Snowdon, Anne W; Alessi, Charles; Bassi, Harpreet; DeForge, Ryan T; Schnarr, Karin
Patient engagement is a challenge many leaders are facing, as consumer expectations of health services demand a more personalized approach to care. This article examines consumer trends that are influencing patient engagement and empowerment relative to the use of digital technologies. Informed by consumer and population health trends that can personalize health services, three strategies leaders can engage to strengthen patient experience include placing greater focus on personal health and wellness, shifting towards personalized rather than standardized healthcare, and facilitating the democratization of healthcare information.
Nurses in the Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service (PMRAFNS) undertake a variety of different roles in providing nursing care to Armed Forces personnel wherever they may serve. One such role is the evacuation by air of sick or injured personnel. This article discusses the experience of a nurse lecturer in the PMRANS who undertook the role of aeromedical evacuation liaison officer in the Balkans for a 4-month period during winter. The role is described and details of how the aeromedical evacuation of patients was organized is presented. The benefits of evacuating patients by air are discussed along with some of the potential problems that were encountered in the Balkans, including logistical problems and the vagaries of the weather. Finally, several examples of the types of patients evacuated are presented.
ten Napel-Schutz, Marieke C.; Abma, Tineke A.; Bamelis, Lotte; Arntz, Arnoud
A qualitative study was done on patients' perspectives on the first phases of imagery work in the context of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders. Patients participated in a multi-center randomized controlled study of the effectiveness of ST. Patients' experiences and opinions were collected with semistructured in-depth interviews at the…
Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai
The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD.
Life-changing events unfold quickly as trauma nurses provide care for patients during the most vulnerable time of their lives. Nurses also bear the weight of simultaneously caring and providing emotional support for the families of trauma victims. Trauma nurses have a profound responsibility to assist patients and families through this process, as well as having a unique opportunity to encourage families to share their personal stories and experiences. On occasion, some high-profile traumas make their way to the local news and inquiries from the media soon follow. The public has an interest in stories related to trauma and a fascination in the reactions of individuals immediately impacted. These stories have value to the public, as they create opportunities for others to learn, examine personal values and social norms, develop new perspectives, and reflect on the fragility and meaning of life. Personal accounts of traumatic life events can be shared privately or publicly, and nurses should be prepared to provide effective interventions and, on occasion, support families faced with weighing the potential risks and benefits of sharing their story with the media.
Karamanolaki, Hara; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Iliadou, Aggeliki; Vousoura, Eleni; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Pantazis, Nikos; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group. Firstborns were less likely to carry a diagnosis of BPD over other-PDs. Also, significantly more BPD compared to other-PD patients reported being the father's favorite child over siblings. Results suggest that traumatic experiences, birth order, and family interactions in the presence of siblings seem to differentially affect the formation of borderline diagnosis compared to other-PDs. Limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed in detail.
Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods
This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation…
Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Mäntyranta, Taina
Feelings and thoughts of medical students related to first patient experiences during the first clinical year were examined. Twenty-two volunteer third and fourth year medical students (15 women and 7 men) of the University of Helsinki participated in a portfolio course for 1 year. Their reflective learning diaries and writings on specific themes were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. First patient encounters were strong emotional experiences for medical students. The first patient examination was often described as an anxiety-provoking and confusing incident. Other emotionally significant encounters included helplessness when faced with serious illness and death, and role confusion when examining patients of one's own age but opposite sex. Students felt guilty for using patients for their own learning purposes. Portfolios as learning tools may help in recognizing key experiences and support professional development of medical students.
Knotts, Lester William
Literacy is inextricably linked to the social context in which literacy is taught, and in which the language is used. Cultural expectations require the use of specific literacies. Who a person is, in terms of a literacy user and a literacy worker are dictated by the culture in which a person chooses to operate. Literacy is not neutral, but an…
Hartmann, Jessica A.; Wichers, Marieke; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Peeters, Frenk; Schruers, Koen R. J.; van Bemmel, Alex L.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim; Simons, Claudia J. P.
Objectives Positive affect (PA) plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM), consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention. Design Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments. Settings University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital. Participants 102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms. Intervention Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group); six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group); or treatment as usual (control group). Main outcome The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA) was investigated in multilevel regression models. Results 102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2) of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (χ2 (2) =0.33, p=.846). The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (χ2 (1) =6.29, p=.012). Conclusion PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve
Sinclair, Julia; Willmott, Lucy; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Burns, Tom; Yiend, Jenny
As part of an evaluation of the Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) Programme, we conducted in-depth interviews with 60 participants purposely sampled across four pilot DSPD units. This report is limited to the finding with potential `conceptual generalisability': namely the unanticipated finding of negative and hostile attitudes of participants being managed in hospital units compared with the prison system. The recent UK government policy decision to concentrate this programme in prisons may, in part, reflect the significance of these findings.
Chimenti, Maria Sole; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Giunta, Alessandro; Martinelli, Francesco; Saraceno, Rosita; Conti, Fabrizio; Perricone, Roberto; Valesini, Guido
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting up to 2.5% of the population, with joint involvement in approximately 30% of patients. Given the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, anti-TNF therapies have been developed; several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) as induction and maintenance therapy in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The development of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in anti-TNF-treated patients has been frequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of ANA and anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies in psoriatic patients receiving IFX. Incidence of new ANA and anti-ds-DNA was 16.2% and 8.1% respectively. No case of anti-TNF induced Lupus was observed during the follow-up.
One thing is for certain: healthcare is ever evolving during these challenging times. In this current arena of electronic medical records and regulatory bodies, nursing finds itself placing increasing emphasis on numbers and percentile rankings as a gauge of its performance. Although this information is vitally important as the focus centers on patient safety and quality outcomes, perhaps in the quest for excellent report cards, there needs to be a reminder of what is at the foundation of the nursing profession: communication and caring. The experience of a nurse as a family member, patient, and healthcare provider gives us the 360-degree view of this challenge.
Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Verweij, Kim; Meijer, Carin; Dingemans, Peter; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe
Earlier studies indicated that personality characteristics contribute to symptomatic outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to further explore this connection by examining the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and a dimensional liability for psychosis. FFM traits according to the NEO-FFI and levels of subclinical psychotic symptoms according to the CAPE were assessed in 217 patients with psychotic disorders, 281 of their siblings and 176 healthy controls. Psychotic symptoms according to the PANSS were assessed in the patient group. Patients differed from siblings and controls on four of the five FFM traits, all but Openness. Siblings reported higher levels of Neuroticism than controls, but lower levels than patients. Particularly lower Agreeableness, and to a lesser degree, higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion were associated with more severe symptoms in patients. Furthermore, higher Neuroticism and higher Openness were associated with higher levels of subclinical psychotic experiences in all three groups. Associations were strongest in patients. Our findings suggest that levels of Neuroticism increase with the level of familial risk for psychosis. Levels of Openness may reflect levels of impairment that distinguish clinical from subclinical symptomatology.
Scarano, E; Fiorita, A; Picciotti, P M; Passali, G C; Calò, L; Cabras, T; Inzitari, R; Fanali, C; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Paludetti, G
The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than 1400 salivary proteins have been identified. In the last few years, our research group has extensively studied the salivary proteomics in order to analyse the salivary composition, investigating the major families of proteins present in human and mammalian saliva, the post-translational modifications, the different contributions of glands, the physiological and pathological modifications of saliva. The aim of this report is to present our personal experience in salivary proteomics. In conclusion, salivary proteome analysis represents an important field both for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and could be considered a novel approach to prevention of various pathological conditions.
Psychiatric practice acknowledges that people who are subjected to traumatic events may develop emotional negativity requiring intervention. However, it has recently been acknowledged that emotional distress caused by a traumatic event can facilitate that person's recovery into an emotionally stronger person. This article aims to provide a clinical understanding of the phenomenon of post-trauma growth.
Griffiths, Dorothy E.
Every family practice includes people who are difficult to manage. Persons with a borderline personality disorder can be the most difficult of all. They will trust no one, and consequently few, if any, others will be able to tolerate their profoundly difficult interpersonal communication style. These patients will present to their family physician more and more often with a variety of somatic and emotional symptoms. They will demand, either verbally or silently, that these symptoms be relieved immediately. This increasing demand for immediate response may eventually cause the physician to reject the patient. An understanding of this condition and how it develops in infancy may enable the physician to help the patient. A family physician who can set appropriate limits to the patient's demands may slowly convince the patient that he can trust and not be hurt. PMID:21248944
Schwartz, Erin; Tuepker, Anais; Press, Nancy A; Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Nichol, W. Paul
Background Full sharing of the electronic health record with patients has been identified as an important opportunity to engage patients in their health and health care. The My HealtheVet Pilot, the initial personal health record of the US Department of Veterans Affairs, allowed patients and their delegates to view and download content in their electronic health record, including clinical notes, laboratory tests, and imaging reports. Objective A qualitative study with purposeful sampling sought to examine patients’ views and experiences with reading their health records, including their clinical notes, online. Methods Five focus group sessions were conducted with patients and family members who enrolled in the My HealtheVet Pilot at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center, Oregon. A total of 30 patients enrolled in the My HealtheVet Pilot, and 6 family members who had accessed and viewed their electronic health records participated in the sessions. Results Four themes characterized patient experiences with reading the full complement of their health information. Patients felt that seeing their records positively affected communication with providers and the health system, enhanced knowledge of their health and improved self-care, and allowed for greater participation in the quality of their care such as follow-up of abnormal test results or decision-making on when to seek care. While some patients felt that seeing previously undisclosed information, derogatory language, or inconsistencies in their notes caused challenges, they overwhelmingly felt that having more, rather than less, of their health record information provided benefits. Conclusions Patients and their delegates had predominantly positive experiences with health record transparency and the open sharing of notes and test results. Viewing their records appears to empower patients and enhance their contributions to care, calling into question common provider concerns about the effect of full
Smith-Carrier, Tracy; Sinha, Samir K; Nowaczynski, Mark; Akhtar, Sabrina; Seddon, Gayle; Pham, Thuy-Nga Tia
The lack of effective systems to appropriately manage the health and social care of frail older adults - especially among those who become homebound - is becoming all the more apparent. Home-based primary care (HBPC) is increasingly being promoted as a promising model that takes into account the accessibility needs of frail older adults, ensuring that they receive more appropriate primary and community care. There remains a paucity of literature exploring patients' experiences with HBPC programmes. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients accessing HBPC delivered by interprofessional teams, and their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to this model of care in Ontario, Canada. Using certain grounded theory principles, we conducted an inductive qualitative content analysis of in-depth patient interviews (n = 26) undertaken in the winter of 2013 across seven programme sites exploring the lived experiences and perspectives of participants receiving HBPC. Themes emerged in relation to patients' perceptions regarding the preference for and necessity of HBPC, the promotion of better patient care afforded by the model in comparison to office-based care, and the benefits of and barriers to HBPC service provision. Underlying patterns also surfaced related to patients' feelings and emotions about their quality of life and satisfaction with HBPC services. We argue that HBPC is well positioned to serve frail homebound older adults, ensuring that patients receive appropriate primary and community care - which the office-based alternative provides little guarantee - and that they will be cared for, pointing to a model that may not only lead to greater patient satisfaction but also likely contributes to bettering the quality of life of a highly vulnerable population.
Levallius, Johanna; Rydén, Göran; Norring, Claes
Patients with borderline personality disorder have a characteristic and extreme personality associated with psychopathology. The aim was to investigate personality change in relation to suicidality following treatment. 21 patients were assessed before and after psychotherapy on personality (NEO PI-R) and suicidality (SUAS). At follow-up, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness normalized along with six lower-order facets; Depression, Impulsiveness, Competence, Achievement Striving, Self-Discipline and Deliberation. Thirteen patients showed a positive personality development paralleled by a lesser degree of suicidality.
This self-study is an exploratory, autoethnographic journey, aiming towards understanding my becomings through the 14 years of my collaborative experience. It provides a reflective look at the effects of this unique experience on my personal-professional self, questioning my understandings and trying to identify my becomings along these years.…
The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.
Stupperich, Alexandra; Ihm, Helga; Strack, Micha
Concerning the discussion about the connection of personality traits, personality disorders, and mental illness, this study focused on the personality profiles of male forensic patients, prison inmates, and young men without criminal reports. The main topic centered on group-specific personality profiles and identifying personality facets…
Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda
We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care.
Chartonas, Dimitrios; Kyratsous, Michalis; Dracass, Sarah; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Results We received 76 responses. Lewis and Appleby's questionnaire showed more negative attitudes towards personality disorder than depression, with no significant patient ethnic group effects, and the APDQ also showed a (weak) trend towards more negative attitudes to personality disorder. In subgroup analysis, only in the White British patient group were there significantly more negative attitudes to personality disorder. Factor analysis showed significantly less sense of purpose when working with personality disorder. Clinical implications The perceived greater lack of purpose in working with personality disorder should be the target of clinical training and intervention. Targeted interventions that include training in managing personality disorder, supervision and practice in non-specialist, general psychiatry settings are important. PMID:28184311
Ballesteros, Francisco J.; Guardiola, Gorka; Soriano, Enrique
In this paper we present our experience designing and developing two different systems to enable personal pervasive computing environments, Plan B and the Octopus. These systems were fully implemented and have been used on a daily basis for years. Both are based on synthetic (virtual) file system interfaces and provide mechanisms to adapt to changes in the context and reconfigure the system to support pervasive applications. We also present the main differences between them, focusing on architectural and reconfiguration aspects. Finally, we analyze the pitfalls and successes of both systems and review the lessons we learned while designing, developing, and using them. PMID:22969340
Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer
The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.
