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Sample records for patient-specific finite element

  1. Patient-specific finite element modeling of bones.

    PubMed

    Poelert, Sander; Valstar, Edward; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2013-04-01

    Finite element modeling is an engineering tool for structural analysis that has been used for many years to assess the relationship between load transfer and bone morphology and to optimize the design and fixation of orthopedic implants. Due to recent developments in finite element model generation, for example, improved computed tomography imaging quality, improved segmentation algorithms, and faster computers, the accuracy of finite element modeling has increased vastly and finite element models simulating the anatomy and properties of an individual patient can be constructed. Such so-called patient-specific finite element models are potentially valuable tools for orthopedic surgeons in fracture risk assessment or pre- and intraoperative planning of implant placement. The aim of this article is to provide a critical overview of current themes in patient-specific finite element modeling of bones. In addition, the state-of-the-art in patient-specific modeling of bones is compared with the requirements for a clinically applicable patient-specific finite element method, and judgment is passed on the feasibility of application of patient-specific finite element modeling as a part of clinical orthopedic routine. It is concluded that further development in certain aspects of patient-specific finite element modeling are needed before finite element modeling can be used as a routine clinical tool.

  2. Patient-specific finite element analysis of ascending aorta aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Elefteriades, John

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophic ascending aorta aneurysm (AsAA) dissection and rupture can be prevented by elective surgical repair, but identifying individuals at risk remains a challenge. Typically the decision to operate is based primarily on the overall aneurysm size, which may not be a reliable indicator of risk. In this study, AsAA inflation and rupture was simulated in 27 patient-specific finite element models constructed from clinical CT imaging data and tissue mechanical testing data from matching patients. These patients included n = 8 with concomitant bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), n = 10 with bovine aortic arch (BAA), and n = 10 with neither BAV nor BAA. AsAA rupture risk was found to increase with elevated systolic wall stress and tissue stiffness. The aortic size index was sufficient for identifying the patients with the lowest risk of rupture, but unsuitable for delineating between patients at moderate and high risk. There was no correlation between BAV or BAA and AsAA rupture risk; however, the AsAA morphology was different among these patients. These results support the use of mechanical parameters such as vessel wall stress and tissue stiffness for AsAA presurgical evaluation. PMID:25770248

  3. Patient-specific finite element modeling for femoral bone augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Basafa, Ehsan; Armiger, Robert S.; Kutzer, Michael D.; Belkoff, Stephen M.; Mears, Simon C.; Armand, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a fast and accurate finite element (FE) modeling scheme for predicting bone stiffness and strength suitable for use within the framework of a computer-assisted osteoporotic femoral bone augmentation surgery system. The key parts of the system, i.e. preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of the augmentation, demand the finite element model to be solved and analyzed rapidly. Available CT scans and mechanical testing results from nine pairs of osteoporotic femur bones, with one specimen from each pair augmented by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, were used to create FE models and compare the results with experiments. Correlation values of R2 = 0.72–0.95 were observed between the experiments and FEA results which, combined with the fast model convergence (~3 min for ~250,000 degrees of freedom), makes the presented modeling approach a promising candidate for the intended application of preoperative planning and intraoperative assessment of bone augmentation surgery. PMID:23375663

  4. Method for patient-specific finite element modeling and simulation of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aström, Mattias; Zrinzo, Ludvic U; Tisch, Stephen; Tripoliti, Elina; Hariz, Marwan I; Wårdell, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease. Success of DBS is highly dependent on electrode location and electrical parameter settings. The aim of this study was to develop a general method for setting up patient-specific 3D computer models of DBS, based on magnetic resonance images, and to demonstrate the use of such models for assessing the position of the electrode contacts and the distribution of the electric field in relation to individual patient anatomy. A software tool was developed for creating finite element DBS-models. The electric field generated by DBS was simulated in one patient and the result was visualized with isolevels and glyphs. The result was evaluated and it corresponded well with reported effects and side effects of stimulation. It was demonstrated that patient-specific finite element models and simulations of DBS can be useful for increasing the understanding of the clinical outcome of DBS.

  5. Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling Based on a Harmonic Field for Patient-Specific Sclera

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wanqiu; Zou, Beiji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study examined the influence of anisotropic material for human sclera. Method. First, the individual geometry of patient-specific sclera was reproduced from a laser scan. Then, high quality finite element modeling of individual sclera was performed using a convenient automatic hexahedral mesh generator based on harmonic field and integrated with anisotropic material assignment function. Finally, comparison experiments were designed to investigate the effects of anisotropy on finite element modeling of sclera biomechanics. Results. The experimental results show that the presented approach can generate high quality anisotropic hexahedral mesh for patient-specific sclera. Conclusion. The anisotropy shows significant differences for stresses and strain distribution and careful consideration should be given to its use in biomechanical FE studies. PMID:28271067

  6. Beyond finite elements: a comprehensive, patient-specific neurosurgical simulation utilizing a meshless method.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Horton, A; Joldes, G R; Wittek, A

    2012-10-11

    To be useful in clinical (surgical) simulations, a method must use fully nonlinear (both geometric and material) formulations to deal with large (finite) deformations of tissues. The method must produce meaningful results in a short time on consumer hardware and not require significant manual work while discretizing the problem domain. In this paper, we showcase the Meshless Total Lagrangian Explicit Dynamics Method (MTLED) which meets these requirements, and use it for computing brain deformations during surgery. The problem geometry is based on patient-specific MRI data and includes the parenchyma, tumor, ventricles and skull. Nodes are distributed automatically through the domain rendering the normally difficult problem of creating a patient-specific computational grid a trivial exercise. Integration is performed over a simple, regular background grid which does not need to conform to the geometry boundaries. Appropriate nonlinear material formulation is used. Loading is performed by displacing the parenchyma surface nodes near the craniotomy and a finite frictionless sliding contact is enforced between the skull (rigid) and parenchyma. The meshless simulation results are compared to both intraoperative MRIs and Finite Element Analysis results for multiple 2D sections. We also calculate Hausdorff distances between the computed deformed surfaces of the ventricles and those observed intraoperatively. The difference between previously validated Finite Element results and the meshless results presented here is less than 0.2mm. The results are within the limits of neurosurgical and imaging equipment accuracy (~1 mm) and demonstrate the method's ability to fulfill all of the important requirements for surgical simulation.

  7. Mechanical evaluation by patient-specific finite element analyses demonstrates therapeutic effects for osteoporotic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Jiro; Murakami, Hideki; Kawahara, Norio; Oda, Juhachi; Tomita, Katsuro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis can lead to bone compressive fractures in the lower lumbar vertebrae. In order to assess the recovery of vertebral strength during drug treatment for osteoporosis, it is necessary not only to measure the bone mass but also to perform patient-specific mechanical analyses, since the strength of osteoporotic vertebrae is strongly dependent on patient-specific factors, such as bone shape and bone density distribution in cancellous bone, which are related to stress distribution in the vertebrae. In the present study, patient-specific general (not voxel) finite element analyses of osteoporotic vertebrae during drug treatment were performed over time. We compared changes in bone density and compressive principal strain distribution in a relative manner using models for the first lumbar vertebra based on computer tomography images of four patients at three time points (before therapy, and after 6 and 12 months of therapy). The patient-specific mechanical analyses indicated that increases in bone density and decreases in compressive principal strain were significant in some osteoporotic vertebrae. The data suggested that the vertebrae were strengthened structurally and the drug treatment was effective in preventing compression fractures. The effectiveness of patient-specific mechanical analyses for providing useful and important information for the prognosis of osteoporosis is demonstrated.

  8. Finite element analysis of patient-specific condyle fracture plates: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C H; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Various patterns of internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures have been proposed in the literature. This study investigates the stability of two patient-specific implants (PSIs) for the open reduction and internal fixation of a subcondylar fracture of the mandible. A subcondylar fracture of a mandible was simulated by a series of finite element models. These models contained approximately 1.2 million elements, were heterogeneous in bone material properties, and also modeled the muscles of mastication. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. The stability and von Mises stresses of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with each of the PSIs were compared. The most stable of the plate configurations examined was PSI 1, which had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0 mm straight four-hole plate.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Patient-Specific Condyle Fracture Plates: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C. H.; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Various patterns of internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures have been proposed in the literature. This study investigates the stability of two patient-specific implants (PSIs) for the open reduction and internal fixation of a subcondylar fracture of the mandible. A subcondylar fracture of a mandible was simulated by a series of finite element models. These models contained approximately 1.2 million elements, were heterogeneous in bone material properties, and also modeled the muscles of mastication. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. The stability and von Mises stresses of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with each of the PSIs were compared. The most stable of the plate configurations examined was PSI 1, which had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0 mm straight four-hole plate. PMID:26000081

  10. Patient-specific Finite Element Analysis of Fiber Post and Ferrule Design.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Valdivia, Andréa Dollores Correia Miranda; Pessoa, Roberto Sales; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Versluis, Antheunis; Soares, Carlos José

    2017-09-01

    A ferrule on anterior endodontic-treated teeth has been evaluated using clinical trials, in vitro tests, and finite element analysis (FEA). The patient-specific FEA with a nonuniform ferrule and nonlinear contact biting load associated with clinical validation can be used to predict failure. A patient was selected with both maxillary central incisors with different ferrule designs who received endodontic treatment and restoration using a fiber post, composite core, and computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. Strain gauges were attached to the buccal surfaces of both teeth to record ceramic strain during bite force recording for FEA validation. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging was performed, and the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine files were exported to Mimics, 3-Matic (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) and Patran (MSC Software, Santa Ana, CA) software to create a patient-specific FEA model. Bite load was applied using contact load applied by antagonist teeth (155 N). Mechanical properties were obtained from the literature. Modified von Mises equivalent stress was used for stress evaluation. Stresses on the dentin and fiber post on the left incisor, which had a nonuniform ferrule, were higher compared with the right incisor. The strain values recorded for the right central incisor (strain gauge =79.9 ± 3.8 μS and FEA = 69.5 μS) and the left central incisor (strain gauge = 83.5 ± 5.3 μS and FEA = 73.9 μS) validate the FEA analysis. FEA was validated with in vivo strain values measured at the buccal crown surfaces, supporting that the stress levels were realistic for investigation of the clinical performance of fiber posts. Maintaining a uniform ferrule was more favorable than a localized higher ferrule. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An anatomically based patient-specific finite element model of patella articulation: towards a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J W; Hunter, P J

    2005-08-01

    A 3D anatomically based patient-specific finite element (FE) model of patello-femoral (PF) articulation is presented to analyse the main features of patella biomechanics, namely, patella tracking (kinematics), quadriceps extensor forces, surface contact and internal patella stresses. The generic geometries are a subset from the model database of the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS) (http://www.physiome.org.nz) Physiome Project with soft tissue derived from the widely used visible human dataset, and the bones digitised from an anatomically accurate physical model with muscle attachment information. The models are customised to patient magnetic resonance images using a variant of free-form deformation, called 'host-mesh' fitting. The continuum was solved using the governing equation of finite elasticity, with the multibody problem coupled through contact mechanics. Additional constraints such as tissue incompressibility are also imposed. Passive material properties are taken from the literature and implemented for deformable tissue with a non-linear micro-structurally based constitutive law. Bone and cartilage are implemented using a 'St-Venant Kirchoff' model suitable for rigid body rotations. The surface fibre directions have been estimated from anatomy images of cadaver muscle dissections and active muscle contraction was based on a steady-state calcium-tension relation. The 3D continuum model of muscle, tendon and bone is compared with experimental results from the literature, and surgical simulations performed to illustrate its clinical assessment capabilities (a Maquet procedure for reducing patella stresses and a vastus lateralis release for a bipartite patella). Finally, the model limitations, issues and future improvements are discussed.

  12. Automatic construction of patient-specific finite-element mesh of the spine from IVDs and vertebra segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Lazary, Aron; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-03-01

    Computational medicine aims at developing patient-specific models to help physicians in the diagnosis and treatment selection for patients. The spine, and other skeletal structures, is an articulated object, composed of rigid bones (vertebrae) and non-rigid parts (intervertebral discs (IVD), ligaments and muscles). These components are usually extracted from different image modalities, involving patient repositioning. In the case of the spine, these models require the segmentation of IVDs from MR and vertebrae from CT. In the literature, there exists a vast selection of segmentations methods, but there is a lack of approaches to align the vertebrae and IVDs. This paper presents a method to create patient-specific finite element meshes for biomechanical simulations, integrating rigid and non-rigid parts of articulated objects. First, the different parts are aligned in a complete surface model. Vertebrae extracted from CT are rigidly repositioned in between the IVDs, initially using the IVDs location and then refining the alignment using the MR image with a rigid active shape model algorithm. Finally, a mesh morphing algorithm, based on B-splines, is employed to map a template finite-element (volumetric) mesh to the patient-specific surface mesh. This morphing reduces possible misalignments and guarantees the convexity of the model elements. Results show that the accuracy of the method to align vertebrae into MR, together with IVDs, is similar to that of the human observers. Thus, this method is a step forward towards the automation of patient-specific finite element models for biomechanical simulations.

  13. Experimental validation of 3D printed patient-specific implants using digital image correlation and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Alok; Park, Jaejong; Carrau, Diana; Miller, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    With the dawn of 3D printing technology, patient-specific implant designs are set to have a paradigm shift. A topology optimization method in designing patient-specific craniofacial implants has been developed to ensure adequate load transfer mechanism and restore the form and function of the mid-face. Patient-specific finite element models are used to design these implants and to validate whether they are viable for physiological loading such as mastication. Validation of these topology optimized finite element models using mechanical testing is a critical step. Instead of inserting the implants into a cadaver or patient, we embed the implants into the computer-aided skull model of a patient and, fuse them together to 3D print the complete skull model with the implant. Masticatory forces are applied in the molar region to simulate chewing and measure the stress-strain trajectory. Until recently, strain gages have been used to measure strains for validation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is a relatively new technique for full-field strain measurement which provides a continuous deformation field data. The main objective of this study is to validate the finite element model of patient-specific craniofacial implants against the strain data from the DIC obtained during the mastication simulation and show that the optimized shapes provide adequate load-transfer mechanism. Patient-specific models are obtained from CT scans. The principal maximum and minimum strains are compared. The computational and experimental approach to designing patient-specific implants proved to be a viable technique for mid-face craniofacial reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient specific finite element model of the face soft tissues for computer-assisted maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Chabanas, Matthieu; Luboz, Vincent; Payan, Yohan

    2003-06-01

    This paper addresses the prediction of face soft tissue deformations resulting from bone repositioning in maxillofacial surgery. A generic 3D Finite Element model of the face soft tissues was developed. Face muscles are defined in the mesh as embedded structures, with different mechanical properties (transverse isotropy, stiffness depending on muscle contraction). Simulations of face deformations under muscle actions can thus be performed. In the context of maxillofacial surgery, this generic soft-tissue model is automatically conformed to patient morphology by elastic registration, using skin and skull surfaces segmented from a CT scan. Some elements of the patient mesh could be geometrically distorted during the registration, which disables Finite Element analysis. Irregular elements are thus detected and automatically regularized. This semi-automatic patient model generation is robust, fast and easy to use. Therefore it seems compatible with clinical use. Six patient models were successfully built, and simulations of soft tissue deformations resulting from bone displacements performed on two patient models. Both the adequation of the models to the patient morphologies and the simulations of post-operative aspects were qualitatively validated by five surgeons. Their conclusions are that the models fit the morphologies of the patients, and that the predicted soft tissue modifications are coherent with what they would expect.

  15. Physical validation of a patient-specific contact finite element model of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Li, Wendy; James Rudert, M; Tochigi, Yuki; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to determine the extent to which computational ankle contact finite element (FE) results agreed with experimentally measured tibio-talar contact stress. Two cadaver ankles were loaded in separate test sessions, during which ankle contact stresses were measured with a high-resolution (Tekscan) pressure sensor. Corresponding contact FE analyses were subsequently performed for comparison. The agreement was good between FE-computed and experimentally measured mean (3.2% discrepancy for one ankle, 19.3% for the other) and maximum (1.5% and 6.2%) contact stress, as well as for contact area (1.7% and 14.9%). There was also excellent agreement between histograms of fractional areas of cartilage experiencing specific ranges of contact stress. Finally, point-by-point comparisons between the computed and measured contact stress distributions over the articular surface showed substantial agreement, with correlation coefficients of 90% for one ankle and 86% for the other. In the past, general qualitative, but little direct quantitative agreement has been demonstrated with articular joint contact FE models. The methods used for this validation enable formal comparison of computational and experimental results, and open the way for objective statistical measures of regional correlation between FE-computed contact stress distributions from comparison articular joint surfaces (e.g., those from an intact versus those with residual intra-articular fracture incongruity).

  16. A patient-specific, finite element model for noncommunicating hydrocephalus capable of large deformation.

    PubMed

    Lefever, Joel A; Jaime García, José; Smith, Joshua H

    2013-05-31

    A biphasic model for noncommunicating hydrocephalus in patient-specific geometry is proposed. The model can take into account the nonlinear behavior of brain tissue under large deformation, the nonlinear variation of hydraulic conductivity with deformation, and contact with a rigid, impermeable skull using a recently developed algorithm. The model was capable of achieving over a 700 percent ventricular enlargement, which is much greater than in previous studies, primarily due to the use of an anatomically realistic skull recreated from magnetic resonance imaging rather than an artificial skull created by offsetting the outer surface of the cerebrum. The choice of softening or stiffening behavior of brain tissue, both having been demonstrated in previous experimental studies, was found to have a significant effect on the volume and shape of the deformed ventricle, and the consideration of the variation of the hydraulic conductivity with deformation had a modest effect on the deformed ventricle. The model predicts that noncommunicating hydrocephalus occurs for ventricular fluid pressure on the order of 1300 Pa.

  17. Patient-specific finite-element simulation of the human cornea: a clinical validation study on cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Studer, Harald P; Riedwyl, Hansjörg; Amstutz, Christoph A; Hanson, James V M; Büchler, Philippe

    2013-02-22

    The planning of refractive surgical interventions is a challenging task. Numerical modeling has been proposed as a solution to support surgical intervention and predict the visual acuity, but validation on patient specific intervention is missing. The purpose of this study was to validate the numerical predictions of the post-operative corneal topography induced by the incisions required for cataract surgery. The corneal topography of 13 patients was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (1-day and 30-day follow-up) with a Pentacam tomography device. The preoperatively acquired geometric corneal topography - anterior, posterior and pachymetry data - was used to build patient-specific finite element models. For each patient, the effects of the cataract incisions were simulated numerically and the resulting corneal surfaces were compared to the clinical postoperative measurements at one day and at 30-days follow up. Results showed that the model was able to reproduce experimental measurements with an error on the surgically induced sphere of 0.38D one day postoperatively and 0.19D 30 days postoperatively. The standard deviation of the surgically induced cylinder was 0.54D at the first postoperative day and 0.38D 30 days postoperatively. The prediction errors in surface elevation and curvature were below the topography measurement device accuracy of ±5μm and ±0.25D after the 30-day follow-up. The results showed that finite element simulations of corneal biomechanics are able to predict post cataract surgery within topography measurement device accuracy. We can conclude that the numerical simulation can become a valuable tool to plan corneal incisions in cataract surgery and other ophthalmosurgical procedures in order to optimize patients' refractive outcome and visual function.

  18. Geometry reconstruction method for patient-specific finite element models for the assessment of tibia fracture risk in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Christiane; Ikin, Nicole; Villemure, Isabelle; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Rauch, Frank; Aubin, Carl-Éric

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb deformation in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) impairs ambulation and may lead to fracture. Corrective surgery is based on empirical assessment criteria. The objective was to develop a reconstruction method of the tibia for OI patients that could be used as input of a comprehensive finite element model to assess fracture risks. Data were obtained from three children with OI and tibia deformities. Four pQCT scans were registered to biplanar radiographs, and a template mesh was deformed to fit the bone outline. Cortical bone thickness was computed. Sensitivity of the model to missing slices of pQCT was assessed by calculating maximal von Mises stress for a vertical hopping load case. Sensitivity of the model to ±5 % of cortical thickness measurements was assessed by calculating loads at fracture. Difference between the mesh contour and bone outline on the radiographs was below 1 mm. Removal of one pQCT slice increased maximal von Mises stress by up to 10 %. Simulated ±5 % variation of cortical bone thickness leads to variations of up to 4.1 % on predicted fracture loads. Using clinically available tibia imaging from children with OI, the developed reconstruction method allowed the building of patient-specific finite element models.

  19. Patient-specific finite element analysis of chronic contact stress exposure after intraarticular fracture of the tibial plafond.

    PubMed

    Li, Wendy; Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Marsh, J Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D

    2008-08-01

    The role of altered contact mechanics in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) following intraarticular fracture remains poorly understood. One proposed etiology is that residual incongruities lead to altered joint contact stresses that, over time, predispose to PTOA. Prevailing joint contact stresses following surgical fracture reduction were quantified in this study using patient-specific contact finite element (FE) analysis. FE models were created for 11 ankle pairs from tibial plafond fracture patients. Both (reduced) fractured ankles and their intact contralaterals were modeled. A sequence of 13 loading instances was used to simulate the stance phase of gait. Contact stresses were summed across loadings in the simulation, weighted by resident time in the gait cycle. This chronic exposure measure, a metric of degeneration propensity, was then compared between intact and fractured ankle pairs. Intact ankles had lower peak contact stress exposures that were more uniform and centrally located. The series-average peak contact stress elevation for fractured ankles was 38% (p = 0.0015; peak elevation was 82%). Fractured ankles had less area with low contact stress exposure than intact ankles and a greater area with high exposure. Chronic contact stress overexposures (stresses exceeding a damage threshold) ranged from near zero to a high of 18 times the matched intact value. The patient-specific FE models represent substantial progress toward elucidating the relationship between altered contact stresses and the outcome of patients treated for intraarticular fractures.

  20. A method for incorporating three-dimensional residual stretches/stresses into patient-specific finite element simulations of arteries.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David M; Fastl, Thomas E; Rodriguez-Vila, Borja; Verbrugghe, Peter; Fourneau, Inge; Maleux, Geert; Herijgers, Paul; Gomez, Enrique J; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-07-01

    The existence of residual stresses in human arteries has long been shown experimentally. Researchers have also demonstrated that residual stresses have a significant effect on the distribution of physiological stresses within arterial tissues, and hence on their development, e.g., stress-modulated remodeling. Through progress in medical imaging, image analysis and finite element (FE) meshing tools it is now possible to construct in vivo patient-specific geometries and thus to study specific, clinically relevant problems in arterial mechanics via FE simulations. Classical continuum mechanics and FE methods assume that constitutive models and the corresponding simulations start from unloaded, stress-free reference configurations while the boundary-value problem of interest represents a loaded geometry and includes residual stresses. We present a pragmatic methodology to simultaneously account for both (i) the three-dimensional (3-D) residual stress distributions in the arterial tissue layers, and (ii) the equilibrium of the in vivo patient-specific geometry with the known boundary conditions. We base our methodology on analytically determined residual stress distributions (Holzapfel and Ogden, 2010, J. R. Soc. Interface 7, 787-799) and calibrate it using data on residual deformations (Holzapfel et al., 2007, Ann. Biomed. Eng. 35, 530-545). We demonstrate our methodology on three patient-specific FE simulations calibrated using experimental data. All data employed here are generated from human tissues - both the aorta and thrombus, and their respective layers - including the geometries determined from magnetic resonance images, and material properties and 3-D residual stretches determined from mechanical experiments. We study the effect of 3-D residual stresses on the distribution of physiological stresses in the aortic layers (intima, media, adventitia) and the layers of the intraluminal thrombus (luminal, medial, abluminal) by comparing three types of FE simulations

  1. Patient-specific spine models. Part 1: Finite element analysis of the lumbar intervertebral disc--a material sensitivity study.

    PubMed

    Fagan, M J; Julian, S; Siddall, D J; Mohsen, A M

    2002-01-01

    If patient-specific finite element models of the spine could be developed, they would offer enormous opportunities in the diagnosis and management of back problems. Several generic models have been developed in the past, but there has been very little detailed examination of the sensitivity of these models' characteristics to the input parameters. This relationship must be thoroughly understood if representative patient-specific models are to be realized and used with confidence. In particular, the performance of the intervertebral discs are central to any spine model and need detailed investigation first. A generic non-linear model of an intervertebral disc was developed and subjected to compressive, flexion and torsional loading regimes. The effects of both material and geometric non-linearities were investigated for the three loading schemes and the results compared with experimental data. The basic material properties of the fibres, annulus and nucleus were then varied and the effects on the stiffness, annulus bulge and annulus stresses analysed. The results showed that the non-linear geometry assumption had a significant effect on the compression characteristics, whereas the non-linear material option did not. In contrast, the material non-linearity was more important for the flexural and torsional loading schemes. Thus, the inclusion of non-linear material and geometry analysis options in finite element models of intervertebral discs is necessary to predict in vivo load-deflection characteristics accurately. When the influence of the material properties was examined in detail, it was found that the fibre properties did not have a significant effect on the compressive stiffness of the disc but did affect the flexural and torsional stiffnesses by up to +/-20 per cent. All loading modes were sensitive to the annulus properties with stiffnesses varying by up to +/-16 per cent. The model also revealed that for a particular compressive deformation or flexural or

  2. Patient-specific finite element analysis of the human femur--a double-blinded biomechanical validation.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Nir; Yosibash, Zohar; Wutte, Christof; Augat, Peter; Eberle, Sebastian

    2011-06-03

    Patient-specific finite element (PSFE) models based on quantitative computer tomography (qCT) are generally used to "predict" the biomechanical response of human bones with the future goal to be applied in clinical decision-making. However, clinical applications require a well validated tool that is free of numerical errors and furthermore match closely experimental findings. In previous studies, not all measurable data (strains and displacements) were considered for validation. Furthermore, the same research group performed both the experiments and PSFE analyses; thus, the validation may have been biased. The aim of the present study was therefore to validate PSFE models with biomechanical experiments, and to address the above-mentioned issues of measurable data and validation bias. A PSFE model (p-method) of each cadaver femur (n = 12) was generated based on qCT scans of the specimens. The models were validated by biomechanical in-vitro experiments, which determined strains and local displacements on the bone surface and the axial stiffness of the specimens. The validation was performed in a double-blinded manner by two different research institutes to avoid any bias. Inspecting all measurements (155 values), the numerical results correlated well with the experimental results (R(2) = 0.93, slope 1.0093, mean of absolute deviations 22%). In conclusion, a method to generate PSFE models from qCT scans was used in this study on a sample size not yet considered in the past, and compared to experiments in a douple-blinded manner. The results demonstrate that the presented method is in an advanced stage, and can be used in clinical computer-aided decision-making.

  3. Patient-specific non-linear finite element modelling for predicting soft organ deformation in real-time: application to non-rigid neuroimage registration.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Adam; Joldes, Grand; Couton, Mathieu; Warfield, Simon K; Miller, Karol

    2010-12-01

    Long computation times of non-linear (i.e. accounting for geometric and material non-linearity) biomechanical models have been regarded as one of the key factors preventing application of such models in predicting organ deformation for image-guided surgery. This contribution presents real-time patient-specific computation of the deformation field within the brain for six cases of brain shift induced by craniotomy (i.e. surgical opening of the skull) using specialised non-linear finite element procedures implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). In contrast to commercial finite element codes that rely on an updated Lagrangian formulation and implicit integration in time domain for steady state solutions, our procedures utilise the total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time stepping and dynamic relaxation. We used patient-specific finite element meshes consisting of hexahedral and non-locking tetrahedral elements, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at the boundaries. The loading was defined by prescribing deformations on the brain surface under the craniotomy. Application of the computed deformation fields to register (i.e. align) the preoperative and intraoperative images indicated that the models very accurately predict the intraoperative deformations within the brain. For each case, computing the brain deformation field took less than 4 s using an NVIDIA Tesla C870 GPU, which is two orders of magnitude reduction in computation time in comparison to our previous study in which the brain deformation was predicted using a commercial finite element solver executed on a personal computer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient-Specific Non-Linear Finite Element Modelling for Predicting Soft Organ Deformation in Real-Time; Application to Non-Rigid Neuroimage Registration

    PubMed Central

    Wittek, Adam; Joldes, Grand; Couton, Mathieu; Warfield, Simon K.; Miller, Karol

    2010-01-01

    Long computation times of non-linear (i.e. accounting for geometric and material non-linearity) biomechanical models have been regarded as one of the key factors preventing application of such models in predicting organ deformation for image-guided surgery. This contribution presents real-time patient-specific computation of the deformation field within the brain for six cases of brain shift induced by craniotomy (i.e. surgical opening of the skull) using specialised non-linear finite element procedures implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). In contrast to commercial finite element codes that rely on an updated Lagrangian formulation and implicit integration in time domain for steady state solutions, our procedures utilise the total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time stepping and dynamic relaxation. We used patient-specific finite element meshes consisting of hexahedral and non-locking tetrahedral elements, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at the boundaries. The loading was defined by prescribing deformations on the brain surface under the craniotomy. Application of the computed deformation fields to register (i.e. align) the preoperative and intraoperative images indicated that the models very accurately predict the intraoperative deformations within the brain. For each case, computing the brain deformation field took less than 4 s using a NVIDIA Tesla C870 GPU, which is two orders of magnitude reduction in computation time in comparison to our previous study in which the brain deformation was predicted using a commercial finite element solver executed on a personal computer. PMID:20868706

  5. An adaptive patient specific deformable registration for breast images of positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging using finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Cheng; Tang, Fuk-Hay

    2014-03-01

    A patient specific registration model based on finite element method was investigated in this study. Image registration of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) has been studied a lot. Surface-based registration is extensively applied in medical imaging. We develop and evaluate a registration method combine surface-based registration with biomechanical modeling. .Four sample cases of patients with PET and MRI breast scans performed within 30 days were collected from hospital. K-means clustering algorithm was used to segment images into two parts, which is fat tissue and neoplasm [2]. Instead of placing extrinsic landmarks on patients' body which may be invasive, we proposed a new boundary condition to simulate breast deformation during two screening. Then a three dimensional model with meshes was built. Material properties were assigned to this model according to previous studies. The whole registration was based on a biomechanical finite element model, which could simulate deformation of breast under pressure.

  6. Evaluation of a Patient-Specific Finite-Element Model to Simulate Conservative Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Vergari, Claudio; Ribes, Gwenael; Aubert, Benjamin; Adam, Clayton; Miladi, Lotfi; Ilharreborde, Brice; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Rouch, Philippe; Skalli, Wafa

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective validation study. To propose a method to evaluate, from a clinical standpoint, the ability of a finite-element model (FEM) of the trunk to simulate orthotic correction of spinal deformity and to apply it to validate a previously described FEM. Several FEMs of the scoliotic spine have been described in the literature. These models can prove useful in understanding the mechanisms of scoliosis progression and in optimizing its treatment, but their validation has often been lacking or incomplete. Three-dimensional (3D) geometries of 10 patients before and during conservative treatment were reconstructed from biplanar radiographs. The effect of bracing was simulated by modeling displacements induced by the brace pads. Simulated clinical indices (Cobb angle, T1-T12 and T4-T12 kyphosis, L1-L5 lordosis, apical vertebral rotation, torsion, rib hump) and vertebral orientations and positions were compared to those measured in the patients' 3D geometries. Errors in clinical indices were of the same order of magnitude as the uncertainties due to 3D reconstruction; for instance, Cobb angle was simulated with a root mean square error of 5.7°, and rib hump error was 5.6°. Vertebral orientation was simulated with a root mean square error of 4.8° and vertebral position with an error of 2.5 mm. The methodology proposed here allowed in-depth evaluation of subject-specific simulations, confirming that FEMs of the trunk have the potential to accurately simulate brace action. These promising results provide a basis for ongoing 3D model development, toward the design of more efficient orthoses. Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intra-articular Contact Stress Distributions at the Ankle throughout Stance Phase – Patient-Specific Finite Element Analysis as a Metric of Degeneration Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald D.; Goldsworthy, Jane K.; Shivanna, Kiran; Grosland, Nicole M.; Pedersen, Douglas R.; Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Tochigi, Yuki; Marsh, J.Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    A contact finite element (FE) formulation is introduced, amenable to patient-specific analysis of cumulative cartilage mechano-stimulus attributable to habitual functional activity. CT scans of individual human ankles are segmented to delineate bony margins. Each bone surface is projected outward to create a second surface, and the intervening volume is then meshed with continuum hexahedral elements. The tibia is positioned relative to the talus into a weight-bearing apposition. The articular members are first engaged under light preload, then plantar-/dorsi-flexion kinematics and resultant loadings are input for serial FE solutions at 13 instants of the stance phase of level walking gait. Cartilage stress histories are post-processed to recover distributions of cumulative stress-time mechano-stimulus, a metric of degeneration propensity. Consistency in computed contact stress exposures presented for seven intact ankles stood in contrast to the higher magnitude and more focal exposures in an incongruously reduced tibial plafond fracture. This analytical procedure provides patient-specific estimates of degeneration propensity due to various mechanical abnormalities, and it provides a platform from which the mechanical efficacy of alternative surgical interventions can be estimated. PMID:16520960

  8. Intra-articular contact stress distributions at the ankle throughout stance phase-patient-specific finite element analysis as a metric of degeneration propensity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Shivanna, Kiran; Grosland, Nicole M; Pedersen, Douglas R; Thomas, Thaddeus P; Tochigi, Yuki; Marsh, J Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D

    2006-06-01

    A contact finite element (FE) formulation is introduced, amenable to patient-specific analysis of cumulative cartilage mechano-stimulus attributable to habitual functional activity. CT scans of individual human ankles are segmented to delineate bony margins. Each bone surface is projected outward to create a second surface, and the intervening volume is then meshed with continuum hexahedral elements. The tibia is positioned relative to the talus into a weight-bearing apposition. The articular members are first engaged under light preload, then plantar-/dorsi-flexion kinematics and resultant loadings are input for serial FE solutions at 13 instants of the stance phase of level walking gait. Cartilage stress histories are post-processed to recover distributions of cumulative stress-time mechano-stimulus, a metric of degeneration propensity. Consistency in computed contact stress exposures presented for seven intact ankles stood in contrast to the higher magnitude and more focal exposures in an incongruously reduced tibial plafond fracture. This analytical procedure provides patient-specific estimates of degeneration propensity due to various mechanical abnormalities, and it provides a platform from which the mechanical efficacy of alternative surgical interventions can be estimated.

  9. Development of a Patient-Specific Finite Element Model for Predicting Implant Failure in Pelvic Ring Fracture Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Höch, Andreas; Peldschus, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The main purpose of this study is to develop an efficient technique for generating FE models of pelvic ring fractures that is capable of predicting possible failure regions of osteosynthesis with acceptable accuracy. Methods. Patient-specific FE models of two patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures were generated. A validated FE model of an uninjured pelvis from our previous study was used as a master model. Then, fracture morphologies and implant positions defined by a trauma surgeon in the preoperative CT were manually introduced as 3D splines to the master model. Four loading cases were used as boundary conditions. Regions of high stresses in the models were compared with actual locations of implant breakages and loosening identified from follow-up X-rays. Results. Model predictions and the actual clinical outcomes matched well. For Patient A, zones of increased tension and maximum stress coincided well with the actual locations of implant loosening. For Patient B, the model predicted accurately the loosening of the implant in the anterior region. Conclusion. Since a significant reduction in time and labour was achieved in our mesh generation technique, it can be considered as a viable option to be implemented as a part of the clinical routine to aid presurgical planning and postsurgical management of pelvic ring fracture patients. PMID:28255332

  10. Development of a Patient-Specific Finite Element Model for Predicting Implant Failure in Pelvic Ring Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie; Höch, Andreas; Grunert, Ronny; Peldschus, Steffen; Böhme, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The main purpose of this study is to develop an efficient technique for generating FE models of pelvic ring fractures that is capable of predicting possible failure regions of osteosynthesis with acceptable accuracy. Methods. Patient-specific FE models of two patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures were generated. A validated FE model of an uninjured pelvis from our previous study was used as a master model. Then, fracture morphologies and implant positions defined by a trauma surgeon in the preoperative CT were manually introduced as 3D splines to the master model. Four loading cases were used as boundary conditions. Regions of high stresses in the models were compared with actual locations of implant breakages and loosening identified from follow-up X-rays. Results. Model predictions and the actual clinical outcomes matched well. For Patient A, zones of increased tension and maximum stress coincided well with the actual locations of implant loosening. For Patient B, the model predicted accurately the loosening of the implant in the anterior region. Conclusion. Since a significant reduction in time and labour was achieved in our mesh generation technique, it can be considered as a viable option to be implemented as a part of the clinical routine to aid presurgical planning and postsurgical management of pelvic ring fracture patients.

  11. Real-time patient-specific finite element analysis of internal stresses in the soft tissues of a residual limb: a new tool for prosthetic fitting.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, S; Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Kristal, A; Oppenheim, U; Siev-Ner, I; Gefen, A

    2007-01-01

    Fitting of a prosthetic socket is a critical stage in the process of rehabilitation of a trans-tibial amputation (TTA) patient, since a misfit may cause pressure ulcers or a deep tissue injury (DTI: necrosis of the muscle flap under intact skin) in the residual limb. To date, prosthetic fitting typically depends on the subjective skills of the prosthetist, and is not supported by biomedical instrumentation that allows evaluation of the quality of fitting. Specifically, no technology is presently available to provide real-time continuous information on the internal distribution of mechanical stresses in the residual limb during fitting of the prosthesis, or while using it and this severely limits patient evaluations. In this study, a simplified yet clinically oriented patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the residual limb was developed for real-time stress analysis. For this purpose we employed a custom-made FE code that continuously calculates internal stresses in the residual limb, based on boundary conditions acquired in real-time from force sensors, located at the limb-prosthesis interface. Validation of the modeling system was accomplished by means of a synthetic phantom of the residual limb, which allowed simultaneous measurements of interface pressures and internal stresses. Human studies were conducted subsequently in five TTA patients. The dimensions of bones and soft tissues were obtained from X-rays of the residual limb of each patient. An indentation test was performed in order to obtain the effective elastic modulus of the soft tissues of the residual limb. Seven force sensors were placed between the residual limb and the prosthetic liner, and subjects walked on a treadmill during analysis. Generally, stresses under the shinbones were approximately threefold higher than stresses at the soft tissues behind the bones. Usage of a thigh corset decreased the stresses in the residual limb during gait by approximately 80%. Also, the stresses

  12. Patient-specific geometrical modeling of orthopedic structures with high efficiency and accuracy for finite element modeling and 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huajun; Xiang, Chunling; Zeng, Canjun; Ouyang, Hanbin; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    We improved the geometrical modeling procedure for fast and accurate reconstruction of orthopedic structures. This procedure consists of medical image segmentation, three-dimensional geometrical reconstruction, and assignment of material properties. The patient-specific orthopedic structures reconstructed by this improved procedure can be used in the virtual surgical planning, 3D printing of real orthopedic structures and finite element analysis. A conventional modeling consists of: image segmentation, geometrical reconstruction, mesh generation, and assignment of material properties. The present study modified the conventional method to enhance software operating procedures. Patient's CT images of different bones were acquired and subsequently reconstructed to give models. The reconstruction procedures were three-dimensional image segmentation, modification of the edge length and quantity of meshes, and the assignment of material properties according to the intensity of gravy value. We compared the performance of our procedures to the conventional procedures modeling in terms of software operating time, success rate and mesh quality. Our proposed framework has the following improvements in the geometrical modeling: (1) processing time: (femur: 87.16 ± 5.90 %; pelvis: 80.16 ± 7.67 %; thoracic vertebra: 17.81 ± 4.36 %; P < 0.05); (2) least volume reduction (femur: 0.26 ± 0.06 %; pelvis: 0.70 ± 0.47, thoracic vertebra: 3.70 ± 1.75 %; P < 0.01) and (3) mesh quality in terms of aspect ratio (femur: 8.00 ± 7.38 %; pelvis: 17.70 ± 9.82 %; thoracic vertebra: 13.93 ± 9.79 %; P < 0.05) and maximum angle (femur: 4.90 ± 5.28 %; pelvis: 17.20 ± 19.29 %; thoracic vertebra: 3.86 ± 3.82 %; P < 0.05). Our proposed patient-specific geometrical modeling requires less operating time and workload, but the orthopedic structures were generated at a higher rate of success as compared with the conventional method. It is expected to benefit the surgical planning of orthopedic

  13. Custom-designed orthopedic implants evaluated using finite element analysis of patient-specific computed tomography data: femoral-component case study

    PubMed Central

    Harrysson, Ola LA; Hosni, Yasser A; Nayfeh, Jamal F

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional knee and hip implant systems have been in use for many years with good success. However, the custom design of implant components based on patient-specific anatomy has been attempted to overcome existing shortcomings of current designs. The longevity of cementless implant components is highly dependent on the initial fit between the bone surface and the implant. The bone-implant interface design has historically been limited by the surgical tools and cutting guides available; and the cost of fabricating custom-designed implant components has been prohibitive. Methods This paper describes an approach where the custom design is based on a Computed Tomography scan of the patient's joint. The proposed design will customize both the articulating surface and the bone-implant interface to address the most common problems found with conventional knee-implant components. Finite Element Analysis is used to evaluate and compare the proposed design of a custom femoral component with a conventional design. Results The proposed design shows a more even stress distribution on the bone-implant interface surface, which will reduce the uneven bone remodeling that can lead to premature loosening. Conclusion The proposed custom femoral component design has the following advantages compared with a conventional femoral component. (i) Since the articulating surface closely mimics the shape of the distal femur, there is no need for resurfacing of the patella or gait change. (ii) Owing to the resulting stress distribution, bone remodeling is even and the risk of premature loosening might be reduced. (iii) Because the bone-implant interface can accommodate anatomical abnormalities at the distal femur, the need for surgical interventions and fitting of filler components is reduced. (iv) Given that the bone-implant interface is customized, about 40% less bone must be removed. The primary disadvantages are the time and cost required for the design and the possible need

  14. Custom-designed orthopedic implants evaluated using finite element analysis of patient-specific computed tomography data: femoral-component case study.

