. Cefoperazone or sulbactam and tanreqing were administered in group A, and cefoperazone or sulbactam in group B. The curative effect and prognosis of the two groups were recorded and the remaining treatments were performed routinely in the clinic. For the combined therapy group, which was administered sulperazone and tanreqing, 8 patients were recovered, 6 patients had significant effects, 3 patients exhibited some improvement and 1 patient had no response. One of the patients did not survive after 28 days. By contrast, there were 4 patients that were successfully treated, 3 patients with significant effects, 2 patients with some improvement and 2 patients had no response in the sulperazone group, and 4 patients did not survive after 28 days. In conclusion, the combined therapy of cefoperazone or sulbactam supplemented with tanreqing was identified to be more effective than cefoperazone or sulbactam as monotherapy, for treating multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:27073447

  12. Improvements in patient treatment planning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Atkinson, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) software system is used to develop treatment planning information. In typical use BNCT-Rtpe consists of three main components: (1) Semi-automated geometric modeling of objects (brain, target, eyes, sinus) derived from MRI, CT, and other medical imaging modalities, (2) Dose computations for these geometric models with rtt-MC, the INEL Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, and (3) Dose contouring overlaid on medical images as well as generation of other dose displays. We continue to develop a planning system based on three-dimensional image-based reconstructions using Bspline surfaces. Even though this software is in an experimental state, it has been applied for large animal research and for an isolated case of treatment for a human glioma. Radiation transport is based on Monte Carlo, however there will be implementations of faster methods (e.g. diffusion theory) in the future. The important thing for treatment planning is the output which must convey, to the radiologist, the deposition of dose to healthy and target tissue. Many edits are available such that one can obtain contours registered to medical image, dose/volume histograms and most information required for treatment planning and response assessment. Recent work has been to make the process more automatic and easier to use. The interface, now implemented for contouring and reconstruction, utilizes the Xwindowing system and the MOTIF graphical users interface for effective interaction with the planner. Much work still remains before the tool can be applied in a routine clinical setting.

  13. Photoinduced superhydrophilicity of amorphous TiOx-like thin films by a simple room temperature sol-gel deposition and atmospheric plasma jet treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakatseli, V. E.; Pagonis, E.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.

    2014-11-01

    A room temperature sol gel process of TTIP / iPrOH / H2O /HNO3 sol was applied for the deposition of functional Ti alkoxide thin films on glass and polymeric substrates (PEEK). The unheated - amorphous films become superhydrophilic after 7 minutes of UV exposure which deteriorates after one day of storage in dark, exhibiting stable amphiphilic behavior. Superhydrophilicity is also obtained after 5 min of atmospheric pressure Ar - O2 plasma jet treatment. As the plasma power and the oxygen content of the mixture of the treatment increase (70W, 3.2 -5% O2) the films high hydrophilicity is maintained for many days even in dark atmospheric conditions providing long term hydrophilic coatings.

  14. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin.

    PubMed

    Ade, Serge; Adjibodé, Omer; Wachinou, Prudence; Toundoh, Narcisse; Awanou, Bérénice; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Affolabi, Dissou; Adè, Gabriel; Harries, Anthony D; Anagonou, Séverin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (P = 0.04), patients from "Atlantique-Littoral" (P = 0.006), patients aged 45-64 years (P = 0.007), and HIV-positive patients (P = 0.04) among those retreated. Overall, 171 (71%) patients submitted sputum for DST, of whom (163) 95% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF and/or culture and 17 (10%) were rifampicin resistant (9 with MDR-TB and 8 monoresistant to rifampicin). For those without MDR-TB (n = 224), treatment success was 93%. Worse outcomes occurred in those with unknown HIV status (RR: 0.27; 0.05-1.45; P < 0.01) while better outcomes occurred in those who relapsed (RR: 1.06, 95 CI: 1.02-1.10, P = 0.04). Conclusion. In 2013, a high proportion of retreatment patients received DST. Treatment success was good although more needs to be done to systematically increase the final follow-up smear examination. Reasons of high losses to follow-up from "Oueme-Plateau" should be investigated. PMID:27110400

  15. Hospital–Physician Affiliations and Patient Treatments, Expenditures, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between hospital–physician affiliations and the treatments, expenditures, and outcomes of patients. Data Sources Sources include the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review dataset, the American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey, and the Area Resource File (ARF). Study Design A multivariate regression analysis of the relationship between hospital–physician affiliations (such as physician–hospital organizations [PHOs] or salaried employment) and the treatment of Medicare patients with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction admitted to general medical-surgical hospitals between 1994 and 1998. Dependent variables include whether the patient received a catheterization or angioplasty or bypass surgery; whether a patient was readmitted, or died within 90 days of initial admission; and expenditures. Independent variables include patient, admission hospital, and market characteristics, as well as hospital and year fixed effects. Principal Findings The integrated salary model form of hospital–physician affiliation is associated with slightly higher procedure rates, and higher patient expenditures. At the same time, there is little evidence that hospital–physician affiliations in the aggregate have had any measurable impact on patient treatment or outcomes. Conclusions The limited effect of hospital–physician affiliations on patient outcomes is consistent with previous research showing that affiliations have not much changed the nature of health care delivery. However, the finding that the integrated salary model is associated with higher treatment intensity suggests that affiliations may have had some impact on patients, and could have more in the future. PMID:15032954

  16. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F.; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M.; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods. We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results. Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions. Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research. PMID:26949712

  17. Using Computer Vision and Depth Sensing to Measure Healthcare Worker-Patient Contacts and Personal Protective Equipment Adherence Within Hospital Rooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyang; Cremer, James F; Zarei, Kasra; Segre, Alberto M; Polgreen, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  We determined the feasibility of using computer vision and depth sensing to detect healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contacts to estimate both hand hygiene (HH) opportunities and personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence. Methods.  We used multiple Microsoft Kinects to track the 3-dimensional movement of HCWs and their hands within hospital rooms. We applied computer vision techniques to recognize and determine the position of fiducial markers attached to the patient's bed to determine the location of the HCW's hands with respect to the bed. To measure our system's ability to detect HCW-patient contacts, we counted each time a HCW's hands entered a virtual rectangular box aligned with a patient bed. To measure PPE adherence, we identified the hands, torso, and face of each HCW on room entry, determined the color of each body area, and compared it with the color of gloves, gowns, and face masks. We independently examined a ground truth video recording and compared it with our system's results. Results.  Overall, for touch detection, the sensitivity was 99.7%, with a positive predictive value of 98.7%. For gowned entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.15%. For masked entrances, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 98.75%; for gloved entrances, the sensitivity was 86.21% and specificity was 98.28%. Conclusions.  Using computer vision and depth sensing, we can estimate potential HH opportunities at the bedside and also estimate adherence to PPE. Our fine-grained estimates of how and how often HCWs interact directly with patients can inform a wide range of patient-safety research.

  18. Many Patients with Cancer Need Better Treatments for Pain

    Cancer.gov

    Inadequate pain treatment in patients with cancer remains a significant problem and appears to be more frequent among minorities, according to a new study published online April 16, 2012, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  19. [Personality changes of neurotic patients as outcome of the treatment].

    PubMed

    Jodzio, K

    1993-01-01

    The present article attempted to assess the importance of outcomes which appeared during the treatment of 30 neurotic patients. This study specially concentrates on measures of emotional empathy, self-confidence and introspection. There were two surveys in the clinical group: before and after the treatment was completed. Data were compared with a control group, also consisting of 30 persons (15 male and 15 female) matched for age and education. All patients attending group psychotherapy were also treated by pharmacotherapy. As it appeared from the analysis before treatment high empathy in patients was found, but this declined after therapy, however it was still significantly higher than in the control group. The first survey revealed also that patients demonstrated lower levels of self-confidence and introspection. After treatment there were no important differences between the groups. Relationships between the studied qualities were not statistically significant. PMID:8134493

  20. The new standard: single family room design.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2012-10-01

    Nurse leaders influence decisions related to single patient rooms or multioccupancy room designs. The purpose of this facility design article is to expand nurse leaders' knowledge and competency in health facility design enabling them to lead design efforts and the transition to new facilities and models of care. This article describes the new standard of all-private rooms for adult and neonatal ICU care and defines the benefits of the single family room design on patients, families, and providers.

  1. Differential Patient-Caregiver Opinions of Treatment and Care For Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zyzanski, Stephen J; Siminoff, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differences of opinion between cancer patients and caregivers with regard to treatment and care decisions. 184 advanced lung cancer patients and 171 primary caregivers were recruited as a convenience sample from clinics in Cleveland, Ohio. A telephone interview was conducted to collect data using a semi-structured questionnaire. Nonparametric tests and regression analysis were performed. The findings showed that patients and caregivers reported significant disagreement on three main issues: trade-off between treatment side effects and benefits; reporting treatment side effects to physicians, and hospice care. Caregivers were more concerned about patient’s quality of life and more willing to discuss hospice issues than were patients. Perceived family disagreement is associated with depression in both patients and caregivers. The study provided empirical evidence for patient-caregiver disagreement about treatment and care decisions and its significant adverse impact on both patients and caregivers. PMID:20137849

  2. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  3. [Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Elderly Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Yokode, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Age-specific analyses of mortality rates in Japan show that cancer was the leading cause of death for the age group 40-89 years in the year 2013. Although the crude mortality rate from cancer has recently increased, the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate has shown a decreasing trend. This suggests that the increases in the crude mortality rate may have been caused by the aging of the population. Cancer patients who are old present many comorbidities and newly diagnosed geriatric problems. Several tools provide determinants of survival in cancer patients who are old (including the comprehensive geriatric assessment [CGA]) in order to improve the quality of cancer care in this population. PMID:27539034

  4. Lack of tolerable treatment options for patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Citrome, Leslie; Eramo, Anna; Francois, Clement; Duffy, Ruth; Legacy, Susan N; Offord, Steve J; Krasa, Holly B; Johnston, Stephen S; Guiraud-Diawara, Alice; Kamat, Siddhesh A; Rohman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical antipsychotics (AAs), an effective treatment for schizophrenia, have a range of pharmacologic properties leading to differences in tolerability as well as heterogeneity in treatment response. Individual patient characteristics must be considered when making treatment choices, especially from an adverse event (AE) or tolerability perspective. Despite the availability of numerous AAs, after appraising patient characteristics at the time of treatment selection, physicians may quickly run out of tolerable treatment options. Patients and methods AE risk factors, defined as having either a prior history of an AE or a risk factor for that AE, were determined for Medicaid-insured and Commercially insured patients using database analysis. Patients receiving AA treatment between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 defined the index date of first observed AA prescription during this period. Nine AAs were evaluated for association with AE risk factors as informed by drug prescribing information from the different manufacturers and published meta-analyses. The proportion of patients with pre-index AE risk factors prescribed an AA associated with that risk factor was then determined. Results A high proportion of patients (>80%) were prescribed an AA associated with extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia despite experiencing extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia prior to AA treatment initiation. Similar trends were observed among patients with diabetes (>60%) and obesity (>40%). From the nine treatment options available, the number of optimal choices for individual patient segments were limited based on their prior history, including those with cardiometabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities (four); experiencing prolactin elevation-related problems (seven); needing to avoid excessive sedation (four); or at risk of extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia (two). Options were then further restricted among patients in more than one segment when multiple pre-index AE

  5. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098

  6. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas.

  7. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098

  8. [Treatment of constipation in palliative care patients is a challenge].

    PubMed

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Johnsen, Berit; Hansen, Ole Bo; Hedal, Birte

    2016-08-15

    The evidence for treatment of constipation in palliative care patients is poor. The condition of these patients is often complex, and results from studies performed in other patient groups cannot be extrapolated unconditionally. However, macrogol (polyethylene glycol), lactulose and sodium picosulphate seem to be well tolerated, and methylnaltrexone could be used in opioid-induced constipation, if the patients are not at risk from gastrointestinal perforation. The patients should be offered quiet and private surroundings, and attention should be payed to securing an optimal body position for defecation. PMID:27550785

  9. [Consumerism, patient empowerment and changing clinical work--patient awareness and treatment demands on the rise].

    PubMed

    Toiviainen, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Consumerism refers to the accentuation of a patient's status and freedom of choice within the health care. Increasing patient knowledge, empowerment and demands stand out in the medical practice. Patients seek for self-diagnosis before attending the consultation. Regarding the treatment relationship, one doctor out of five experiences the situation positive and two out of five negative. The patients influence prescription decisions. Private doctors have a more positive attitude to patients' consumer role than those working within the public sector.

  10. Randomised controlled trial of day patient versus inpatient psychiatric treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Creed, F; Black, D; Anthony, P; Osborn, M; Thomas, P; Tomenson, B

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the proportion of acutely ill psychiatric patients who can be treated in a day hospital and compare the outcome of day patient and inpatient treatment. DESIGN--Prospective randomised controlled trial of day patient versus inpatient treatment after exclusion of patients precluded by severity of illness or other factors from being treated as day patients. All three groups assessed at three and 12 months. SETTING--Teaching hospital serving small socially deprived inner city area. Day hospital designed to take acute admissions because of few beds. PATIENTS--175 Patients were considered, of whom 73 could not be allocated. Of the remaining 102 patients, 51 were allocated to each treatment setting but only 89 became established in treatment--namely, 41 day patients and 48 inpatients. 73 Of these 89 patients were reassessed at three months and 70 at one year. INTERVENTIONS--Standard day patient and inpatient treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Discharge from hospital and return to previous level of social functioning; reduction of psychiatric symptoms, abnormal behaviour, and burden on relatives. RESULTS--33 Of 48 inpatients were discharged at three months compared with 17 of 41 day patients. But at one year 9 of 48 inpatients and three of 41 day patients were in hospital. 18 Of 35 day patients and 16 of 39 inpatients were at their previous level of social functioning at one year. The only significant difference at three months was a greater improvement in social role performance in the inpatients. At one year there was no significant difference between day patients and inpatients in present state examination summary scores and social role performance, burden, or behaviour. CONCLUSIONS--Roughly 40% of all acutely ill patients presenting for admission to a psychiatric unit may be treated satisfactorily in a well staffed day hospital. The outcome of treatment is similar to that of inpatient care but might possibly reduce readmissions. The hospital costs

  11. Operative treatment improves patient function in recalcitrant medial epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M; Wu, F; Deshmukh, S C

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the outcome of open surgery for patients with recalcitrant medial epicondylitis following failed conservative management. The clinical results are presented for 15 patients (17 elbows) who were reviewed at a mean follow-up of 66 months. Operative treatment improved patient function significantly with a mean increase in grip strength of 10kg and a mean decrease (improvement) in DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score of 25.7. All but one patient experienced little or no residual elbow discomfort and had excellent Mayo elbow performance scores postoperatively. Eleven of the twelve patients who were previously in employment were able to return to work within eight weeks of surgery. This study demonstrates that operative treatment for recalcitrant medial epicondylitis is effective in restoring patient function and strength.

  12. [Choice of surgical treatment in patients with acute destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Belik, B M; Chernov, V N; Alibekov, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Medical and diagnostic algorithm in patients with pancreatic necrosis is developed. It takes into consideration features and expansion of necrotic process in retroperitoneal space, objective severity of patients' condition according to SAPS scale and inflammatory process according to serum procalcitonin concentration. Comparative analysis revealed that the use of developed algorithm improves results of treatment.

  13. [Ergometric results of r-erythropoietin treatment of hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hortian, B; Schmidt, R; Wüstenberg, P W; Dörp, E; Schumann, L; Winkler, R; Klinkmann, H

    1990-05-15

    To investigate the effect of partial correction of anemia in patients maintained by chronic intermittent hemodialysis on exercise capacity, patients underwent a bicycle acido-ergometry before and after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. The results demonstrate a (subjective) improvement of exercise capacity without any evidence for that in the pH values.

  14. Defining and distinguishing treatment abandonment in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Howard, Scott C; Lam, Catherine G

    2015-05-01

    Cancer management requires accurate identification of the causes of treatment failure followed by cause-specific interventions. One cause of treatment failure that has received too little attention is abandonment of treatment. Abandonment includes 2 key elements: (1) failing to complete therapy for a disease that could be cured or definitively controlled, and (2) missing all treatment for a sustained time period to an extent that impacts the ability to cure or definitively control the disease. In this Historical Insight paper, we analyze historic and current terminology used to describe treatment abandonment in patients and provide a framework to distinguish it from nonadherence and loss to follow-up.

  15. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  16. Association of glycerol to dexamethasone in treatment of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Albizzati, M G; Candelise, L; Capitani, E; Colombo, A; Spinnler, H

    1979-08-01

    A prospective study of 93 acute stroke patients randomly selected by type of antiedema treatment given (hypertonic glicerol infusion plus dexamethasone versus dexamethasone alone) failed to elicit any statistically significant difference between the two treatments on survival rates and quality of survival 7 and 30 days after the stroke. PMID:495045

  17. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors. PMID:26614861

  18. Ethical Consideration in Wound Treatment of the Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Prachi; Aung, Thet Han; Ferguson, Richard; Ortega, Gerardo; Shah, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Today, an advance in clinical medicine and public health has given patients the opportunity to live longer and more productive lives despite progressive illnesses. For some patients, however, this progress has resulted in prolonged dying which is associated with huge emotional and financial expenses. A review article is written based on proceedings of panel discussion on Ethical Consideration in wound treatment of the elderly patient on July 25, 2015, Baptist Wound Symposium at Marriot Northwest, San Antonio, Texas. PMID:27104145

  19. Patient selection, candidacy, and treatment planning for hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Konior, Raymond J; Simmons, Cam

    2013-08-01

    Patient consultation, examination, and selection are crucial for successful outcomes in hair restoration surgery. The hair restoration surgeon must take a holistic approach in identifying those patients who are and who are not candidates for surgery. In this article, an overview of the consultation, pertinent physical examination features relating to patient candidacy, and several treatment paradigms are discussed. Additionally, those findings that may lead to poor results and conditions that are contraindications to hair restoration surgery are reviewed.

  20. Treatment default and death among tuberculosis patients in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    Abuaku, Benjamin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Li, Xingli; Chen, Mengshi; Huang, Xin

    2010-04-01

    We used the 2005 and 2006 national surveillance data to elucidate some of the risk factors for treatment default and death among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Hunan, China. Risk of default was higher in males (odds ratio (OR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.44); lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.49, 0.75), and generally increased with increasing age; lower in patients living in cities with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of less than 1000 US$ (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49, 0.72), and increased with increasing per capita GDP of city of residence; and higher in patients with previously treated smear-positive pulmonary TB (diagnostic category II according to the World Health Organization definition; OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.22, 3.23). Risk of death was lowest in patients aged 15-24 y (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.05, 0.10), and increased with increasing age; lower in new cases (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33, 0.76); and highest in patients who treated themselves (OR 3.47; 95% CI 1.27, 9.46). We conclude that male TB patients, elderly TB patients, patients resident in cities with higher per capita GDP, and patients receiving category II treatment need special attention to reduce TB treatment default in the province. Furthermore, elderly TB patients and patients with a long history of TB need special attention to reduce mortality. Self-treatment also needs to be discouraged to reduce mortality.

  1. Treatment of patients with OSAS using Nd-YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukwa, Andrzej; Tulibacki, Marek P.; Zajac, Andrzej; Dudziec, Katarzyna

    2000-06-01

    The authors present their clinical experience regarding the possibilities of application of Nd:YAG and Ho:YAG lasers for the treatment of disorders in the are of the upper respiratory tract. The patients with symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Aphnoe Syndrom need a various operations techniques. Lasers techniques makes it possible to perform a number of procedures in local anesthesia which considerably improves the economic effectiveness of the treatment. The surgeries performed using laser beam enabled very good effect of treatment.

  2. Hospitalized patients with COPD: analysis of prior treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Irai Luis; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Moreira, Frederico Fernandes; Meyer, Igor Varela; Souza, Ricardo Goetten; Pincelli, Mariângela Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although COPD is a prevalent disease, it is undertreated, and there are no available data regarding previous treatment of COPD in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the appropriateness of maintenance treatment in COPD patients prior to their hospitalization and to identify variables associated with inappropriate treatment. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, analytical study involving 50 inpatients with COPD at two hospitals in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. The patients completed a questionnaire on parameters related to the maintenance treatment of COPD. Non-pharmacological management and pharmacological treatment were assessed based on the recommendations made by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) in 2011 and by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health in the chronic respiratory diseases section of its Caderno de Atenção Básica (CAB, Primary Care Guidebook). Results: In most of the patients, the COPD was classified as being severe or very severe. Regarding non-pharmacological management, 33% of the patients were smokers, only 32% had been advised to receive the flu vaccine, 28% had received pneumococcal vaccine, and only 6.5% of the patients in the B, C, and D categories received pulmonary rehabilitation. Regarding GOLD and CAB recommendations, pharmacological treatment was inappropriate in 50% and 74% of the patients, respectively. Based on GOLD recommendations, 38% were undertreated. A low level of education, low income, not receiving oxygen therapy, and not receiving the flu vaccine were associated with inappropriate treatment. Conclusions: The application of various non-pharmacological management recommendations was unsatisfactory. Regarding the GOLD recommendations, the high rate of inappropriate maintenance treatment was mainly due to undertreatment. In Brazil, even in severe COPD cases, optimizing treatment to achieve greater benefits continues to be a challenge. PMID:25029645

  3. Evolving treatments in multiple myeloma patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Papini, Giulia; Candi, Veronica; Bocchia, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of novel agents in multiple myeloma therapy has dramatically improved survival in latest years. Great progress has also been detected in particular poor clinical situation such as acute renal failure in which survival was dismal in the past. Treatment with bortezomib, thalidomide and dialysis associated with high cut-off (HCO) filters can recover more than two thirds of myeloma patients with an end stage renal failure. Novel proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulating agents (IMID's) are even more promising in this set of patients. Aim of this review is to provide an overview of treatments of multiple myeloma patients with acute renal failure coming from most recent clinical trials. PMID:25329484

  4. Understanding and Utilizing Patient Preferences in Cancer Treatment Decisions.

    PubMed

    Ubel, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Shared decision-making is a complex endeavor that should take into account the patient's personal preferences regarding treatment options. To truly empower patients to be partners in decision-making, especially in situations in which their preferences are important, physicians must learn to communicate better and to distinguish between what is "medical fact" versus a "value judgement." Knowing what are, when to ask, and how to ask the right questions will help physicians be effective in guiding patients toward the right treatments. PMID:27226516

  5. [Teamwork and leadership in the trauma room. Trauma room management from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Passauer-Baierl, S; Hofinger, G

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of patients in the trauma room places extraordinary demands on the multidisciplinary and multiprofessional team with regard to expert qualifications and teamwork. The present study triangulates data extracted from observation, interviews and questionnaires. In general, team climate and teamwork are good, yet some problems could be identified. Not all team members-especially younger physicians and nurses-feel free to express their doubts and uncertainties. Furthermore, the treatment plan is not always clear for all team members. Absent or unclear leadership is seen as a main problem when a treatment proceeds negatively. The establishment of a team leader is therefore recommended. PMID:21870134

  6. [Teamwork and leadership in the trauma room. Trauma room management from a psychological perspective].

    PubMed

    Passauer-Baierl, S; Hofinger, G

    2011-09-01

    The treatment of patients in the trauma room places extraordinary demands on the multidisciplinary and multiprofessional team with regard to expert qualifications and teamwork. The present study triangulates data extracted from observation, interviews and questionnaires. In general, team climate and teamwork are good, yet some problems could be identified. Not all team members-especially younger physicians and nurses-feel free to express their doubts and uncertainties. Furthermore, the treatment plan is not always clear for all team members. Absent or unclear leadership is seen as a main problem when a treatment proceeds negatively. The establishment of a team leader is therefore recommended.

  7. Assessing Patient Exposure to a Video-Based Intervention in STD Clinic Waiting Rooms: Findings From the Safe in the City Trial.

    PubMed

    Besera, Ghenet T; Cox, Shanna; Malotte, C Kevin; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; O'Donnell, Lydia; Margolis, Andrew D; Warner, Lee

    2016-09-01

    Safe in the City, a video intervention for clinic waiting rooms, was previously shown to reduce sexually transmitted disease (STD) incidence. However, little is known about patients' recall of exposure to the intervention. Using data from a nested study of patients attending clinics during the trial, we assessed whether participants recalled Safe in the City, and, if so, how the intervention affected subsequent attitudes and behaviors. Analyses were restricted to responses to a 3-month follow-up questionnaire among participants who were exposed to the video (n = 708). Impact was measured as participants' reports of the video's effect on behaviors and attitudes. Associations were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Of participants who were exposed, 685 (97%) recalled viewing the video, and 68% recalled all three vignettes. After watching the video, participants felt more positive about condoms (69%) and comfortable acquiring condoms (56%), were reminded of important information about STDs and condoms (90%), and tried to apply what they learned to their lives (59%). Compared with those who recalled viewing one or two vignettes, participants who recalled viewing all three vignettes reported more positive attitudes toward condoms and peer/provider communication. These findings demonstrate that a low-resource video intervention for waiting rooms can provide sufficient exposure to positively influence STD-related attitudes/behaviors.

  8. HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI) EVALUATION OF ROOMS TA-50-1-60/60A AT THE RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY (RLWTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Walter E.; Stender, Kerith K.

    2012-08-29

    This effort addressed an evaluation of human machine interfaces (HMIs) in Room TA-50-1-60/60A of the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The evaluation was performed in accordance with guidance outlined in DOE-STD-3009, DOE Standard Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, 2006 [DOE 2006]. Specifically, Chapter 13 of DOE 2006 highlights the 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, 2012, [CFR 2012] and DOE G 421.1-2 [DOE 2001a] requirements as they relate to the human factors process and, in this case, the safety of the RLWTF. The RLWTF is a Hazard Category 3 facility and, consequently, does not have safety-class (SSCs). However, safety-significant SSCs are identified. The transuranic (TRU) wastewater tanks and associated piping are the only safety-significant SSCs in Rooms TA-50-1-60/60A [LANL 2010]. Hence, the human factors evaluation described herein is only applicable to this particular assemblage of tanks and piping.

  9. Treatment of lithiasis in the patient with a solitary kidney.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Marcellan, F J; Ibarz Servio, L; Ramon Dalmau, M

    1988-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been the fundamental treatment applied to 88 patients with renal calculi in a solitary kidney. Epidemiological information is given, including lithiasis antecedents and associated pathologies as well as the etiology of the solitary kidney, location and size of stones. The initial treatment was ESWL in 83 patients, ureteroscopy in 2, surgery in 2, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in 1. Three months after treatment in the ESWL group, 68 patients were completely free of stones and 15 had insignificant caliceal residual fragments. The rest of the patients were treated successfully using the above methods. The secondary complications of ESWL were colic pain (20 cases), fever (13 cases) and obstruction (9 cases).

  10. Treatment selection for stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prosnitz, L.R.; Cooper, D.; Cox, E.B.; Kapp, D.S.; Farber, L.R.

    1985-08-01

    Two treatment policies for the therapy of patients with Stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease are compared. From 1969-1976, 49 newly diagnosed and pathologically staged IIIA patients received total nodal irradiation (TNI) alone (no liver irradiation). Although actuarial survival was 80% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years, actuarial freedom from relapse was only 38% at 5 years. Accordingly, a new treatment policy was instituted in 1976. Patients with either CS IIIA disease, multiple splenic nodules, IIIA with a large mediastinal mass or III/sub 2/, received combined modality therapy (combination chemotherapy and irradiation). All others received TNI. Thirty-six patients have been treated under the new program. The actuarial survival is 90% at 5 years and the relapse-free survival is 87%, suggesting the superiority of this approach. Complications from the treatments are discussed.

  11. Floor of mouth cancer: patient selection and treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Lee, F.; Smith, P.G.; Ogura, J.H.

    1983-04-01

    Retrospective review of 126 primarily treated floor of mouth (FOM) cancers was done to study patient selection and to search for more optimum treatment strategies. Small surface lesions were treated by local excision (LE); small lesions invading FOM without lymph nodes were treated by radiation alone (RA), while larger lesions and those with palpable nodes were treated by preoperative irradiation and surgery (R + S). Ultimate control of the FOM cancer and nodes was achieved for 100% of the LE, 71% of the RA, and 75% of the R + S patients. The majority of primary tumor and nodal recurrences developed by 15 months and 35% of the failures were salvaged by additional treatment. Change in treatment strategies are suggested for surface lesions because of a poor rate of initial tumor control (43%), for patients treated by RA because of a high rate of complications (41%), and for patients without palpable lymph nodes who can be successfully treated by elective neck irradiation.