Péron, Julie A.; Piolino, Pascale; Moal-Boursiquot, Sandrine Le; Biseul, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Bon, Laetitia; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Belliard, Serge
Semantic dementia patients seem to have better knowledge of information linked to the self. More specifically, despite having severe semantic impairment, these patients show that they have more general information about the people they know personally by direct experience than they do about other individuals they know indirectly. However, the role of direct personal experience remains debated because of confounding factors such as frequency, recency of exposure, and affective relevance. We performed an exploratory study comparing the performance of five semantic dementia patients with that of 10 matched healthy controls on the recognition (familiarity judgment) and identification (biographic information recall) of personally familiar names vs. famous names. As expected, intergroup comparisons indicated a semantic breakdown in semantic dementia patients as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, unlike healthy controls, the semantic dementia patients recognized and identified personally familiar names better than they did famous names. This pattern of results suggests that direct personal experience indeed plays a specific role in the relative preservation of person-specific semantic meaning in semantic dementia. We discuss the role of direct personal experience on the preservation of semantic knowledge and the potential neurophysiological mechanisms underlying these processes. PMID:26635578
Darabos, Nikica; Cesarec, Marijan
Fractura radii loco typico (FRLT) is the fracture of the distal radius. That is the one of the most frequent fractures of locomotor system with the widest range of treatment in traumatology. Therapy depends on the stability of the fracture: nonoperative or operative. We analysed the five-year experience of our Department of Traumatology where more than 1500 patients with FRLT have been treated in the urgent surgery clinic and 126 of them were hospitalized. In our study we evaluated the results of the operative treatment and postoperative functional status of a treated wrist. According to the A-O classification, we hospitalized 36 patients with A type, 28 patients with B type, and 62 patients with C type of FRLT. We operated 80 patients. The postoperative functional status of a treated wrist was excellent or good in 64 patients and good in 16 patients. The treatment of FRLT depends on the type and the complications of the fracture and the age of the patients. Operative therapy is indicated in the unstable FRLT or after an inadequate nonoperative treatment.
Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel
Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.
Nortvedt, Finn; Engelsrud, Gunn
This article explores the phenomenon of "phantom pain." The analysis is based on personal experiences elicited from individuals who have lost a limb or live with a paralyzed body part. Our study reveals that the ways in which these individuals express their pain experience is an integral aspect of that experience. The material consists of interviews undertaken with men who are living with phantom pain resulting from a traumatic injury. The phenomenological analysis is inspired by Zahavi (J Conscious Stud 8(5-7):151-167, 2001) and Merleau-Ponty (Phenomenology of perception. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1962/2000). On a descriptive level the metaphors these patients invoke to describe their condition reveal immense suffering, such as a feeling of being invaded by insects or of their skin being scorched and stripped from their body. Such metaphors express a dimension of experience concerning the self that is in pain and others whom the sufferer relates to through this pain, as well as the agony that this pain inflicts in the world of lived experience. This pain has had a profound impact on their lives and altered their relationship with self (body), others and the world. Their phantom pain has become a reminder of their formerly intact and functioning body; they describe the contrast between their past and present body as an ambiguous and disturbing experience. We conclude that these sensitive and personalized experiences of phantom pain illuminates how acts of expression--spoken pain--constitute a fundamental dimension of a first-person perspective which contribute to the field of knowledge about "phantom pain".
Avila Escribano, J J; Ledesma Jimeno, A
This work is a study of the personality of the wives of alcoholic patients composed by means of a structures interview, the MMPI personality questionnaire and the Instrument I used to evaluate aggressivity. Among the discoveries made, we must emphasize that 20% of the wives knew of their partner's excessive alcohol consumption before marriage, while married, 75% were victims of some kind of violent incident, 43% had personal psychopathological backgrounds, 15% were "repeaters wives" "those who had alcoholic parents). In the MMPI test, these women represent a significantly high profile, in which the scales Hs, D and Hy are the highest, amongst which their most outstanding personality traits include passivity, dependency and insecurity. Furthermore, those wives whose husbands have had relapses, represent a higher Pd scale than the other group. The Instrument I used to evaluate aggressivity also emphasizes this passive-aggressive tendency in the wives.
Smith, Paul F.; Darlington, Cynthia L.
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in the sense of spatial orientation. Beyond this, however, patients with vestibular disorders have been reported to experience other personality changes that suggest that vestibular sensation is implicated in the sense of self. These are depersonalization and derealization symptoms such as feeling “spaced out”, “body feeling strange” and “not feeling in control of self”. We propose in this review that these symptoms suggest that the vestibular system may make a unique contribution to the concept of self through information regarding self-motion and self-location that it transmits, albeit indirectly, to areas of the brain such as the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). PMID:24194706
Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom
The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093
Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom
The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults' personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the cohort of 1,000 individuals from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Moffitt, Caspi, Rutter, & Silva, 2001), we show that very brief measures of young adults' personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient
Adami Dehkordi, Mahboobeh; Javanbakht, Maryam; Sarfarazi Moghadam, Shima; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Abolbashari, Samaneh
Introduction: Tinnitus is a common complaint in patients referred to otorhinolaryngology clinics and is a condition where one hears a sound without any distinguishable external acoustic source or electrical stimulus. About 3-30% of adults experience different degrees of tinnitus during their life. This study aims to ascertain and compare personality traits between patients with tinnitus and a control group. Materials and Methods: In a case control study, 66 participants were assessed. The case group consisted of 33 patients who suffered from tinnitus for at least two months, in addition to 33 healthy volunteers who were selected among their family (preferably of the same age and sex). A standard demographic questionnaire and an Eyzenck personality questionnaire were filled for both groups. A tinnitus severity index (TSI) questionnaire was only filled for the case group. Data from each group was compared by Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests. SPSS V.18 was the selected software. Results: Statistical analysis showed a meaningful difference in neuroticism (P=0.001) and extraversion (P=0.001) between the patients and the controls; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups regarding psychotism. Conclusion: Tinnitus can be associated with personality characteristics. This study showed that in patients with tinnitus, neuroticism increases and extraversion decreases. Considering the personality and psychotic traits observed in the patients with tinnitus, psychiatric consultation is recommended. PMID:26568941
McCarthey, Sarah J.
This paper uses two case studies to explore the risk and opportunities of writing from students' personal experiences. Anthony, a high-achieving, Hispanic fifth-grader, and Anita, a low-achieving, African-American sixth-grader, participated in a writing workshop in which students kept notebooks of their personal experiences and reflections. The…
Al Mahmud, Abdullah
When a person, due to brain injury or another disease, suffers in his or her ability to speak, it becomes inherently cumbersome to share needs, emotions, and experiences through personal stories and social interaction. This paper describes the aim and progress of the author’s dissertation, which focuses on designing a support system to share daily experiences for people suffering from expressive aphasia.
Perusini, Darsi J; Llacuachaqui, Marcia; Sigal, Michael J; Dempster, Laura J
Persons with disabilities (PWDs) have a disproportionate level of dental disease relative to the general population. Access to care is a cause along with dentists' willingness to treat PWDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the expectations and experiences of dental students in providing treatment to these patients in a hospital-based dental clinic for PWDs. Senior dental students at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto (n=92) were surveyed prior to (Phase I) and at the end of (Phase II) mandatory clinical rotations at the Mount Sinai Hospital's Dentistry Clinic for Persons with Special Needs. Response rates were 88% for Phase I and 58% for Phase II. Before the rotations, 70% of the respondents reported little or no experience with PWDs, and 46% said they did not feel comfortable providing basic dental treatment to PWDs. However, in Phase II, significantly more students reported being comfortable than in Phase I (p=0.001). Overall, the majority of respondents (Phase I 95%; Phase II 98%) indicated they would at least attempt to provide basic dental care to PWDs after graduation. The majority also identified the opportunity to provide care and interact with PWDs as the most enjoyable aspect of their experience at the clinic. They reported that the experience helped reduce their concerns about treating PWDs including being more realistic about the time required and ideal quality of the treatment they could provide. These results suggest that their experience in the clinic significantly increased students' comfort in treating PWDs. The respondents expressed a willingness to treat PWDs once graduated and generally identified their experience as being more positive than their expectations.
Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.
Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…
Huh, Jina; Patel, Rupa; Pratt, Wanda
Online health communities that engage the patient as a whole person attend to personal and medical needs in a holistic manner. Whether current communities structure interaction between health professionals and patients to address the whole person is an open question. To gain insights into this question, we examined a sample of online patient communities to understand health professionals' involvement in bringing in medical advice into peer-patient conversations. We found the communities fall short in supporting the whole person, because (1) patient expertise and clinical expertise generated by health professionals are shared separately, and (2) patients' quantified data are separate from narrative experiences. Such separation in the design of these systems can lead to limitations in addressing patients' interwoven medical and personal concerns. We discuss dilemmas and design implications for supporting the whole person in online patient communities.
Glover, Polly S.
This essay considers the many benefits of journal writing. It explains how one person learned, during a 26-mile commute, to talk into a tape recorder slowly, leaving sizable pauses between phrases to facilitate transcription later on; how journal writing is a way to catch moments in the day, to describe a scene or to make connections that one…
Powell, Stephen; Tindal, Ian; Millwood, Richard
This paper describes a model of personalized work-integrated learning that is collaborative in nature, uses emerging Internet technologies and is accessed fully online. The Ultraversity project was set up by Ultralab at Anglia Ruskin University to develop a fully online, 3-year duration, undergraduate degree program with an emphasis on action…
Ritter, Kathrin; Vater, Aline; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan
Shame has been described as a central emotion in narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). However, there is a dearth of empirical data on shame in NPD. Patients with NPD (N=28), non-clinical controls (N=34) and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD, N=31) completed self-report measures of state shame, shame-proneness, and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was included as a measure of implicit shame, assessing implicit shame-self associations relative to anxiety-self associations. Participants with NPD reported higher levels of explicit shame than non-clinical controls, but lower levels than patients with BPD. Levels of guilt-proneness did not differ among the three study groups. The implicit shame-self associations (relative to anxiety-self associations) were significantly stronger among patients with NPD compared to nonclinical controls and BPD patients. Our findings indicate that shame is a prominent feature of NPD. Implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue
Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N = 62) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…
Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue
Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N=162) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…
Mizuno, Eriko; Takataya, Kumiko; Kamizawa, Naotoshi; Sakai, Ikue; Yamazaki, Yoko
The caring experiences of female families of persons with schizophrenia were described through exploring the families' descriptions of their experiences. Focus group interviews were conducted with 11 family caregivers. According to content analysis, the experiences revealed five major themes: early family experiences, family perceptions of illness and relatives with schizophrenia, family burden and suffering, family attitudes toward relatives with schizophrenia, and family thoughts about society and mental health resources. Also, the families had strength to overcome considerable adversity. It is needed for professionals to listen to family caregivers' narratives carefully and improve the support by focusing on accepting their experiences and histories with persons with schizophrenia.
Objective To teach pharmacy students how to apply transactional analysis and personality assessment to patient counseling to improve communication. Design A lecture series for a required pharmacy communications class was developed to teach pharmacy students how to apply transactional analysis and personality assessment to patient counseling. Students were asked to apply these techniques and to report their experiences. A personality self-assessment was also conducted. Assessment After attending the lecture series, students were able to apply the techniques and demonstrated an understanding of the psychological factors that may affect patient communication, an appreciation for the diversity created by different personality types, the ability to engage patients based on adult-to-adult interaction cues, and the ability to adapt the interactive patient counseling model to different personality traits. Conclusion Students gained a greater awareness of transactional analysis and personality assessment by applying these concepts. This understanding will help students communicate more effectively with patients. PMID:17786269
Hvalvik, Sigrun; Reierson, Inger Å
Next of kin represent significant resources in the care for older patients. The aim of this study was to describe and illuminate the meaning of the next of kin's experiences during the transition of an older person with continuing care needs from hospital to home. The study has a phenomenological hermeneutic design. Individual, narrative interviews were conducted, and the data analysis was conducted in accordance with Lindseth and Norberg's phenomenological hermeneutic method. Two themes and four subthemes were identified and formulated. The first theme: "Balancing vulnerability and strength," encompassed the subthemes "enduring emotional stress" and "striving to maintain security and continuity." The second theme: "Coping with an altered everyday life," encompassed "dealing with changes" and "being in readiness." Our findings suggest that the next of kin in striving to maintain continuity and safety in the older person's transition process are both vulnerable individuals and significant agents. Thus, it is urgent that health care providers accommodate both their vulnerability and their abilities to act, and thereby make them feel valued as respected agents and human beings in the transition process.
de Vargas, Divane
The purpose of this exploratory study was to discover nurses' attitudes towards the perceptions of personal characteristics of alcoholics. Nurses' attitudes were measuared using the Seaman-Manello Scale, the sample consisted of 171 nurses who work in a university general hospital located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results evidenced that more than half of the sample (52.4%) had a professional experience with alcoholics. Nurses see the alcoholic patients as unhappy, lonely, sensitive people, who doubt their own value and have serious emotional problems. It is concluded that nurses' attitudes toward personal characteristics of alcoholic patients tend to be positive and suggests greater attention to professional training in recognition and approach of the alcoholic in general hospitals.
Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Hummelen, Benjamin; Abrahamsen, Gun; Andrea, Helene; Wilberg, Theresa
Avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP) are closely related, such that they are suggested to represent different severity levels of one social anxiety disorder. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare patients with APD to patients with SP, with particular focus on personality dysfunction. Ninety-one adult patients were examined by diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including the Index of Self-Esteem and the Severity Indices of Personality Problems. Patients were categorized in three groups; SP without APD (n = 20), APD without SP (n = 15), and APD with SP (n = 56). Compared to patients with SP without APD, patients with APD reported more symptom disorders, psychosocial problems, criteria of personality disorders, and personality dysfunction regarding self-esteem, identity and relational problems. These results indicate that APD involves more severe and broader areas of personality dysfunction than SP, supporting the conceptualization of APD as a personality disorder as proposed for DSM-5.