    PubMed

    Harrysson, Ola L A; Hosni, Yasser A; Nayfeh, Jamal F

    2007-09-13

    Conventional knee and hip implant systems have been in use for many years with good success. However, the custom design of implant components based on patient-specific anatomy has been attempted to overcome existing shortcomings of current designs. The longevity of cementless implant components is highly dependent on the initial fit between the bone surface and the implant. The bone-implant interface design has historically been limited by the surgical tools and cutting guides available; and the cost of fabricating custom-designed implant components has been prohibitive. This paper describes an approach where the custom design is based on a Computed Tomography scan of the patient's joint. The proposed design will customize both the articulating surface and the bone-implant interface to address the most common problems found with conventional knee-implant components. Finite Element Analysis is used to evaluate and compare the proposed design of a custom femoral component with a conventional design. The proposed design shows a more even stress distribution on the bone-implant interface surface, which will reduce the uneven bone remodeling that can lead to premature loosening. The proposed custom femoral component design has the following advantages compared with a conventional femoral component. (i) Since the articulating surface closely mimics the shape of the distal femur, there is no need for resurfacing of the patella or gait change. (ii) Owing to the resulting stress distribution, bone remodeling is even and the risk of premature loosening might be reduced. (iii) Because the bone-implant interface can accommodate anatomical abnormalities at the distal femur, the need for surgical interventions and fitting of filler components is reduced. (iv) Given that the bone-implant interface is customized, about 40% less bone must be removed. The primary disadvantages are the time and cost required for the design and the possible need for a surgical robot to perform the

  15. Measurement of mitral leaflet and annular geometry and stress after repair of posterior leaflet prolapse: Virtual repair using a patient specific finite element simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; Morrel, William G.; Ward, Alison; Mishra, Rakesh; Zhang, Zhihong; Guccione, Julius M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve (MV) repair for degenerative disease occurs at a rate of 2.6% per year and re-operation rate progressively reaches 20% at 19.5 years. We believe that MV repair durability is related to initial post-operative leaflet and annular geometry with subsequent leaflet remodeling due to stress. We tested the hypothesis that MV leaflet and annular stress is increased after MV repair. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and intra-operative 3D trans-esophageal echocardiography was performed before and after repair of posterior leaflet (P2) prolapse in a single patient. The repair consisted of triangular resection and annuloplasty band placement. Images of the heart were manually co-registered. The left ventricle and MV were contoured, surfaced and a 3D finite element (FE) model was created. Elements of the P2 region were removed to model leaflet resection and virtual sutures were used to repair the leaflet defect and attach the annuloplasty ring. Results The principal findings of the current study are 1) FE simulation of MV repair is able to accurately predict changes in MV geometry including changes in annular dimensions and leaflet coaptation, 2) average posterior leaflet stress is increased, and 3) average anterior leaflet and annular stress are reduced after triangular resection and mitral annuloplasty. Conclusions We successfully conducted virtual mitral valve prolapse repair using FE modeling methods. Future studies will examine the effects of leaflet resection type as well as annuloplasty ring size and shape. PMID:24630767

  16. Patient-specific finite element modeling of the Cardiokinetix Parachute(®) device: effects on left ventricular wall stress and function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Pease, Matthew; Nikolic, Serjan D; Mishra, Rakesh; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2014-06-01

    The Parachute(®) (Cardiokinetix, Inc., Menlo Park, California) is a catheter-based device intended to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after antero-apical myocardial infarction. When deployed, the device partitions the LV into upper and lower chambers. To simulate its mechanical effects, we created a finite element LV model based on computed tomography (CT) images from a patient before and 6 months after Parachute(®) implantation. Acute mechanical effects were determined by in silico device implantation (VIRTUAL-Parachute). Chronic effects of the device were determined by adjusting the diastolic and systolic material parameters to better match the 6-month post-implantation CT data and LV pressure data at end-diastole (ED) (POST-OP). Regional myofiber stress and pump function were calculated in each case. The principal finding is that VIRTUAL-Parachute was associated with a 61.2 % reduction in the lower chamber myofiber stress at ED. The POST-OP model was associated with a decrease in LV diastolic stiffness and a larger reduction in myofiber stress at the upper (27.1%) and lower chamber (78.4%) at ED. Myofiber stress at end-systole and stroke volume was little changed in the POST-OP case. These results suggest that the primary mechanism of Parachute(®) is a reduction in ED myofiber stress, which may reverse eccentric post-infarct LV hypertrophy.

  17. Patient-specific finite element modeling of the Cardiokinetix Parachute® device: Effects on left ventricular wall stress and function

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Chuan; Ge, Liang; Zhang, Zhihong; Pease, Matthew; Nikolic, Serjan D.; Mishra, Rakesh; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Guccione, Julius M.

    2014-01-01

    The Parachute® (Cardiokinetix, Inc., Menlo Park, California) is a catheter-based device intended to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after antero-apical myocardial infarction. When deployed, the device partitions the LV into upper and lower chambers. To simulate its mechanical effects, we created a finite element LV model based on computed tomography (CT) images from a patient before and 6 months after Parachute® implantation. Acute mechanical effects were determined by in-silico device implantation (VIRTUAL-Parachute). Chronic effects of the device were determined by adjusting the diastolic and systolic material parameters to better match the 6-month post-implantation CT data and LV pressure data at end-diastole (ED) (POST-OP). Regional myofiber stress and pump function were calculated in each case. The principal finding is that VIRTUAL-Parachute was associated with a 61.2% reduction in the lower chamber myofiber stress at ED. The POST-OP model was associated with a decrease in LV diastolic stiffness, and a larger reduction in myofiber stress at the upper (27.1%) and lower chamber (78.4%) at ED. Myofiber stress at end-systole and stroke volume were little changed in the POST-OP case. These results suggest that the primary mechanism of Parachute® is a reduction in ED myofiber stress, which may reverse eccentric post-infarct LV hypertrophy. PMID:24793158

  18. Patient-specific modeling of human cardiovascular system elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossovich, Leonid Yu.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Polienko, Asel V.; Chelnokova, Natalia O.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.; Murylev, Vladimir V.

    2016-03-01

    Object of study: The research is aimed at development of personalized medical treatment. Algorithm was developed for patient-specific surgical interventions of the cardiovascular system pathologies. Methods: Geometrical models of the biological objects and initial and boundary conditions were realized by medical diagnostic data of the specific patient. Mechanical and histomorphological parameters were obtained with the help mechanical experiments on universal testing machine. Computer modeling of the studied processes was conducted with the help of the finite element method. Results: Results of the numerical simulation allowed evaluating the physiological processes in the studied object in normal state, in presence of different pathologies and after different types of surgical procedures.

  19. Patient-specific finite element model of the spine and spinal cord to assess the neurological impact of scoliosis correction: preliminary application on two cases with and without intraoperative neurological complications.

    PubMed

    Henao, Juan; Aubin, Carl-Éric; Labelle, Hubert; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Scoliosis is a 3D deformation of the spine and rib cage. For severe cases, surgery with spine instrumentation is required to restore a balanced spine curvature. This surgical procedure may represent a neurological risk for the patient, especially during corrective maneuvers. This study aimed to computationally simulate the surgical instrumentation maneuvers on a patient-specific biomechanical model of the spine and spinal cord to assess and predict potential damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. A detailed finite element model (FEM) of the spine and spinal cord of a healthy subject was used as reference geometry. The FEM was personalized to the geometry of the patient using a 3D biplanar radiographic reconstruction technique and 3D dual kriging. Step by step surgical instrumentation maneuvers were simulated in order to assess the neurological risk associated to each maneuver. The surgical simulation methodology implemented was divided into two parts. First, a global multi-body simulation was used to extract the 3D displacement of six vertebral landmarks, which were then introduced as boundary conditions into the personalized FEM in order to reproduce the surgical procedure. The results of the FEM simulation for two cases were compared to published values on spinal cord neurological functional threshold. The efficiency of the reported method was checked considering one patient with neurological complications detected during surgery and one control patient. This comparison study showed that the patient-specific hybrid model reproduced successfully the biomechanics of neurological injury during scoliosis correction maneuvers.

  20. Biomechanical advantages of robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation in posterior lumbar interbody fusion compared with freehand technique in a prospective randomized controlled trial-perspective for patient-specific finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Park, Sung-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Hyo; Son, Juhyun; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    There have been conflicting results on the surgical outcome of lumbar fusion surgery using two different techniques: robot-assisted pedicle screw fixation and conventional freehand technique. In addition, there have been no studies about the biomechanical issues between both techniques. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanical properties in terms of stress at adjacent segments using robot-assisted pedicle screw insertion technique (robot-assisted, minimally invasive posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Rom-PLIF) and freehand technique (conventional, freehand, open approach, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, Cop-PLIF) for instrumented lumbar fusion surgery. This is an additional post-hoc analysis for patient-specific finite element (FE) model. The sample is composed of patients with degenerative lumbar disease. Intradiscal pressure and facet contact force are the outcome measures. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo an instrumented PLIF procedure using a Rom-PLIF (37 patients) or a Cop-PLIF (41), respectively. Five patients in each group were selected using a simple random sampling method after operation, and 10 preoperative and postoperative lumbar spines were modeled from preoperative high-resolution computed tomography of 10 patients using the same method for a validated lumbar spine model. Under four pure moments of 7.5 Nm, the changes in intradiscal pressure and facet joint contact force at the proximal adjacent segment following fusion surgery were analyzed and compared with preoperative states. The representativeness of random samples was verified. Both groups showed significant increases in postoperative intradiscal pressure at the proximal adjacent segment under four moments, compared with the preoperative state. The Cop-PLIF models demonstrated significantly higher percent increments of intradiscal pressure at proximal adjacent segments under extension, lateral bending, and torsion moments than the Rom-PLIF models (p=.032, p=.008, and p

  1. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  2. Does the optimal position of the acetabular fragment should be within the radiological normal range for all developmental dysplasia of the hip? A patient-specific finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuyi; Peng, Jianping; Li, De; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Leisheng; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-10-04

    The success of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy depends significantly on how extent the acetabular fragment can be corrected to its optimal position. This study was undertaken to investigate whether correcting the acetabular fragment into the so-called radiological "normal" range is the best choice for all developmental dysplasia of the hip with different severities of dysplasia from the biomechanical view? If not, is there any correlation between the biomechanically optimal position of the acetabular fragment and the severity of dysplasia? Four finite element models with different severities of dysplasia were developed. The virtual periacetabular osteotomy was performed with the acetabular fragment rotated anterolaterally to incremental center-edge angles; then, the contact area and pressure and von Mises stress in the cartilage were calculated at different correction angles. The optimal position of the acetabular fragment for patients 1, 2, and 3 was when the acetabular fragment rotated 17° laterally (with the lateral center-edge angle of 36° and anterior center-edge angle of 58°; both were slightly larger than the "normal" range), 25° laterally following further 5° anterior rotation (with the lateral center-edge angle of 31° and anterior center-edge angle of 51°; both were within the "normal" range), and 30° laterally following further 10° anterior rotation (with the lateral center-edge angle of 25° and anterior center-edge angle of 40°; both were less than the "normal" range), respectively. The optimal corrective position of the acetabular fragment is severity dependent rather than within the radiological "normal" range for developmental dysplasia of the hip. We prudently proposed that the optimal correction center-edge angle of mild, moderate, and severe developmental dysplasia of the hip is slightly larger than the "normal" range, within the "normal" range, and less than the lower limit of the "normal" range, respectively.

  3. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  4. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  5. Finite elements of nonlinear continua.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.

  6. Finite elements of nonlinear continua.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    The finite element method is extended to a broad class of practical nonlinear problems, treating both theory and applications from a general and unifying point of view. The thermomechanical principles of continuous media and the properties of the finite element method are outlined, and are brought together to produce discrete physical models of nonlinear continua. The mathematical properties of the models are analyzed, and the numerical solution of the equations governing the discrete models is examined. The application of the models to nonlinear problems in finite elasticity, viscoelasticity, heat conduction, and thermoviscoelasticity is discussed. Other specific topics include the topological properties of finite element models, applications to linear and nonlinear boundary value problems, convergence, continuum thermodynamics, finite elasticity, solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations, and discrete models of the nonlinear thermomechanical behavior of dissipative media.

  7. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  8. Finite element analysis applied to cornea reshaping.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fernández, Delia; Niazy, A M; Kurtz, R M; Djotyan, G P; Juhasz, T

    2005-01-01

    A 2-D finite element model of the cornea is developed to simulate corneal reshaping and the resulting deformation induced by refractive surgery. In the numerical simulations, linear and nonlinear elastic models are applied when stiffness inhomogeneities varying with depth are considered. Multiple simulations are created that employ different geometric configurations for the removal of the corneal tissue. Side-by-side comparisons of the different constitutive laws are also performed. To facilitate the comparison, the material property constants are identified from the same experimental data, which are obtained from mechanical tests on corneal strips and membrane inflation experiments. We then validate the resulting models by comparing computed refractive power changes with clinical results. Tissue deformations created by simulated corneal tissue removal using finite elements are consistent with clinically observed postsurgical results. The model developed provides a much more predictable refractive outcome when the stiffness inhomogeneities of the cornea and nonlinearities of the deformations are included in the simulations. Finite element analysis is a useful tool for modeling surgical effects on the cornea and developing a better understanding of the biomechanics of the cornea. The creation of patient-specific simulations would allow surgical outcomes to be predicted based on individualized finite element models.

  9. Second order tensor finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.

  10. Finite element shell instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.

  11. Finite elements: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Voigt, R. G. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in FEM techniques and applications are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the ICASE/LaRC workshop held in Hampton, VA in July 1986. Topics addressed include FEM approaches for partial differential equations, mixed FEMs, singular FEMs, FEMs for hyperbolic systems, iterative methods for elliptic finite-element equations on general meshes, mathematical aspects of FEMS for incompressible viscous flows, and gradient weighted moving finite elements in two dimensions. Consideration is given to adaptive flux-corrected FEM transport techniques for CFD, mixed and singular finite elements and the field BEM, p and h-p versions of the FEM, transient analysis methods in computational dynamics, and FEMs for integrated flow/thermal/structural analysis.

  12. Finite elements: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Voigt, R. G. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in FEM techniques and applications are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the ICASE/LaRC workshop held in Hampton, VA in July 1986. Topics addressed include FEM approaches for partial differential equations, mixed FEMs, singular FEMs, FEMs for hyperbolic systems, iterative methods for elliptic finite-element equations on general meshes, mathematical aspects of FEMS for incompressible viscous flows, and gradient weighted moving finite elements in two dimensions. Consideration is given to adaptive flux-corrected FEM transport techniques for CFD, mixed and singular finite elements and the field BEM, p and h-p versions of the FEM, transient analysis methods in computational dynamics, and FEMs for integrated flow/thermal/structural analysis.

  13. Parallel, Implicit, Finite Element Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrie, Weston; Shumlak, Uri; Meier, Eric; Marklin, George

    2007-11-01

    A parallel, implicit, finite element solver is described for solutions to the ideal MHD equations and the Pseudo-1D Euler equations. The solver uses the conservative flux source form of the equations. This helps simplify the discretization of the finite element method by keeping the specification of the physics separate. An implicit time advance is used to allow sufficiently large time steps. The Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is implemented for parallel matrix solvers and parallel data structures. Results for several test cases are described as well as accuracy of the method.

  14. On numerically accurate finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagtegaal, J. C.; Parks, D. M.; Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A general criterion for testing a mesh with topologically similar repeat units is given, and the analysis shows that only a few conventional element types and arrangements are, or can be made suitable for computations in the fully plastic range. Further, a new variational principle, which can easily and simply be incorporated into an existing finite element program, is presented. This allows accurate computations to be made even for element designs that would not normally be suitable. Numerical results are given for three plane strain problems, namely pure bending of a beam, a thick-walled tube under pressure, and a deep double edge cracked tensile specimen. The effects of various element designs and of the new variational procedure are illustrated. Elastic-plastic computation at finite strain are discussed.

  15. The Relation of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.

    1976-01-01

    Finite element and finite difference methods are examined in order to bring out their relationship. It is shown that both methods use two types of discrete representations of continuous functions. They differ in that finite difference methods emphasize the discretization of independent variable, while finite element methods emphasize the discretization of dependent variable (referred to as functional approximations). An important point is that finite element methods use global piecewise functional approximations, while finite difference methods normally use local functional approximations. A general conclusion is that finite element methods are best designed to handle complex boundaries, while finite difference methods are superior for complex equations. It is also shown that finite volume difference methods possess many of the advantages attributed to finite element methods.

  16. Nonlinear, finite deformation, finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhung; Waas, Anthony M.

    2016-06-01

    The roles of the consistent Jacobian matrix and the material tangent moduli, which are used in nonlinear incremental finite deformation mechanics problems solved using the finite element method, are emphasized in this paper, and demonstrated using the commercial software ABAQUS standard. In doing so, the necessity for correctly employing user material subroutines to solve nonlinear problems involving large deformation and/or large rotation is clarified. Starting with the rate form of the principle of virtual work, the derivations of the material tangent moduli, the consistent Jacobian matrix, the stress/strain measures, and the objective stress rates are discussed and clarified. The difference between the consistent Jacobian matrix (which, in the ABAQUS UMAT user material subroutine is referred to as DDSDDE) and the material tangent moduli ( C e ) needed for the stress update is pointed out and emphasized in this paper. While the former is derived based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress, the latter is derived using the Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress. Understanding the difference between these two objective stress rates is crucial for correctly implementing a constitutive model, especially a rate form constitutive relation, and for ensuring fast convergence. Specifically, the implementation requires the stresses to be updated correctly. For this, the strains must be computed directly from the deformation gradient and corresponding strain measure (for a total form model). Alternatively, the material tangent moduli derived from the corresponding Jaumann rate of the Cauchy stress of the constitutive relation (for a rate form model) should be used. Given that this requirement is satisfied, the consistent Jacobian matrix only influences the rate of convergence. Its derivation should be based on the Jaumann rate of the Kirchhoff stress to ensure fast convergence; however, the use of a different objective stress rate may also be possible. The error associated

  17. ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.

    1995-01-01

    An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.

  18. Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)

  19. SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Brnjamin, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element simulations of compressible flows is presented. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) SUPG Galerkin Finite Element Methods; 3) Applications; and 4) Bibliography.

  20. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the

  1. Finite element model and identification procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    How, Jonathan P.; Blackwood, Gary; Anderson, Eric; Balmes, Etienne

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on finite element model and identification procedure are presented. Topics covered include: interferometer finite element model; testbed mode shapes; finite element model update; identification procedure; shaker locations; data analysis; modal frequency and damping comparison; computational procedure; fit comparison; residue analysis; typical residues; identification/FEM residual comparison; and pathlength control using isolation mounts.

  2. Finite element simulation of microindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, D. I.; Isaenkova, M. G.; Perlovich, Yu. A.; Krymskaya, O. A.

    2017-05-01

    Finite element models are created to describe the testing of a material by a Berkovich indenter. The results of calculations by these models are compared to experimental data on indentation of the same material (grade 10 steel). The experimental and calculated data agree well with each other. The developed models for an indenter and the material to be tested are used to find the laws of behavior of a material during indentation. The state of stress in the material under an indenter is studied by various methods. The indentation results are plotted versus the mechanical properties of a material.

  3. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  4. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  5. Finite elements and finite differences for transonic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.; Wellford, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the chief finite difference and finite element techniques used for numerical solution of nonlinear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic equations governing transonic flow. The forms of the governing equations for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flow considered are the Euler equation, the full potential equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, the transonic small-disturbance equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, and the hodograph equations for the small-disturbance case and the full-potential case. Finite difference methods considered include time-dependent methods, relaxation methods, semidirect methods, and hybrid methods. Finite element methods include finite element Lax-Wendroff schemes, implicit Galerkin method, mixed variational principles, dual iterative procedures, optimal control methods and least squares.

  6. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  7. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  8. Finite-Element Composite-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, special-purpose finite-element program for analyzing behavior of composite material with microcomputer. Procedure leads to set of linear simultaneous equations relating unknown nodal displacement to applied loads. Written in HP BASIC 3.0.

  9. Finite element analysis of helicopter structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the finite element analysis is now being expanded to three dimensional analysis of mechanical components. Examples are presented for airframe, mechanical components, and composite structure calculations. Data are detailed on the increase of model size, computer usage, and the effect on reducing stress analysis costs. Future applications for use of finite element analysis for helicopter structures are projected.

  10. Nonlinear finite element modeling of corrugated board

    Treesearch

    A. C. Gilchrist; J. C. Suhling; T. J. Urbanik

    1999-01-01

    In this research, an investigation on the mechanical behavior of corrugated board has been performed using finite element analysis. Numerical finite element models for corrugated board geometries have been created and executed. Both geometric (large deformation) and material nonlinearities were included in the models. The analyses were performed using the commercial...

  11. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-15

    TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.

  12. Books and monographs on finite element technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper proviees a listing of all of the English books and some of the foreign books on finite element technology, taking into account also a list of the conference proceedings devoted solely to finite elements. The references are divided into categories. Attention is given to fundamentals, mathematical foundations, structural and solid mechanics applications, fluid mechanics applications, other applied science and engineering applications, computer implementation and software systems, computational and modeling aspects, special topics, boundary element methods, proceedings of symmposia and conferences on finite element technology, bibliographies, handbooks, and historical accounts.

  13. Books and monographs on finite element technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper proviees a listing of all of the English books and some of the foreign books on finite element technology, taking into account also a list of the conference proceedings devoted solely to finite elements. The references are divided into categories. Attention is given to fundamentals, mathematical foundations, structural and solid mechanics applications, fluid mechanics applications, other applied science and engineering applications, computer implementation and software systems, computational and modeling aspects, special topics, boundary element methods, proceedings of symmposia and conferences on finite element technology, bibliographies, handbooks, and historical accounts.

  14. Customized Finite Element Modelling of the Human Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Simonini, Irene; Pandolfi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Aim To construct patient-specific solid models of human cornea from ocular topographer data, to increase the accuracy of the biomechanical and optical estimate of the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Method Corneal elevation maps of five human eyes were taken with a rotating Scheimpflug camera combined with a Placido disk before and after refractive surgery. Patient-specific solid models were created and discretized in finite elements to estimate the corneal strain and stress fields in preoperative and postoperative configurations and derive the refractive parameters of the cornea. Results Patient-specific geometrical models of the cornea allow for the creation of personalized refractive maps at different levels of IOP. Thinned postoperative corneas show a higher stress gradient across the thickness and higher sensitivity of all geometrical and refractive parameters to the fluctuation of the IOP. Conclusion Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide accurate quantitative information on the refractive properties of the cornea under different levels of IOP and describe the change of the stress state of the cornea due to refractive surgery (PRK). Patient-specific models can be used as indicators of feasibility before performing the surgery. PMID:26098104

  15. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  16. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  17. Optimizing header strength utilizing finite element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchett, S. N.

    Finite element techniques have been successfully applied as a design tool in the optimization of high strength headers for pyrotechnic-driven actuators. These techniques have been applied to three aspects of the design process of a high strength header. The design process was a joint effort of experts from several disciplines including design engineers, material scientists, test engineers, manufacturing engineers, and structural analysts. Following material selection, finite element techniques were applied to evaluate the residual stresses due to manufacturing which were developed in the high strength glass ceramic-to-metal seal headers. Results from these finite element analyses were used to identify header designs which were manufacturable and had a minimum residual stress state. Finite element techniques were than applied to obtain the response of the header due to pyrotechnic burn. The results provided realistic upper bounds on the pressure containment ability of various preliminary header designs and provided a quick and inexpensive method of strengthening and refining the designs. Since testing of the headers was difficult and sometimes destructive, results of the analyses were also used to interpret test results and identify failure modes. In this paper, details of the finite element element techniques including the models used, material properties, material failure models, and loading will be presented. Results from the analyses showing the header failure process will also be presented. This paper will show that significant gains in capability and understanding can result when finite element techniques are included as an integral part of the design process of complicated high strength headers.

  18. Visualization of higher order finite elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Crawford, Richard H.; Khardekar, Rahul Vinay

    2004-04-01

    Finite element meshes are used to approximate the solution to some differential equation when no exact solution exists. A finite element mesh consists of many small (but finite, not infinitesimal or differential) regions of space that partition the problem domain, {Omega}. Each region, or element, or cell has an associated polynomial map, {Phi}, that converts the coordinates of any point, x = ( x y z ), in the element into another value, f(x), that is an approximate solution to the differential equation, as in Figure 1(a). This representation works quite well for axis-aligned regions of space, but when there are curved boundaries on the problem domain, {Omega}, it becomes algorithmically much more difficult to define {Phi} in terms of x. Rather, we define an archetypal element in a new coordinate space, r = ( r s t ), which has a simple, axis-aligned boundary (see Figure 1(b)) and place two maps onto our archetypal element:

  19. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  20. Finite element schemes for Fermi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Beilina, L.; Naseer, M.; Standar, C.

    2017-07-01

    A priori error estimates are derived for the streamline diffusion (SD) finite element methods for the Fermi pencil-beam equation. Two-dimensional numerical examples confirm our theoretical investigations.

  1. Finite element modeling of the human pelvis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, B.

    1995-11-01

    A finite element model of the human pelvis was created using a commercial wire frame image as a template. To test the final mesh, the model`s mechanical behavior was analyzed through finite element analysis and the results were displayed graphically as stress concentrations. In the future, this grid of the pelvis will be integrated with a full leg model and used in side-impact car collision simulations.

  2. Quadratic finite elements and incompressible viscous flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Clark R.; Gartling, David K.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure stabilization methods are applied to higher-order velocity finite elements for application to viscous incompressible flows. Both a standard pressure stabilizing Petrov-Galerkin (PSPG) method and a new polynomial pressure projection stabilization (PPPS) method have been implemented and tested for various quadratic elements in two dimensions. A preconditioner based on relaxing the incompressibility constraint is also tested for the iterative solution of saddle point problems arising from mixed Galerkin finite element approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations. The preconditioner is demonstrated for BB stable elements with discontinuous pressure approximations in two and three dimensions.

  3. Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Oliver G.

    1987-01-01

    A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.

  4. Stabilized Finite Elements in FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. Kyle; Newman, James C.; Karman, Steve L.

    2017-01-01

    A Streamlined Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) stabilized finite-element discretization has been implemented as a library into the FUN3D unstructured-grid flow solver. Motivation for the selection of this methodology is given, details of the implementation are provided, and the discretization for the interior scheme is verified for linear and quadratic elements by using the method of manufactured solutions. A methodology is also described for capturing shocks, and simulation results are compared to the finite-volume formulation that is currently the primary method employed for routine engineering applications. The finite-element methodology is demonstrated to be more accurate than the finite-volume technology, particularly on tetrahedral meshes where the solutions obtained using the finite-volume scheme can suffer from adverse effects caused by bias in the grid. Although no effort has been made to date to optimize computational efficiency, the finite-element scheme is competitive with the finite-volume scheme in terms of computer time to reach convergence.

  5. Wave dispersion properties of compound finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Thomas; Thuburn, John

    2017-06-01

    Mixed finite elements use different approximation spaces for different dependent variables. Certain classes of mixed finite elements, called compatible finite elements, have been shown to exhibit a number of desirable properties for a numerical weather prediction model. In two-dimensions the lowest order element of the Raviart-Thomas based mixed element is the finite element equivalent of the widely used C-grid staggering, which is known to possess good wave dispersion properties, at least for quadrilateral grids. It has recently been proposed that building compound elements from a number of triangular Raviart-Thomas sub-elements, such that both the primal and (implied) dual grid are constructed from the same sub-elements, would allow greater flexibility in the use of different advection schemes along with the ability to build arbitrary polygonal elements. Although the wave dispersion properties of the triangular sub-elements are well understood, those of the compound elements are unknown. It would be useful to know how they compare with the non-compound elements and what properties of the triangular sub-grid elements are inherited? Here a numerical dispersion analysis is presented for the linear shallow water equations in two dimensions discretised using the lowest order compound Raviart-Thomas finite elements on regular quadrilateral and hexagonal grids. It is found that, in comparison with the well known C-grid scheme, the compound elements exhibit a more isotropic dispersion relation, with a small over estimation of the frequency for short waves compared with the relatively large underestimation for the C-grid. On a quadrilateral grid the compound elements are found to differ from the non-compound Raviart-Thomas quadrilateral elements even for uniform elements, exhibiting the influence of the underlying sub-elements. This is shown to lead to small improvements in the accuracy of the dispersion relation: the compound quadrilateral element is slightly better for

  6. Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alan

    2005-03-18

    Sparse systems of linear equations arise in many engineering applications, including finite elements, finite volumes, and others. The solution of linear systems is often the most computationally intensive portion of the application. Depending on the complexity of problems addressed by the application, there may be no single solver capable of solving all of the linear systems that arise. This motivates the desire to switch an application from one solver librwy to another, depending on the problem being solved. The interfaces provided by solver libraries differ greatly, making it difficult to switch an application code from one library to another. The amount of library-specific code in an application Can be greatly reduced by having an abstraction layer between solver libraries and the application, putting a common "face" on various solver libraries. One such abstraction layer is the Finite Element Interface to Linear Solvers (EEl), which has seen significant use by finite element applications at Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  7. Model Reduction of Viscoelastic Finite Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C. H.; Inman, D. J.; Lam, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines a method of adding viscoelastic properties to finite element models by using additional co-ordinates to account for the frequency dependence usually associated with such damping materials. Several such methods exist and all suffer from an increase in order of the final finite model which is undesirable in many applications. Here we propose to combine one of these methods, the GHM (Golla-Hughes-McTavish) method, with model reduction techniques to remove the objection of increased model order. The result of combining several methods is an ability to add the effects of visoelastic components to finite element or other analytical models without increasing the order of the system. The procedure is illustrated by a numerical example. The method proposed here results in a viscoelastic finite element of a structure without increasing the order of the original model.

  8. Finite-element models of continental extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, H. David; Morgan, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models of the initial deformation of extending continental lithosphere, computed to investigate the control of preexisting thermal and mechanical heterogeneities on the style of deformation, are presented. The finite element method is used to calculate deformation with a viscoelastic-plastic model for the lithosphere. Comparisons of the results of analytic models and finite-element models using this method show that good results may be obtained by the numerical technique, even with elements containing both brittle and viscoelastic sampling points. It is shown that the gross style of initial extensional deformation is controlled by the depth and width of the initial heterogeneity which localizes deformation.

  9. The GPRIME approach to finite element modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, D. R.; Mckee, J. H.; Hurwitz, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    GPRIME, an interactive modeling system, runs on the CDC 6000 computers and the DEC VAX 11/780 minicomputer. This system includes three components: (1) GPRIME, a user friendly geometric language and a processor to translate that language into geometric entities, (2) GGEN, an interactive data generator for 2-D models; and (3) SOLIDGEN, a 3-D solid modeling program. Each component has a computer user interface of an extensive command set. All of these programs make use of a comprehensive B-spline mathematics subroutine library, which can be used for a wide variety of interpolation problems and other geometric calculations. Many other user aids, such as automatic saving of the geometric and finite element data bases and hidden line removal, are available. This interactive finite element modeling capability can produce a complete finite element model, producing an output file of grid and element data.

  10. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  11. Waveguide finite elements for curved structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnveden, Svante; Fraggstedt, Martin

    2008-05-01

    A waveguide finite element formulation for the analysis of curved structures is introduced. The formulation is valid for structures that along one axis have constant properties. It is based on a modified Hamilton's principle valid for general linear viscoelastic motion, which is derived here. Using this principle, material properties such as losses may be distributed in the system and may vary with frequency. Element formulations for isoparametric solid elements and deep shell elements are presented for curved waveguides as well as for straight waveguides. In earlier works, the curved elements have successfully been used to model a passenger car tyre. Here a simple validation example and convergence study is presented, which considers a finite length circular cylinder and all four elements presented are used, in turn, to model this structure. Calculated results compare favourably to those in the literature.

  12. Exact finite elements for conduction and convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Tamma, K. K.

    1981-01-01

    An appproach for developing exact one dimensional conduction-convection finite elements is presented. Exact interpolation functions are derived based on solutions to the governing differential equations by employing a nodeless parameter. Exact interpolation functions are presented for combined heat transfer in several solids of different shapes, and for combined heat transfer in a flow passage. Numerical results demonstrate that exact one dimensional elements offer advantages over elements based on approximate interpolation functions. Previously announced in STAR as N81-31507

  13. Exact finite elements for conduction and convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Tamma, K. K.

    1981-01-01

    An appproach for developing exact one dimensional conduction-convection finite elements is presented. Exact interpolation functions are derived based on solutions to the governing differential equations by employing a nodeless parameter. Exact interpolation functions are presented for combined heat transfer in several solids of different shapes, and for combined heat transfer in a flow passage. Numerical results demonstrate that exact one dimensional elements offer advantages over elements based on approximate interpolation functions. Previously announced in STAR as N81-31507

  14. Exact finite elements for conduction and convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Tamma, K. K.

    1981-01-01

    An approach for developing exact one dimensional conduction-convection finite elements is presented. Exact interpolation functions are derived based on solutions to the governing differential equations by employing a nodeless parameter. Exact interpolation functions are presented for combined heat transfer in several solids of different shapes, and for combined heat transfer in a flow passage. Numerical results demonstrate that exact one dimensional elements offer advantages over elements based on approximate interpolation functions.

  15. Finite element modeling and analysis of tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Predicting the response of tires under various loading conditions using finite element technology is addressed. Some of the recent advances in finite element technology which have high potential for application to tire modeling problems are reviewed. The analysis and modeling needs for tires are identified. Reduction methods for large-scale nonlinear analysis, with particular emphasis on treatment of combined loads, displacement-dependent and nonconservative loadings; development of simple and efficient mixed finite element models for shell analysis, identification of equivalent mixed and purely displacement models, and determination of the advantages of using mixed models; and effective computational models for large-rotation nonlinear problems, based on a total Lagrangian description of the deformation are included.

  16. Visualizing higher order finite elements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elements into regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which the algorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomial approximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analytical solution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and momentum. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate. Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and these coefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of freedom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution. Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increasing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number of finite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some types of simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedom than increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation has determined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools do not exist for visual inspection of the solution. This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finite element simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicial regions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. The requirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the places where the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacing algorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Pipe Elbows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    AD-AO81 077 DAVD TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CE--ETC F/B 13/11 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PIPE ELBOWS .(U) FE SO M S MARCUS, B C...TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP i RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER Bethesda, Md. 20084 4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PIPE ELBOWS by 0 Melvyn S. Marcus and Gordon C...a 90-degree pipe elbow to determine principal stresses due to internal pressure, inplane bending, out-of-plane bending, and torsion moment loadings

  18. Finite element methods for high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, R.; Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1985-01-01

    An explicit finite element based solution procedure for solving the equations of compressible viscous high speed flow is presented. The method uses domain splitting to advance the solution with different timesteps on different portions of the mesh. For steady inviscid flows, adaptive mesh refinement procedures are successfully employed to enhance the definition of discontinuities. Preliminary ideas on the application of adaptive mesh refinement to the solution of problems involving steady viscous flow are presented. Sample timings are given for the performance of the finite element code on modern supercomputers.

  19. Studies of finite element analysis of composite material structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, D. O.; Holzmacher, D. E.; Lane, Z. C.; Thornton, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    Research in the area of finite element analysis is summarized. Topics discussed include finite element analysis of a picture frame shear test, BANSAP (a bandwidth reduction program for SAP IV), FEMESH (a finite element mesh generation program based on isoparametric zones), and finite element analysis of a composite bolted joint specimens.

  20. Finite element modelling of buried structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Playdon, D. K.; Simmonds, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    In many structures the final stress states are dependent on the sequence of construction or the stress states at various stages of construction are of interest. Such problems can be analyzed using finite element programs that have the capability of adding (birthing) elements to simulate the progress of construction. However, the usual procedure of assembling elements may lead to numerical instabilities or stress states that are unrealistic. Both problems are demonstrated in the analysis of a structure using the program ADINA. A technique which combines application of a preload with element birthing to overcome these problems is described and illustrated.

  1. Dental application of novel finite element analysis software for three-dimensional finite element modeling of a dentulous mandible from its computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keiko; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Yuki; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Masumi, Shin-ich

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on the application of novel finite-element analysis software for constructing a finite-element model from the computed tomography data of a human dentulous mandible. The finite-element model is necessary for evaluating the mechanical response of the alveolar part of the mandible, resulting from occlusal force applied to the teeth during biting. Commercially available patient-specific general computed tomography-based finite-element analysis software was solely applied to the finite-element analysis for the extraction of computed tomography data. The mandibular bone with teeth was extracted from the original images. Both the enamel and the dentin were extracted after image processing, and the periodontal ligament was created from the segmented dentin. The constructed finite-element model was reasonably accurate using a total of 234,644 nodes and 1,268,784 tetrahedral and 40,665 shell elements. The elastic moduli of the heterogeneous mandibular bone were determined from the bone density data of the computed tomography images. The results suggested that the software applied in this study is both useful and powerful for creating a more accurate three-dimensional finite-element model of a dentulous mandible from the computed tomography data without the need for any other software.

  2. Numerical computation of transonic flows by finite-element and finite-difference methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M. M.; Wellford, L. C.; Merkle, C. L.; Murman, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on applications of the finite element approach to transonic flow calculations are reported. Different discretization techniques of the differential equations and boundary conditions are compared. Finite element analogs of Murman's mixed type finite difference operators for small disturbance formulations were constructed and the time dependent approach (using finite differences in time and finite elements in space) was examined.

  3. Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellin, S.

    1984-01-01

    A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.

  4. Finite element wavelets with improved quantitative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoang; Stevenson, Rob

    2009-08-01

    In [W. Dahmen, R. Stevenson, Element-by-element construction of wavelets satisfying stability and moment conditions, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 37 (1) (1999) 319-352 (electronic)], finite element wavelets were constructed on polygonal domains or Lipschitz manifolds that are piecewise parametrized by mappings with constant Jacobian determinants. The wavelets could be arranged to have any desired order of cancellation properties, and they generated stable bases for the Sobolev spaces Hs for (or s<=1 on manifolds). Unfortunately, it appears that the quantitative properties of these wavelets are rather disappointing. In this paper, we modify the construction from the above-mentioned work to obtain finite element wavelets which are much better conditioned.