  12. Surgical Treatment in Patients with Cervical Osteomyelitis: Single Institute's Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Bang Sang; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Jung Yoon; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Su; Cho, Yong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study practical guidelines and strategies in the treatment of cervical osteomyelitis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 14 patients who underwent surgical treatment for cervical osteomyelitis from May 2000 to July 2008. We investigated their clinical course, antibiotic regimen, surgical methods, and laboratory and radiologic findings including X-ray, CT and MRI. Results 5 patients had primary spondylodiscitis, 5 patients had post operative spondylodiscitis and 4 patients had tuberculosis in cervical spine. The causative microorganisms were MRSA (5), P. aeruginosa (1), Methicillin resistant coagulase negative streptococcus (1), P. aeruginosa changed to MRSA (1), and 2 patients showed no growth on culture studies. Patients were treated 13.8 weeks (range, 5.4-25.8) with IV antibiotics and then treated for 58.2 days (range, 13-106) with oral antibiotics. Antituberculotic medications were used for a mean of 383.8 days. Patients were treated with anterior debridement and fusion (5), irrigation and debridement (5), simultaneous cervical anterior interbody and transthoracic thoracic interbody fusion (1). 3 patients underwent the planned 2-staged operation, which included an anterior debridement with or without fusion for the 1st operation and posterior instrumentation for 2nd operation. 10 patients (71.4%) had neurologic deficits at the time of diagnosis and 7 patients (70%) among them improved post-operatively. Conclusion Anterior cervical spine surgery is the preferable treatment option in patients with neurological deterioration, extensive bony destruction with expected kyphotic deformity, and uncontrolled infection being managed only with antibiotics. Antibiotics are also important for thorough treatment. PMID:25346763

  13. Outpatient treatment of sleep disorders in Alzheimer patients

    PubMed Central

    Scoralick, Francisca Magalhães; Camargos, Einstein Francisco; Freitas, Marco Polo Dias; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with Alzheimer dementia and affect the quality of life of patients and of their caregivers. Despite the rising number of studies in the area, almost all of them are about non-pharmacological treatment. Our objective was to review the literature concerning pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to treat sleep disorders of elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia in the ambulatory setting. The treatments revised consisted of sleep hygiene and/or use of intense light coupled or not with use of melatonin, cholinesterase inhibitors, antipsychotics, hypnotics or antidepressants. In addition to the non-pharmacological measures, there is evidence that the use of trazodone may aid the treatment of sleep disorders of older individuals with Alzheimer dementia. More studies are necessary to examine the non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments revised herein. PMID:25946052

  14. Resilience and Treatment Adhesion in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Daniella Antunes Pousa; Revoredo, Luciana Silva; Vilar, Maria José; Eulália Maria Chaves, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, rheumatic inflammatory disease that can cause significant morbidity with evident psychological impacts and obvious harm to quality-of-life that require the patient to adapt treatment. Objective: Assessment of resilience and the self-reported treatment adhesion behaviors of patients with SLE, investigating which of these factors are associated to resilience. Method: Cross-sectional study of 40 women with SLE. A questionnaire with social demographic data, health history and the Wagnild Young Resilience Scale were used. Results: 62.5% followed the medical treatment properly but 55% found it difficult. 27.5% of the patients presented low resilience, 57.5% medium and 15% high resilience. Resilience was associated in the chi-square test (p-value < 0.05) with the variables work, understanding SLE, trying to find out about SLE, following the treatment correctly, difficulty in following the treatment and stopping some activity because of the disease. In the correlation analysis, resilience was associated with age (-0.3960), number of working hours (0.5533), specialized treatment duration (-0.8103) and disease duration from diagnosis (-0.8014). Conclusion: Patients with high resilience tended to follow treatment correctly, tried to understand the disease and adhered more to the treatment to avoid risks and promote protection factors. Therefore knowledge of resilience in patients with SLE is necessary. It is important that the state takes necessary actions to facilitate access to treatment, to educational programs and to medical support. Awareness and counselling sessions must be initiated to develop and promote individual capacities to learn how to tackle with the disease for which psychological support of family and doctors can play a significant role. PMID:24665352

  15. Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Patients With Unresectable Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafoori, A. Paiman; Nelson, John W.; Willett, Christopher G.; Chino, Junzo; Tyler, Douglas S.; Hurwitz, Herbert I.; Uronis, Hope E.; Morse, Michael A.; Clough, Robert W.; Czito, Brian G.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is an uncommon but lethal malignancy. We analyzed the role of definitive chemoradiotherapy for patients with nonmetastatic, locally advanced extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated at a single institution. Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis included 37 patients who underwent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with concurrent chemotherapy and/or brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were assessed, and univariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of patient- and treatment-related factors on clinical outcomes. Results: Twenty-three patients received EBRT alone, 8 patients received EBRT plus BT, and 6 patients received BT alone (median follow-up of 14 months). Two patients were alive without evidence of recurrence at the time of analysis. Actuarial OS and LC rates at 1 year were 59% and 90%, respectively, and 22% and 71%, respectively, at 2 years. Two patients lived beyond 5 years without evidence of recurrence. On univariate analysis, EBRT with or without BT improved LC compared to BT alone (97% vs. 56% at 1 year; 75% vs. 56% at 2 years; p = 0.096). Patients who received EBRT alone vs. BT alone also had improved LC (96% vs. 56% at 1 year; 80% vs. 56% at 2 years; p = 0.113). Age, gender, tumor location (proximal vs. distal), histologic differentiation, EBRT dose ({<=} or >50 Gy), EBRT planning method (two-dimensional vs. three-dimensional), and chemotherapy were not associated with patient outcomes. Conclusions: Patients with locally advanced extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma have poor survival. Long-term survival is rare. The majority of patients treated with EBRT had local control at the time of death, suggesting that symptoms due to the local tumor effect might be effectively controlled with radiation therapy, and EBRT is an important element of treatment. Novel treatment approaches are indicated in the therapy

  16. [Treatment response of depressive patients with comorbid problem drink].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Eri; Tayama, Masaya; Saito, Toshikazu

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of Problem Drink on depression. Forty participants with depression were divided into 2 groups: non-Problem Drinker (NPD) group (n = 22) and Problem Drinker (PD) group (n = 18) according to Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score (NPD < 12, PD > or = 12). Depression was assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The effect of medication on depressive symptoms was monitored over 12 weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Significant improvement in HAM-D score was observed at 2 weeks in NPD patients but not until 4 weeks in PD patients. Total HAM-D scores were lower in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. Therapeutic doses (dose of antidepressant used was equivalent to greater than 75 mg of imipramine) of antidepressants resulted in significant improvement in HAM-D scores at 2 weeks in NPD patients, but not until 8 weeks in PD patients and brought lower HAM-D scores in NPD than in PD patients at the end of the treatment period. The AUDIT score and total alcohol consumption during the study period were negatively correlated to the improvement in HAM-D score. In NPD patients, the level of education of patients in remission was higher than those by patients not in remission. In contrast, level of education of patients in remission were similar to those in PD patients not in remission. The above results suggest that co-occurrence of alcohol use disorders with depression is associated with a lower response to antidepressants which may reflect not only the result of biological alterations in the brain by chronic ethanol ingestion but also an inhibitory effect of ethanol on antidepressant action in the brain. Drinking-related cognitive dysfunction may also relate to the decreased response to treatment in the depressed patients with comorbid Problem Drinker. PMID:24427900

  17. Conventional and Unconventional Treatments for Stress among Methadone-Maintained Patients: Treatment Willingness and Perceived Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Declan T.; Beitel, Mark; Breuer, Timothy; Cutter, Christopher J.; Savant, Jonathan; Schottenfeld, Richard S.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program patients about willingness to use, and perceived efficacy of, conventional and unconventional nonpharmacological stress-related treatments. Although levels of treatment willingness and perceived efficacy for both conventional and unconventional treatments were high, ratings for conventional interventions were, on average, significantly higher than those for unconventional ones. Dimensions of psychiatric distress—but not demographic or MMT characteristics—predicted treatment willingness for conventional therapies and treatment willingness and perceived efficacy for unconventional therapies. These findings are likely to have implications for resource and program planning in MMT programs. PMID:21314756

  18. Treatment failure in patients with chronic Blastocystis infection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Tamalee; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Marriott, Deborah; Stark, Damien

    2014-02-01

    This article reports long-term infection and treatment failure in 18 symptomatic individuals infected with Blastocystis spp. Patients were initially treated with either metronidazole, iodoquinol or triple combination therapy consisting of nitazoxanide, furazolidone and secnidazole. Following treatment, resolution of clinical symptoms did not occur and follow-up testing revealed ongoing infection with the same subtype. Patients then underwent secondary treatment with a variety of antimicrobial agents but remained symptomatic with Blastocystis spp. still present in faeces. Sequencing of the SSU rDNA was completed on all isolates and four subtypes were identified in this group: ST1, ST3, ST4 and ST5. This study highlights the lack of efficacy of several commonly used antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of Blastocystis and the chronic nature of some infections. It also demonstrates the need for further research into treatment options for Blastocystis infection. PMID:24243286

  19. Treatment options for patients with triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of different subtypes, characterized by their different clinicopathological characteristics, prognoses and responses to treatment. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer sensitive to hormonal treatments, as well as in patients whose malignant cells overexpress or amplify HER2. In contrast, mainly due to the lack of molecular targets, little progress has been made in the treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Recent improved understanding of the natural history, pathophysiology, and molecular features of triple-negative breast cancers have provided new insights into management and therapeutic strategies for women affected with this entity. Ongoing and planned translational clinical trials are likely to optimize and improve treatment of women with this disease. PMID:20979652

  20. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186

  1. Dental treatment for handicapped patients; sedation vs general anesthesia and update of dental treatment in patients with different diseases

    PubMed Central

    Corcuera-Flores, José R.; Delgado-Muñoz, José M.; Ruiz-Villandiego, José C.; Maura-Solivellas, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Dental treatment on Handicapped Patients is often difficult because many people with a wide range of ages (from children to the elderly) with different pathologies that can affect the oral cavity and differ widely are included in this group. This situation creates some controversy, because according to pathology, each patient will be treated differently depending on collaboration, general health status, age or medication used to treat this pathologies. According to this situation we can opt for an outpatient treatment without any kind of previous medication, a treatment under conscious or deep sedation or a under general anesthesia treatment. With this systematic review is intended to help clarify in which cases patients should be treated under general anesthesia, sedation (conscious or deep) or outpatient clinic without any medication, as well as clarify what kind of treatments can be carried in private dental clinics and which should be carried out in a hospital. It will also discuss the most common diseases among this group of patients and the special care to be taken for their dental treatment. Key words:Hospital dentistry, handicapped patient. PMID:24121922

  2. Tailoring nicotine addiction treatments for chemical dependency patients.

    PubMed

    Orleans, C T; Hutchinson, D

    1993-01-01

    The growing scientific evidence for addressing nicotine addiction in chemical dependency (CD) treatment programs is reviewed. This evidence provided the impetus for a survey of smoking patterns and quitting motivation and barriers among CD patients to identify ways to tailor standard nicotine addiction treatment methods and goals to their needs. Smoking history questionnaires were administered to 118 consecutive patients in a residential CD treatment program. The 66% of patients who smoked were predominantly heavy smokers, highly addicted (mean 25 cigarettes per day, 76% smoking within 30 minutes of waking). Although 63% of patients were "precontemplators," most of the sample had a history of one or more serious quit attempts, most reported strong beliefs in smoking harms and quitting benefits, and almost half reported a strong desire to stop smoking. Major quitting barriers included the usual psychological and physical sequelae of tobacco abstinence in addition to being around other smokers. Surprisingly, very few patients expressed concerns that quitting smoking would threaten drug or alcohol sobriety. Treatment implications are discussed. In addition, a pilot 4-session group treatment program is described. This program was geared to motivating smokers in "precontemplation" and "contemplation" stages of change to move ahead into the "action" stage (i.e., taking steps to quit). PMID:8389897

  3. Treatment of HCV infected patients and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kershenobich, David

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C signifies a highly prevalent infection in patients with end stage renal disease. Most frequently it is associated to glomerulonephritis, patients on hemodialysis and renal transplants. The prevalence of HCV antibodies in hemodialysis patients varies between 5-70% depending on the geographical location of the patients. Factors associated with the prevalence of anti HCV in patients with hemodialysis include: age, blood transfusions, tattoos, use of illegal drugs, time in hemodialysis, more than two hospitalizations, treatment in multiple hemodialysis units or a kidney transplant. In some of the reported outbreaks of hepatitis in hemodialysis units, the phylogenetic analysis indicate that the transmission of HCV could relate to failures or breaches in general precautions in the management of these type of patients resulting in nosocomial transmission owed to sharing equipment or instruments employed in the hemodialysis or by transmission from professional members of the hemodialysis units. Antiviral treatment may be affected by a number of co-factors and co-morbidities, it consist mainly of non pegylated interferon or pegylated interferon. The treatment with interferon after a renal transplant is associated with an increase in the number of rejections; reason enough to recommended that treatment should be administered before the transplant.

  4. Treatment of older patients with colorectal cancer: a perspective review

    PubMed Central

    Kordatou, Z.; Kountourakis, P.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuously aging population, the burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) is rising among older patients. Despite the fact that almost half of the cases occur in patients over 75 years, this age group is subjected to disparities regarding diagnostic and therapeutic options. So far, exclusion of older patients from randomized clinical trials has resulted in a lack of evidence-based guidelines. Nevertheless, newer data from studies specifically targeting older patients and subgroup analyses indicate that proper treatment planning and specific medical and geriatric assessment can achieve a safe and beneficial treatment result in older patients, often with similar outcomes to their younger counterparts. Resection of the primary tumour, if feasible, should be the primary goal of surgery aiming for cure, although it should be avoided under emergency conditions. Chronological age per se should not be an exclusion criterion for adjuvant or palliative chemotherapy, or targeted therapies. Careful patient selection, dose adjustments, close monitoring and early intervention in the event of side effects are essential. The benefits of treatment must be balanced with potential effects of treatment and patients’ wishes. PMID:24790652

  5. SU-E-T-590: An Activation Study of Materials and Devices Present in a Proton Treatment Room

    SciTech Connect

    Spitznagel, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The use of protons for radiation therapy is growing rapidly. One consequence of protons interacting with different media is activation. These nuclear reactions induced by the protons, scattered neutrons, and gamma rays, activate different materials encountered, particularly by the therapists. The purpose of this study was to examine the derived nuclides from the activation, and also the decay rate. Methods: The study was conducted in our proton therapy facility. Protons are derived from a synchrocyclotron and pass through field shipping systems, apertures, and range compensators to define the beam within the patient.Included materials of concerns measured; the patient support couch, sheet rock in the wall, solid plastics used for quality assurance and dosimetry, and the passive scattering system itself, which includes brass apertures, and Lucite or blue wax compensators. All devices were studied post irradiation using gamma spectroscopy to determine the nuclides, and a sodium iodine scintillation detector to measure decay, particularly when the dose rate fell to background levels. Results: We have also determined from the measurements we will maintain brass apertures for three months before sending them for scrap. Some of the radionuclides arrived from these measurements included Na-22 for the blue wax compensator, C1-34m for the sheetrock, and Sc-44 and Co-60 for the brass apertures. We found compensators made out of Lucite or wax decayed to background in 2 hours. The patient support couch decayed to background in approximately 40 minutes, and sheet rock decayed in 80 minutes. In terms of the aperture layers, the most proximal aperture slab had much higher activity than the distal slab. Also the proximal sides of the slabs were much more activate than the distal. Conclusion: We have given proper instruction to therapists performing quality assurance in terms of the handled plastics, and to handle apertures rapidly as possible.

  6. Prognostic accuracy of cerebral blood flow measurement by perfusion computed tomography, at the time of emergency room admission, in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, Max; Reichhart, Marc; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Chalaron, Marc; Schnyder, Pierre; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Meuli, Reto

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic accuracy of perfusion computed tomography (CT), performed at the time of emergency room admission, in acute stroke patients. Accuracy was determined by comparison of perfusion CT with delayed magnetic resonance (MR) and by monitoring the evolution of each patient's clinical condition. Twenty-two acute stroke patients underwent perfusion CT covering four contiguous 10mm slices on admission, as well as delayed MR, performed after a median interval of 3 days after emergency room admission. Eight were treated with thrombolytic agents. Infarct size on the admission perfusion CT was compared with that on the delayed diffusion-weighted (DWI)-MR, chosen as the gold standard. Delayed magnetic resonance angiography and perfusion-weighted MR were used to detect recanalization. A potential recuperation ratio, defined as PRR = penumbra size/(penumbra size + infarct size) on the admission perfusion CT, was compared with the evolution in each patient's clinical condition, defined by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). In the 8 cases with arterial recanalization, the size of the cerebral infarct on the delayed DWI-MR was larger than or equal to that of the infarct on the admission perfusion CT, but smaller than or equal to that of the ischemic lesion on the admission perfusion CT; and the observed improvement in the NIHSS correlated with the PRR (correlation coefficient = 0.833). In the 14 cases with persistent arterial occlusion, infarct size on the delayed DWI-MR correlated with ischemic lesion size on the admission perfusion CT (r = 0.958). In all 22 patients, the admission NIHSS correlated with the size of the ischemic area on the admission perfusion CT (r = 0.627). Based on these findings, we conclude that perfusion CT allows the accurate prediction of the final infarct size and the evaluation of clinical prognosis for acute stroke patients at the time of emergency evaluation. It may also provide

  7. Briefing and debriefing in the cardiac operating room. Analysis of impact on theatre team attitude and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Papaspyros, Sotiris C; Javangula, Kalyana C; Adluri, Rajeshwara Krishna Prasad; O'Regan, David J

    2010-01-01

    Error in health services delivery has long been recognised as a significant cause of inpatient morbidity and mortality. Root-cause analyses have cited communication failure as one of the contributing factors in adverse events. The formalised fighter pilot mission brief and debrief formed the basis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) crew resource management (CRM) concept produced in 1979. This is a qualitative analysis of our experience with the briefing-debriefing process applied to cardiac theatres. We instituted a policy of formal operating room (OR) briefing and debriefing in all cardiac theatre sessions. The first 118 cases were reviewed. A trouble-free operation was noted in only 28 (23.7%) cases. We experienced multiple problems in 38 (32.2%) cases. A gap was identified in the second order problem solving in relation to instrument repair and maintenance. Theatre team members were interviewed and their comments were subjected to qualitative analysis. The collaborative feeling is that communication has improved. The health industry may benefit from embracing the briefing-debriefing technique as an adjunct to continuous improvement through reflective learning, deliberate practice and immediate feedback. This may be the initial step toward a substantive and sustainable organizational transformation.

  8. Surgical treatment of impending paradoxical embolization associated with pulmonary embolism in a patient with heterozygosis of factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Citro, Rodolfo; Panza, Antonello; Bottiglieri, Giuseppe; Leone, Rocco; Provenza, Gennaro; Gregorio, Giovanni; Di Benedetto, Giuseppe; Bossone, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    We report an unusual case of impending paradoxical embolization in a 69-year-old woman heterozygote carrier of factor V Leiden mutation. The patient presented to the emergency room with the clinical scenario of massive pulmonary embolism. Serial echocardiographic examinations revealed a large thrombus in the right atrium floating via a patent foramen ovale into the left atrium. Anticoagulation therapy was started. After 72 h, due to the unresolved thrombus, the patient underwent surgical treatment consisting of complete excision of the thrombus, closure of the foramen ovale, and pulmonary embolectomy. No in-hospital complications were noted. At 1-year follow-up, the patient is doing well on long-term anticoagulation treatment free of thromboembolic events.

  9. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ade, Serge; Adjibodé, Omer; Wachinou, Prudence; Toundoh, Narcisse; Awanou, Bérénice; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Affolabi, Dissou; Adè, Gabriel; Harries, Anthony D.; Anagonou, Séverin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, there were significantly higher numbers of males (P = 0.04), patients from “Atlantique-Littoral” (P = 0.006), patients aged 45–64 years (P = 0.007), and HIV-positive patients (P = 0.04) among those retreated. Overall, 171 (71%) patients submitted sputum for DST, of whom (163) 95% were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF and/or culture and 17 (10%) were rifampicin resistant (9 with MDR-TB and 8 monoresistant to rifampicin). For those without MDR-TB (n = 224), treatment success was 93%. Worse outcomes occurred in those with unknown HIV status (RR: 0.27; 0.05–1.45; P < 0.01) while better outcomes occurred in those who relapsed (RR: 1.06, 95 CI: 1.02–1.10, P = 0.04). Conclusion. In 2013, a high proportion of retreatment patients received DST. Treatment success was good although more needs to be done to systematically increase the final follow-up smear examination. Reasons of high losses to follow-up from “Oueme-Plateau” should be investigated. PMID:27110400

  10. Effect of reduction treatment on copper modified activated carbons on NO(x) adsorption at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Benoit; Gonzalez-Lopez, Eugene; Rossin, Joseph A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2011-05-01

    Activated carbon was impregnated with copper salt and then exposed to reductive environment using hydrazine hydrate or heat treatment under nitrogen at 925 °C. On the obtained samples, adsorption of NO(2) was carried out at dynamic conditions at ambient temperature. The adsorbents before and after exposure to nitrogen dioxide were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N(2)-sorption at -196 °C, and potentiometric titration. Copper loading improved the adsorption capacity of NO(2) as well as the retention of NO formed in the process of NO(2) reduction on the carbon surface. That improvement is linked to the presence of copper metal and its high dispersion on the surface. Even though both reduction methods lead to the reduction of copper, different reactions with the carbon surface take place. Heat treatment results in a significant percentage of metallic copper and a reduction of oxygen functional groups of the carbon matrix, whereas hydrazine, besides reduction of copper, leads to an incorporation of nitrogen. The results suggest that NO(2) mainly is converted to copper nitrates although the possibility to its reduction to N(2) is not ruled out. A high capacity on hydrazine treated samples is linked to the high dispersion of metallic copper on the surface of this carbon.

  11. Process evaluation of podiatric treatment of patients with forefoot pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Foot pain is a common problem for people aged 50 and over and occurs more often in women than in men. About 60% of the foot problems are forefoot problems and slightly more than half of these patients seek medical help, mainly in the form of podiatric care. Podiatric treatment of forefoot problems is known to be heterogeneous. The aims of the present study are to describe the podiatric treatment of patients with forefoot pain and to evaluate the podiatric examination and treatment using an expert panel. Method We invited twenty-five randomly selected subjects with forefoot problems who had received podiatric treatment in a pragmatic randomised clinical trial to participate in an analysis of their treatment by an expert panel. The panel retrospectively established the cause of the foot problem as well as the therapeutic goals and evaluated the treatment. These findings were compared to those reported by the treating podiatrist. Results Two fundamentally different approaches were found in approach of podiatric examination; a functional approach (n =13) and a non-functional approach (n =12). In nine cases the expert panel agreed with the cause recorded by the podiatrist. In five other cases the expert panel concluded that the treatment of the podiatrist was not consistent with the cause of the problem recorded by the podiatrist. Of the 10 patients for whom the podiatrist had recorded to have given shoe advice, only two were able to recollect the proper advice. Three patients did not remember receiving advice at all. Conclusion In this study almost half of the podiatrists worked according to a non-functional approach where the other half (like the expert panel) chose a functional strategy that analyses the underlying problem. Fundamental differences in treatment plans and thus heterogeneous treatments could be a consequence. PMID:23919765

  12. Post-treatment management options for patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Virgo, K S; McKirgan, L W; Caputo, M C; Mahurin, D M; Chao, L C; Caputo, N A; Naunheim, K S; Flye, M W; Gillespie, K N; Johnson, F E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first objective was to identify variations in patient management practice patterns after potentially curative lung cancer surgery. Patient management practice patterns were expected to range from intensive follow-up to no active surveillance. The second objective was to measure whether intensity of follow-up was related to patient outcomes. METHODS: An 18-month retrospective analysis was conducted of 182 patients with low TNM stage (< or = IIIA) lung cancer who were surgically treated with curative intent over the 11-year period from 1982 through 1992 at the St. Louis Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. RESULTS: Patients were followed for a mean of 3.3 years, until death or the end of the study. Analyses of diagnostic test and outpatient visit frequency distributions and cluster analyses facilitated the identification of 62 nonintensively followed patients and 120 intensively followed patients. Both groups were comparable at baseline, and there were no significant differences in patient outcomes attributable to intensity of follow-up. Intensively followed patients did, however, live an average of 192 days longer than nonintensively followed patients. CONCLUSIONS: Significant variations in follow-up practice patterns can exist within a single health care facility. In this analysis, variations in test and visit frequency did not result in statistically significant differences in patient outcomes, though the survival difference between groups suggests that some benefit might exist. Only well-designed prospective trials are likely to answer the question of what constitutes optimal follow-up after potentially curative lung cancer treatment. PMID:8526576

  13. Metreleptin Treatment in Patients with Non-HIV Associated Lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Gulcin; Akinci, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Lipodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by congenital or acquired loss of adipose tissue. Recently, metreleptin, a recombinant human leptin analog, has been approved for the treatment of patients with generalized lipodystrophy. Leptin is an adipokine which has a fundamental role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metreleptin treatment has been demonstrated to improve metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased hepatic fat content and elevated liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in patients with generalized lipodystrophy, and to correct hyperphagia that likely occurs as a result of leptin deficiency. Limited data has also suggested that metreleptin treatment might be beneficial on metabolic abnormalities in patients with partial lipodystrophy. This review focuses on potential benefits of metreleptin in various forms of non-HIV associated lipodystrophy. Safety issues have been discussed. Recent patent submissions have also been reviewed.

  14. Type 2 Diabetes Treatment in the Patient with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2016-09-01

    Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone treatment of type 2 diabetes in the obese patient, and is highly effective at promoting glucose regulation. However, many individuals struggle over time to maintain optimal glycemic control and/or body weight with lifestyle modification. Therefore, additional therapeutic approaches are needed. Pharmacologic interventions have shown promising results for obesity-related diabetes complications. Not surprisingly though lifestyle modification and pharmacology may become ineffective for treating diabetes over time. Bariatric surgery is considered by some, but not all, to be the most effective and durable treatment for combating obesity. In fact many patients with type 2 diabetes have normalized glucose concentrations within days postoperation. Taken together, treatment of obesity in the patient with type 2 diabetes requires a multi-faceted approach. PMID:27519130

  15. Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Patients With Polycythemia Vera

    PubMed Central

    Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Winton, Elliott F.; Talpaz, Moshe; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Polycythemia vera (PV) is a hematopoietic proliferative disorder associated with Janus-associated kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway dysregulation resulting in erythrocytosis and, possibly, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. Patients diagnosed with PV experience a broad range of symptoms associated with a reduced quality of life, often develop splenomegaly, and have an increased risk of death compared to age-matched subjects without PV. Current treatment options, notably hydroxyurea, help with disease management; however, insufficient efficacy or progressive resistance occurs in some patients, highlighting the need for new treatment options. Ruxolitinib is an oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor that has been evaluated in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in patients with PV who are intolerant of or resistant to hydroxyurea. In this setting, ruxolitinib treatment has demonstrated normalization of blood cell counts, reduction in splenomegaly, and improvements in PV-related symptom burden. PMID:25980454

  16. Profiling cognitive impairment in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan Aleksander; Gościmski, Piotr; Kiejna, Andrzej; Misiak, Błażej

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between schizophrenia patients with and without treatment resistance (TRS and non-TRS patients) taking into account psychopathological symptoms and antipsychotic treatment. The following cognitive tests were administered to 53 TRS patients and 32 non-TRS subjects: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B), verbal fluency tests (FAS test and Supermarket), as well as selected Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R-PI) subtests: Digit Symbol Coding Test, Digit Span Forward and Backward and Similarities. TRS patients performed significantly worse in comparison with non-TRS patients on the measures of processing speed (TMT-A, Stroop test, FAS test, Supermarket test, Digit Symbol Coding test), verbal fluency (FAS test, Supermarket test), cognitive flexibility and executive functions (Stroop test) after controlling for age, illness duration, clinical symptoms severity, the number of years of completed education and antipsychotics' dose. Cognitive performance was associated with negative and general symptomatology. Anticholinergic activity of antipsychotics had debilitating effect on cognitive functioning in non-TRS patients (FAS test) and in TRS patients (TMT-B test, Stroop test, RAVLT subtests, Digit Coding test and Similarities test), while low anticholinergic activity of antipsychotics was associated with better cognitive performance in non-TRS patients (Backward Digit Span test) and in TRS patients (Similarities test). Results of this study indicate that cognitive deficits are more robust in TRS patients than in non-TRS subjects, and are associated with clinical symptoms as well as the treatment with antipsychotics that exert high anticholinergic activity.

  17. Profiling cognitive impairment in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan Aleksander; Gościmski, Piotr; Kiejna, Andrzej; Misiak, Błażej

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performance between schizophrenia patients with and without treatment resistance (TRS and non-TRS patients) taking into account psychopathological symptoms and antipsychotic treatment. The following cognitive tests were administered to 53 TRS patients and 32 non-TRS subjects: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Trail Making Tests (TMT-A and TMT-B), verbal fluency tests (FAS test and Supermarket), as well as selected Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R-PI) subtests: Digit Symbol Coding Test, Digit Span Forward and Backward and Similarities. TRS patients performed significantly worse in comparison with non-TRS patients on the measures of processing speed (TMT-A, Stroop test, FAS test, Supermarket test, Digit Symbol Coding test), verbal fluency (FAS test, Supermarket test), cognitive flexibility and executive functions (Stroop test) after controlling for age, illness duration, clinical symptoms severity, the number of years of completed education and antipsychotics' dose. Cognitive performance was associated with negative and general symptomatology. Anticholinergic activity of antipsychotics had debilitating effect on cognitive functioning in non-TRS patients (FAS test) and in TRS patients (TMT-B test, Stroop test, RAVLT subtests, Digit Coding test and Similarities test), while low anticholinergic activity of antipsychotics was associated with better cognitive performance in non-TRS patients (Backward Digit Span test) and in TRS patients (Similarities test). Results of this study indicate that cognitive deficits are more robust in TRS patients than in non-TRS subjects, and are associated with clinical symptoms as well as the treatment with antipsychotics that exert high anticholinergic activity. PMID:26706131

  18. Impact of proton beam availability on patient treatment schedule in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric D; Derenchuk, Vladimir; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2012-11-08

    Proton beam therapy offers unique physical properties with potential for reduced toxicity and better patient care. There is an increased interest in radiation oncology centers to acquire proton therapy capabilities. The operation of a proton treatment center is quite different than a photon-based clinic because of the more complex technology involved, as well as the single proton beam source serving multiple treatment rooms with no backup source available. There is limited published data which investigates metrics that can be used to determine the performance of a proton facility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate performance metrics of Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO), including availability, mean time between failures, and mean time to repair, and to determine how changes in these metrics impact patient treatments. We utilized a computerized maintenance management system to log all downtime occurrences and servicing operations for the facility. These data were then used to calculate the availability as well as the mean time between failures and mean time to repair. Impact on patient treatments was determined by analyzing delayed and missed treatments, which were recorded in an electronic medical record and database maintained by the therapists. The availability of the IUCO proton beam has been increasing since beginning of operation in 2003 and averaged 96.9% for 2009 through 2011. The mean time between failures and mean time to repair were also determined and correlated with improvements in the maintenance and operating procedures of the facility, as well as environmental factors. It was found that events less than 15 minutes in duration have minimal impact on treatment delays, while events lasting longer than one hour may result in missed treatments. The availability of the proton beam was more closely correlated with delayed than with missed treatments, demonstrating the utility and limitations of the availability metric. In conclusion, we

  19. Treatment strategies for the infertile polycystic ovary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Tannus, Samer; Burke, Yechiel Z; Kol, Shahar

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Infertility is a prevalent presenting feature of PCOS, and approximately 75% of these women suffer infertility due to anovulation. Lifestyle modification is considered the first-line treatment and is associated with improved endocrine profile. Clomiphene citrate (CC) should be considered as the first line pharmacologic therapy for ovulation induction. In women who are CC resistant, second-line treatment should be considered, as adding metformin, laparoscopic ovarian drilling or treatment with gonadotropins. In CC treatment failure, Letrozole could be an alternative or treatment with gonadotropins. IVF is considered the third-line treatment; the 'short', antagonist-based protocol is the preferred option for PCOS patients, as it is associated with lower risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (specifically by using a gonadotropin--releasing hormone agonist as ovulation trigger), but with comparable outcomes as the long protocol.

  20. [Factors affecting the treatment results with pulmonary tuberculosis patients].

    PubMed

    Berezovskiĭ, B A; Salobaĭ, R Iu; Marchak, V V; Popova, I I; Zakopaĭlo, G G; Kucher, V A; Vasylyk, V U; Mikheĭ, L V

    1991-12-01

    A study is presented of the effect of social factors on the outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with freshly detected disease mainly in rural localities in 1985-1989. The outcomes of treatment depended mainly on the form and extension of the pathological process and terms of treatment. It was also established that the outcomes of tuberculosis are also influenced by unfavourable social factors which are more pronounced in persons with an extensive process. Treatment results were better in women with higher education than in similarly educator men. Among agricultural workers treatment efficacy was worse than among office workers and housewives. Life in the family effects more favourably treatment results than single life. Treatment results were worse in those living in unsatisfactory conditions, engaged in hard physical work, suffering of concomitant diseases and bad habits.