Lee, Hong-seock; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Heung-Pyo
Objective Personality is defined as the trait-like qualities of a person. However, it has been recently suggested that the state effect of a situation leads to changes in scores on personality assessments. We predicted that traumatic experiences would induce changes not only in personality scores but also in the factor structures of personality assessments. Methods MethodsaaWe conducted a cross-sectional, case-controlled study using two data sets: a traumatized adolescent sample (n=71) and a non-traumatized adolescent sample (n=296). Personality factor structures were compared between the two samples using exploratory factor analyses for 25 lower-ordered subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In the non-traumatized sample, evaluation of the scree plot suggested a five-factor solution supporting TCI's original seven-factor model. Results The traumatized sample showed a three-factor structure representing a biological factor, a social factor and an existential factor. This decrease in number of personality factors was caused by strengthened correlations among personality subscales related to coping with traumatic situations. Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality (i.e., temperament-character) was adequate in capturing personality traits of non-traumatized adolescents, but the tripartite view of existential psychology (i.e., body-mind-spirit) clearly corresponded to the factor structure of the traumatized adolescents. Conclusion The three-factor solution of the present traumatized group is consistent with the tripartite model of personality (i.e., body-mind-spirit), while the five-factor solution of the non-traumatized group corresponds to Cloninger's seven-factor model. This is the first study to describe the state effects of traumatic experiences on personality structure. PMID:23251200
Tobacyk, J J; Mitchell, T P
Relationships between the out-of-body experience and personality adjustment were studied. A total of 445 college students, including 65 reporting out-of-body experiences, completed self-report measures of death orientation, defensive style, narcissism, paranormal beliefs, self-concept, and social desirability. No significant differences were found between respondents reporting out-of-body experiences and nonreporters on any of the instruments, except for the Paranormal Belief Scale. Reporters of out-of-body experiences showed significantly greater belief in precognition, psi, spiritualism, and witchcraft than did nonreporters. Findings indicate considerable similarity between reporters and nonreporters in personality adjustment. It is clear that, on these personality adjustment measures, the out-of-body experience was associated with neither less effective nor more effective adjustment.
The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner.
Ng, Kenney; Sun, Jimeng; Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei
Personalized predictive models are customized for an individual patient and trained using information from similar patients. Compared to global models trained on all patients, they have the potential to produce more accurate risk scores and capture more relevant risk factors for individual patients. This paper presents an approach for building personalized predictive models and generating personalized risk factor profiles. A locally supervised metric learning (LSML) similarity measure is trained for diabetes onset and used to find clinically similar patients. Personalized risk profiles are created by analyzing the parameters of the trained personalized logistic regression models. A 15,000 patient data set, derived from electronic health records, is used to evaluate the approach. The predictive results show that the personalized models can outperform the global model. Cluster analysis of the risk profiles show groups of patients with similar risk factors, differences in the top risk factors for different groups of patients and differences between the individual and global risk factors.
Astronomy and Art, two worlds seemingly opposite. One scientific and rigorous, the other perceived as light and whimsical. But if these two worlds were united? If art gave itself to the service of science? If fantasy became a playful pretext to transmit knowledge to young children? I recount here my experience, that of a meeting, and of an adventure. How and why an astronomy book for the very young emerged from the collaboration between a painter and an astronomer of the Observatory of Paris.
Sajadinejad, Marzieh Sadat; Molavi, Hossein; Asgari, Karim; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman
Aim: Psychological factors such as personality traits may affect the adjustment capacity and Quality of Life (QOL) in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients. Type D personality has some similarities with general personality traits of UC patients. The aims of this study were to compare NEO personality profile and type D personality between healthy normal group and UC patients; and to determine the possible relationship between type D personality and QOL in UC patients. Materials and Methods: The sample of study comprised of 58 UC patients and 59 healthy control subjects (from their family members). All participants were requested to fill out NEO-FFI, Type D personality (Ds14) Scale and WHO-Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results: The findings indicated that UC patients scored higher in neuroticism (P<0/01); lower in extraversion (P<0/01) and openness (P<0/05) than healthy controls but their differentiation were not significant in agreeableness and conscientiousness. The findings showed that 59% of UC patients and 33% of the control subjects had type D personality; and the differences in frequency of type D between the two groups were significant (P<0/05). The mean QOL scores of type D personality in UC patients was significantly lower than patients without type D personality (F= 7/55, P<0/01). Type D personality could better predict QOL of UC patients than NEO dimensions. Conclusions: Differences were observed between UC patients and their healthy family members, in terms of personality factors. Type D personality may be regarded as an important factor that may bring about some adverse effects in QOL among UC patients. PMID:23825986
Weinstein, N D
This article seeks to further our understanding of self-protective behavior by examining the effects of a particularly powerful stimulus to action: personal experience. It reviews the effects of automobile accidents on seat belt use, criminal victimization other than rape on individual crime prevention efforts, natural hazards experience on both natural hazards preparedness and compliance with evacuation warnings, and myocardial infarction on smoking. Theories suggesting mechanisms that could link personal experience to behavior are described, and data concerning the effects of experience on some key variables in these theories are discussed. Tentative propositions are offered to resolve the many apparent discrepancies in this literature. These propositions concern the effects of experience on risk perceptions, the influence of experience on risk salience, the specificity of responses to victimization, and the duration of experience effects.
Russell, Anne L.
This case study explored students' experiences of asynchronous interactions with students and faculty during an online study module at Queensland University of Technology (Australia) for teacher-librarians. Analyzed student feedback to determine how different Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality preferences experience an online learning…
Koltko, Mark Edward
This study examined one of the fundamental questions in humanistic and transpersonal psychology: what kind of relationship exists between transcendent experience and personal psychological well-being? College undergraduates (N=92) at three colleges were asked to recall their "most wonderful" experience, and then to complete an adaptation…
Kroepfl, Lucija; Emer, Jason J
Acne is one of the most prevalent skin conditions seen by dermatologists. The cosmetic sequelae of severe acne, including scarring and pigmentation, have a profound psychological impact on those in icted. Topical (eg, retinoids, antibiotics, dapsone, hydroxyacids) and oral treatments (eg, antibiotics and/or spironolactone) are often bene cial to control acne or in the instance of oral isotretinoin use, rid the acne permanently; however, these treatments have very little affect on the ultimate cosmetic outcome of the acne scarring and skin texture that results. Given the variety of scar types that can form and the variability of responses seen in various skin types and textures, treatment options are vast without appropriate guidelines for pathways that dictate best timing, combinations, and options in given clinical scenarios. Current treatment options include solo or combina- tions of energy-based (eg, laser, radiofrequency), chemical-based (eg, peels, TCA cross), surgical-based options (eg, subcision, punch excision), microneedling, and llers and/or fat injections. Most recently, fractional radiofrequency-based treatments have been used to improve acne scarring with less reported downtime as compared to lasers or chemical peels and the ability to treat darker or sensitive skin types with less risk of scarring or hyperpigmentation. In severe cystic ares, scarring treatments are often postposed till the acne is under control and in many instances this can limit the dermatologists ability to affect future cosmetic treatments. Based on personal experience of various clinical scenarios in a busy laser practice that treats a signi cant number of patients with acne scarring, fractional radiofrequency is an excellent choice for treating all forms of acne scars with minimal risk to patients, even those on concurrent treatments such as isotretinoin. Additionally, fractional radiofrequency can be used in combination with all other treatment options to speed the time to
Healthcare industry continues to evolve under conditions of intense competition in approaching health prevention, protection, and promotion. Therefore, healthcare providers are challenged to always ensure better patient experience, winning patients' satisfaction, and loyalty and remain competitive on today's healthcare market. Healthcare markets bring together professionals and their patients into real collaborative relationships, which empower patients to contribute to the healthcare improvement. Within this competitive landscape, which is also characterized by digital health tools boosting patients' awareness and controlling their own health, medical providers need to be perceived as skilled and trustworthy in relying on patients' needs, expectations, and sacrifices are required in order to obtain the promised benefits. Moreover, while constantly providing a holistic assessment of the healthcare services' and experience attributes, acting on feedback and reaching healthcare service excellence, providing a better understanding of all the touch points with their patients and improving the quality and consistency of all these touch points, all these are achieved by employees, who are truly connected to the healthcare business. Today, patients are systematically becoming aware of the diversity of their choices, being increasingly involved in making better healthcare choices, and, so, more and more innovative products are introduced, targeting new patient segments. Findings from the last three years have shown that patients may achieve better outcomes due to the stakeholders' commitment to innovation within the context of the big-data revolution, by building new values.
Trelles, Mario A; Mordon, Serge; Calderhead, R Glen
The treatment of ageing skin remains a very hot topic, and many systems have been reported as having varying degrees of success. Nonablative lasers were developed to avoid the problematic and uncomfortable sequelae following laser ablative resurfacing, and while there was no downtime, there was also poor patient satisfaction. The same was true of the intense pulsed light systems. The use of different modalities in various combinations was found to offer much better results, however, such as a 595-nm pulsed dye laser followed by a 1,450-nm diode laser, and so on, all used at subablative thresholds. The recent entry of blue and infrared tunable plasma light and light-emitting diodes into the skin rejuvenation arena has attracted a great deal of attention. The authors suggest that no single modality can accomplish all the complex events required for effective skin rejuvenation, suggest that combination phototherapy is the best approach combined with an adjunctive epidermal care regimen, and demonstrate their development of this methodology.
Healthcare industry continues to evolve under conditions of intense competition in approaching health prevention, protection, and promotion. Therefore, healthcare providers are challenged to always ensure better patient experience, winning patients’ satisfaction, and loyalty and remain competitive on today’s healthcare market. Healthcare markets bring together professionals and their patients into real collaborative relationships, which empower patients to contribute to the healthcare improvement. Within this competitive landscape, which is also characterized by digital health tools boosting patients’ awareness and controlling their own health, medical providers need to be perceived as skilled and trustworthy in relying on patients’ needs, expectations, and sacrifices are required in order to obtain the promised benefits. Moreover, while constantly providing a holistic assessment of the healthcare services’ and experience attributes, acting on feedback and reaching healthcare service excellence, providing a better understanding of all the touch points with their patients and improving the quality and consistency of all these touch points, all these are achieved by employees, who are truly connected to the healthcare business. Today, patients are systematically becoming aware of the diversity of their choices, being increasingly involved in making better healthcare choices, and, so, more and more innovative products are introduced, targeting new patient segments. Findings from the last three years have shown that patients may achieve better outcomes due to the stakeholders’ commitment to innovation within the context of the big-data revolution, by building new values. PMID:27928442
Smart, D E; Beumont, P J; George, G C
Twenty-two female patients with anorexia nervosa were assessed by means of objective personality testing. The EPI, Leyton Obsessional Inventory, Cattell's 16 PF and Raven's Matrices were used for this purpose. The personality profile that emerged was of a highly neurotic and introverted person with moderately severe obsessional features and average intelligence.
Hvalvik, Sigrun; Reierson, Inger Å.
Next of kin represent significant resources in the care for older patients. The aim of this study was to describe and illuminate the meaning of the next of kin’s experiences during the transition of an older person with continuing care needs from hospital to home. The study has a phenomenological hermeneutic design. Individual, narrative interviews were conducted, and the data analysis was conducted in accordance with Lindseth and Norberg’s phenomenological hermeneutic method. Two themes and four subthemes were identified and formulated. The first theme: “Balancing vulnerability and strength,” encompassed the subthemes “enduring emotional stress” and “striving to maintain security and continuity.” The second theme: “Coping with an altered everyday life,” encompassed “dealing with changes” and “being in readiness.” Our findings suggest that the next of kin in striving to maintain continuity and safety in the older person’s transition process are both vulnerable individuals and significant agents. Thus, it is urgent that health care providers accommodate both their vulnerability and their abilities to act, and thereby make them feel valued as respected agents and human beings in the transition process. PMID:25746043
Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.
This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified. PMID:23668602
Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.
Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…
Karachristianou, Styliani; Katsarou, Zoe; Bostantjopoulou, Sevasti; Economou, Andri; Garyfallos, George; Delinikopoulou, Eleni
In the study described here we attempted to evaluate the personality profiles of 25 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) at the time of diagnosis, before treatment, and to explore a potential relationship between behavioral aspects and clinical outcome. For this purpose we employed a standardized and objective instrument, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), and found that patients with JME have a personality profile similar to that of the control group, which corresponds to the 3,1 code type MMPI profile. We also noted that the characteristics of this personality type include those described in patients with long-duration JME by previous researchers. Consequently, we conclude that personality aberrations are not a feature of this syndrome. Furthermore, we observed that under treatment, EEGs normalized in patients who had exhibited "psychotic tendencies" pretreatment. The credibility of our results is supported by the fact that assessment of the personality profile was not confounded by medication or the longitudinal burden of epileptic seizures.
Cassavaugh, Jessica M; Oravitz, Todd M
Stiff-person syndrome is a progressive disease of muscle rigidity and spasticity due to a deficiency in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid. Because of the rarity of the condition, little is known about effects of anesthesia on patients with stiff-person syndrome. This report describes the clinical course for a single patient with stiff-person syndrome who received general anesthesia on 3 separate occasions. Her anesthetics included use of both neuromuscular blockade and volatile agents. Unlike several previous reports regarding anesthesia and stiff-person syndrome, the postoperative period for this patient did not require prolonged intubation or result in any residual weakness.
This article explores what rights persons, other than the patient, have to access health records which come under Data Protection Act and other statutory provisions. These other persons could include the relatives of a patient, the parents of a child or those concerned with the estate of a deceased person. In addition, there are other rights of disclosure recognized by the common law and these will be considered in a later article.