  5. Finite Element Simulation of Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Y. Lawrence; Panahandeh, M.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element equations representing the behavior of piezoelectric materials when bounded to a typical structure and used as sensors and actuators were developed. Emphasis was placed on generating sensor output equations of piezoelectric sensors and responses of a typical structure bonded with piezoelectric sensors and actuators on the basis of finite element formulation. The model can predict not only structural responses due to both mechanical and electrical loading but also electrical potential due to mechanical or thermal effects. The resulted finite element equations were then used for simple control design and performance evaluation. In the control algorithm, voltages coming out from piezoelectric sensors, which are proportional to strains at sensing locations, are taken as input. The voltages applied to the piezoelectric actuators are used as output. The feasibility of integrating control algorithm with the element routine developed herein and FEAP was demonstrated. In particular, optimal independent modal space control was implemented in a software package on the basis of finite element formulation. A rudimentary finite element-control algorithm package was also developed to evaluate the performance of candidate control laws. A few numerical simulations using the software package developed herein were given. The integrated software package will provide a design tool to address issues such as how adaptive smart systems will scale to a full size aircraft, the amount of piezoelectric materials and the powers needed to actuate it for desired performance. It will also provide a viable new structural control design concept for practical applications in large flexible structures such as aerospace vehicles and aircraft.

  6. A multidimensional finite element method for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.

    1991-01-01

    A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for 2- and 3-D fluid flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly using quadrilateral (2-D) and hexahedral (3-D) elements, mass lumping, and reduced integration. A Petrov-Galerkin technique is applied to the advection terms. The method requires a minimum of computational storage, executes quickly, and is scalable for execution on computer systems ranging from PCs to supercomputers.

  7. Quadrilateral/hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Scott, Michael A; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    A technique for coarsening a finite element mesh ("FEM") is described. This technique includes identifying a coarsening region within the FEM to be coarsened. Perimeter chords running along perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region are identified. The perimeter chords are redirected to create an adaptive chord separating the coarsening region from a remainder of the FEM. The adaptive chord runs through mesh elements residing along the perimeter boundaries of the coarsening region. The adaptive chord is then extracted to coarsen the FEM.

  8. Adaptive finite element strategies for shell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G.; Levit, I.; Stehlin, B.; Hurlbut, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper extends existing finite element adaptive refinement (AR) techniques to shell structures, which have heretofore been neglected in the AR literature. Specific challenges in applying AR to shell structures include: (1) physical discontinuities (e.g., stiffener intersections); (2) boundary layers; (3) sensitivity to geometric imperfections; (4) the sensitivity of most shell elements to mesh distortion, constraint definition and/or thinness; and (5) intrinsic geometric nonlinearity. All of these challenges but (5) are addressed here.

  9. Finite element modeling of nonisothermal polymer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roylance, D.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element formulation designed to simulate polymer melt flows in which both conductive and convective heat transfer are important is described, and the numerical model is illustrated by means of computer experiments using extruder drag flow and entry flow as trial problems. Fluid incompressibility is enforced by a penalty treatment of the element pressures, and the thermal convective transport is modeled by conventional Galerkin and optimal upwind treatments.

  10. Finite element displacement analysis of a lung.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, F. L.; West, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    A method is given based on the technique of finite elements which determines theoretically the mechanical behavior of a lung-shaped body loaded by its own weight. The results of this theoretical analysis have been compared with actual measurements of alveolar size and pleural pressures in animal lungs.

  11. Finite element modelling of acoustic emission sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, S. I.; Sych, T. V.

    2017-08-01

    With a validated finite element system COSMOS/M, the out-of-plane displacements corresponding to model sources of acoustic emission (AE) were calculated in three-dimensional samples. The displacement signals were calculated for positions of the receiver on the top plate surface at several different distances (in the far-field) from the source’s epicenter.

  12. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  13. Revolution in Orthodontics: Finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Jain, Megha; Khandelwal, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Engineering has not only developed in the field of medicine but has also become quite established in the field of dentistry, especially Orthodontics. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational procedure to calculate the stress in an element, which performs a model solution. This structural analysis allows the determination of stress resulting from external force, pressure, thermal change, and other factors. This method is extremely useful for indicating mechanical aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo. The results obtained can then be studied using visualization software within the finite element method (FEM) to view a variety of parameters, and to fully identify implications of the analysis. This is a review to show the applications of FEM in Orthodontics. It is extremely important to verify what the purpose of the study is in order to correctly apply FEM. PMID:27114948

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Piping Tees.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc., performed an experimental stress analysis3 on an ANSI B16.9 carbon steelt tee designated T-12. Pipe extensions were welded to...AD-ASS? 353 DAVID If TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CE--ETC F/S 13/11 FINITE ELEENT ANALYSIS OF PIPING TEES.(U) JUN 8 A J QUEZON. S C...DAVID W. TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP SRESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER Bethesa Md. 20084 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF PIPING TEES by Antonio J. Quezon, Gordon C

  15. Finite Element Heat & Mass Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Trease, Lynn

    1996-10-10

    FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; and double porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities.

  16. FEHM. Finite Element Heat & Mass Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1996-10-10

    FEHM is a numerical simulation code for subsurface transport processes. It models 3-D, time-dependent, multiphase, multicomponent, non-isothermal, reactive flow through porous and fractured media. It can accurately represent complex 3-D geologic media and structures and their effects on subsurface flow and transport. Its capabilities include flow of gas, water, and heat; flow of air, water, and heat; multiple chemically reactive and sorbing tracers; finite element/finite volume formulation; coupled stress module; saturated and unsaturated media; and double porosity and double porosity/double permeability capabilities.

  17. Finite element simulations of stacked crystal filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jiunn-Horng; Tzeng, Kung-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Wei; Shih, Yu-Ching; Yao, Chih-Min

    2004-03-01

    Wireless networks are growing rapidly. Their applications include cellular phone, satellite communication and wireless local area networks. In order to avoid interference between all these applications, high selectivity RF filters are essential. The stacked crystal filter (SCF) is a useful configuration when low insertion loss is desired and the near-in skirt selectivity requirement is not as high as that produced by ladder filters. A SCF is an acoustically coupled resonator filter which includes a pair of thickness mode piezoelectric plates attached to each other. Mounted between adjacent sides of the two plates is a shared electrode. The common ways to model the SCF are mason model and lumped element equivalent circuit method. To accommodate complicated geometries, we need to use the other kinds of numerical analysis techniques. Finite element methods have been applied to the modeling of thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator in recent years. Advanced FEM software has the capability to do a coupled piezoelectric-circuit analysis that can connect electrical circuits directly to the piezoelectric finite element models. In this work, we integrate the SCF two-dimensional piezoelectric finite element models and electrical circuits together to simulate the performance of SCF. The influences of electrode property and acoustic loss to the performance of filter are also investigated. The results of simulation are verified by mason model. This methodology can be applied to more complicated geometry models and other types of filters simulation such as coupled resonator filters (CRF) and ladder filters.

  18. Finite element modelling of SAW correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikka, Ajay C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Abbott, Derek

    2007-12-01

    Numerical simulations of SAW correlators so far are limited to delta function and equivalent circuit models. These models are not accurate as they do not replicate the actual behaviour of the device. Manufacturing a correlator to specifically realise a different configuration is both expensive and time consuming. With the continuous improvement in computing capacity, switching to finite element modelling would be more appropriate. In this paper a novel way of modelling a SAW correlator using finite element analysis is presented. This modelling approach allows the consideration of different code implementation and device structures. This is demonstrated through simulation results for a 5×2-bit Barker sequence encoded SAW correlator. These results show the effect of both bulk and leaky modes on the device performance at various operating frequencies. Moreover, the ways in which the gain of the correlator can be optimised though variation of design parameters will also be outlined.

  19. EC Vacuum Vessel Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.; Luther, R.; /Fermilab

    1992-02-04

    This Note contains a summary of the results of the finite element analysis of the EC Cryostat vacuum vessel performed by Dave Rudland in 1987. The results are used in the structural evaluation of the EC cryostats presented in Engineering Note 194. It should also be noted that the adequacy of the design of the vacuum vessels was reviewed and verified by the Battelle Memorial Institute. Battelle used a shell of revolution program to essentially duplicate the FEA analysis with similar results. It should be noted that no plots of the finite element mesh were retained from the analysis, and these can not be easily reproduced due to a change in the version of the ANSYS computer program shortly after the analysis was completed.

  20. Finite element substructuring methods for composite mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    Finite element substructuring strategies are presented to obtain numerical solutions for three typical problems of interest to the composites community: (1) impact and toughness characterization of composites using Charpy's impact test specimen; (2) free-edge stress analysis of composite laminates; and (3) fracture toughness predictions of composites for individual and combined fracture of modes I, II, and III. The key issue common to these problems is the presence of singular or near singular stress fields. The regions prone to see steep stress gradients are substructured with progressively refined meshes to study the local response simultaneously with the global response. The results from the select examples indicate that finite element substructuring methods are computationally effective for composite singularity mechanics.

  1. Finite element modeling of permanent magnet devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, J. R.; Larkin, L. A.; Overbye, V. D.

    1984-03-01

    New techniques are presented for finite element modeling of permanent magnets in magnetic devices such as motors and generators. These techniques extend a previous sheet-current permanent magnet model that applies only for straight line B-H loops and rectangular-shaped magnets. Here Maxwell's equations are used to derive the model of a permanent magnet having a general curved B-H loop and any geometric shape. The model enables a nonlinear magnetic finite element program to use Newton-Raphson iteration to solve for saturable magnetic fields in a wide variety of devices containing permanent magnets and steels. The techniques are applied to a brushless dc motor with irregular-shaped permanent magnets. The calculated motor torque agrees well with measured torque.

  2. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  3. Finite element analysis of human joints

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, P.L.; Hollerbach, K.

    1996-09-01

    Our work focuses on the development of finite element models (FEMs) that describe the biomechanics of human joints. Finite element modeling is becoming a standard tool in industrial applications. In highly complex problems such as those found in biomechanics research, however, the full potential of FEMs is just beginning to be explored, due to the absence of precise, high resolution medical data and the difficulties encountered in converting these enormous datasets into a form that is usable in FEMs. With increasing computing speed and memory available, it is now feasible to address these challenges. We address the first by acquiring data with a high resolution C-ray CT scanner and the latter by developing semi-automated method for generating the volumetric meshes used in the FEM. Issues related to tomographic reconstruction, volume segmentation, the use of extracted surfaces to generate volumetric hexahedral meshes, and applications of the FEM are described.

  4. Finite element concepts in computational aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Finite element theory was employed to establish an implicit numerical solution algorithm for the time averaged unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. Both the multidimensional and a time-split form of the algorithm were considered, the latter of particular interest for problem specification on a regular mesh. A Newton matrix iteration procedure is outlined for solving the resultant nonlinear algebraic equation systems. Multidimensional discretization procedures are discussed with emphasis on automated generation of specific nonuniform solution grids and accounting of curved surfaces. The time-split algorithm was evaluated with regards to accuracy and convergence properties for hyperbolic equations on rectangular coordinates. An overall assessment of the viability of the finite element concept for computational aerodynamics is made.

  5. Finite element analysis of wrinkling membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. K.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Weingarten, V. I.; Das, P.; Kahyai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a nonlinear numerical algorithm for the analysis of stresses and displacements in partly wrinkled flat membranes, and its implementation on the SAP VII finite-element code are described. A comparison of numerical results with exact solutions of two benchmark problems reveals excellent agreement, with good convergence of the required iterative procedure. An exact solution of a problem involving axisymmetric deformations of a partly wrinkled shallow curved membrane is also reported.

  6. Finite element methods in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Moyer, E. T., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Finite-element methodology specific to the analysis of fracture mechanics problems is reviewed. Primary emphasis is on the important algorithmic developments which have enhanced the numerical modeling of fracture processes. Methodologies to address elastostatic problems in two and three dimensions, elastodynamic problems, elastoplastic problems, special considerations for three-dimensional nonlinear problems, and the modeling of stable crack growth are reviewed. In addition, the future needs of the fracture community are discussed and open questions are identified.

  7. Finite Element Output Bounds for Hyperbolic Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Machiels, L.

    2000-03-27

    We propose a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element error bound technique for linear stationary scalar advection problems. The method is similar in many respects to the previous output bound technique developed for elliptic problems. In the new approach, however, the primal residual is enhanced with a streamline diffusion term. We first formulate the bound algorithm, with particular emphasis on the proof of the bounding properties; then, we provide numerical results for an illustrative example.

  8. Finite Element Methods: Principles for Their Selection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    the finite element methods. 39 Various statements in the literature that certain mixed methods work well inspite of the fact that the LBB (BB...method, displacement and mixed methods , various adaptive approaches, etc. The examples discussed in Sections 2 and 3 show that the same computational...performance and their relation to mixed methods , SIAM J. Num. Anal., to appear. 5. F. Brezzi, On the existence uniqueness and approximation of saddle-point

  9. EXODUS II: A finite element data model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoof, L.A.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface (API).

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Reverberation Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunting, Charles F.; Nguyen, Duc T.

    2000-01-01

    The primary motivating factor behind the initiation of this work was to provide a deterministic means of establishing the validity of the statistical methods that are recommended for the determination of fields that interact in -an avionics system. The application of finite element analysis to reverberation chambers is the initial step required to establish a reasonable course of inquiry in this particularly data-intensive study. The use of computational electromagnetics provides a high degree of control of the "experimental" parameters that can be utilized in a simulation of reverberating structures. As the work evolved there were four primary focus areas they are: 1. The eigenvalue problem for the source free problem. 2. The development of a complex efficient eigensolver. 3. The application of a source for the TE and TM fields for statistical characterization. 4. The examination of shielding effectiveness in a reverberating environment. One early purpose of this work was to establish the utility of finite element techniques in the development of an extended low frequency statistical model for reverberation phenomena. By employing finite element techniques, structures of arbitrary complexity can be analyzed due to the use of triangular shape functions in the spatial discretization. The effects of both frequency stirring and mechanical stirring are presented. It is suggested that for the low frequency operation the typical tuner size is inadequate to provide a sufficiently random field and that frequency stirring should be used. The results of the finite element analysis of the reverberation chamber illustrate io-W the potential utility of a 2D representation for enhancing the basic statistical characteristics of the chamber when operating in a low frequency regime. The basic field statistics are verified for frequency stirring over a wide range of frequencies. Mechanical stirring is shown to provide an effective frequency deviation.

  11. Finite element based electric motor design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop a finite element code for the analysis and design of permanent magnet electric motors. These motors would drive electromechanical actuators in advanced rocket engines. The actuators would control fuel valves and thrust vector control systems. Refurbishing the hydraulic systems of the Space Shuttle after each flight is costly and time consuming. Electromechanical actuators could replace hydraulics, improve system reliability, and reduce down time.

  12. Finite Element Results Visualization for Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Speck, Douglas E.; Dovey, Donald J.

    1996-07-15

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application supporting interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. In addition to basic pseudocolor renderings of state variables over the mesh surface, GRIZ provides modern visualization techniques such as isocontours and isosurfaces, cutting planes, vector field display, and particle traces. GRIZ accepts both command-line and mouse-driven input, and is portable to virtually any UNIX platform which provides Motif and OpenGl libraries.

  13. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  14. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, T.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  15. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  16. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1991-05-01

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  17. TAURUS. 3-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (ESTSC 139), DYNA3D (ESTSC 138), TACO3D (ESTSC 287), TOPAZ3D (ESTSC 231), and GEMINI (ESTSC 455) and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  18. TAURUS. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-03-03

    TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D, DYNA3D, TACO3D, TOPAZ3D, and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories,and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing.

  19. Transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Koji; Nishio, Takayuki; Yamada, Takashi ); Kawase, Yoshihiro . Dept. of Information Science)

    1999-05-01

    For the next generation of high speed railway systems and automobiles new braking systems are currently under development. These braking systems take into account the eddy currents, which are produced by the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. For their optimum design, it is necessary to know the distribution of eddy currents in the moving conductor. The finite element method (FEM) is often used to simulate them. Here, transient finite element method using edge elements for moving conductor is presented. Here the magnetic vector potential is interpolated at the upwind position and the time derivative term is discretized by the backward difference method. As a result, the system matrix becomes symmetric and the ICCG method is applicable to solve the matrix. This method is used to solve an eddy current rail brake system. The results demonstrate that this approach is suitable to solve transient problems involving movement.

  20. Variational approach to probabilistic finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.; Mani, A.; Besterfield, G.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic finite element methods (PFEM), synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-moment techniques, are formulated for various classes of problems in structural and solid mechanics. Time-invariant random materials, geometric properties and loads are incorporated in terms of their fundamental statistics viz. second-moments. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random fields are also discretized. Preserving the conceptual simplicity, the response moments are calculated with minimal computations. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not very large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. The accuracy and efficiency of these methods, along with their limitations, are demonstrated by various applications. Results obtained are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulation and it is shown that good accuracy can be obtained for both linear and nonlinear problems. The methods are amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer codes.

  1. Variational approach to probabilistic finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.; Mani, A.; Besterfield, G.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-moment techniques, are formulated for various classes of problems in structural and solid mechanics. Time-invariant random materials, geometric properties, and loads are incorporated in terms of their fundamental statistics viz. second-moments. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random fields are also discretized. Preserving the conceptual simplicity, the response moments are calculated with minimal computations. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not very large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. The accuracy and efficiency of these methods, along with their limitations, are demonstrated by various applications. Results obtained are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulation and it is shown that good accuracy can be obtained for both linear and nonlinear problems. The methods are amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer codes.

  2. Finite element modeling of lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Feng; Klug, William S.

    2006-12-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented for the study of biological membranes composed of lipid bilayers based on the finite element method. The classic model for these membranes employs a two-dimensional-fluid-like elastic constitutive law which is sensitive to curvature, and subjects vesicles to physically imposed constraints on surface area and volume. This model is implemented numerically via the use of C1-conforming triangular Loop subdivision finite elements. The validity of the framework is tested by computing equilibrium shapes from previously-determined axisymmetric shape-phase diagram of lipid bilayer vesicles with homogeneous material properties. Some of the benefits and challenges of finite element modeling of lipid bilayer systems are discussed, and it is indicated how this framework is natural for future investigation of biologically realistic bilayer structures involving nonaxisymmetric geometries, binding and adhesive interactions, heterogeneous mechanical properties, cytoskeletal interactions, and complex loading arrangements. These biologically relevant features have important consequences for the shape mechanics of nonidealized vesicles and cells, and their study requires not simply advances in theory, but also advances in numerical simulation techniques, such as those presented here.

  3. Gauge finite element method for incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Weinan; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2000-12-01

    A finite element method for computing viscous incompressible flows based on the gauge formulation introduced in [Weinan E, Liu J-G. Gauge method for viscous incompressible flows. Journal of Computational Physics (submitted)] is presented. This formulation replaces the pressure by a gauge variable. This new gauge variable is a numerical tool and differs from the standard gauge variable that arises from decomposing a compressible velocity field. It has the advantage that an additional boundary condition can be assigned to the gauge variable, thus eliminating the issue of a pressure boundary condition associated with the original primitive variable formulation. The computational task is then reduced to solving standard heat and Poisson equations, which are approximated by straightforward, piecewise linear (or higher-order) finite elements. This method can achieve high-order accuracy at a cost comparable with that of solving standard heat and Poisson equations. It is naturally adapted to complex geometry and it is much simpler than traditional finite element methods for incompressible flows. Several numerical examples on both structured and unstructured grids are presented. Copyright

  4. FESDIF -- Finite Element Scalar Diffraction theory code

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, H.G.

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the theory and use of a powerful scalar diffraction theory based computer code for calculation of intensity fields due to diffraction of optical waves by two-dimensional planar apertures and lenses. This code is called FESDIF (Finite Element Scalar Diffraction). It is based upon both Fraunhofer and Kirchhoff scalar diffraction theories. Simplified routines for circular apertures are included. However, the real power of the code comes from its basis in finite element methods. These methods allow the diffracting aperture to be virtually any geometric shape, including the various secondary aperture obstructions present in telescope systems. Aperture functions, with virtually any phase and amplitude variations, are allowed in the aperture openings. Step change aperture functions are accommodated. The incident waves are considered to be monochromatic. Plane waves, spherical waves, or Gaussian laser beams may be incident upon the apertures. Both area and line integral transformations were developed for the finite element based diffraction transformations. There is some loss of aperture function generality in the line integral transformations which are typically many times more computationally efficient than the area integral transformations when applicable to a particular problem.

  5. Mixed Finite Element Method for Melt Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taicher, A. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Arbogast, T.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium. Therefore, a numerical method must also carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. The finite element framework provides support for additional analysis of error and convergence. Moreover, both mesh refinement and anisotropy are naturally incorporated into finite elements. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. Mixed methods also produce discretely conservative fluxes that are required for the transport problem to remains stable without violating conservation of mass. Based preliminary investigations in 1D and derived energy estimates, we present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, using novel elements of lowest order and

  6. Modelling bucket excavation by finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecingina, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    Changes in geological components of the layers from lignite pits have an impact on the sustainability of the cup path elements and under the action of excavation force appear efforts leading to deformation of the entire assembly. Application of finite element method in the optimization of components leads to economic growth, to increase the reliability and durability of the studied machine parts thus the machine. It is obvious usefulness of knowledge the state of mechanical tensions that the designed piece or the assembly not to break under the action of tensions that must cope during operation. In the course of excavation work on all bucket cutting force components, the first coming into contact with the material being excavated cutting edge. Therefore in the study with finite element analysis is retained only cutting edge. To study the field of stress and strain on the cutting edge will be created geometric patterns for each type of cup this will be subject to static analysis. The geometric design retains the cutting edge shape and on this on the tooth cassette location will apply an areal force on the abutment tooth. The cutting edge real pattern is subjected to finite element study for the worst case of rock cutting by symmetrical and asymmetrical cups whose profile is different. The purpose of this paper is to determine the displacement and tensions field for both profiles considering the maximum force applied on the cutting edge and the depth of the cutting is equal with the width of the cutting edge of the tooth. It will consider the worst case when on the structure will act both the tangential force and radial force on the bucket profile. For determination of stress and strain field on the form design of cutting edge profile will apply maximum force assuming uniform distribution and on the edge surface force will apply a radial force. After geometric patterns discretization on the cutting knives and determining stress field, can be seen that at the

  7. Cracked finite elements proposed for NASTRAN. [based on application of finite element method to fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberson, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The recent introduction of special crack-tip singularity elements, usually referred to as cracked elements, has brought the power and flexibility of the finite-element method to bear much more effectively on fracture mechanics problems. This paper recalls the development of two cracked elements and presents the results of some applications proving their accuracy and economy. Judging from the available literature on numerical methods in fracture mechanics, it seems clear that the elements described have been used more extensively than any others in practical fracture mechanics applications.

  8. High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kevin P.; Gonzales, Matthew J.; Gillette, Andrew K.; Villongco, Christopher T.; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Holst, Michael J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783

  9. High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Kevin P; Gonzales, Matthew J; Gillette, Andrew K; Villongco, Christopher T; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H; Holst, Michael J; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori.

  10. System software for the finite element machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Finite Element Machine is an experimental parallel computer developed at Langley Research Center to investigate the application of concurrent processing to structural engineering analysis. This report describes system-level software which has been developed to facilitate use of the machine by applications researchers. The overall software design is outlined, and several important parallel processing issues are discussed in detail, including processor management, communication, synchronization, and input/output. Based on experience using the system, the hardware architecture and software design are critiqued, and areas for further work are suggested.

  11. Iterative methods for mixed finite element equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, S.; Nagtegaal, J. C.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1985-01-01

    Iterative strategies for the solution of indefinite system of equations arising from the mixed finite element method are investigated in this paper with application to linear and nonlinear problems in solid and structural mechanics. The augmented Hu-Washizu form is derived, which is then utilized to construct a family of iterative algorithms using the displacement method as the preconditioner. Two types of iterative algorithms are implemented. Those are: constant metric iterations which does not involve the update of preconditioner; variable metric iterations, in which the inverse of the preconditioning matrix is updated. A series of numerical experiments is conducted to evaluate the numerical performance with application to linear and nonlinear model problems.

  12. A finite element model of ultrasonic extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, M.; Daud, Y.

    2009-08-01

    Since the 1950's researchers have carried out investigations into the effects of applying ultrasonic excitation to metals undergoing elastic and plastic deformation. Experiments have been conducted where ultrasonic excitation is superimposed in complex metalworking operations such as wire drawing and extrusion, to identify the benefits of ultrasonic vibrations. This study presents a finite element analysis of ultrasonic excitation applied to the extrusion of a cylindrical aluminium bar. The effects of friction on the extrusion load are reported for the two excitation configurations of radially and axially applied ultrasonic vibrations and the results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature.

  13. Finite Element Modeling of Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ashley E.; Pantoja, Joe Luis; Weinsaft, Jonathan; Grossi, Eugene; Guccione, Julius M.; Ge, Liang; Ratcliffe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The mitral valve is a complex structure regulating forward flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle (LV). Multiple disease processes can affect its proper function, and when these diseases cause severe mitral regurgitation (MR), optimal treatment is repair of the native valve. The mitral valve (MV) is a dynamic structure with multiple components that have complex interactions. Computational modeling through finite element (FE) analysis is a valuable tool to delineate the biomechanical properties of the mitral valve and understand its diseases and their repairs. In this review, we present an overview of relevant mitral valve diseases, and describe the evolution of FE models of surgical valve repair techniques. PMID:26632260

  14. Algebraic surface design and finite element meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the techniques are summarized which are used in constructing C sup 0 and C sup 1 continuous meshes of low degree, implicitly defined, algebraic surface patches in three dimensional space. These meshes of low degree algebraic surface patches are used to construct accurate computer models of physical objects. These meshes are also used in the finite element simulation of physical phenomena (e.g., heat dissipation, stress/strain distributions, fluid flow characteristics) required in the computer prototyping of both the manufacturability and functionality of the geometric design.

  15. Chemorheology of reactive systems: Finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, C.; Roylance, D.

    1982-01-01

    The equations which govern the nonisothermal flow of reactive fluids are outlined, and the means by which finite element analysis is used to solve these equations for the sort of arbitrary boundary conditions encountered in industrial practice are described. The performance of the computer code is illustrated by several trial problems, selected more for their value in providing insight to polymer processing flows than as practical production problems. Although a good deal remains to be learned as to the performance and proper use of this numerical technique, it is undeniably useful in providing better understanding of today's complicated polymer processing problems.

  16. An algorithm for domain decomposition in finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Nasra, M.; Nguyen, D. T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple and efficient algorithm is described for automatic decomposition of an arbitrary finite element domain into a specified number of subdomains for finite element and substructuring analysis in a multiprocessor computer environment. The algorithm is designed to balance the work loads, to minimize the communication among processors and to minimize the bandwidths of the resulting system of equations. Small- to large-scale finite element models, which have two-node elements (truss, beam element), three-node elements (triangular element) and four-node elements (quadrilateral element), are solved on the Convex computer to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. A FORTRAN computer program is also included.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of a Floating Microstimulator

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Mesut; Ur-Rahman, Syed S.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical solutions for voltage fields in a volume conductor are available only for ideal electrodes with radially symmetric contacts and infinitely extending substrates. Practical electrodes for neural stimulation may have asymmetric contacts and finite substrate dimensions and hence deviate from the ideal geometries. For instance, it needs to be determined if the analytical solutions are adequate for simulations of narrow shank electrodes where the substrate width is comparable to the size of the contacts. As an extension to this problem, a “floating” stimulator can be envisioned where the substrate would be finite in all directions. The question then becomes how small this floating stimulator can be made before its stimulation strength is compromised by the decrease in the medium impedance between the contacts as the contacts are approaching each other. We used finite element modeling to solve the voltage and current profiles generated by these radially asymmetric electrode geometries in a volume conductor. The simulation results suggest that both the substrate size and the bipolar contact separation influence the voltage field when these parameters are as small as a few times the contact size. Both of these effects are larger for increasing elevations from the contact surface, and even stronger for floating electrodes (finite substrate in all directions) than the shank-type electrodes. Location of the contacts on the floating electrode also plays a role in determining the voltage field. The voltage field for any device size and current, and any specific resistance of the volume conductor can be predicted from these results so long as the aspect ratios are preserved. PMID:17601192

  18. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  19. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  20. Finite element analysis of bolted flange connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, D. Y.; Stallings, J. M.

    1994-06-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric finite element model and a 3-D solid finite element model of a high pressure bolted flange joint were generated to investigate the stress behaviors. This investigation includes comparisons for axisymmetric loading of both the 2-D and 3-D models, the effects of non-axisymmetric bolt pretensions in the 3-D models, and the differences between 2-D and 3-D models subjected to non-axisymmetric loading. Comparisons indicated differences in von Mises stress up to 12% at various points due to the non-axisymmetric bolt pretensions. Applied bending moments were converted to equivalent axial forces for use in the 2-D model. It was found that the largest von Mises stresses in 3-D model did not occur on the side of the connection where the bending stresses and applied axial stresses were additive. Hence, in the 2-D model where the equivalent axial force (for bending moment) and applied axial forces were added, the 2-D model under estimated the maximum von Mises stress obtained from the 3-D model by 30%.

  1. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, W.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  2. Accurate finite element modeling of acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idesman, A.; Pham, D.

    2014-07-01

    In the paper we suggest an accurate finite element approach for the modeling of acoustic waves under a suddenly applied load. We consider the standard linear elements and the linear elements with reduced dispersion for the space discretization as well as the explicit central-difference method for time integration. The analytical study of the numerical dispersion shows that the most accurate results can be obtained with the time increments close to the stability limit. However, even in this case and the use of the linear elements with reduced dispersion, mesh refinement leads to divergent numerical results for acoustic waves under a suddenly applied load. This is explained by large spurious high-frequency oscillations. For the quantification and the suppression of spurious oscillations, we have modified and applied a two-stage time-integration technique that includes the stage of basic computations and the filtering stage. This technique allows accurate convergent results at mesh refinement as well as significantly reduces the numerical anisotropy of solutions. We should mention that the approach suggested is very general and can be equally applied to any loading as well as for any space-discretization technique and any explicit or implicit time-integration method.

  3. Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analysis is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperatures for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.

  4. Improved finite element methodology for integrated thermal structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechaumphai, P.; Thornton, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated thermal-structural finite element approach for efficient coupling of thermal and structural analyses is presented. New thermal finite elements which yield exact nodal and element temperature for one dimensional linear steady state heat transfer problems are developed. A nodeless variable formulation is used to establish improved thermal finite elements for one dimensional nonlinear transient and two dimensional linear transient heat transfer problems. The thermal finite elements provide detailed temperature distributions without using additional element nodes and permit a common discretization with lower order congruent structural finite elements. The accuracy of the integrated approach is evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions and conventional finite element thermal-structural analyses for a number of academic and more realistic problems. Results indicate that the approach provides a significant improvement in the accuracy and efficiency of thermal stress analysis for structures with complex temperature distributions.

  5. Finite element analysis enhancement of cryogenic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiem, Clare D.; Norton, Douglas A.

    1991-12-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) of large space optics enhances cryogenic testing by providing an analytical method by which to ensure that a test article survives proposed testing. The analyses presented in this paper were concerned with determining the reliability of a half meter mirror in an environment where the exact environmental profile was unknown. FEA allows the interaction between the test object and the environment to be simulated to detect potential problems prior to actual testing. These analyses examined worse case scenerios related to cooling the mirror, its structural integrity for the proposed test environment, and deformation of the reflective surface. The FEA was conducted in-house on the System's Reliability Division's VAX 11-750 and Decstation 3100 using Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation's numerically integrated elements for systems analysis finite element software. The results of the analyses showed that it would take at least 48 hours to cool the mirror to its desired testing temperature. It was also determined that the proposed mirror mount would not cause critical concentrated thermal stresses that would fracture the mirror. FEA and actual measurements of the front reflective face were compared and good agreement between computer simulation and physical tests were seen. Space deployment of large optics requires lightweight mirrors which can perform under the harsh conditions of space. The physical characteristics of these mirrors must be well understood in order that their deployment and operation are successful. Evaluating design approaches by analytical simulation, like FEA, verifies the reliability and structural integrity of a space optic during design prior to prototyping and testing. Eliminating an optic's poor design early in its life saves money, materials, and human resources while ensuring performance.

  6. Mixed Finite Element Methods for Melt Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taicher, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium so must carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. We present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, we present novel elements of lowest order and compatible with both Darcy and Stokes flow Finally, we present our 2D mixed FEM code result for solving Stokes and Darcy flow as well as the coupled Darcy-Stokes system the mid-ocean ridge or corner flow problem.

  7. Finite element models and feedback control of flexible aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Large flexible aerospace structures, such as the solar power satellite, are distributed parameter systems with very complex continuum descriptions. This paper investigates the use of finite element methods to produce reduced-order models and finite dimensional feedback controllers for these structures. The main results give conditions under which stable control of the finite element model will produce stable control of the actual structure.

  8. Efficient finite element modeling of elastodynamic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Paul D.; Velichko, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The scattering of elastic waves by defects is the physical basis of ultrasonic NDE. Although analytical models exist for some canonical problems, the general case of scattering from an arbitrarily-shaped defect requires numerical methods such as finite elements (FE). In this paper, a robust and efficient FE technique is presented that is based on the premise of meshing a relatively small domain sufficient to enclose the scatterer. Plane waves are then excited from a particular direction by a numerical implementation of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral that uses an encircling array of uni-modal point sources. The scattered field displacements are recorded at the same points and the field decomposed into plane waves of different modes at different angles. By repeating this procedure for different incident angles it is possible to generate the scattering- or S-matrix for the scatterer. For a given size of scatterer, all the information in an S-matrix can be represented in the Fourier domain by a limited number of complex coefficients. Thus the complete scattering behavior of an arbitrary-shaped scatterer can be characterized by a finite number of complex coefficients, that can be obtained from a relatively small number of FE model executions.

  9. Immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Adrian M.; Liu, Wing K.

    2013-07-01

    A unique simulation technique has been developed capable of modeling electric field induced detection of biomolecules such as viruses, at room temperatures where thermal fluctuations must be considered. The proposed immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method couples electrokinetics with fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the motion and deformation of flexible objects immersed in a suspending medium under an applied electric field. The force induced on an arbitrary object due to an electric field is calculated based on the continuum electromechanics and the Maxwell stress tensor. The thermal fluctuations are included in the Navier-Stokes fluid equations via the stochastic stress tensor. Dielectrophoretic and fluctuating forces acting on the particle are coupled through the fluid-structure interaction force calculated within the surrounding environment. This method was used to perform concentration and retention efficacy analysis of nanoscale biosensors using gold particles of various sizes. The analysis was also applied to a human papillomavirus.

  10. Quality management of finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, John

    1991-09-01

    A quality management system covering the use of finite element analysis is described. The main topics are as follows: acquisition, development and verification of software (including the software suppliers software quality control system), support, documentation, error control, internal software, software acceptance and release; development and qualification of analysis methods, including software evaluation, analysis procedure qualification and documentation, procedure quality checks, control of analysis procedure errors; product design and integrity analysis, including project quality assurance and analysis planning, task specification and allocation, analysis, execution, results checking and analysis records. Other issues include the commercial and business advantages of quality systems, project and technical management and the training and experience of personnel. The items are correlated with the requirements of International Standard Organization 9001.

  11. Finite element or Galerkin type semidiscrete schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgun, K.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element of Galerkin type semidiscrete method is proposed for numerical solution of a linear hyperbolic partial differential equation. The question of stability is reduced to the stability of a system of ordinary differential equations for which Dahlquist theory applied. Results of separating the part of numerical solution which causes the spurious oscillation near shock-like response of semidiscrete scheme to a step function initial condition are presented. In general all methods produce such oscillatory overshoots on either side of shocks. This overshoot pathology, which displays a behavior similar to Gibb's phenomena of Fourier series, is explained on the basis of dispersion of separated Fourier components which relies on linearized theory to be satisfactory. Expository results represented.

  12. Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.

  13. Finite-element solutions for geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Conel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Vector potential and scalar potential are used to formulate the governing equations for a single-component and single-phase geothermal system. By assuming an initial temperature field, the fluid velocity can be determined which, in turn, is used to calculate the convective heat transfer. The energy equation is then solved by considering convected heat as a distributed source. Using the resulting temperature to compute new source terms, the final results are obtained by iterations of the procedure. Finite-element methods are proposed for modeling of realistic geothermal systems; the advantages of such methods are discussed. The developed methodology is then applied to a sample problem. Favorable agreement is obtained by comparisons with a previous study.

  14. A finite element model with nonviscous damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussos, L. A.; Hyer, M. W.; Thornton, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A constitutive law by which structural damping is modeled as a relationship between stress, strain, and strain rate in a material is used in conjunction with the finite element method to develop general integral expressions for viscous and nonviscous damping matrices. To solve the set of nonlinear equations resulting from the presence of nonviscous damping, a solution technique is developed by modifying the Newmark method to accommodate an iterative solution and treat the nonviscous damping as a pseudo-force. The technique is then checked for accuracy and convergence in single- and multi-degree-of-freedom problems, and is found to be accurate and efficient for initial-condition problems with small nonviscous damping.

  15. Adaptive finite element methods in electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gavaghan, David J; Gillow, Kathryn; Süli, Endre

    2006-12-05

    In this article, we review some of our previous work that considers the general problem of numerical simulation of the currents at microelectrodes using an adaptive finite element approach. Microelectrodes typically consist of an electrode embedded (or recessed) in an insulating material. For all such electrodes, numerical simulation is made difficult by the presence of a boundary singularity at the electrode edge (where the electrode meets the insulator), manifested by the large increase in the current density at this point, often referred to as the edge effect. Our approach to overcoming this problem has involved the derivation of an a posteriori bound on the error in the numerical approximation for the current that can be used to drive an adaptive mesh-generation algorithm, allowing calculation of the quantity of interest (the current) to within a prescribed tolerance. We illustrate the generic applicability of the approach by considering a broad range of steady-state applications of the technique.

  16. Improved finite-element methods for rotorcraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinnant, Howard E.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the research directed at improving finite-element methods for rotorcraft airframes is presented. The development of a modification to the finite element method which eliminates interelement discontinuities is covered. The following subject areas are discussed: geometric entities, interelement continuity, dependent rotational degrees of freedom, and adaptive numerical integration. This new methodology is being implemented as an anisotropic, curvilinear, p-version, beam, shell, and brick finite element program.

  17. Impact of new computing systems on finite element computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Storassili, O. O.; Fulton, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technology that are likely to impact finite element computations are reviewed. The characteristics of supersystems, highly parallel systems, and small systems (mini and microcomputers) are summarized. The interrelations of numerical algorithms and software with parallel architectures are discussed. A scenario is presented for future hardware/software environment and finite element systems. A number of research areas which have high potential for improving the effectiveness of finite element analysis in the new environment are identified.

  18. A comparative study of finite element and finite difference methods for Cauchy-Riemann type equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, G. J.; Rose, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    A least squares formulation of the system divu = rho, curlu = zeta is surveyed from the viewpoint of both finite element and finite difference methods. Closely related arguments are shown to establish convergence estimates.

  19. Survey and development of finite elements for nonlinear structural analysis. Volume 2: Nonlinear shell finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of two new shell finite elements for applications to large deflection problems is considered. The elements in question are doubly curved and of triangular and quadrilateral planform. They are restricted to small strains of elastic materials, and can accommodate large rotations. The elements described, which are based on relatively simple linear elements, make use of a new displacement function approach specifically designed for strongly nonlinear problems. The displacement function development for nonlinear applications is based on certain beam element formulations, and the strain-displacement equations are of a shallow shell type. Additional terms were included in these equations in an attempt to avoid the large errors characteristic of shallow shell elements in certain types of problems. An incremental nonlinear solution procedure specifically adopted to the element formulation was developed. The solution procedure is of combined incremental and total Lagrangian type, and uses a new updating scheme. A computer program was written to evaluate the developed formulations. This program can accommodate small element groups in arbitrary arrangements. Two simple programs were successfully solved. The results indicate that this new type of element has definite promise and should be a fruitful area for further research.

  20. Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.

  1. Leapfrog/Finite Element Method for Fractional Diffusion Equation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhengang; Zheng, Yunying

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a fully discrete leapfrog/Galerkin finite element method for the numerical solution of the space fractional order (fractional for simplicity) diffusion equation. The generalized fractional derivative spaces are defined in a bounded interval. And some related properties are further discussed for the following finite element analysis. Then the fractional diffusion equation is discretized in space by the finite element method and in time by the explicit leapfrog scheme. For the resulting fully discrete, conditionally stable scheme, we prove an L 2-error bound of finite element accuracy and of second order in time. Numerical examples are included to confirm our theoretical analysis. PMID:24955431

  2. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  3. An efficient finite element solution for gear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, C. G.; Parker, R. G.; Vijayakar, S. M.