  1. Assessment of DICOM Viewers Capable of Loading Patient-specific 3D Models Obtained by Different Segmentation Platforms in the Operating Room.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Giuseppe; Carbone, Marina; Ciriaci, Damiano; Aramini, Daniele; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    Patient-specific 3D models obtained by the segmentation of volumetric diagnostic images play an increasingly important role in surgical planning. Surgeons use the virtual models reconstructed through segmentation to plan challenging surgeries. Many solutions exist for the different anatomical districts and surgical interventions. The possibility to bring the 3D virtual reconstructions with native radiological images in the operating room is essential for fostering the use of intraoperative planning. To the best of our knowledge, current DICOM viewers are not able to simultaneously connect to the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and import 3D models generated by external platforms to allow a straight integration in the operating room. A total of 26 DICOM viewers were evaluated: 22 open source and four commercial. Two DICOM viewers can connect to PACS and import segmentations achieved by other applications: Synapse 3D® by Fujifilm and OsiriX by University of Geneva. We developed a software network that converts diffuse visual tool kit (VTK) format 3D model segmentations, obtained by any software platform, to a DICOM format that can be displayed using OsiriX or Synapse 3D. Both OsiriX and Synapse 3D were suitable for our purposes and had comparable performance. Although Synapse 3D loads native images and segmentations faster, the main benefits of OsiriX are its user-friendly loading of elaborated images and it being both free of charge and open source.

  2. [Prevention and Information for Patients Undergoing Periodontal Treatment: Potentials for Improvement from the Patients' Perspective].

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, A; Walther, W; Dörfer, C E; Szecsenyi, J

    2016-05-01

    2 334 patients from 29 dental practices took part in a written survey on their experiences with dental treatment in general as well as treatment of periodontal disease (response rate 80.8%). 72.6% of all participating patients fully agreed that they could recommend their dentist to their friends. 63.6% of patients undergoing treatment of periodontitis (N=328) rated this treatment as "excellent". However, for important aspects (prevention, patient information, treatment) potentials for improvement became obvious. 43.7% of patients treated for periodontitis were not completely satisfied with information on how this disease develops; 40.7% saw potentials for better information on preventive care (dental-hygiene, nutrition). An even higher percentage of patients actually not treated for periodontitis was interested in more information on prevention (51.4%). The results of the survey show that dentists should offer information and exercise on how to prevent periodontal desease more actively. There is a lack of research on the present state of affairs and potentials for improvement concerning treatment and prevention of periodontitis including the patients' perspective. PMID:26086539

  3. Endoscopic bronchial valve treatment: patient selection and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Ralf; Gompelmann, Daniela; Herth, Felix JF; Schuhmann, Maren

    2015-01-01

    As well as lung volume reduction surgery, different minimally invasive endoscopic techniques are available to achieve lung volume reduction in patients with severe emphysema and significant hyperinflation. Lung function parameters and comorbidities of the patient, as well as the extent and distribution of the emphysema are factors to be considered when choosing the patient and the intervention. Endoscopic bronchial valve placement with complete occlusion of one lobe in patients with heterogeneous emphysema is the preferred technique because of its reversibility. The presence of high interlobar collateral ventilation will hinder successful treatment; therefore, endoscopic coil placement, polymeric lung volume reduction, or bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation as well as lung volume reduction surgery can be used for treating patients with incomplete fissures. The effect of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with a homogeneous distribution of emphysema is still unclear and this subgroup should be treated only in clinical trials. Precise patient selection is necessary for interventions and to improve the outcome and reduce the risk and possible complications. Therefore, the patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary approach prior to determining the most appropriate treatment for lung volume reduction. PMID:26504379

  4. Invisalign(®) treatment of patients with craniomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Werner; Haubrich, Julia; Neumann, Iris

    2010-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint is one of the most complex joint systems in the human body. Craniomandibular disorders (CMD) are a common condition in which symptoms and signs may vary within a single individual and from one person to another. As anatomic and functional aspects of the craniomandibular system (CMS) and the upper cervical spine are closely interconnected, CMD need a close interdisciplinary approach combining orthopedics, manual medicine, orthodontics and dentistry. Splints as a therapeutic treatment instrument in CMD patients are widely accepted. The association of splint therapy and the Invisalign(®) system not only provides comfortable and almost invisible treatment but also constitutes a powerful instrument for the orthodontic treatment of the CMD patient. To this end, precise knowledge of the temporomandibular joint, temporomandibular disorders and treatment using removable and fixed splints is indispensable.

  5. Treatment strategies for patients with an INTERMACS I profile.

    PubMed

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Jabbari, Odeaa Al; Guha, Ashrith; Loebe, Matthias; Bruckner, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with INTERMACS class I heart failure can be very challenging, and temporary long-term device support may be needed. In this article, we review the currently available temporary support devices in order to support these severely ill patients with decompensated heart failure. Strategies of using a temporary assist as a bridge to long-term device support are also discussed. PMID:25793022

  6. [Nonfarmacological treatment of erectile dysfunction in obese patients].

    PubMed

    glybochko, P V; Shaplygin, L V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Spirin, P V; Aliseĭko, S V; Tverdokhleb, S A

    2009-01-01

    An original combined treatment of obese patients with erectile dysfunction including transcranial magnetotherapy and transabdominal electrostimulation in the region of fat deposit for 6 months reduces body weight by up to 17% and elevates testosterone by up to 29%. Erectile function improved to normal in 31.8% patients. This method is pathogenetically sound in minimal use of medicines and low risk of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:20169716

  7. Patient adherence issues in the treatment of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Larrey, Dominique; Ripault, Marie-Pierre; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The current standard-of-care treatments for chronic hepatitis C, based on a bitherapy that combines peginterferon alpha-2a or -2b and ribavirin for all genotypes, and on a triple therapy with the addition of an antiprotease specifically for genotype 1, are associated with a limited adherence that decreases their efficacy. The main factors limiting adherence are difficulties in taking the treatment and side effects that worsen the quality of life of the patients. Programs of therapeutic education are essential to improve adherence, quality of life, likelihood of viral suppression, improvement of liver disease, and decrease of late complications. Therapeutic education should be understood as an acquisition of decisional, technical, and social competency with the purpose of making the patient able to make health choices, realize their own life plans, and use health care resources in the best manner. The patient should be placed in the center of an organization, comprising various care workers who include social service professionals and medical staff. For hepatitis C, therapeutic education may be separated into three phases: a first phase corresponding to the educative diagnosis; a second phase corresponding to support during treatment; and the third phase corresponding to support after treatment. Therapeutic education is performed using various instruments and methods specifically adapted to the needs and expectations of individual patients. Upcoming treatments for hepatitis C, with evidence for high efficacy, few side effects, and shorter duration, will certainly change the landscape of adherence and the management of therapeutic education. PMID:24920888

  8. [Treatment strategy for patients with simultaneous cardiac and malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hisayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi; Sakurada, Taku; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi; Sasaki, Jun; Araki, Eiji; Nakashima, Shinji

    2014-03-01

    The choice of treatment strategy for patients with simultaneous cardiac and malignant diseases is often debatable. We report 11 patients with simultaneous cardiac and malignant diseases who were hospitalized in our institution over the past 6 years. The patients were 9 males and 2 females with a mean age of 71.9±9.0 years old. There were 7 cases of ischemic heart disease( IHD), and 4 cases of valvular disease. Malignant diseases consisted of 4 cases of colon cancer, 2 cases of pulmonary cancer, 2 cases of hepatic cancer, and 1 case each of sigmoid colon cancer with liver metastasis, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Eight of the 11 cases(73%)were hospitalized because of a symptom associated with cardiac disease, and malignant disease was diagnosed incidentally during examination or treatment. Four of the IHD cases preceded coronary revascularization by off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two of the valvular cases and 2 of the IHD cases underwent cardiac surgery after treatment of malignant diseases. In 3 cases, only 1 of the diseases was treated. Seven cases died of malignant diseases at the present. The choice of treatment strategy should be established for patients with simultaneous cardiac and malignant diseases in consideration of the severity of the cardiac disease and the expected prognosis of the malignant disease because there is no standardized method of treatment.

  9. Patient adherence issues in the treatment of hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Larrey, Dominique; Ripault, Marie-Pierre; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The current standard-of-care treatments for chronic hepatitis C, based on a bitherapy that combines peginterferon alpha-2a or -2b and ribavirin for all genotypes, and on a triple therapy with the addition of an antiprotease specifically for genotype 1, are associated with a limited adherence that decreases their efficacy. The main factors limiting adherence are difficulties in taking the treatment and side effects that worsen the quality of life of the patients. Programs of therapeutic education are essential to improve adherence, quality of life, likelihood of viral suppression, improvement of liver disease, and decrease of late complications. Therapeutic education should be understood as an acquisition of decisional, technical, and social competency with the purpose of making the patient able to make health choices, realize their own life plans, and use health care resources in the best manner. The patient should be placed in the center of an organization, comprising various care workers who include social service professionals and medical staff. For hepatitis C, therapeutic education may be separated into three phases: a first phase corresponding to the educative diagnosis; a second phase corresponding to support during treatment; and the third phase corresponding to support after treatment. Therapeutic education is performed using various instruments and methods specifically adapted to the needs and expectations of individual patients. Upcoming treatments for hepatitis C, with evidence for high efficacy, few side effects, and shorter duration, will certainly change the landscape of adherence and the management of therapeutic education. PMID:24920888

  10. Greater Postimplant Swelling in Small-Volume Prostate Glands: Implications for Dosimetry, Treatment Planning, and Operating Room Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eugene; Stenmark, Matthew H.; Evans, Cheryl; Narayana, Vrinda; McLaughlin, Patrick W.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Postimplant prostatic edema has been implicated in suboptimal permanent implants, and smaller prostates have been reported to have worse dosimetric coverage. In this study we compare the degree of postimplant edema between larger and smaller prostates and examine the effects of prostate size on the dose delivered to 90% of the prostate (D90). Methods and Materials: From September 2003 to February 2006, 105 hormone-naive patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy with {sup 125}I Rapid Strand (Oncura Inc., Arlington Heights, IL). All patients underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 3 weeks before implant, transrectal ultrasound at the time of implant, and both computed tomography and MRI 2.5 to 3 weeks after implant. Prostates were divided into 5 subgroups based on preimplant MRI volumes: less than 25 mL, 25 to 35 mL, 35 to 45 mL, 45 to 55 mL, and greater than 55 mL. Prostate swelling was assessed by use of preimplant and postimplant MRI volumes. Postimplant dosimetry was determined by MRI and compared between the subgroups. Results: All prostates showed postimplant swelling on MRI when compared with preimplant MRI, with a mean increase of 31% {+-} 31% (p < 0.0001). The greatest swelling was noted in small prostates (volume less than 25 mL), with a mean increase of 70% {+-} 36%. The degree of swelling in the group with a volume less than 25 mL was significantly larger than the degree of swelling in all other prostate subgroups (p < 0.003). Transrectal ultrasound significantly overestimates the prostate volume when compared with MRI by a mean of 15% {+-} 25% (p = 0.0006) and is more pronounced for smaller prostates. Although prostates with volumes less than 25 mL did not have significantly worse D90 compared with larger prostates, they had the largest percent of suboptimal implants by the standard ratio of D90 divided by the prescription dose. Conclusions: Although small prostates have the greatest postimplant edema, planning

  11. Treatment planning for image-guided neuro-vascular interventions using patient-specific 3D printed phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, M.; O'Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patientspecific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays.

  12. Acupuncture Treatment for Persistent Hiccups in Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Mary E.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of acupuncture treatment for persistent hiccups in cancer patients. Design The study design was a retrospective case series. Settings/location The study setting was the Clinical Research Center of the National Institutes of Health. Subjects The subjects were 16 adult male patients ages 27–71 with cancer, with persistent hiccups. Interventions There were one to three acupuncture sessions over a 1–7-day period. Outcome measures Treatment efficacy was measured using a hiccup assessment instrument pre- and post-treatment. The effects of acupuncture on common symptoms reported by all patients were also evaluated. Results Thirteen (13) patients experienced complete remission of persistent hiccups (p < 0.0001); 3 patients experienced decreased hiccups severity. Significant improvement was observed in discomfort (p < 0.0001), distress (p < 0.0001), and fatigue (p = 0.0078). Conclusions This case series demonstrates that acupuncture may be a clinically useful, safe, and low-cost therapy for persistent hiccups in patients with cancer. PMID:20575702

  13. Palliative treatment of patients with malignant structures of esophagus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodnov, Victor Y.; Kuzin, M. I.; Kharnas, Sergey S.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Posypanova, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with the use of laser endoscopic spectrum analyzer (LESA-5), spectral- analyzing video-imaging system, Kr laser and various types of catheters for different localizations and different geometry of tumor, and phthalocyanine aluminum photosensitizers in patients with malignant strictures of esophagus is discussed. Photodynamic therapy was carried out to four patients: with esophageal cancer (3 patients) and gastric cancer with infiltration of lower esophagus (1 patient). All patients suffered from severe dysphagia. Photosensitizer was used in a dose 1-1.5 mg/kg of weight. Usually we used 3-4 seances of laser treatment 10-30 minutes long. The accumulation of photosensitizer was controlled by LESA-5. Laser induced fluorescent image was monitored by the video-imaging system in order to control laser treatment. There were no side-effects. The results show high efficiency of photodynamic therapy. There was marked reduction of dysphagia symptoms in all cases. It seems that photodynamic therapy is a good alternative to palliative surgical treatment of patients with malignant strictures of esophagus.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: Results in 14 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chahid, Tamam; Alfidja, Agaicha T.; Biard, Marie; Ravel, Anne; Garcier, Jean Marc; Boyer, L.

    2004-11-15

    We evaluated immediate and long-term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement to treat stenotic and occluded arteries in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. Fourteen patients were treated by 3 exclusive celiac artery (CA) PTAs (2 stentings), 3 cases with both Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and CA angioplasties, and 8 exclusive SMA angioplasties (3 stentings). Eleven patients had atheromatous stenoses with one case of an early onset atheroma in an HIV patient with antiphospholipid syndrome. The other etiologies of mesenteric arterial lesions were Takayashu arteritis (2 cases) and a postradiation stenoses (1 case). Technical success was achieved in all cases. Two major complications were observed: one hematoma and one false aneurysm occurring at the brachial puncture site (14.3%). An immediate clinical success was obtained in all patients. During a follow-up of 1-83 months (mean: 29 months), 11 patients were symptom free; 3 patients had recurrent pain; in one patient with inflammatory syndrome, pain relief was obtained with medical treatment; in 2 patients abdominal pain was due to restenosis 36 and 6 months after PTA, respectively. Restenosis was treated by PTA (postirradiation stenosis), and by surgical bypass (atheromatous stenosis). Percutaneous endovascular techniques are safe and accurate. They are an alternative to surgery in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia due to short and proximal occlusive lesions of SMA and CA.

  15. Financial burden experienced by patients undergoing treatment for malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kumthekar, Priya; Stell, Becky V.; Jacobs, Daniel I.; Helenowski, Irene B.; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Grimm, Sean A.; Bennett, Charles L.; Raizer, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing treatment for malignant gliomas (MGs) can encounter medical costs beyond what their insurance covers. The magnitude and type of costs experienced by patients are unknown. The purpose of this study was to have patients or their families report on the medical costs incurred during the patients MG treatment. Methods Patients with MG were eligible if they were within 6 months of diagnosis or tumor recurrence. Patients had to be ≥18 years of age, fluent in English, and not aphasic. Weekly logbooks were issued to patients for recording associated costs for ∼6 months or until tumor progression. “Out-of-pocket” (OOP) costs included medical and nonmedical expenses that were not reimbursed by insurance. Direct medical costs included hospital and physician bills. Direct nonmedical costs included transportation, parking, and other related items. Indirect medical costs included lost wages. Costs were analyzed to provide mean and medians with range of expenses. Results Forty-three patients provided cost data for a median of 12 weeks. There were 25 men and 18 women with a median age of 57 years (range, 24y–73y); 79% were married, and 49% reported annual income >$75 000. Health insurance coverage was preferred provider organizations for 58% of patients, and median deductible was $1 500. Median monthly OOP cost was $1 342 (mean, $2 451; range, $333.41–$17 267.16). The highest OOP median costs were medication copayments ($710; range, $0–13 611.20), transportation ($327; range, $0–$1 927), and hospital bill copayments ($403; range, $0–$4 000). Median lost wages were $7 500, and median lost days of work were 12.8. Conclusions OOP costs for MG patients can be significant and comprise direct and indirect costs across several areas. Informing patients about expected costs could limit additional duress and allow financial support systems to be implemented. PMID:26034619

  16. [Problems with treatment of trochanteric femur fractures at elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Zieńczuk, Witold; Cetnar, Tomasz; Kawik, Łukasz; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2010-01-01

    Authors analyzed patients complications with trochanteric fractures of femur treated in Department Orthopedic and Casualty of St. Lukas Hospital in Tarnów from 01.01.2008 to 31.12.2009 in this study. During this period were treated 167 patients. In most of cases operative treatment such as: Dynamic Hip Screw fixation, Gamma nailing, Ender's method and angle plate with screws were used. Prosthetic replacement was also used and 9 patients weren't operated because of coexisting pathological states. Basing on a done analyze of clinical material it was pronounced that independently from used surgical procedure regional and general complications are being occurred. PMID:20684339

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Martín; Hannon, Mark J; Thompson, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte imbalance in neurosurgical patients. Acute hyponatraemia is particularly common in neurosurgical patients after any type of brain insult, including brain tumours and their treatment, pituitary surgery, subarachnoid haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury. Acute hyponatraemia is an emergency condition, as it leads to cerebral oedema due to passive osmotic movement of water from the hypotonic plasma to the relatively hypertonic brain which ultimately is the cause of the symptoms associated with hyponatraemia. These include decreased level of consciousness, seizures, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema or transtentorial brain herniation. Prompt treatment is mandatory to prevent such complications, minimize permanent brain damage and therefore permit rapid recovery after brain insult. The infusion of 3% hypertonic saline is the treatment of choice with different rates of administration based on the severity of symptoms and the rate of drop in plasma sodium concentration. The pathophysiology of hyponatraemia in neurotrauma is multifactorial; although the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH) and central adrenal insufficiency are the commonest causes encountered. Fluid restriction has historically been the classical treatment for SIADH, although it is relatively contraindicated in some neurosurgical patients such as those with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Furthermore, many cases admitted have acute onset hyponatraemia, who require hypertonic saline infusion. The recently developed vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist class of drug is a promising and effective tool but more evidence is needed in neurosurgical patients. Central adrenal insufficiency may also cause acute hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients; this responds clinically and biochemically to hydrocortisone. The rare cerebral salt wasting syndrome is treated with large volume normal saline infusion. In this review, we summarize the current evidence based on the

  18. Pasireotide: a novel treatment for patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Fleseriu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with active acromegaly are higher than the general population. Adequate biochemical control restores mortality to normal rates. Now, medical therapy has an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) are considered the standard medical therapy, either after surgery or as a first-line therapy when surgery is deemed ineffective or is contraindicated. Overall, octreotide and lanreotide are first-generation SRLs and are effective in ~20%–70% of patients. Pegvisomant, a growth hormone receptor antagonist, controls insulin-like growth factor 1 in 65%–90% of cases. Consequently, a subset of patients (nonresponders) requires other treatment options. Drug combination therapy offers the potential for more efficacious disease control. However, the development of new medical therapies remains essential. Here, emphasis is placed on new medical therapies to control acromegaly. There is a focus on pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) (Signifor LAR®), which was approved in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency for the treatment of acromegaly. Pasireotide LAR is a long-acting somatostatin multireceptor ligand. In a Phase III clinical trial in patients with acromegaly (naïve to medical therapy or uncontrolled on a maximum dose of first-generation SRLs), 40 and 60 mg of intramuscular pasireotide LAR achieved better biochemical disease control than octreotide LAR, and tumor shrinkage was noted in both pasireotide groups. Pasireotide LAR tolerability was similar to other SRLs, except for a greater frequency and degree of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Baseline glucose may predict hyperglycemia occurrence after treatment, and careful monitoring of glycemic status and appropriate treatment is required. A precise definition of patients with acromegaly who will derive the greatest therapeutic benefit from pasireotide LAR remains to

  19. Pasireotide: a novel treatment for patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Fleseriu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with active acromegaly are higher than the general population. Adequate biochemical control restores mortality to normal rates. Now, medical therapy has an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) are considered the standard medical therapy, either after surgery or as a first-line therapy when surgery is deemed ineffective or is contraindicated. Overall, octreotide and lanreotide are first-generation SRLs and are effective in ~20%-70% of patients. Pegvisomant, a growth hormone receptor antagonist, controls insulin-like growth factor 1 in 65%-90% of cases. Consequently, a subset of patients (nonresponders) requires other treatment options. Drug combination therapy offers the potential for more efficacious disease control. However, the development of new medical therapies remains essential. Here, emphasis is placed on new medical therapies to control acromegaly. There is a focus on pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) (Signifor LAR®), which was approved in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency for the treatment of acromegaly. Pasireotide LAR is a long-acting somatostatin multireceptor ligand. In a Phase III clinical trial in patients with acromegaly (naïve to medical therapy or uncontrolled on a maximum dose of first-generation SRLs), 40 and 60 mg of intramuscular pasireotide LAR achieved better biochemical disease control than octreotide LAR, and tumor shrinkage was noted in both pasireotide groups. Pasireotide LAR tolerability was similar to other SRLs, except for a greater frequency and degree of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Baseline glucose may predict hyperglycemia occurrence after treatment, and careful monitoring of glycemic status and appropriate treatment is required. A precise definition of patients with acromegaly who will derive the greatest therapeutic benefit from pasireotide LAR remains to be

  20. Pasireotide: a novel treatment for patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Fleseriu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with active acromegaly are higher than the general population. Adequate biochemical control restores mortality to normal rates. Now, medical therapy has an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) are considered the standard medical therapy, either after surgery or as a first-line therapy when surgery is deemed ineffective or is contraindicated. Overall, octreotide and lanreotide are first-generation SRLs and are effective in ~20%-70% of patients. Pegvisomant, a growth hormone receptor antagonist, controls insulin-like growth factor 1 in 65%-90% of cases. Consequently, a subset of patients (nonresponders) requires other treatment options. Drug combination therapy offers the potential for more efficacious disease control. However, the development of new medical therapies remains essential. Here, emphasis is placed on new medical therapies to control acromegaly. There is a focus on pasireotide long-acting release (LAR) (Signifor LAR®), which was approved in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicine Agency for the treatment of acromegaly. Pasireotide LAR is a long-acting somatostatin multireceptor ligand. In a Phase III clinical trial in patients with acromegaly (naïve to medical therapy or uncontrolled on a maximum dose of first-generation SRLs), 40 and 60 mg of intramuscular pasireotide LAR achieved better biochemical disease control than octreotide LAR, and tumor shrinkage was noted in both pasireotide groups. Pasireotide LAR tolerability was similar to other SRLs, except for a greater frequency and degree of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Baseline glucose may predict hyperglycemia occurrence after treatment, and careful monitoring of glycemic status and appropriate treatment is required. A precise definition of patients with acromegaly who will derive the greatest therapeutic benefit from pasireotide LAR remains to be

  1. Mutation breeding of high 4-androstene-3,17-dione-producing Mycobacterium neoaurum ZADF-4 by atmospheric and room temperature plasma treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhi-Ming; Shao, Ming-Long; Zhang, Le-Le; Wu, Dan; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Steroid medication is used extensively in clinical applications and comprises a large and vital part of the pharmaceutical industry. However, the difficulty of separating 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) from 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) restricts the application of the microbial transformation of phytosterols in the industry. A novel atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) treatment, which employs helium as the working gas, was used to generate Mycobacterium neoaurum mutants producing large amounts of AD. After treatment of cultures with ARTP, four mutants were selected using a novel screening method with a color assay. Among the mutants, M. neoaurum ZADF-4 was considered the best candidate for industrial application. When the fermentation medium contained 15 g/L phytosterols and was cultivated on a rotary shaker at 160 r/min at 30 °C for 7 d, (6.28±0.11) g/L of AD and (0.82±0.05) g/L of ADD were produced by the ZADF-4 mutant, compared with (4.83±0.13) g/L of AD and (2.34±0.06) g/L of ADD by the original strain, M. neoaurum ZAD. Compared with ZAD, the molar yield of AD increased from 48.3% to 60.3% in the ZADF-4 mutant. This result indicates that ZADF-4 may have potential for industrial production of AD. PMID:25845362

  2. Assessment and treatment of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marina Verçoza; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Fabbrin, Amanda Rodrigues; Santos, Manoella Freitas; Gerchman, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient. PMID:24770692

  3. Faster assessment of patients receiving unnecessary thyroid treatment: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffer, S.S.; Szpunar, W.E.; Meier, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    Forty-five consecutive patients on thyroid hormone treatment without obvious indication were evaluated. Twenty-five of these cases were found to have no evidence of thyroid disease. Biochemical testing was not helpful in making the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the majority of thyroid-treated hypothyroid patients. Normal technetium images were obtained in 25 patients, 22 of which had no thyroid disease. In contrast, abnormal technetium images were obtained in 20 patients, 16 of whom were thought to be hypothyroid, and one of whom developed a goiter within 2 mo after discontinuing levothyroxine. The use of technetium imaging seems useful for the rapid (20 min) evaluation of those patients likely to benefit from discontinuing thyroid medication.

  4. [Assessment and treatment of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Viana, Marina Verçoza; Moraes, Rafael Barberena; Fabbrin, Amanda Rodrigues; Santos, Manoella Freitas; Gerchman, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a commonly encountered issue in critically ill patients in the intensive care setting. The presence of hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, regardless of the reason for admission (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, status post-cardiovascular surgery, stroke, sepsis). However, the pathophysiology and, in particular, the treatment of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient remain controversial. In clinical practice, several aspects must be taken into account in the management of these patients, including blood glucose targets, history of diabetes mellitus, the route of nutrition (enteral or parenteral), and available monitoring equipment, which substantially increases the workload of providers involved in the patients' care. This review describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, management, and monitoring of hyperglycemia in the critically ill adult patient.

  5. [What do psychiatric patients expect of inpatient psychiatric hospital treatment?].

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Heribert

    2003-05-01

    Patients are mostly passive utilizer of the health-care-system. They are confronted with a supply of medical service and they are allowed to show their satisfaction with it retrospectively. Our medical system has in future to develop itself from an effective perspective to an utilizer orientated medicine. Orientation to the utilizers means to ask for the expectations of the patients for supply (at customer's option). Aim of our investigation was to check the subjective expectations of the patients before the beginning of in-patient treatment: 1. What is their opinion about the label of the disorder, they are suffering. 2. Of what therapeutic measures do they expect help for theirselves. 3. Do they want to play a part in planning of therapeutic measures. 209 of 344 (61%) of the patients were at admission ready for answering a self designed questionnaire. Only 4% of the patients said, that their disorder is called insanity. They preferred labels like mental illness (45%), somatic illness (43%) and mental health problem (42%). A pharmacological therapy expected in totally 61% of the patients. Mostly were expected drugs against depressive disorders (32%), drugs against addiction (31%) and tranquilizers (29%). Only 10% of the patients expected to get antipsychotic drugs. A verbal therapeutic intervention expected 76% of the patients. To have a speak with the doctor is with 69% a first rank desire, followed by speaking with the psychologist (60%), the nurses (58%) and the patients comrades (56%). Psychotherapy in a narrower sense expect only 40% of the patients. Furthermore there are privacy and recreation through promenades in front of the expectations (69%), followed by relaxation (59%), occupational therapy (55%) and sports or active exercise therapy (54%). 75% of the patients want to be informed about the therapy. 69% want to cooperate with planning of the therapy. Only 21% commit the therapy to the doctor. About one third of the patients expect a consultation with

  6. Does phasic trauma treatment make patients with dissociative identity disorder treatment more dissociative?

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of the iatrogenic model of the etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have expressed concern that treatment focused on direct engagement and interaction with dissociated self-states harms DID patients. However, empirical data have shown that this type of DID treatment is beneficial. Analyzing data from the prospective Treatment of Patients With Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) Study, we test empirically whether DID treatment is associated with clinically adverse manifestations of dissociated self-states: acting so differently that one feels like different people, hearing voices, and dissociative amnesia. We show that, over the course of the study, there were significant decreases in feeling like different people and hearing voices. These results indicate that this form of DID treatment does not lead to symptomatic worsening in these dimensions, as predicted by the iatrogenic model. Indeed, treatment provided by TOP DD therapists reduced, rather than increased, the extent to which patients experienced manifestations of pathological dissociation. Because severe symptomatology and impairment are associated with DID, iatrogenic harm may come from depriving DID patients of treatment that targets DID symptomatology. PMID:24377972

  7. Does phasic trauma treatment make patients with dissociative identity disorder treatment more dissociative?

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of the iatrogenic model of the etiology of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have expressed concern that treatment focused on direct engagement and interaction with dissociated self-states harms DID patients. However, empirical data have shown that this type of DID treatment is beneficial. Analyzing data from the prospective Treatment of Patients With Dissociative Disorders (TOP DD) Study, we test empirically whether DID treatment is associated with clinically adverse manifestations of dissociated self-states: acting so differently that one feels like different people, hearing voices, and dissociative amnesia. We show that, over the course of the study, there were significant decreases in feeling like different people and hearing voices. These results indicate that this form of DID treatment does not lead to symptomatic worsening in these dimensions, as predicted by the iatrogenic model. Indeed, treatment provided by TOP DD therapists reduced, rather than increased, the extent to which patients experienced manifestations of pathological dissociation. Because severe symptomatology and impairment are associated with DID, iatrogenic harm may come from depriving DID patients of treatment that targets DID symptomatology.

  8. Family behavior, adaptation, and treatment adherence of pediatric nephrology patients.

    PubMed

    Davis, M C; Tucker, C M; Fennell, R S

    1996-04-01

    In this exploratory study we investigated the relationships among family behavior variables (e.g., family expressiveness), adaptive functioning skills, maladaptive behavior, and adherence to treatment in pediatric renal failure patients. The study included 22 pediatric outpatients with renal failure who had not yet received dialysis or transplantation (RF) and their parents, and 12 pediatric outpatients with kidney transplants (TX) and their parents. For the RF patients, significant correlations were found between some of their adaptive functioning skills and measures of their medication adherence, diet adherence, and clinic appointment adherence; however, for the TX patients significant correlations were found only between some of their adaptive functioning skills and measures of their medication adherence. For the RF patients only, some measures of their family behavior were significantly correlated with measures of their medication adherence and diet adherence. Additionally, some measures of the RF patients' family behavior were significantly related to their communication skills, socialization skills, overall adaptive functioning skills, and maladaptive behavior. For the TX patients, only their socialization skill level was significantly correlated with one measure of their family behavior. It is concluded that facilitation of adaptive and physical functioning among renal pediatric patients likely requires multidimensional training and/or counselling interventions with the children and their families, and that some of the content and/or emphasis of this training likely needs to differ for RF patients versus TX patients.

  9. [Patient education and treatment documentation - Law to Improve the Rights of Patients].

    PubMed

    Meltendorf, G; Meltendorf, C

    2013-07-01

    The Law to Improve the Rights of Patients came into force with the promulgation in the (German) Federal Law Gazette on February 25, 2013. Thus administrations of medical institutions and doctors of all disciplines should themselves acquaint with the statutory regulations and their impact on the daily practice. The present article describes and explains the statutory regulations concerning patient education and treatment documentation.