Introduction In this study, we aimed to develop two reliable and valid assessment instruments for investigating the level of difficulties mental health workers experience while working with patients with personality disorders and the attitudes they develop tt the patients. Methods The research was carried out based on the general screening model. The study sample consisted of 332 mental health workers in several mental health clinics of Turkey, with a certain amount of experience in working with personality disorders, who were selected with a random assignment method. In order to collect data, the Personal Information Questionnaire, Difficulty of Working with Personality Disorders Scale (PD-DWS), and Attitudes Towards Patients with Personality Disorders Scale (PD-APS), which are being examined for reliability and validity, were applied. To determine construct validity, the Adjective Check List, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. Explanatory factor analysis was used for investigating the structural validity, and Cronbach alpha, Spearman-Brown, Guttman Split-Half reliability analyses were utilized to examine the reliability. Also, item reliability and validity computations were carried out by investigating the corrected item-total correlations and discriminative indexes of the items in the scales. Results For the PD-DWS KMO test, the value was .946; also, a significant difference was found for the Bartlett sphericity test (p<.001). The computed test-retest coefficient reliability was .702; the Cronbach alpha value of the total test score was .952. For PD-APS KMO, the value was .925; a significant difference was found in Bartlett sphericity test (p<.001); the computed reliability coefficient based on continuity was .806; and the Cronbach alpha value of the total test score was .913. Analyses on both scales were based on total scores. Conclusion It was found that PD-DWS and PD-APS have good psychometric properties, measuring the
Zaĭtsev, V P
The paper unveils the concept of medical rehabilitation and defines its place in clinical medicine. It underlines the inextricable link and interaction of different components of a rehabilitation system. The value of the psychological aspect of rehabilitation is considered. Categories of patients and disabled persons who need psychological rehabilitation are identified; a classification of personal reactions to disease and the changes in the psychological state of patients in different periods after disease onset are given. The factors influencing the process of psychological readjustment in patients and the disabled are analyzed. The psychological rehabilitation system for patients and disabled persons is considered in detail. Data on its medical and socioeconomic efficiency are presented.
Carroll, June C.; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Manca, Donna P.; Sopcak, Nicolette; Permaul, Joanne A.; O’Brien, Mary Ann; Heisey, Ruth; Eisenhauer, Elizabeth A.; Easley, Julie; Krzyzanowska, Monika K.; Miedema, Baukje; Pruthi, Sandhya; Sawka, Carol; Schneider, Nancy; Sussman, Jonathan; Urquhart, Robin; Versaevel, Catarina; Grunfeld, Eva
Abstract Objective To assess primary care providers’ (PCPs’) experiences with, perceptions of, and desired role in personalized medicine, with a focus on cancer. Design Qualitative study involving focus groups. Setting Urban and rural interprofessional primary care team practices in Alberta and Ontario. Participants Fifty-one PCPs. Methods Semistructured focus groups were conducted and audiorecorded. Recordings were transcribed and analyzed using techniques informed by grounded theory including coding, interpretations of patterns in the data, and constant comparison. Main findings Five focus groups with the 51 participants were conducted; 2 took place in Alberta and 3 in Ontario. Primary care providers described limited experience with personalized medicine, citing breast cancer and prenatal care as main areas of involvement. They expressed concern over their lack of knowledge, in some circumstances relying on personal experiences to inform their attitudes and practice. Participants anticipated an inevitable role in personalized medicine primarily because patients seek and trust their advice; however, there was underlying concern about the magnitude of information and pace of discovery in this area, particularly in direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Increased knowledge, closer ties to genetics specialists, and relevant, reliable personalized medicine resources accessible at the point of care were reported as important for successful implementation of personalized medicine. Conclusion Primary care providers are prepared to discuss personalized medicine, but they require better resources. Models of care that support a more meaningful relationship between PCPs and genetics specialists should be pursued. Continuing education strategies need to address knowledge gaps including direct-to-consumer genetic testing, a relatively new area provoking PCP concern. Primary care providers should be mindful of using personal experiences to guide care. PMID:27737998
Van Belle, Goedele
Despite the agreement that experience with faces leads to more efficient processing, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Building on empirical evidence from unfamiliar face processing in healthy populations and neuropsychological patients, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that personal familiarity is associated with superior discrimination when identity information is derived based on global, as opposed to local facial information. Diagnosticity and availability of local and global information was manipulated through varied physical similarity and spatial resolution of morph faces created from personally familiar or unfamiliar faces. We found that discrimination of subtle changes between highly similar morph faces was unaffected by familiarity. Contrariwise, relatively more pronounced physical (i.e., identity) differences were more efficiently discriminated for personally familiar faces, indicating more efficient processing of global, as opposed to local facial information through real-life experience. PMID:26855852
Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.
Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity. PMID:24586905
Shore, Rebecca Martin
Describes how a typical high school in Huntington Beach, California, curbed disruptive student behavior by personalizing the school experience for "problem" students. Through mostly volunteer efforts, an adopt-a-kid program was initiated that matched kids' learning styles to adults' personality styles and resulted in fewer suspensions…
Brandt, Karen R; Macrae, C Neil; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Milne, Alan B
Using Tulving's (1985) remember/know procedure, the present research investigated the experiential concomitants of person recognition. Noting basic differences in the manner in which the mind processes expectancy-related material, it was anticipated that facial typicality would be a critical determinant of people's recollective experiences (i.e., remembering vs knowing). In particular, it was expected that whereas remember responses would be more prevalent for distinctive than typical faces, know responses would reflect the opposite pattern. The results of two experiments provided general support for these predictions. In addition, the recollective advantage for distinctive faces was traced to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. These results are considered in the context of contemporary issues in person recognition and social cognition.
Guler, Pamela H
Patient experience has become a critical differentiator for healthcare organizations, and it will only grow in importance as transparency and consumerism dominate the healthcare landscape. Creating and sustaining a consistently exceptional experience that promotes patient engagement and the best outcomes is far more than just "satisfying" patients, going well beyond amenities that may be provided.Perception of care experience is often shaped by methods we use to address the biopsychosocial needs of patients. Building relationships and communicating well with our patients and families are primary approaches. In a complex healthcare situation, patients may not fully understand or remember the highly clinical nature of treatment. However, they always remember how we made them feel, how we communicated with them as a team, and what interactions they experienced while in our care.Patients who are fully informed and feel connected to their caregivers are often less anxious than those who are disengaged. Informed and engaged patients are enabled to participate in their healthcare. Organizations that focus on developing an accountable culture-one that inspires caregivers to communicate in a way that connects to patients' mind, body, and spirit while leveraging standard, evidence-based patient experience practices-find that patients' perception of care, or "the patient experience," is vastly improved.Adventist Health System has embarked on a journey to patient experience excellence with a commitment to whole-person care and standard patient experience practice across the system. Recognized with several national awards, we continue to strengthen our approach toward bringing all of our campuses and patient settings to sustained high-level performance. We have found that a combination of strong, accountable leadership; a focus on employee culture; engagement of physicians; standardized patient experience practices and education; and meaningful use of patient feedback are top
... of patients. The provisions of this section are applicable to gratuitous benefits deposited by the... November 30, 1959: (a) Eligible persons. Gratuitous benefits shall be paid to the living person first... otherwise entitled is under legal disability at the time of the veteran's death, the 5-year period will...
... of patients. The provisions of this section are applicable to gratuitous benefits deposited by the... November 30, 1959: (a) Eligible persons. Gratuitous benefits shall be paid to the living person first... otherwise entitled is under legal disability at the time of the veteran's death, the 5-year period will...
Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Jones, Anne
The maintenance of personal hygiene is essential for a patient's health and well-being. Nurses play a key role in ensuring that the individual hygiene needs of patients are met. In this article the process of bed-bathing a patient is described.
What once required extensive manual effort and coordination has been reduced to a single access point for patient data collection and scheduling. Over half of the one million patients seen yearly by a large multi-specialty physicians' group are handled with an automated scheduling system with patient sensitivity as the main priority.
Carlson, Erika N; Oltmanns, Thomas F
Do people with personality problems have insight into how others experience them? In a large community sample of adults (N = 641), the authors examined whether people with personality disorder (PD) symptoms were aware of how a close acquaintance (i.e., a romantic partner, family member, or friend) perceived them by measuring participants' metaperceptions and self-perceptions as well as their acquaintance's impression of them on Five-Factor Model traits. Compared to people with fewer PD symptoms, people with more PD symptoms tended to be less accurate and tended to overestimate the negativity of the impressions they made on their acquaintance, especially for the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Interestingly, these individuals did not necessarily assume that their acquaintance perceived them as they perceived themselves; instead, poor insight was likely due to their inability to detect or utilize information other than their self-perceptions. Implications for the conceptualization, measurement, and treatment of PDs are discussed.
Carlson, Erika N.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Do people with personality problems have insight into how others experience them? In a large community sample of adults (N = 641), the authors examined whether people with personality disorder (PD) symptoms were aware of how a close acquaintance (i.e., a romantic partner, family member, or friend) perceived them by measuring participants’ metaperceptions and self-perceptions as well as their acquaintance’s impression of them on Five-Factor Model traits. Compared to people with fewer PD symptoms, people with more PD symptoms tended to be less accurate and tended to overestimate the negativity of the impressions they made on their acquaintance, especially for the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Interestingly, these individuals did not necessarily assume that their acquaintance perceived them as they perceived themselves; instead, poor insight was likely due to their inability to detect or utilize information other than their self-perceptions. Implications for the conceptualization, measurement, and treatment of PDs are discussed. PMID:26200846
Jong, Jonathan; Whitehouse, Harvey; Kavanagh, Christopher; Lane, Justin
Across three studies, we examined the role of shared negative experiences in the formation of strong social bonds—identity fusion—previously associated with individuals' willingness to self-sacrifice for the sake of their groups. Studies 1 and 2 were correlational studies conducted on two different populations. In Study 1, we found that the extent to which Northern Irish Republicans and Unionists experienced shared negative experiences was associated with levels of identity fusion, and that this relationship was mediated by their reflection on these experiences. In Study 2, we replicated this finding among Bostonians, looking at their experiences of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings. These correlational studies provide initial evidence for the plausibility of our causal model; however, an experiment was required for a more direct test. Thus, in Study 3, we experimentally manipulated the salience of the Boston Marathon Bombings, and found that this increased state levels of identity fusion among those who experienced it negatively. Taken together, these three studies provide evidence that shared negative experience leads to identity fusion, and that this process involves personal reflection. PMID:26699364
Simon, C S
Individuals with dyslexia can expect to have difficulties learning a second language since second language learning builds on native language learning. The factors that have a negative impact on learning one's native language have a similar impact on learning a foreign language (e.g., difficulties with phonemic awareness, retrieving and processing linguistic information, working memory, metalinguistic explanations, stabilizing sound-symbol relationships). This participant observer report provides (1) a brief review of research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language; (2) a description of how dyslexia has affected my educational experiences; (3) a description of personal experiences learning a foreign language between 1992-1998; and (4) recommendations for individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and for their foreign language instructors.
Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams
The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.
This article concentrates on the importance of personal hygiene for staff and patients in reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections for patients. It provides an historical context to the associated risks of "basic nursing care" and how these can be counteracted. With the introduction of modern matrons and directors of infection control, emphasis is again focused on these practices.
Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A
Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628
Douali, Nassim; De Roo, Jos; Jaulent, Marie-Christine
Personalized medicine may be considered an extension of traditional approaches to understanding and treating diseases, but with greater precision. A profile of a patient's genetic variation can guide the selection of drugs or treatment protocols that minimize harmful side effects or ensure a more successful outcome. In this paper we describe a decision support system designed to assist physicians for personalized care, and methodology for integration in the clinical workflow. A reasoning method for interacting heterogeneous knowledge and data is a necessity in the context of personalized medicine. Development of clinical decision support based semantic web for personalized patient care is to achieve its potential and improve the quality, safety and efficiency of healthcare.
Tundo, Antonio; de Filippis, Rocco; Proietti, Luca
AIM: To review evidence supporting pharmacological treatments for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and to discuss them according to personal clinical experience. METHODS: Original studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses addressing pharmacological treatment for TRD in adult patients published from 1990 to 2013 were identified by data base queries (PubMed, Google Scholar e Quertle Searches) using terms: “treatment resistant depression”, “treatment refractory depression”, “partial response depression”, “non responder depression”, “optimization strategy”, “switching strategy”, “combination strategy”, “augmentation strategy”, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants (SSRI), tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors antidepressants, mirtazapine, mianserine, bupropione, monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant (MAOI), lithium, thyroid hormones, second generation antipsychotics (SGA), dopamine agonists, lamotrigine, psychostimulants, dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, ketamine, omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosil-L-metionine, methylfolat, pindolol, sex steroids, glucocorticoid agents. Other citations of interest were further identified from references reported in the accessed articles. Selected publications were grouped by treatment strategy: (1) switching from an ineffective antidepressant (AD) to a new AD from a similar or different class; (2) combining the current AD regimen with a second AD from a different class; and (3) augmenting the current AD regimen with a second agent not thought to be an antidepressant itself. RESULTS: Switching from a TCA to another TCA provides only a modest advantage (response rate 9%-27%), while switching from a SSRI to another SSRI is more advantageous (response rate up to 75%). Evidence supports the usefulness of switching from SSRI to venlafaxine (5 positive trials out 6), TCA (2 positive trials out 3), and MAOI (2 positive trials out
Distel, Marijn A; Smit, Johannes H; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H
Anxiety and depression frequently co-occur with borderline personality disorder. Relatively little research examined the presence of borderline personality features and its main domains (affective instability, identity problems, negative relationships and self-harm) in individuals with remitted and current anxiety and depression. Participants with current (n=597) or remitted (n=1115) anxiety and/or depression and healthy controls (n=431) were selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Assessments included the Personality Assessment Inventory - Borderline Features Scale and several clinical characteristics of anxiety and depression. Borderline personality features were more common in depression than in anxiety. Current comorbid anxiety and depression was associated with most borderline personality features. Anxiety and depression status explained 29.7% of the variance in borderline personality features and 3.8% (self-harm) to 31% (identity problems) of the variance in the four domains. A large part of the variance was shared between anxiety and depression but both disorders also explained a significant amount of unique variance. The severity of anxiety and depression and the level of daily dysfunctioning was positively associated with borderline personality features. Individuals with a longer duration of anxiety and depression showed more affective instability and identity problems. These findings suggest that patients with anxiety and depression may benefit from an assessment of personality pathology as it may have implications for psychological and pharmacological treatment.