    2010-06-01

    A finite element formulation for the dynamic response of gear pairs is proposed. Following an established approach in lumped parameter gear dynamic models, the static solution is used as the excitation in a frequency domain solution of the finite element vibration model. The nonlinear finite element/contact mechanics formulation provides accurate calculation of the static solution and average mesh stiffness that are used in the dynamic simulation. The frequency domain finite element calculation of dynamic response compares well with numerically integrated (time domain) finite element dynamic results and previously published experimental results. Simulation time with the proposed formulation is two orders of magnitude lower than numerically integrated dynamic results. This formulation admits system level dynamic gearbox response, which may include multiple gear meshes, flexible shafts, rolling element bearings, housing structures, and other deformable components.

  4. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  5. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  6. A composite nodal finite element for hexagons

    SciTech Connect

    Hennart, J.P.; Mund, E.H. |; Valle, E. Del

    1997-10-01

    A nodal algorithm for the solution of the multigroup diffusion equations in hexagonal arrays is analyzed. Basically, the method consists of dividing each hexagon into four quarters and mapping the hexagon quarters onto squares. The resulting boundary value problem on a quadrangular domain is solved in primal weak formulation. Nodal finite element methods like the Raviart-Thomas RTk schemes provide accurate analytical expansions of the solution in the hexagons. Transverse integration cannot be performed on the equations in the quadrangular domain as simply as it is usually done on squares because these equations have essentially variable coefficients. However, by considering an auxiliary problem with constant coefficients (on the same quadrangular domain) and by using a preconditioning approach, transverse integration can be performed as for rectangular geometry. A description of the algorithm is given for a one-group diffusion equation. Numerical results are presented for a simple model problem with a known analytical solution and for k{sub eff} evaluations of some benchmark problems proposed in the literature. For the analytical problem, the results indicate that the theoretical convergence orders of RTk schemes (k = 0,1) are obtained, yielding accurate solutions at the expense of a few preconditioning iterations.

  7. Finite element modelling of fabric shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hua; Clifford, Mike J.; Long, Andrew C.; Sherburn, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model to predict shear force versus shear angle for woven fabrics is developed. The model is based on the TexGen geometric modelling schema, developed at the University of Nottingham and orthotropic constitutive models for yarn behaviour, coupled with a unified displacement-difference periodic boundary condition. A major distinction from prior modelling of fabric shear is that the details of picture frame kinematics are included in the model, which allows the mechanisms of fabric shear to be represented more accurately. Meso- and micro-mechanisms of deformation are modelled to determine their contributions to energy dissipation during shear. The model is evaluated using results obtained for a glass fibre plain woven fabric, and the importance of boundary conditions in the analysis of deformation mechanisms is highlighted. The simulation results show that the simple rotation boundary condition is adequate for predicting shear force at large deformations, with most of the energy being dissipated at higher shear angles due to yarn compaction. For small deformations, a detailed kinematic analysis is needed, enabling the yarn shear and rotation deformation mechanisms to be modelled accurately.

  8. Finite element analysis of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, E.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical models of the gas tungsten-arc welding process into finite element computer programs provides a valuable tool for determining the welding thermal cycle, weld bead shape, and penetration characteristics, as well as for evaluating the stresses and distortions generated as a result of the temperature transients. The analysis procedures are applicable to planar or axisymmetric welds with arbitrary cross-sectional geometries, under quasistationary conditions. The method used for determining temperatures features an iteration procedure to accurately account for the latent heat absorbed during melting and liberated during solidification of the weld. By simulating the heat input from the arc to the workpiece by a normal distribution function, temperature transients, weld bead dimensions, and cooling rates are evaluated as functions of both the magnitude and distribution of heat input, weldment geometry, and weld speed (or duration of heating for stationary arcs). Modeling of the welding thermal cycle is a prerequisite to analytical treatments of metallurgical changes in weld metal and heat-affected zone material, residual stresses and distortions, and weld defects. A quasistationary formulation for moving welds enables temperatures to be calculated using a two-dimensional heat conduction computer program. The present limitation of high welding speed can, however, be relaxed without altering the two-dimensional framework of the procedure.

  9. An iterative algorithm for finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laouafa, F.; Royis, P.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we state in a new form the algebraic problem arising from the one-field displacement finite element method (FEM). The displacement approach, in this discrete form, can be considered as the dual approach (force or equilibrium) with subsidiary constraints. This approach dissociates the nonlinear operator to the linear ones and their sizes are linear functions of integration rule which is of interest in the case of reduced integration. This new form of the problem leads to an inexpensive improvement of FEM computations, which acts at local, elementary and global levels. We demonstrate the numerical performances of this approach which is independent of the mesh structure. Using the GMRES algorithm we build, for nonsymmetric problems, a new algorithm based upon the discretized field of strain. The new algorithms proposed are more closer to the mechanical problem than the classical ones because all fields appear during the resolution process. The sizes of the different operators arising in these new forms are linear functions of integration rule, which is of great interest in the case of reduced integration.

  10. TACO: a finite element heat transfer code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E. Jr.

    1980-02-01

    TACO is a two-dimensional implicit finite element code for heat transfer analysis. It can perform both linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady state problems. Either plane or axisymmetric geometries can be analyzed. TACO has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties and materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent loadings and boundary conditions are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additionally, TACO has some specialized features such as internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance), bulk nodes, enclosure radiation with view factor calculations, and chemical reactive kinetics. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A bandwidth and profile minimization option is also available in the code. Graphical representation of data generated by TACO is provided by a companion post-processor named POSTACO. The theory on which TACO is based is outlined, the capabilities of the code are explained, the input data required to perform an analysis with TACO are described. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate the use of the code.

  11. VALIDATION OF ANSYS FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    HAMM, E.R.

    2003-06-27

    This document provides a record of the verification and Validation of the ANSYS Version 7.0 software that is installed on selected CH2M HILL computers. The issues addressed include: Software verification, installation, validation, configuration management and error reporting. The ANSYS{reg_sign} computer program is a large scale multi-purpose finite element program which may be used for solving several classes of engineering analysis. The analysis capabilities of ANSYS Full Mechanical Version 7.0 installed on selected CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CH2M HILL) Intel processor based computers include the ability to solve static and dynamic structural analyses, steady-state and transient heat transfer problems, mode-frequency and buckling eigenvalue problems, static or time-varying magnetic analyses and various types of field and coupled-field applications. The program contains many special features which allow nonlinearities or secondary effects to be included in the solution, such as plasticity, large strain, hyperelasticity, creep, swelling, large deflections, contact, stress stiffening, temperature dependency, material anisotropy, and thermal radiation. The ANSYS program has been in commercial use since 1970, and has been used extensively in the aerospace, automotive, construction, electronic, energy services, manufacturing, nuclear, plastics, oil and steel industries.

  12. Intra Plate Stresses Using Finite Element Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalakshmi, S.; Raghukanth, S. T. G.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most challenging problems in the estimation of seismic hazard is the ability to quantify seismic activity. Empirical models based on the available earthquake catalogue are often used to obtain activity of source regions. The major limitation with this approach is the lack of sufficient data near a specified source. The non-availability of data poses difficulties in obtaining distribution of earthquakes with large return periods. Such events recur over geological time scales during which tectonic processes, including mantle convection, formation of faults and new plate boundaries, are likely to take place. The availability of geometries of plate boundaries, plate driving forces, lithospheric stress field and GPS measurements has provided numerous insights on the mechanics of tectonic plates. In this article, a 2D finite element model of Indo-Australian plate is developed with the focus of representing seismic activity in India. The effect of large scale geological features including sedimentary basins, fold belts and cratons on the stress field in India is explored in this study. In order to address long term behaviour, the orientation of stress field and tectonic faults of the present Indo- Australian plate are compared with a reconstructed stress field from the early Miocene (20 Ma).

  13. Thermal-structural finite element analysis using linear flux formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Wieting, Allan R.

    1990-01-01

    A linear flux approach is developed for a finite element thermal-structural analysis of steady state thermal and structural problems. The element fluxes are assumed to vary linearly in the same form as the element unknown variables, and the finite element matrices are evaluated in closed form. Since numerical integration is avoided, significant computational time saving is achieved. Solution accuracy and computational speed improvements are demonstrated by solving several two and three dimensional thermal-structural examples.

  14. Solution-adaptive finite element method in computational fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Some recent results obtained using solution-adaptive finite element method in linear elastic two-dimensional fracture mechanics problems are presented. The focus is on the basic issue of adaptive finite element method for validating the applications of new methodology to fracture mechanics problems by computing demonstration problems and comparing the stress intensity factors to analytical results.

  15. Modular Finite Element Methods Library Version: 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-22

    MFEM is a general, modular library for finite element methods. It provides a variety of finite element spaces and bilinear/linear forms in 2D and 3D. MFEM also includes classes for dealing with various types of meshes and their refinement.

  16. Generating Finite-Element Models Of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Program starts at micromechanical level, from simple inputs supplied by user. COMGEN, COmposite Model GENerator, is interactive FORTRAN program used to create wide variety of finite-element models of continuous-fiber composite materials at micromechanical level. Quickly generates batch or "session files" to be submitted to finite-element preprocessor and postprocessor program, PATRAN. COMGEN requires PATRAN to complete model.

  17. A computer graphics program for general finite element analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Sawyer, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Documentation for a computer graphics program for displays from general finite element analyses is presented. A general description of display options and detailed user instructions are given. Several plots made in structural, thermal and fluid finite element analyses are included to illustrate program options. Sample data files are given to illustrate use of the program.

  18. Large Scale Finite Element Modeling Using Scalable Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, T.; Katz, D.; Zuffada, C.; Jamnejad, V.

    1995-01-01

    An iterative solver for use with finite element codes was developed for the Cray T3D massively parallel processor at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Finite element modeling is useful for simulating scattered or radiated electromagnetic fields from complex three-dimensional objects with geometry variations smaller than an electrical wavelength.

  19. Finite element meshing of ANSYS (trademark) solid models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, F. S.

    1987-01-01

    A large scale, general purpose finite element computer program, ANSYS, developed and marketed by Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc. is discussed. ANSYS was perhaps the first commercially available program to offer truly interactive finite element model generation. ANSYS's purpose is for solid modeling. This application is briefly discussed and illustrated.

  20. TAURUS96. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.; Hallquist, J.O.; Spelce, T.E.

    1993-11-30

    TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.

  1. Finite-element analysis of a weld-penetration problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    The stress concentration factor for a weld penetration defect is calculated by the finite-element method. A stress intensity factor is computed by use of the finite-element solution and the J-integral. The results are compared with experimental results.

  2. Practical Application of Finite Element Analysis to Aircraft Structural Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    t] Cook, Robert D., "Concepts and Applications of Finite element Analysis," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981. [5] Rao, S. S., "The Finite...generation large-scale computer programs is discussed. V.P. Analysis of aircraft structure using applied fracture mechanics (AA) WILHEM , D. P. Northrop...Analytical, finite element for surface flaws, holes (AA) WILHEM , D. P. Northrop Corp., Hawthorne, Calif. (N5631231) Aircraft Group. In AGARD Fracture

  3. Analysis of finite deformations of elastic solids by the finite element method.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.; Key, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Finite element applications, particularly to analyses of finite deformations in elastic solids, are reviewed, along with the difficulties encountered in the formulation of certain problems and in their numerical solution. Various approaches are discussed for overcoming these and other difficulties. A computer program designed for finite elasticity problems is described, and several numerical examples are presented.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

  5. Finite element simulation of thick sheet thermoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Daniel

    This PhD was organized as collaboration between Lehigh University and the Ecole des Mines d'Albi on the subject: "Numerical simulation of thick sheet thermoforming". The research applications cover a wide range of products from thermoforming, e.g., packaging, automobile parts, appliance parts, large-scale panels and covers. Due to the special nature of this PhD, and the requirements of each hosting institutes, the research was split accordingly into two parts: At Lehigh University, under the supervision of Prof. Herman F. Nied, a full three-dimensional finite element program was developed in order to simulate the mechanical deformation during the process of thermoforming. The material behavior is considered hyperelastic with the property of incompressibility. The deformed structure may exhibit symmetries and may use a large choice of boundary conditions. A contact procedure for molds and/or displacements caused by a plug was implemented to complete the similarity with the thermoforming process. The research focused on simulating the observed nonlinear behaviors and their instabilities. The author emphasized the impact of large deformation on the numerical results and demonstrated the need for a remeshing capability. At the Ecole des Mines d'Albi, under the supervision of Prof. Fabrice Schmidt, an equi-biaxial rheometer was developed and built in order to determine the material properties during the process of thermoforming. Thermoplastic materials consist of long macromolecular chains that when stretched, during the process of sheet extrusion, exhibit a transversal isotropic behavior. The rheometer technique is the inflation of a circular membrane made of extruded thermoplastics. The resulting strain is identified by video analysis during the membrane inflation. This dissertation focused on technical issues related to heating with the goal of overcoming the difficulty of producing a homogeneous temperature distribution.

  6. Finite Element analyses of soil bioengineered slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamagnini, Roberto; Switala, Barbara Maria; Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Wu, Wei; Graf, Frank; Auer, Michael; te Kamp, Lothar

    2014-05-01

    Soil Bioengineering methods are not only effective from an economical point of view, but they are also interesting as fully ecological solutions. The presented project is aimed to define a numerical model which includes the impact of vegetation on slope stability, considering both mechanical and hydrological effects. In this project, a constitutive model has been developed that accounts for the multi-phase nature of the soil, namely the partly saturated condition and it also includes the effects of a biological component. The constitutive equation is implemented in the Finite Element (FE) software Comes-Geo with an implicit integration scheme that accounts for the collapse of the soils structure due to wetting. The mathematical formulation of the constitutive equations is introduced by means of thermodynamics and it simulates the growth of the biological system during the time. The numerical code is then applied in the analysis of an ideal rainfall induced landslide. The slope is analyzed for vegetated and non-vegetated conditions. The final results allow to quantitatively assessing the impact of vegetation on slope stability. This allows drawing conclusions and choosing whenever it is worthful to use soil bioengineering methods in slope stabilization instead of traditional approaches. The application of the FE methods show some advantages with respect to the commonly used limit equilibrium analyses, because it can account for the real coupled strain-diffusion nature of the problem. The mechanical strength of roots is in fact influenced by the stress evolution into the slope. Moreover, FE method does not need a pre-definition of any failure surface. FE method can also be used in monitoring the progressive failure of the soil bio-engineered system as it calculates the amount of displacements and strains of the model slope. The preliminary study results show that the formulated equations can be useful for analysis and evaluation of different soil bio

  7. Finite element analysis of posterior cervical fixation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y; Wang, H H; Jin, A M; Zhang, L; Min, S X; Liu, C L; Qiu, S J; Shu, X Q

    2015-02-01

    Despite largely, used in the past, biomechanical test, to investigate the fixation techniques of subaxial cervical spine, information is lacking about the internal structural response to external loading. It is not yet clear which technique represents the best choice and whether stabilization devices can be efficient and beneficial for three-column injuries (TCI). The different posterior cervical fixation techniques (pedicle screw PS, lateral mass screw LS, and transarticular screw TS) have respective indications. A detailed, geometrically accurate, nonlinear C3-C7 finite element model (FEM) had been successfully developed and validated. Then three FEMs were reconstructed from different fixation techniques after C4-C6 TCI. A compressive preload of 74N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm in flexion, extension, left-right lateral bending, and left-right axial rotation was applied to the FEMs. The ROM results showed that there were obvious significant differences when comparing the different fixation techniques. PS and TS techniques can provide better immediate stabilization, compared to LS technique. The stress results showed that the variability of von Mises stress in the TS fixation device was minimum and LS fixation device was maximum. Furthermore, the screws inserted by TS technique had high stress concentration at the middle part of the screws. Screw inserted by PS and LS techniques had higher stress concentration at the actual cap-rod-screw interface. The research considers that spinal surgeon should first consider using the TS technique to treat cervical TCI. If PS technique is used, we should eventually prolong the need for external bracing in order to reduce the higher risk of fracture on fixation devices. If LS technique is used, we should add anterior cervical operation for acquire a better immediate stabilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An atomic finite element model for biodegradable polymers. Part 1. Formulation of the finite elements.

    PubMed

    Gleadall, Andrew; Pan, Jingzhe; Ding, Lifeng; Kruft, Marc-Anton; Curcó, David

    2015-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are widely used to analyse materials at the atomic scale. However, MD has high computational demands, which may inhibit its use for simulations of structures involving large numbers of atoms such as amorphous polymer structures. An atomic-scale finite element method (AFEM) is presented in this study with significantly lower computational demands than MD. Due to the reduced computational demands, AFEM is suitable for the analysis of Young's modulus of amorphous polymer structures. This is of particular interest when studying the degradation of bioresorbable polymers, which is the topic of an accompanying paper. AFEM is derived from the inter-atomic potential energy functions of an MD force field. The nonlinear MD functions were adapted to enable static linear analysis. Finite element formulations were derived to represent interatomic potential energy functions between two, three and four atoms. Validation of the AFEM was conducted through its application to atomic structures for crystalline and amorphous poly(lactide). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element solution for poromechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruijie

    This dissertation focuses on applying discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods to poromechanics problems. A few challenges have been presented in traditional and popular continuous Galerkin (CG) finite element methods for solving complex coupled thermal, flow and solid mechanics. For example, nonphysical pore pressure oscillations often occur in CG solutions for poroelasticity problems with low permeability. A robust and practical numerical scheme for removing or alleviating the oscillation is not available. In modeling thermoporoelastoplasticity, CG methods require the use of very small time steps to obtain a convergent solution. The temperature profile predicted by CG methods in the fine mesh zones is often seriously polluted by large errors produced in coarse mesh zones in the case where the convection dominates the thermal process. The nonphysical oscillations in pore pressure and temperature solutions induced by CG methods at very early time stages seriously corrupt the solutions at longer time. We propose DG methods to handle these challenges because they are physics driven, provide local conservation of mass and momentum, have high stability and robustness, are locking-free, and because of their meshing and implementation capabilities. We first apply a family of DG methods, including Oden-Babuska-Baumann (OBB), Nonsymmetric Interior Penalty Galerkin (NIPG), Symmetric Interior Penalty Galerkin (SIPG) and Incomplete Interior Penalty Galerkin (IIPG), to 3D linear elasticity problems. This family of DG methods is tested and evaluated by using a cantilever beam problem with nearly incompressible materials. It is shown that DG methods are simple, robust and locking-free in dealing with nearly incompressible materials. Based on the success of DG methods in elasticity, we extend the DG theory into plasticity problems. A DG formulation has been implemented for solving 3D poroelasticity problems with low permeability. Numerical examples solved by DG methods demonstrate

  10. Mixed finite element - discontinuous finite volume element discretization of a general class of multicontinuum models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo; Lunati, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel discretization scheme tailored to a class of multiphase models that regard the physical system as consisting of multiple interacting continua. In the framework of mixture theory, we consider a general mathematical model that entails solving a system of mass and momentum equations for both the mixture and one of the phases. The model results in a strongly coupled and nonlinear system of partial differential equations that are written in terms of phase and mixture (barycentric) velocities, phase pressure, and saturation. We construct an accurate, robust and reliable hybrid method that combines a mixed finite element discretization of the momentum equations with a primal discontinuous finite volume-element discretization of the mass (or transport) equations. The scheme is devised for unstructured meshes and relies on mixed Brezzi-Douglas-Marini approximations of phase and total velocities, on piecewise constant elements for the approximation of phase or total pressures, as well as on a primal formulation that employs discontinuous finite volume elements defined on a dual diamond mesh to approximate scalar fields of interest (such as volume fraction, total density, saturation, etc.). As the discretization scheme is derived for a general formulation of multicontinuum physical systems, it can be readily applied to a large class of simplified multiphase models; on the other, the approach can be seen as a generalization of these models that are commonly encountered in the literature and employed when the latter are not sufficiently accurate. An extensive set of numerical test cases involving two- and three-dimensional porous media are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the method (displaying an optimal convergence rate), the physics-preserving properties of the mixed-primal scheme, as well as the robustness of the method (which is successfully used to simulate diverse physical phenomena such as density fingering, Terzaghi's consolidation

  11. Application of the Finite Element Method to Rotary Wing Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element method for the spatial discretization of the dynamic equations of equilibrium governing rotary-wing aeroelastic problems is presented. Formulation of the finite element equations is based on weighted Galerkin residuals. This Galerkin finite element method reduces algebraic manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the application of the global Galerkin method in similar problems. The coupled flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries of hingeless helicopter rotor blades in hover are calculated. The linearized dynamic equations are reduced to the standard eigenvalue problem from which the aeroelastic stability boundaries are obtained. The convergence properties of the Galerkin finite element method are studied numerically by refining the discretization process. Results indicate that four or five elements suffice to capture the dynamics of the blade with the same accuracy as the global Galerkin method.

  12. Finite-element mesh generation from mappable features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Lowther, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    A vector-based geographical information system (GIS) is used to generate a variably-sized triangular element finite-element mesh from mappable features. Important digitally-mapped features are automatically linked to nodes in the finite-element model, ensuring an efficient, virtually error-free alternative to the tedious process of mesh design and data-input preparation by other methods. The procedure permits the user to work interactively with graphically-displayed hydrologic information about the study area allowing different mesh sizes to be used as needed, based on hydrologic complexity. The mesh-generaiion programs are stand-alone macros within the GIS that set up the basic data defining a finite-element mesh for many different finite-element model programs.

  13. A finite element conjugate gradient FFT method for scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jeffery D.; Ross, Dan; Jin, J.-M.; Chatterjee, A.; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    Validated results are presented for the new 3D body of revolution finite element boundary integral code. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and mangnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and the exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the finite element mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that is leads to convolutional boundary operatores of low O(n) memory demand. Improvements of this code are discussed along with the proposed formulation for a full 3D implementation of the finite element boundary integral method in conjunction with a conjugate gradiant fast Fourier transformation (CGFFT) solution.

  14. Hybrid stress finite elements for large deformations of inelastic solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, K. W.; Atluri, S. N.

    1984-01-01

    A new hybrid stress finite element algorithm, based on a generalization of Fraeijs de Veubeke's complementary energy principle is presented. Analyses of large quasistatic deformation of inelastic solids (hypoelastic, plastic, viscoplastic) are within its capability. Principle variables in the formulation are the nominal stress rate and spin. A brief account is given of the boundary value problem in these variables, and the 'equivalent' variational principle. The finite element equation, along with initial positions and stresses, comprise an initial value problem. Factors affecting the choice of time integration schemes are discussed. Results found by application of the new algorithm are compared to those obtained by a velocity based finite element algorithm.

  15. Wavelet and Multiresolution Analysis for Finite Element Networking Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurdila, Andrew J.; Sharpley, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final report on Wavelet and Multiresolution Analysis for Finite Element Networking Paradigms. The focus of this research is to derive and implement: 1) Wavelet based methodologies for the compression, transmission, decoding, and visualization of three dimensional finite element geometry and simulation data in a network environment; 2) methodologies for interactive algorithm monitoring and tracking in computational mechanics; and 3) Methodologies for interactive algorithm steering for the acceleration of large scale finite element simulations. Also included in this report are appendices describing the derivation of wavelet based Particle Image Velocity algorithms and reduced order input-output models for nonlinear systems by utilizing wavelet approximations.

  16. Non-Linear Finite Element Modeling of THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.; Campbell, Joel F.

    1999-01-01

    A NASTRAN non-linear finite element model has been developed for predicting the dome heights of THUNDER (THin Layer UNimorph Ferroelectric DrivER) piezoelectric actuators. To analytically validate the finite element model, a comparison was made with a non-linear plate solution using Von Karmen's approximation. A 500 volt input was used to examine the actuator deformation. The NASTRAN finite element model was also compared with experimental results. Four groups of specimens were fabricated and tested. Four different input voltages, which included 120, 160, 200, and 240 Vp-p with a 0 volts offset, were used for this comparison.

  17. Quality assessment and control of finite element solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Babuska, Ivo

    1987-01-01

    Status and some recent developments in the techniques for assessing the reliability of finite element solutions are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects including: the major types of errors in the finite element solutions; techniques used for a posteriori error estimation and the reliability of these estimators; the feedback and adaptive strategies for improving the finite element solutions; and postprocessing approaches used for improving the accuracy of stresses and other important engineering data. Also, future directions for research needed to make error estimation and adaptive movement practical are identified.

  18. Higher-Order Finite Elements for Computing Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Dana C.

    2004-01-01

    Two variants of the finite-element method have been developed for use in computational simulations of radiative transfers of heat among diffuse gray surfaces. Both variants involve the use of higher-order finite elements, across which temperatures and radiative quantities are assumed to vary according to certain approximations. In this and other applications, higher-order finite elements are used to increase (relative to classical finite elements, which are assumed to be isothermal) the accuracies of final numerical results without having to refine computational meshes excessively and thereby incur excessive computation times. One of the variants is termed the radiation sub-element (RSE) method, which, itself, is subject to a number of variations. This is the simplest and most straightforward approach to representation of spatially variable surface radiation. Any computer code that, heretofore, could model surface-to-surface radiation can incorporate the RSE method without major modifications. In the basic form of the RSE method, each finite element selected for use in computing radiative heat transfer is considered to be a parent element and is divided into sub-elements for the purpose of solving the surface-to-surface radiation-exchange problem. The sub-elements are then treated as classical finite elements; that is, they are assumed to be isothermal, and their view factors and absorbed heat fluxes are calculated accordingly. The heat fluxes absorbed by the sub-elements are then transferred back to the parent element to obtain a radiative heat flux that varies spatially across the parent element. Variants of the RSE method involve the use of polynomials to interpolate and/or extrapolate to approximate spatial variations of physical quantities. The other variant of the finite-element method is termed the integration method (IM). Unlike in the RSE methods, the parent finite elements are not subdivided into smaller elements, and neither isothermality nor other

  19. Finite Element Anlaysis of Laminated Composite Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    4.2, results depicting maximum displacement obtained using 2 x 2 integration points, 3 x 3 integration points and ’ heterosis ’ [Ref. 4] elements are...thick and thin plates. This element gives better predictions for thick plates than heterosis ele- ment, however, for thin plates, heterosis element...results showing the normalized maximum displacements are shown in Figure 4.8. The heterosis element results in about ten percent error while the

  20. Validating Finite Element Models of Assembled Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The validation of finite element models of assembled shell elements is presented. The topics include: 1) Problems with membrane rotations in assembled shell models; 2) Penalty stiffness for membrane rotations; 3) Physical stiffness for membrane rotations using shell elements with 6 dof per node; and 4) Connections avoiding rotations.

  1. North Atlantic Finite Element Ocean Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluthedathekuzhiyil, Praveen

    This thesis presents a modified version of the Finite Element Ocean Model (FEOM) developed at Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) for the North Atlantic Ocean. A reasonable North Atlantic Ocean simulation is obtained against the observational data sets in a Control simulation (CS) where the surface boundary conditions are relaxed to a climatology. The vertical mixing in the model was tuned to represent convection in the model, also the horizontal mixing and diffusion coefficients to represent the changes in the resolution of the model’s unstructured grid. In addition, the open boundaries in the model are treated with a sponge layer where tracers are relaxed to climatology. The model is then further modified to accept the atmospheric flux forcing at the surface boundary with an added net heat flux correction and freshwater forcing from major rivers that are flowing into the North Atlantic Ocean. The impact of this boundary condition on the simulation results is then analyzed and shows many improvements albeit the drift in tracer properties around the Gulf Stream region remains as that of the CS case. However a comparison of the vertical sections at Cape Desolation and Cape Farewell with the available observational data sets shows many improvements in this simulation compared to that of the CS case. But the freshwater content in the Labrador Sea interior shows a continued drift as that of the CS case with an improvement towards the 10th model year. A detailed analysis of the boundary currents around the Labrador Sea shows the weak offshore transport of freshwater from the West Greenland Current (WGC) as one of the causes. To further improve the model and reasonably represent the boundary currents and associated sub-grid scale eddies in the model, a modified sub-grid scale parameterization based on Gent and McWilliams, (1990) is adopted. The sensitivity of using various approaches in the thickness diffusion parameter ( Kgm) for this

  2. Superconvergence in the Generalized Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Galerkin method for elliptic equations based on tensor products of piecewise polynomials. RAIRO Anal. Numer., 8:61– 66, 1974. [19] M. Kř́ıžek...London, 1986. [22] P. Lesaint and M. Zlámal. Superconvergence of the gradient of finite ele- ment solutions. RAIRO Anal. Numer., 13:139–166, 1979. [23] Q

  3. Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Strauss, H. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Park, W.; Sugiyama, L. E.; G. Fu; Breslau, J.

    2005-11-01

    There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Elasto-plastic Plate Bending Problems using Transition Rectangular Plate Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanber, Bahattin; Bozkurt, O. Yavuz

    2006-08-01

    In this work, the finite element analysis of the elasto-plastic plate bending problems is carried out using transition rectangular plate elements. The shape functions of the transition plate elements are derived based on a practical rule. The transition plate elements are all quadrilateral and can be used to obtain efficient finite element models using minimum number of elements. The mesh convergence rates of the models including the transition elements are compared with the regular element models. To verify the developed elements, simple tests are demonstrated and various elasto-plastic problems are solved. Their results are compared with ANSYS results.

  5. Finite element analysis to evaluate optical mirror deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izazaga-Pérez, R.; Aguirre-Aguirre, D.; Villalobos-Mendoza, B.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we describe the use of Finite Element Analysis software to simulate the deformations of an optical mirror. We use Finite Element Method software as a tool to simulate the mirror deformations assuming that it is a thin plate that can be mechanically tensed or compressed; the Finite Element Analysis give us information about the displacements of the mirror from an initial position and the tensions that remains in the surface. The information obtained by means of Finite Element Analysis can be easily exported to a coordinate system and processed in a simulation environment. Finally, a ray-tracing subroutine is used in the obtained data giving us information in terms of aberration coefficients. We present some results of the simulations describing the followed procedure.

  6. Adaptive Finite-Element Computation In Fracture Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses recent progress in use of solution-adaptive finite-element computational methods to solve two-dimensional problems in linear elastic fracture mechanics. Method also shown extensible to three-dimensional problems.

  7. Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.

  8. Scalable, Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, T.; Lou, J.; Katz, D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a method for simulating electromagnetic fields scattered from complex objects is reviewed; namely, an unstructured finite element code that does not use traditional mesh partitioning algorithms.

  9. Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mishev, I.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.

  10. Error analysis of finite element solutions for postbuckled cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sistla, Rajaram; Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1989-01-01

    A general method of error analysis and correction is investigated for the discrete finite-element results for cylindrical shell structures. The method for error analysis is an adaptation of the method of successive approximation. When applied to the equilibrium equations of shell theory, successive approximations derive an approximate continuous solution from the discrete finite-element results. The advantage of this continuous solution is that it contains continuous partial derivatives of an order higher than the basis functions of the finite-element solution. Preliminary numerical results are presented in this paper for the error analysis of finite-element results for a postbuckled stiffened cylindrical panel modeled by a general purpose shell code. Numerical results from the method have previously been reported for postbuckled stiffened plates. A procedure for correcting the continuous approximate solution by Newton's method is outlined.

  11. Scalable, Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, T.; Lou, J.; Katz, D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a method for simulating electromagnetic fields scattered from complex objects is reviewed; namely, an unstructured finite element code that does not use traditional mesh partitioning algorithms.

  12. The finite element machine: An experiment in parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.; Peebles, S. W.; Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.; Adams, L.

    1982-01-01

    The finite element machine is a prototype computer designed to support parallel solutions to structural analysis problems. The hardware architecture and support software for the machine, initial solution algorithms and test applications, and preliminary results are described.

  13. Validation of high displacement piezoelectric actuator finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2000-08-01

    The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN and ANSYS finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness and important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN and ANSYS used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN, a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.

  14. Optimal least-squares finite element method for elliptic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1991-01-01

    An optimal least squares finite element method is proposed for two dimensional and three dimensional elliptic problems and its advantages are discussed over the mixed Galerkin method and the usual least squares finite element method. In the usual least squares finite element method, the second order equation (-Delta x (Delta u) + u = f) is recast as a first order system (-Delta x p + u = f, Delta u - p = 0). The error analysis and numerical experiment show that, in this usual least squares finite element method, the rate of convergence for flux p is one order lower than optimal. In order to get an optimal least squares method, the irrotationality Delta x p = 0 should be included in the first order system.

  15. Simple bounds on limit loads by elastic finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, D.; Nadarajah, C.; Shi, J.; Boyle, J.T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    A method for bounding limit loads by an iterative elastic continuum finite element analysis procedure, referred to as the elastic compensation method, is proposed. A number of sample problems are considered, based on both exact solutions and finite element analysis, and it is concluded that the method may be used to obtain limit-load bounds for pressure vessel design by analysis applications with useful accuracy.

  16. Examples of finite element mesh generation using SDRC IDEAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, John; Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    IDEAS (Integrated Design Engineering Analysis Software) offers a comprehensive package for mechanical design engineers. Due to its multifaceted capabilities, however, it can be manipulated to serve the needs of electrical engineers, also. IDEAS can be used to perform the following tasks: system modeling, system assembly, kinematics, finite element pre/post processing, finite element solution, system dynamics, drafting, test data analysis, and project relational database.

  17. Integration of geometric modeling and advanced finite element preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, Mark S.; Finnigan, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The structure to a geometry based finite element preprocessing system is presented. The key features of the system are the use of geometric operators to support all geometric calculations required for analysis model generation, and the use of a hierarchic boundary based data structure for the major data sets within the system. The approach presented can support the finite element modeling procedures used today as well as the fully automated procedures under development.

  18. Global/local finite element analysis of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Vidussoni, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    The motivation for performing global/local finite element analysis in composite materials is described. An example of such an analysis of a composite plate with a central circular hole is presented. Deformed finite element grids and interlaminar normal stress distributions are presented to aid understanding of the plate response. Such distribution at the plate edge is shown to be basically unaffected, although transverse displacements of the edge were slightly different from an analysis of a similar plate with no hole.

  19. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined.

  20. Finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Rene

    1994-01-01

    The finite element analysis of a composite wheelchair wheel design is presented. The design is the result of a technology utilization request. The designer's intent is to soften the riding feeling by incorporating a mechanism attaching the wheel rim to the spokes that would allow considerable deflection upon compressive loads. A finite element analysis was conducted to verify proper structural function. Displacement and stress results are presented and conclusions are provided.

  1. An Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Large Scale Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    the method . Using the above definitions , the weak statement of the non-linear local problem at the kth 4 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0305 An Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Large Scale Simulations Carlos Duarte UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS CHAMPAIGN...14-07-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Adaptive Multiscale Generalized Finite Element Method for Large Scale Simulations 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  2. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Composite Flextensional Transducer Shell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE s FUNDING NUMbE;h NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE FLEXTENSIONAL PR: SV70 TRANSDUCER SHELL PE: 020431 IN 6 AUFTHOA...D NSN 7540-01-280-5500 ,ssard tr,298 IBACI UiNCLA-SSIFlED NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE FLEXTENSIONAL TRANSDUCER SHELL R. C. SliAW...its correlation with test data for a Class IV flextensional underwater acoustic transducer . The thick. elliptical fiberglass/epoxy shell of the

  3. Finite element modeling of electromagnetic propagation in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    A finite element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study electromagnetic propagation in complex two-dimensional absorbing ducts. The reflection and transmission at entrance and exit boundaries are determined by coupling the finite element solutions at the entrance and exit to the eigenfunctions of an infinite uniform perfect conducting duct. Example solutions are presented for electromagnetic propagation with absorbing duct walls and propagating through dielectric-metallic matrix materials.

  4. Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunzburger, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.

  5. Evaluation of a hybrid, anisotropic, multilayered, quadrilateral finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. C.; Blackburn, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    A multilayered finite element with bending-extensional coupling is evaluated for: (1) buckling of general laminated plates; (2) thermal stresses of laminated plates cured at elevated temperatures; (3) displacements of a bimetallic beam; and (4) displacement and stresses of a single-cell box beam with warped cover panels. Also, displacements and stresses for flat and spherical orthotropic and anisotropic segments are compared with results from higher order plate and shell finite-element analyses.

  6. Finite element strategies to satisfy clinical and engineering requirements in the field of percutaneous valves.

    PubMed

    Capelli, Claudio; Biglino, Giovanni; Petrini, Lorenza; Migliavacca, Francesco; Cosentino, Daria; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Finite element (FE) modelling can be a very resourceful tool in the field of cardiovascular devices. To ensure result reliability, FE models must be validated experimentally against physical data. Their clinical application (e.g., patients' suitability, morphological evaluation) also requires fast simulation process and access to results, while engineering applications need highly accurate results. This study shows how FE models with different mesh discretisations can suit clinical and engineering requirements for studying a novel device designed for percutaneous valve implantation. Following sensitivity analysis and experimental characterisation of the materials, the stent-graft was first studied in a simplified geometry (i.e., compliant cylinder) and validated against in vitro data, and then in a patient-specific implantation site (i.e., distensible right ventricular outflow tract). Different meshing strategies using solid, beam and shell elements were tested. Results showed excellent agreement between computational and experimental data in the simplified implantation site. Beam elements were found to be convenient for clinical applications, providing reliable results in less than one hour in a patient-specific anatomical model. Solid elements remain the FE choice for engineering applications, albeit more computationally expensive (>100 times). This work also showed how information on device mechanical behaviour differs when acquired in a simplified model as opposed to a patient-specific model.

  7. An adaptive discontinuous finite element method for the transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, J.; Walter, A.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper we introduce a discontinuous finite element method. In our approach, it is possible to combine the advantages of finite element and finite difference methods. The main ingredients are numerical flux approximation and local orthogonal basis functions. The scheme is defined on arbitrary triangulations and two different error indicators are derived. Especially the second one is closely connected to our approach and able to handle arbitrary varying flow directions. Numerical results are given for boundary value problems in two dimensions. They demonstrate the performance of the scheme, combined with the two error indicators.

  8. Least-squares finite element methods for compressible Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan; Carey, G. F.

    1990-01-01

    A method based on backward finite differencing in time and a least-squares finite element scheme for first-order systems of partial differential equations in space is applied to the Euler equations for gas dynamics. The scheme minimizes the L-sq-norm of the residual within each time step. The method naturally generates numerical dissipation proportional to the time step size. An implicit method employing linear elements has been implemented and proves robust. For high-order elements, computed solutions based on the L-sq method may have oscillations for calculations at similar time step sizes. To overcome this difficulty, a scheme which minimizes the weighted H1-norm of the residual is proposed and leads to a successful scheme with high-degree elements. Finally, a conservative least-squares finite element method is also developed. Numerical results for two-dimensional problems are given to demonstrate the shock resolution of the methods and compare different approaches.

  9. Nonlinear finite element analysis: An alternative formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merazzi, S.; Stehlin, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geometrical nonlinear analysis based on an alternative definition of strain is presented. Expressions for strain are obtained by computing the change in length of the base vectors in the curvilinear element coordinate system. The isoparametric element formulation is assumed in the global Cartesian coordinate system. The approach is based on the minimization of the strain energy, and the resulting nonlinear equations are solved by the modified Newton method. Integration of the first and second variation of the strain energy is performed numerically in the case of two and three dimensional elements. Application is made to a simple long cantilever beam.

  10. Recent developments in finite element analysis for transonic airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The prediction of aerodynamic forces in the transonic regime generally requires a flow field calculation to solve the governing non-linear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic partial differential equations. Finite difference techniques were developed to the point that design and analysis application are routine, and continual improvements are being made by various research groups. The principal limitation in extending finite difference methods to complex three-dimensional geometries is the construction of a suitable mesh system. Finite element techniques are attractive since their application to other problems have permitted irregular mesh elements to be employed. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent developments in the application of finite element methods to transonic flow problems and to report some recent results.