  10. [Patient education and treatment documentation - law to improve the rights of patients].

    PubMed

    Meltendorf, Gerhard; Meltendorf, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The Law to Improve the Rights of Patients came into force with the promulgation in the German Federal Law Gazette on February 25, 2013. Thus administrations of medical institutions and doctors of all disciplines should acquaint themselves with the statutory regulations and their impact on the daily practice. The present article describes and explains the statutory regulations concerning patient education and treatment documentation.

  11. [From a Service to a Brand: TUR-Room Inspection, Patient Journals, After-Sales Greetings in the Witten Marketing Concept].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, A; Gellisch, O; Abrolat, J; Füsgen, I; Heppner, H J

    2015-05-01

    Marketing in economic systems means to create a brand in a competitive surrounding to serve customers as a target. Thereby, elements of marketing are product policy and pricing as well as distribution. Due to the fact that not only products and services are almost not modifiable at all and that price variation is impossible due to the DRG system but also common distribution channels, such as retail or wholesale, are prohibited, the fist mentioned marketing elements are of special importance. Primary customers are the referring physicians who are well served by medical education or presentations, which belong to the common facilities of a hospital department. Nowadays one can observe an increasing mobility of patients and an increasing willingness to inform themselves about medical topics and the service provider behind them. In conclusion, the maintenance of patients is a growing field for the economic success of a hospital or a hospital department. The marketing elements are ruled by the "Heilmittelwerbegesetz" and must fulfill the standards which are defined by this statute. Patient´s journals, a guided tour around the procedure rooms with technical equipment, an after-sales postcard and the participation in events not only with medical contents, such as fairs, can help to steadily establish an image, for example, as an ambitious and caring service provider. PMID:26077302

  12. [From a Service to a Brand: TUR-Room Inspection, Patient Journals, After-Sales Greetings in the Witten Marketing Concept].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, A; Gellisch, O; Abrolat, J; Füsgen, I; Heppner, H J

    2015-05-01

    Marketing in economic systems means to create a brand in a competitive surrounding to serve customers as a target. Thereby, elements of marketing are product policy and pricing as well as distribution. Due to the fact that not only products and services are almost not modifiable at all and that price variation is impossible due to the DRG system but also common distribution channels, such as retail or wholesale, are prohibited, the fist mentioned marketing elements are of special importance. Primary customers are the referring physicians who are well served by medical education or presentations, which belong to the common facilities of a hospital department. Nowadays one can observe an increasing mobility of patients and an increasing willingness to inform themselves about medical topics and the service provider behind them. In conclusion, the maintenance of patients is a growing field for the economic success of a hospital or a hospital department. The marketing elements are ruled by the "Heilmittelwerbegesetz" and must fulfill the standards which are defined by this statute. Patient´s journals, a guided tour around the procedure rooms with technical equipment, an after-sales postcard and the participation in events not only with medical contents, such as fairs, can help to steadily establish an image, for example, as an ambitious and caring service provider.

  13. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of gallstone patients].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikov, B D; Chubenko, S S; Romankova, V A

    1993-04-01

    Stroke-wave lithotripsy (SWL) was used for the treatment of patients with cholelithiasis. Indications and contraindications were strictly observed. This method provides destruction calculi down to a size of 2-3 mm which enables them to enter the intestine without local injury. Subsequent choleritics, exercises, duodenal to reduce time of gallbladder emptying and intake of litholytics.

  14. Treatment considerations for patient with Amelogenesis Imperfecta: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Fen; Hu, Jan CC; Bresciani, Eduardo; Peters, Mathilde C; Estrella, Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of inherited disorders primary affecting the structural of enamel. Patients with AI experience poor esthetic, excessive tooth sensitivity and compromised chewing function that dental treatments are frequently required at early age. This review describes the non-enamel implications, stage-specific management strategies and outcomes of selected restorative materials based on literature evidence. PMID:27274954

  15. Symptomatic treatment of migraine: from scientific evidence to patient management.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, P

    2014-05-01

    All migraine patients need symptomatic treatment to stop individual attacks or, at least, significantly relieve pain. When attacks are very frequent (more than 3 days of headache per month on average), they will also need preventive treatment. The first physician the patient must address to for preventive treatment is the general practitioner (GP). If the medication prescribed by the GP is not effective or there is overuse of symptomatic drugs, the patient will have to be referred to a neurologist or a headache clinic. The drugs to be used as symptomatic treatment are triptans and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Combination therapy with antiemetics is also important. While specialists will base their therapeutic decisions on guidelines in the literature and on their personal experience, GPs do not yet have any easy-to-use tools to support them. To fill this gap, an algorithm is proposed here that can be easily used by GPs to make decisions during their patients' migraine attacks.

  16. [Polypeptide prostatilen in the treatment of patients with complicated prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, N I

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the trial's data obtained in the treatment of patients with chronic prostatites complicated with the derangement in reproductive and sexual function. The medication was established to have effective anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immunomodulating activity; it improves urination and stimulates reproductive and sexual function.

  17. Integrating Fieldwork into Employment Counseling for Methadone-Treatment Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankertz, Laura; Spinelli, Michael; Magura, Stephen; Bali, Priti; Madison, Elizabeth M.; Staines, Graham L.; Horowitz, Emily; Guarino, Honoria; Grandy, Audrey; Fong, Chunki; Gomez, Augustin; Dimun, Amy; Friedman, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    An innovative employment counseling model, Customized Employment Supports, was developed for methadone-treatment patients, a population with historically low employment rates. The effectiveness of a key component of the model, "vocational fieldwork," the delivery of services in the community rather than only within the clinic, was assessed through…

  18. Treatment outcome in patients with TMD--a survey of 123 patients referred to specialist care.

    PubMed

    Polso, Hanna-Leena; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune M

    2010-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a group of functional disorders of the masticatory system. Signs and symptoms of TMD are very common in different age groups in both genders. Treatment need varies greatly, ranging from 5 to 27% of the population. The treatment of TMD patients is generally initiated using reversible conservative methods and if necessary, irreversible and surgical methods are used. Altogether 123 patients (93 females, 30 males, mean age 39 years, range 12 to 72 years) were referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Oulu University Hospital between the years 2005 and 2008. The treatment outcome was evaluated using the anamnestic and clinical dysfunction indices of Helkimo, before and after treatment. The results of the study showed that the outcome of the conservative treatment methods of TMD and of surgical treatment, if needed, was beneficial, with a subjectively and clinically statistically significant decrease in signs and symptoms.

  19. [Endoscopic treatment in critically ill patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Kheladze, Z S; Dzhaiani, S V; Tsutskiridze, B N; Kheladze, Zv Z; Chakhunashvili, G K; Chakhunashvili, D K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to ascertain the optimal methods of an endoscopic haemostasis in critical care patients with GDB. The research was conducted on critically ill patients. The different endoscopic methods of treatment: injectional hemostasis, irrigation with local hemostatics, thermo coagulation, and combined method were used. Treatment with injectional hemostasis resulted in hemostasis in 75% of patients. Irrigation with local hemostatics was conducted using the local hemostatic agent caprofer and (or) 10% solution of epsylonaminocapronal acid. The final hemostasis was achieved in the 90% of the cases; bleeding was stopped in 85% of the cases when the hemorrhages occurred from chronic ulcers. The effect of thermo coagulation method was 80-85%. Combined method of treatment (combination of the irrigation with caprofer and thermo coagulation) helped to achieve 95% of the final hemostasis in critically ill patients. The achieved results certify that the combined use of caprofer and method of electro coagulation in critical care patients with GDB is very perspective. Simultaneously with this, it is also recommended to use anti-segregation therapy with blockers of proton pomp and boosting the defense of the mucous tissue with high doses of mucogen. PMID:20413810

  20. Laser-assisted treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    2000-03-01

    Today more and more patients with bleeding disorder come to our office for treatment. The number of patients with therapeutic anticoagulation is growing steadily. Discontinuation of this therapy can often be crucial. On the other hand are oralsurgical procedures extremely sensitive to bleeding due to the constant presents of saliva with its high fibrinolytic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a surgical diode (wavelength 810 nm) laser as accessory tool in the treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis. Enclosed in the study were 123 patients with: (1) Coumarintherapy, a Quick test ratio of 15 - 25%; (2) More than 300 mg of ASS/die; (3) Hemophilia, a factor activity under 35%; (4) Morbus Werlhof with less than 30000 thrombocytes. 179 Surgical procedures: (1) Tooth extraction 86%; (2) Apexectomy 3%; (3) Tumorexcision 9%; (4) Curettage and flapsurgery 1%; (5) Gingivectomy 1%. All procedures were laser-assisted with a diode laser emitting 810 nm. The glass fibers used were depending on the procedures either 200, 400, or 600 micron. No coagulating agents or tissue adhesives were used in addition. The postoperative outcome and complication rates were compared to substitution therapy and tissue adhesives. Laser-assisted treatment of these patients shows a high predictability and success rate leaving out side effects of drugs and human cryoprecipitates. Postoperative impairment is diminished.

  1. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world.

  2. [Endoscopic treatment in critically ill patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    PubMed

    Kheladze, Z S; Dzhaiani, S V; Tsutskiridze, B N; Kheladze, Zv Z; Chakhunashvili, G K; Chakhunashvili, D K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of the current research was to ascertain the optimal methods of an endoscopic haemostasis in critical care patients with GDB. The research was conducted on critically ill patients. The different endoscopic methods of treatment: injectional hemostasis, irrigation with local hemostatics, thermo coagulation, and combined method were used. Treatment with injectional hemostasis resulted in hemostasis in 75% of patients. Irrigation with local hemostatics was conducted using the local hemostatic agent caprofer and (or) 10% solution of epsylonaminocapronal acid. The final hemostasis was achieved in the 90% of the cases; bleeding was stopped in 85% of the cases when the hemorrhages occurred from chronic ulcers. The effect of thermo coagulation method was 80-85%. Combined method of treatment (combination of the irrigation with caprofer and thermo coagulation) helped to achieve 95% of the final hemostasis in critically ill patients. The achieved results certify that the combined use of caprofer and method of electro coagulation in critical care patients with GDB is very perspective. Simultaneously with this, it is also recommended to use anti-segregation therapy with blockers of proton pomp and boosting the defense of the mucous tissue with high doses of mucogen.

  3. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world. PMID:25782187

  4. Spinal cord stimulation for treatment of pain in a patient with post thoracotomy pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graybill, Jordan; Conermann, Till; Kabazie, Abraham J; Chandy, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Post Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome (PTPS) is defined as pain that occurs or persists in the area of the thoracotomy incision for at least 2 months following the initial procedure.  The true incidence of PTPS is hard to define as literature reports a wide range of occurrence from 5% to 90%.  Thoracotomy is associated with a high risk of severe chronic postoperative pain.  Presenting symptoms include both neuropathic pain in the area of the incision, as well as myofascial pain commonly in the ipsilateral scapula and shoulder.  Pain management can be challenging in these patients.  Multiple treatments have been described including conservative treatments with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); topically applied, peripherally acting drugs; neuromodulating agents; physical therapy; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation as well as more invasive treatments including intercostal nerve blocks, trigger point steroid injections, epidural steroid injections, radiofrequency nerve ablation, cryoablation, and one case report of spinal cord stimulation.  Unfortunately, a portion of these patients will have persistent pain in spite of multiple treatment modalities, and in some cases will experience worsening of pain. This case report describes the novel utility and complete resolution of symptoms with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in treatment of a patient with persistent PTPS. In the operating room, a percutaneous octet electrode lead was placed using sterile technique under fluoroscopic guidance and loss-of-resistance technique.  The octet electrode lead was subsequently advanced with the aid of fluoroscopy to the level of the T3 superior endplate just right of midline.  The patient's pain distribution was captured optimally with stimulation at this level.  With the assistance of a neurosurgeon, the lead was anchored, tunneled, and connected to a generator, which was implanted over the right iliac crest.  The patient tolerated the procedure well with

  5. Antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, C; Camafort, M; Cepeda Rodrigo, J M; Díez-Manglano, J; Formiga, F; Pose Reino, A; Tiberio, G; Mostaza, J M

    2015-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly is a complex condition due to the high number of frequently associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and kidney disease, cognitive disorders, falls and polypharmacy. Except when contraindicated, anticoagulation is necessary for preventing thromboembolic events in this population. Both vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) are indicated in this context. Renal function should be closely monitored for this age group when these drugs are used. In recent years, various clinical practice guidelines have been published on patients with AF. The majority of these guidelines make specific recommendations on the clinical characteristics and treatment of elderly patients. In this update, we review the specific comments on the recommendations concerning antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with nonvalvular AF. PMID:25618495

  6. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Triplitt, Curtis; Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide care to patients with diabetes, and clinical pharmacists can enhance the care provided by these teams. This review aims to provide insight into the mode of action, pharmacology, potential drug-drug interactions, clinical benefits, and safety considerations associated with use of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and to provide information to enhance clinical pharmacists' understanding of canagliflozin.

  7. Antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, C; Camafort, M; Cepeda Rodrigo, J M; Díez-Manglano, J; Formiga, F; Pose Reino, A; Tiberio, G; Mostaza, J M

    2015-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly is a complex condition due to the high number of frequently associated comorbidities, such as cardiovascular and kidney disease, cognitive disorders, falls and polypharmacy. Except when contraindicated, anticoagulation is necessary for preventing thromboembolic events in this population. Both vitamin K antagonists and direct oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) are indicated in this context. Renal function should be closely monitored for this age group when these drugs are used. In recent years, various clinical practice guidelines have been published on patients with AF. The majority of these guidelines make specific recommendations on the clinical characteristics and treatment of elderly patients. In this update, we review the specific comments on the recommendations concerning antithrombotic treatment in elderly patients with nonvalvular AF.

  8. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Triplitt, Curtis; Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide care to patients with diabetes, and clinical pharmacists can enhance the care provided by these teams. This review aims to provide insight into the mode of action, pharmacology, potential drug–drug interactions, clinical benefits, and safety considerations associated with use of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and to provide information to enhance clinical pharmacists’ understanding of canagliflozin. PMID:26523120

  9. One-year follow-up of neurological status of patients after cardiac arrest seen at the emergency room of a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib; de Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe neurological status and associated factors of survivors after cardiac arrest, upon discharge, and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. Methods: A cohort, prospective, descriptive study conducted in an emergency room. Patients who suffered cardiac arrest and survived were included. A one-year consecutive sample, comprising 285 patients and survivors (n=16) followed up for one year after discharge. Neurological status was assessed by the Cerebral Performance Category before the cardiac arrest, upon discharge, and at 6 and 12 months after discharge. The following factors were investigated: comorbidities, presence of consciousness upon admission, previous cardiac arrest, witnessed cardiac arrest, location, cause and initial rhythm of cardiac arrest, number of cardiac arrests, interval between collapse and start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and between collapse and end of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Results: Of the patients treated, 4.5% (n=13) survived after 6 and 12 months follow-up. Upon discharge, 50% of patients remained with previous Cerebral Performance Category of the cardiac arrest and 50% had worsening of Cerebral Performance Category. After 6 months, 53.8% remained in the same Cerebral Performance Category and 46.2% improved as compared to discharge. After 12 months, all patients remained in the same Cerebral Performance Category of the previous 6 months. There was no statistically significant association between neurological outcome during follow-up and the variables assessed. Conclusion: There was neurological worsening at discharge but improvement or stabilization in the course of a year. There was no association between Cerebral Performance Category and the variables assessed. PMID:26154538

  10. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in a patient with adrenomyeloneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) is one of several phenotypes of the adrenoleukodystrophy spectrum caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene on the X chromosome. An inflammatory component is part of the disease complex ranging from severe childhood CNS demyelination to spinal cord and peripheral nerve degeneration. Case presentation We present a patient with clinical progressive AMN and severe lower limb pain. Longitudinal brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a constant slightly elevated myoinositol/total creatine ratio during the five year treatment period, probably reflecting demyelination, microglial activation and gliosis, indicating an inflammatory response. The pain was refractory to conventional therapy but intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment was highly efficient. Conclusion IVIG may be considered as a last resort for treatment of refractory pain in AMN patients with indications of an inflammatory component. PMID:23009600

  11. Provider and patient correlates of provider decisions to recommend HCV treatment to HIV co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn; Osilla, Karen Chan; Garnett, Jeffrey; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Bhatti, Laveeza; Witt, Mallory; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2012-01-01

    Despite low uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among HIV co-infected patients, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to provider decisions to recommend treatment. Surveys of 173 co-infected patients and their primary care providers, as well as patient chart data, were collected at 3 HIV clinics in Los Angeles; 73% of the patients had any history of being recommended HCV treatment. Multivariate predictors of being offered treatment included being Caucasian, greater HCV knowledge, receiving depression treatment if depressed, and one's provider having a lower weekly patient load and more years working at the study site. These findings suggest that provider decisions to recommend HCV treatment are influenced by patient factors including race and psychosocial treatment readiness, as well as characteristics of their own practice and treatment philosophy. With changes to HCV treatment soon to emerge, further evaluation of factors influencing treatment decisions is needed to improve HCV treatment uptake. PMID:22564797

  12. Pharmacological treatment of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Karouni, Mohamad; Henning, Oliver; Larsson, Pål G; Johannessen, Svein I; Johannessen Landmark, Cecilie

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of psychopharmacological drugs for the treatment of a stated or presumed psychiatric comorbid condition in patients with refractory epilepsy and discuss the clinical implications of such treatment. The study was a retrospective descriptive study in patients admitted to the National Center for Epilepsy in Norway based on medication described in medical records. The mean age was 40 years (range: 9-90), and the gender ratio was 56/44% female/male. Psychotropic drugs (antidepressants and antipsychotics) were used to a lower extent than in the general population in Norway. Drugs for ADHD were predominantly used in children. The prevalence of patients treated with psychiatric comedication was 13% (143 of 1139 patients). The patients used two to eight concomitant CNS-active drugs, which calls for the close monitoring of potential pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions and should challenge clinicians to achieve a less complex pharmacotherapy. Psychiatric comorbidity is an important concern in patients with refractory epilepsy and may be undertreated.

  13. Periodontal conditions in patients requesting dental implant treatment.

    PubMed

    Ito, Taichi; Yasuda, Masaaki; Norizuki, Yoshie; Sasaki, Hodaka; Honma, Shinya; Furuya, Yoshitaka; Kato, Tetsuo; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is considered a risk factor in dental implant treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the periodontal conditions in patients requesting dental implant therapy. A total of 169 patients visiting Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Implantology at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital were targeted. The following intraoral parameters were measured in each patient: Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Prevalence of patients with periodontal pockets was high: 38% and 28% of patients had a CPI score of code 3 and 4, respectively. Prevalence of teeth with one or more sites with PPD≥4mm was 27%. Moreover, clinical signs suggestive of periodontitis (PPD, CAL≥4mm) were found in 10-15% of tooth sites. Prevalence rates at sites with severe periodontal breakdown (PPD, CAL≥7mm) were 2-5%. These results further emphasize the importance of thorough periodontal assessment in patients prior to dental implant treatment.

  14. [Hemiarthroplasty for treatment of comminuted trochanteric fractures in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Grzegorz; Górski, Radosław; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Górecki, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Successful operative stabilization of the comminuted, trochanteric fractures in elderly patients is problematic due to advanced osteoporosis and poor physical activity excluding the cooperation in the postoperative rehabilitation. Stable fixation with dynamic hip screw or gamma nail, or flexible Ender nailing requires relieve of load during forthcoming several postoperative weeks needed for bone union, that reduced their usefulness in elderly patients. The aim of study was to analyze the usefulness of the cemented hemiartrhoplasty for the treatment of patients with comminuted trochanteric fractures. We analyzed 18 patients (16 women and 2 men, aged 69- 93-years-old (mean 83.3 years) treated in our Department in 2007 with cemented hemiathroplasty due to comminuted trochanteric fractures. Patients were intensively rehabilitated bearing their body weights from 3rd-5th, and consequently discharged on 9th-12th postoperative day. Due to the possibility of almost immediate mobilization in the postoperative period, cemented hemiathroplasty could be a method of choice for the treatment of the comminuted trochanteric fractures in elderly patients. PMID:20201331

  15. Controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with post-treatment chronic Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Klempner, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Some patients have persistence of profound fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias without arthritis, dysesthesia/paresthesia, and mood and memory disturbances after standard courses of antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease. This constellation of symptoms has been variously referred to as "chronic Lyme disease," "post-Lyme disease syndrome," and "post-treatment chronic Lyme disease." Persistent symptoms have been reported in patients who are seropositive for IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi as well as in patients who are seronegative. The cause or causes of persistent symptoms in these patients have not been clearly defined and are controversial. Because of the temporal association of these symptoms with infection with B. burgdorferi, some patients have been treated with prolonged courses of antibiotics. Case reports and uncontrolled trials have reported the efficacy of prolonged antibiotic therapy, often with relapse of the symptoms after discontinuation of therapy. To date, only one randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of antibiotic therapy for these patients has been published. An abstract of a second placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic therapy in a smaller cohort has also been presented. This paper will describe this patient population in detail and will review the clinical, microbiological, and selected biochemical and immunologic parameters and their responses to antibiotic treatment in the setting of a controlled trial.

  16. Treatment of Anemia in Patients with Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice ... Physicians The full report is titled “Treatment of Anemia in Patients With Heart Disease: A Clinical Practice ...

  17. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes. PMID:26189890

  18. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed. PMID:2252468

  19. Personalized treatment for patients with colorectal cancer: role of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The systemic treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has traditionally been based on clinical and tumor histological criteria. Recently however, several prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been proposed for patients with newly diagnosed CRC, including the subgroup with stage II disease. Among the best validated prognostic biomarkers for CRC are CEA levels, MS instability status and certain gene signatures. Although no biomarker currently exists for identifying patients likely to benefit from chemotherapy, the mutational status of KRAS and NRAS is used to predict response to cetuximab and panitumumab. For upfront identification of patients at high risk of suffering from severe therapy-related toxicity, specific variants of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase may be measured for predicting toxicity from fluoropyrimidines and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase*28 (UGT1A1*28) for predicting toxicity from irinotecan. PMID:25808438

  20. Substance use treatment barriers for patients with frequent hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Raven, Maria C; Carrier, Emily R; Lee, Joshua; Billings, John C; Marr, Mollie; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2010-01-01

    Substance use (SU) disorders adversely impact health status and contribute to inappropriate health services use. This qualitative study sought to determine SU-related factors contributing to repeated hospitalizations and to identify opportunities for preventive interventions. Fifty Medicaid-insured inpatients identified by a validated statistical algorithm as being at high-risk for frequent hospitalizations were interviewed at an urban public hospital. Patient drug/alcohol history, experiences with medical, psychiatric and addiction treatment, and social factors contributing to readmission were evaluated. Three themes related to SU and frequent hospitalizations emerged: (a) barriers during hospitalization to planning long-term treatment and follow-up, (b) use of the hospital as a temporary solution to housing/family problems, and (c) unsuccessful SU aftercare following discharge. These data indicate that homelessness, brief lengths of stay complicating discharge planning, patient ambivalence regarding long-term treatment, and inadequate detox-to-rehab transfer resources compromise substance-using patients' likelihood of avoiding repeat hospitalization. Intervention targets included supportive housing, detox-to-rehab transportation, and postdischarge patient support.

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Patients With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    KRAUS, CYNTHIA A.; SEIGNOUREL, PAUL; BALASUBRAMANYAM, VALLI; SNOW, A. LYNN; WILSON, NANCY L.; KUNIK, MARK E.; SCHULZ, PAUL E.; STANLEY, MELINDA A.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is common in dementia and is associated with decreased independence and increased risk of nursing home placement. However, little is known about the treatment of anxiety in dementia. This article reports results from two patients who were treated with a modified version of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in dementia (CBT-AD). Modifications were made in the content, structure, and learning strategies of CBT to adapt skills to the cognitive limitations of these patients and include collaterals (i.e., family members, friends, or other caregivers) in the treatment process. The patients received education and awareness training and were taught the skills of diaphragmatic breathing, coping self-statements, exposure, and behavioral activation. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale was used to characterize dementia severity and determine eligibility for treatment (a CDR score of 0.5 to 2.0 was required for participation). Other measures included the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Anxiety subscale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Outcome data showed improvement in anxiety as measured by standardized rating scales. We conclude that CBT-AD is potentially useful in treating anxiety in dementia patients and that this technique merits further study. PMID:18520790

  2. [Inpatient psychoanalytic treatment of patients with structural ego disorders].

    PubMed

    Ehl, M; Tress, W

    1988-01-01

    Psychoneurotic and psychosomatic patients with severe personality disorders suffer from structural defects of their ego-functions and are in need of specific treatment techniques which can be supplied by the differentiated strategies of inpatient psychoanalysis. The experiences of a specific inpatient ward of the Psychosomatic department at the Central Institute of Mental Health in Mannheim are summarized whereby the use of the inward setting to initiate long term psychotherapeutic processes is emphasized. According to an integrative treatment concept various verbal and non-verbal modalities of experience and working through represented by different members of the therapeutic team co-operate within their well defined functions. The main task of the team is to identify the various splitting mechanisms of the patients with personality disorders and to combine all the walled off ways of experiencing and social behavior into a complete picture of his person. To this end close attention is payed to the dynamics within the group of the patients as well as with the group of the therapists. As a precondition the setting of the ward and its rules of conduct for inpatient group life have closely to be watched and the respective behavior of the patients and the team has to be monitored. We describe our setting, the time phases of treatment, the tasks of the different therapists, and explicitely emphasize sociotherapeutic aspects for the final therapy phase. At last, we mention special emotional difficulties waiting for therapists who work in this setting. PMID:3239270

  3. Treatment-Related Mortality With Everolimus in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Robert; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Lustberg, Maryam; Paskell, Maria; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The overall incidence and odds of fatal adverse events (FAEs) after exposure to everolimus are not well defined. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the role of everolimus in treatment-related mortality in patients with cancer. Methods. PubMed databases and abstracts from the proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium were searched for RCTs of everolimus either alone or in combination with another agent compared with the control arm without everolimus and that reported deaths from an adverse event from January 1966 to July 2013. The primary objective was to determine the difference of FAEs between everolimus-treated patients and control group patients. Results. In total, 2,997 patients with multiple solid tumors from nine RCTs were included. The overall incidence of FAEs in cancer patients treated with everolimus was 0.7% (95% CI 0.3%–1.1%) compared with 0.4% (95% CI 0.0%–0.7%) in cancer patients who did not receive everolimus. The odds ratio of FAEs was greater in everolimus-treated patients (Peto odds ratio = 3.80, 95% CI 1.59–9.07, p = .003). In subgroup analyses, no significant difference was found in the incidence or odds of FAEs by everolimus administration (alone or in combination) or tumor type (breast cancer vs. nonbreast cancer; p = .63). Conclusion. In patients with cancer, everolimus is associated with a small but significant increase in the odds of a treatment-related fatal events. PMID:24794158

  4. Effects of treatment of peripheral pain generators in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Affaitati, Giannapia; Costantini, Raffaele; Fabrizio, Alessandra; Lapenna, Domenico; Tafuri, Emmanuele; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) frequently co-occurs with regional pain disorders. This study evaluated how these disorders contribute to FS, by assessing effects of local active vs placebo treatment of muscle/joint pain sources on FS symptoms. Female patients with (1) FS+myofascial pain syndromes from trigger points (n=68), or (2) FS+joint pain (n=56) underwent evaluation of myofascial/joint symptoms [number/intensity of pain episodes, pressure pain thresholds at trigger/joint site, paracetamol consumption] and FS symptoms [pain intensity, pressure pain thresholds at tender points, pressure and electrical pain thresholds in skin, subcutis and muscle in a non-painful site]. Patients of both protocols were randomly assigned to two groups [34 each for (1); 28 each for (2)] to receive active or placebo local TrP or joint treatment [injection/hydroelectrophoresis] on days 1 and 4. Evaluations were repeated on days 4 and 8. After therapy, in active--but not placebo-treated-- groups: number and intensity of myofascial/joint episodes and paracetamol consumption decreased and pressure thresholds at trigger/joint increased (p<0.001); FS pain intensity decreased and all thresholds increased progressively in tender points and the non-painful site (p<0.0001). At day 8, all placebo-treated patients requested active local therapy (days 8 and 11) vs only three patients under active treatment. At a 3-week follow-up, FS pain was still lower than basis in patients not undergoing further therapy and had decreased in those undergoing active therapy from day 8 (p<0.0001). Localized muscle/joint pains impact significantly on FS, probably through increased central sensitization by the peripheral input; their systematic identification and treatment are recommended in fibromyalgia.

  5. Hepatitis C: Treatment of difficult to treat patients

    PubMed Central

    Hilgenfeldt, Eric G; Schlachterman, Alex; Firpi, Roberto J

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, more so recently, treatment options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have seemed to exponentially grow. Up until recently, the regimen of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) stood as the standard of care. Direct acting antivirals, which target nonstructural proteins involved in replication and infection of HCV were first approved in 2011 as an addition to the peg-IFN and RBV regimen and with them have come increased sustained virological response rates (SVR). The previously reported 50%-70% SVR rates using the combination of peg-IFN and RBV are no longer the standard of care with direct acting antiviral (DAA) based regimens now achieving SVR of 70%-90%. Peg-IFN free as well as “all oral” regimens are also available. The current randomized controlled trials available show favorable SVRs in patients who are naive to treatment, non-cirrhotic, and not human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected. What about patients who do not fit into these categories? In this review, we aim to discuss the currently approved and soon to be approved DAAs while focusing on their roles in patients that are treatment experienced, cirrhotic, or co-infected with HIV. In this discussion, review of the clinical trials leading to recent consensus guidelines as well as discussion of barriers to treatment will occur. A case will attempt will be made that social services, including financial support and drug/alcohol treatment, should be provided to all HCV infected patients to improve chances of cure and thus prevention of late stage sequela. PMID:26244069

  6. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Boulle, Koenraad; Heydenrych, Izolda

    2015-01-01

    While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. PMID:25926750

  7. Electroconvulsive Therapy - What Do Patients Think Of Their Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, S; Convery, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (RQIA) monitors the administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Northern Ireland (NI). As part of their inspection methodology RQIA wished to include feedback from ECT patients. The aim of this report is to summarise the opinions of ECT patients over a 1-year period and to compare their feedback about treatment with the standards of best practice, as defined by the Electroconvulsive Therapy Accreditation Service (ECTAS). Method RQIA was granted permission to use the ECTAS patient questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to all the ECT clinics in NI and staff were requested to give them to patients who had received a course of ECT. Results A total of 42 individuals returned questionnaires, 24 females (57.1%) and 18 (42.9%) males. The response rate was 26%. Almost half of respondents were detained under the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (n=19, 45.2%), with one third receiving ECT as a day patient (n=14, 33.3%). Respondents reported having detailed information about ECT, with ECTAS standards 4.2 and 4.3 being affirmed in over 80% of cases. Eighty percent of respondents (n=34) believed they benefited from ECT. Conclusion The results are mainly favourable towards ECT. The majority felt they benefited from treatment. PMID:27698521

  8. [Medical treatment without patient's consent and against her will].