Giardina, Traber Davis; Modi, Varsha; Parrish, Danielle E.; Singh, Hardeep
Many health care institutions are implementing patient portals that allow patients to track and maintain their personal health information, mostly in response to the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act requirements. Test results review is an area of high interest to patients and provides an opportunity to foster their involvement in preventing abnormal test results from being overlooked, a common patient safety concern. However, little is known about how patients engage with portals to review abnormal results and which strategies could facilitate that interaction in order to ensure safe follow-up on abnormalities. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore patients’ experiences related to abnormal test result notifications through patient portals. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 13 participants, patients and primary caregivers, between February 2014 and October 2014. Using content analysis, the authors explored patient experiences accessing abnormal test results through their portals. Respondents strongly favored access to all types of abnormal test results, but they raised several concerns including need for more timely notification and not being able to interpret the exact relevance of the result. Respondents’ personal experiences with physicians, test result notification, and the portal heavily influenced respondents’ notification preferences. Patient experiences with portals could be improved by development of strategies to help patients understand and manage the information received. These findings suggest important considerations for health professionals and institutions aiming to better engage patients in follow-up of their test results.
Zohar, Ada H.; Zaraya-Blum, Reut; Buskila, Dan
Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male) reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate). Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107), participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97) showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS), Reward dependence (RD), Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD), social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine. PMID:27672497
Mayir, Burhan; Doğan, Uğur; Bilecik, Tuna; Yardımcı, Erdem Can; Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Mayir, Yeliz Akpınar; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir
Objective Although all animal studies are conducted in line with a specific purpose, we think that not all animal studies are performed for a scientific purpose but for personal curiosity or to fulfill a requirement. The aim of the present study is to reveal the purposes of experimental studies conducted on animals. Matherial and Methods We searched for experimental studies performed on rats in general surgery clinics via PubMed, and obtained the e-mail addresses of the corresponding authors for each study. Afterwards, we sent a 7-item questionnaire to the authors and awaited their responses. Results Seventy-three (22.2%) of 329 authors responded to the questionnaire. Within these studies, 31 (42.5%) were conducted as part of a dissertation, while the remaining 19 (26.0%) were conducted to meet the academic promotion criteria. Only 23 (31.5%) were conducted for scientific purposes. The cost of 41% of those studies was higher than 2500 $. Conclusion As shown in this study, the main objective of carrying out animal studies in Turkey is usually to prepare a dissertation or to be entitled to academic promotion. Animal experiments must be planned and performed as scientific studies to support related clinical studies. Additionally, animal studies must have well-defined objectives and be carried out in line with scientific purposes that may lead to useful developments in medicine, rather than personal interests. PMID:28149122
Frank, H; Paris, J
To test psychodynamic hypotheses about the etiology of the borderline syndrome, female borderline patients were asked whether they remembered their mothers and fathers as having responded with approval, disinterest, or criticism to dependent and independent behaviors. Comparisons were made with a group of normal controls and with a group of neurotics and patients with personality disorders. The main finding was that borderline patients remembered their fathers as neglectful. The recollections did not support an overprotection hypothesis.
Thoresen, Lisbeth; Öhlén, Joakim
As researchers in palliative care, we recognize how involvement with seriously ill and dying persons has an impact on us. Using one's own senses, emotional and bodily responses in observations might open intersubjective dimensions of the research topic. The aim of the article is to highlight how phenomenological theories on intersubjectivity can be useful to develop rich and transparent data generation and analysis. We present three field note examples from observation in a hospice ward, which illuminate how researcher awareness of aspects of intersubjectivity can add valuable insights to data and analysis. Out of the examples, we elaborate on three arguments: (a) how the researcher's lived experience of time and space during fieldwork triggers new research questions, (b) how observations as an embodied activity can bring new insights and open new layers of meaning, and (c) the value of observations in gaining insight into relational aspects in a hospice.
This article is part of a working project which assesses Ontario's mental health legislation and practice vis-à-vis international human rights standards. The paper focuses on procedural safeguards provided by the major international human rights instruments in the field of mental health law such as the UN Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness (MI Principles) and the European Convention on Human Rights as interpreted by the European Human Rights Court. In analysing Ontario's compliance with international standards, the paper will explore some problems arising from the implementation of the legislation with which the author is familiar with from his experience as counsel for the Consent and Capacity Board. The paper aims to generate discussion for potential reforms in domestic legal systems and to provide a methodology to be used as a tool to assess similar mental health legislation in other local contexts.
Lange, Lori J; Piette, John D
In a diverse sample of 452 adult diabetes patients, we investigated: (1) personal model dimensions for diabetes and expanded upon the literature by indexing fatalism, (2) the relationship between contextual factors and patients' beliefs about the seriousness and controllability of diabetes, and (3) the unique contribution of illness representation combinations to clinical outcomes when controlling for baseline disease severity. Major categories of predictors included patients' sociocultural characteristics, illness history (e.g., co-morbidities, diabetes complications) and recent physical symptoms. Illness representations were measured using the Personal Models of Diabetes Interview and questions that index fatalistic beliefs. Clinical outcome measures included patients' glycemic control (HbA1c) and the patient's physical and mental functions as measured by the SF-12. Analyses corroborated the literature by identifying seriousness and treatment effectiveness cognitive model dimensions for diabetes. Physical symptoms and other disease-related factors were strong predictors of patients' seriousness beliefs for diabetes, whereas sociocultural factors (education, ethnicity) best explained representations related to the controllability of diabetes (i.e., treatment effectiveness, fatalism). Seriousness beliefs were good indicators of actual glucose control, except for cases in which patients were more fatalistic and believed diabetes to be less serious. Although patients had medically consistent views of their diabetes, variations in personal models of diabetes were related to specific contextual factors and independently explained diabetes control.
Mulder, Roger T; Newton-Howes, Giles; Crawford, Michael J; Tyrer, Peter J
There is general agreement that the classification of personality disorders in DSM-IV is unsatisfactory. We systematically reviewed all studies that have analyzed patterns of personality disorder symptoms and signs in psychiatric patients; twenty-two papers were included in the final synthesis. There is reasonable consistency over the number and type of personality pathology traits reported despite differing samples, varying assessment methods, and different statistical manipulations. There are three or four high order traits; an externalizing factor incorporating borderline, narcissistic, histrionic, and antisocial traits (the latter is sometimes recorded as a separate trait); an internalizing factor incorporating avoidant and dependent traits; a schizoid factor; and often a compulsive factor. Using these domains of personality pathology would simplify classification, have higher clinical utility, and allow relatively easy translation of current research.
Llorca, G; Martín, T; Derecho, J; Gómez, M J
A sample of twenty cancer patients following chemotherapy realize MMPI questionnaire, and another one for valuation of emetic and anticipatory phenomena in relation to said therapy. The authors came to the conclusion that 36.8% of the sample had anticipatory nausea and vomiting, 63.6% anticipatory dysphoria, and 66% emetic incidents after chemotherapy. The conclusion, through comparison of personality variables, is that all patients showed neuroticism and depression scales increased, in relation to healthy population. Depression variable increased especially in patients that didn't present anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Likewise, patients with anticipatory symptoms or emetic incidents after chemotherapy present an increased social introversion variable.
Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L
This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.
Meghen, K; Sweeney, C; Linehan, C; O'Flynn, S; Boylan, G
Although females represent a high proportion of medical graduates, women are under represented at consultant level in many hospital specialties. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken which established female representation at all levels of the medical workforce in Ireland in 2011 and documented the personal experiences of a sample of female specialists. The proportions of female trainees at initial and higher specialist training levels are 765 (53%) and 656 (55%) respectively but falls to 1,685 (32%) at hospital specialist level (p < 0.0001). Significantly fewer women are found at specialist as compared to training levels in anaesthesia (p = 0.04), emergency medicine (p = 0.02), medicine (p < 0.0001), obstetrics/gynaecology (p = 0.0005), paediatrics (p = 0.006), pathology p = 0.03) and surgery (p < 0.0001). The lowest proportion of female doctors at specialist level exists in the combined surgical specialties 88 (10%); the highest is in psychiatry 380 (53%). Qualitative findings indicate that females who complete specialist training are wary of pursuing either flexible training or part time work options and experience discrimination at a number of levels. They appear to be resilient to this and tolerate it. Balancing motherhood and work commitments is the biggest challenge faced by female doctors with children and causes some to change career pathways.
Brewerton, T D; Hand, L D; Bishop, E R
The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was developed to measure a variety of personality variants on three biosocial dimensions, harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), and reward dependence (RD), which are thought to be related to serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) function, respectively. Patients with eating disorders have been reported to have abnormalities in all of these systems, as well as personality variants described by these dimensions. We therefore administered the TPQ to 147 patients with DSM-III-R defined eating disorders (110 bulimia nervosa [BN], 27 with anorexia nervosa [AN], and 10 with BN+AN) and compared their scores to those of 350 female controls. When significant, post hoc Bonferroni t tests were performed using alpha = 0.05. All subtypes of eating disorder patients scored significantly higher on HA than controls (p < or = .0001, analysis of variance. Only patients with BN (+/- AN) had significantly higher degrees of NS (p < or = .0001), particularly on the impulsiveness subscale (NS2), although this may, in part, be due to age. No significant differences in total RD were found, although BN patients scored lower on RD3 (attachment vs. detachment) and higher on RD4 (dependence vs. independence) than controls. In addition, AN patients had significantly higher RD2 (persistence vs. irresoluteness) subscale scores. These data support a theory of 5-HT dysregulation in both types of eating disorders and suggest that further research be done on the role of DA and NE in BN.
Cook, Nicole; Hollar, Lucas; Isaac, Emmanuel; Paul, Ludmilla; Amofah, Anthony; Shi, Leiyu
The Human Resource and Services Administration, Bureau of Primary Health Care Health Center program was developed to provide comprehensive, community-based quality primary care services, with an emphasis on meeting the needs of medically underserved populations. Health Centers have been leaders in adopting innovative approaches to improve quality care delivery, including the patient centered medical home (PCMH) model. Engaging patients through patient experience assessment is an important component of PCMH evaluation and a vital activity that can help drive patient-centered quality improvement initiatives. A total of 488 patients from five Health Center PCMHs in south Florida were surveyed in order to improve understanding of patient experience in Health Center PCMHs and to identify quality improvement opportunities. Overall patients reported very positive experience with patient-centeredness including being treated with courtesy and respect (85 % responded "always") and communication with their provider in a way that was easy to understand (87.7 % responded "always"). Opportunities for improvement included patient goal setting, referrals for patients with health conditions to workshops or educational programs, contact with the Health Center via phone and appointment availability. After adjusting for patient characteristics, results suggest that some patient experience components may be modified by educational attainment, years of care and race/ethnicity of patients. Findings are useful for informing quality improvement initiatives that, in conjunction with other patient engagement strategies, support Health Centers' ongoing transformation as PCMHs.
Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Raballo, Andrea; Blasi, Stefano; Cutting, John
Abnormal time experience (ATE) in schizophrenia is a long-standing theme of phenomenological psychopathology. This is because temporality constitutes the bedrock of any experience and its integrity is fundamental for the sense of coherence and continuity of selfhood and personal identity. To characterize ATE in schizophrenia patients as compared to major depressives we interviewed, in a clinical setting over a period of 15 years, 550 consecutive patients affected by schizophrenic and affective disorders. Clinical files were analyzed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), an inductive method suited to research that requires rich descriptions of inner experiences. Of the whole sample, 109 persons affected by schizophrenic (n = 95 acute, n = 14 chronic) and 37 by major depression reported at least 1 ATE. ATE are more represented in acute (N = 109 out of 198; 55%) than in chronic schizophrenic patients (N = 14 out of 103; 13%). The main feature of ATE in people with schizophrenia is the fragmentation of time experience (71 out of 109 patients), an impairment of the automatic and prereflexive synthesis of primal impression-retention-protention. This includes 4 subcategories: disruption of time flowing, déjà vu/vecu, premonitions about oneself and the external world. We contrasted ATE in schizophrenia and in major depression, finding relevant differences: in major depressives there is no disarticulation of time experience, rather timelessness because time lacks duration, not articulation. These core features of the schizophrenic pheno-phenotype may be related to self-disorders and to the manifold of characteristic schizophrenic symptoms, including so called bizarre delusions and verbal-acoustic hallucinations.
Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Raballo, Andrea; Blasi, Stefano; Cutting, John
Abnormal time experience (ATE) in schizophrenia is a long-standing theme of phenomenological psychopathology. This is because temporality constitutes the bedrock of any experience and its integrity is fundamental for the sense of coherence and continuity of selfhood and personal identity. To characterize ATE in schizophrenia patients as compared to major depressives we interviewed, in a clinical setting over a period of 15 years, 550 consecutive patients affected by schizophrenic and affective disorders. Clinical files were analyzed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), an inductive method suited to research that requires rich descriptions of inner experiences. Of the whole sample, 109 persons affected by schizophrenic (n = 95 acute, n = 14 chronic) and 37 by major depression reported at least 1 ATE. ATE are more represented in acute (N = 109 out of 198; 55%) than in chronic schizophrenic patients (N = 14 out of 103; 13%). The main feature of ATE in people with schizophrenia is the fragmentation of time experience (71 out of 109 patients), an impairment of the automatic and prereflexive synthesis of primal impression-retention-protention. This includes 4 subcategories: disruption of time flowing, déjà vu/vecu, premonitions about oneself and the external world. We contrasted ATE in schizophrenia and in major depression, finding relevant differences: in major depressives there is no disarticulation of time experience, rather timelessness because time lacks duration, not articulation. These core features of the schizophrenic pheno-phenotype may be related to self-disorders and to the manifold of characteristic schizophrenic symptoms, including so called bizarre delusions and verbal-acoustic hallucinations. PMID:25943123
["...cause in such a big hospital ... visually impaired persons like me, alone, can't get anywhere"--the experience of visually impaired people of the in-patient care--an empirical, explorative study].