  11. Dynamical observer for a flexible beam via finite element approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manitius, Andre; Xia, Hong-Xing

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this view-graph presentation is a computational investigation of the closed-loop output feedback control of a Euler-Bernoulli beam based on finite element approximation. The observer is part of the classical observer plus state feedback control, but it is finite-dimensional. In the theoretical work on the subject it is assumed (and sometimes proved) that increasing the number of finite elements will improve accuracy of the control. In applications, this may be difficult to achieve because of numerical problems. The main difficulty in computing the observer and simulating its work is the presence of high frequency eigenvalues in the finite-element model and poor numerical conditioning of some of the system matrices (e.g. poor observability properties) when the dimension of the approximating system increases. This work dealt with some of these difficulties.

  12. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Sandwich Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    to the element midsurface z - z(x,y) at all points. An additional coordinate r is used to describe the distance away from the midsurface at any point...It is assumed that on the element level, the shell is shallow, so that z2 2 (56) ,y everywhere. The unit vector normal to the shell midsurface at a...relations above do not involve the orientation of the displaced midsurface normal, and, therefore, apply to arbitrarily large displacements and rotations

  13. Geometrical nonlinearity of 14-node brick finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandan, Swet; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2017-01-01

    The present work depicts the geometrical nonlinearity analysis for the finite element, PN5X1. Here, the general problem of elasticity is numerically solved using iteration method. The proposed element is passed through different tests in order to prove that it works not only for modeling sheet metal forming process but also for other large deformation problems.

  14. Large deformations of reconfigurable active membranes: a finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seyul; Goulbourne, N. C.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a finite element model is used to describe the inhomogeneous deformations of dielectric elastomers (DE). In our previous work, inhomogeneous deformations of the DE with simple boundary conditions represented by a system of highly nonlinear coupled differential equations (ordinary and partial) were solved using numerical approaches [1-3]. To solve for the electromechanical response for complex shapes (asymmetric), nonuniform loading, and complex boundary conditions a finite element scheme is required. This paper describes a finite element implementation of the DE material model proposed in our previous work in a commercial FE code (ABAQUS 6.8-1, PAWTUCKET, R.I, USA). The total stress is postulated as the summation of the elastic stress tensor and the Maxwell stress tensor, or more generally the electrostatic stress tensor. The finite element model is verified by analytical solutions and experimental results for planar membrane extensions subject to mechanical loads and an electric field: (i) equibiaxial extension and (ii) generalized biaxial extension. Specifically, the analytical solutions for equibiaxial extension of the DE is obtained by combining a modified large deformation membrane theory that accounts for the electromechanical coupling effect in actuation commonly referred to as the Maxwell stress [4]. A Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function is employed to describe the constitutive stress strain behavior of the DE. For the finite element implementation, the constitutive relationships from our previously proposed mathematical model [4] are implemented into the finite element code. Experimentally, a 250% equibiaxially prestretched DE sample is attached to a rigid joint frame and inhomogeneous deformations of the reconfigurable DE are observed with respect to mechanical loads and an applied electric field. The computational result for the reconfigurable DE is compared with the test result to validate the accuracy and robustness of the finite

  15. Finite Element Model Development For Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results.

  16. Preconditioned CG-solvers and finite element grids

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.; Selberherr, S.

    1994-12-31

    To extract parasitic capacitances in wiring structures of integrated circuits the authors developed the two- and three-dimensional finite element program SCAP (Smart Capacitance Analysis Program). The program computes the task of the electrostatic field from a solution of Poisson`s equation via finite elements and calculates the energies from which the capacitance matrix is extracted. The unknown potential vector, which has for three-dimensional applications 5000-50000 unknowns, is computed by a ICCG solver. Currently three- and six-node triangular, four- and ten-node tetrahedronal elements are supported.

  17. Radiosity algorithms using higher order finite element methods

    SciTech Connect

    Troutman, R.; Max, N.

    1993-08-01

    Many of the current radiosity algorithms create a piecewise constant approximation to the actual radiosity. Through interpolation and extrapolation, a continuous solution is obtained. An accurate solution is found by increasing the number of patches which describe the scene. This has the effect of increasing the computation time as well as the memory requirements. By using techniques found in the finite element method, we can incorporate an interpolation function directly into our form factor computation. We can then use less elements to achieve a more accurate solution. Two algorithms, derived from the finite element method, are described and analyzed.

  18. Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar

    2016-05-06

    A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.

  19. Finite element analysis of shear deformable laminated composite plates

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, T.Y.; Chang, R.R. )

    1993-03-01

    A shear deformable finite element is developed for the analysis of thick laminated composite plates. The finite element formulation is based on Mindlin's plate theory in which shear correction factors are derived from the exact expressions for orthotropic materials. The element is used to solve a variety of problems on deflection, stress distribution, natural frequency and buckling of laminated composite plates. The effects of material properties, plate aspect ratio, length-to-thickness ratio, number of layers and lamination angle on the mechanical behaviors of laminated composite plates are investigated. Optimal lamination arrangements of layers for laminated composite plates of particular applications are determined.

  20. Time domain finite element analysis of multimode microwave applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Dibben, D.C.; Metaxas, R.

    1996-05-01

    Analysis of multimode applicators in the frequency domain via the finite element technique produces a set of very ill-conditioned equations. This paper outlines a time domain finite element method (TDFE) for analyzing three dimensional microwave applicators where this ill-conditioning is avoided. Edge elements are used in order to handle sharp metal edges and to avoid spurious solutions. Analysis in the time domain allows field distributions at a range of different frequencies to be obtained with a single calculation. Lumping is investigated as a means of reducing the time taken for the calculation. The reflection coefficient is also obtained.

  1. Probabilistic finite elements for fatigue and fracture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belytschko, Ted; Liu, Wing Kam

    1992-01-01

    Attenuation is focused on the development of Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), which combines the finite element method with statistics and reliability methods, and its application to linear, nonlinear structural mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. The computational tool based on the Stochastic Boundary Element Method is also given for the reliability analysis of a curvilinear fatigue crack growth. The existing PFEM's have been applied to solve for two types of problems: (1) determination of the response uncertainty in terms of the means, variance and correlation coefficients; and (2) determination the probability of failure associated with prescribed limit states.

  2. Adaptive grid finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuprat, A.P.; Glasser, A.H.

    1995-07-01

    The authors discuss unstructured grids for application to transport in the tokamak edge SOL. They have developed a new metric with which to judge element elongation and resolution requirements. Using this method, the authors apply a standard moving finite element technique to advance the SOL equations while inserting/deleting dynamically nodes that violate an elongation criterion. In a tokamak plasma, this method achieves a more uniform accuracy, and results in highly stretched triangular finite elements, except near separatrix X-point where transport is more isotropic.

  3. Finite element analysis of two disk rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    A finite element model of simple horizontal rotor system is developed for evaluating its dynamic behaviour. The model is based on Timoshenko beam element and accounts for the effect of gyroscopic couple and other rotational forces. Present rotor system consists of single shaft which is supported by bearings at both ends and two disks are mounted at different locations. The natural frequencies, mode shapes and orbits of rotating system for a specific range of rotation speed are obtained by developing a MATLAB code for solving the finite element equations of rotary system. Consequently, Campbell diagram is plotted for finding a relationship between natural whirl frequencies and rotation of the rotor.

  4. A finite element method to study multimaterial wind towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoal-Faria, P.; Dias, C.; Oliveira, M.; Alves, N.

    2017-07-01

    Wind towers are used to produce electrical energy from the wind. A significant number of towers is manufactured using tubular separately steel or concrete, having limitations such as maximum diameter and height imposed essentially by transportation limitations. Developed computational studies on structural design of towers have been mainly focused on a single material. This investigation aims to develop a finite element method able to study structural design of wind towers combining different materials. The finite element model combines solid and shell elements encompassing different geometries. Several case studies are considered to validate the proposed method and accurate results are obtained.

  5. Numerical Differentiation for Adaptively Refined Finite Element Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Postprocessing of point-wise data is a fundamental process in many fields of research. Numerical differentiation is a key operation in computational electromagnetics. In the case of data obtained from a finite element method with automatic mesh refinement much work needs still to be done. This paper addresses some issues in differentiating data obtained from a finite element electromagnetic code with adaptive mesh refinement, and it proposes a methodology for deriving the electric field given the magnetic field on a mesh of linear triangular elements. The procedure itself is nevertheless more general and might be extended for numerically differentiating any point-wise solution based on triangular meshes.

  6. Footbridge between finite volumes and finite elements with applications to CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Frédéric; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new algorithm for the discretization of second-order elliptic operators in the context of finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes. We are strongly motivated by partial differential equations (PDEs) arising in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), like the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our technique consists of matching up a finite volume discretization based on a given mesh with a finite element representation on the same mesh. An inverse operator is also built, which has the desirable property that in the absence of diffusion, one recovers exactly the finite volume solution. Numerical results are also provided. Copyright

  7. Design and finite element analysis of oval man way

    SciTech Connect

    Hari, Y.; Gryder, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the design of an oval man way in the side wall of a cylindrical pressure vessel. ASME Code Section 8 is used to obtain the design parameters of the oval man way, man way cover and bolts. The code calculations require some assumptions which may not be valid. A typical design example is taken. STAAD III finite element code with plate elements is used to model the oval man way, man way cover and bolts. The stresses calculated using ASME Code Section 8 and other analytical formulas for plate and shells are compared with the stresses obtained by Finite Element Modeling. This paper gives the designer of oval man way the ability to perform a finite element analysis and compare it with the analytical calculations and assumptions made. This gives added confidence to the designer as to the validity of his calculations and assumptions.

  8. A finite element simulation scheme for biological muscular hydrostats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; McMeeking, R M; Evans, A G

    2006-09-07

    An explicit finite element scheme is developed for biological muscular hydrostats such as squid tentacles, octopus arms and elephant trunks. The scheme is implemented by embedding muscle fibers in finite elements. In any given element, the fiber orientation can be assigned arbitrarily and multiple muscle directions can be simulated. The mechanical stress in each muscle fiber is the sum of active and passive parts. The active stress is taken to be a function of activation state, muscle fiber shortening velocity and fiber strain; while the passive stress depends only on the strain. This scheme is tested by simulating extension of a squid tentacle during prey capture; our numerical predictions are in close correspondence with existing experimental results. It is shown that the present finite element scheme can successfully simulate more complex behaviors such as torsion of a squid tentacle and the bending behavior of octopus arms or elephant trunks.

  9. User's Guide for ENSAERO_FE Parallel Finite Element Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Lloyd B.; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1999-01-01

    A high fidelity parallel static structural analysis capability is created and interfaced to the multidisciplinary analysis package ENSAERO-MPI of Ames Research Center. This new module replaces ENSAERO's lower fidelity simple finite element and modal modules. Full aircraft structures may be more accurately modeled using the new finite element capability. Parallel computation is performed by breaking the full structure into multiple substructures. This approach is conceptually similar to ENSAERO's multizonal fluid analysis capability. The new substructure code is used to solve the structural finite element equations for each substructure in parallel. NASTRANKOSMIC is utilized as a front end for this code. Its full library of elements can be used to create an accurate and realistic aircraft model. It is used to create the stiffness matrices for each substructure. The new parallel code then uses an iterative preconditioned conjugate gradient method to solve the global structural equations for the substructure boundary nodes.

  10. Finite element analysis for acoustic characteristics of a magnetostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Jung, Eunmi

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a finite element analysis for a magnetostrictive transducer by taking into account the nonlinear behavior of the magnetostrictive material and fluid interaction. A finite element formulation is derived for the coupling of magnetostrictive and elastic materials based upon a separated magnetic and displacement field calculation and a curve fitting technique of material properties. The fluid and structure coupled problem is taken into account based upon pressure and velocity potential fields formulation. Infinite wave envelope elements are introduced at an artificial boundary to deal with the infinite fluid domain. A finite element code for the analysis of a magnetostrictive transducer is developed. A magnetostrictive tonpilz transducer is taken as an example and verification for the developed program is made by comparing with a commercial code. The acoustic characteristics of the magnetostrictive tonpilz transducer are calculated in terms of radiation pattern and transmitted current response.

  11. Solution Techniques in Finite Element Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    7. we show a plane strain rubber block subjected to large deforma- tion. We employ a 4-node element and a Mooney - Rivlin material as described in...0 Rubber Block U: 0.30 Figure 7. Large Deformation Analysis of the R ubber Block with Mooney - Rivlin Material Model. GEOMETRY node iE 10 4 -0.3 1.0 1

  12. A finite element implementation for biphasic contact of hydrated porous media under finite deformation and sliding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongqiang; Shah, Mitul; Spilker, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The study of biphasic soft tissues contact is fundamental to understanding the biomechanical behavior of human diarthrodial joints. However, to date, few biphasic finite element contact analysis for 3D physiological geometries under finite deformation has been developed. The objective of this paper is to develop a hyperelastic biphasic contact implementation for finite deformation and sliding problem. An augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the continuity of contact traction and fluid pressure across the contact interface. The finite element implementation was based on a general purpose software, COMSOL Multiphysics. The accuracy of the implementation is verified using example problems, for which solutions are available by alternative analyses. The implementation was proven to be robust and able to handle finite deformation and sliding. PMID:24496915

  13. Coupled finite-difference/finite-element approach for wing-body aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods using finite-difference approaches for fluids and finite-element approaches for structures have individually advanced to solve almost full-aircraft configurations. However, coupled approaches to solve fluid/structural interaction problems are still in their early stages of development, particularly for complex geometries using complete equations such as the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Earlier work demonstrated the success of coupling finite-difference and finite-element methods for simple wing configurations using the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. In this paper, the same approach is extended for general wing-body configurations. The structural properties are represented by beam-type finite elements. The flow is modeled using the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. A general procedure to fully couple structural finite-element boundary conditions with fluid finite-difference boundary conditions is developed for wing-body configurations. Computations are made using moving grids that adapt to wing-body structural deformations. Results are illustrated for a typical wing-body configuration.

  14. New triangular and quadrilateral plate-bending finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.

    1974-01-01

    A nonconforming plate-bending finite element of triangular shape and associated quadrilateral elements are developed. The transverse displacement is approximated within the element by a quintic polynomial. The formulation takes into account the effects of transverse shear deformation. Results of the static and dynamic analysis of a square plate, with edges simply supported or clamped, are compared with exact solutions. Good accuracy is obtained in all calculations.

  15. Variational formulation of high performance finite elements: Parametrized variational principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmello

    1991-01-01

    High performance elements are simple finite elements constructed to deliver engineering accuracy with coarse arbitrary grids. This is part of a series on the variational basis of high-performance elements, with emphasis on those constructed with the free formulation (FF) and assumed natural strain (ANS) methods. Parametrized variational principles that provide a foundation for the FF and ANS methods, as well as for a combination of both are presented.

  16. Effective Finite Elements for Shell Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-20

    important mode of deformation , and when an element is not capable of representing inextensional bending, parasitic membrane energy is generated in many modes...of deformation . In the same manner that parasitic shear causes shear locking, this spurious membrane energy causes membrane locking. Membrane locking...dominant mode of deformation . (cont.) 20. OISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UNCLASSIFIEO/UNLIMITEO X SAME AS

  17. The Mathematics of Finite Elements and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-30

    suitable geometrical mapping between the parametric u,v-plane and the physical xy- plane. In the u,v-plane the geometry of the elements is linear. In...the plate. For thin plates there may be a boundary layer, the existence and structure of which depends on the boundary conditions, the plate geometry ...exhibits a boundary layer except for very special data or plate geometry . The bending moment tensor and shear force vector have more pronounced boundary

  18. Spectral finite-element methods for parametric constrained optimization problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Anitescu, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to approximate the solution mapping of parametric constrained optimization problems. The approximation, which is of the spectral finite element type, is represented as a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials. Its coefficients are determined by solving an appropriate finite-dimensional constrained optimization problem. We show that, under certain conditions, the latter problem is solvable because it is feasible for a sufficiently large degree of the polynomial approximation and has an objective function with bounded level sets. In addition, the solutions of the finite-dimensional problems converge for an increasing degree of the polynomials considered, provided that the solutions exhibit a sufficiently large and uniform degree of smoothness. Our approach solves, in the case of optimization problems with uncertain parameters, the most computationally intensive part of stochastic finite-element approaches. We demonstrate that our framework is applicable to parametric eigenvalue problems.

  19. Stabilized plane and axisymmetric Lobatto finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. C.; Sze, K. Y.; Zhou, Y. X.

    2015-11-01

    High order elements are renowned for their high accuracy and convergence. Among them, Lobatto spectral finite elements are commonly used in explicit dynamic analyses as their mass matrices when evaluated by the Lobatto integration rule are diagonal. While there are numerous advanced first and second order elements, advanced high order elements are rarely seen. In this paper, generic stabilization schemes are devised for the reduced integrated plane and axisymmetric elements. Static and explicit dynamic tests are considered for evaluating the relatively merits of the stabilized and conventional elements. The displacement errors of the stabilized elements are less than those of the conventional Lobatto elements. When the material is nearly incompressible, the stabilized elements are also more accurate in terms of the energy error norm. This advantage is of practical importance for bio-tissue and hydrated soil analyses.

  20. Experimental validation of finite element model for proximal composite femur using optical measurements.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Lorenzo; Väänänen, Sami P; Amin Yavari, Saber; Weinans, Harrie; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Zadpoor, Amir A; Isaksson, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    Patient-specific finite element models have been used to predict femur strength and fracture risk in individuals. Validation of the adopted finite element modelling procedure against mechanical testing data is a crucial step when aiming for clinical applications. The majority of the works available in literature used data from strain gages to validate the model, thus having up to 15 experimental measurements. Optical techniques, such as digital image correlation, can help to improve the models by providing a continuous field of deformation data over a femoral surface. The main objective of this study was to validate finite element models of six composite femora against strain data from digital image correlation, obtained during fracture tests performed in quasi-axial loading configuration. The finite element models were obtained from CT scans, by means of a semi-automatic segmentation. The principal strains both during the elastic phase and close to the fracture were compared, and showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.9. In the linear region, the slope and intercept were close to zero and unity, while for the case when fracture load was simulated, the slope decreased somewhat. The accuracy of the obtained results is comparable with the state-of-the-art literature, with the significant improvement of having around 50,000 data points for each femur. This large number of measurements allows a more comprehensive validation of the predictions by the finite element models, since thousand of points are tracked along the femoral neck and trochanter region, i.e., the sites that are most critical for femur fracture. Moreover, strain measurement biases due to the strain gage reinforcement effect, were avoided. The combined experimental-numerical approach proved to be ready for application to in-vitro tests of human cadaver femurs, thus helping to develop a suitable mechanistic fracture risk criterion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Constraint Method for Solid Finite Elements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-30

    Sciences 13 . NUMBER S Bolling Air Force Base, DC 20332 - -Jfi’ 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(if different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CVASS...1- 4)Q2 (n) (’+C) Higher degree elements add edge modes, face modes and internal modes. More details are given in [12, 13 ]. triangular prism A...23) N2 (L2 , L3)(l-z) edge u (31) N2 (L3 ’ L)(1-z) nodes s u s (45). N2 (L1, L2 )z uso (56) N2 (L2, L3 )z K - 13 - nodal variable shape function u

  2. Finite Element Method for Capturing Ultra-relativistic Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    While finite element methods are used extensively by researchers solving computational fluid dynamics in fields other than astrophysics, their use in astrophysical fluid simulations has been predominantly overlooked. Current simulations using other methods such as finite difference and finite volume (based on finite difference) have shown remarkable results, but these methods are limited by their fundamental properties in aspects that are important for simulations with complex geometries and widely varying spatial and temporal scale differences. We have explored the use of finite element methods for astrophysical fluids in order to establish the validity of using such methods in astrophysical environments. We present our numerical technique applied to solving ultra-relativistic (Lorentz Factor Gamma >> 1) shocks which are prevalent in astrophysical studies including relativistic jets and gamma-ray burst studies. We show our finite element formulation applied to simulations where the Lorentz factor ranges up to 2236 and demonstrate its stability in solving ultra-relativistic flows. Our numerical method is based on the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method, unique in that numerical diffusion is derived from physical parameters rather than traditional artificial viscosity methods. Numerical instabilities account for most of the difficulties when capturing shocks in this regime. Our method results in stable solutions and accurate results as compared with other methods.

  3. Hybrid finite element-finite difference method for thermal analysis of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, C H; Gutierrez, G; White, J A; Roemer, R B

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid finite-difference/finite-element technique for the thermal analysis of blood vessels embedded in perfused tissue has been developed and evaluated. This method provides efficient and accurate solutions to the conjugated heat transfer problem of convection by blood coupled to conduction in the tissue. The technique uses a previously developed 3D automatic meshing method for creating a finite element mesh in the tissue surrounding the vessels, coupled iteratively with a 1-D marching finite difference method for the interior of the vessels. This hybrid technique retains the flexibility and ease of automated finite-element meshing techniques for modelling the complex geometry of blood vessels and irregularly shaped tissues, and speeds the solution time by using a simple finite-difference method to calculate the bulk mean temperatures within all blood vessels. The use of the 1D finite-difference technique in the blood vessels also eliminates the large computer memory requirements needed to accurately solve large vessel network problems when fine FE meshes are used in the interior of vessels. The accuracy of the hybrid technique has been verified against previously verified numerical solutions. In summary, the hybrid technique combines the accuracy and flexibility found in automated finite-element techniques, with the speed and reduction of computational memory requirements associated with the 1D finite-difference technique, something which has not been done before. This method, thus, has the potential to provide accurate, flexible and relatively fast solutions for the thermal analysis of coupled perfusion/blood vessel problems, and large vessel network problems.

  4. Optimal mapping of irregular finite element domains to parallel processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, J.; Otto, S.; Salama, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping the solution domain of n-finite elements into N-subdomains that may be processed in parallel by N-processors is an optimal one if the subdomain decomposition results in a well-balanced workload distribution among the processors. The problem is discussed in the context of irregular finite element domains as an important aspect of the efficient utilization of the capabilities of emerging multiprocessor computers. Finding the optimal mapping is an intractable combinatorial optimization problem, for which a satisfactory approximate solution is obtained here by analogy to a method used in statistical mechanics for simulating the annealing process in solids. The simulated annealing analogy and algorithm are described, and numerical results are given for mapping an irregular two-dimensional finite element domain containing a singularity onto the Hypercube computer.

  5. Finite element methods for nonlinear acoustics in fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, weak formulations and finite element discretizations of the governing partial differential equations of three-dimensional nonlinear acoustics in absorbing fluids are presented. The fluid equations are considered in an Eulerian framework, rather than a displacement framework, since in the latter case the corresponding finite element formulations suffer from spurious modes and numerical instabilities. When taken with the governing partial differential equations of a solid body and the continuity conditions, a coupled formulation is derived. The change in solid/fluid interface conditions when going from a linear acoustic fluid to a nonlinear acoustic fluid is demonstrated. Finite element discretizations of the coupled problem are then derived, and verification examples are presented that demonstrate the correctness of the implementations. We demonstrate that the time step size necessary to resolve the wave decreases as steepening occurs. Finally, simulation results are presented on a resonating acoustic cavity, and a coupled elastic/acoustic system consisting of a fluid-filled spherical tank.

  6. Finite element methods on supercomputers - The scatter-problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, R.; Morgan, K.

    1985-01-01

    Certain problems arise in connection with the use of supercomputers for the implementation of finite-element methods. These problems are related to the desirability of utilizing the power of the supercomputer as fully as possible for the rapid execution of the required computations, taking into account the gain in speed possible with the aid of pipelining operations. For the finite-element method, the time-consuming operations may be divided into three categories. The first two present no problems, while the third type of operation can be a reason for the inefficient performance of finite-element programs. Two possibilities for overcoming certain difficulties are proposed, giving attention to a scatter-process.

  7. Finite element method for eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.

    1994-01-01

    Finite element method (FEM) has been a very powerful tool to solve many complex problems in electromagnetics. The goal of the current research at the Langley Research Center is to develop a combined FEM/method of moments approach to three-dimensional scattering/radiation problem for objects with arbitrary shape and filled with complex materials. As a first step toward that goal, an exercise is taken to establish the power of FEM, through closed boundary problems. This paper demonstrates the developed of FEM tools for two- and three-dimensional eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics. In section 2, both the scalar and vector finite elements have been used for various waveguide problems to demonstrate the flexibility of FEM. In section 3, vector finite element method has been extended to three-dimensional eigenvalue problems.

  8. An Object Oriented, Finite Element Framework for Linear Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, Joseph M.

    2004-03-01

    This dissertation documents an object oriented framework which can be used to solve any linear wave equation. The linear wave equations are expressed in the differential forms language. This differential forms expression allows a strict discrete interpretation of the system. The framework is implemented using the Galerkin Finite Element Method to define the discrete differential forms and operators. Finite element basis functions including standard scalar Nodal and vector Nedelec basis functions are used to implement the discrete differential forms resulting in a mixed finite element system. Discretizations of scalar and vector wave equations in the time and frequency domains will be demonstrated in both differential forms and vector calculi. This framework conserves energy, maintains physical continuity, is valid on unstructured grids, conditionally stable and second order accurate. Examples including linear electrodynamics, acoustics, elasticity and magnetohydrodynamics are demonstrated.

  9. Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan

    1998-01-01

    The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.

  10. Probabilistic finite elements for transient analysis in nonlinear continua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Mani, A.

    1985-01-01

    The probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), which is a combination of finite element methods and second-moment analysis, is formulated for linear and nonlinear continua with inhomogeneous random fields. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random field is also discretized. The formulation is simplified by transforming the correlated variables to a set of uncorrelated variables through an eigenvalue orthogonalization. Furthermore, it is shown that a reduced set of the uncorrelated variables is sufficient for the second-moment analysis. Based on the linear formulation of the PFEM, the method is then extended to transient analysis in nonlinear continua. The accuracy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a one-dimensional, elastic/plastic wave propagation problem. The moments calculated compare favorably with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, the procedure is amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer programs.

  11. Optimal mapping of irregular finite element domains to parallel processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, J.; Otto, S.; Salama, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mapping the solution domain of n-finite elements into N-subdomains that may be processed in parallel by N-processors is an optimal one if the subdomain decomposition results in a well-balanced workload distribution among the processors. The problem is discussed in the context of irregular finite element domains as an important aspect of the efficient utilization of the capabilities of emerging multiprocessor computers. Finding the optimal mapping is an intractable combinatorial optimization problem, for which a satisfactory approximate solution is obtained here by analogy to a method used in statistical mechanics for simulating the annealing process in solids. The simulated annealing analogy and algorithm are described, and numerical results are given for mapping an irregular two-dimensional finite element domain containing a singularity onto the Hypercube computer.

  12. Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan

    1998-01-01

    The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.

  13. Finite element method for non-linear dispersive wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jung-Yu; Kawahara, Mutsuto

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the finite element method for the analysis of the short wave problem expressed by the Boussinesq equation. The Boussinesq equation considers the effect of wave crest curvature. The standard Galerkin finite element method is employed for the spatial discretization using the triangular finite element based on the linear interpolation function. The combination of the explicit and the quasi-explicit schemes-- i.e., the explicit scheme for the continuum equation and the quasi-explicit scheme for the momentum equation--is employed for the discretization in time. To show the applicability of the present method to the practical problem, the simulation of wave propagation in one-dimensional and two-dimensional channel flows is carried out. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results being. The practical example for Miyako Bay is presented.

  14. Derivation of a Tappered p-Version Beam Finite Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinnant, Howard E.

    1989-01-01

    A tapered p-version beam finite element suitable for dynamic applications is derived. The taper in the element is represented by allowing the area moments of inertia to vary as quartic polynomials along the length of the beam, and the cross-sectional area to vary as a quadratic polynomial. The p-version finite-element characteristics are implemented through a set of polynomial shape functions. The lower-order shape functions are identical to the classical cubic and linear shape functions normally associated with a beam element. The higher-order shape functions are a hierarchical set of polynomials that are integrals of orthogonal polynomials. Explicit expressions for the mass and stiffness matrices are presented for an arbitrary value of p. The element has been verified to be numerically stable using shape functions through 22nd order.

  15. Life assessment of structural components using inelastic finite element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

    1993-10-01

    The need for enhanced and improved performance of structural components subject to severe cyclic thermal/mechanical loadings, such as in the aerospace industry, requires development of appropriate solution technologies involving time-dependent inelastic analyses. Such analyses are mandatory to predict local stress-strain response and to assess more accurately the cyclic life time of structural components. The NASA-Lewis Research Center is cognizant of this need. As a result of concerted efforts at Lewis during the last few years, several such finite element solution technologies (in conjunction with the finite element program MARC) were developed and successfully applied to numerous uniaxial and multiaxial problems. These solution technologies, although developed for use with MARC program, are general in nature and can easily be extended for adaptation with other finite element programs such as ABAQUS, ANSYS, etc. The description and results obtained from two such inelastic finite element solution technologies are presented. The first employs a classical (non-unified) creep-plasticity model. An application of this technology is presented for a hypersonic inlet cowl-lip problem. The second of these technologies uses a unified creep-plasticity model put forth by Freed. The structural component for which this finite element solution technology is illustrated, is a cylindrical rocket engine thrust chamber. The advantages of employing a viscoplastic model for nonlinear time-dependent structural analyses are demonstrated. The life analyses for cowl-lip and cylindrical thrust chambers are presented. These analyses are conducted by using the stress-strain response of these components obtained from the corresponding finite element analyses.

  16. Life assessment of structural components using inelastic finite element analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.; Halford, Gary R.

    1993-01-01

    The need for enhanced and improved performance of structural components subject to severe cyclic thermal/mechanical loadings, such as in the aerospace industry, requires development of appropriate solution technologies involving time-dependent inelastic analyses. Such analyses are mandatory to predict local stress-strain response and to assess more accurately the cyclic life time of structural components. The NASA-Lewis Research Center is cognizant of this need. As a result of concerted efforts at Lewis during the last few years, several such finite element solution technologies (in conjunction with the finite element program MARC) were developed and successfully applied to numerous uniaxial and multiaxial problems. These solution technologies, although developed for use with MARC program, are general in nature and can easily be extended for adaptation with other finite element programs such as ABAQUS, ANSYS, etc. The description and results obtained from two such inelastic finite element solution technologies are presented. The first employs a classical (non-unified) creep-plasticity model. An application of this technology is presented for a hypersonic inlet cowl-lip problem. The second of these technologies uses a unified creep-plasticity model put forth by Freed. The structural component for which this finite element solution technology is illustrated, is a cylindrical rocket engine thrust chamber. The advantages of employing a viscoplastic model for nonlinear time-dependent structural analyses are demonstrated. The life analyses for cowl-lip and cylindrical thrust chambers are presented. These analyses are conducted by using the stress-strain response of these components obtained from the corresponding finite element analyses.

  17. Finite Element Modelling and Analysis of Conventional Pultrusion Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishin, P.; Barkanov, E.; Bondarchuk, A.

    2015-11-01

    Pultrusion is one of many composite manufacturing techniques and one of the most efficient methods for producing fiber reinforced polymer composite parts with a constant cross-section. Numerical simulation is helpful for understanding the manufacturing process and developing scientific means for the pultrusion tooling design. Numerical technique based on the finite element method has been developed for the simulation of pultrusion processes. It uses the general purpose finite element software ANSYS Mechanical. It is shown that the developed technique predicts the temperature and cure profiles, which are in good agreement with those published in the open literature.

  18. Predicting Rediated Noise With Power Flow Finite Element Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Defence R&D Canada – Atlantic DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Predicting Rediated Noise With Power Flow Finite Element Analysis D. Brennan T.S. Koko L. Jiang J...PREDICTING RADIATED NOISE WITH POWER FLOW FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS D.P. Brennan T.S. Koko L. Jiang J.C. Wallace Martec Limited Martec Limited...model- or full-scale data before it is available for general use. Brennan, D.P., Koko , T.S., Jiang, L., Wallace, J.C. 2007. Predicting Radiated

  19. Correlation of composite material test results with finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guƫu, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper are presented some aspects regarding the method of simulation of composite materials testing with finite element analysis software. There were simulated tensile and shear tests of specimens manufactured from glass fiber reinforced polyester. For specimens manufacturing two types of fabrics were used: unidirectional and bidirectional. Experimentally determined elastic properties of composite material were used as input data. Modeling of composite architecture of the specimens was performed with ANSYS Composite PrepPost software. Finite element analysis stresses and strains on strain gauges bonding area were considered and compared with the real values in a diagram. After results comparison, potential causes of deviations were identified.

  20. Finite element models of the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Finite element models were developed as input to dynamic simulations of the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP), the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME). Descriptions are provided for the five basic finite element models: HPFTP rotor, HPFTP case, HPOTP rotor, HPOTP case, and SSME (excluding turbopumps). Modal results are presented for the HPFTP rotor, HPFTP case, HPOTP rotor, coupled HPFTP rotor and case, HPOTP case, coupled HPOTP rotor and case, SSME (excluding turbopumps), and SSME (including turbopumps). Results for the SSME (including turbopumps) model are compared to data from a SSME HPOTP modal survey.

  1. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  2. Development of non-linear finite element computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, E. B.; Miller, T.

    1985-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the use of separable symmetric functions of the principal stretches can adequately describe the response of certain propellant materials and, further, that a data reduction scheme gives a convenient way of obtaining the values of the functions from experimental data. Based on representation of the energy, a computational scheme was developed that allows finite element analysis of boundary value problems of arbitrary shape and loading. The computational procedure was implemental in a three-dimensional finite element code, TEXLESP-S, which is documented herein.

  3. Finite element methods for nonlinear elastostatic problems in rubber elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.; Becker, E. B.; Miller, T. H.; Endo, T.; Pires, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    A number of finite element methods for the analysis of nonlinear problems in rubber elasticity are outlined. Several different finite element schemes are discussed. These include the augmented Lagrangian method, continuation or incremental loading methods, and associated Riks-type methods which have the capability of incorporating limit point behavior and bifurcations. Algorithms for the analysis of limit point behavior and bifurcations are described and the results of several numerical experiments are presented. In addition, a brief survey of some recent work on modelling contact and friction in elasticity problems is given. These results pertain to the use of new nonlocal and nonlinear friction laws.

  4. Engineering and Design: Geotechnical Analysis by the Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    used it to determine stresses and movements in embank- ments, and Reyes and Deer described its application to analysis of underground openings in rock...36 Hughes, T. J. R. (1987). The Finite Element Reyes , S. F., and Deene, D. K. (1966). “Elastic Method, Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element...SM4), 1,435-1,457. Fernando Dams During the Earthquakes of February Davis, E. H., and Poulos, H. G. (1972). “Rate of Report EERC-73-2, Berkeley, CA

  5. Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. A. S.; Rokosz, M. K.; Correia, T. M.

    2014-07-01

    A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.

  6. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.

    SciTech Connect

    Garikipati, Krishna.; Ostien, Jakob T.

    2010-10-01

    In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.

  7. Verification of a Finite Element Model for Pyrolyzing Ablative Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2017-01-01

    Ablating thermal protection system (TPS) materials have been used in many reentering spacecraft and in other applications such as rocket nozzle linings, fire protection materials, and as countermeasures for directed energy weapons. The introduction of the finite element model to the analysis of ablation has arguably resulted in improved computational capabilities due the flexibility and extended applicability of the method, especially to complex geometries. Commercial finite element codes often provide enhanced capability compared to custom, specially written programs based on versatility, usability, pre- and post-processing, grid generation, total life-cycle costs, and speed.

  8. Error analysis of finite element solutions for postbuckled plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sistla, Rajaram; Thurston, Gaylen A.

    1988-01-01

    An error analysis of results from finite-element solutions of problems in shell structures is further developed, incorporating the results of an additional numerical analysis by which oscillatory behavior is eliminated. The theory is extended to plates with initial geometric imperfections, and this novel analysis is programmed as a postprocessor for a general-purpose finite-element code. Numerical results are given for the case of a stiffened panel in compression and a plate loaded in shear by a 'picture-frame' test fixture.

  9. Differentiating a Finite Element Biodegradation Simulation Model for Optimal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, Barbara S.; Shoemaker, Christine A.

    1996-01-01

    An optimal control model for improving the design of in situ bioremediation of groundwater has been developed. The model uses a finite element biodegradation simulation model called Bio2D to find optimal pumping strategies. Analytical derivatives of the bioremediation finite element model are derived; these derivatives must be computed for the optimal control algorithm. The derivatives are complex and nonlinear; the bulk of the computational effort in solving the optimal control problem is required to calculate the derivatives. An overview of the optimal control and simulation model formulations is also given.

  10. Experimentally validated finite element model of electrocaloric multilayer ceramic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, N. A. S. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk Correia, T. M. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk; Rokosz, M. K. E-mail: maciej.rokosz@npl.co.uk

    2014-07-28

    A novel finite element model to simulate the electrocaloric response of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under real environment and operational conditions has been developed. The two-dimensional transient conductive heat transfer model presented includes the electrocaloric effect as a source term, as well as accounting for radiative and convective effects. The model has been validated with experimental data obtained from the direct imaging of MLCC transient temperature variation under application of an electric field. The good agreement between simulated and experimental data, suggests that the novel experimental direct measurement methodology and the finite element model could be used to support the design of optimised electrocaloric units and operating conditions.

  11. Analysis of the Performance of Mixed Finite Element Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    October 1986 SUMMARY The initial goal of this project is to analyze various mixed methods based on the p- and h-p versions of the finite element methods...The convergence of mixed methods depends on two factors: (1) Approximability of polynomial spaces used (2) Stability. In the past year, the question...significant portion of the research is geared towards the investigation of mixed methods based on the ’p’ and ’h-p’ versions of the finite element method

  12. Chemically pre-strained dielectric elastomers finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Brittany; Krutz, Gary; Stewart, Frank; Pascal, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    The applications and feasibility of utilizing dielectric elastomer electroactive polymers in the industrial and medical sectors has drastically increased in recent years due to significant improvements in actuation potential, manufacturing, the introduction of new materials and modeling capabilities. One such development is the introduction of chemical pre-strain as a method of providing enhanced actuation. The purpose of this study was to utilize finite element analysis to analyze the mechanical actuation of an industrial fluoropolymer with chemical induced pre-strain and validate the model with experiential results. Results generated from the finite element analysis showed similar trends to results produced experimentally.

  13. Convergence of finite element approximations of large eddy motion.

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, T.; John, V.; Layton, W. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Otto-von-Guericke Univ.; Univ. of Pittsburgh

    2002-11-01

    This report considers 'numerical errors' in LES. Specifically, for one family of space filtered flow models, we show convergence of the finite element approximation of the model and give an estimate of the error. Keywords: Navier Stokes equations, large eddy simulation, finite element method I. INTRODUCTION Consider the (turbulent) flow of an incompressible fluid. One promising and common approach to the simulation of the motion of the large fluid structures is Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Various models are used in LES; a common one is to find (w, q), where w : {Omega}

  14. A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu

    2016-03-31

    In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.

  15. Using Finite-Element Analysis In Estimating Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; August, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Method of estimating design survivability of structural component incorporates finite-element and probabilistic properties of materials. Involves evaluation of design parameters through direct comparisons of survivability of component expressed in terms of percentages of like components that survive at various lifetimes. Probabilistic properties of materials, given in terms of Weibull parameters, coupled with stress field computed by finite-element analysis to determine fatigue life based on initiation of cracks. Method applied to rotating disk containing bolt holes, representative of disks used in aerospace propulsion turbines. Also used in early stages of design process to optimize life-based designs, reducing testing of full-sized components needed to validate designs.

  16. Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Blades, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted under a NASA grant on the topic 'Substructure System Identification for Finite Element Model Updating.' The research concerns ongoing development of the Substructure System Identification Algorithm (SSID Algorithm), a system identification algorithm that can be used to obtain mathematical models of substructures, like Space Shuttle payloads. In the present study, particular attention was given to the following topics: making the algorithm robust to noisy test data, extending the algorithm to accept experimental FRF data that covers a broad frequency bandwidth, and developing a test analytical model (TAM) for use in relating test data to reduced-order finite element models.

  17. Robust Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Antennas and Microwave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, J.; Volakis, John L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the primary goals in this dissertation is concerned with the development of robust hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) techniques for modeling and design of conformal antennas of arbitrary shape. Both the finite element and integral equation methods will be first overviewed in this chapter with an emphasis on recently developed hybrid FE-BI methodologies for antennas, microwave and millimeter wave applications. The structure of the dissertation is then outlined. We conclude the chapter with discussions of certain fundamental concepts and methods in electromagnetics, which are important to this study.