    PubMed

    Margolin, Jacob; Mester, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant woman with labor pain, who was admitted to hospital and refused any life-saving medical examination and treatment in spite of the danger to her fetus and herself. There was immediate danger and shortage of time to organize the hospital ethics committee meeting in order to obtain permission to treat the competent patient by force, according to the Israeli Patient Rights Act of 1996. Hence, an urgent application to the District Court was submitted. The District Judge came to the hospital, and the legal procedure was conducted in the medical ward. After hearing all the parties involved, a legal decision was issued, giving the medical staff the permission to perform any examination and give the patient any necessary medical intervention in order to prevent damages to the fetus and the patient, in spite of the lack of informed consent. The case description is followed by a discussion of the legal ways of treating competent patients who refuse life-sustaining treatment by force and against their will. PMID:24791550

  9. Electroconvulsive Therapy - What Do Patients Think Of Their Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, S; Convery, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The Regulation and Quality Improvement Authority (RQIA) monitors the administration of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Northern Ireland (NI). As part of their inspection methodology RQIA wished to include feedback from ECT patients. The aim of this report is to summarise the opinions of ECT patients over a 1-year period and to compare their feedback about treatment with the standards of best practice, as defined by the Electroconvulsive Therapy Accreditation Service (ECTAS). Method RQIA was granted permission to use the ECTAS patient questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to all the ECT clinics in NI and staff were requested to give them to patients who had received a course of ECT. Results A total of 42 individuals returned questionnaires, 24 females (57.1%) and 18 (42.9%) males. The response rate was 26%. Almost half of respondents were detained under the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order 1986 (n=19, 45.2%), with one third receiving ECT as a day patient (n=14, 33.3%). Respondents reported having detailed information about ECT, with ECTAS standards 4.2 and 4.3 being affirmed in over 80% of cases. Eighty percent of respondents (n=34) believed they benefited from ECT. Conclusion The results are mainly favourable towards ECT. The majority felt they benefited from treatment.

  10. Endovascular treatment for acute pulmonary embolism in neurological patient.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gunchan; Paul, Birinder S; Gautam, Parshotam L; Mohan, Bishav; Sharma, Shruti

    2015-07-01

    Among the spectrum of venous thrombo-embolic disease, acute pulmonary embolism accounts for the most life threatening manifestations with mortality exceeding 50%. It can affect many patient populations across various disciplines, hence immediate attention and aggressive treatment is crucial. With the advancement of technologies, various catheter-based devices are available to treat massive or submassive PE. In this paper we report two patients of acute pulmonary embolism with neurological issues where the life threatening emergency was successfully managed by utilizing endovascular directed thrombolytic reperfusion therapy. PMID:26609298

  11. International patients on operation vacation – perspectives of patients travelling to Hungary for orthopaedic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Eszter; Szocska, Gabor; Knai, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Background: The importance of cross-border healthcare, medical and health tourism plays a significant role in the European health policy and health management. After dentistry, orthopaedic treatments are the leading motivation for seeking care in Hungary, as patients with rheumatic and motion diseases are drawn to the thermal spas and well-established orthopaedic centres. This paper aims to gain insight into foreign patients’ perspectives on their experience of having sought medical tourism in orthopaedic care in Hungary. Methods: A patient survey was conducted in 2012 on motivations for seeking treatment abroad, orthopaedic care received and overall satisfaction. In addition, health professionals’ interviews, and 17 phone interviews were conducted in 2013 with Romanian patients who had orthopaedic treatment in Hungary. Finally, medical records of foreign patients were analysed. Results: The survey was completed by 115 participants – 61.1% females, mean age= 41.9, 87% Romanian origin. Most of the patients came to Hungary for orthopaedic surgeries, e.g. arthroscopy, knee/hip prosthesis or spinal surgery. 72.6% chose Hungary because of related to perceived better quality and longstanding culture of Hungarian orthopaedic care. Over 57% of patients reported being ‘very satisfied’ with care received and 41.6% ‘satisfied’. The follow-up interviews further reflected this level of satisfaction, therefore many respondents stating they have already recommended the Hungarian healthcare to others. Conclusion: Based on the findings, patients from neighbouring regions are increasingly seeking orthopaedic care in Hungary. Patients having orthopaedic care are highly satisfied with the quality of care, the whole treatment process from the availability of information to discharge summaries and would consider returning for further treatments. PMID:25396209

  12. Complex soundproofing of industrial rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocsa, V.; Veres, A.; Biborosch, L.

    1974-01-01

    Some structures treated for sound absorption are described that are used to soundproof industrial rooms with a very high noise level. Soundproofing treatments for the walls and coilings or only for the ceilings are considered. In the case of relatively small rooms having a noise source with a high level, complex treatments involve, in addition to soundproofing of the walls and ceiling, suspended panels specially oriented with respect to the noise source. The efficiency of the adopted solutions is compared with calculated damping values.

  13. Treatment response, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone extended release treatment in patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Peuskens, Joseph; Vauth, Roland; Sacchetti, Emilio; bij de Weg, Haye; Herken, Hasan; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to explore the efficacy and tolerability of oral paliperidone extended release (ER) in a sample of patients who were switched to flexible doses within the crucial first 5 years after receiving a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods: Patients were recruited from 23 countries. Adults with nonacute but symptomatic schizophrenia, previously unsuccessfully treated with other oral antipsychotics, were transitioned to paliperidone ER (3–12 mg/day) and prospectively treated for up to 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome for patients switching for the main reason of lack of efficacy with their previous antipsychotic was at least 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores. For patients switching for other main reasons, such as lack of tolerability, compliance or ‘other’, the primary outcome was non-inferiority in efficacy compared with the previous oral antipsychotic. Results: For patients switching for the main reason of lack of efficacy, 63.1% achieved an improvement of at least 20% in PANSS total scores from baseline to endpoint. For each reason for switching other than lack of efficacy, efficacy maintenance after switching to paliperidone ER was confirmed. Statistically significant improvement in patient functioning from baseline to endpoint, as assessed by the Personal and Social Performance scale, was observed (p < 0.0001). Treatment satisfaction with prior antipsychotic treatment at baseline was rated ‘good’ to ‘very good’ by 16.8% of patients, and at endpoint by 66.0% of patients treated with paliperidone ER. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated, with frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events being insomnia, anxiety and somnolence. Conclusions: Flexibly dosed paliperidone ER was associated with clinically relevant symptomatic and functional improvement in recently diagnosed patients with non-acute schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with other oral

  14. Treatment Strategies for Osteoarthritis Patients with Pain and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Verdecchia, Paolo; Angeli, Fabio; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Martire, Paola; Garofoli, Marta; Gentile, Giorgio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Out of 100 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), almost 40 have a concomitant diagnosis of hypertension. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors may trigger a rise in blood pressure (BP), which is more marked in patients with established hypertension. NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors attenuate the antihypertensive effect of several antihypertensive agents. Frequent BP controls are needed in treated hypertensive patients who are concomitantly receiving NSAIDs or COX-2 inhibitors because even a small increase in BP may be associated with an important rise in the risk of major cardiovascular complications. In meta-analyses, an increase in systolic BP of 5mmHg was associated with a 25% higher risk of cardiovascular events. These data have been confirmed in randomized studies with rofecoxib and celecoxib, where a modest increase in BP was associated with a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease. There is emerging evidence that the COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD) class is promising in the treatment of patients with OA. Naproxcinod, the first CINOD investigated in clinical trials, is composed of the traditional NSAID naproxen covalently bound to the nitric oxide (NO)-donating moiety butanediol mono-nitrate (BDMN). The molecule has the potential to provide a sustained release of NO. In clinical studies, naproxcinod prevented the BP rise in normotensive and hypertensive patients observed with naproxen. The BP benefit of naproxcinod over naproxen was greater in patients concomitantly receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. These investigational data suggest that naproxcinod is a valuable alternative to NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors for treatment of OA patients. PMID:22870450

  15. Treatment persistence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; de Moura, Cristiano Soares; Ferré, Felipe; Bernatsky, Sasha; Rahme, Elham; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate treatment persistence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis who started therapies with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) and tumor necrosis factor blockers (anti-TNF drugs). METHODS This retrospective cohort study from July 2008 to September 2013 evaluated therapy persistence, which is defined as the period between the start of treatment until it is discontinued, allowing for an interval of up to 30 days between the prescription end and the start of the next prescription. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated by logistic regression models to estimate the patients’ chances of persisting in their therapies after the first and after the two first years of follow-up. RESULTS The study included 11,642 patients with rheumatoid arthritis – 2,241 of these started on anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 9,401 patients started on DMARD – and 1,251 patients with ankylosing spondylitis – 976 of them were started on anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 275 were started on DMARD. In the first year of follow-up, 63.5% of the patients persisted in their therapies with anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) and 54.1% remained using DMARD in the group with rheumatoid arthritis. In regards to ankylosing spondylitis, 79.0% of the subjects in anti-TNF (+/-DMARD) group and 41.1% of the subjects in the DMARD group persisted with their treatments. The OR (95%CI) for therapy persistence was 1.50 (1.34-1.67) for the anti-TNF (+/-DMARD) group as compared with the DMARD group in the first year for the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 2.33 (1.74-3.11) for the patients with ankylosing spondylitis. A similar trend was observed at the end of the second year. CONCLUSIONS A general trend of higher rates of therapy persistence with anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) was observed as compared to DMARD in the study period. We observed higher persistence rates for anti-TNF drugs (+/-DMARD) in patients with ankylosing

  16. Medical Transfer of Patients in Preterm Labor: Treatments and Tocolytics.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, Kathleen; Moore, Sean; MacDonald, Russell; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To examine the epidemiology, effectiveness, and safety of tocolytics, and the variation in use of standard treatments and predictive testing for women in preterm labor (PTL) transported to tertiary care. Methods. This was a health record review of consecutive PTL patients (<38 weeks gestation) transported to a tertiary care facility by Ontario's air and land critical care transport service between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2011. The primary outcome was the effectiveness of tocolytics in decreasing the frequency of contractions and incidence of delivery. Secondary outcomes included the type of tocolytics used, adverse events (defined a priori), use of standard treatments (corticosteroid, antibiotic), and use of predictive tests (cervical length measurement, fetal fibronectin). We report descriptive statistics and relative risk of contractions decreasing with tocolytics with 95% confidence intervals. Results. Of the 510 transports reviewed, 488 met all inclusion criteria with the following characteristics: mean age 26.1 years, mean gestational age 31.2 weeks, mean transport time 80 minutes, 61.0% multiparous, 13.3% twins, mean initial dilatation 1.8 cm, contraction <8 min apart 67.7%, and 66.8% from Northern Ontario. Tocolytics were used in 206 (42.2%), with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nitroglycerine being used most frequently. Eleven (2.3%) patients delivered during transport, 4 (36.4%) of which received tocolytics with relative risk (RR) 0.8 (95%CI 0-2.0), and number needed to treat (NNT) 165 (31.5-299.3). Among the 311 (63.7%) patients for which change in contractions was documented, 140 (45%) received tocolytics and of these patients, contractions decreased in 94 (67%), with an RR 0.6 (95%CI 0.3-0.9) and NNT 4.6 (3.1-6.2). Adverse events were documented in 67 (14%) patients (most commonly tachycardia 5.8%). Steroids were appropriately used in 268 (54.9%) patients and antibiotics were appropriately used in 286 (58

  17. [OPTIMAL APPROACH TO COMBINED TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH UROGENITAL PAPILLOMATOSIS].

    PubMed

    Breusov, A A; Kulchavenya, E V; Brizhatyukl, E V; Filimonov, P N

    2015-01-01

    The review analyzed 59 sources of domestic and foreign literature on the use of immunomodulator izoprinozin in treating patients infected with human papilloma virus, and the results of their own experience. The high prevalence of HPV and its role in the development of cervical cancer are shown, the mechanisms of HPV development and the host protection from this infection are described. The authors present approaches to the treatment of HPV-infected patients with particular attention to izoprinozin. Isoprinosine belongs to immunomodulators with antiviral activity. It inhibits the replication of viral DNA and RNA by binding to cell ribosomes and changing their stereochemical structure. HPV infection, especially in the early stages, may be successfully cured till the complete elimination of the virus. Inosine Pranobex (izoprinozin) having dual action and the most abundant evidence base, may be recognized as the optimal treatment option. PMID:26859953

  18. Drug treatment of psychiatric patients in general practice.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P

    1978-10-01

    The prescribing of psychotropic drugs by general practitioners was assessed by analysing the drug treatment of all patients referred from general practice to a psychiatric outpatient clinic over four years. Of the 287 patients, 220 were taking one or more of 56 different psychotropic drugs at referral, diazepam being the most common. Benzodiazepines and barbiturates had been taken for significantly longer than other drugs, and, of a total of 342 drugs, 61 had been prescribed regularly for over a year. Half of the drugs were considered to be incorrectly prescribed on pharmacological grounds, the main errors being unnecessarily prolonged regular treatment, incorrect dosage (particularly common with antidepressants), and polypharmacy with drugs of similar pharmacological action. A basic grounding in the pharmacology of psychotropic drugs might help practitioners to avoid prescribing errors of this kind.

  19. Treatment Outcome in Older Patients with Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Jenkins, Laura; Dahl, Gary; Bowman, W. Paul; Taub, Jeffrey W; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Campana, Dario; Inaba, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Background Older age has historically been an adverse prognostic factor in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The impact of age relative to that of other prognostic factors on the outcome of patients treated in recent trials is unknown. Methods Clinical outcome and causes of treatment failure of 351 patients enrolled on three consecutive protocols for childhood AML between 1991 and 2008 were analyzed according to age and protocol. Results The more recent protocol (AML02) produced improved outcomes for 10- to 21-year-old patients compared to 2 earlier studies (AML91 and 97), with 3-year rates of event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of refractory leukemia or relapse (CIR) for this group similar to those of 0- to 9-year old patients: EFS, 58.3% ± 5.4% vs. 66.6% ± 4.9%, P=.20; OS, 68.9% ± 5.1% vs. 75.1% ± 4.5%, P=.36; cumulative incidence of refractory leukemia or relapse, 21.9% ± 4.4%; vs. 25.3% ± 4.1%, P=.59. EFS and OS estimates for 10–15-year-old patients overlapped those for 16–21-year-old patients. However, the cumulative incidence of toxic death was significantly higher for 10- to 21-year-old patients compared to younger patients (13.2% ± 3.6 vs. 4.5% ± 2.0%, P=.028). Conclusion The survival rate for older children with AML has improved on our recent trial and is now similar to that of younger patients. However, deaths from toxicity remain a significant problem in the older age group. Future trials should focus on improving supportive care while striving to develop more effective antileukemic therapy. PMID:22674050

  20. Raltegravir in treatment naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV infection based on the superior efficacy it showed compared to optimized backbone therapy alone in patients harboring multidrug resistant viruses. Studies on naïve patients showed comparable efficacy of raltegravir and efavirenz and just recently the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved raltegravir for the use in naïve patients based on the favorable results of the international double-blind phase III STARTMRK trial. Additional interesting findings were the faster, and not yet explained, decay of HIV-1 RNA and the higher CD4+ cells increase in the raltegravir group as compared to the efavirenz group. Raltegravir is generally well tolerated and adverse events were generally similar in raltegravir and comparator arms throughout all studies. When compared to efavirenz, patients on raltegravir showed less incidence of central nervous system-related adverse events. In studies on experienced patients higher incidence of cancers was found in the raltegravir arm: a relationship with the drug was, however not confirmed in a recent review considering all raltegravir studies. Raltegravir also showed a safe lipid profile expecially in naïve patients, finding that renders the drug attractive for patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. All this characteristics in association with its specific mechanism of action, make raltegravir an interesting drug for naïve patients and a large use in this type of patients is predictable. Only time and experience, however, will tell us whether raltegravir will maintain its promises in the long run. PMID:19959413

  1. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ávila, Mónica; Becerra, Virginia; Guedea, Ferran; Suárez, José Francisco; Fernandez, Pablo; Macías, Víctor; Mariño, Alfonso; and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical prostatectomy

  2. Prevention and treatment of bone fragility in cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Ottanelli, Silva

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is well known that fractures increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The various mechanisms responsible for bone loss in cancer patients may have a different impact depending on the characteristics of the clinical case and correlates with the therapies used, or caused by the therapies used against cancer. Some hormonal treatments cause hypogonadism, event which contributes to the progressive loss of bone mass. This is detectable in patients with breast cancer receiving determines that estrogen-deprivation and in men with prostate cancer with therapies that determine androgen deprivation. Chemotherapy treatments used in cancer patients have reduced bone mass. In addition, low bone mass is detectable in patients with lymphoma treated with corticosteroids or radiation or alkylating agents. In premenopausal patients suffering from breast cancer, treatment with cytotoxic therapy or ablation of ovarian function, can lead to an 8% reduction in bone mineral density at the spine and 4% in the femur. With a chemotherapy regimen in CMF, the reduction of BMD is 6.5%; this bone loss is not recovered after discontinuation of therapy. Tamoxifen given for five years reduces bone remodeling and cause a 32% increase in the risk of osteoporotic fractures when used in premenopausal. After menopause, tamoxifen has a protective effect on bone mass, with a reduced risk of new fractures. Aromatase inhibitors in post-menopausal women, depending on the formulation can cause different effects on the reduction of BMD and fracture risk. We have in fact steroids, exemestane and nonsteroidal, letrozole and anastrozole. Patients at increased risk of fragility fractures should undergo preventive therapies as soon as possible after tests performed for the study of bone health. They can be used DEXA and the FRAX algorithm, which can define a secondary osteoporosis. Prevention and treatment of the increased risk of osteoporotic fracture is to maintain adequate levels of calcium and

  3. [Anticonvulsants treatment of psychiatric disorder in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Agents introduced for the treatment of epilepsy have also been usedsimultaneously for psychiatric indications. The therapeutic effects of anticonvulsants are recognized in many psychiatric disorders. Growing literature suggests that anticonvulsant medication have efficacy in treating acute mania, bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, behavioral disturbances especially agitation and impulsive aggression and anxiety, alcohol withdrawal and dependence. However, study of anticonvulsants among elderly patients has been limited. Further research in the field of psychogeriatry is needed to clarify the efficacy and tolerance of anticonvulsants. PMID:17203814

  4. [Global treatment of cardiovascular risk in the hypertensive patient].

    PubMed

    Mazón-Ramos, Pilar; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Palma-Gámiz, José L; Quiles-Granado, Juan; Guindo-Soldevilla, José; González-Juanatey, José R

    2007-02-01

    During 2006, new evidence supporting the need to adopt a global approach to the treatment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients has been reported. It is increasingly clear that it is not sufficient to aim for optimum blood pressure control, which in any case is not easy to achieve, and that it is essential to treat all cardiovascular risk factors by using drugs with proven benefits, even when those benefits are supplementary to the drug's principal effects. In addition, drugs that could have a detrimental effect or that are, merely, less beneficial should be avoided or kept as a last resort. This appears to have happened with atenolol, and with beta-blockers in general, which have been withdrawn as first-line treatment in the recommendations of some professional societies. To lower cardiovascular risk, it is essential to prevent the development of conditions like diabetes, which are known to have drastic effect on the patient's prognosis. Recently, the results of the DREAM study, which are discussed in detail in this article, have been reported. They could lead to a change in therapeutic strategy in patients who are expected to develop diabetes. In addition, this year has seen the publication of substantial data on a new antihypertensive agent, aliskiren, the first oral renin inhibitor. It is awaiting approval by the international medicine agencies (i.e., the FDA and the EMEA), but should provide a very promising tool in the difficult area of high blood pressure management. Despite numerous advances in the pharmacologic treatment of high blood pressure, control is very difficult to achieve, principally in the elderly, in whom the prevalence of hypertension is high. In these patients, social factors and difficulties with treatment compliance also have an influence and must be dealt with by public health measures aimed at improving blood pressure control.

  5. Laser skin treatment in non-Caucasian patients.

    PubMed

    Richter, Amy Li; Barrera, Jose; Markus, Ramsey F; Brissett, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The demand for facial rejuvenation and cosmetic procedures is rising among all ethnicities and skin types. The authors present a review of lasers and how to select a laser based on skin type and the treatment goals of laser resurfacing: skin laxity, dyschromia, hair removal, keloid, and hypertrophic scarring. In addition, they discuss preprocedural and postprocedural considerations, potential complications, and their management to maximize patient outcomes and minimize risk. PMID:25049127

  6. Treatment of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Elizabeth L.; Wheless, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients. PMID:26380568

  7. Onychomycosis: Evaluation, Treatment Options, Managing Recurrence, and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vlahovic, Tracey C

    2016-07-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common nail disease seen in podiatric practice. Effective long-term management remains problematic. We need to treat onychomycosis effectively to prevent its progression into a severe, debilitating, and painful condition, and to manage recurrence. With new agents now available and greater discussion on management strategies, this article reviews the appropriate evaluation of the disease, treatment options, and optimal patient outcomes. PMID:27215153

  8. Patient variables and referral paradigms associated with osteoporosis screening and treatment in neurosurgical patients undergoing kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Morr, Simon; Shakir, Hakeem J; Lipinski, Lindsay J; Dimopoulos, Vassilios G; Leonardo, Jody; Pollina, John

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Bone density testing and medical treatment with bisphosphonates or parathormone are recommended for all patients with an osteoporotic fracture diagnosis. Inadequate testing and treatment of patients presenting with low-impact fractures have been reported in various specialties. Similar data are not available from academic neurosurgery groups. The authors assessed compliance with treatment and testing of osteoporosis in patients with vertebral compression fractures evaluated by the authors' academic neurosurgery service, and patient variable and health-systems factors associated with improved compliance. METHODS Data for patients who underwent percutaneous kyphoplasty for compression fractures was retrospectively collected. Diagnostic and medical interventions were tabulated. Pre-, intra-, and posthospital factors that had been theorized to affect the compliance of patients with osteoporosis-related therapies were tabulated and statistically analyzed. RESULTS Less than 50% of patients with kyphoplasty received such therapies. Age was not found to correlate with other variables. Referral from a specialist rather than a primary care physician was associated with a higher rate of bone density screening, as well as vitamin D and calcium therapy, but not bisphosphonate/parathormone therapy. Patients who underwent preoperative evaluation by their primary care physician were significantly more likely to receive bisphosphonates compared with those only evaluated by a hospitalist. Patients with unprovoked fractures were more likely to undergo multiple surgeries compared with those with minor trauma. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest poor compliance with current standard of care for medical therapies in patients with osteoporotic compression fractures undergoing kyphoplasty under the care of an academic neurosurgery service.

  9. Post-treatment drinking among HIV patients: Relationship to pre-treatment marijuana and cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND For individuals with HIV, heavy drinking can pose serious threats to health. Some interventions are effective at reducing drinking in this population, but many HIV-infected heavy drinkers also use marijuana or cocaine. Although these drugs have predicted poor alcohol outcomes in other treatment studies, whether this occurs among HIV patients who drink heavily is unknown. METHODS Participants were binge-drinking HIV primary care patients (N=254) enrolled in a randomized trial of three brief drinking interventions over 60 days that varied in intensity. We investigated the relationship of baseline past-year drug use (marijuana-only, cocaine-only, both, neither) to end-of-treatment drinking quantity and frequency. We also evaluated whether the relationship between intervention type and end-of-treatment drinking varied by baseline drug use. Final models incorporated control for patients’ demographic and HIV characteristics. RESULTS In final models, drinking frequency at the end of treatment did not vary by baseline drug use, but drinking quantity did (X2 [3] = 13.87, p<0.01), with individuals using cocaine-only drinking significantly more per occasion (B=0.32, p<0.01). Baseline drug use also interacted with intervention condition in predicting end-of-treatment drinking quantity (X2 [6] = 13.98, p<0.05), but not frequency, with the largest discrepancies in end-of-treatment drinks per drinking day by intervention intensity among cocaine-only patients. CONCLUSIONS In general, HIV patients using cocaine evidenced the highest levels of drinking after alcohol intervention. However, these individuals also evidenced the most pronounced differences in end-of-treatment drinking by intervention intensity. These results suggest the importance of more intensive intervention for individuals using alcohol and cocaine. PMID:25920801

  10. [Acupuncture reflexotherapy in the treatment of hypertension patients].

    PubMed

    Babichenko, M A

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture was used in a combination treatment of 110 patients with stage I to III hypertensive disease (HD). As far as acupuncture points are concerned we followed the lines laid down in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with results of Ryodoraku investigation and those of auriculodiagnosis supplying a guide to the choice of points taking into account the type of hemodynamics. In our experience, redundancy with the meridian of the liver, unlike TCM notions about dominance under HD syndrome of fire and wind in the liver, was found to be the case in 40 percent of the patients while redundancy with meridians of the heart and pericardium was recordable in 97 and 84 percent of the cases respectively. The use of acupuncture points in the neck collar region and head and of antique points along the meridians of the heart and liver were shown to be effective treatment having a beneficial effect on cerebral circulation. Results of the clinical study suggest efficiency, expediency, and pathogenic value of acupuncture in the treatment of HD patients. PMID:10878993

  11. Treatment choices and subsequent attendance by substance-dependent patients who disengage from intensive outpatient treatment

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Drapkin, Michelle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rennert, Lior; Goodman, Jessica D.; Thomas, Tyrone; Ivey, Megan; McKay, James R.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase engagement in effective treatment, we offered a choice of alternate evidence-based treatments to 137 alcohol- or cocaine-dependent adults (110 males, 27 females) who entered an intensive outpatient program (IOP) but disengaged within the first 8 weeks. We hypothesized that disengaged patients would choose and subsequently attend alternatives to IOP when given the chance, that their choices would be consistent with their previously-stated preferences, and that demographic and clinical characteristics would be predictive of alternatives chosen. Of 96 participants reached by phone, 19% chose no treatment; 49% chose to return to IOP; 24% chose individual psychotherapy; 6% chose telephone counseling; 2% chose naltrexone with medication management. There were few relationships between participant characteristics and choices made upon disengagement. Participants who chose alternative treatments were equally likely to attend their chosen treatment as those who chose IOP. Limited interest in alternative treatments may reflect allegiance to IOP, which was initially chosen by all participants. Implications for implementation of patient-centered adaptive treatment are discussed. PMID:27667970

  12. Treatment choices and subsequent attendance by substance-dependent patients who disengage from intensive outpatient treatment

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Deborah H. A.; Drapkin, Michelle; Lynch, Kevin G.; Rennert, Lior; Goodman, Jessica D.; Thomas, Tyrone; Ivey, Megan; McKay, James R.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to increase engagement in effective treatment, we offered a choice of alternate evidence-based treatments to 137 alcohol- or cocaine-dependent adults (110 males, 27 females) who entered an intensive outpatient program (IOP) but disengaged within the first 8 weeks. We hypothesized that disengaged patients would choose and subsequently attend alternatives to IOP when given the chance, that their choices would be consistent with their previously-stated preferences, and that demographic and clinical characteristics would be predictive of alternatives chosen. Of 96 participants reached by phone, 19% chose no treatment; 49% chose to return to IOP; 24% chose individual psychotherapy; 6% chose telephone counseling; 2% chose naltrexone with medication management. There were few relationships between participant characteristics and choices made upon disengagement. Participants who chose alternative treatments were equally likely to attend their chosen treatment as those who chose IOP. Limited interest in alternative treatments may reflect allegiance to IOP, which was initially chosen by all participants. Implications for implementation of patient-centered adaptive treatment are discussed.

  13. [Clinical manifestations, complications and treatment of brucellosis: 45-patient study].

    PubMed

    Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported. PMID:18387752

  14. [Drug treatment and interventional pain therapy in back pain patients].

    PubMed

    Sprott, Haiko; Klauke, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of chronic, non-malignant low-back pain is based on the patients' history and the clinical examination. It can be assumed that half of the cases present with a neuropathic pain component which needs to be treated with antidepressive and antiepileptic drugs instead of "pure" analgesics. Opioids should be considered with extreme caution because of their toxicity. Chronic non-malignant back pain is the prototype for interdisciplinary treatment approaches and multi-modal interdisciplinary settings, including pain programmes. However, a personalised strategy has to be preferred in most cases. A quick relief of pain is important in order to improve function as well as to re-integrate the patient into professional life. Spinal infiltrations can be of both diagnostic as well as therapeutic benefits. Their indication must be considered carefully, especially if the invasive diagnostic intervention has no therapeutic consequences. The interventional procedures should only be used as part of a multimodal approach in patients without any psychological problem. The sole use of interventions supports the purely somatic orientation of many patients and thus leads us in the wrong direction.

  15. Rapid Clozapine Titration in Patients with Treatment Refractory Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Özdemir, Armağan; Sağlam, Nazife Gamze Usta; Turan, Şenol; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı; Tomruk, Nesrin; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in patients with schizophrenia in hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective two-center cohort study to compare the safety and effectiveness of clozapine with different titration rates in treatment-refractory patients with schizophrenia. In the first center, clozapine was started at 25-50 mg followed by 50-100 mg as needed every 6 h on day 1, followed by increases of 50-100 mg/day. In the second center, titration was slower; clozapine initiated with 12.5-50 mg on day 1 followed by increases of 25-50 mg/day. The number of days between starting of clozapine until discharge was shorter in the rapid titration group (22.4 ± 8.72 vs 27.0 ± 10.5, p = 0.1). Number of days of total hospital stay were significantly shorter in the rapid titration group (29.6 ± 10.6 vs 41.2 ± 14.8, p = 0.002). Hypotension was more common in the rapid titration group and one patient had suspected myocarditis. Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective. The length of stay following initiation of clozapine was shorter in the rapid-titration group, although this was not statistically significant. However starting clozapine earlier together with rapid titration has significantly shortened the length of hospital stay in patients with treatment refractory schizophrenia.

  16. Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, C. Rune; Nielsen, Henrik V.; Bytzer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The role of Dientamoeba fragilis in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is incompletely known. We aimed to investigate whether eradication of D. fragilis alleviates symptoms in IBS. Twenty-five D. fragilis-positive IBS patients were treated with Metronidazole (MZ) or Tetracycline. The patients were mostly female (89%), and mean age (SD) was 35.1 (8.2) years. Microbiological response, evaluated 2 weeks post-treatment, was observed in 15 of 25 patients (60%), all by MZ. Clinical response, defined as adequate relief of symptoms, was observed in 7 of 22 patients (32%), all by MZ. In a logistic regression analysis, we found no significant association between clinical and microbiological response. This case study did not support our hypothesis of a simple association between D. fragilis and IBS. Some D. fragilis-infections were insufficiently treated by MZ. Further studies into the prevalence and effect of eradication of D. fragilis in IBS and into efficient treatments of D. fragilis are warranted. PMID:23091195

  17. Written treatment contracts: their use in planning treatment programmes for in-patients.

    PubMed

    Rosen, B

    1978-11-01

    The formation of a therapeutic relationship involves the negotiation of a treatment contract which conforms to the general principles of any contractual agreement. Attempts have been made to formalize the therapeutic alliance, and this paper reports the development of a written contract for psychiatric in-patients. PMID:728689

  18. [Patient education and treatment documentation - Law to Improve the Rights of Patients].