The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of people with visual impairment within in-patient care. Actually, in nursing literature, no similar research is known in the German speaking area. Therefore, an qualitative research framework was used. By using a convenience sampling eight participants have been chosen. Mainly, the thematic content analysis of Burnard has been applied to the analysis of the empirical data. Mental spatial concepts for orientation, primarily acoustically made communicative resonance fields, and Action techniques constitute three major topics, which have been categorised in this study. These concepts are discussed in the cause of the research with respect to their implications on nursing care.
Bergdahl, Jan; Mårell, Lena; Bergdahl, Maud; Perris, Hjördis
The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychobiological personality dimensions in two subgroups of patients with environmental illness (EI). Fifty-nine patients, 34 women and 25 men (aged 32-69 years), were referred for symptoms allegedly caused by abnormal sensitivity to either dental fillings (DF; n=26) or electromagnetic fields (EMF; n=33). For the evaluation of personality, the Swedish 238-item version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used. Compared with a control group, the EMF group scored higher on the temperament dimension Persistence. The DF group scored higher on the TCI subscales Harm Avoidance (fatigability and asthenia) and Self-Directedness (self-acceptance). Women scored higher than men did on the Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependence (RD) dimensions in the DF group and on RD in the control group, indicating an inherited gender difference. No differences were found between men and women in the EMF group. Our results indicate that the high level of persistence found in the EMF group and the high level of fatigability and asthenia in combination with high self-acceptance found in the DF group represent vulnerable personalities. No significant differences were found between the two patient groups, indicating that these groups are quite similar regarding personality. This vulnerability can be expressed as various mental and somatic symptoms, which can be interpreted as EI symptoms by the affected individual.
Larrabee, J H; Bolden, L V; Knight, M R
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the lived experience of patient prudence in health care. Prudence has previously been defined as good judgement in setting realistic personal goals and using personal resources to achieve those goals. Audiotaped interviews were conducted with 10 hospitalized adults for whom health care providers had previously recommended life style changes for health reasons. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's method. Seventy-seven significant statements were identified and, from their formulated meanings, seven themes emerged that were integrated into a description of the fundamental structure of prudence. From the patient perspective, prudence in health care is a dynamic phenomenon that involves achieving well-being and self-perpetuation within the context of the patient's world of competing values and is experienced with emotions that range from harmony to fear and depression.
Anghinoni, M; Bailleul, C; Magri, A S
Microtia is a congenital disease with various degrees of severity, ranging from the presence of rudimentary and malformed vestigial structures to the total absence of the ear (anotia). The complex anatomy of the external ear and the necessity to provide good projection and symmetry make this reconstruction particularly difficult. The aim of this work is to report our surgical technique of microtic ear correction and to analyse the short and long term results. From 2000 to 2013, 210 patients affected by microtia were treated at the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Division, Head and Neck Department, University Hospital of Parma. The patient population consisted of 95 women and 115 men, aged from 7 to 49 years. A total of 225 reconstructions have been performed in two surgical stages basing of Firmin's technique with some modifications and refinements. The first stage consists in fabrication and grafting of a three-dimensional costal cartilage framework. The second stage is performed 5-6 months later: the reconstructed ear is raised up and an additional cartilaginous graft is used to increase its projection. A mastoid fascial flap together with a skin graft are then used to protect the cartilage graft. All reconstructions were performed without any major complication. The results have been considered satisfactory by all patients starting from the first surgical step. Low morbidity, the good results obtained and a high rate of patient satisfaction make our protocol an optimal choice for treatment of microtia. The surgeon's experience and postoperative patient care must be considered as essential aspects of treatment.
Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M Z; McLean, L
Burn rehabilitation is a lengthy process associated with physical and psychosocial problems. As a critical area in burn care, the aim was to systematically synthesise the literature focussing on personal perceptions and experiences of adult burn survivors' rehabilitation and to identify factors that influence their rehabilitation. Studies were identified through an electronic search using the databases: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO and Trove of peer reviewed research published between 2002 and 2012 limited to English-language research with search terms developed to reflect burn rehabilitation. From the 378 papers identified, 14 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, there were 184 participants conducted in eight different countries. The reported mean age was 41 years with a mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn of 34% and the length of stay ranging from one day to 68 months. Significant factors identified as influential in burn rehabilitation were the impact of support, coping and acceptance, the importance of work, physical changes and limitations. This review suggests there is a necessity for appropriate knowledge and education based programmes for burn survivors with consideration given to the timing and delivery of education to facilitate the rehabilitation journey.
Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert
The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance.
Duberstein, Paul R; Sörensen, Silvia; Lyness, Jeffrey M; King, Deborah A; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D
Using data collected on 265 primary care medical patients 60 years of age and older, the authors examined the personality bases of subjective health (perceived health, functional status) after controlling for observer-rated depression and medical burden. Four hypotheses were tested: High Neuroticism is associated with poorer perceived health, low Extraversion is associated with poorer perceived health, low Openness to Experience is associated with worse functional status, and age moderates the relationships between personality and subjective health. Findings supported the notion that personality is associated with subjective health; moreover, this effect appeared to grow more pronounced with increasing age. This study underscores the conceptual and heuristic value of examining moderators of the links between personality variables and health.
Lorenz, Delia; Schwieger, Daniel; Moises, Hans; Deuschl, Günther
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of essential tremor (ET) on quality of life and its relation with tremor severity and the personality profile of ET patients. One hundred and five patients with definite or probable ET from an outpatient population were tested with the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF36) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). Compared to controls, the ET patients scored worse in all eight domains of the SF36. The physical component score (PCS) did not differ significantly from the normal population, whereas ET patients older than 40 years were significantly more affected with regard to the mental domains measured by the mental component score (MCS) with their median below the 20th percentile of the German controls. Tremor severity correlated with some of the physical domains and the PCS as well as with social function of the mental domains. ET patients showed significantly lower scores in the psychoticism (P) scale of the EPQ-R, with a median value on the 11th percentile of normal German population, indicating a more tender-minded personality type. The MCS correlated highly significant with the neuroticism (N) scale and extraversion (E) scale of EPQ-R. Multiple regression analysis identified age as the only predictive factor for the PCS and the N-scale as the only predictive factor for the MCS. Although ET is considered a pure movement disorder, the mental components of quality of life are more affected than the physical dimensions. A more controlled personality type may in part contribute to this.
Yagan, Ozgur; Özyilmaz, Kadir; Özmaden, Ahmet; Sayin, Özgür; Hanci, Volkan
Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS), typified by rigidity in muscles of the torso and extremities and painful episodic spasms, is a rare autoimmune-based neurological disease. Here we present the successful endotracheal intubation and application of TIVA without muscle relaxants on an SPS patient. A 46 years old male patient was operated with ASA-II physical status because of lumber vertebral compression fracture. After induction of anesthesia using lidocaine, propofol and remifentanil tracheal intubation was completed easily without neuromuscular blockage. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol, remifentanil and O2/air mixture. After a problem-free intraoperative period the patient was extubated and seven days later was discharged walking with aid. Though the mechanism is not clear neuromuscular blockers and volatile anesthetics may cause prolonged hypotonia in patients with SPS. We think the TIVA technique, a general anesthetic practice which does not require neuromuscular blockage, is suitable for these patients.
Chmielewski, Michael; Bagby, R Michael; Markon, Kristian; Ring, Angela J; Ryder, Andrew G
Section III of DSM-5 includes an alternative model for personality disorders comprising five higher-order pathological personality traits, four of which resemble domains from the Big Five/Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM). There has, however, been considerable debate regarding the association of FFM Openness-to-Experience/Intellect (OE/I) with DSM-5 Psychoticism and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD). The authors identify several limitations in the literature, including inattention to (a) differences in the conceptualization of OE/I in the questionnaire and lexical traditions and (b) the symptom heterogeneity of STPD. They then address these limitations in two large patient samples. The results suggest that OE/I per se is weakly associated with Psychoticism and STPD symptoms. However, unique variance specific to the different conceptualizations of OE/I demonstrates much stronger associations, often in opposing directions. These results clarify the debate and the seemingly discrepant views that OE/I is unrelated to Psychoticism and contains variance relevant to Psychoticism.
Josephs, Lawrence; Sanders, Avihay; Gorman, Bernard S
This study reflects an assessment of the relationship between change in defensive functioning and change in the therapeutic interaction during an eight-year treatment episode of an older personality disordered woman. The patient, Ms. Q, possessed schizoid, avoidant, and depressive personality disorders as well as major depression as assessed by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). At the end of the treatment episode, Ms. Q still possessed an avoidant personality disorder and significant depressive personality traits but no longer possessed clinically significant schizoid traits or major depression. Ms. Q made significant positive change in her adaptive defensive functioning as assessed by the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Through time-series analysis it was discovered that positive change in adaptive defenses was predicted by increases in a specific type of therapeutic interaction as assessed by the Psychotherapy Q Sort (PQS). In this therapeutic interaction the therapist in a didactic and advice-giving manner highlighted the patient's role in a problem in a clear and coherent way that could be perceived as tactless. Time-series analysis revealed a reciprocal relationship in which positive changes in adaptive defenses predicted further increases in that particular quality of therapeutic interaction.
Clayson, D; Levine, D B
Personality patterns of 84 adolescent scoliosis patients were assessed and an evaluation made of certain psychological effects of corrective surgery. Results indicate the following: Scoliosis has fewer psychologically debilitating effects on younger adolescents (those under 16) than it does on older adolescents; scoliotic boys show comparatively better general personality integration than girls; scoliotic girls are less disturbed in psychosexual development than are boys. Postoperatively, boys can be expected to show less overt incapacitation than girls; psychologically, boys will require a longer period of recuperation than will girls; boys can be expected to present fewer immediate management problems than girls; the internalization of a sense of "difference" from the normal in adolescent scoliotics increases in direct relation to age. Consequently, the eariler surgical correction can be undertaken the better. Important differences exist between the psychological "set" of male and female adolescent patients. For boys, self-acceptance is at the core. Postoperative surgical care should thus focus on reinforcing characteristics of personal adequacy, namely, the ability to compete, and fulfill reasonable goals. For girls, acceptance by others is paramount. Postoperative care is best directed toward strengthening feelings of attractiveness (of any personal characteristic), worth, and, above all, future interpersonal possibilities.
Valeeva, Roza A.; Kulesza, Ewa M.
The beginning of the 21st century is marked by systemic, economic and social transformations in Poland and Russia, that significantly affected the education system, including the education for persons with special needs. This paper is an attempt to present synthetically the changes relating to persons with disabilities. The current state of the…
The origins of personality traits and emotions have long been a subject of investigation and controversy. Beginning with Freud, an argument has been made from a wide variety of perspectives that early childhood relationships to parents are a primary factor in shaping personality. Within a cognitive paradigm, people's beliefs about themselves and…
Jormfeldt, Henrika; Brunt, David Arthur; Rask, Mikael; Bengtsson, Agneta; Svedberg, Petra
Patient education in mental health care is a conventional intervention to increase patients' knowledge about their illness and treatment. A provider-centered focus in patient education may put patients in a passive role, which can counteract their processes of recovery. There is an increasing emphasis on recovery-oriented practice, an approach that is aligned with the service user perspective, but little is known about health care staff's perspectives on person-centered mental health care. A qualitative approach was used to describe staff's experiences of being group leaders in a person-centered health education intervention in municipal services for persons with a persistent mental illness. The analysis of staff experiences revealed three core categories: (1) implications of the division of responsibility among local authorities, (2) awareness of facilitating factors of growth, and (3) the meaning of dialogue. These formed the theme Preconditions for Person-Centered Care. Further research is required to explore larger economic, political, and social structures as backdrops to person-centered mental health care, from the perspective of service users, families, health professionals, and the community at large.
Sajadi, Seyede Fateme; Arshadi, Nasrin; Zargar, Yadolla; Mehrabizade Honarmand, Mahnaz; Hajjari, Zahra
Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas, emotional dysregulation are supposed to be the defining core of borderline personality disorder. Many studies have also found a strong association between the diagnosis of borderline personality and the occurrence of suicide ideation and dissociative symptoms. Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between borderline personality features and schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences and suicidal ideation among high school students in Shiraz City, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive correlational study, 300 students (150 boys and 150 girls) were selected from the high schools in Shiraz, Iran, using the multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using some instruments including borderline personality feature scale for children, young schema questionnaire-short form, difficulties in emotion-regulation scale (DERS), dissociative experience scale and beck suicide ideation scale. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significant positive correlation between schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences and suicide ideation with borderline personality features. Moreover, the results of multivariate regression analysis suggested that among the studied variables, schema was the most effective predicting variable of borderline features (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study are in accordance with findings from previous studies, and generally show a meaningful association between schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences, and suicide ideation with borderline personality features. PMID:26401490
Karlsson, Veronika; Bergbom, Ingegerd
Over the last decade, caring for patients who are conscious while receiving mechanical ventilator treatment has become common in Scandinavian intensive care units. Therefore, this study aimed to describe anesthetists', nurses', and nursing assistants' experiences of caring for such patients. Nine persons were interviewed. A hermeneutic method inspired by Gadamer's philosophy was used to interpret and analyze the interview text. Staff members found it distressing to witness and be unable to alleviate suffering, leading to ethical conflicts, feelings of powerlessness, and betrayal of the promises made to the patient. They were frustrated about their inability to understand what the patients were trying to say and often turned to colleagues for help. When caring for conscious patients, it takes time to get to know them and establish communication and a trusting relationship.
Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan
Background: Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). Objectives: The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. Patients and Methods: This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P < 0.001). Secondly, the findings showed that identity, intimacy and self-directedness significantly predicted antisocial personality disorder severity (P < 0.0001). The results showed that intimacy and empathy were good predictors of borderline personality disorder severity, as well (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Overall, our findings showed that levels of personality functioning are a significant
Lindseth, Glenda N; Denny, Dawn L
Nurses commonly care for patients with cholecystitis, a major health problem with a growing prevalence. Although considerable research has been done to compare patient outcomes among surgical approaches for cholecystitis, few studies have examined the experiences of patients with cholecystitis and the subsequent cholecystectomy surgery. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was initiated to better understand the experience of hospitalized patients with cholecystitis through their cholecystectomy surgery. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with patients diagnosed with cholecystitis and scheduled for a cholecystectomy at a rural, Midwestern hospital in the United States. Postoperative interviews were then conducted with the patients who experienced an uneventful cholecystectomy. Giorgi's technique was used to analyze postoperative narratives of the patients' cholecystectomy experiences to determine the themes. Following analysis of interview transcripts from the patients, 5 themes emerged: (a) consumed by discomfort and pain, (b) restless discomfort interrupting sleep, (c) living in uncertainty, (d) impatience to return to normalcy, and (e) feelings of vulnerability. Informants with acute cholecystitis described distressing pain before and after surgery that interfered with sleep and family responsibilities. Increased awareness is needed to prevent the disruption to daily life that can result from the cholecystitis and resulting cholecystectomy surgery. Also, nurses can help ease the unpredictability of the experience by providing relevant patient education, prompt pain relief, and an attentive approach to the nursing care.
Rief, John J; Hamm, Megan E; Zickmund, Susan L; Nikolajski, Cara; Lesky, Dan; Hess, Rachel; Fischer, Gary S; Weimer, Melissa; Clark, Sunday; Zieth, Caroline; Roberts, Mark S
Personal health records (PHRs) typically employ "passive" communication strategies, such as non-personalized medical text, rather than direct patient engagement in care. Currently there is a call for more active PHRs that directly engage patients in an effort to improve their health by offering elements such as personalized medical information, health coaches, and secure messaging with primary care providers. As part of a randomized clinical trial comparing "passive" with "active" PHRs, we explore patients' experiences with using an "active" PHR known as HealthTrak. The "passive" elements of this PHR included problem lists, medication lists, information about patient allergies and immunizations, medical and surgical histories, lab test results, health reminders, and secure messaging. The active arm included all of these elements and added personalized alerts delivered through the secure messaging platform to patients for services coming due based on various demographic features (including age and sex) and chronic medical conditions. Our participants were part of the larger clinical trial and were eligible if they had been randomized to the active PHR arm, one that included regular personalized alerts. We conducted focus group discussions on the benefits of this active PHR for patients who are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Forty-one patients agreed to participate and were organized into five separate focus group sessions. Three main themes emerged from the qualitatively analyzed focus groups: participants reported that the active PHR promoted better communication with providers; enabled them to more effectively partner with their providers; and helped them become more proactive about tracking their health information. In conclusion, patients reported improved communication, partnership with their providers, and a sense of self-management, thus adding insights for PHR designers hoping to address low adoption rates and other patient barriers to the development
The present article attempted to assess the importance of outcomes which appeared during the treatment of 30 neurotic patients. This study specially concentrates on measures of emotional empathy, self-confidence and introspection. There were two surveys in the clinical group: before and after the treatment was completed. Data were compared with a control group, also consisting of 30 persons (15 male and 15 female) matched for age and education. All patients attending group psychotherapy were also treated by pharmacotherapy. As it appeared from the analysis before treatment high empathy in patients was found, but this declined after therapy, however it was still significantly higher than in the control group. The first survey revealed also that patients demonstrated lower levels of self-confidence and introspection. After treatment there were no important differences between the groups. Relationships between the studied qualities were not statistically significant.
Boyette, Lindy-Lou; van Dam, Daniëlla; Meijer, Carin; Velthorst, Eva; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Meijer, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez
Background: Patients with psychotic disorders who experienced childhood trauma show more social dysfunction than patients without traumatic experiences. However, this may not hold for all patients with traumatic experiences. Little is known about the potential compensating role of Five-Factor Model personality traits within this group, despite their strong predictive value for social functioning and well-being in the general population. Methods: Our sample consisted of 195 patients with psychotic disorders (74% diagnosed with schizophrenia) and 132 controls. Cluster analyses were conducted to identify and validate distinct personality profiles. General linear model analyses were conducted to examine whether patients with different profiles differed in social functioning and quality of life (QoL), while controlling for possible confounders. Mediation models were tested to assess potential causal links. Results: In general, patients with higher levels of self-reported traumatic experiences (PT+) showed lower QoL and more social withdrawal compared with patients with lower traumatic experiences (PT−). Two clusters reflecting personality profiles were identified. PT+ with the first profile (lower neuroticism and higher extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) presented higher levels of QoL and better social functioning in several areas, including less withdrawal, compared with both PT+ and PT− with the second profile. PT+ and PT− with the first personality profile did not differ in QoL and social functioning. Mediation analyses suggested that personality traits mediate the relation between traumatic experiences and QoL and social withdrawal. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that personality may “buffer” the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on functional outcome in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:24771304
Dimartino, Joseph; Clarke, John H.
Discover the six most pervasive problem areas in high school education today, and learn what schools are doing to connect with students, personalize learning, differentiate instruction, and make high school curriculum more relevant.
Earp, N. Wesley; Rink, Ortho
Discussed is using videotape as a means of providing classes with a speaker unable to visit with them in person. The results of a study comparing the effectiveness of taped to live presentations are included. (LS)
Rothes, Inês Areal; Scheerder, Gert; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Henriques, Margarida Rangel
The experience of the most distressing patient suicide on Flemish psychiatrists is described. Of 584 psychiatrists, 107 filled a self-report questionnaire. Ninety-eight psychiatrists had been confronted with at least one patient suicide. Emotional suffering and impotence were the most common feelings reported. Changes in professional practice were described and included a more structured approach to the management of suicidal patients. Colleagues and contact with the patient's family were the most frequently used sources of help, whereas team case review and colleagues were rated as the most useful ones. Patient suicide leads to emotional suffering and has a considerable professional impact.
Kopacheva-Barsova, Gabriela; Nikolovski, Nikola; Arsova, Slavica; Kopachev, Dragoslav
AIM: The aim of our study is to observe adequate and inadequate psychological reactions in patients who are candidates for septorhinoplasty, before and after surgery and to create an adequate psychological model of a person suitable for septorhinoplasty in this group of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 140 patients with nasal septal deviation (deviatio septi nasi), alone or together with other nasal deformities, were observed in the period of 4 years (2011-2015 year). Our patients were psychologically observed using two standard psychological tests: Patients selection for septorhinoplasty and their psychological abilities (“Self-body image” questionnaire) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) test. RESULTS: Most of the patients 43 (39.8%), thought that after rhinoseptoplasty their self-confidence arise, 32 (29.63%) expected changing’s in their life’s, few of them 9 (8, 3%) thought that the environment will act different with them. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in women group was shown that most of the women patients presented symptoms of somatisation; 23 (23.33%) and 15 (25%) one year after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The patients made a sound decision for intervention, which was useful for the surgeon too, because it helped them choose an adequate operative technique and especially helped them in the postoperative period. PMID:27275300
Menon, Preethi; Chaudhari, Bhushan; Saldanha, Daniel; Devabhaktuni, Spandana; Bhattacharya, Labanya
Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44%) reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354), recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177), and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177) were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients. PMID:28163415
Clinical and laboratory investigations starting in 1958 of a group of dwarfed children resembling isolated GH deficiency but who had very high serum levels of GH led to the description of the syndrome of primary GH resistance or insensitivity (Laron syndrome) and subsequently to the discovery of its molecular defects residing in the GH receptor and leading to an inability of IGF-I generation. With the biosynthesis of IGF-I in 1986, therapeutic trials started. Continuously more and more patients are being diagnosed in many parts of the world with a variety of molecular defects. This syndrome proved to be a unique model that enables the study of the consequences of GH receptor defects, the physiopathology of GH-IGF-I disruption, and comparison of the GH-independent IGF-I effects. This review presents the personal experience gained from the study follow-up and treatment of the 60 patients followed up for many years in the Israeli cohort.
Teufel, S.; Hatzivassiloglou, V.; Teufel, S.; McKeown, K. R.; Jordan, D. A.; Dunn, K. M.; Sigelman, S.; Kushniruk, A.
We present a system for patient-specific searches on a database of medical journal articles which uses natural language techniques to match search results against patient records. We performed an information retrieval experiment comparing the performance of this system to two strategies, one of which uses extensive medical knowledge, while the other uses the same patient information our system has. The results show that our system is useful in improving recall over the strategy simulating a human specialist, and clearly outperforms the strategy of using the patient record content without intelligent processing. PMID:11825275
Huang, Jingyi; He, Wei; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Wei; Shen, Mowei; Wang, Wei
Normal personality traits, as measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), predicted some personality disorders in a sample of healthy volunteers. Whether these predictions could be more pronounced in patients with personality disorders remains unknown. We administered the ZKPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), which describes the functioning styles of personality disorder, in 134 patients with a range of personality disorders and in 268 age-, gender- and education level-matched healthy volunteers. Cluster A patients scored lowest on Sociability, cluster B highest on Impulsive Sensation Seeking and Aggression-Hostility, cluster C1 (Avoidant and Dependent types) highest on Neuroticism-Anxiety, and cluster C2 (Obsessive-Compulsive type) highest on Activity. Most of the predictors were consistent across both the healthy and patient groups. The variances that accounted for predicting most PERM styles by the ZKPQ traits in the patient group were higher than those in the healthy group. Our results showed that the ZKPQ traits could specifically predict the PERM styles in both healthy subjects and personality-disorder patients. This result was more pronounced in the latter group. The most powerful predictions were obtained for Antisocial, Dependent, Borderline and Avoidant styles, and the weakest for the Schizotypal and Schizoid styles in the patient group.
Preuss, Nora; Brändle, Laura S; Hager, Oliver M; Haynes, Melanie; Fischbacher, Urs; Hasler, Gregor
Inconsistent social behavior is a core psychopathological feature of borderline personality disorder. The goal of the present study was to examine inconsistency in social decision-making using simple economic social experiments. We investigated the decisions of 17 female patients with BPD, 24 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 36 healthy controls in three single shot economic experiments measuring trust, cooperation, and punishment. BPD severity was assessed using the Zanarini Rating Scale for BPD. Investments across identical one-shot trust and punishment games were significantly more inconsistent in BPD patients than in controls. Such inconsistencies were only found in the social risk conditions of the trust and punishment conditions but not in the non-social control conditions. MDD patients did not show such inconsistencies. Furthermore, social support was negatively correlated with inconsistent decision-making in the trust and punishment game, which underscores the clinical relevance of this finding.
Higa, Justin K; Gedo, Paul M
Transference is seen as an important change mechanism in psychotherapeutic technique, although questions remain about its therapeutic use, especially with borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients. This article illustrates the lively debate about transference interpretation through the perspective of two psychotherapeutic techniques under empirical scrutiny--transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) and mentalization-based treatment (MBT). Each technique offers a similar understanding and appreciation of transference, but they differ in their technical use of this change mechanism. The article presents a brief case study of a BPD patient. The treatment highlights the utility of each psychotherapeutic technique in understanding the developmental progress made by the patient in therapy. The authors argue that each technique may be useful in a long-term dynamic therapy, and that one can use an epigenetic framework to understand this observation.
Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J; Jacob, Gitta A; Brändle, Laura S; Schulte-Vels, Thomas
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes.
Hartwell, Heather J; Shepherd, Paula A; Edwards, John S A; Johns, Nick
A number of previous studies have reported on the aspects of hospital food service that patients value, but usually as a secondary finding, and not generally based upon patient-centred approaches. This study employed a questionnaire produced ab initio from interviews with patients and hospital staff, the data from which were subjected to factor and cluster analysis, in order to identify and prioritise the factors that contribute to the meal experience empirically. The most important factors, food and service were as identified by other authors. In decreasing order of importance were social, personal and situational factors. The results confirm that improving the quality of the food and the efficiency with which it reaches the patients remain the most important objectives of hospital food service.
... Personal Funds of Patients. 13.72 Section 13.72 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Personal Funds of Patients. Veterans Service Center Managers may authorize release of funds from Personal Funds of Patients for the needs of veterans and their dependents, including amounts fixed by statute...
Robins, R; Martin, D; Raj, K Durai; Raju, M S
To assess the level of awareness about the different provisions of the Persons with Disability Act (PWD Act) among leprosy patients and other disabled, 233 disabled persons from the self-help groups formed by Vadathorasalur Leprosy Control Unit have been interviewed using a structured interview checklist. The results show that 74.7% of the respondents were aware that identity cards are available for the disabled, 56.2% were aware of the free education benefit to the disabled, as low as 35.6% were aware of the scholarships, 33% knew about the employment reservations, 24.9% heard about the housing scheme of the government for the disabled, but 24.5% only knew about law against discrimination, 31.8% came in contact with institutions for the severely disabled and only 16% were aware of the unemployment allowance to the disabled. The level of awareness is low among women with regard to all components of the Act. It was found that students studying up to secondary level were not aware of the availability of scholarships and free education, which needs to be seriously looked into, especially by educational institutions. The level of formal education played a significant role in increasing awareness about the Act among literates. The knowledge is low among persons of all occupations. The study showed that there is a great need for an educational intervention programme to publicize the provisions of the Act among the disabled and their families.