  18. Diffusive mesh relaxation in ALE finite element numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    The theory for a diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is developed for use in three-dimensional Arbitary Lagrange/Eulerian (ALE) finite element simulation techniques. This mesh relaxer is derived by a variational principle for an unstructured 3D grid using finite elements, and incorporates hourglass controls in the numerical implementation. The diffusive coefficients are based on the geometric properties of the existing mesh, and are chosen so as to allow for a smooth grid that retains the general shape of the original mesh. The diffusive mesh relaxation algorithm is then applied to an ALE code system, and results from several test cases are discussed.

  19. Survey and development of finite elements for nonlinear structural analysis. Volume 1: Handbook for nonlinear finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A survey of research efforts in the area of geometrically nonlinear finite elements is presented. The survey is intended to serve as a guide in the choice of nonlinear elements for specific problems, and as background to provide directions for new element developments. The elements are presented in a handbook format and are separated by type as beams, plates (or shallow shells), shells, and other elements. Within a given type, the elements are identified by the assumed displacement shapes and the forms of the nonlinear strain equations. Solution procedures are not discussed except when a particular element formulation poses special problems or capabilities in this regard. The main goal of the format is to provide quick access to a wide variety of element types, in a consistent presentation format, and to facilitate comparison and evaluation of different elements with regard to features, probable accuracy, and complexity.

  20. Finite Element Model Development and Validation for Aircraft Fuselage Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Fleming, Gary A.; Pappa, Richard S.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to extend the valid frequency range for finite element based structural dynamic predictions using detailed models of the structural components and attachment interfaces is examined for several stiffened aircraft fuselage structures. This extended dynamic prediction capability is needed for the integration of mid-frequency noise control technology. Beam, plate and solid element models of the stiffener components are evaluated. Attachment models between the stiffener and panel skin range from a line along the rivets of the physical structure to a constraint over the entire contact surface. The finite element models are validated using experimental modal analysis results. The increased frequency range results in a corresponding increase in the number of modes, modal density and spatial resolution requirements. In this study, conventional modal tests using accelerometers are complemented with Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Electro-Optic Holography measurements to further resolve the spatial response characteristics. Whenever possible, component and subassembly modal tests are used to validate the finite element models at lower levels of assembly. Normal mode predictions for different finite element representations of components and assemblies are compared with experimental results to assess the most accurate techniques for modeling aircraft fuselage type structures.

  1. Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite-Element Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    2015-12-21

    The efficiency of a modal substructuring method depends on the component modes used to reduce each subcomponent model. Methods such as Craig–Bampton have been used extensively to reduce linear finite-element models with thousands or even millions of degrees of freedom down orders of magnitude while maintaining acceptable accuracy. A novel reduction method is proposed here for geometrically nonlinear finite-element models using the fixed-interface and constraint modes of the linearized system to reduce each subcomponent model. The geometric nonlinearity requires an additional cubic and quadratic polynomial function in the modal equations, and the nonlinear stiffness coefficients are determined by applying a series of static loads and using the finite-element code to compute the response. The geometrically nonlinear, reduced modal equations for each subcomponent are then coupled by satisfying compatibility and force equilibrium. This modal substructuring approach is an extension of the Craig–Bampton method and is readily applied to geometrically nonlinear models built directly within commercial finite-element packages. The efficiency of this new approach is demonstrated on two example problems: one that couples two geometrically nonlinear beams at a shared rotational degree of freedom, and another that couples an axial spring element to the axial degree of freedom of a geometrically nonlinear beam. The nonlinear normal modes of the assembled models are compared with those of a truth model to assess the accuracy of the novel modal substructuring approach.

  2. Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite-Element Models

    DOE PAGES

    Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    2015-12-21

    The efficiency of a modal substructuring method depends on the component modes used to reduce each subcomponent model. Methods such as Craig–Bampton have been used extensively to reduce linear finite-element models with thousands or even millions of degrees of freedom down orders of magnitude while maintaining acceptable accuracy. A novel reduction method is proposed here for geometrically nonlinear finite-element models using the fixed-interface and constraint modes of the linearized system to reduce each subcomponent model. The geometric nonlinearity requires an additional cubic and quadratic polynomial function in the modal equations, and the nonlinear stiffness coefficients are determined by applying amore » series of static loads and using the finite-element code to compute the response. The geometrically nonlinear, reduced modal equations for each subcomponent are then coupled by satisfying compatibility and force equilibrium. This modal substructuring approach is an extension of the Craig–Bampton method and is readily applied to geometrically nonlinear models built directly within commercial finite-element packages. The efficiency of this new approach is demonstrated on two example problems: one that couples two geometrically nonlinear beams at a shared rotational degree of freedom, and another that couples an axial spring element to the axial degree of freedom of a geometrically nonlinear beam. The nonlinear normal modes of the assembled models are compared with those of a truth model to assess the accuracy of the novel modal substructuring approach.« less

  3. Rapid mesh generation for finite element analysis of investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lober, R.R.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Meyers, R.J.

    1992-11-01

    FASTCAST is a Sandia National Laboratories program to produce investment cast prototypical hardware faster by integrating experimental and computational technologies into the casting process. FASTCAST uses the finite element method to characterize the metal flow and solidification processes to reduce uncertainty in the mold design. For the casting process to benefit from finite element analysis, analysis results must be available in a very short time frame. By focusing on the bottleneck of finite element model creation, automated mesh generation can drastically reduce the time span between geometry definition (design) and accurate analysis results. The increased availability of analysis results will diminish the need for trial and error approaches to acquiring production worthy mold and gating systems for investment casting. The CUBIT meshing tool kit is being developed to address the need for rapid mesh generation. CUBIT is being designed to effectively automate the generation of quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. It is a solid-modeler based, two- and three-dimensional preprocessor that prepares solid models for finite element analysis. CUBIT contains several meshing algorithms including two- and three-dimensional mapping, two- and three-dimensional paving (patented), and a general two and one-half dimensional sweeper based upon the plastering algorithm. This paper describes progress in the development of the CUBIT meshing toolkit.

  4. Rapid mesh generation for finite element analysis of investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Lober, R.R.; Bohnhoff, W.J.; Meyers, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    FASTCAST is a Sandia National Laboratories program to produce investment cast prototypical hardware faster by integrating experimental and computational technologies into the casting process. FASTCAST uses the finite element method to characterize the metal flow and solidification processes to reduce uncertainty in the mold design. For the casting process to benefit from finite element analysis, analysis results must be available in a very short time frame. By focusing on the bottleneck of finite element model creation, automated mesh generation can drastically reduce the time span between geometry definition (design) and accurate analysis results. The increased availability of analysis results will diminish the need for trial and error approaches to acquiring production worthy mold and gating systems for investment casting. The CUBIT meshing tool kit is being developed to address the need for rapid mesh generation. CUBIT is being designed to effectively automate the generation of quadrilateral and hexahedral elements. It is a solid-modeler based, two- and three-dimensional preprocessor that prepares solid models for finite element analysis. CUBIT contains several meshing algorithms including two- and three-dimensional mapping, two- and three-dimensional paving (patented), and a general two and one-half dimensional sweeper based upon the plastering algorithm. This paper describes progress in the development of the CUBIT meshing toolkit.

  5. Finite Element Aircraft Simulation of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    A turbulence model has been developed for realtime aircraft simulation that accommodates stochastic turbulence and distributed discrete gusts as a function of the terrain. This model is applicable to conventional aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, and disc rotor model helicopter simulations. Vehicle angular activity in response to turbulence is computed from geometrical and temporal relationships rather than by using the conventional continuum approximations that assume uniform gust immersion and low frequency responses. By using techniques similar to those recently developed for blade-element rotor models, the angular-rate filters of conventional turbulence models are not required. The model produces rotational rates as well as air mass translational velocities in response to both stochastic and deterministic disturbances, where the discrete gusts and turbulence magnitudes may be correlated with significant terrain features or ship models. Assuming isotropy, a two-dimensional vertical turbulence field is created. A novel Gaussian interpolation technique is used to distribute vertical turbulence on the wing span or lateral rotor disc, and this distribution is used to compute roll responses. Air mass velocities are applied at significant centers of pressure in the computation of the aircraft's pitch and roll responses.

  6. New hybrid quadrilateral finite element for Mindlin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Yi; Zhang, Jingyu

    1994-02-01

    A new quadrilateral plate element concerning the effect of transverse shear strain was presented. It was derived from the hybrid finite element model based on the principles of virtual work. The outstanding advantage of this element was to use more rational trial functions of the displacements. For this reason, every variety of plate deformation can be simulated really while the least degrees of freedom was employed. A wide range of numerical tests was conducted and the results illustrate that this element has a very wide application scope to the thickness of plates and satisfactory accuracy can be obtained by coarse mesh for all kinds of examples.

  7. Finite element approach for transient analysis of multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shih-Chin; Chang, Che-Wei; Housner, Jerrold M.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional, finite element based formulation for the transient dynamics of constrained multibody systems with trusslike configurations is presented. A convected coordinate system is used to define the rigid-body motion of individual elements in the system. Deformation of each element is defined relative to its convected coordinate system. The formulation is oriented toward joint-dominated structures. Through a series of sequential transformations, the joint degree of freedom is built into the equations of motion of the element to reduce geometric constraints. Based on the derivation, a general-purpose code has been developed. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of the code.

  8. A new formulation of hybrid/mixed finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.; Kang, D.; Chen, D.-P.

    1983-01-01

    A new formulation of finite element method is accomplished by the Hellinger-Reissner principle for which the stress equilibrium conditions are not introduced initially but are brought-in through the use of additional internal displacement parameters. The method can lead to the same result as the assumed stress hybrid model. However, it is more general and more flexible. The use of natural coordinates for stress assumptions leads to elements which are less sensitive to the choice of reference coordinates. Numerical solutions by 3-D solid element indicate that more efficient elements can be constructed by assumed stresses which only partially satisfy the equilibrium conditions.

  9. Numerical techniques in linear duct acoustics. [finite difference and finite element analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Both finite difference and finite element analyses of small amplitude (linear) sound propagation in straight and variable area ducts with flow, as might be found in a typical turboject engine duct, muffler, or industrial ventilation system, are reviewed. Both steady state and transient theories are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advantages and limitations associated with the various numerical techniques. Examples of practical problems are given for which the numerical techniques have been applied.

  10. Computational solid mechanics (finite elements and boundary elements) - Present status and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Computational finite-element and boundary-element methods are reviewed, and their application to the mechanics of solids is discussed. Stability conditions for general FEMs are considered in addition to the use of least-order, stable, invariant, or hybrid/mixed isoparametric elements as alternatives to the displacement-based isoparametric elements. The use of symbolic manipulation, adaptive mesh refinement, transient dynamic response, and boundary-element methods for linear elaslticity and finite-strain problems of inelastic materials are also discussed.

  11. A Demonstration of the Method of Stochastic Finite Element Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Lfl A DENONSTATION OF THE METHO -D OF DTIC STOCHASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At LECTE S APR 0418 THESIS Paul R. Bryant Captain, USAF - AFIT/GA/A.A...Sample ASTROS Output) ....................... 78 Appendix D (Random Element Selection) .................... 83 Appendix E ( Weight Estimation...ensuring satisfactory performance? If weight is a concern, then the answer is yes. In the quest for higher performance aircraft and greater useful

  12. A finite element code for electric motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  13. Modeling the mechanics of axonal fiber tracts using the embedded finite element method.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Harsha T; Kraft, Reuben H

    2016-08-08

    A subject-specific human head finite element model with embedded axonal fiber tractography obtained from diffusion tensor imaging was developed. The axonal fiber tractography finite element model was coupled with the volumetric elements in the head model using the embedded element method. This technique enables the calculation of axonal strains and real-time tracking of the mechanical response of the axonal fiber tracts. The coupled model was then verified using pressure and relative displacement-based (between skull and brain) experimental studies and was employed to analyze a head impact, demonstrating the applicability of this method in studying axonal injury. Following this, a comparison study of different injury criteria was performed. This model was used to determine the influence of impact direction on the extent of the axonal injury. The results suggested that the lateral impact loading is more dangerous compared to loading in the sagittal plane, a finding in agreement with previous studies. Through this analysis, we demonstrated the viability of the embedded element method as an alternative numerical approach for studying axonal injury in patient-specific human head models.

  14. Finite Element Modeling of the Buckling Response of Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Moore, David F.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Rankin, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of different modeling approaches for predicting sandwich panel buckling response is described. The study considers sandwich panels with anisotropic face sheets and a very thick core. Results from conventional analytical solutions for sandwich panel overall buckling and face-sheet-wrinkling type modes are compared with solutions obtained using different finite element modeling approaches. Finite element solutions are obtained using layered shell element models, with and without transverse shear flexibility, layered shell/solid element models, with shell elements for the face sheets and solid elements for the core, and sandwich models using a recently developed specialty sandwich element. Convergence characteristics of the shell/solid and sandwich element modeling approaches with respect to in-plane and through-the-thickness discretization, are demonstrated. Results of the study indicate that the specialty sandwich element provides an accurate and effective modeling approach for predicting both overall and localized sandwich panel buckling response. Furthermore, results indicate that anisotropy of the face sheets, along with the ratio of principle elastic moduli, affect the buckling response and these effects may not be represented accurately by analytical solutions. Modeling recommendations are also provided.

  15. Finite element modelling of maxillofacial surgery and facial expressions--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Beldie, Liliana; Walker, Brian; Lu, Yongtao; Richmond, Stephen; Middleton, John

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic imaging and associated software have enabled the transformation of anatomical structures into finite element (FE) models facilitating computerized facial modelling. The work presented employs personalized imaging data of facial anatomical structures for use in planning and predicting the outcome of maxillofacial surgery. The current process relies on either freehand planning and/or commercial two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) surgical planning software packages, but the validity of these software packages has been questioned. In this paper, the finite element technique was used to predict the outcome of maxillofacial surgery. A finite element facial model was created, based on patient specific bone and skin image data, combined with generic muscle data. The model was used for two distinct purposes: simulation of the maxillofacial surgery and simulation of facial expressions pre- and post-surgery. This combination allowed for an improved prediction of surgery outcome. Commercial software was used for creating the FE facial model from the original image data, and LS-DYNA(®) was the analysis code used for the purpose of the FE simulation. The results from the simulation of maxillofacial surgery showed an overall agreement of 85% with the patient data at 6 months post-surgery and the error was generally contained within a ± 2 mm threshold. The results show that the approach of using commercial FE software tools to create a detailed and anatomically accurate patient specific model for simulation of maxillofacial surgery, as well as facial expressions, can be applied in facial surgery planning. As the study was based on data collected from one patient, further work is needed in which additional subjects can be assessed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Finite element modeling of the deformation of magnetoelastic film

    SciTech Connect

    Barham, Matthew I.; White, Daniel A.; Steigmann, David J.

    2010-09-01

    Recently a new class of biocompatible elastic polymers loaded with small ferrous particles, a magnetoelastic polymer, has been developed. This engineered material is formed into a thin film using spin casting. An applied magnetic field will deform the film. The magnetic deformation of this film has many possible applications, particularly in microfluidic pumps and pressure regulators. In this paper a finite element method suitable for the transient simulation of arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional magnetoelastic polymers subjected to time-varying magnetic fields is developed. The approach is similar to that employed in finite elment magnetohydrodynamic simulations, the key difference is a more complex hyperelastic material model. In order to confirm the validity of the approach, finite element solutions for an axially symmetric thin film are compared to an analytical solution based on the membrane (infinitely thin) approximation. For this particular problem the two approaches give qualitatively similar results and converge as the film thickness approaches zero.

  17. Dedicated finite elements for electrode thin films on quartz resonators.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sonal A; Yong, Yook-Kong; Tanaka, Masako; Imai, Tsutomu

    2008-08-01

    The accuracy of the finite element analysis for thickness shear quartz resonators is a function of the mesh resolution; the finer the mesh resolution, the more accurate the finite element solution. A certain minimum number of elements are required in each direction for the solution to converge. This places a high demand on memory for computation, and often the available memory is insufficient. Typically the thickness of the electrode films is very small compared with the thickness of the resonator itself; as a result, electrode elements have very poor aspect ratios, and this is detrimental to the accuracy of the result. In this paper, we propose special methods to model the electrodes at the crystal interface of an AT cut crystal. This reduces the overall problem size and eliminates electrode elements having poor aspect ratios. First, experimental data are presented to demonstrate the effects of electrode film boundary conditions on the frequency-temperature curves of an AT cut plate. Finite element analysis is performed on a mesh representing the resonator, and the results are compared for testing the accuracy of the analysis itself and thus validating the results of analysis. Approximations such as lumping and Guyan reduction are then used to model the electrode thin films at the electrode interface and their results are studied. In addition, a new approximation called merging is proposed to model electrodes at the electrode interface.

  18. Finite-Element Analysis of Forced Convection and Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    TAP2 thermal-analysis program was developed as part of research on finite element methodology for thermal analysis of convectively cooled structures, such as scramjet engines and hypersonic aircraft. Program simplifies computations when both structural and thermal analyses are required and is suited for thermal analysis of nuclear reactors and solar-panel heating systems.

  19. Finite-element analysis of end-notch flexure specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-element analysis of the end-notch flexure specimen for Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness measurement was conducted. The effects of friction between the crack faces and large deflection on the evaluation of G(IIc) from this specimen were investigated. Results of this study are presented in this paper.

  20. Finite element analysis of end notch flexure specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the end notch flexure specimen for mode II interlaminar fracture toughness measurement was conducted. The effect of friction between the crack faces and large deflection on the evaluation of G sub IIc from this specimen were investigated. Results of this study are presented in this paper.

  1. Finite element corroboration of buckling phenomena observed in corrugated boxes

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Urbanik; Edmond P. Saliklis

    2003-01-01

    Conventional compression strength formulas for corrugated fiberboard boxes are limited to geometry and material that produce an elastic postbuckling failure. Inelastic postbuckling can occur in squatty boxes and trays, but a mechanistic rationale for unifying observed strength data is lacking. This study combines a finite element model with a parametric design of the...

  2. Design, development and use of the finite element machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. M.; Voigt, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the considerations that went into the design of the Finite Element Machine, a research asynchronous parallel computer are described. The present status of the system is also discussed along with some indication of the type of results that were obtained.

  3. Modeling of resistive sheets in finite element solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, Alex C.

    1992-01-01

    A formulation is presented for modeling a resistive card in the context of the finite element method. The appropriate variational function is derived and for variational purposes results are presented for the scattering by a metal-backed cavity loaded with a resistive card.

  4. Modeling of resistive sheets in finite element solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J. M.; Volakis, J. L.; Yu, C. L.; Woo, A. C.

    1992-06-01

    A formulation is presented for modeling a resistive card in the context of the finite element method. The appropriate variational function is derived and for variational purposes results are presented for the scattering by metal-backed cavity loaded with a resistive card.

  5. Finite element analysis of aeroelasticity of plates and shells

    SciTech Connect

    Bismarck-Nasr, M.N.

    1992-12-01

    A review of the finite element method applied to the problem of supersonic aeroelastic stability of plates and shells is presented. The review is limited to linear models. Some new contributions in the field are presented and future trends are discussed. 105 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, M.; Ruede, U.

    1994-12-31

    The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.

  7. Finite-Element Analysis of Multiphase Immiscible Flow Through Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppusamy, T.; Sheng, J.; Parker, J. C.; Lenhard, R. J.

    1987-04-01

    A finite-element model is developed for multiphase flow through soil involving three immiscible fluids: namely, air, water, and a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A variational method is employed for the finite-element formulation corresponding to the coupled differential equations governing flow in a three-fluid phase porous medium system with constant air phase pressure. Constitutive relationships for fluid conductivities and saturations as functions of fluid pressures, which are derived in a companion paper by J. C. Parker et al. (this issue) and which may be calibrated from two-phase laboratory measurements, are employed in the finite-element program. The solution procedure uses backward time integration with iteration by a modified Picard method to handle the nonlinear properties. Laboratory experiments involving water displacement from soil columns by p cymene (a benzene-derivative hydrocarbon) under constant pressure were simulated by the finite-element program to validate the numerical model and formulation for constitutive properties. Transient water outflow predicted using independently measured saturation-capillary head data agreed with observed outflow data within the limits of precision of the predictions as estimated by a first-order Taylor series approximation considering parameter uncertainty due to experimental reproducability and constitutive model accuracy. Two-dimensional simulations are presented for a hypothetical field case involving introduction of NAPL near the soil surface due to leakage from an underground storage tank. Subsequent transport of NAPL in the variably saturated vadose and groundwater zones is analyzed.

  8. Finite element analyses of wood laminated composite poles

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; R.C. Tang; Chung Y. Hse

    2005-01-01

    Finite element analyses using ANSYS were conducted on orthotropic, polygonal, wood laminated composite poles subjected to a body force and a concentrated load at the free end. Deflections and stress distributions of small-scale and full-size composite poles were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in an experimental study. The predicted deflection for both...

  9. Three Dimensional Finite Element Simulation of the Fretting Wear Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choon Yeol; Bae, Joon Woo; Choi, Byung Sun; Chai, Young Suck

    The structural integrity of steam generators in nuclear power plants is very much dependent upon the fretting wear characteristics of Inconel 690 U-tubes. In this study, a finite element analysis was used to investigate fretting wear on the secondary side of the steam generator, which arises from flow-induced vibrations (FIV) between the U-tubes and supports or foreign objects. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses were adopted to investigate the fretting wear problems. The purpose of the two-dimensional analysis, which simulated the contact between a punch and a plate, was to demonstrate the validity of using finite element analysis to analyze fretting wear problems. This was achieved by controlling the value of the wear constant and the number of cycles. The two-dimensional solutions obtained from this study were in good agreement with previous results reported by Strömberg. In the three-dimensional finite element analysis, a quarterly symmetric model was used to simulate tubes contacting at right angles. The results of the analyses showed donut-shaped wear along the contacting boundary, which is a typical feature of fretting wear.

  10. Coupling finite element and spectral methods: First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardi, Christine; Debit, Naima; Maday, Yvon

    1987-01-01

    A Poisson equation on a rectangular domain is solved by coupling two methods: the domain is divided in two squares, a finite element approximation is used on the first square and a spectral discretization is used on the second one. Two kinds of matching conditions on the interface are presented and compared. In both cases, error estimates are proved.

  11. 2-D Finite Element Cable and Box IEMP Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scivner, G.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-12-17

    A 2-D finite element code has been developed for the solution of arbitrary geometry cable SGEMP and box IEMP problems. The quasi- static electric field equations with radiation- induced charge deposition and radiation-induced conductivity y are numerically solved on a triangular mesh. Multiple regions of different dielectric materials and multiple conductors are permitted.

  12. Finite-element analysis of an epoxy-curing process

    SciTech Connect

    Gartling, D K; Hickox, C E; Nunziato, J W

    1983-01-01

    A finite element numerical procedure is used to study the curing of an epoxy compound. The problem involves the gelation of an incompressible liquid due to an exothermic chemical reaction. Nonuniform temperature fields produce buoyancy-driven fluid motions that interact with the solidifying material. The numerical simulations provide temperature histories and the progression of the gel front that are compared with experimental data.

  13. A finite element approach for prediction of aerothermal loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Dechaumphai, P.; Vemaganti, G.

    1986-01-01

    A Taylor-Galerkin finite element approach is presented for analysis of high speed viscous flows with an emphasis on predicting heating rates. Five computational issues relevant to the computation of steady flows are examined. Numerical results for supersonic and hypersonic problems address the computational issues and demonstrate the validity for the approach for analysis of high speed flows.

  14. SUPG Finite Element Simulations of Compressible Flows for Aerothermodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) Finite Element Simulation. It covers the background, governing equations, weak formulation, shock capturing, inviscid flux discretization, time discretization, linearization, and implicit solution strategies. It also reviews some applications such as Type IV Shock Interaction, Forward-Facing Cavity and AEDC Sharp Double Cone.

  15. Coupling of Peridynamics and Finite Element Formulation for Multiscale Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-16

    state-based peridynamic method, Warren et al. [46] studied the elastic deformation and fracture of a bar. Littlewood [47] presented fragmentation of an...Journal of Solids and Structures 46 (2009) 1186-1195. [47] D. J. Littlewood , Simulation of dynamic fracture using peridynamics, finite element modeling

  16. Finite-Element Fracture Analysis of Pins and Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nord, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    Stress intensities calculated in bending and tension. Finite-element stress-analysis method gives stress-intensity estimates for surface flaws on smooth and threaded round bars. Calculations done for purely tensile and purely bending loads. Results, presented in dimensionless form, useful for determining fatigue lives of bolts and pins.

  17. A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.

  18. Modelling of orbital deformation using finite-element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sukhun, Jehad; Lindqvist, Christian; Kontio, Risto

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional finite-element model (FEM) of the human orbit, containing the globe, to predict orbital deformation in subjects following a blunt injury. This study investigated the hypothesis that such deformation could be modelled using finite-element techniques. One patient who had CT-scan examination to the maxillofacial skeleton including the orbits, as part of her treatment, was selected for this study. A FEM of one of the orbits containing the globe was constructed, based on CT-scan images. Simulations were performed with a computer using the finite-element software NISA (EMRC, Troy, USA). The orbit was subjected to a blunt injury of a 0.5 kg missile with 30 m s−1 velocity. The FEM was then used to predict principal and shear stresses or strains at each node position. Two types of orbital deformation were predicted during different impact simulations: (i) horizontal distortion and (ii) rotational distortion. Stress values ranged from 213.4 to 363.3 MPa for the maximum principal stress, from −327.8 to −653.1 MPa for the minimum principal stress, and from 212.3 to 444.3 MPa for the maximum shear stress. This is the first finite-element study, which demonstrates different and concurrent patterns of orbital deformation in a subject following a blunt injury. Finite element modelling is a powerful and invaluable tool to study the multifaceted phenomenon of orbital deformation. PMID:16849235

  19. Advance finite element modeling of rotor blade aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Sangha, K. B.; Panda, B.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced beam finite element has been developed for modeling rotor blade dynamics and aeroelasticity. This element is part of the Element Library of the Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System (2GCHAS). The element allows modeling of arbitrary rotor systems, including bearingless rotors. It accounts for moderately large elastic deflections, anisotropic properties, large frame motion for maneuver simulation, and allows for variable order shape functions. The effects of gravity, mechanically applied and aerodynamic loads are included. All kinematic quantities required to compute airloads are provided. In this paper, the fundamental assumptions and derivation of the element matrices are presented. Numerical results are shown to verify the formulation and illustrate several features of the element.

  20. High-order Finite Element Analysis of Boundary Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Alvin; Sahni, Onkar

    2014-11-01

    Numerical analysis of boundary layer flows requires careful approximations, specifically the use of a mesh with layered and graded elements near the (viscous) walls. This is referred to as a boundary layer mesh, which for complex geometries is composed of triangular elements on the walls that are inflated or extruded into the volume along the wall-normal direction up to a desired height while the rest of the domain is filled with unstructured tetrahedral elements. Linear elements with C0 inter-element continuity are employed and in some situations higher order C0 elements are also used. However, these elements only enforce continuity whereas high-order smoothness is not attained as will be the case with C1 inter-element continuity and higher. As a result, C0 elements result in a poor approximation of the high-order boundary layer behavior. To achieve greater inter-element continuity in boundary layer region, we employ B-spline basis functions along the wall-normal direction (i.e., only in the layered portion of the mesh). In the rest of the fully unstructured mesh, linear or higher order C0 elements are used as appropriate. In this study we demonstrate the benefits of finite-element analysis based on such higher order and continuity basis functions for boundary layer flows.

  1. Finite Element Modeling of the NASA Langley Aluminum Testbed Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Pritchard, Joselyn I.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Langley Aluminum Testbed Cylinder (ATC) was designed to serve as a universal structure for evaluating structural acoustic codes, modeling techniques and optimization methods used in the prediction of aircraft interior noise. Finite element models were developed for the components of the ATC based on the geometric, structural and material properties of the physical test structure. Numerically predicted modal frequencies for the longitudinal stringer, ring frame and dome component models, and six assembled ATC configurations were compared with experimental modal survey data. The finite element models were updated and refined, using physical parameters, to increase correlation with the measured modal data. Excellent agreement, within an average 1.5% to 2.9%, was obtained between the predicted and measured modal frequencies of the stringer, frame and dome components. The predictions for the modal frequencies of the assembled component Configurations I through V were within an average 2.9% and 9.1%. Finite element modal analyses were performed for comparison with 3 psi and 6 psi internal pressurization conditions in Configuration VI. The modal frequencies were predicted by applying differential stiffness to the elements with pressure loading and creating reduced matrices for beam elements with offsets inside external superelements. The average disagreement between the measured and predicted differences for the 0 psi and 6 psi internal pressure conditions was less than 0.5%. Comparably good agreement was obtained for the differences between the 0 psi and 3 psi measured and predicted internal pressure conditions.

  2. Discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite elements for elliptic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottasso, Carlo L.; Micheletti, Stefano; Sacco, Riccardo

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel discontinuous mixed finite element formulation for the solution of second-order elliptic problems. Fully discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces are used for the trial and test functions. The discontinuous nature of the test functions at the element interfaces allows to introduce new boundary unknowns that, on the one hand enforce the weak continuity of the trial functions, and on the other avoid the need to define a priori algorithmic fluxes as in standard discontinuous Galerkin methods. Static condensation is performed at the element level, leading to a solution procedure based on the sole interface unknowns. The resulting family of discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite element methods is presented in the one and two-dimensional cases. In the one-dimensional case, we show the equivalence of the method with implicit Runge-Kutta schemes of the collocation type exhibiting optimal behavior. Numerical experiments in one and two dimensions demonstrate the order accuracy of the new method, confirming the results of the analysis.

  3. Dynamic quasistatic characterization of finite elements for shell structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2010-11-01

    Finite elements for shell structures have been investigated extensively, with numerous formulations offered in the literature. These elements are vital in modern computational solid mechanics due to their computational efficiency and accuracy for thin and moderately thick shell structures, allowing larger and more comprehensive (e.g. multi-scale and multi-physics) simulations. Problems now of interest in the research and development community are routinely pushing our computational capabilities, and thus shell finite elements are being used to deliver efficient yet high quality computations. Much work in the literature is devoted to the formulation of shell elements and their numerical accuracy, but there is little published work on the computational characterization and comparison of shell elements for modern solid mechanics problems. The present study is a comparison of three disparate shell element formulations in the Sandia National Laboratories massively parallel Sierra Solid Mechanics code. A constant membrane and bending stress shell element (Key and Hoff, 1995), a thick shell hex element (Key et al., 2004) and a 7-parameter shell element (Buechter et al., 1994) are available in Sierra Solid Mechanics for explicit transient dynamic, implicit transient dynamic and quasistatic calculations. Herein these three elements are applied to a set of canonical dynamic and quasistatic problems, and their numerical accuracy, computational efficiency and scalability are investigated. The results show the trade-off between the relative inefficiency and improved accuracy of the latter two high quality element types when compared with the highly optimized and more widely used constant membrane and bending stress shell element.

  4. Visualization of transient finite element analyses on large unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dovey, D.

    1995-03-22

    Three-dimensional transient finite element analysis is performed on unstructured grids. A trend toward running larger analysis problems, combined with a desire for interactive animation of analysis results, demands efficient visualization techniques. This paper discusses a set of data structures and algorithms for visualizing transient analysis results on unstructured grids and introduces some modifications in order to better support large grids. In particular, an element grouping approach is used to reduce the amount of memory needed for external surface determination and to speed up ``point in element`` tests. The techniques described lend themselves to visualization of analyses carried out in parallel on a massively parallel computer (MPC).

  5. PWSCC Assessment by Using Extended Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Jun; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Suk

    2015-12-01

    The head penetration nozzle of control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) is known to be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) due to the welding-induced residual stress. Especially, the J-groove dissimilar metal weld regions have received many attentions in the previous studies. However, even though several advanced techniques such as weight function and finite element alternating methods have been introduced to predict the occurrence of PWSCC, there are still difficulties in respect of applicability and efficiency. In this study, the extended finite element method (XFEM), which allows convenient crack element modeling by enriching degree of freedom (DOF) with special displacement function, was employed to evaluate structural integrity of the CRDM head penetration nozzle. The resulting stress intensity factors of surface cracks were verified for the reliability of proposed method through the comparison with those suggested in the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) code. The detailed results from the FE analyses are fully discussed in the manuscript.

  6. Finite element dynamic analysis on CDC STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Lambiotte, J. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Computational algorithms are presented for the finite element dynamic analysis of structures on the CDC STAR-100 computer. The spatial behavior is described using higher-order finite elements. The temporal behavior is approximated by using either the central difference explicit scheme or Newmark's implicit scheme. In each case the analysis is broken up into a number of basic macro-operations. Discussion is focused on the organization of the computation and the mode of storage of different arrays to take advantage of the STAR pipeline capability. The potential of the proposed algorithms is discussed and CPU times are given for performing the different macro-operations for a shell modeled by higher order composite shallow shell elements having 80 degrees of freedom.

  7. Finite Element Modelling of Fluid Coupling in the Coiled Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Guangjian; Elliott, S. J.; Lineton, B.; Saba, R.

    2011-11-01

    A finite element model is first used to calculate the modal pressure difference for a box model of the cochlea, which shows that the number of fluid elements across the width of the cochlea determines the accuracy with which the near field, or short wavenumber, component of the fluid coupling is reproduced. Then results are compared with the analytic results to validate the accuracy of the FE model. It is, however, the far field, or long wavelength, component of the fluid coupling that is most affected by the geometry. A finite element model of the coiled cochlea is then used to calculate fluid coupling in this case, which has similar characteristics to the uncoiled model.

  8. Edge-based finite element scheme for the Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hong; Baum, Joseph D.; Loehner, Rainald

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a new finite element scheme for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on unstructured grids. The implementation of the numerical scheme is based on an edge-based data structure, as opposed to a more element-based data structure. The use of this edge-based data structure not only improves the efficiency of the algorithm but also enables a straightforward implementation of the upwind schemes in the context of finite element methods. The algorithm has been tested and validated on some well documented configurations. A flow solution about a complete F-18 fighter is shown to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Edge-based finite element scheme for the Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hong; Baum, Joseph D.; Lohner, Rainald

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the development, validation, and application of a new finite element scheme for the solution of the compressible Euler equations on unstructured grids. The implementation of the numerical scheme is based on an edge-based data structure, as opposed to a more traditional element-based data structure. The use of this edge-based data structure not only improves the efficiency of the algorithm but also enables a straightforward implementation of upwind schemes in the context of finite element methods. The algorithm has been tested and validated on some well-documented configurations. A flow solution about a complete F-18 fighter is shown to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Finite element modelling of the foot for clinical application: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Behforootan, Sara; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis; Naemi, Roozbeh; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades finite element modelling has been widely used to give new insight on foot and footwear biomechanics. However its actual contribution for the improvement of the therapeutic outcome of different pathological conditions of the foot, such as the diabetic foot, remains relatively limited. This is mainly because finite element modelling has only been used within the research domain. Clinically applicable finite element modelling can open the way for novel diagnostic techniques and novel methods for treatment planning/optimisation which would significantly enhance clinical practice. In this context this review aims to provide an overview of modelling techniques in the field of foot and footwear biomechanics and to investigate their applicability in a clinical setting. Even though no integrated modelling system exists that could be directly used in the clinic and considerable progress is still required, current literature includes a comprehensive toolbox for future work towards clinically applicable finite element modelling. The key challenges include collecting the information that is needed for geometry design, the assignment of material properties and loading on a patient-specific basis and in a cost-effective and non-invasive way. The ultimate challenge for the implementation of any computational system into clinical practice is to ensure that it can produce reliable results for any person that belongs in the population for which it was developed. Consequently this highlights the need for thorough and extensive validation of each individual step of the modelling process as well as for the overall validation of the final integrated system. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Finite element analysis of inviscid subsonic boattail flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.; Gerhart, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element code for analysis of inviscid subsonic flows over arbitrary nonlifting planar or axisymmetric bodies is described. The code solves a novel primitive variable formulation of the coupled irrotationality and compressible continuity equations. Results for flow over a cylinder, a sphere, and a NACA 0012 airfoil verify the code. Computed subcritical flows over an axisymmetric boattailed afterbody compare well with finite difference results and experimental data. Interative coupling with an integral turbulent boundary layer code shows strong viscous effects on the inviscid flow. Improvements in code efficiency and extensions to transonic flows are discussed.

  12. Finite-size scaling for quantum criticality using the finite-element method.

    PubMed

    Antillon, Edwin; Wehefritz-Kaufmann, Birgit; Kais, Sabre

    2012-03-01

    Finite size scaling for the Schrödinger equation is a systematic approach to calculate the quantum critical parameters for a given Hamiltonian. This approach has been shown to give very accurate results for critical parameters by using a systematic expansion with global basis-type functions. Recently, the finite-element method was shown to be a powerful numerical method for ab initio electronic-structure calculations with a variable real-space resolution. In this work, we demonstrate how to obtain quantum critical parameters by combining the finite-element method (FEM) with finite size scaling (FSS) using different ab initio approximations and exact formulations. The critical parameters could be atomic nuclear charges, internuclear distances, electron density, disorder, lattice structure, and external fields for stability of atomic, molecular systems and quantum phase transitions of extended systems. To illustrate the effectiveness of this approach we provide detailed calculations of applying FEM to approximate solutions for the two-electron atom with varying nuclear charge; these include Hartree-Fock, local density approximation, and an "exact" formulation using FEM. We then use the FSS approach to determine its critical nuclear charge for stability; here, the size of the system is related to the number of elements used in the calculations. Results prove to be in good agreement with previous Slater-basis set calculations and demonstrate that it is possible to combine finite size scaling with the finite-element method by using ab initio calculations to obtain quantum critical parameters. The combined approach provides a promising first-principles approach to describe quantum phase transitions for materials and extended systems.

  13. New alternating direction procedures in finite element analysis based upon EBE approximate factorizations. [element-by-element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J.; Levit, I.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Element-by-element approximate factorization procedures are proposed for solving the large finite element equation systems which arise in computational mechanics. A variety of techniques are compared on problems of structural mechanics, heat conduction and fluid mechanics. The results obtained suggest considerable potential for the methods described.

  14. A nonlinear viscoelastic finite element model of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C; Colwell, C W; D'Lima, D D

    2011-06-01

    A nonlinear viscoelastic finite element model of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was developed in this study. Eight cylindrical specimens were machined from ram extruded UHMWPE bar stock (GUR 1020) and tested under constant compression at 7% strain for 100 sec. The stress strain data during the initial ramp up to 7% strain was utilized to model the "instantaneous" stress-strain response using a Mooney-Rivlin material model. The viscoelastic behavior was modeled using the time-dependent relaxation in stress seen after the initial maximum stress was achieved using a stored energy formulation. A cylindrical model of similar dimensions was created using a finite element analysis software program. The cylinder was made up of hexahedral elements, which were given the material properties utilizing the "instantaneous" stress-strain curve and the energy-relaxation curve obtained from the experimental data. The cylinder was compressed between two flat rigid bodies that simulated the fixtures of the testing machine. Experimental stress-relaxation, creep and dynamic testing data were then used to validate the model. The mean error for predicted versus experimental data for stress relaxation at different strain levels was 4.2%. The mean error for the creep test was 7% and for dynamic test was 5.4%. Finally, dynamic loading in a hip arthroplasty was modeled and validated experimentally with an error of 8%. This study establishes a working finite element material model of UHMWPE that can be utilized to simulate a variety of postoperative arthroplasty conditions.