    PubMed

    Meltendorf, G; Meltendorf, C

    2013-07-01

    The Law to Improve the Rights of Patients came into force with the promulgation in the (German) Federal Law Gazette on February 25, 2013. Thus administrations of medical institutions and doctors of all disciplines should themselves acquaint with the statutory regulations and their impact on the daily practice. The present article describes and explains the statutory regulations concerning patient education and treatment documentation. PMID:23824480

  19. [Patient education and treatment documentation - law to improve the rights of patients].

    PubMed

    Meltendorf, Gerhard; Meltendorf, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The Law to Improve the Rights of Patients came into force with the promulgation in the German Federal Law Gazette on February 25, 2013. Thus administrations of medical institutions and doctors of all disciplines should acquaint themselves with the statutory regulations and their impact on the daily practice. The present article describes and explains the statutory regulations concerning patient education and treatment documentation. PMID:23888409

  20. Promising new treatment targets in patients with fibrosing lung disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sterclova, Martina; Vasakova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The processes of lung fibrogenesis and fibrotic healing are common to a number of conditions with different etiologies. The lungs are the only affected organ in some cases, whereas in others, several organ systems are involved. Therapeutic options can be discussed from various perspectives. In this review, we address the localization of therapeutic targets with regard to cell compartments, including secreted ligands, cell surface, plasma membrane-cytosol interplay, cytosol and nucleus. Complex approach using stem cell therapy is also discussed. As the prognosis of patients with these disorders remains grim, treatment combinations targeting different molecules within the cell should sometimes be considered. It is reasonable to assume that blocking specific pathways will more likely lead to disease stabilization, while stem cell-based treatments could potentially restore lung architecture. Gene therapy could be a candidate for preventive care in families with proven specific gene polymorphisms and documented familial lung fibrosis. Chronobiology, that takes into account effect of circadian rhythm on cell biology, has demonstrated that timed drug administration can improve treatment outcomes. However, the specific recommendations for optimal approaches are still under debate. A multifaceted approach to interstitial lung disorders, including cooperation between those doing basic research and clinical doctors as well as tailoring research and treatment strategies toward (until now) unmet medical needs, could improve our understanding of the diseases and, above all, provide benefits for our patients. PMID:25405190

  1. [Panniculitis in patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Feki, Nabil Bel; Khanfir, Monia Smiti; Ghorbel, Imed Ben; Said, Fatma; Houman, Mohamed Habib

    2016-01-01

    Panniculitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM). The appearance of panniculitis during treatment with methotrexate (MTX) is exceptional and has only been described in 3 cases. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman suffering from DM since 1997 who was treated with corticosteroids showing favorable clinical and biological evolution. When a relapse occurred 2 years later, she was treated with higher-dose of corticosteroids in combination with a 7,5 mg weekly dose of methotrexate. The evolution was rapidly favorable. Eighteen months later, the patient had multiple subcutaneous nodules on limbs and buttocks. Anatomopathological examination showed panniculitis. There was no evidence supporting progression in DM. Prednisone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/kg/day, always in combination with MTX, without any clear signs of improvement. MTX treatment was stopped and the cutaneous lesions completely disappeared in 2 months without any relapse. This objective response lasted for 42 months. Our observation is particular given the occurrence of panniculitis in a patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate and illustrates the difficulties in the diagnosis. This entity must be known despite its exceptional nature since cutting off MTX treatment generally induces the disappearance of subcutaneous nodules. PMID:27279974

  2. Support of vulnerable patients throughout TB treatment in the UK.

    PubMed

    Potter, J L; Inamdar, L; Okereke, E; Collinson, S; Dukes, R; Mandelbaum, M

    2016-06-01

    Despite well-established treatment regimens, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health burden; it disproportionately affects poor and marginalized populations who may not have access to social support, including migrants, homeless people and those dependent on drugs or alcohol. There is a clearly demonstrated need for housing and other appropriate social support, as part of a package of integrated clinical and social care. However, TB prevention and control efforts in the UK often do not address the specific vulnerabilities of these groups and it can be a challenge to support the continued TB treatment of these underserved populations. This challenge is exacerbated by complex issues concerning funding, immigration and the law. In this paper, we have reviewed current UK guidance and legislation, discussed several case studies and highlighted examples of existing models of community support for TB patients. Finally, we lay out our recommendations for ensuring a co-ordinated, whole system approach to successful TB treatment.

  3. Orthodontic treatment in the severely compromised periodontal patient.

    PubMed

    Feu, Daniela; Menezes, Fernanda Catharino; Augusto Mendes Miguel, José; Cardoso Abdo Quintão, Catia

    2012-12-01

    We describe the diagnosis and treatment of a class II division 1 malocclusion complicated by severe periodontal disease, tooth loss, dentoalveolar protrusion associated with tipping and extrusion of the maxillary incisors, and a traumatic occlusion. Treatment involved the use of a modified palatal arch to intrude and retract the maxillary incisors and high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage and correct the Class II relationship. After active treatment for 19 months, a good anterior occlusion was achieved, with 17° of lingual retroclination and 3 mm of intrusion at the apex of the maxillary incisors. An acceptable occlusion and periodontal status was maintained over a retention period of 2 years. With the patient's cooperation, a successful outcome was achieved with this approach.

  4. Respiratory Variability during Sleep in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chinh D.; Kim, Jong Won; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Thamrin, Cindy; Wang, David

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients have a high prevalence of central sleep apnea and ataxic breathing related to damage to central respiratory rhythm control. However, the quantification of sleep apnea indices requires laborious manual scoring, and ataxic breathing pattern is subjectively judged by visual pattern recognition. This study proposes a semi-automated technique to characterize respiratory variability in MMT patients. Methods: Polysomnography, blood, and functional outcomes of sleep questionnaire (FOSQ) from 50 MMT patients and 20 healthy subjects with matched age, sex, and body mass index, were analyzed. Inter-breath intervals (IBI) were extracted from the nasal cannula pressure signal. Variability of IBI over 100 breaths was quantified by standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and scaling exponent (α) from detrended fluctuation analysis. The relationships between these variability measures and blood methadone concentration, central sleep apnea index (CAI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and clinical outcome (FOSQ), were then examined. Results: MMT patients had significantly higher SD and CV during all sleep stages. During NREM sleep, SD and CV were correlated with blood methadone concentration (Spearman R = 0.52 and 0.56, respectively; p < 0.01). SD and CV were also correlated with CAI (R = 0.63 and 0.71, p < 0.001, respectively), and AHI (R = 0.45 and 0.58, p < 0.01, respectively). Only α showed significant correlation with FOSQ (R = −0.33, p < 0.05). Conclusions: MMT patients have a higher respiratory variability during sleep than healthy controls. Semi-automated variability measures are related to apnea indices obtained by manual scoring and may provide a new approach to quantify opioid-related sleep-disordered breathing. Citation: Nguyen CD, Kim JW, Grunstein RR, Thamrin C, Wang D. Respiratory variability during sleep in methadone maintenance treatment patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):607–616

  5. Patient satisfaction with treatment for alcohol use disorders: comparing patients with and without severe mental health symptoms

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Stacey L; Andrews, Jane M; Gaughwin, Matthew D; Turnbull, Deborah A; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and severe mental health symptoms (SMHS) are less satisfied with standard AUD treatment when compared to patients with an AUD alone. This study compared patient satisfaction with standard AUD treatment among patients with and without SMHS and explored how standard treatment might be improved to better address the needs of these patients. Methods Eighty-nine patients receiving treatment for an AUD either at an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, inpatient detoxification, or residential/therapeutic community services were surveyed. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed using the Treatment Perception Questionnaire (range: 0–40). Patients were stratified according to their score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Forty patients scored in the extremely severe range of depression (score >14) and/or anxiety (score >10) (indicating SMHS) and 49 patients did not. An inductive content analysis was also conducted on qualitative data relating to areas of service improvement. Results Patients with SMHS were found to be equally satisfied with treatment (mean =25.10, standard deviation =8.12) as patients with an AUD alone (mean =25.43, standard deviation =6.91). Analysis revealed that being an inpatient in hospital was associated with reduced treatment satisfaction. Patients with SMHS were found to be significantly less satisfied with staffs’ understanding of the type of help they wanted in treatment, when compared to patients with AUDs alone. Five areas for service improvement were identified, including staff qualities, informed care, treatment access and continuity, issues relating to inpatient stay, and addressing patients’ mental health needs. Conclusion While findings suggest that AUD treatment services adequately meet the needs of patients with SMHS in treatment, patients with SMHS do feel that staff lack understanding of their treatment needs. Findings have

  6. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) Is Associated with Severe Sepsis and Fatal Disease in Emergency Room Patients with Suspected Infection: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Huttunen, Reetta; Aittoniemi, Janne; Koskinen, Pertti; Leino, Aila; Vahlberg, Tero; Rintala, Esa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early diagnostic and prognostic stratification of patients with suspected infection is a difficult clinical challenge. We studied plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) upon admission to the emergency department in patients with suspected infection. Methods The study comprised 537 emergency room patients with suspected infection: 59 with no systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and without bacterial infection (group 1), 67 with bacterial infection without SIRS (group 2), 54 with SIRS without bacterial infection (group 3), 308 with sepsis (SIRS and bacterial infection) without organ failure (group 4) and 49 with severe sepsis (group 5). Plasma PTX3 was measured on admission using a commercial solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The median PTX3 levels in groups 1–5 were 2.6 ng/ml, 4.4 ng/ml, 5.0 ng/ml, 6.1 ng/ml and 16.7 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.001). The median PTX3 concentration was higher in severe sepsis patients compared to others (16.7 vs. 4.9 ng/ml, p<0.001) and in non-survivors (day 28 case fatality) compared to survivors (14.1 vs. 5.1 ng/ml, p<0.001). A high PTX3 level predicted the need for ICU stay (p<0.001) and hypotension (p<0.001). AUCROC in the prediction of severe sepsis was 0.73 (95% CI 0.66–0.81, p<0.001) and 0.69 in case fatality (95% CI 0.58–0.79, p<0.001). PTX3 at a cut-off level for 14.1 ng/ml (optimal cut-off value for severe sepsis) showed 63% sensitivity and 80% specificity. At a cut-off level 7.7 ng/ml (optimal cut-off value for case fatality) showed 70% sensitivity and 63% specificity in predicting case fatality on day 28.In multivariate models, high PTX3 remained an independent predictor of severe sepsis and case fatality after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions A high PTX3 level on hospital admission predicts severe sepsis and case fatality in patients with suspected infection. PMID:23341967

  7. Treatment Planning for Image-Guided Neuro-Vascular Interventions Using Patient-Specific 3D Printed Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Russ, M.; O’Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S.V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patient-specific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays. PMID:26778878

  8. Treatment of young patients with lupus nephritis using calcineurin inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruga, Kazushi; Aizawa-Yashiro, Tomomi; Watanabe, Shojiro; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the management of lupus nephritis, together with earlier renal biopsy and selective use of aggressive immunosuppressive therapy, have contributed to a favorable outcome in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Nevertheless, we believe that a more effective and less toxic treatment is needed to attain an optimal control of the activity of lupus nephritis. Recent published papers and our experiences regarding treatment of young patients with lupus nephritis using calcineurin inhibitors are reviewed. Although it has been reported that intermittent monthly pulses of intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) are effective for preserving renal function in adult patients, CPA is a potent immunosuppressive agent that induces severe toxicity, including myelo- and gonadal toxicity, and increases the risk of secondary malignancy. Thus, treatment for controlling lupus nephritis activity, especially in children and adolescents, remains challenging. Cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) are T-cell-specific calcineurin inhibitors that prevent the activation of helper T cells, thereby inhibiting the transcription of the early activation genes of interleukin (IL)-2 and suppressing T cell-induced activation of tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Therefore, both drugs, which we believe may be less cytotoxic, are attractive therapeutic options for young patients with lupus nephritis. Recently, a multidrug regimen of prednisolone (PDN), Tac, and mycophenolate mofetile (MMF) has been found effective and relatively safe in adult lupus nephritis. Since the mechanisms of action of MMF and Tac are probably complementary, multidrug therapy for lupus nephritis may be useful. We propose as an alternative to IVCY, a multidrug therapy with mizoribine, which acts very similarly to MMF, and Tac, which has a different mode of action, combined with PDN for pediatric-onset lupus nephritis. We also believe that a multidrug therapy including CsA and

  9. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    PubMed Central

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  10. Patient knowledge of HIV and its treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stellenberg, Ethelwynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) need to achieve a 90% adherence rate to ART in order to prevent disease progression and drug resistance. The patients’ knowledge of ART and HIV is thus crucial to ensuring good adherence, decreased risk for drug resistance and cost-effective treatment for these patients. Aim To determine the knowledge of infected patients with regard to HIV and the ART they were receiving. Setting The study was conducted at a comprehensive community health centre in a developing low socio-economic community near Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A quantitative descriptive correlative research design was applied. A sample consisting of 200 (8.5%) respondents was selected from a population of 2349. A multiple-choice questionnaire, comprising 29 questions, including 14 critical knowledge testing questions, was used in individual interviews conducted by either the researcher or fieldworker who assessed the respondents’ knowledge regarding various key aspects of HIV and ART. Results Misconceptions regarding HIV and ART were revealed and scores for the 14 critical knowledge testing questions in the questionnaire revealed that 0% of the respondents had good knowledge, 20% had average knowledge and 80% had poor knowledge. Conclusion The respondents on ART in this particular community health centre had poor knowledge of HIV and ART. This may contribute to poor adherence rates, increased drug resistance, disease progression and increased costs for the government with regard to treating such patients. Increased attention needs to be given to patient education. PMID:26245399

  11. Treatment and survival among 1594 patients with ATL.

    PubMed

    Katsuya, Hiroo; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Atae; Hanada, Shuichi; Eto, Tetsuya; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Saburi, Yoshio; Miyahara, Masaharu; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Uike, Naokuni; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Kiyoshi; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Suzushima, Hitoshi; Ohno, Yuju; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Jo, Tatsuro; Amano, Masahiro; Hino, Ryosuke; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2015-12-10

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature T lymphocytes caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Intensive combination chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been introduced since the previous Japanese nationwide survey was performed in the late 1980s. In this study, we delineated the current features and management of ATL in Japan. The clinical data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of patients diagnosed with ATL between 2000 and 2009, and a total of 1665 patients' records were submitted to the central office from 84 institutions in Japan. Seventy-one patients were excluded; 895, 355, 187, and 157 patients with acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types, respectively, remained. The median survival times were 8.3, 10.6, 31.5, and 55.0 months, and 4-year overall survival (OS) rates were 11%, 16%, 36%, and 52%, respectively, for acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types. The number of patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 227, and their median survival time and OS at 4 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 5.9 months and 26%, respectively. This study revealed that the prognoses of the patients with acute and lymphoma types were still unsatisfactory, despite the recent progress in treatment modalities, but an improvement of 4-year OS was observed in comparison with the previous survey. Of note, one-quarter of patients who could undergo transplantation experienced long survival. It is also noted that the prognosis of the smoldering type was worse than expected. PMID:26361794

  12. Bringing the Hospital to the Patient: First Treatment of Stroke Patients at the Emergency Site

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Silke; Kostpopoulos, Panagiotis; Haass, Anton; Helwig, Stefan; Keller, Isabel; Licina, Tamara; Schlechtriemen, Thomas; Roth, Christian; Papanagiotou, Panagiotis; Zimmer, Anna; Vierra, Julio; Körner, Heiko; Schmidt, Kathrin; Romann, Marie-Sophie; Alexandrou, Maria; Yilmaz, Umut; Grunwald, Iris; Kubulus, Darius; Lesmeister, Martin; Ziegeler, Stephan; Pattar, Alexander; Golinski, Martin; Liu, Yang; Volk, Thomas; Bertsch, Thomas; Reith, Wolfgang; Fassbender, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Background Early treatment with rt-PA is critical for favorable outcome of acute stroke. However, only a very small proportion of stroke patients receive this treatment, as most arrive at hospital too late to be eligible for rt-PA therapy. Methods and Findings We developed a “Mobile Stroke Unit”, consisting of an ambulance equipped with computed tomography, a point-of-care laboratory system for complete stroke laboratory work-up, and telemedicine capabilities for contact with hospital experts, to achieve delivery of etiology-specific and guideline-adherent stroke treatment at the site of the emergency, well before arrival at the hospital. In a departure from current practice, stroke patients could be differentially treated according to their ischemic or hemorrhagic etiology even in the prehospital phase of stroke management. Immediate diagnosis of cerebral ischemia and exclusion of thrombolysis contraindications enabled us to perform prehospital rt-PA thrombolysis as bridging to later intra-arterial recanalization in one patient. In a complementary patient with cerebral hemorrhage, prehospital diagnosis allowed immediate initiation of hemorrhage-specific blood pressure management and telemedicine consultation regarding surgery. Call-to-therapy-decision times were 35 minutes. Conclusion This preliminary study proves the feasibility of guideline-adherent, etiology-specific and causal treatment of acute stroke directly at the emergency site. PMID:21060800

  13. Patient-Provider Communication: Understanding the Role of Patient Activation for Latinos in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Fortuna, Lisa; Reinfeld, Sarah; Alegria, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights results from the Right Question Project-Mental Health (RQP-MH), an intervention designed to teach skills in question formulation and to increase patients' participation in decisions about mental health treatment. Of participants in the RQP-MH intervention, 83% were from a Latino background, and 75% of the interviews were…

  14. Diagnostic Dilemmas and Cultural Diversity in Emergency Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Charlotte; Sklar, David

    1980-01-01

    Language and cultural beliefs play an extremely important role in the interaction between patients from diverse cultural groups and physicians. Especially in emergency rooms, there are many dangers in missed communications. A patient from a foreign culture, especially one who does not speak English, often expresses symptoms in ways that are unfamiliar to many American physicians. Specific areas of cultural vulnerability can be identified for the major ethnic groups in the United States as they interact with the scientific medical system. A short review of folk medical beliefs and recommendations for improving diagnostic accuracy and treatment may assist emergency room staffs in offering care that is culturally acceptable to patients of diverse ethnic backgrounds. PMID:7347053

  15. Quantitation of methadone and metabolite in patients under maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Diong, Shiau Hui; Mohd Yusoff, Nor Shuhadah; Sim, Maw Shin; Raja Aziddin, Raja Elina; Chik, Zamri; Rajan, Poppy; Abdul Rashid, Rusdi; Chemi, Norliza; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitative method was developed to monitor concentrations of methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) in plasma and urine of patients. The developed method was simple, accurate and reproducible to quantify methadone and EDDP in plasma and urine samples in the concentration range of 15-1,000 and 50-2,000 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed analytical method was applied to plasma and urine samples obtained from 96 patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with daily methadone doses of 2-120 mg/day. Urinary methadone excretion was observed to be significantly affected by pH, in which the ratio of methadone to EDDP was two times higher in acidic urine (P = 0.029). The findings of this study further enhance the guidelines for monitoring of methadone treatment among outpatients. Methadone-to-EDDP ratio in urine was found to be consistent at 24 and 4 h, hence suggesting the possibility that outpatients may be monitored with single urine sample in order to check for compliance. This study which provides data on peak concentrations of methadone and EDDP as well as the ratio of both compounds has added to the body of knowledge regarding pharmacokinetic properties of methadone among heroin-dependent patients under MMT.

  16. Chemotherapy-free treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Salles, Gilles; Bachy, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The outcome of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) has improved over the last two decades through the introduction of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, usually used in combination with chemotherapy. However, patients with FL still experience multiple relapses, requiring several lines of treatment. Early toxicity of chemotherapy is a significant concern and as the life expectancy of patients with FL is increasing, late toxicities become an increasingly important concern. Progress made in understanding the biology of FL, especially dysregulation of intracellular pathways and immunological antitumor responses, recently allowed for the development of innovative chemo-free therapeutic approaches. In this report, different options such as new anti-CD20 antibodies, antibodies targeting other cell surface antigens, bi-specific antibodies, immunomodulation, idiotype vaccine and other targeted therapies are presented. The article also highlights how, although promising in early phase studies, the cost-effectiveness of new agents will have to be justified in Phase III trials. Furthermore, chemo-free regimen might not mean toxicity-free treatment and monitoring of early and late toxicities is required. PMID:25585961

  17. Treatment of the adolescent patient with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Samantha M; Dayal, Molina

    2003-06-01

    Frequently, a multidisciplinary approach is needed in the management of the adolescent with PCOS. Treatment must be provided in a supportive environment. Because adolescent females are concerned about their appearance any image, short-term treatment goals are usually directed toward the amelioration of hirsutism, acne, and irregular menstruation. Although not immediately concerning to the adolescent, the prevention of long-term sequelae from anovulation and hyperinsulinemia is also important. Multiple concomitant therapies are often necessary to address the variety of symptoms and achieve better results. Recent studies have investigated the role of the insulin-sensitizing agent, metformin, in the treatment of PCOS. Although most studies show a benefit, the conclusions are limited owing to the small numbers of select patients, observational designs, and short durations of follow-up. In addition, there are few data comparing insulin-sensitizing drugs with traditional therapies for PCOS. More long-term, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the utility of insulin-sensitizing agents, their long-term benefits, and the ideal patient population for their use.

  18. Post-treatment skin reactions reported by cancer patients differ by race, not by treatment or expectations

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J L; Bole, C; Hickok, J T; Figueroa-Moseley, C; Colman, L; Khanna, R C; Pentland, A P; Morrow, G R

    2007-01-01

    Cancer patients may experience skin problems while undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Frequency of skin reactions may be influenced by skin pigmentation and psychological factors. A Symptom Inventory completed by 656 cancer patients nationwide before and after chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy plus radiation therapy was analysed to determine if treatment type, race (Black vs White), and pretreatment expectations influenced post-treatment skin reactions. Subsequent analysis of a local Symptom Inventory completed weekly for 5 weeks by 308 patients receiving radiation therapy examined severity of reported skin reactions. Significantly more patients receiving radiation therapy had stronger expectations of skin problems (62%) than patients receiving chemotherapy (40%, P=0.001) or chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (45%, P=0.003). Overall, expectations did not correlate with patient reported post-treatment skin problems in white (r=0.014, P=0.781) or black (r=0.021, P=0.936) patients. Although no significant difference was found between black and white patients in their pretreatment expectations of skin problems (P=0.32), black patients (10 out of 18, 56%) reported more skin problems than white patients (90 out of 393, 23%, P=0.001). Similarly, the local study showed that significantly more black patients (1 out of 5, 20%) reported severe skin reactions at the treatment site than white patients (12 out of 161, 8%). A direct correlation was observed between severity of skin problems and pain at the treatment site (r=0.541, P<0.001). Total radiation exposure did not significantly correlate with the report of skin problems at the treatment site for white or black patients. Overall, black patients reported more severe post-treatment skin problems than white patients. Our results suggest that symptom management for post-treatment skin reactions in cancer patients receiving radiation treatment could differ depending on their racial background. PMID

  19. Treatment Outcomes of Patients Placed on Treatment Under Directly Observed Therapy Short-Course (Dots)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Goel, N.K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Janmeja, A.K.; Swami, H.M.; Kalia, Meenu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis continues to be a pressing health problem in India. The Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP), an application of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) in India, launched in 1997 needs continuous evaluation. Objective: To study the outcomes of treatment among the patients put on DOTS under RNTCP in Chandigarh, UT. Material & Methods: A Longitudinal study was conducted during 2004-2005 in 13 Microscopic centres (MC's) spread over 2 Tuberculosis Units (TU's) under District Tuberculosis Centre (DTC) in Union Territory (UT), Chandigarh. A sample of 265 respondents, selected by two-stage stratified random sampling technique, was recruited in the study cohort. Data analysis was done using SPSS-10 statistical software package. Results: For Category I and Category II patients, the Success rate was 98.6% and 90.4% respectively. The overall default rate was 1.1% and failure rate was 2.6%. For re-treatment cases, failure rate was higher i.e. 5.8%. The sputum conversion rate among the new smear positive cases was 93.8% at 3 months of treatment. For the re-treatment cases, spu-tum conversion rate at 3 months was 94.1%. Conclusion: The study concludes that RNTCP is running successfully in UT Chandigarh, having high success rate and low default rate. The reasons for high failure rate should be explored in depth. PMID:20165654

  20. Midostaurin: an emerging treatment for acute myeloid leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Gallogly, Molly Megan; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematologic malignancy that carries a poor prognosis and has garnered few treatment advances in the last few decades. Mutation of the internal tandem duplication (ITD) region of fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT3) is considered high risk for decreased response and overall survival. Midostaurin is a Type III receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor found to inhibit FLT3 and other receptor tyrosine kinases, including platelet-derived growth factor receptors, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, src, c-kit, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. In preclinical studies, midostaurin exhibited broad-spectrum antitumor activity toward a wide range of tumor xenografts, as well as an FLT3-ITD-driven mouse model of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Midostaurin is orally administered and generally well tolerated as a single agent; hematologic toxicity increases substantially when administered in combination with standard induction chemotherapy. Clinical trials primarily have focused on relapsed/refractory AML and MDS and included single- and combination-agent studies. Administration of midostaurin to relapsed/refractory MDS and AML patients confers a robust anti-blast response sufficient to bridge a minority of patients to transplant. In combination with histone deacetylase inhibitors, responses appear comparable to historic controls, while the addition of midostaurin to standard induction chemotherapy may prolong survival in FLT3-ITD mutant patients. The response of some wild-type (WT)-FLT3 patients to midostaurin therapy is consistent with midostaurin’s ability to inhibit WT-FLT3 in vitro, and also may reflect overexpression of WT-FLT3 in those patients and/or off-target effects such as inhibition of kinases other than FLT3. Midostaurin represents a well-tolerated, easily administered oral agent with the potential to bridge mutant and WT-FLT3 AML patients to transplant and possibly deepen response to induction chemotherapy. Ongoing studies are

  1. Anakinra treatment in patients with gout and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Antonio; Cantarini, Luca; Rigante, Donato; Bardelli, Marco; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-05-01

    We report three Caucasian patients affected by gout and type 2 diabetes, who were treated with the recombinant nonglycosylated human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (100 mg/day subcutaneously) after an unsatisfactory or incomplete response to urate-lowering therapy, colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and prednisone. The remarkable clinical improvement in joint symptoms within 24 h and in glycemic control during a 6-month period gives anakinra a potential therapeutic role in the management of gout and type 2 diabetes. When anakinra was discontinued, a gout attack occurred within 3-25 days in all three patients. The contribution of anakinra in the treatment of such syndromes is encouraging, but requires further studies to establish its long-term efficacy.

  2. Treatment with aerosols in mechanically ventilated patients: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Mouloudi, Eleni; Georgopoulos, Dimitris

    2002-02-01

    Aerosol medications are commonly used in mechanically ventilated patients. Several classes of drugs with different properties and indications may be given by inhalation. In all cases, compared with the systemic route, the inhaled therapy has the main advantage that for a given therapeutic response, the drug dose is several-fold lower, while the systemic absorption is negligible, thus the side effects are greatly minimized. In addition, for some medications the systemic route either causes non-acceptable side effects or results in considerably inferior therapeutic response, rendering the inhaled route the method of choice of drug administration. Bronchodilators, corticosteroids, vasoactive drugs, surfactants, antibiotics, helium and perfluorocarbons are the medications that can be given by inhalation during mechanical ventilation. Some of those represent part of the standard treatment for various groups of mechanically ventilated patients, while the role of others has not been well established yet.

  3. Livedoid vasculopathy: clinical features and treatment in 24 Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Suiying; Su, Wei; Jin, Peiying; Shao, Changgeng

    2014-09-01

    Livedo vasculopathy (LV) is a chronic cutaneous disorder characterised by recurrent, painful ulceration ending in stellate scars. We have conducted a retrospective study of clinical features and treatment response of LV in 24 Chinese patients. LV occurred more frequently in women (male:female ratio  1:3). The peak age at onset of disease ranged from 14 to 20 years, younger than previously published data. 87.5% of the patients (21/24) showed significant summer exacerbation with ulcer formation. Out of 24 patients tested, 14 (58.3%) had positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Ten out of 14 patients (71.4%) were tested to be hypersensitive to multivalent insect antigens. Combinative anti-inflammatory therapy with steroids, tetracycline and Tripterygium glycosides plus antiplatelet/profibrinolytic drugs promoted quick healing of ulcer and reduce recurrence. The younger age of disease presentation and significant summer exacerbation are 2 novel clinical features observed in this study. These findings suggest that apart from procoagulation other risk factors may contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of LV. Although antiplatelet/profibrinolytic drugs are deemed as a first line therapy for LV, anti-inflammatory medications such as steroids, tetracycline and Tripterygium glycosides, from our experiences, are indispensable, especially for acute, ulcerative stage of disease.

  4. Povidone-iodine in the treatment of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Zellner, P R; Bugyi, S

    1985-03-01

    The improvement in infusion therapy of burn patients in the last decades has led to a marked reduction of the early mortality rate and to an increase in the importance of severe wound infection and septicaemia. For the control of infection, detailed bacteriological monitoring is recommended. The main therapeutic fields for prevention of infection are: immunotherapy, antisepsis, aseptic techniques, and rapid restoration of the destroyed body surface. The most important part of antisepsis in burns is topical treatment. The good bacteriological and clinical results with povidone-iodine (PVP-I), in combination with open treatment are described. A possible disadvantage of this therapy was the extensive iodine resorption. However, no disorders of thyroid function were revealed, and the TRH test indicated no abnormal reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. The high serum and urine iodine levels returned rapidly to normal after discontinuing the PVP-I application.

  5. [Recommendations of antifungal treatment in patients with low grade immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Barberán, J; Mensa, J; Fariñas, C; Llinares, P; Serrano, R; Menéndez, R; Agustí, C; Gobernado, M; Azanza, J R; García Rodríguez, J A

    2008-06-01

    Because of the relevance that the systemic mycoses has acquired in non-highly immunocompromised patients, the treatment difficulties they have due to the increase of the non-albicans Candida species and the need to have a better and more rational use of the new antifungal agents (voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin), an experts' panel on infectious diseases in representation of the Spanish Society of Chemotherapy, Spanish Society of Internal Medicine, and Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery has met in order to make a few recommendations based on the scientific evidence in an effort to improve their efficiency.

  6. [Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    RUS

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein,fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy.