  15. Patient-Specific Carotid Plaque Progression Simulation Using 3D Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Models with Fluid-Structure Interactions Based on Serial In Vivo MRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we introduced a computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Structure-only models were used in our previous report. In this paper, fluid-stricture interaction (FSI) was added to improve on prediction accuracy. One participating patient was scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Blood flow was assumed to laminar, Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. The Navier-Stokes equations with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation were used as the governing equations. Plaque material was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D FSI plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Growth functions with a) morphology alone; b) morphology and plaque wall stress (PWS); morphology and flow shear stress (FSS), and d) morphology, PWS and FSS were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the FSI model and adjusting plaque geometry using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 8.62%, 7.22%, 5.77% and 4.39%, with the growth function including morphology, plaque wall stress and flow shear stress terms giving the best predictions. Adding flow shear stress term to the growth function improved the prediction error from 7.22% to 4.39%, a 40% improvement. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression FSI simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression

  16. FECAP - FINITE ELEMENT COMPOSITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM FOR A MICROCOMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced composite materials have gained use in the aerospace industry over the last 20 years because of their high specific strength and stiffness, and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Design of composite structures requires the analysis of composite material behavior. The Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, is a special purpose finite element analysis program for analyzing composite material behavior with a microcomputer. Composite materials, in regard to this program, are defined as the combination of at least two distinct materials to form one nonhomogeneous anisotropic material. FECAP assumes a state of generalized plane strain exists in a material consisting of two or more orthotropic phases, subjected to mechanical and/or thermal loading. The finite element formulation used in FECAP is displacement based and requires the minimization of the total potential energy for each element with respect to the unknown variables. This procedure leads to a set of linear simultaneous equations relating the unknown nodal displacements to the applied loads. The equations for each element are assembled into a global system, the boundary conditions are applied, and the system is solved for the nodal displacements. The analysis may be performed using either 4-mode linear or 8-mode quadratic isoparametric elements. Output includes the nodal displacements, and the element stresses and strains. FECAP was written for a Hewlett Packard HP9000 Series 200 Microcomputer with the HP Basic operating system. It was written in HP BASIC 3.0 and requires approximately 0.5 Mbytes of RAM in addition to what is required for the operating system. A math coprocessor card is highly recommended. FECAP was developed in 1988.

  17. Microbuckle initiation in fibre composites : A finite element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Norman A.; Shu, John Y.

    1995-12-01

    A finite strain continuum theory is presented for unidirectional fibre reinforced composites under in-plane loading. The constitutive response is expressed in terms of couple stress theory, and is deduced from a unit cell of a linear elastic Timoshenko beam embedded in a non-linear elastic-plastic matrix. The continuum theory is implemented within a finite element framework and is used to analyse compressive failure of polymer matrix composites by fibre microbuckling. It is assumed that microbuckling initiates from an imperfection in the form of a finite elliptical region of fibre waviness. The calculations show that the compressive strength decreases with increasing imperfection spatial size from the elastic bifurcation value of Rosen (1965, Fibre Composite Materials, pp. 37-75, American Society Metals Seminar) to the imperfection-sensitive infinite band strength given by Fleck et al. [1995, J. Appl. Mech.62, 329-337.].

  18. Finite element structural redesign by large admissible perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernitsas, Michael M.; Beyko, E.; Rim, C. W.; Alzahabi, B.

    1991-01-01

    In structural redesign, two structural states are involved; the baseline (known) State S1 with unacceptable performance, and the objective (unknown) State S2 with given performance specifications. The difference between the two states in performance and design variables may be as high as 100 percent or more depending on the scale of the structure. A Perturbation Approach to Redesign (PAR) is presented to relate any two structural states S1 and S2 that are modeled by the same finite element model and represented by different values of the design variables. General perturbation equations are derived expressing implicitly the natural frequencies, dynamic modes, static deflections, static stresses, Euler buckling loads, and buckling modes of the objective S2 in terms of its performance specifications, and S1 data and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results. Large Admissible Perturbation (LEAP) algorithms are implemented in code RESTRUCT to define the objective S2 incrementally without trial and error by postprocessing FEA results of S1 with no additional FEAs. Systematic numerical applications in redesign of a 10 element 48 degree of freedom (dof) beam, a 104 element 192 dof offshore tower, a 64 element 216 dof plate, and a 144 element 896 dof cylindrical shell show the accuracy, efficiency, and potential of PAR to find an objective state that may differ 100 percent from the baseline design.

  19. Dynamic finite element implementation of nonlinear, anisotropic hyperelastic biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Einstein, D R; Reinhall, P; Nicosia, M; Cochran, R P; Kunzelman, K

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel method for the implementation of hyperelastic finite strain, non-linear strain-energy functions for biological membranes in an explicit finite element environment. The technique is implemented in LS-DYNA but may also be implemented in any suitable non-linear explicit code. The constitutive equations are implemented on the foundation of a co-rotational uniformly reduced Hughes-Liu shell. This shell is based on an updated-Lagrangian formulation suitable for relating Cauchy stress to the rate-of-deformation, i.e. hypo-elasticity. To accommodate finite deformation hyper-elastic formulations, a co-rotational deformation gradient is assembled over time, resulting in a formulation suitable for pseudo-hyperelastic constitutive equations that are standard assumptions in biomechanics. Our method was validated by comparison with (1) an analytic solution to a spherically-symmetric dynamic membrane inflation problem, incorporating a Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic equation and (2) with previously published finite element solutions to a non-linear transversely isotropic inflation problem. Finally, we implemented a transversely isotropic strain-energy function for mitral valve tissue. The method is simple and accurate and is believed to be generally useful for anyone who wishes to model biologic membranes with an experimentally driven strain-energy function.

  20. Finite-element modelling of multilayer X-ray optics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xianchao; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Multilayer optical elements for hard X-rays are an attractive alternative to crystals whenever high photon flux and moderate energy resolution are required. Prediction of the temperature, strain and stress distribution in the multilayer optics is essential in designing the cooling scheme and optimizing geometrical parameters for multilayer optics. The finite-element analysis (FEA) model of the multilayer optics is a well established tool for doing so. Multilayers used in X-ray optics typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of materials. The thickness of one period is a few nanometers. Most multilayers are coated on silicon substrates of typical size 60 mm × 60 mm × 100-300 mm. The high aspect ratio between the size of the optics and the thickness of the multilayer (10(7)) can lead to a huge number of elements for the finite-element model. For instance, meshing by the size of the layers will require more than 10(16) elements, which is an impossible task for present-day computers. Conversely, meshing by the size of the substrate will produce a too high element shape ratio (element geometry width/height > 10(6)), which causes low solution accuracy; and the number of elements is still very large (10(6)). In this work, by use of ANSYS layer-functioned elements, a thermal-structural FEA model has been implemented for multilayer X-ray optics. The possible number of layers that can be computed by presently available computers is increased considerably.

  1. Parallel, adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Devine, Karen D.; Flaherty, Joseph E.

    1994-01-01

    We construct parallel finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. A posteriori estimates of spatial errors are obtained by a p-refinement technique using superconvergence at Radau points. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. We compare results using different limiting schemes and demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on an NCUBE/2 hypercube. We also present results using adaptive h- and p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method.

  2. Compatibility conditions of structural mechanics for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions are fundamental to the analyses of structures. However, anyone who undertakes even a cursory generic study of the compatibility conditions can discover, with little effort, that historically this facet of structural mechanics had not been adequately researched by the profession. Now the compatibility conditions (CC's) have been researched and are understood to a great extent. For finite element discretizations, the CC's are banded and can be divided into three distinct categories: (1) the interface CC's; (2) the cluster or field CC's; and (3) the external CC's. The generation of CC's requires the separating of a local region, then writing the deformation displacement relation (ddr) for the region, and finally, the eliminating of the displacements from the ddr. The procedure to generate all three types of CC's is presented and illustrated through examples of finite element models. The uniqueness of the CC's thus generated is shown.

  3. A finite element model of ferroelectric/ferroelastic polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    HWANG,STEPHEN C.; MCMEEKING,ROBERT M.

    2000-02-17

    A finite element model of polarization switching in a polycrystalline ferroelectric/ferroelastic ceramic is developed. It is assumed that a crystallite switches if the reduction in potential energy of the polycrystal exceeds a critical energy barrier per unit volume of switching material. Each crystallite is represented by a finite element with the possible dipole directions assigned randomly subject to crystallographic constraints. The model accounts for both electric field induced (i.e. ferroelectric) switching and stress induced (i.e. ferroelastic) switching with piezoelectric interactions. Experimentally measured elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants are used consistently, but different effective critical energy barriers are selected phenomenologically. Electric displacement versus electric field, strain versus electric field, stress versus strain, and stress versus electric displacement loops of a ceramic lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) are modeled well below the Curie temperature.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Electrically Excited Quartz Tuning Fork Devices

    PubMed Central

    Oria, Roger; Otero, Jorge; González, Laura; Botaya, Luis; Carmona, Manuel; Puig-Vidal, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF)-based Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is an important field of research. A suitable model for the QTF is important to obtain quantitative measurements with these devices. Analytical models have the limitation of being based on the double cantilever configuration. In this paper, we present an electromechanical finite element model of the QTF electrically excited with two free prongs. The model goes beyond the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations currently found in the literature for this QTF configuration. We present the first numerical analysis of both the electrical and mechanical behavior of QTF devices. Experimental measurements obtained with 10 units of the same model of QTF validate the finite element model with a good agreement. PMID:23722828

  5. Finite element calculation of residual stress in dental restorative material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    A finite element methodology for residual stresses calculation in dental restorative materials is proposed. The material under concern is a multifunctional methacrylate-based composite for dental restorations, activated by visible light. Reaction kinetics, curing shrinkage, and viscoelastic relaxation functions were required as input data on a structural finite element solver. Post cure effects were considered in order to quantify the residual stresses coming out from natural contraction with respect to those debited to the chemical shrinkage. The analysis showed for a given test case that residual stresses frozen in the dental restoration at uniform temperature of 37°C are of the same order of magnitude of the strength of the dental composite material per se.

  6. An emulator for minimizing finite element analysis implementation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.; Islam, M.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element analysis emulator providing a basis for efficiently establishing an optimum computer implementation strategy when many calculations are involved is described. The SCOPE emulator determines computer resources required as a function of the structural model, structural load-deflection equation characteristics, the storage allocation plan, and computer hardware capabilities. Thereby, it provides data for trading analysis implementation options to arrive at a best strategy. The models contained in SCOPE lead to micro-operation computer counts of each finite element operation as well as overall computer resource cost estimates. Application of SCOPE to the Memphis-Arkansas bridge analysis provides measures of the accuracy of resource assessments. Data indicate that predictions are within 17.3 percent for calculation times and within 3.2 percent for peripheral storage resources for the ELAS code.

  7. A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.

  8. A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Micromachined MEMS Photon Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.; Evans, B.M.; Schonberger, D.

    1999-09-20

    The technology of microelectronics that has evolved over the past half century is one of great power and sophistication and can now be extended to many applications (MEMS and MOEMS) other than electronics. An interesting application of MEMS quantum devices is the detection of electromagnetic radiation. The operation principle of MEMS quantum devices is based on the photoinduced stress in semiconductors, and the photon detection results from the measurement of the photoinduced bending. These devices can be described as micromechanical photon detectors. In this work, we have developed a technique for simulating electronic stresses using finite element analysis. We have used our technique to model the response of micromechanical photon devices to external stimuli and compared these results with experimental data. Material properties, geometry, and bimaterial design play an important role in the performance of micromechanical photon detectors. We have modeled these effects using finite element analysis and included the effects of bimaterial thickness coating, effective length of the device, width, and thickness.

  10. Compatibility conditions of structural mechanics for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, S. N.; Berke, L.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium equations and the compatibility conditions are fundamental to the analyses of structures. However, anyone who undertakes even a cursory generic study of the compatibility conditions can discover, with little effort, that historically this facet of structural mechanics had not been adequately researched by the profession. Now the compatibility conditions (CC's) have been researched and are understood to a great extent. For finite element discretizations, the CC's are banded and can be divided into three distinct categories: (1) the interface CC's; (2) the cluster or field CC's; and (3) the external CC's. The generation of CC's requires the separating of a local region, then writing the deformation displacement relation (ddr) for the region, and finally, the eliminating of the displacements from the ddr. The procedure to generate all three types of CC's is presented and illustrated through examples of finite element models. The uniqueness of the CC's thus generated is shown.

  11. An emulator for minimizing finite element analysis implementation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R. J.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.; Islam, M.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element analysis emulator providing a basis for efficiently establishing an optimum computer implementation strategy when many calculations are involved is described. The SCOPE emulator determines computer resources required as a function of the structural model, structural load-deflection equation characteristics, the storage allocation plan, and computer hardware capabilities. Thereby, it provides data for trading analysis implementation options to arrive at a best strategy. The models contained in SCOPE lead to micro-operation computer counts of each finite element operation as well as overall computer resource cost estimates. Application of SCOPE to the Memphis-Arkansas bridge analysis provides measures of the accuracy of resource assessments. Data indicate that predictions are within 17.3 percent for calculation times and within 3.2 percent for peripheral storage resources for the ELAS code.

  12. Finite element analysis applied to dentoalveolar trauma: methodology description.

    PubMed

    da Silva, B R; Moreira Neto, J J S; da Silva, F I; de Aguiar, A S W

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated.

  13. Finite Element Analysis Applied to Dentoalveolar Trauma: Methodology Description

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, B. R.; Moreira Neto, J. J. S.; da Silva, F. I.; de Aguiar, A. S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Dentoalveolar traumatic injuries are among the clinical conditions most frequently treated in dental practice. However, few studies so far have addressed the biomechanical aspects of these events, probably as a result of difficulties in carrying out satisfactory experimental and clinical studies as well as the unavailability of truly scientific methodologies. The aim of this paper was to describe the use of finite element analysis applied to the biomechanical evaluation of dentoalveolar trauma. For didactic purposes, the methodological process was divided into steps that go from the creation of a geometric model to the evaluation of final results, always with a focus on methodological characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages, so as to allow the reader to customize the methodology according to specific needs. Our description shows that the finite element method can faithfully reproduce dentoalveolar trauma, provided the methodology is closely followed and thoroughly evaluated. PMID:21991463

  14. Surface subsidence prediction by nonlinear finite-element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, Y. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Zaman, M. . School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science)

    1993-11-01

    An improved two-dimensional plane-strain numerical procedure based on the incremental-iterative nonlinear finite-element is developed to predict ground subsidence caused by underground mining. The procedure emphasizes the use of the following features: (1) an appropriate constitutive model that can accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of geological strata; and (2) an accurate algorithm for simulation of excavation sequences consistent with the actual underground mining process. The computer code is used to analyze a collapse that occurred in the Blue Goose Lease [number sign]1 Mine in northeastern Oklahoma. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of some selected factors on the shape and extent of subsidence profiles. Analyses of the numerical results indicate that the nonlinear finite-element technique can be employed to meaningfully predict and characterize the potential for ground subsidence due to underground mining.

  15. Finite element thermo-viscoplastic analysis of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Thornton, Earl A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent thermo-viscoplastic response of aerospace structures subjected to intense aerothermal loads is predicted using the finite-element method. The finite-element analysis uses the Bodner-Partom unified viscoplastic constitutive relations to determine rate-dependent nonlinear material behavior. The methodology is verified by comparison with experimental data and other numerical results for a uniaxially-loaded bar. The method is then used (1) to predict the structural response of a rectangular plate subjected to line heating along a centerline, and (2) to predict the thermal-structural response of a convectively-cooled engine cowl leading edge subjected to aerodynamic shock-shock interference heating. Compared to linear elastic analysis, the viscoplastic analysis results in lower peak stresses and regions of plastic deformations.

  16. Total quality management of forged products through finite element simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, U.; Rachakonda, S.; Chandrasekharan, S.

    The paper reviews the entire thermo-mechanical history experienced by a complex shaped, high strength forged part during all stages of its manufacturing process, i.e. forging, heat treatment, and machining. It examines the current practice of selecting the process parameters using finite element simulation of forging and quenching operations on an individual basis. Some recent work related to the simulation of aging and machining operations is summarized. The capabilities of several well-known finite element codes for these individual simulations are compared. Then, an integrated simulation approach is presented which will permit the optimization of process parameters for all operations, as opposed to a single operation. This approach will ensure a total quality management of forged products by avoiding costly problems which, under the current practice, are detected only at the end of the manufacturing cycle, i.e. after final machining.

  17. Design Optimization of Coronary Stent Based on Finite Element Models

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Tianshuang; Zhu, Bao; Wu, Jinying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an effective optimization method using the Kriging surrogate model combing with modified rectangular grid sampling to reduce the stent dogboning effect in the expansion process. An infilling sampling criterion named expected improvement (EI) is used to balance local and global searches in the optimization iteration. Four commonly used finite element models of stent dilation were used to investigate stent dogboning rate. Thrombosis models of three typical shapes are built to test the effectiveness of optimization results. Numerical results show that two finite element models dilated by pressure applied inside the balloon are available, one of which with the artery and plaque can give an optimal stent with better expansion behavior, while the artery and plaque unincluded model is more efficient and takes a smaller amount of computation. PMID:24222743

  18. Weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.

  19. Pavement nondestructive evaluation using finite-element dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, W.; Hackett, R. M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the nondestructive evaluation devices, visual distress survey and coring used to investigate jointed concrete pavement performance in northern Mississippi. 3D finite-element models were developed to simulate in-service conditions and to characterize in-situ material properties. Reasonable good agreement is found between in-situ moduli backcalculated from the dynamic analysis of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflections measured on selected pavements and laboratory moduli. Effects of load pulse shape, cracking, and discontinuities on the surface deflection response of pavements subjected to FWD load wee also investigated. It is shown that 3D analysis of temperature distribution and resulting thermal stresses play a significant role int he performance of concrete pavements. The study results demonstrated the extensive usefulness of the finite-element dynamic analysis and limitations of the static multilayered analysis and other pavement analysis programs which do not allow for crack modeling and dynamic analysis.

  20. Cyclic creep analysis from elastic finite-element solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.; Hwang, S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A uniaxial approach was developed for calculating cyclic creep and stress relaxation at the critical location of a structure subjected to cyclic thermomechanical loading. This approach was incorporated into a simplified analytical procedure for predicting the stress-strain history at a crack initiation site for life prediction purposes. An elastic finite-element solution for the problem was used as input for the simplified procedure. The creep analysis includes a self-adaptive time incrementing scheme. Cumulative creep is the sum of the initial creep, the recovery from the stress relaxation and the incremental creep. The simplified analysis was exercised for four cases involving a benchmark notched plate problem. Comparisons were made with elastic-plastic-creep solutions for these cases using the MARC nonlinear finite-element computer code.

  1. A fast hidden line algorithm for plotting finite element models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Effective plotting of finite element models requires the use of fast hidden line plot techniques that provide interactive response. A high speed hidden line technique was developed to facilitate the plotting of NASTRAN finite element models. Based on testing using 14 different models, the new hidden line algorithm (JONES-D) appears to be very fast: its speed equals that for normal (all lines visible) plotting and when compared to other existing methods it appears to be substantially faster. It also appears to be very reliable: no plot errors were observed using the new method to plot NASTRAN models. The new algorithm was made part of the NPLOT NASTRAN plot package and was used by structural analysts for normal production tasks.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Extrusion of Multifilamentary Superconductor Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, X.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.

    2004-06-28

    The extrusion of multifilamentary superconductor precursor billets has been modeled using finite element analysis. The billet configuration was 6 around 1, with the subelement consisting of Nb rods, and the outer can or sleeve was Cu. Two general cases were investigated, those in which the re-stack rods were initially; (i) round, and (ii) hexed. A thermo-mechanical, elasto-plastic, finite-element method was used to analyze the extrusion process. In this 3D FEM model, the initial state of the billet was assumed to be absent of bonding. A typical die angle (2{alpha}=45 deg.) and a series of extrusion ratios were selected to perform the simulation and the corresponding stress and strain distributions of the two billet variants processed were compared. Based on the stress and deformation created at the rod/rod and rod/sleeve interfaces, the bonding conditions generated through the extrusion were investigated.

  3. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  4. FEHM: finite element heat and mass transfer code

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, G.; Dash, Z.; Kelkar, S.

    1988-03-01

    The finite element heat and mass (FEHM) transfer code is a computer code developed to simulate geothermal and hot dry rock reservoirs. It is also applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and ground-water flow. It solves the equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media using the finite element method. The code also has provisions for a noncoupled tracer; that is, the tracer solutions do not affect the heat and mass transfer solutions. It can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. A summary of the equations in the model, the numerical solution procedure, and model verification and validation are provided in this report. A user's guide and sample problems are included in the appendices. 17 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. An emulator for minimizing computer resources for finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, R.; Utku, S.; Islam, M.; Salama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A computer code, SCOPE, has been developed for predicting the computer resources required for a given analysis code, computer hardware, and structural problem. The cost of running the code is a small fraction (about 3 percent) of the cost of performing the actual analysis. However, its accuracy in predicting the CPU and I/O resources depends intrinsically on the accuracy of calibration data that must be developed once for the computer hardware and the finite element analysis code of interest. Testing of the SCOPE code on the AMDAHL 470 V/8 computer and the ELAS finite element analysis program indicated small I/O errors (3.2 percent), larger CPU errors (17.8 percent), and negligible total errors (1.5 percent).

  6. Finite element methods for integrated aerodynamic heating analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peraire, J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past few years finite element based procedures for the solution of high speed viscous compressible flows were developed. The objective of this research is to build upon the finite element concepts which have already been demonstrated and to develop these ideas to produce a method which is applicable to the solution of large scale practical problems. The problems of interest range from three dimensional full vehicle Euler simulations to local analysis of three-dimensional viscous laminar flow. Transient Euler flow simulations involving moving bodies are also to be included. An important feature of the research is to be the coupling of the flow solution methods with thermal/structural modeling techniques to provide an integrated fluid/thermal/structural modeling capability. The progress made towards achieving these goals during the first twelve month period of the research is presented.

  7. Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.

  8. A finite element model for residual stress in repair welds

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Z.; Wang, X.L.; Spooner, S.; Goodwin, G.M.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Zacharia, T.

    1996-03-28

    This paper describes a three-dimensional finite element model for calculation of the residual stress distribution caused by repair welding. Special user subroutines were developed to simulate the continuous deposition of filler metal during welding. The model was then tested by simulating the residual stress/strain field of a FeAl weld overlay clad on a 2{1/4}Cr-1 Mo steel plate, for which neutron diffraction measurement data of the residual strain field were available. It is shown that the calculated residual stress distribution was consistent with that determined with neutron diffraction. High tensile residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transverse directions were observed around the weld toe at the end of the weld. The strong spatial dependency of the residual stresses in the region around the weld demonstrates that the common two-dimensional cross-section finite element models should not be used for repair welding analysis.

  9. Recent finite element studies in plasticity and fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.; Mcmeeking, R. M.; Parks, D. M.; Sorensen, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews recent work on fundamentals of elastic-plastic finite-element analysis and its applications to the mechanics of crack opening and growth in ductile solids. The presentation begins with a precise formulation of incremental equilibrium equations and their finite-element forms in a manner valid for deformations of arbitrary magnitude. Special features of computational procedures are outlined for accuracy in view of the near-incompressibility of elastic-plastic response. Applications to crack mechanics include the analysis of large plastic deformations at a progressively opening crack tip, the determination of J integral values and of limitations to J characterizations of the intensity of the crack tip field, and the determination of crack tip fields in stable crack growth.

  10. Finite element dynamic analysis of finite beams on a bilinear foundation under a moving load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Jorge, P.; Pinto da Costa, A.; Simões, F. M. F.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper is concerned with the behaviour of finite elastic beams, acted by a moving transverse concentrated load, interacting with elastic foundations of different stiffnesses in compression and in tension. Using finite element analyses, the displacement amplitudes and the critical velocities of the load on a UIC-60 rail are computed and their dependence with respect to the difference between the foundation's moduli in compression and in tension is evaluated. The limit case of a tensionless foundation is as well analyzed. The numerical algorithm relies on the internal force vectors and tangent stiffness matrices computed exactly with automatic symbolic manipulation.

  11. An hybrid finite volume finite element method for variable density incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calgaro, Caterina; Creusé, Emmanuel; Goudon, Thierry

    2008-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of variable density incompressible flows, modeled by the Navier-Stokes system. We introduce an hybrid scheme which combines a finite volume approach for treating the mass conservation equation and a finite element method to deal with the momentum equation and the divergence free constraint. The breakthrough relies on the definition of a suitable footbridge between the two methods, through the design of compatibility condition. In turn, the method is very flexible and allows to deal with unstructured meshes. Several numerical tests are performed to show the scheme capabilities. In particular, the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability evolution is carefully investigated.

  12. A comparison of the finite difference and finite element methods for heat transfer calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, A. F.; Mortazavi, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The finite difference method and finite element method for heat transfer calculations are compared by describing their bases and their application to some common heat transfer problems. In general it is noted that neither method is clearly superior, and in many instances, the choice is quite arbitrary and depends more upon the codes available and upon the personal preference of the analyst than upon any well defined advantages of one method. Classes of problems for which one method or the other is better suited are defined.

  13. Elastoplastic notch root strains - Measurements versus finite-element predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tregoning, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A study intended to experimentally and computationally probe the nature of the elastoplastic strain fields created by notches with various levels of constraint is presented. An interferometric strain/displacement gage is used to measure both the axial and lateral strain at the center of a machined and polished notch. The monotonic response of various notches is determined using 3D finite-element calculations.

  14. Building Finite Element Models to Investigate Zebrafish Jaw Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Lucy H.; Roddy, Karen A.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal morphogenesis occurs through tightly regulated cell behaviors during development; many cell types alter their behavior in response to mechanical strain. Skeletal joints are subjected to dynamic mechanical loading. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational method, frequently used in engineering that can predict how a material or structure will respond to mechanical input. By dividing a whole system (in this case the zebrafish jaw skeleton) into a mesh of smaller 'finite elements', FEA can be used to calculate the mechanical response of the structure to external loads. The results can be visualized in many ways including as a 'heat map' showing the position of maximum and minimum principal strains (a positive principal strain indicates tension while a negative indicates compression. The maximum and minimum refer the largest and smallest strain). These can be used to identify which regions of the jaw and therefore which cells are likely to be under particularly high tensional or compressional loads during jaw movement and can therefore be used to identify relationships between mechanical strain and cell behavior. This protocol describes the steps to generate Finite Element models from confocal image data on the musculoskeletal system, using the zebrafish lower jaw as a practical example. The protocol leads the reader through a series of steps: 1) staining of the musculoskeletal components, 2) imaging the musculoskeletal components, 3) building a 3 dimensional (3D) surface, 4) generating a mesh of Finite Elements, 5) solving the FEA and finally 6) validating the results by comparison to real displacements seen in movements of the fish jaw. PMID:28060270

  15. Finite element method - A companion in experimental mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    The hybrid experimental-numerical procedure for structural analysis is described by its applications in fracture mechanics. The procedure was first verified by the excellent agreements between the dynamic stress intensity factors obtained directly by dynamic photoelasticity and those generated by the hybrid procedure where a dynamic finite element code was executed in its generation mode. The hybrid procedure was then used to determine the dynamic fracture toughness of reaction bonded silicon nitride.

  16. Finite Element Modeling of Intermuscular Interactions and Myofascial Force Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    modeling study aims at providing such analysis of local strain to enhance understanding of this concept. II. METHODOLOGY A 3D-finite element muscle model...is used for the analysis and presentation of the results. In the present study, using the same methods, a model representing whole EDL isolated from...to as lengthened muscle) was lengthened from this low length up to 1.5 mm over the original length (Fig. 1). Throughout the analysis , both modeled

  17. An interactive virtual environment for finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, S.; Canfield, T.; Kokinis, J.; Disz, T.

    1995-06-01

    Virtual environments (VE) provide a powerful human-computer interface that opens the door to exciting new methods of interaction with high-performance computing applications in several areas of research. The authors are interested in the use of virtual environments as a user interface to real-time simulations used in rapid prototyping procedures. Consequently, the authors are developing methods for coupling finite element models of complex mechanical systems with a VE interface for real-time interaction.

  18. Least-squares finite element method for fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of new developments of the least squares finite element method (LSFEM) in fluid dynamics. Special emphasis is placed on the universality of LSFEM; the symmetry and positiveness of the algebraic systems obtained from LSFEM; the accommodation of LSFEM to equal order interpolations for incompressible viscous flows; and the natural numerical dissipation of LSFEM for convective transport problems and high speed compressible flows. The performance of LSFEM is illustrated by numerical examples.

  19. An Efficient Vector Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, A C; White, D A; Rodrigue, G H

    2006-06-27

    We have developed a mixed Vector Finite Element Method (VFEM) for Maxwell's equations with a nonlinear polarization term. The method allows for discretization of complicated geometries with arbitrary order representations of the B and E fields. In this paper we will describe the method and a series of optimizations that significantly reduce the computational cost. Additionally, a series of test simulations will be presented to validate the method. Finally, a nonlinear waveguide mode mixing example is presented and discussed.

  20. Stability and Convergence of Underintegrated Finite Element Approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of underintegration on the numerical stability and convergence characteristics of certain classes of finite element approximations were analyzed. Particular attention is given to hourglassing instabilities that arise from underintegrating the stiffness matrix entries and checkerboard instabilities that arise from underintegrating constrain terms such as those arising from incompressibility conditions. A fundamental result reported here is the proof that the fully integrated stiffness is restored in some cases through a post-processing operation.

  1. Validated finite element analysis of the maverick total disc prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Le Huec, Jean-Charles; Lafage, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Lavaste, François; Josse, Loic; Liu, Minglyan; Skalli, Wafa

    2010-06-01

    Combining in vitro tests and finite element analysis to provide a more complete picture of the role that a disc prosthesis implant would play in the biomechanics of the spine. Analysis of the disc function after total disc prosthesis insertion with and without antero-posterior or lateral offset and in combination with adjacent fusion. To avoid the risk of degenerative cascade the total disc replacement may be considered as an alternative. Few finite element analysis combined with cadaver testing under loading conditions have been published today. In vitro tests were performed using 6 fresh human cadaver specimens to quantify the load-displacement behaviors before and after insertion of a total disc replacement (Maverick, Memphis) implant. A finite element (FE) spine model was validated with the data from the in vitro tests. This model is built on the basis of ANSYS software. The effect of the prosthesis positioning on the motion behavior at L4-L5 and on the inner loads over facets was evaluated in 4 configurations. The study showed that the motion behavior at the levels adjacent to the Maverick prosthesis remained the same as the intact spine, unlike a single level fusion at L5-S1. In the biomechanical study settings, Maverick prosthesis, once properly positioned, does not modify the motion behavior of the spine as compared with its intact state. The less-than-ideal positioning of the prosthesis, especially with anterior offset, affect significantly the range of motion of the spine segment and cause increase of inner load in the facets. Those results indicated a good reliability of the finite element model in representing both intact and instrumented spine segments. The in vitro test results demonstrated that Maverick disc prosthesis provides near physiologic function of a natural disc restores stability of the spine and preserves the segmental motion without undue stress on adjacent segments.To our knowledge, this study suggested for the first time the importance

  2. Finite Element Modeling of Tire-Terrain Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    cent advancements in the contact formulations of general-purpose finite element codes (e.g. ABAQUS , HKS 1998) and increases in computer processing...are based on the models as implemented in ABAQUS (HKS 1998). Additional information on soil plasticity and critical state soil mechanics is given...snow interaction, however, the model must simulate snow deformation in a three-dimensional stress field. Initial simulations using the ABAQUS

  3. A verification procedure for MSC/NASTRAN Finite Element Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, Alan E.

    1995-01-01

    Finite Element Models (FEM's) are used in the design and analysis of aircraft to mathematically describe the airframe structure for such diverse tasks as flutter analysis and actively controlled landing gear design. FEM's are used to model the entire airplane as well as airframe components. The purpose of this document is to describe recommended methods for verifying the quality of the FEM's and to specify a step-by-step procedure for implementing the methods.

  4. A Decoupled Finite Element Heterogeneous Coarse Mesh Transport Method.

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, S. W.; Rahnema, Farzad

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper, an original finite element (FE) method was presented for solving eigenvalue transport problems on a coarse spatial mesh. The method employed a surface Green's function expansion of the angular flux trial functions, so that heterogeneous coarse-meshes could be treated with relative ease. Numerical problems were solved using the multigroup discrete ordinates approximation in one-dimensional (1-D) slab geometry. Unfortunately, difficulties were encountered in finding solutions to the algebraic finite element equations, which led to sizeable angular flux discontinuities at coarse-mesh interfaces and significant errors. For this reason, a nonvariational iterative technique was ultimately favored for converging the angular flux distribution, and was used in conjunction with a Rayleigh quotient for converging the eigenvalue. In this paper, a new derivation of finite element equations is presented, which seems to offer a remedy for at least some of the numerical ills that plagued the previous work. First, the equations are derived in terms of a generalized response function expansion. This allows a more efficient response basis to be employed and vastly reduces the overall computational effort without a substantial loss of accuracy. Second, the tight coupling between coarse-meshes in the original equations is effectively broken by assuming that an accurate estimate of the flux distribution entering a given coarse-mesh is known. With an additional assumption that an accurate eigenvalue estimate is known, an iterative approach to solving these decoupled finite element (DFE) equations is developed. The DFE method has been applied to both 1- and 2-D heterogeneous coarse-mesh problems with a far greater degree of success than the original FE method. However, some numerical difficulties remain to be overcome before the new approach can be considered robust.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Cross-Wedge Rolling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Dinh Van; Ngung, Dao Minh; Giang, Nguyen Trong

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a non-isothermal simulation model for flat-wedged cross-wedge rolling (CWR) to fabricate a bullet was presented by using three-dimensional thermo-rigid-plastic finite element method (FEM). Both deformation behavior and heat transfer of the process were taken into account. Based on the simulation results, the distributions of temperature, stress, strain areas were analyzed. These results could provide theoretical guidance for net shape and reasonable design of tools.

  6. Piezoelectric theory for finite element analysis of ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, J.D.; Mentesana, C.P.

    1997-06-01

    The authors present the fundamental equations of piezoelectricity and references. They show how a second form of the equations and a second set of coefficients can be found, through inversions involving the elasticity tensor. They show how to compute the clamped permittivity matrix from the unclamped matrix. The authors list the program pzansys.ftn and present examples of its use. This program does the conversions and calculations needed by the finite element program ANSYS.

  7. Better Finite-Element Analysis of Composite Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A computer program implements a finite-element-based method of predicting the deformations of thin aerospace structures made of isotropic materials or anisotropic fiber-reinforced composite materials. The technique and corresponding software are applicable to thin shell structures in general and are particularly useful for analysis of thin beamlike members having open cross-sections (e.g. I-beams and C-channels) in which significant warping can occur.

  8. Stochastic finite element applications in rigid pavement performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh-Okine, Nii O.

    1999-05-01

    Rigid pavement structures have uncertainties and variability in their structural layers and components. These variations and uncertainties are seldomly included in performance assessment and evaluation in pavement systems. This paper proposes to use Stochastic Finite Element Method (SFEM) in rigid pavement faulting and load transfer efficiency. The SFEM uses random parameters, as stochastic process namely random fields. These random fields are characterized, quantitatively by spatial functions of statistical moment like the mean, variance and covariance.

  9. Inversion method of seismic forces at fault using finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Xie, Z.; Geng, W.; Cai, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Fault slip inversion using seismic dislocation model has been discussed a lot. In this model, seismogenic fault is considered as an interface. However, geological surveys and seismic channel waves reveal that the fault usually possesses thickness. Rock compression tests also show that micro-cracks develop into a belt in which shear fracture plane takes place. Therefore, to simulate the fault as a narrow belt may be more reasonable to reflect mechanical behavior of earthquake source. This study proposes a method to inverse seismic forces at the fault with thickness. The fault is modeled by transversely isotropic material. Three-dimensional finite element models (FEMs) is used to calculate numerical Green's functions for displacements. The Green's functions are generated by imposing unit couples directly to the node pairs at the fault instead of dislocation. The unit couples are added separately in x, y, z directions of the finite element global coordinate system. A pure thrust earthquake is modeled by reducing shear modulus under tectonic stress field. Selected surface displacements induced by this earthquake are used as 'observation data' of the inversion. We combine numerical Green's functions with standard linear inverse methods with Laplace smoothing constraints to estimate seismic forces at the fault. The earthquake which is simulated by damage of shear modulus has the fault model with transversely isotropic material, therefore there exist no normal forces. When the fault material is isotropic and the earthquake is caused by the reduction of shear or Young's modulus, there are normal forces at the fault. This study shows that we can directly inverse three-dimensional seismic forces with the surface deformation caused by earthquakes. This method is feasible for heterogeneous materials and complicated geometry model. [1] Xie, Zhoumin, Inversion method of seismic stress drop by finite element scheme, Doctor Thesis, Peking University, 2013. [2] Hu, C., Zhou, Y

  10. High speed inviscid compressible flow by the finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zienkiewicz, O. C.; Loehner, R.; Morgan, K.

    1984-01-01

    The finite element method and an explicit time stepping algorithm which is based on Taylor-Galerkin schemes with an appropriate artificial viscosity is combined with an automatic mesh refinement process which is designed to produce accurate steady state solutions to problems of inviscid compressible flow in two dimensions. The results of two test problems are included which demonstrate the excellent performance characteristics of the proposed procedures.

  11. Finite element method - A companion in experimental mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    The hybrid experimental-numerical procedure for structural analysis is described by its applications in fracture mechanics. The procedure was first verified by the excellent agreements between the dynamic stress intensity factors obtained directly by dynamic photoelasticity and those generated by the hybrid procedure where a dynamic finite element code was executed in its generation mode. The hybrid procedure was then used to determine the dynamic fracture toughness of reaction bonded silicon nitride.

  12. Application of Finite Element Method to Analyze Inflatable Waveguide Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine propagation characteristics of deformed inflatable rectangular waveguide. Various deformations that might be present in an inflatable waveguide are analyzed using the FEM. The FEM procedure and the code developed here are so general that they can be used for any other deformations that are not considered in this report. The code is validated by applying the present code to rectangular waveguide without any deformations and comparing the numerical results with earlier published results.

  13. Finite element analysis of a deployable space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutton, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the dynamic characteristics of a deployable space truss, a finite element model of the Scientific Applications Space Platform (SASP) truss has been formulated. The model incorporates all additional degrees of freedom associated with the pin-jointed members. Comparison of results with SPAR models of the truss show that the joints of the deployable truss significantly affect the vibrational modes of the structure only if the truss is relatively short.

  14. Finite Element Modeling and Exploration of Double Hearing Protection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-10

    broad frequency range were determined from this method. The elastomeric rubber material was cut into small wafers of 2 to 5mm thickness. A mass was... material (being 0.1 for soft elastomeric foams), G and E are the shear and elastic moduli of the material , respectively, D is the diameter of the...and to investigate the behavior of the modeled system. The foam earplug material properties for the finite element model are required in the same shear

  15. Material nonlinear analysis via mixed-iterative finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors are tested using 4-node quadrilateral finite elements. The membrane result is excellent, which indicates the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate. On the other hand, further research to improve bending performance of the method seems to be warranted.

  16. Faster, Easier Finite-Element Modeling Of Weld Offsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, C. Chen; Lichwala, Bradley E.

    1993-01-01

    In faster, easier technique, material in weld zone fictitiously softened to negligibly low modulus of elasticity, and material considered deformed to specified offset. Displacements caused by deformation computed by analysis of static stresses and strains in fictitiously deformed material, using specified offset as displacement boundary condition. Resulting displacements added to coordinates of corresponding nodes of original (nonoffset) mathematical model of welded part. Technique used to modify large finite-element mathematical model to any desired weld offset configuration in short time.

  17. [Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis].

    PubMed

    Puskar, Tatjana; Vasiljević, Darko; Marković, Dubravka; Jevremović, Danimir; Pantelić, Dejan; Savić-Sević, Svetlana; Murić, Branka

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects) in programmes for solid modeling. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analysing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body) into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,...). Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  18. GRIZ. Finite Element Results Visualization for Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Dovey, D.; Spelce, T.E.; Christon, M.A.

    1996-03-01

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application supporting interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. In addition to basic pseudocolor renderings of state variables over the mesh surface, GRIZ provides modern visualization techniques such as isocontours and isosurfaces, cutting planes, vector field display, and particle traces. GRIZ accepts both command-line and mouse-driven input, and is portable to virtually any UNIX platform which provides Motif and OpenGl libraries.

  19. Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.

  20. Quality Assessment and Control of Finite Element Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    solutions. However, some special-purpose and pilot finite element systems have implemented adaptive algorithms 17 p." for practical performance studies ...simulator (SAFES code) developed at the University of Wyoming (Ref. 148); and the PROBE system developed by NOETIC Technologies Corporation in St. Louis (Ref...displacements. Recent studies have demonstrated that the accuracy and rate of convergence of stresses (and strains) r. depend on how (and where) they

  1. Transient Finite Element Computations on a Variable Transputer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolinski, Patrick J.; Lapczyk, Ireneusz

    1993-01-01

    A parallel program to analyze transient finite element problems was written and implemented on a system of transputer processors. The program uses the explicit time integration algorithm which eliminates the need for equation solving, making it more suitable for parallel computations. An interprocessor communication scheme was developed for arbitrary two dimensional grid processor configurations. Several 3-D problems were analyzed on a system with a small number of processors.

  2. Parallel finite element simulation of large ram-air parachutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalro, V.; Aliabadi, S.; Garrard, W.; Tezduyar, T.; Mittal, S.; Stein, K.

    1997-06-01

    In the near future, large ram-air parachutes are expected to provide the capability of delivering 21 ton payloads from altitudes as high as 25,000 ft. In development and test and evaluation of these parachutes the size of the parachute needed and the deployment stages involved make high-performance computing (HPC) simulations a desirable alternative to costly airdrop tests. Although computational simulations based on realistic, 3D, time-dependent models will continue to be a major computational challenge, advanced finite element simulation techniques recently developed for this purpose and the execution of these techniques on HPC platforms are significant steps in the direction to meet this challenge. In this paper, two approaches for analysis of the inflation and gliding of ram-air parachutes are presented. In one of the approaches the point mass flight mechanics equations are solved with the time-varying drag and lift areas obtained from empirical data. This approach is limited to parachutes with similar configurations to those for which data are available. The other approach is 3D finite element computations based on the Navier-Stokes equations governing the airflow around the parachute canopy and Newtons law of motion governing the 3D dynamics of the canopy, with the forces acting on the canopy calculated from the simulated flow field. At the earlier stages of canopy inflation the parachute is modelled as an expanding box, whereas at the later stages, as it expands, the box transforms to a parafoil and glides. These finite element computations are carried out on the massively parallel supercomputers CRAY T3D and Thinking Machines CM-5, typically with millions of coupled, non-linear finite element equations solved simultaneously at every time step or pseudo-time step of the simulation.

  3. PC Windows finite element modeling of landfill gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, S.R.; Lang, R.J.; Vigil, S.A.; Cota, H.

    1996-09-01

    A two dimensional demonstration program, GAS, has been developed for the solution of landfill gas (LFG) flow problems on a personal computer (PC). The program combines a Windows{trademark} graphical user interface, object oriented programming (OOP) techniques, and finite element modeling (FEM) to demonstrate the practicality of performing LFG flow modeling on the PC. GAS is demonstrated on a sample LFG problem consisting of a landfill, one gas extraction well, the landfill liner, cap, and surrounding soil. Analyses of the program results are performed for successively finer grid resolutions. Element flux imbalance, execution time, and required memory are characterized as a function of grid resolution.

  4. Acceleration of low order finite element computation with GPUs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepley, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Considerable effort has been focused on the acceleration using GPUs of high order spectral element methods and discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. However, these methods are not universally applicable, and much of the existing FEM software base employs low order methods. In this talk, we present a formulation of FEM, using the PETSc framework from ANL, which is amenable to GPU acceleration even at very low order. In addition, using the FEniCS system for FEM, we show that the relevant kernels can be automatically generated and optimized using a symbolic manipulation system.

  5. GPU accelerated spectral finite elements on all-hex meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remacle, J.-F.; Gandham, R.; Warburton, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a spectral element finite element scheme that efficiently solves elliptic problems on unstructured hexahedral meshes. The discrete equations are solved using a matrix-free preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. An additive Schwartz two-scale preconditioner is employed that allows h-independence convergence. An extensible multi-threading programming API is used as a common kernel language that allows runtime selection of different computing devices (GPU and CPU) and different threading interfaces (CUDA, OpenCL and OpenMP). Performance tests demonstrate that problems with over 50 million degrees of freedom can be solved in a few seconds on an off-the-shelf GPU.

  6. Periodic Boundary Conditions in the ALEGRA Finite Element Code

    SciTech Connect

    AIDUN,JOHN B.; ROBINSON,ALLEN C.; WEATHERBY,JOE R.

    1999-11-01

    This document describes the implementation of periodic boundary conditions in the ALEGRA finite element code. ALEGRA is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian multi-physics code with both explicit and implicit numerical algorithms. The periodic boundary implementation requires a consistent set of boundary input sets which are used to describe virtual periodic regions. The implementation is noninvasive to the majority of the ALEGRA coding and is based on the distributed memory parallel framework in ALEGRA. The technique involves extending the ghost element concept for interprocessor boundary communications in ALEGRA to additionally support on- and off-processor periodic boundary communications. The user interface, algorithmic details and sample computations are given.

  7. Interactive Finite Elements for General Engine Dynamics Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, M. L.; Padovan, J.; Fertis, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    General nonlinear finite element codes were adapted for the purpose of analyzing the dynamics of gas turbine engines. In particular, this adaptation required the development of a squeeze-film damper element software package and its implantation into a representative current generation code. The ADINA code was selected because of prior use of it and familiarity with its internal structure and logic. This objective was met and the results indicate that such use of general purpose codes is viable alternative to specialized codes for general dynamics analysis of engines.

  8. Finite element model for brittle fracture and fragmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Wei; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin; ...

    2016-06-01

    A new computational model for brittle fracture and fragmentation has been developed based on finite element analysis of non-linear elasticity equations. The proposed model propagates the cracks by splitting the mesh nodes alongside the most over-strained edges based on the principal direction of strain tensor. To prevent elements from overlapping and folding under large deformations, robust geometrical constraints using the method of Lagrange multipliers have been incorporated. In conclusion, the model has been applied to 2D simulations of the formation and propagation of cracks in brittle materials, and the fracture and fragmentation of stretched and compressed materials.

  9. Finite Element Method for Thermal Analysis. [with computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heuser, J.

    1973-01-01

    A two- and three-dimensional, finite-element thermal-analysis program which handles conduction with internal heat generation, convection, radiation, specified flux, and specified temperature boundary conditions is presented. Elements used in the program are the triangle and tetrahedron for two- and three-dimensional analysis, respectively. The theory used in the program is developed, and several sample problems demonstrating the capability and reliability of the program are presented. A guide to using the program, description of the input cards, and program listing are included.

  10. Recent advances in hybrid/mixed finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    In formulations of Hybrid/Mixed finite element methods respectively by the Hellinger-Reissner principle and the Hu-Washizu principle, the stress equilibrium equations are brought in as conditions of constraint through the introduction of additional internal displacement parameters. These two approaches are more flexible and have better computing efficiencies. A procedure for the choice of assumed stress terms for 3-D solids is suggested. Example solutions are given for plates and shells using the present formulations and the idea of semiloof elements.

  11. Finite element model for brittle fracture and fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei; Delaney, Tristan J.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Samulyak, Roman; Lu, Cao

    2016-06-01

    A new computational model for brittle fracture and fragmentation has been developed based on finite element analysis of non-linear elasticity equations. The proposed model propagates the cracks by splitting the mesh nodes alongside the most over-strained edges based on the principal direction of strain tensor. To prevent elements from overlapping and folding under large deformations, robust geometrical constraints using the method of Lagrange multipliers have been incorporated. In conclusion, the model has been applied to 2D simulations of the formation and propagation of cracks in brittle materials, and the fracture and fragmentation of stretched and compressed materials.

  12. Analysis of random structure-acoustic interaction problems using coupled boundary element and finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Pates, Carl S., III

    1994-01-01

    A coupled boundary element (BEM)-finite element (FEM) approach is presented to accurately model structure-acoustic interaction systems. The boundary element method is first applied to interior, two and three-dimensional acoustic domains with complex geometry configurations. Boundary element results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structure-interaction problems are then analyzed with the coupled FEM-BEM method, where the finite element method models the structure and the boundary element method models the interior acoustic domain. The coupled analysis is compared with exact and experimental results for a simplistic model. Composite panels are analyzed and compared with isotropic results. The coupled method is then extended for random excitation. Random excitation results are compared with uncoupled results for isotropic and composite panels.

  13. Comparison of boundary element and finite element methods in spur gear root stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, H.; Mavriplis, D.; Huston, R. L.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is used to compute fillet stress concentration in spur gear teeth. The results are shown to compare favorably with analogous results obtained using the finite element method (FEM). A partially supported thin rim gear is studied. The loading is applied at the pitch point. A three-dimensional analysis is conducted using both the BEM and FEM (NASTRAN). The results are also compared with those of a two-dimensional finite element model. An advantage of the BEM over the FEM is that fewer elements are needed with the BEM. Indeed, in the current study the BEM used 92 elements and 270 nodes whereas the FEM used 320 elements and 2037 nodes. Moreover, since the BEM is especially useful in problems with high stress gradients it is potentially a very useful tool for fillet stress analyses.

  14. A Family of Uniform Strain Tetrahedral Elements and a Method for Connecting Dissimilar Finite Element Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents a collection of papers on a family of uniform strain tetrahedral finite elements and their connection to different element types. Also included in the report are two papers which address the general problem of connecting dissimilar meshes in two and three dimensions. Much of the work presented here was motivated by the development of the tetrahedral element described in the report "A Suitable Low-Order, Eight-Node Tetrahedral Finite Element For Solids," by S. W. Key {ital et al.}, SAND98-0756, March 1998. Two basic issues addressed by the papers are: (1) the performance of alternative tetrahedral elements with uniform strain and enhanced uniform strain formulations, and (2) the proper connection of tetrahedral and other element types when two meshes are "tied" together to represent a single continuous domain.

  15. Method to geometrically personalize a detailed finite-element model of the spine.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Nadine Michèle; Petit, Yvan; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Wagnac, Eric; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean

    2013-07-01

    To date, developing geometrically personalized and detailed solid finite-element models (FEMs) of the spine remains a challenge, notably due to multiple articulations and complex geometries. To answer this problem, a methodology based on a free-form deformation technique (kriging) was developed to deform a detailed reference finite-element mesh of the spine (including discs and ligaments) to the patient-specific geometry of 10- and 82-year-old asymptomatic spines. Different kriging configurations were tested: with or without smoothing, and control points on or surrounding the entire mesh. Based on the results, it is recommended to use surrounding control points and smoothing. The mean node to surface distance between the deformed and target geometries was 0.3±1.1 mm. Most elements met the mesh quality criteria (95%) after deformation, without interference at the articular facets. The method's novelty lies in the deformation of the entire spine at once, as opposed to deforming each vertebra separately, with surrounding control points and smoothing. This enables the transformation of reference vertebrae and soft tissues to obtain complete and personalized FEMs of the spine with minimal postprocessing to optimize the mesh.

  16. HYDRA, A finite element computational fluid dynamics code: User manual

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    HYDRA is a finite element code which has been developed specifically to attack the class of transient, incompressible, viscous, computational fluid dynamics problems which are predominant in the world which surrounds us. The goal for HYDRA has been to achieve high performance across a spectrum of supercomputer architectures without sacrificing any of the aspects of the finite element method which make it so flexible and permit application to a broad class of problems. As supercomputer algorithms evolve, the continuing development of HYDRA will strive to achieve optimal mappings of the most advanced flow solution algorithms onto supercomputer architectures. HYDRA has drawn upon the many years of finite element expertise constituted by DYNA3D and NIKE3D Certain key architectural ideas from both DYNA3D and NIKE3D have been adopted and further improved to fit the advanced dynamic memory management and data structures implemented in HYDRA. The philosophy for HYDRA is to focus on mapping flow algorithms to computer architectures to try and achieve a high level of performance, rather than just performing a port.

  17. 3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1999-02-01

    Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.

  18. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Methods Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. Conclusions From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test. PMID:21635759

  19. Process control of large-scale finite element simulation software

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, P.A.; Weingarten, L.I.; Schroder, K.; Tung, D.M.; Sheaffer, D.A.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a methodology for coupling large-scale numerical codes with process control algorithms. Closed-loop simulations were demonstrated using the Sandia-developed finite element thermal code TACO and the commercially available finite element thermal-mechanical code ABAQUS. This new capability enables us to use computational simulations for designing and prototyping advanced process-control systems. By testing control algorithms on simulators before building and testing hardware, enormous time and cost savings can be realized. The need for a closed-loop simulation capability was demonstrated in a detailed design study of a rapid-thermal-processing reactor under development by CVC Products Inc. Using a thermal model of the RTP system as a surrogate for the actual hardware, we were able to generate response data needed for controller design. We then evaluated the performance of both the controller design and the hardware design by using the controller to drive the finite element model. The controlled simulations provided data on wafer temperature uniformity as a function of ramp rate, temperature sensor locations, and controller gain. This information, which is critical to reactor design, cannot be obtained from typical open-loop simulations.

  20. Massively parallel finite element computation of three dimensional flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Mittal, S.

    1992-12-01

    The parallel finite element computation of three-dimensional compressible, and incompressible flows, with emphasis on the space-time formulations, mesh moving schemes and implementations on the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5 are presented. For computation of unsteady compressible and incompressible flows involving moving boundaries and interfaces, the Deformable-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized-Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation that previously developed are employed. In this approach, the stabilized finite element formulations of the governing equations are written over the space-time domain of the problem; therefore, the deformation of the spatial domain with respect to time is taken into account automatically. This approach gives the capability to solve a large class of problems involving free surfaces, moving interfaces, and fluid-structure and fluid-particle interactions. By using special mesh moving schemes, the frequency of remeshing is minimized to reduce the projection errors involved in remeshing and also to increase the parallelization ease of the computations. The implicit equation systems arising from the finite element discretizations are solved iteratively by using the GMRES update technique with the diagonal and nodal-block-diagonal preconditioners. These formulations have all been implemented on the CM-200 and CM-5, and have been applied to several large-scale problems. The three-dimensional problems in this report were all computed on the CM-200 and CM-5.

  1. A finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.; Nayani, S.

    1990-01-01

    Computation of the flow field inside a space shuttle main engine (SSME) requires the application of state of the art computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Several computer codes are under development to solve 3-D flow through the hot gas manifold. Some algorithms were designed to solve the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, either by implicit or explicit factorization methods, using several hundred or thousands of time steps to reach a steady state solution. A new iterative algorithm is being developed for the solution of the implicit finite element equations without assembling global matrices. It is an efficient iteration scheme based on a modified nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iteration with symmetric sweeps. The algorithm is analyzed for a model equation and is shown to be unconditionally stable. Results from a series of test problems are presented. The finite element code was tested for couette flow, which is flow under a pressure gradient between two parallel plates in relative motion. Another problem that was solved is viscous laminar flow over a flat plate. The general 3-D finite element code was used to compute the flow in an axisymmetric turnaround duct at low Mach numbers.

  2. Crystal level simulations using Eulerian finite element methods

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Barton, N R; Benson, D J

    2004-02-06

    Over the last several years, significant progress has been made in the use of crystal level material models in simulations of forming operations. However, in Lagrangian finite element approaches simulation capabilities are limited in many cases by mesh distortion associated with deformation heterogeneity. Contexts in which such large distortions arise include: bulk deformation to strains approaching or exceeding unity, especially in highly anisotropic or multiphase materials; shear band formation and intersection of shear bands; and indentation with sharp indenters. Investigators have in the past used Eulerian finite element methods with material response determined from crystal aggregates to study steady state forming processes. However, Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element methods have not been widely utilized for simulation of transient deformation processes at the crystal level. The advection schemes used in Eulerian and ALE codes control mesh distortion and allow for simulation of much larger total deformations. We will discuss material state representation issues related to advection and will present results from ALE simulations.

  3. Finite element solver for 3-D compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, K. C.; Reddy, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    The space shuttle main engine (SSME) has extremely complex internal flow structure. The geometry of the flow domain is three-dimensional with complicated topology. The flow is compressible, viscous, and turbulent with large gradients in flow quantities and regions of recirculations. The analysis of the flow field in SSME involves several tedious steps. One is the geometrical modeling of the particular zone of the SSME being studied. Accessing the geometry definition, digitalizing it, and developing surface interpolations suitable for an interior grid generator require considerable amount of manual labor. There are several types of grid generators available with some general-purpose finite element programs. An efficient and robust computational scheme for solving 3D Navier-Stokes equations has to be implemented. Post processing software has to be adapted to visualize and analyze the computed 3D flow field. The progress made in a project to develop software for the analysis of the flow is discussed. The technical approach to the development of the finite element scheme and the relaxation procedure are discussed. The three dimensional finite element code for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations is listed.

  4. Finite Element Modeling, Simulation, Tools, and Capabilities at Superform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Hari; Barnes, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    Over the past thirty years Superform has been a pioneer in the SPF arena, having developed a keen understanding of the process and a range of unique forming techniques to meet varying market needs. Superform’s high-profile list of customers includes Boeing, Airbus, Aston Martin, Ford, and Rolls Royce. One of the more recent additions to Superform’s technical know-how is finite element modeling and simulation. Finite element modeling is a powerful numerical technique which when applied to SPF provides a host of benefits including accurate prediction of strain levels in a part, presence of wrinkles and predicting pressure cycles optimized for time and part thickness. This paper outlines a brief history of finite element modeling applied to SPF and then reviews some of the modeling tools and techniques that Superform have applied and continue to do so to successfully superplastically form complex-shaped parts. The advantages of employing modeling at the design stage are discussed and illustrated with real-world examples.

  5. Nonlinear probabilistic finite element models of laminated composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic finite element analysis procedure for laminated composite shells has been developed. A total Lagrangian finite element formulation, employing a degenerated 3-D laminated composite shell with the full Green-Lagrange strains and first-order shear deformable kinematics, forms the modeling foundation. The first-order second-moment technique for probabilistic finite element analysis of random fields is employed and results are presented in the form of mean and variance of the structural response. The effects of material nonlinearity are included through the use of a rate-independent anisotropic plasticity formulation with the macroscopic point of view. Both ply-level and micromechanics-level random variables can be selected, the latter by means of the Aboudi micromechanics model. A number of sample problems are solved to verify the accuracy of the procedures developed and to quantify the variability of certain material type/structure combinations. Experimental data is compared in many cases, and the Monte Carlo simulation method is used to check the probabilistic results. In general, the procedure is quite effective in modeling the mean and variance response of the linear and nonlinear behavior of laminated composite shells.

  6. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Antonio; Iserte-Vilar, José L; González-Lluch, Carmen

    2011-06-02

    Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test.

  7. Finite element methods for the nonlinear motion of flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Victor P.

    Conventional strategies in aeroelasticity and flight dynamics for studying aircraft involve making broad assumptions based more on analytical or computational convenience rather than on physical reality. Typically in aeroelastic analyses, the study of the interaction between aircraft flexibility and aerodynamic forces, the aircraft or structural component in question is constrained in a way that is not representative of realistic flight conditions. In flight dynamics, the study of the maneuvering of aircraft, it is common to consider the vehicle as perfectly rigid. In both disciplines it is well known that such contrivances can produce incorrect results. To address these shortcomings, a finite element formulation is developed for analyzing the dynamics of flexible aircraft undergoing arbitrarily large rotation and translation. The formulation is derived in a set of body-attached axes, a frame of reference conducive to analyzing the motion and control of aircraft, and considers the structure as a whole. Several implementation issues are addressed and mitigated, including finite element interpolating functions, the use of eigenvectors as the basis for nonlinear deformation, inclusion of geometrically nonlinear effects in the strain energy, and enforcement of kinematic constraints. Numerical examples illustrate the capabilities of the latter two aspects, and a free-flying aeroelastic model problem demonstrates the overall potential of the proposed formulation. The development is approached in a general way so that the methodology can be applied to any structure that may be modeled by finite elements.

  8. Automated Finite Element Modeling of Wing Structures for Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Michael Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The displacement formulation of the finite element method is the most general and most widely used technique for structural analysis of airplane configurations. Modem structural synthesis techniques based on the finite element method have reached a certain maturity in recent years, and large airplane structures can now be optimized with respect to sizing type design variables for many load cases subject to a rich variety of constraints including stress, buckling, frequency, stiffness and aeroelastic constraints (Refs. 1-3). These structural synthesis capabilities use gradient based nonlinear programming techniques to search for improved designs. For these techniques to be practical a major improvement was required in computational cost of finite element analyses (needed repeatedly in the optimization process). Thus, associated with the progress in structural optimization, a new perspective of structural analysis has emerged, namely, structural analysis specialized for design optimization application, or.what is known as "design oriented structural analysis" (Ref. 4). This discipline includes approximation concepts and methods for obtaining behavior sensitivity information (Ref. 1), all needed to make the optimization of large structural systems (modeled by thousands of degrees of freedom and thousands of design variables) practical and cost effective.

  9. Finite-element time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milton, Kimball A.

    1995-01-01

    The finite-element approach to lattice field theory is both highly accurate (relative errors approximately 1/N(exp 2), where N is the number of lattice points) and exactly unitary (in the sense that canonical commutation relations are exactly preserved at the lattice sites). In this talk I construct matrix elements for dynamical variables and for the time evolution operator for the anharmonic oscillator, for which the continuum Hamiltonian is H = p(exp 2)/2 + lambda q(exp 4)/4. Construction of such matrix elements does not require solving the implicit equations of motion. Low order approximations turn out to be extremely accurate. For example, the matrix element of the time evolution operator in the harmonic oscillator ground state gives a results for the anharmonic oscillator ground state energy accurate to better than 1 percent, while a two-state approximation reduces the error to less than 0.1 percent.

  10. A hybrid-stress finite element for linear anisotropic elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fly, Gerald W.; Oden, J. Tinsley; Pearson, Mark L.

    1988-01-01

    Standard assumed displacement finite elements with anisotropic material properties perform poorly in complex stress fields such as combined bending and shear and combined bending and torsion. A set of three dimensional hybrid-stress brick elements were developed with fully anisotropic material properties. Both eight-node and twenty-node bricks were developed based on the symmetry group theory of Punch and Atluri. An eight-node brick was also developed using complete polynomials and stress basis functions and reducing the order of the resulting stress parameter matrix by applying equilibrium constraints and stress compatibility constraints. Here the stress compatibility constraints must be formulated assuming anisotropic material properties. The performance of these elements was examined in numerical examples covering a broad range of stress distributions. The stress predictions show significant improvement over the assumed displacement elements but the calculation time is increased.

  11. Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau

    2004-12-17

    The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.

  12. Evaluation of MHOST analysis capabilities for a plate element. [finite element modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Abumeri, Galib H.; Brown, Helen C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the evaluation of the static, buckling, and free vibration analyses capabilities of MHOST for the plate elements are presented. Two large scale, general purpose finite element codes (MARC and MSC/NASTRAN) are used to validate MHOST. Comparisons of MHOST results with those from MARC and MSC/NASTRAN show good agreement and indicate that MHOST can be used with confidence to perform the aforementioned analyses using the plate element.

  13. Beam and Truss Finite Element Verification for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, H J

    2007-07-16

    The explicit finite element (FE) software program DYNA3D has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to simulate the dynamic behavior of structures, systems, and components. This report focuses on verification of beam and truss element formulations in DYNA3D. An efficient protocol has been developed to verify the accuracy of these structural elements by generating a set of representative problems for which closed-form quasi-static steady-state analytical reference solutions exist. To provide as complete coverage as practically achievable, problem sets are developed for each beam and truss element formulation (and their variants) in all modes of loading and physical orientation. Analyses with loading in the elastic and elastic-plastic regimes are performed. For elastic loading, the FE results are within 1% of the reference solutions for all cases. For beam element bending and torsion loading in the plastic regime, the response is heavily dependent on the numerical integration rule chosen, with higher refinement yielding greater accuracy (agreement to within 1%). Axial loading in the plastic regime produces accurate results (agreement to within 0.01%) for all integration rules and element formulations. Truss elements are also verified to provide accurate results (within 0.01%) for elastic and elastic-plastic loading. A sample problem to verify beam element response in ParaDyn, the parallel version DYNA3D, is also presented.

  14. Finite volume and finite element methods applied to 3D laminar and turbulent channel flows

    SciTech Connect

    Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír; Sváček, Petr; Kozel, Karel

    2014-12-10

    The work deals with numerical simulations of incompressible flow in channels with rectangular cross section. The rectangular cross section itself leads to development of various secondary flow patterns, where accuracy of simulation is influenced by numerical viscosity of the scheme and by turbulence modeling. In this work some developments of stabilized finite element method are presented. Its results are compared with those of an implicit finite volume method also described, in laminar and turbulent flows. It is shown that numerical viscosity can cause errors of same magnitude as different turbulence models. The finite volume method is also applied to 3D turbulent flow around backward facing step and good agreement with 3D experimental results is obtained.

  15. A finite element boundary integral formulation for radiation and scattering by cavity antennas using tetrahedral elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, J.; Volakis, J. L.; Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid finite element boundary integral formulation is developed using tetrahedral and/or triangular elements for discretizing the cavity and/or aperture of microstrip antenna arrays. The tetrahedral elements with edge based linear expansion functions are chosen for modeling the volume region and triangular elements are used for discretizing the aperture. The edge based expansion functions are divergenceless thus removing the requirement to introduce a penalty term and the tetrahedral elements permit greater geometrical adaptability than the rectangular bricks. The underlying theory and resulting expressions are discussed in detail together with some numerical scattering examples for comparison and demonstration.

  16. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C S

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  17. Control volume finite element method with multidimensional edge element Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding. Part 1, formulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2011-06-01

    We develop a new formulation of the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM) with a multidimensional Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) upwinding for the drift-diffusion equations. The formulation uses standard nodal elements for the concentrations and expands the flux in terms of the lowest-order Nedelec H(curl; {Omega})-compatible finite element basis. The SG formula is applied to the edges of the elements to express the Nedelec element degree of freedom on this edge in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom associated with the endpoints of the edge. The resulting upwind flux incorporates the upwind effects from all edges and is defined at the interior of the element. This allows for accurate evaluation of integrals on the boundaries of the control volumes for arbitrary quadrilateral elements. The new formulation admits efficient implementation through a standard loop over the elements in the mesh followed by loops over the element nodes (associated with control volume fractions in the element) and element edges (associated with flux degrees of freedom). The quantities required for the SG formula can be precomputed and stored for each edge in the mesh for additional efficiency gains. For clarity the details are presented for two-dimensional quadrilateral grids. Extension to other element shapes and three dimensions is straightforward.

  18. A finite element simulation of sound attenuation in a finite duct with a peripherally variable liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Using multimodal analysis, a variational finite element method is presented for analyzing sound attenuation in a three-dimensional finite duct with a peripherally variable liner in the absence of flow. A rectangular element, with cubic shaped functions, is employed. Once a small portion of a peripheral liner is removed, the attenuation rate near the frequency where maximum attenuation occurs drops significantly. The positioning of the liner segments affects the attenuation characteristics of the liner. Effects of the duct termination are important in the low frequency ranges. The main effect of peripheral variation of the liner is a broadening of the attenuation characteristics in the midfrequency range. Because of matrix size limitations of the presently available computer program, the eigenvalue equations should be solved out of core in order to handle realistic sources.

  19. Application of upwind convective finite elements to practical conduction/forced convection thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three practical problems in conduction/forced convection heat transfer are analyzed using a simplified engineering formulation of convective finite elements. Upwind and conventional finite element solutions are compared for steady-state and transient applications.

  20. Finite element modeling of the higher harmonic controlled OH-6A helicopter airframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferg, Douglas; Toossi, Mostafa

    1990-01-01

    An MSC/NASTRAN finite element model of the higher harmonic control configured OH-6A helicopter fuselage was developed. This finite element model was verified by performing various model checkouts and correlation with results from a ground vibration test.

  1. IFEMS, an Interactive Finite Element Modeling System Using a CAD/CAM System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckellip, S.; Schuman, T.; Lauer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of coupling a CAD/CAM system with a general purpose finite element mesh generator is described. The three computer programs which make up the interactive finite element graphics system are discussed.

  2. Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.

  3. Discontinuous finite element method for vector radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cun-Hai; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) is applied to solve the vector radiative transfer in participating media. The derivation in a discrete form of the vector radiation governing equations is presented, in which the angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach with a local refined modification, and the spatial domain is discretized into finite non-overlapped discontinuous elements. The elements in the whole solution domain are connected by modelling the boundary numerical flux between adjacent elements, which makes the DFEM numerically stable for solving radiative transfer equations. Several various problems of vector radiative transfer are tested to verify the performance of the developed DFEM, including vector radiative transfer in a one-dimensional parallel slab containing a Mie/Rayleigh/strong forward scattering medium and a two-dimensional square medium. The fact that DFEM results agree very well with the benchmark solutions in published references shows that the developed DFEM in this paper is accurate and effective for solving vector radiative transfer problems.

  4. Shear deformable finite beam elements for composite box beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam-Il; Choi, Dong-Ho

    2014-04-01

    The shear deformable thin-walled composite beams with closed cross-sections have been developed for coupled flexural, torsional, and buckling analyses. A theoretical model applicable to the thin-walled laminated composite box beams is presented by taking into account all the structural couplings coming from the material anisotropy and the shear deformation effects. The current composite beam includes the transverse shear and the restrained warping induced shear deformation by using the first-order shear deformation beam theory. Seven governing equations are derived for the coupled axial-flexural-torsional-shearing buckling based on the principle of minimum total potential energy. Based on the present analytical model, three different types of finite composite beam elements, namely, linear, quadratic and cubic elements are developed to analyze the flexural, torsional, and buckling problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of the beam theory and the finite beam elements developed by this study, numerical solutions are presented and compared with the results obtained by other researchers and the detailed three-dimensional analysis results using the shell elements of ABAQUS. Especially, the influences of the modulus ratio and the simplified assumptions in stress-strain relations on the deflection, twisting angle, and critical buckling loads of composite box beams are investigated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of the LOLA Receiver Telescope Lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzinger, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element stress and distortion analysis completed on the Receiver Telescope lens of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). LOLA is one of six instruments on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), scheduled to launch in 2008. LOLA's main objective is to produce a high-resolution global lunar topographic model to aid in safe landings and enhance surface mobility in future exploration missions. The Receiver Telescope captures the laser pulses transmitted through a diffractive optical element (DOE) and reflected off the lunar surface. The largest lens of the Receiver Telescope, Lens 1, is a 150 mm diameter aspheric lens originally designed to be made of BK7 glass. The finite element model of the Receiver Telescope Lens 1 is comprised of solid elements and constrained in a manner consistent with the behavior of the mounting configuration of the Receiver Telescope tube. Twenty-one temperature load cases were mapped to the nodes based on thermal analysis completed by LOLA's lead thermal analyst, and loads were applied to simulate the preload applied from the ring flexure. The thermal environment of the baseline design (uncoated BK7 lens with no baffle) produces large radial and axial gradients in the lens. These large gradients create internal stresses that may lead to part failure, as well as significant bending that degrades optical performance. The high stresses and large distortions shown in the analysis precipitated a design change from BK7 glass to sapphire.

  6. Predictive Modeling of Defibrillation utilizing Hexahedral and Tetrahedral Finite Element Models: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Triedman, John K.; Jolley, Matthew; Stinstra, Jeroen; Brooks, Dana H.; MacLeod, Rob

    2008-01-01

    ICD implants may be complicated by body size and anatomy. One approach to this problem has been the adoption of creative, extracardiac implant strategies using standard ICD components. Because data on safety or efficacy of such ad hoc implant strategies is lacking, we have developed image-based finite element models (FEMs) to compare electric fields and expected defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) using standard and novel electrode locations. In this paper, we review recently published studies by our group using such models, and progress in meshing strategies to improve efficiency and visualization. Our preliminary observations predict that they may be large changes in DFTs with clinically relevant variations of electrode placement. Extracardiac ICDs of various lead configurations are predicted to be effective in both children and adults. This approach may aid both ICD development and patient-specific optimization of electrode placement, but the simplified nature of current models dictates further development and validation prior to clinical or industrial utilization. PMID:18817926

  7. 3-D finite element modelling of facial soft tissue and preliminary application in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Lou, Hangdi; Guo, Liang; Rong, Qiguo; Liu, Yi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of soft tissue aesthetics is important for achieving an optimal outcome in orthodontic treatment planning. Previously, applicable procedures were mainly restricted to 2-D profile prediction. In this study, a generic 3-D finite element (FE) model of the craniofacial soft and hard tissue was constructed, and individualisation of the generic model based on cone beam CT data and mathematical transformation was investigated. The result indicated that patient-specific 3-D facial FE model including different layers of soft tissue could be obtained through mathematical model transformation. Average deviation between the transformed model and the real reconstructed one was 0.47 ± 0.77 mm and 0.75 ± 0.84 mm in soft and hard tissue, respectively. With boundary condition defined according to treatment plan, such FE model could be used to predict the result of orthodontic treatment on facial soft tissue.

  8. Development and validation of a subject-specific finite element model of the functional spinal unit to predict vertebral strength.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R(2) = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R(2) = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R(2) = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.

  9. Multiphase poroelastic finite element models for soft tissue structure

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, B.R.

    1992-06-01

    During the last two decades. biological structures with soft tissue components have been modeled using poroelastic or mixture-based constitutive laws, i.e., the material is viewed as a deformable (porous) solid matrix that is saturated by mobile tissue fluid. These structures exhibit a highly nonlinear, history-dependent material behavior; undergo finite strains-, and may swell or shrink when tissue ionic concentrations are altered. Given the geometric and material complexity of soft tissue structures and that they are subjected to complicated initial and boundary conditions, finite element models (FEMs) have been very useful for quantitative structural analyses. This paper surveys recent applications of poroelastic and mixture-based theories and the associated FEMs for the study of the biomechanics of soft tissues, and indicates future directions for research in this area. Equivalent finite-strain poroelastic and mixture continuum biomechanical models are presented. Special attention is given to the identification of material properties using a porohyperelastic constitutive law and a total Lagrangian view for the formulation. The associated FEMS are then formulated to include this porohyperelastic material response and finite strains. Extensions of the theory are suggested in order to include inherent viscoelasticity, transport phenomena, and swelling in soft tissue structures. A number of biomechanical research areas are identified, and possible applications of the porohyperelastic and mixture-based FEMs are suggested.

  10. Multiphase poroelastic finite element models for soft tissue structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, B.R.

    1992-12-01

    During the last two decades, biological structures with soft tissue components have been modeled using poroelastic or mixture-based constitutive laws, i.e., the material is viewed as a deformable (porous) solid matrix that is saturated by mobile tissue fluid. These structures exhibit a highly nonlinear, history-dependent material behavior; undergo finite strains; and may swell or shrink when tissue ionic concentrations are altered. Give the geometric and material complexity of soft tissue structures and that they are subjected to complicated initial and boundary conditions, finite element models (FEMs) have been very useful for quantitative structural analyses. This paper surveys recent applications of poroelastic and mixture-based theories and the associated FEMs for the study of the biomechanics of soft tissues, and indicates future directions for research in this area. Equivalent finite-strain poroelastic and mixture continuum biomechanical models are presented. Special attention is given to the identification of material properties using a porohyperelastic constitutive law ans a total Lagrangian view for the formulation. The associated FEMs are then formulated to include this porohyperelastic material response and finite strains. Extensions of the theory are suggested in order to include inherent viscoelasticity, transport phenomena, and swelling in soft tissue structures. A number of biomechanical research areas are identified, and possible applications of the porohyperelastic and mixture-based FEMs are suggested. 62 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. A wave envelope finite element scheme for acoustical radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, R. J.

    The aeroacoustic problem associated with the radiation of fan noise from the inlet of a turbofan aircraft engine, the dimensions of which are generally many times larger than the acoustical wavelengths of the major energy-carrying frequencies, is considered. In the present approach, a conventional finite element solution in the inner region is compatibly matched to a 'wave envelope' finite element solution in a large but finite outer region. The inclusion of a wavelike variation with the correct asymptotic decay in the shape functions for the outer region preserves the correct behavior of the solution at large distances. The method is initially presented for a simple one-dimensional model based on the solution of Webster's horn equation. Results are presented for the specific case of a uniform cylindrical section joined to a conical expansion, and also for a simple axisymmetric test case of the calculation of acoustical pressure generated by a vibrating circular piston located at the center of an infinite rigid baffle.

  12. Reflections of AE Waves in Finite Plates: Finite Element Modeling and Experimental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Hamstad, M. A.; Gary, J.; OGallagher, A.

    1999-01-01

    The capability of a three-dimensional dynamic finite element method for predicting far-field acoustic emission signals in thin plates of finite lateral extent, including their reflections from the plate edges, was investigated. A lead break (Hsu-Neilsen) source to simulate AE was modeled and used in the experimental measurements. For the thin plate studied, the signals were primarily composed of the lowest order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb modes. Experimental waveforms were detected with an absolutely calibrated, wideband, conical element transducer. The conditions of lead fractures both on the surface of the plate as well as on the edge of the plate were investigated. Surface lead breaks preferentially generate the A0 mode while edge lead breaks generate the S0 mode. Reflections of developed plate waves from both normal and oblique incidence angles were evaluated. Particularly interesting for the case of the lead break on the plate edge were S0 waves produced by the interaction of a Rayleigh wave with the plate corner and by a bulk shear wave mode converting at the side edge. The Rayleigh wave, in this case, propagated along the specimen edge. For all cases considered, the experimental measurements were in good agreement with the predictions of the finite element model.

  13. Progress on hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on the development and implementation of hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution are described. It was found that earlier finite element-boundary integral formulations suffered from convergence difficulties when applied to large and thin bodies of revolution. An alternative implementation is described where the finite element method is terminated with an absorbing termination boundary. In addition, an alternative finite element-boundary integral implementation is discussed for improving the convergence of the original code.

  14. Finite element based inversion for time-harmonic electromagnetic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbach, Christoph; Haber, Eldad

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we address the inverse problem and present some recent advances in numerical methods to recover the subsurface electrical conductivity from time-harmonic electromagnetic data. We rigorously formulate and discretize both the forward and the inverse problem in the finite element framework. To solve the forward problem, we derive a finite element discretization of the first-order system of Maxwell's equations in terms of the electric field and the magnetic induction. We show that our approach is equivalent to the standard discretization of the vector Helmholtz equation in terms of the electric field and that the discretization of magnetic induction of the same approximation order is hidden in the standard discretization. We implement the forward solver on unstructured tetrahedral meshes using edge elements. Unstructured meshes are not only capable of representing complex geometry. They can also reduce the overall problem size and, thus, the size of the system of linear equations arising from the forward problem such that direct methods for its solution using a sparse matrix factorization become feasible. The inverse problem is formulated as a regularized output least squares problem. We consider two regularization functions. First, we derive a smoothness regularizer using a primal-dual mixed finite element formulation which generalizes the standard Laplacian operator for a piecewise constant conductivity model on unstructured meshes. Secondly, we derive a total variation regularizer for the same class of models. For the choice of the regularization parameter we revisit the so-called dynamic regularization and compare it to a standard regularization scheme with fixed regularization parameter. The optimization problem is solved by the Gauss-Newton method which can be efficiently implemented using sparse matrix-vector operations and exploiting the sparse matrix factorization of the forward problem system matrix. A synthetic data example from marine

  15. Probabilistic finite elements for fracture and fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lawrence, M.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The fusion of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) and reliability analysis for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is presented. A comprehensive method for determining the probability of fatigue failure for curved crack growth was developed. The criterion for failure or performance function is stated as: the fatigue life of a component must exceed the service life of the component; otherwise failure will occur. An enriched element that has the near-crack-tip singular strain field embedded in the element is used to formulate the equilibrium equation and solve for the stress intensity factors at the crack-tip. Performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a classical mode 1 fatigue problem.

  16. 3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ožbolt, Joško; İrhan, Barış; Ruta, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    An explicit three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.

  17. A finite element model for sound transmission through panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, J. V.; Koval, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    A finite element method (FEM) is applied to predicting coupled frequencies and pressures within an acoustic cavity in order to characterize sound transmission through a panel. Structural equations of motion are defined and the FEM model is configured with four-noded plate elements, the lateral displacement and two slopes being the unknowns at every node. Each element then has 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) and the displacement variation is expressed by a 12-term nonconforming polynomial. A consistent mass matrix is used to represent the panel mass matrix and a wave equation governs the acoustic volume. Analysis of pressure and displacement over the panel yields a square coupling matrix, and an eigenanalysis leads to a solution of the forced vibration problem.

  18. Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, R. V.; Reznikoff, M. G.; vanden-Eijnden, E.

    2005-08-01

    We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed or ramped by an external field; in the special and physically relevant case of multiple-pulse experiments, on the other hand, short-time switching can lead to non-Arrhenius behavior. We show how large deviation theory can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrinking and sharpening as the number of applied pulses is increased. We also investigate the influence of the dynamics, in particular the relative importance of the gyromagnetic and the damping terms. Finally, we discuss some issues and open questions regarding spatially nonuniform magnetization.

  19. Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.

    1993-10-01

    In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.

  20. Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.