  7. Treatment of unintentional weight loss in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Todd W

    2005-08-01

    Malnutrition from anorexia and reduced nutrient intake is common in patients with cancer. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal function caused by the tumor or treatment of the tumor may be direct causes for nutrition challenges. However, other patients may present with cancer cachexia, a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, early satiety, progressive debilitation, and malnutrition that results in a greater risk of organ dysfunction and death. Changes in host metabolism and energy expenditure are thought to contribute to the development of cachexia, although this relationship is not clear. There is evidence that the etiology of these metabolic changes may be mediated by a neurohormonal response stimulated by the tumor. Because a single cause for these metabolic abnormalities has not been identified, several approaches to treatment of cancer cachexia have been reported. After correction of any underlying gastrointestinal abnormalities, single nutrients or other pharmacologic agents have been used in an attempt to favorably affect appetite or counter metabolic abnormalities that cause inefficient nutrient use. A variety of agents have been studied for their positive effects on appetite, including progestational agents, glucocorticoids, cannabinoids, cyproheptadine, olanzapine, and mirtazapine. Other agents have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties, including thalidomide, pentoxyphylline, melatonin, and omega-3 fatty acids. Anabolic agents such as testosterone derivatives have been investigated as well. The decision to treat symptoms of cancer cachexia should be based on the patient's desires and current medical condition. Choice of the most appropriate agent to treat unintentional weight loss in patients with cancer should include consideration of effects on appetite, weight, quality of life, and risk of adverse effects according to current evidence-based medicine, and cost and availability of the agent.

  8. [Features of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    RUS

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current data of dietary treatment in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Numerous studies have shown that the diet can affect the modifiable risk factors for CHD that is the basis of primary and secondary prevention of this disease. The main areas of personalization of nutrition is the selection of an adequate energy value, a certain quota of protein,fats and carbohydrates in the diet, as well as other micronutrients that may influence the development of coronary artery disease. Caloric restriction of the diet in overweight patients is the most important factor of weight loss, independent of macronutrient composition of the diet. Diets with higher dietary protein content increase the rate of weight loss and improve blood lipid profile, but have a short-term effect. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result, numerous studies have shown that replacing saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a beneficial effect on blood lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease. Several studies have shown that increasing the glycemic load is accompanied by an elevated risk of CHD, especially in women. Personalized dietary treatment on the basis of the etiopathogenic mechanisms of CHD and with the individual characteristics of a particular patient (sex, age, heredity, nutritional status, physical activity) is becoming increasingly important. Personalization of the diet provides a positive effect on risk factors for coronary heart disease, on the quality of life and increases the effectiveness of diet-therapy. PMID:26852529

  9. Treatment of Hepatitis C in Patients Undergoing Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ooka, Kohtaro; Lim, Joseph K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients—most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases—could stand to benefit from these treatments. In this study, we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations. Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically. Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works, of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review. The quality of data was low; only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials. Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically. Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals. Severe adverse effects and death were rare. Data on all-oral regimens were sparse, but in the most robust study, rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41). Efficacy and safety of interferon-containing regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals; however, there were few interventional trials. The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias. While firm conclusions are challenging, given the dearth of high-quality studies, our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective. The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects. Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in

  10. New treatments for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Graal, M B

    1996-11-01

    In subjects with type 2 diabetes, both defects of insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to the development of hyperglycaemia. The major goals of treatment are to optimise blood glucose control, and normalise the associated lipid disturbances and elevated blood pressure. Pharmacologic treatment is often necessary. This paper discusses new forms of oral treatment for subjects with type 2 diabetes. These include a new sulphonylurea compound glimepiride (Amaryl), which binds to a different protein of the putative sulphonylurea receptor than glibenclamide, and seems to have a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. A new class of drugs with insulin secretory capacity, of which repaglinide (NovoNorm) is the leading compound, is now in phase III clinical trials. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reversibly inhibit alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the small intestine, which delays cleavage of oligo- and disaccharides to monosaccharides. This leads to a delayed and reduced blood glucose rise after a meal. Two compounds are in development or have been marketed, ie, miglitol and acarbose (Glucobay). Another new class of drugs is the thiazolidine-diones, which seem to work by enhancing insulin action. The 'insulin sensitising' effects of the leading compounds, troglitazone and BRL 49653C, do not involve any effect on insulin secretion. These drugs also seem to beneficially influence serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Oral antihyperglycaemic agents can be used only during a limited period of time in most patients, after which the diabetic state 'worsens' and insulin therapy has to be started. In this light, two new forms of treatment which require subcutaneous injections are also discussed: the synthetic human amylin analogue AC137 (pramlintide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide, a strong glucose-dependent stimulator of insulin secretion. It remains to be seen whether these compounds can be developed further for clinical use in patients with diabetes.

  11. New treatments for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffenbuttel, B. H.; Graal, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    In subjects with type 2 diabetes, both defects of insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to the development of hyperglycaemia. The major goals of treatment are to optimise blood glucose control, and normalise the associated lipid disturbances and elevated blood pressure. Pharmacologic treatment is often necessary. This paper discusses new forms of oral treatment for subjects with type 2 diabetes. These include a new sulphonylurea compound glimepiride (Amaryl), which binds to a different protein of the putative sulphonylurea receptor than glibenclamide, and seems to have a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. A new class of drugs with insulin secretory capacity, of which repaglinide (NovoNorm) is the leading compound, is now in phase III clinical trials. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reversibly inhibit alpha-glucosidase enzymes in the small intestine, which delays cleavage of oligo- and disaccharides to monosaccharides. This leads to a delayed and reduced blood glucose rise after a meal. Two compounds are in development or have been marketed, ie, miglitol and acarbose (Glucobay). Another new class of drugs is the thiazolidine-diones, which seem to work by enhancing insulin action. The 'insulin sensitising' effects of the leading compounds, troglitazone and BRL 49653C, do not involve any effect on insulin secretion. These drugs also seem to beneficially influence serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Oral antihyperglycaemic agents can be used only during a limited period of time in most patients, after which the diabetic state 'worsens' and insulin therapy has to be started. In this light, two new forms of treatment which require subcutaneous injections are also discussed: the synthetic human amylin analogue AC137 (pramlintide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide, a strong glucose-dependent stimulator of insulin secretion. It remains to be seen whether these compounds can be developed further for clinical use in patients with diabetes. PMID:8944206

  12. Utilizing Health Analytics in Improving Emergency Room Performance.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Emergency room performance improvement has been a major concern for healthcare professionals and researchers. ER patients' length of stay and percentage of patients leaving without treatment are two of the most important indicators for performance monitoring and improvement. The main objective of this study is to utilize health analytics methods in identifying areas of deficiency, potential improvements and recommending effective solutions to enhance ER performance. ER data of 2014 were retrospectively retrieved in January 2015 and analyzed for significant variables affecting inpatient admission rates. Patient Acuity Level was the significant variable on which the recommendations were based. A Fast-Track area was redesigned and dedicated for managing lower acuity level patients; CTAS levels 4 and 5. The performance of the ER has been monitored for the first six months of 2015 and compared to 2014. 29% improvement was achieved on shortening the total ER LOS and 30% improvement was achieved on the percentage of patients leaving ER without treatment.

  13. [Management for the operating room].

    PubMed

    Tschudi, O; Schüpfer, G

    2015-03-01

    Business companies, which in the current times also includes hospitals, must create customer benefits and as a prerequisite for this must sustainably generate profits. Management in the world of business means the formation and directing of a company or parts of a company on a permanent basis, whereby management in this context is not exercising power but function. This concept of management is exemplary developed in this article for the important services sector of the operating room (OR) and individual functions, such as resource control, capacity planning and materials administration are presented in detail. Some OR-specific management challenges are worked out. From this it becomes clear that the economic logic of the most efficient implementation possible is not a contradiction of medical ethics, enabling the most effective treatment possible for patients while safeguarding the highest possible levels of safety and quality. The article aims to build a bridge for medical specialists to the language and world of commerce, emphasizing the profession-based competence and hopefully to arouse interest to go into more detail. PMID:25782780

  14. [Management for the operating room].

    PubMed

    Tschudi, O; Schüpfer, G

    2015-03-01

    Business companies, which in the current times also includes hospitals, must create customer benefits and as a prerequisite for this must sustainably generate profits. Management in the world of business means the formation and directing of a company or parts of a company on a permanent basis, whereby management in this context is not exercising power but function. This concept of management is exemplary developed in this article for the important services sector of the operating room (OR) and individual functions, such as resource control, capacity planning and materials administration are presented in detail. Some OR-specific management challenges are worked out. From this it becomes clear that the economic logic of the most efficient implementation possible is not a contradiction of medical ethics, enabling the most effective treatment possible for patients while safeguarding the highest possible levels of safety and quality. The article aims to build a bridge for medical specialists to the language and world of commerce, emphasizing the profession-based competence and hopefully to arouse interest to go into more detail.

  15. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  16. Locker Room Design Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms. (GR)

  17. HIV Care and Treatment Beliefs among Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tymejczyk, Olga; Hoffman, Susie; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Lahuerta, Maria; Remien, Robert H; Elul, Batya; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Melaku, Zenebe; Nash, Denis

    2016-05-01

    To better understand patient beliefs, which may influence adherence to HIV care and treatment, we examined three dimensions of beliefs among Ethiopian adults (n = 1177) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Beliefs about benefits of ART/HIV clinical care were largely accurate, but few patients believed in the ability of ART to prevent sexual transmission and many thought Holy Water could cure HIV. Factors associated with lower odds of accurate beliefs included advanced HIV, lack of formal education, and Muslim religion (benefits of ART/clinical care); secondary or university education and more clinic visits (ART to prevent sexual transmission); and pregnancy and Orthodox Christian religion (Holy Water). Assessment of patient beliefs may help providers identify areas needing reinforcement. In this setting, counselors also need to stress the benefits of ART as prevention and that Holy Water should not be used to the exclusion of HIV care and ART.

  18. [Effect of patient education on neuroleptic treatment of young psychotic patients].

    PubMed

    Goulet, J; Lalonde, P; Lavoie, G; Jodoin, F

    1993-10-01

    This study verifies the effect of the neuroleptic treatment teaching module, the French translation of the Medication Management Module produced by the social skills training programs. Twenty patients from an outpatient clinic (with schizophreniform or schizoaffective schizophrenia) were assigned at random to a test group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 10). The pre-test evaluation found that the two groups were the same with regard to 13 significant parameters. The experimenters used French translations of well-known instruments, and the double-blind method was applied to their respective observations throughout the study. Results were obtained by applying the neuroleptic treatment teaching module three hours per week for two to three months. The post-test evaluation revealed that patients who had been exposed to the education module had an improved understanding of schizophrenia and the medication required to treat it than patients who had not been exposed. The dose of medication prescribed between pre- and post-test evaluations were able to more effectively stabilize patients who had received education than patients who had not. Nevertheless, the education module continues to have no significant effect on the symptomatology (according to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) and final SAS-II social scores of schizophrenics.

  19. [Monitoring of patients with breast cancer after multimodal treatment].

    PubMed

    Prieto, Marcela Martínez; de la Torre, Celia B Flores; Basurto, Carlos Sánchez; Forgach, Ernesto Sánchez

    2008-02-01

    Breast cancer is a frequent neoplasm in Latin America. Its control implies surveillance for about 10 years after diagnosis. The possibilities of metastatic disease depend on stage at diagnosis and the treatment administered to the patient. It is important that all medical centers implement their own follow-up that fits its needs. Surveillance must include physical therapy, attention to psychosocial aspects as well as treatment for toxicity, secondary effects, recurrence and second primaries. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) includes monthly self-examination, annual mammography, office visits every three months for the first three years, and then biannual visits for the next two years and then annually. Randomized studies and the Cochrane database have proved that intensive follow-up is of no value compared with periodic appointments and annual mammography. Existing evidence suggests that postoperative surveillance of breast cancer patients is extremely expensive, time consuming and of no benefit in terms of survival. Most of recurrences present out of context from follow up visits. Thus, efficacy of routine doctor visits is questionable and a prospective study is needed to outline the adequate strategy.

  20. Pembrolizumab for Treatment of Patients with Advanced or Unresectable Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ryan J; Flaherty, Keith T

    2015-07-01

    From Coley's toxin to combination immune checkpoint inhibition, strategies to activate the immune system and generate anticancer immunity have been ongoing for well over a century. Over the past decade, the so-called immune checkpoint inhibitors, generally monoclonal antibodies that target key regulators of T-cell activation, emerged as the most effective immune-targeted agents. Pembrolizumab is the first anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibody approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. With responses seen in 25% to 40% of patients, depending on dose and setting (i.e., before or after ipilimumab), pembrolizumab specifically and anti-PD-1 antibodies generally are revolutionizing the treatment of melanoma. However, in the setting of other recent advances in the field, a number of practical issues are emerging that need to be addressed to optimize the care of patients with melanoma. First, the optimal sequencing of therapy (first-line immunotherapy over molecular targeted therapy, ipilimumab versus pembrolizumab as initial immune checkpoint inhibitor) is unknown and must be evaluated through randomized trials. Second, there is a strong rationale to combine immune checkpoint inhibitors (i.e., anti-PD-1 with ipilimumab) and to combine immune therapies with targeted therapy agents, so determining whether combination therapy is better than direct sequencing is another critical issue that needs to be addressed in carefully carried out studies.

  1. Vertebroplasty: Patient and treatment variations studied through parametric computational models☆

    PubMed Central

    Wijayathunga, Vithanage N.; Oakland, Robert J.; Jones, Alison C.; Hall, Richard M.; Wilcox, Ruth K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebroplasty is increasingly used in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. However there are concerns that this intervention may lead to further fractures in the adjacent vertebral segments. This study was designed to parametrically assess the influence of both treatment factors (cement volume and number of augmentations), and patient factors (bone and disc quality) on the biomechanical effects of vertebroplasty. Methods Specimen-specific finite element models of two experimentally-tested human three-vertebral-segments were developed from CT-scan data. Cement augmentation at one and two levels was represented in the respective models and good agreement in the predicted stiffness was found compared to the corresponding experimental specimens. Parametric variations of key variables associated with the procedure were then studied. Findings The segmental stiffness increased with disc degeneration, with increasing bone quality and to a lesser extent with increasing cement volume. Cement modulus did not have a great influence on the overall segmental stiffness and on the change in the elemental stress in the adjoining vertebrae. However, following augmentation, the stress distribution in the adjacent vertebra changed, indicating possible load redistribution effects of vertebroplasty. Interpretation This study demonstrates the importance of patient factors in the outcomes of vertebroplasty and suggests that these may be one reason for the variation in clinical results. PMID:23953004

  2. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  3. Patient adherence to medical treatment: a review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    van Dulmen, Sandra; Sluijs, Emmy; van Dijk, Liset; de Ridder, Denise; Heerdink, Rob; Bensing, Jozien

    2007-01-01

    Background Patients' non-adherence to medical treatment remains a persistent problem. Many interventions to improve patient adherence are unsuccessful and sound theoretical foundations are lacking. Innovations in theory and practice are badly needed. A new and promising way could be to review the existing reviews of adherence to interventions and identify the underlying theories for effective interventions. That is the aim of our study. Methods The study is a review of 38 systematic reviews of the effectiveness of adherence interventions published between 1990 and 2005. Electronic literature searches were conducted in Medline, Psychinfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The scope of the study is patient adherence to medical treatment in the cure and care sector. Results Significant differences in the effectiveness of adherence interventions were found in 23 of the 38 systematic reviews. Effective interventions were found in each of four theoretical approaches to adherence interventions: technical, behavioural, educational and multi-faceted or complex interventions. Technical solutions, such as a simplification of the regimen, were often found to be effective, although that does not count for every therapeutic regimen. Overall, our results show that, firstly, there are effective adherence interventions without an explicit theoretical explanation of the operating mechanisms, for example technical solutions. Secondly, there are effective adherence interventions, which clearly stem from the behavioural theories, for example incentives and reminders. Thirdly, there are other theoretical models that seem plausible for explaining non-adherence, but not very effective in improving adherence behaviour. Fourthly, effective components within promising theories could not be identified because of the complexity of many adherence interventions and the lack of studies that explicitly compare theoretical components

  4. A review of treatment options for Graves' disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I(131) iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves' disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I(131)iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves' disease.

  5. A review of treatment options for Graves' disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I(131) iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves' disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I(131)iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves' disease. PMID:27609732

  6. A review of treatment options for Graves’ disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I131 iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves’ disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves’ disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I131iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves’ disease. PMID:27609732

  7. Congruence or Discrepancy? Comparing Patients' Health Valuations and Physicians' Treatment Goals for Rehabilitation for Patients with Chronic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the congruence of patients' health valuations and physicians' treatment goals for the rehabilitation of chronically ill patients. In addition, patient characteristics associated with greater or less congruence were to be determined. In a questionnaire study, patients' health valuations and physicians' goals were…

  8. Treatment for hepatitis B in patients with drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kroy, Daniela C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication. Importantly, these drugs have different barriers to resistance, explaining the higher incidence of treatment failure in the past due to drug resistant viral strains for the older compounds LMV, LdT and ADV. On a molecular level, drug resistant mutations usually affect the reverse transcriptase domain of the HBV polymerase protein. Secondary compensatory mutations restore the replication fitness of the mutant virus. From a clinical point of view, patients undergoing antiviral therapy require regular testing for HBV DNA (every 3–6 months). In case of insufficient viral suppression or viral breakthrough (>1 log increase in HBV DNA above nadir), strict adherence to therapy needs to be ensured. If drug resistance is suspected or even molecularly confirmed, rescue therapy strategies exist, usually switching to a noncross-resistant antiviral drug. LMV, LdT and ETV resistant HBV can be treated with TDF monotherapy, ADV resistance with ETV or TDF, and insufficient responses to TDF may require ETV either as mono- or combination therapy. Complex treatment histories with many antivirals may sometimes necessitate the combination of highly effective antivirals like ETV and TDF. Novel treatment targets such as core (capsid) inhibitors, siRNA targeting protein translation, entry inhibitors or immune modulators

  9. [Diagnostic and treatment measures in patients with sympathetically maintained pain].

    PubMed

    Maier, C; Gleim, M

    1998-08-27

    The term "sympathetically maintained pain" (SMP) describes a symptom that might accompany a variety of diseases (CRPS, (post-) herpetic and post-injury neuralgia), which might transform into sympathetically independent pain (SIP) after some time. Patients with SMP present a bunch of disorders of the autonomic and sensory system, but the only reliable way to diagnose a pain as SMP is a positive response to an intervention at the sympathetic nervous system. Three ways of influencing the sympathetic system are commonly used: (a) local anesthetic sympathetic blockade (SB), (b) intravenous regional sympathectomy (IVRS) and (c) ganglionic local opioid application (GLOA). A review of current literature shows that SB has certain advantages in diagnostic sensitivity, whereas GLOA might be slightly superior in therapy of some diseases with longstanding pain history. Obviously, the therapeutic benefit of all interventions is complete independent of the accompanying autonomic disorder and of a blockade of efferent fibers. A new heuristic model of the SMP mechanism is presented, including both experimental and clinical data. For reducing the risks of false positive or negative diagnosis of SMP and SIP, a diagnostic algorithm is proposed. This includes optimizing the technique, changes of interventional measures, and adequate monitoring both of analgesia and as well of the extend of efferent sympathetic blockade (e.g. measurement of sympathetic reflexes). The treatment recommendations in patients with SMP vary in dependence of the kind of disease. In SMP, invasive measures play an important, but only limited role within the comprehensive treatment concept. As an example a three-stage, symptom-adapted treatment algorithm is demonstrated for CRPS, including also drug therapy, psychologic and physiotherapeutic approaches.

  10. Physicians’ perspectives on the treatment of osteoporosis patients with bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Tao; Eisenberg Lawrence, Debra F; Stephenson, Judith J; Yu, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    Background Noncompliance with bisphosphonate therapy among osteoporosis patients attenuates the reduction of fracture risk. The objective of this study was to assess physicians’ prescribing considerations, preferences for osteoporosis treatments, and perceptions of patients’ compliance with oral bisphosphonates. Methods This was an online survey of US physicians identified in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRDSM) as prescribing oral bisphosphonates to women aged ≥55 years. The survey gauged physicians’ prescribing considerations and preferences for various types of osteoporosis medications. The physicians were asked to predict patient persistence and compliance, and rate various reasons for noncompliance. Results Bone mineral density, long-term medication use (eg, corticosteroids), and a history of fracture were ranked as major considerations by 94.9%, 88.6%, and 86.7% of participating physicians (N=158), respectively, when deciding whether to treat an osteoporosis patient. Most physicians expressed a preference for prescribing weekly or monthly oral bisphosphonates, for both newly diagnosed patients (54.4% and 34.2%, respectively) and long-term users of oral bisphosphonates (40.5% and 36.1%, respectively). Most physicians (23.4% always, 58.9% sometimes) incorporated a drug holiday into their prescribing patterns. Although most physicians predicted that more than half of the patients would comply with the prescribed medication for at least a year, 17.7% predicted that less than half of the patients would be compliant in the 1st year, and 29.7% predicted the same result for compliance beyond 1 year. In the opinion of the majority of physicians, the major reasons for noncompliance with oral bisphosphonates were intolerance of a medication due to a gastrointestinal condition (71.5%) and medication side effects (69.6%). Conclusion US physicians consider several relevant risk factors when deciding whether to prescribe pharmacotherapy and exhibit a

  11. Treatment outcome with implant-retained overdentures: Part II--Patient satisfaction and predictability of subjective treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Cune, M S; de Putter, C; Hoogstraten, J

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of implant-overdenture treatment (IOT) on patients' complaints about dentures and the degree to which subjective treatment outcome could be predicted from baseline patient and treatment characteristics. Four groups of patients were distinguished: one pretreatment group, two posttreatment groups (1 year after treatment) and one reference group of denture wearers, who had not applied for any kind of treatment. They finished a questionnaire with 20 statements on denture complaints. Four scales concerning denture complaints could be distinguished and named after their underlying variables. Differences between the groups were analyzed. IOT treatment was shown to be very effective on a wide range of denture complaints. Little change was seen in patient satisfaction with regard to maxillary dentures when measured on the scales, although many patients wanted improvement in retention and stability for the maxillary denture after IOT treatment in the mandible. Sixteen percent of the denture wearers who had not applied for IOT expressed complaints regarding their mandibular dentures that matched or were more severe than those of the patients that had applied for IOT, before the actual start of treatment. Although generally the subjective treatment outcome of IOT was favorable, it could not be individually predicted from baseline patient and treatment characteristics. PMID:7932261

  12. A view from Riggs: treatment resistance and patient authority-IX. Integrative psychodynamic treatment of psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G

    2008-01-01

    Psychotic spectrum disorders present treatment challenges for patients, families, and clinicians. This article addresses the history of the dualism in the field between biological and psychological approaches to mental disorders, and surveys the contemporary literature about the etiology and treatment of psychotic spectrum disorders. An integrative approach to treatment derived from work at Austen Riggs with previously treatment refractory patients with psychotic spectrum disorders is described that combines individual psycho- dynamic psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, family systems approaches, and intensive psychosocial engagement. Helping patients develop their own authority to join the treatment, use relationships for learning, and understand the meaning of their symptoms is central to the treatment at Austen Riggs. An extended case vignette of a patient diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder is presented illustrating this integrative psychodynamic treatment approach.

  13. Biothermal Model of Patient for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Gaohua, Lu

    A biothermal model of patient is proposed and verified for the brain hypothermia treatment, since the conventionally applied biothermal models are inappropriate for their unprecedented application. The model is constructed on the basis of the clinical practice of the pertinent therapy and characterized by the mathematical relation with variable ambient temperatures, in consideration of the clinical treatments such as the vital cardiopulmonary regulation. It has geometrically clear representation of multi-segmental core-shell structure, database of physiological and physical parameters with a systemic state equation setting the initial temperature of each compartment. Its step response gives the time constant about 3 hours in agreement with clinical knowledge. As for the essential property of the model, the dynamic temperature of its face-core compartment is realized, which corresponds to the tympanic membrane temperature measured under the practical anesthesia. From the various simulations consistent with the phenomena of clinical practice, it is concluded that the proposed model is appropriate for the theoretical analysis and clinical application to the brain hypothermia treatment.

  14. [Management and treatment of patients with hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    den Eynde, Eva Van; Riveiro-Barciela, Mar

    2016-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately one third of the world's population has serological evidence of past or present infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 350-400 million people are chronic HBV surface antigen carriers. The aim of therapy is to prevent the onset of liver fibrosis and development of cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma by sustained suppression of viral replication. Currently there are 2 strategies for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: the pegylated interferon and long-term treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Pegylated interferon has the advantage of being a treatment of limited duration, and is particularly suitable for patients with chronic hepatitis with positive HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen), but the unfavorable adverse event profile and route of parenteral administration makes it less used than nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Tenofovir and entecavir have shown to be potent inhibitors of HBV with a high genetic barrier to resistance and few adverse effects, so are considered as the first line therapy. PMID:27474247

  15. [Management and treatment of patients with hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    den Eynde, Eva Van; Riveiro-Barciela, Mar

    2016-07-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately one third of the world's population has serological evidence of past or present infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 350-400 million people are chronic HBV surface antigen carriers. The aim of therapy is to prevent the onset of liver fibrosis and development of cirrhosis or hepatocarcinoma by sustained suppression of viral replication. Currently there are 2 strategies for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: the pegylated interferon and long-term treatment with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Pegylated interferon has the advantage of being a treatment of limited duration, and is particularly suitable for patients with chronic hepatitis with positive HBeAg (hepatitis B e antigen), but the unfavorable adverse event profile and route of parenteral administration makes it less used than nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Tenofovir and entecavir have shown to be potent inhibitors of HBV with a high genetic barrier to resistance and few adverse effects, so are considered as the first line therapy.

  16. Dyspnea in acute bronchial asthma in an emergency room.

    PubMed

    Kunitoh, H; Watanabe, K; Sajima, Y

    1994-03-01

    Pulmonary function, arterial blood gases, and pulse rate were prospectively compared with dyspnea perceived by patients before and after emergency room treatment for acute asthma in 83 episodes. Subjective degree of dyspnea was rated on a modified Borg scale. Before treatment, all spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate) and arterial blood gas (PaO2, PaCO2, and bicarbonate) data as well as pulse rate were significantly correlated with modified Borg scale, but only PaCO2 showed significant correlation (P < .001) in a multivariate analysis. After treatment, only PaO2 was significantly correlated with modified Borg scale (P = .008) in a multivariate analysis, and pulse rate showed correlation of borderline significance (P = .06). In another 37 episodes of relapsed acute asthma, the correlations between laboratory data and modified Borg scale were very weak, especially after treatment. We conclude that dyspnea expressed by asthmatic patients in an emergency room might be reflecting different mechanisms as treatment is performed. Although it should be one useful guide in emergency evaluation, it must be recognized that dyspnea in the same patient could mean different abnormalities.

  17. Characterization of the use of a cycle ergometer to assist in the physical therapy treatment of critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo; Pereira, Aná Luiza; Parente, Camila; de Sant'Anna, Guadalupe Nery; Esposito, Daniela Daguer; Kimura, Aline; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to use a cycle ergometer to assess cardiorespiratory changes during active exercise and to verify patients' satisfaction with this type of activity. Methods A single intervention involving active lower limb exercise was performed with a cycle ergometer (without load) for 5 minutes. The following variables were measured before, during and immediately after exercise: heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation and the Borg dyspnea scale score. Following the exercise, the patients answered a questionnaire to evaluate their satisfaction with this type of activity. Results A total of 38 patients (65% male) with a mean age of 48 ± 16 years old participated in the study. Enrolled patients presented a sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score of 2 (0 - 5 scale). During the exercise, 16% of the patients used ventilation support and 55% of them were breathing at room air. A comparison of the initial and final values of the variables indicated increases in the heart rate (92±17 beats/min vs. 95±18 beats/min; p<0.05), the respiratory rate (19 ± 8 breaths/min vs. 23±8 breaths/min; p<0.05) and the Borg dyspnea scale score (1.3±1.8 vs. 2.8±2.2; p<0.05). In addition, 85% of the patients reported enjoying the activity. Only 25% of the patients reported some discomfort, and 100% of the patients wanted to repeat this type of activity in future treatments. Conclusion During the cycle ergometer exercises, minor cardiorespiratory changes were observed in the patients. The evaluated patients reported high satisfaction with this type of activity. PMID:23887758

  18. Prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in the pediatric emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Luiz Gabriel; Mendes, Elaine de Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Fever and pain, which are very common in ear, nose, and throat pathologies, are among the most frequent complaints recorded during emergency room pediatric patient treatment. Most of time, the pediatricians are called on to evaluate otorhinolaryngology disorders that requires specialist assessment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses in a pediatric population in a reference hospital in the city of Itatiba, São Paulo. Methods: We evaluated 2,054 pediatric patients (age range, 0–12 years, 11 months) in this descriptive, transversal observational (survey) study. Data collection was performed by a single observer during 103 night shifts (07:00 p.m. to 07:00 a.m.) between January and December 2011, and included documentation of the main diagnosis, and patient age and sex. The ethics committee and research institution approved study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis: Group A otorhinolaryngology disease and Group B included diagnoses not contained in Group A. Results: Of the total enrolled patients, 52.2% corresponded to Group A and 47.8% to Group B; 51.9% were male and 48.1% were female. The average age was 4.5 years (Group A, 3.93 years; Group B, 5.03 years). We compared the prevalence of the diagnostic hypotheses of the 2 groups. Conclusion: A large number of patients sought treatment at pediatric emergency rooms for otorhinolaryngologic diagnoses. PMID:25991987

  19. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-Miao; Zhou, Yuan-Zheng; Wang, Han-Bi; Sun, Zheng-Yi; Zhen, Jing-Ran; Shen, Keng; Deng, Cheng-Yan; Lang, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thin endometrium is associated with poor reproductive outcomes; estrogen treatment can increase endometrial thickness (EMT). The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the factors influencing the effectiveness of estrogen treatment and reproductive outcomes after the treatment in patients with thin endometrium. Methods: Relevant clinical data of 101 patients with thin endometrium who had undergone estrogen treatment were collected. Possible factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment were analyzed retrospectively by logistic regression analysis. Eighty-seven infertile women without thin endometrium who had undergone assisted reproduction served as controls. The cases and controls were matched for age, assisted reproduction method, and number of embryos transferred. Reproductive outcomes of study and control groups were compared using Student's t-test and the Chi-square test. Results: At the end of estrogen treatment, EMT was ≥8 mm in 93/101 patients (92.1%). Effectiveness of treatment was significantly associated with maximal pretreatment EMT (P = 0.017) and treatment duration (P = 0.004). The outcomes of assisted reproduction were similar in patients whose treatment was successful in increasing EMT to ≥8 mm and the control group. The rate of clinical pregnancy in patients was associated with the number of good-quality embryos transferred in both fresh (P = 0.005) and frozen-thawed (P = 0.000) embryo transfer cycles. Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm) are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen. PMID:26612292

  20. [Exercises in patients with myositis--active treatment intervention?].

    PubMed

    Babić-Naglić, Durdica

    2012-01-01

    Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are rare inflammatory myopathies characterized by muscle weakness. Regardless of pharmacological treatment in most patients remain muscle weakness and inability to perform daily activities. Until recently, the prevailing opinion was that active exercises can exacerbate the inflammatory activity in the muscles and is now known that active exercise and exercise with resistance improve strength and endurance of muscles, aerobic capacity and overall functional ability. Exercises are prescribed according to the disease activity, manual muscle test or dynamometer measurements, range of motion, cardiorespiratory capacity and clinical status of the locomotor system. Each of the components can be influenced by targeted exercises and should be a integral part of myositis therapy.

  1. Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis in Patients With CKD

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and believed to contribute to a number of sequelae, including bone disease, altered protein metabolism, skeletal muscle wasting, and progressive GFR loss. Small trials in animal models and humans suggest a role for alkali therapy to lessen these complications. Recent studies support this notion, although more definitive evidence is needed on the long-term benefits of alkali therapy and the optimal serum bicarbonate level. The role of dietary modification should also be given greater consideration. In addition, potential adverse effects of alkali treatment must be taken into consideration, including sodium retention and the theoretical concern of promoting vascular calcification. This teaching case summarizes the rationale for and the benefits and complications of base therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:23932089

  2. [Thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Knud

    2015-05-11

    This Cochrane review had the objectives to determine the dose-related decrease in blood pressure due to thiazide diuretics compared with placebo control in the treatment of hypertensive patients. Hydrochlorothiazide has a dose-related blood pressure-lowering effect over the dose range 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/day of 4/2, 6/3, 8/3 and 11/5 mmHg, respectively. This exceeds the mean 3 mmHg reduction achieved by angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers as shown in other Cochrane reviews, which have compared these antihypertensive drugs with placebo having used similar inclusion/exclusion criteria.

  3. [EMERGENCY TREATMENT OF BLEEDING IN PATIENTS TAKING WARFARIN].

    PubMed

    Prasolov, N V; Shulutko, E M; Bulanov, A Yu; Yatskov, K V; Shcherbakov, O V

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists (AVK) is an effective treatment and prevention of thrombosis. One of the major disadvantages of the AVK is a risk for serious bleeding. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and vitamin K1 are available for control of these situations. The experience of special team ofthe Scientific Center for Hematology was the basis for presented retrospective study. Three regimens of warfarin-related bleeding were compared: PCC+ VK for several bleeding, FFP+ VK for different clinical situations and VKfor light bleeding. PCC showed himself as effective and safe hemostatic agent. Transfusions of FFP were sometimes not effective, sometimes led to TACO. Supplementation of vitamin K1 for patients of I and II groups provided more stable control of hemostasis. In III group VK vas effective to stop bleeding. Two impotent sings for conclusion: necessary of laboratory monitoring, TEG first of all; individual balance of hemostasis base of bleeding or thrombotic risks.

  4. Family-Based Crisis Intervention with Suicidal Adolescents in the Emergency Room: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharff, Elizabeth A.; Ginnis, Katherine M.; Ross, Abigail M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing model of care for psychiatric patients in the emergency room (ER) is evaluation and disposition, with little or no treatment provided. This article describes the results of a pilot study of a family-based crisis intervention (FBCI) for suicidal adolescents and their families in a large, urban pediatric ER. FBCI is an intervention…

  5. [Treatment satisfaction of patients with borderline personality disorder in inpatient schema therapy].

    PubMed

    Reiss, Neele; Vogel, Friederike; Nill, Marco; Graf-Morgenstern, Mechthild; Finkelmeier, Britta; Lieb, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    Patients with severe and chronic psychiatric disorders, such as Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), are hospitalized frequently, but we often find a high ambivalence regarding treatment in this group of patients. 31 patients with severe BPD participated in an inpatient Schema Therapy (ST) treatment program and evaluated both the intensive ST treatment program and group therapy elements regarding their treatment -satisfaction. A high global treatment satisfaction with the ST treatment program was demonstrated and we found a higher treatment satisfaction in patients with than without BPD specific symptom reductions. Remarkable differences in treatment satisfaction showed when looking at the evaluation of group therapies. The results of the present study demonstrate treatment satisfaction of BPD patients in inpatient ST and give directions for the future development of these programs.

  6. [Perampanel in the treatment of a patient with glioblastoma multiforme without IDH1 mutation and without MGMT promotor methylation].

    PubMed

    Rösche, J; Piek, J; Hildebrandt, G; Grossmann, A; Kirschstein, T; Benecke, R

    2015-05-01

    Malignant gliomas like glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) release glutamate which causes excitotoxic death to surrounding neurons, thereby vacating room for tumor expansion. We report the case of a patient with GBM treated with the AMPA receptor blocker Perampanel (PER) in combination therapy for partial seizures. Histological work-up of a biopsy showed the tissue of a GBM without mutation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and without promotor methylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In a group of patients with IDH 1 wild type and non-methylated MGMT a median survival of 199 days after surgery (i. e. 6.5 months) was described. Our patient lived about one year longer. PER rendered our patient seizure-free for at least the last seven months of his life. It was well tolerated and did not increase the toxicity of temozolomide. When choosing an antiepileptic drug (AED) for the treatment of seizures in patients with malignant brain tumors, the efficacy, the tolerability and perhaps possible effects on tumor progression of the AED should be taken into account. PMID:26018396

  7. In-room CT techniques for image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.-M. Charlie . E-mail: charlie.ma@fccc.edu; Paskalev, Kamen M.S.

    2006-04-01

    Accurate patient setup and target localization are essential to advanced radiation therapy treatment. Significant improvement has been made recently with the development of image-guided radiation therapy, in which image guidance facilitates short treatment course and high dose per fraction radiotherapy, aiming at improving tumor control and quality of life. Many imaging modalities are being investigated, including x-ray computed tomography (CT), ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonant imaging, magnetic resonant spectroscopic imaging, and kV/MV imaging with flat panel detectors. These developments provide unique imaging techniques and methods for patient setup and target localization. Some of them are different; some are complementary. This paper reviews the currently available kV x-ray CT systems used in the radiation treatment room, with a focus on the CT-on-rails systems, which are diagnostic CT scanners moving on rails installed in the treatment room. We will describe the system hardware including configurations, specifications, operation principles, and functionality. We will review software development for image fusion, structure recognition, deformation correction, target localization, and alignment. Issues related to the clinical implementation of in-room CT techniques in routine procedures are discussed, including acceptance testing and quality assurance. Clinical applications of the in-room CT systems for patient setup, target localization, and adaptive therapy are also reviewed for advanced radiotherapy treatments.

  8. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population.

  9. Various regimens for prophylactic treatment of patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Rudolf; Ljung, Rolf; Tedgård, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    Haemophilia prophylaxis is superior to on-demand treatment to prevent joint damage. 'High-dose prophylaxis' as used in Sweden is more effective in preventing arthropathy than an 'intermediate-dose regimen' (the Netherlands) and the Canadian tailored primary prophylaxis. Prophylaxis may reduce the risk of developing inhibitors. There is no difference in inhibitor risk between plasma derived and recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products but the Rodin study showed increased risk with second-generation rFVIII products. MRI is a new and very sensitive tool to detect the symptoms of early arthropathy but some results (soft tissue changes in 'bleed-free joints') still need to be investigated. Ultrasound is a very helpful method to aid diagnosis especially during the acute phase of a bleed. The risk of infection with central venous access remains a matter of debate. A fully implanted central venous access device (CVAD) has a significant lower risk of infection compared to external CVADs. Patient's age under 6 yr and inhibitor presence are additional risk factors for infections. The role of arteriovenous fistulae needs to be investigated because significant complications have been reported. Disease-specific quality of life instruments are complementary to generic instruments evaluating QoL in patients with haemophilia and have become important health outcome measures.

  10. Tobacco cessation treatment education for dental students using standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Jacqueline A; Carrico, Ruth M; Myers, John A; Scott, David A; Wilson, Richard W; Worth, Celeste T

    2014-06-01

    The use of standardized patients (SPs) shows promise in tobacco cessation treatment (TCT) training by providing a simulated clinical environment for dental students to practice counseling skills with individuals trained to portray patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge between dental students who received a lecture and practice sessions with SPs and those who received a lecture only. Dental students in an introductory clinical course at one dental school were invited to participate in the study by completing a pre and post questionnaire. The pre questionnaire was administered to all students prior to a tobacco cessation lecture. Students were group-randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group completed the post questionnaire after the lecture and practice sessions with SPs, and the control group completed it after the lecture only. Of ninety-eight students who attended the lecture and were invited to participate in the study, a total of ninety-four from the two groups (96 percent) provided two linkable questionnaires for analysis. In the results, training with lecture and SPs increased the students' understanding of barriers, subjective norms, perceived skills, self-efficacy, and intentions to provide TCT more than those in the lecture only; however, it did not significantly increase their attitudes and knowledge. These findings suggest that using SPs is a valuable educational method to promote the provision of TCT by dental students and graduates. PMID:24882775

  11. Comparison of treatment outcomes in severe personality disorder patients with or without substance use disorders: a 36-month prospective pragmatic follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Fernando; Sánchez-Gil, Carmen; Adroher, Núria D; Pérez, Víctor; Feixas, Guillem; Martí-Bonany, Josep; Torrens, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Background Concurrent personality disorder (PD) and substance use disorder (SUD) are common in clinical practice. However, SUD is the main criterion for study exclusion in most psychotherapeutic studies of PD. As a result, data on treatment outcomes in patients with concurrent PD/SUD are scarce. Methods The study sample consisted of 51 patients diagnosed with severe PD and admitted for psychotherapeutic treatment as a part of routine mental health care. All patients were diagnosed with PD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for PD. Patients were further assessed (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) to check for the presence of concurrent SUD, with 28 patients diagnosed with both disorders (PD-SUD). These 28 cases were then compared to the 23 patients without SUD (PD-nSUD) in terms of psychiatric hospitalizations and psychiatric emergency room (ER) visits before and during the 6-month therapeutic intervention and every 6 months thereafter for a total of 36 months. Results The baseline clinical characteristics correspond to a sample of PD patients (78% met DSM-IV criteria for borderline PD) with poor general functioning and a high prevalence of suicide attempts and self-harm behaviors. Altogether, the five outcome variables – the proportion and the number of psychiatric inpatient admissions, the number of days hospitalized, and the proportion and the number of psychiatric ER visits – improved significantly during the treatment period, and this improvement was maintained throughout the follow-up period. Although PD-SUD patients had more psychiatric hospitalizations and ER visits than PD-nSUD patients during follow-up, the differences between these two groups remained stable over the study period indicating that the treatment was equally effective in both groups. Conclusion Specialized psychotherapy for severe PD can be effectively applied in patients with concurrent PD-SUD under usual practice conditions. These findings suggest that exclusion of patients with

  12. Use of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage in hospital rooms.

    PubMed

    Verhougstraete, Marc; Reynolds, Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Health care-associated infections are a major problem worldwide, and the airborne route is believed to be a contributory source of secondary health care-associated infections. This study examined the efficacy of a portable air disinfecting system to remove seeded coliphage virus from the air in hospitals rooms. Aerosolized coliphage concentrations were not statistically different between treatment and no treatment measurements. However, future research should focus on additional investigations in the patient rooms that incorporate fomite and air testing alongside portable air filtration devices.

  13. Involving Patients in Weighting Benefits and Harms of Treatment in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weernink, Marieke G. M.; van Til, Janine A.; van Vugt, Jeroen P. P.; Movig, Kris L. L.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G. M.; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about how patients weigh benefits and harms of available treatments for Parkinson’s Disease (oral medication, deep brain stimulation, infusion therapy). In this study we have (1) elicited patient preferences for benefits, side effects and process characteristics of treatments and (2) measured patients’ preferred and perceived involvement in decision-making about treatment. Methods Preferences were elicited using a best-worst scaling case 2 experiment. Attributes were selected based on 18 patient-interviews: treatment modality, tremor, slowness of movement, posture and balance problems, drowsiness, dizziness, and dyskinesia. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed in which patients were asked to indicate the most and least desirable attribute in nine possible treatment scenarios. Conditional logistic analysis and latent class analysis were used to estimate preference weights and identify subgroups. Patients also indicated their preferred and perceived degree of involvement in treatment decision-making (ranging from active to collaborative to passive). Results Two preference patterns were found in the patient sample (N = 192). One class of patients focused largely on optimising the process of care, while the other class focused more on controlling motor-symptoms. Patients who had experienced advanced treatments, had a shorter disease duration, or were still employed were more likely to belong to the latter class. For both classes, the benefits of treatment were more influential than the described side effects. Furthermore, many patients (45%) preferred to take the lead in treatment decisions, however 10.8% perceived a more passive or collaborative role instead. Discussion Patients weighted the benefits and side effects of treatment differently, indicating there is no “one-size-fits-all” approach to choosing treatments. Moreover, many patients preferred an active role in decision-making about treatment. Both results stress

  14. Prostate and Patient Intrafraction Motion: Impact on Treatment Time-Dependent Planning Margins for Patients With Endorectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Georg, Dietmar; Goldner, Gregor; Stock, Markus

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate intrafraction prostate and patient motion during different radiation therapy treatments as a function of treatment time; included were prostate patients with an endorectal balloon (ERB). Margins accounting for setup uncertainties and intrafraction motion were determined. Methods and Materials: The study included 17 patients undergoing prostate cancer radiation therapy. All patients received 3 fiducial gold markers implanted in the prostate and were then immobilized in the supine position with a knee support and treated with an ERB. Twelve patients with intermediate risk for pelvic lymph node metastases received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 5 patients at low risk received a 4-field box treatment. After setup based on skin marks, patients were imaged with a stereoscopic imaging system. If the marker displacement exceeded a 3-mm tolerance relative to planning computed tomography, patients were shifted and verification images were taken. All patients underwent additional imaging after treatment; IMRT patients also received additional imaging at halftime of treatment. Prostate and bone drifts were evaluated as a function of treatment time for more than 600 fractions, and margins were extracted. Results: Patient motion evaluated by bone match was strongly patient dependent but in general was smallest in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Prostate drifts were less patient dependent, showing an increase with treatment time in the SI and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In the lateral (LAT) direction, the prostate stayed rather stable. Mean treatment times were 5.5 minutes for 4-field box, 10 minutes for 5-field boost IMRT, and 15 minutes or more for 9-field boost and 9-field pelvic IMRT treatments. Margins resulted in 2.2 mm, 3.9 mm, and 4.3 mm for 4-field box; 3.7 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.6 mm for 5-field boost IMRT; 2.3 mm, 3.9 mm, and 6.2 mm for 9-field boost IMRT; and 4.2 mm, 5.1 mm, and 6.6 mm for 9-field pelvic IMRT in the

  15. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  16. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in an elderly patient following probiotic treatment].

    PubMed

    Eren, Zehra; Gurol, Yeşim; Sonmezoglu, Meral; Eren, Hatice Seyma; Celik, Gülden; Kantarci, Gülçin

    2014-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as baker's yeast, is also used as a probiotic agent to treat gastroenteritis by modulating the endogenous flora and immune system. However, since there have been increasing reports of fungemia due to S.cerevisiae and its subspecies S.boulardii, it is recommended that probiotics should be cautiously used in immunosuppressed patients, people with underlying diseases and low-birth weight babies. To emphasize this phenomenon, in this report, a case of S.cerevisiae fungemia developed in a patient given probiotic treatment for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, was presented. An 88-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with left hip pain, hypotension, and confusion. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic renal failure, left knee replacement surgery, and recurrent urinary tract infections due to neurogenic bladder. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of urosepsis. After obtaining blood and urine samples for culture, empirical meropenem (2 x 500 mg) and linezolid (1 x 600 mg) treatment were administered. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted and after one day of inotropic support, her hemodynamic parameters were stabilized. The urine culture obtained on admission yielded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Urine culture was repeated after three days and no bacteria were isolated. On the 4th day of admission she developed diarrhea. Toxin A/B tests for Clostridium difficile were negative. To relieve diarrhea, S.boulardii (Reflor 250 mg capsules, Sanofi Aventis, Turkey) was administered twice a day, without opening capsules. Two days later, her C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased from 23.2 mg/L to 100 mg/L without fever. Her blood culture taken from the CVC yielded S.cerevisiae. Linezolid and meropenem therapies were stopped on the 13th and 14th days, respectively, while prophylactic fluconazole therapy was replaced with

  17. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  18. The Upstairs Room - Room for Controversy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary F.

    1973-01-01

    Doubtless everyone is tired of the subject of censorship; but I do have to give vent to my feelings when they are as intense as they are over the selection of a book as full of profanity as a Newbery honor book ( The Upstairs Room''). (Author/SM)

  19. Which patients do not recover from shoulder impingement syndrome, either with operative treatment or with nonoperative treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Ketola, Saara; Lehtinen, Janne; Rousi, Timo; Nissinen, Maunu; Huhtala, Heini; Arnala, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — Shoulder impingement syndrome is common, but treatment is controversial. Arthroscopic acromioplasty is popular even though its efficacy is unknown. In this study, we analyzed stage-II shoulder impingement patients in subgroups to identify those who would benefit from the operation. Patients and methods — In a previous randomized study, 140 patients were either treated with a supervised exercise program or with arthroscopic acromioplasty followed by a similar exercise program. The patients were followed up at 2 and 5 years after randomization. Self-reported pain was used as the primary outcome measure. Results — Both treatment groups had less pain at 2 and 5 years, and this was similar in both groups. Duration of symptoms, marital status (single), long periods of sick leave, and lack of professional education appeared to increase the risk of persistent pain despite the treatment. Patients with impingement with radiological acromioclavicular (AC) joint degeneration also had more pain. The patients in the exercise group who later wanted operative treatment and had it did not get better after the operation. Interpretation — The natural course probably plays a substantial role in the outcome. Based on our findings, it is difficult to recommend arthroscopic acromioplasty for any specific subgroup. Regarding operative treatment, however, a concomitant AC joint resection might be recommended if there are signs of AC joint degeneration. Even more challenging for the development of a treatment algorithm is the finding that patients who do not recover after nonoperative treatment should not be operated either. PMID:25809315

  20. Cross-border patients and informed choices on treatment in English and French law and the Patients' Rights Directive.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Developments in European Union law have created rules favourable to cross-border patient movement. However, where national laws on patient rights differ, this may limit movement by creating confusion for patients and by reducing their confidence in seeking treatment abroad. This article examines the extent to which English and French law recognize a patient right to information regarding treatment. In light of the differences between the two systems concerning both the form and the content of the law, highlighted by recent developments in French law, the article then considers whether the Patients' Rights Directive can provide a framework for coordination of national rules. PMID:23198486

  1. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was −0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%±1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.

  2. Negotiating access to medical treatment and the making of patient citizenship: the case of hepatitis C treatment.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Tim; Harris, Magdalena; Martin, Anthea

    2013-09-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview accounts with people who have injected drugs, we deploy ideas of biological and therapeutic citizenship to explore how the negotiation of access to hepatitis C treatment enacts patient citizenship potential. We find that the patient citizenship made through hepatitis C treatment divides those who are deserving from those who are not, largely in relation to their presentations of self-control, responsibility and recovery regarding drug use. Accessing treatment requires that patients negotiate their entitlement by reflexively producing the patient citizen role expected of them. In this context of rationed treatment expectation, access to treatment is constructed in relation to gratitude rather than entitlement. Rationed treatment expectation also interplays with a utilitarian approach to hepatitis C expertise. Accounts of the bio-effects of hepatitis C and its treatment as uncertain further weaken the potential for shared illness identity and biosocial membership as well as contributing to treatment delay. We conclude that the construction of hepatitis C treatment as a negotiation of 'recovery towards normality' positions people who continue to use or inject drugs as beyond patient citizenship. Our findings underscore the situated limits of therapeutic and biological citizenship, emphasising that these processes are unavoidably forces of governance.

  3. Unlocking the Locker Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Dean

    1996-01-01

    Discusses locker-room design standards and common challenges when complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accessibility and safety considerations for shower, toilet, and locker areas are addressed, as are entrance vestibules, drying and grooming areas, and private dressing rooms. (GR)

  4. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  5. Music practice rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberty, D. C.

    1980-03-01

    A study of users, requirements and preferences for music practice rooms is described. Analysis of the subjective and objective information obtained provides guide lines for the design of such rooms. The study has shown that, ideally, the requirements for different users and different instruments vary, but there are broad areas of agreement so that satisfactory designs are often possible.

  6. Early Patient Satisfaction with Different Treatment Pathways for Trigger Finger and Thumb.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stéphanie J E; Braun, Yvonne; Janssen, Stein J; Neuhaus, Valentin; Ring, David; Mudgal, Chaitanya S

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about factors related to patient satisfaction with treatment for trigger digits. This study tested the null hypothesis that there are no factors associated with treatment satisfaction 2 months after completion of treatment (absence of triggering) or 4 months after the last visit for patients with a trigger thumb or finger. Secondary null hypotheses were: 1) There are no factors associated with a change in patients' preferred treatment before and after consultation with a hand surgeon; and 2) Initial treatment provided is not different from final received treatment. In an observational study, 63 English-speaking adult patients were enrolled after being diagnosed with one or more new idiopathic trigger digits by one of two hand surgeons, but before the hand surgeon discussed treatment options. Patients were asked to fill out questionnaires at enrollment. Final evaluation was by phone. Satisfaction with treatment was not related to the initial treatment or other patient or disease factors. Twenty-three patients (37 %) had a different preference for treatment after talking with a hand surgeon. Involvement of the long and ring fingers were the only factors associated with staying with pre-visit treatment preferences. There was a significant difference in proportions of the various treatments provided at enrollment and final treatment recorded at the final phone evaluation, 14 patients (22 %) had a subsequent alternative form of treatment. Patients' preferences for trigger finger treatment often change after consulting with a hand surgeon and during treatment, but these choices do not affect treatment satisfaction.

  7. Managing Osteoporosis Patients after Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Robert A.; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj; Bauer, Douglas C.; Camacho, Pauline M.; Clarke, Bart L.; Clines, Gregory A.; Compston, Juliet E.; Drake, Matthew T.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Favus, Murray J.; Greenspan, Susan L.; McKinney, Ross; Pignolo, Robert J.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used medications for osteoporosis, but optimal duration of therapy is unknown. This ASBMR report provides guidance on BP therapy duration with a risk benefit perspective. Two trials provided evidence for long-term BP use. In the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX), postmenopausal women receiving alendronate for 10 years had fewer clinical vertebral fractures than those switched to placebo after 5 years. In the HORIZON extension, women who received 6 annual infusions of zoledronic acid had fewer morphometric vertebral fractures compared with those switched to placebo after 3 years. Low hip T-score between −2 and −2.5 in FLEX and below −2.5 in HORIZON extension predicted a beneficial response to continued therapy. Hence, the Task Force suggests that after 5 years of oral BP or 3 years of intravenous BP, women should be reassessed. Women with previous major osteoporotic fracture, those who fracture on therapy, or others at high risk should generally continue therapy for up to 10 years (oral) or 6 years (intravenous), with periodic risk-benefit evaluation. Older women, those with a low hip T-score or high fracture risk score are considered high risk. The risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fracture increases with BP therapy duration, but such rare events are far outweighed by fracture risk reduction with BPs in high risk patients. For women not at high fracture risk after 3–5 years of BP treatment, a drug holiday of 2–3 years can be considered, with periodic reassessment. The algorithm provided for long term BP use is based on limited evidence in mostly Caucasian postmenopausal women and only for vertebral fracture reduction. It is probably applicable to men and patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, with some adaptations. It is unlikely that future osteoporosis trials will provide data for formulating definitive recommendations. PMID:26350171

  8. Treatment compliance among prenatal care patients with substance abuse problems.

    PubMed

    Clark, K A; Dee, D L; Bale, P L; Martin, S L

    2001-02-01

    There is an insufficient number of substance abuse treatment programs available to pregnant women; however, even when women do enroll in treatment, they often choose not to comply with particular components of their treatment. To better understand what factors are associated with a woman's likelihood of compliance with treatment, this study assesses 244 pregnant, substance-using women enrolled in a specialized substance abuse treatment program. Women who complied with treatment referrals are compared with those who did not comply with referrals on various factors including their sociodemographic characteristics, types of substance use before and during pregnancy, experiences of violence before and during pregnancy, and prior substance use treatment. Bivariate analysis found that outpatient treatment compliance was more likely among women who smoked cigarettes before pregnancy, women who had received previous substance abuse treatment, and women whose partner had received previous substance abuse treatment. Outpatient treatment compliance did not vary by sociodemographic characteristics, any other type of substance use, or the women's experiences of violence. Inpatient treatment compliance was more likely among women who received prior substance abuse treatment; however, no other characteristic was found to be associated with inpatient treatment compliance. Logistic regression analyses, which controlled for various factors, suggested that past experiences with substance abuse treatment by the woman or her partner were significantly associated with treatment referral compliance. These findings suggest that the previous treatment experiences of women and their partners are important factors in shaping a successful substance abuse treatment program for pregnant women.

  9. The patient's duty to adhere to prescribed treatment: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2005-04-01

    This article examines the ethical basis for the patient's duty to adhere to the physician's treatment prescriptions. The article argues that patients have a moral duty to adhere to the physician's treatment prescriptions, once they have accepted treatment. Since patients still retain the right to refuse medical treatment, their duty to adhere to treatment prescriptions is a prima facie duty, which can be overridden by their other ethical duties. However, patients do not have the right to refuse to adhere to treatment prescriptions if their non-adherence poses a significant threat to other people. This paper also discusses the use of written agreements between physicians and patients as a strategy for promoting patient adherence.

  10. Association of Patient-Provider Communication Domains with Lung Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jenny J.; Lake, Jessica; Wall, Melanie M.; Berman, Andrew R.; Salazar-Schicchi, John; Powell, Charles; Keller, Steven M.; Halm, Ethan A.; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-physician communication is critical for helping patients understand and complete the complex steps needed to diagnose stage and treat lung cancer. We assessed which domains of patient-physician communication about lung cancer and its treatment are associated with receipt of disease-directed, stage-appropriate treatment. Methods Patients with recently-diagnosed lung cancer were recruited from four medical centers in New York City from 2008 to 2011. Participants were surveyed about discussions with physicians regarding treatment, symptoms and needs. Multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling were used to assess which communication factors were associated with disease treatment. Results Of the 352 participants, 191 (54%) received disease-directed, stage-appropriate treatment. Unadjusted associations between communication items and treatment found that participants who felt that their physicians explained the risks and disadvantages of lung cancer treatment (P<0.01), discussed their chances of cure (P=0.02), discussed goals of treatment (P<0.01) or who were warm and friendly (P=0.04) were more likely to undergo treatment. Three communication domains were identified: treatment information, physician support, and patient symptoms/needs. After adjusting for known determinants of lung cancer treatment, increased treatment information was associated with higher probability of cancer-directed treatment (P=0.003). Other communication domains (physician support or patient symptoms/needs) were not independent predictors of treatment (P>0.05 for both comparisons). Conclusions These data suggest that treatment information is particularly important for increasing the probability of cancer-directed therapy among lung cancer patients. Clinicians should ensure that they clearly discuss treatment goals and options with patients while maintaining empathy, supporting patient needs, and addressing symptoms. PMID:25122421

  11. Hepatitis C virus antibody titration in patients with chronic hepatitis C, before and after interferon treatment.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Yamada, G; Miyamoto, R; Doi, T; Endo, H; Nishimoto, H; Fujiki, S; Shimomura, H; Mizuno, M; Tsuji, T

    1992-10-01

    We measured hepatitis C virus antibody titers in 13 patients with chronic hepatitis C to determine whether titration of hepatitis C virus antibody was useful or not, to predict and evaluate the efficacy of interferon (IFN) treatment. During administration of IFN, hepatitis C virus titers declined in all patients. Antibody titers performed before treatment as well as just at the end of treatment did not correlate with change of the alanine aminotransferase levels during administration of IFN. Antibody titers declined continuously after treatment in 5 patients with normal alanine amino-transferase levels for over 6 months after discontinuation of IFN. Antibody titers rose again in 6 patients whose alanine aminotransferase levels fluctuated after treatment. An exceptional pattern of change occurred in 2 patients whose antibody titers declined continuously although their alanine aminotransferase levels fluctuated after treatment. Repeated titration of hepatitis C virus antibody appears to be useful for evaluating the long-term efficacy of IFN treatment.

  12. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Morisada, S; Nosaka, N; Tsukahara, K; Ugawa, T; Sato, K; Ujike, Y

    2015-09-30

    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive burns (SEB) treated before and after implementation of these new guidelines at this institution. The patients included in this study had a burn index (BI) ≥30 or a prognostic burn index (PBI = BI + patient's age) ≥100. The survival rate of the patients with BI ≥30 was 65.2% with the traditional treatment and 100% with the new guidelines. Likewise, the survival rate of the patients with PBI ≥100 was 61.1% with the traditional treatment compared to 100% with the new guidelines. Together, these data demonstrate that the new treatment guidelines dramatically improved the treatment outcome and survival of SEB patients.

  13. Teaching Comprehensive Treatment Planning within a Patient-Centered Care Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Richard T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A group of patient-centered comprehensive-care clinics revised its treatment planning system to better accommodate patient needs for information while still serving student needs for instruction and support. (MSE)

  14. A single application of crotamiton lotion in the treatment of patients with pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Karacic, I; Yawalkar, S J

    1982-12-01

    A single application of 10% crotamiton lotion cured 96% of the 49 patients treated for pediculosis capitis. Only two (4%) patients needed a second application. Following crotamiton application, pruritus regressed completely in 98% of the patients. An adverse effect, namely localized skin irritation leading to interruption of the trial treatment, was reported in one patient.

  15. Dysfunctional Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders: Evaluating the Efficacy of a Tailored Treatment Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Dennis C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Forty-eight dysfunctional patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of an intraoral appliance, stress management, and either nondirective supportive counseling or cognitive therapy. Results support tailored treatment of dysfunctional TMD. (KW)

  16. Treatment preference and patient centered prostate cancer care: Design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Jayadevappa, Ravishankar; Chhatre, Sumedha; Gallo, Joseph J; Wittink, Marsha; Morales, Knashawn H; Bruce Malkowicz, S; Lee, David; Guzzo, Thomas; Caruso, Adele; Van Arsdalen, Keith; Wein, Alan J; Sanford Schwartz, J

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is a slow progressing cancer that affects millions of men in the US. Due to uncertainties in outcomes and treatment complications, it is important that patients engage in informed decision making to choose the "optimal treatment". Patient centered care that encompasses informed decision-making can improve treatment choice and quality of care. Thus, assessing patient treatment preferences is critical for developing an effective decision support system. The objective of this patient-centered randomized clinical trial was to study the comparative effectiveness of a conjoint analysis intervention compared to usual care in improving subjective and objective outcomes in prostate cancer patients. We identified preferred attributes of alternative prostate cancer treatments that will aid in evaluating attributes of treatment options. In this two-phase study, in Phase 1 we used mixed methods to develop an adaptive conjoint task instrument. The conjoint task required the patients to trade-off attributes associated with treatments by assessing their relative importance. Phase 2 consisted of a randomized controlled trial of men with localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the effect of conjoint task intervention on the association between preferences, treatment and objective and subjective outcomes. Our conjoint task instrument can lead to a values-based patient-centered decision aid tool and help tailor treatment decision making to the values of prostate cancer patients. This will ultimately improve clinical decision making, clinical policy process, enhance patient centered care and improve prostate cancer outcomes.

  17. H.P. Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis and diabetes