Slater, Morgan; Kiran, Tara
Abstract Objective To compare the characteristics and responses of patients completing a patient experience survey accessed online after e-mail notification or delivered in the waiting room using tablet computers. Design Cross-sectional comparison of 2 methods of delivering a patient experience survey. Setting A large family health team in Toronto, Ont. Participants Family practice patients aged 18 or older who completed an e-mail survey between January and June 2014 (N = 587) or who completed the survey in the waiting room in July and August 2014 (N = 592). Main outcome measures Comparison of respondent demographic characteristics and responses to questions related to access and patient-centredness. Results Patients responding to the e-mail survey were more likely to live in higher-income neighbourhoods (P = .0002), be between the ages of 35 and 64 (P = .0147), and be female (P = .0434) compared with those responding to the waiting room survey; there were no significant differences related to self-rated health. The differences in neighbourhood income were noted despite minimal differences between patients with and without e-mail addresses included in their medical records. There were few differences in responses to the survey questions between the 2 survey methods and any differences were explained by the underlying differences in patient demographic characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest that respondent demographic characteristics might differ depending on the method of survey delivery, and these differences might affect survey responses. Methods of delivering patient experience surveys that require electronic literacy might underrepresent patients living in low-income neighbourhoods. Practices should consider evaluating for nonresponse bias and adjusting for patient demographic characteristics when interpreting survey results. Further research is needed to understand how primary care practices can optimize electronic survey delivery methods to survey a
Informing patients with cancer has been a subject of great scientific interest. Initially the research was aimed at quantity evaluation, in other words, the number of doctors who break the news to the patient, the number of patients seeking informing etc. Since the 1980s to present, research has shifted its focus equally on quality evaluation. In other words, serious efforts are being made to answer the question: "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how?" It seems that deepening on the patient s character traits offers the best starting point for understanding the patient. The aim of this paper was to describe the character of personality types based on the question: "How could characters or personality types be used in informing patients with cancer?" As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing is similar to the degree of the hyperthymic personality; initially, is "minimal, then "small" until it reaches "medium". The degree of denial varies between "large" and "very large" to sometimes "medium". Family: similar to the emotional-hyperthymic person, with the added difficulty of introversy. There is a discordance between what the patient shows and what the family reports about him, especially when the compensation mechanism is that of a controlling - orderly patient.
The task of informing the cancer patient is considered an arduous one as it typically involves breaking bad news to the patient. It appears that the adoption of an empathic approach is vital within a therapeutic relationship. This applies to every character or personality type, perhaps more so to the arrogant patient with a feeling of superiority. The question "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how" basically implies the adoption of an empathic approach and the tailoring of information to each cancer patient. The use of character traits contributes to managing the physically ill patient in the best possible way. Therefore, follows the question: in what way does a character or personality type affect cancer patient informing? The aim of this article was to describe the arrogant (narcissistic) character or type of personality in an analytic way so that any therapist can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method research through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing the arrogant personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is: The degree of denial varies between "large" and "very large" while the degree of informing varies between "medium" and "small". Informing the family: The patient objects to a common approach with the family as he is concerned about inflicting a blow to his image.
Conrad, Rupert; Schilling, Guntram; Bausch, Christiane; Nadstawek, Joachim; Wartenberg, Hans Christian; Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Liedtke, Reinhard
In his psychobiological model of personality, Cloninger developed a novel approach concerning the relationships between psychopathological syndromes and personality. We investigated 207 chronic pain patients (CPPs) and compared them to 105 pain-free control subjects. Participants were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Structured-Clinical-Interview-II, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. The CPPs scored higher on the depression and state anxiety scales and 41% fulfilled the criteria of having at least one personality disorder (PD). We used a covariance analysis to control for depression and state anxiety and found that the CPPs scored higher on the Harm Avoidance Temperament Dimension and lower on the Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness Character Dimensions. In CPPs, the symptom counts of all PD subtypes were significantly related to low Self-Directedness and, to a lesser degree, low Cooperativeness. The PD symptoms in Cluster A were related to low Reward Dependence, those in Cluster B were related to high Novelty Seeking and the PD symptoms in Cluster C were related to high Harm Avoidance. In multiple hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for age, gender, depression and state anxiety, TCI scales predicted on average 23% in PD symptom counts. The Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness personality traits appeared to be significant predictors in determining the presence or absence of a PD by correctly classifying 75.8% of CPPs. The TCI provides further insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic pain. This useful diagnostic instrument helps to economically and validly facilitate the identification of core PD features.
Semerari, Antonio; Colle, Livia; Pellecchia, Giovanni; Carcione, Antonino; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Moroni, Fabio; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Procacci, Michele; Pedone, Roberto
The capacity of understanding mental states is a complex function which involves several components. Single components can be selectively impaired in specific clinical populations. It has been suggested that impairments in mindreading are central for borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical findings are inconsistent, and it is debatable whether BPD presents a specific profile of mindreading impairments. The aim of this study is to compare BPD and other PDs in mindreading. Seventy-two patients with BPD and 125 patients with other PD diagnoses were assessed using the Metacognition Assessment Interview. BPD showed difficulties in two mindreading functions, differentiation and integration, even when the severity of psychopathology was controlled. These results suggest a specific mindreading impairment in BPD and a strong relationship between these impairments and the severity of psychopathology.
Nanayakkara, Prabhashi A.
Information privacy issues have plagued the world of electronic media since its inception. This research focused mainly on factors that increase or decrease perceived patient control over personal health information (CTL) in the presence of context-specific concerns. Control agency theory was used for the paper's theoretical contributions. Personal and proxy control agencies acted as the independent variables, and context-specific concerns for information privacy (CFIP) were used as the moderator between proxy control agency, healthcare provider, and CTL. Demographic data and three control variables-- the desire for information control, privacy experience, and trust propensity--were also included in the model to gauge the contribution to CTL from external factors. Only personal control agency and desire for information control were found to impact CTL.
Harris, John Ewing; Bodden, Jack L.
Tested the activity theory (which proposes that elderly persons remain in active contact with their environment) and disengagement theory (which suggests adjustment comes through reduction of activity and social contact). Disengaged elderly were identified. Subjects demonstrated significant improvement over the untreated control subjects. Results…
Baker, Kate L.; Perkins, Joy; Comber, Darren P. M.
Taught postgraduate students are a unique group, undergoing a short, intensive period of study. Many taught postgraduate students are international, engaging for the first time with new learning approaches, including Personal Development Planning (PDP). This article provides analysis of the views of international taught postgraduates about the…
Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Clark, Maresha; Chee, Wonshik
Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.
Meybodi, Azadeh Mazaheri; Hajebi, Ahmad; Jolfaei, Atefeh Ghanbari
Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders affect prognosis, psychosocial adjustment and post-surgery satisfaction in patients with gender identity disorder. In this paper, we assessed the frequency of personality disorders in Iranian GID patients. Methods: Seventy- three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS) were recruited for this crosssectional study. Of the participants, 57.5% were biologically male and 42.5% were biologically female. They were assessed through the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI- II). Results: The frequency of personality disorders was 81.4%. The most frequent personality disorder was narcissistic personality disorder (57.1%) and the least was borderline personality disorder. The average number of diagnoses was 3.00 per patient. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of personality disorders was higher among the participants, and the most frequent personality disorder was narcissistic personality disorder (57.1%), and borderline personality disorder was less common among the studied patients. PMID:25664291
Skog, M; Grafström, M; Negussie, B; Winblad, B
In 1996 HM Queen Silvia of Sweden started a non-governmental education programme with an integrated day-care unit devoted to elderly persons with dementia. A total of 18 Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) from various parts of Sweden took part in the year theoretical and practical education in dementia care. The purpose was to develop specialized skills in the particular field and more generally to develop mentor capabilities. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of the trainees, gained from following a single patient during their entire practical training period in the school's integrated day-care unit. The study was based on a combination of participant observations, interviews, diaries and recorded data and used an ethnographic approach. The results showed that themes such as 'personal guide', 'creating a relationship', 'reducing the working pace' and 'investigative mealtimes' were of major importance for the trainees' learning. In their role as 'personal guides', the trainees fell into six categories with different educational focuses. In their relationships with the patients, the trainees were able to form their own impressions of the patients' present and former lives. By training their ability to adapt the pace at which they worked, they had time to observe symptoms and be aware of the patients' needs, as well as the patients' signs of appreciation. The results also indicated that 'investigative mealtimes' can be an important element in the trainee's education in dementia care.
Eriksson, Lisbeth; Lindström, Britta; Ekenberg, Lilly
We investigated the experience of ten patients who received video-based physiotherapy at home for two months after a shoulder joint replacement. Videoconferencing took place via the patient's home broadband connection at a bandwidth of 256-768 kbit/s. Qualitative interviews were carried out, transcribed and analysed. Through qualitative content analysis six categories were identified: (1) a different reinforced communication; (2) pain-free exercising as an effective routine; (3) from a dependent patient to a strengthened person at home; (4) closeness at a distance; (5) facilitated daily living; and (6) continuous physiotherapy chain. The access to bodily knowledge, continuity, collaboration and being at home were all aspects that contributed to the patients' recovery. The patients described experiences of safety, and strengthening during their daily exercise routine at home. The frequent interplay with the patient during telerehabilitation made it possible for the physiotherapist to make an individual judgement about each patient; this could be one reason for the positive findings. Home video-based physiotherapy may be useful in other kinds of physiotherapy.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Diblasi, Catherine; Gonzales, Eva; Silver, Kristi; Zhu, Shijun; Sagherian, Knar; Kongs, Katherine
Personal health records and patient portals have been shown to be effective in managing chronic illnesses. Despite recent nationwide implementation efforts, the personal health record and patient portal adoption rates among patients are low, and the lack of support for patients using the programs remains a critical gap in most implementation processes. In this study, we implemented the Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit in a large diabetes/endocrinology center and assessed its preliminary impact on personal health record and patient portal knowledge, self-efficacy, patient-provider communication, and adherence to treatment plans. Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit is composed of Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit-General, clinic-level resources for clinicians, staff, and patients, and Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit Plus, an optional 4-week online resource program for patients ("MyHealthPortal"). First, Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit-General was implemented, and all clinicians and staff were educated about the center's personal health record and patient portal. Then general patient education was initiated, while a randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the preliminary effects of "MyHealthPortal" using a small sample (n = 74) with three observations (baseline and 4 and 12 weeks). The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group in patient-provider communication at 4 weeks (t56 = 3.00, P = .004). For other variables, the intervention group tended to show greater improvement; however, the differences were not significant. In this preliminary study, Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit showed potential for filling the gap in the current
Mattei, Alexia; Revis, Joana; Giovanni, Antoine
The objective of the study was to analyze temperament and character in females with vocal nodules (VN) compared to a vocally healthy control population. 61 females were examined over a 17-month period for dysphonia with VN (mean age 46 years, duration of vocal complaints from 2 months to 6 years). 71 control females were recruited in their environment (mean age 34 years). The validated French Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used. Patients with VN had significantly (p < 0,05) greater scores for Persistence and Novelty Seeking, particularly for the subscales exploratory excitability and extravagance. They had lower scores for Harm Avoidance, in particular fear of uncertainty, shyness and fatigability. Scores on Reward Dependence were not significantly different except for the subscale dependence, which were significantly lower in patients. No significant difference was found with regard to scores on Self-directedness, except for scores on the subscale self-acceptance, which were significantly lower in patients. Scores on Cooperativeness were not significantly different, except for the subscale helpfulness, which were significantly higher in patients. Patients had significant greater scores for Self-transcendence overall and specifically on the subscales self-forgetfulness and spiritual acceptance. Our findings suggested that women with VN are likely to have a passionate temperament, which might constitute an indirect predisposition to elevated vocal loading and greater risk for phonotrauma. The risk for developing or maintaining VN could be decreased by attending to those personality-specific maladaptive behaviors. A possible personalized approach to voice therapy could be organized on the basis of the TCI findings.
Imparting the bad news has become a hard task for the doctor, and is usually perceived as unpleasant by the patient to whom the bad news is revealed. It is vital that the physician's approach be tailored to the cancer patient's personality. Gathering by the informing process protocols already suggested the hardest step for the doctors to take is empathic understanding which, presupposes tailoring to the individual's needs. The aim of this article was to describe the self-sacrificing type of personality thoroughly, so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to their needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. Assessing the denial mechanism is hard for a person that regards disease as punishment and propitiation. The physician must mobilize his countertransference, the sense he gets from the discussions with the patient and their overall communication. If he finds that the patient has self-control, then the approach of imparting the news resembles that of the controlling-orderly personality. If he ascertains that the patient has a lasting embarrassment, he should be more careful and impart the news gradually, his approach resembling that of the dependent person.
Harden, Cynthia L; Jovine, Luydmilla; Burgut, Fadime T; Carey, Bridget T; Nikolov, Blagovest G; Ferrando, Stephen J
We sought to determine the type of personality disorder cluster associated with patients with nonepileptic psychogenic seizures (NES) compared with that of patients with epileptic seizures (ES). Consecutive adult patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring found to have NES were compared with a simultaneously admitted patient with confirmed epilepsy. Personality was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis II Personality Disorders. Personality disorders were then divided into personality clusters described in the DSM-IV-TR: A = paranoid, schizotypal, schizoid; B = borderline, histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic; or C = avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive. Thirteen of 16 patients with NES and 12 of 16 patients with ES met criteria for personality disorders. Patients with NES were more likely to meet criteria for a personality disorder in Cluster A or B, compared with patients with ES, who were more likely to have Cluster C personality disorders (chi(2) test, P=0.007). We propose that the personality traits of patients with NES contribute to the development of nonepileptic psychogenic seizures. However, the large proportion of patients with ES with Cluster C personality disorders was unexpected, and further, for the patients with epilepsy, the direction of the association of their personality traits with the development of epilepsy is unknown.
Wickford, Jenny; Rosberg, Susanne
There is little written about the cultural, social, and ethical challenges encountered by physiotherapists engaging in development work. This article takes a critical perspective on what it means to engage in development work as an expatriate physiotherapist, through a self-critical reflection on experiences from Afghanistan. The field notes from an ethnographic study of a development project conducted in Afghanistan were analysed to explore the transformative process of personal and professional development of the development worker. The critical reflective process entailed a change in meaning perspective, described as a shift from the position of an Idealistic Helper to an Enterprising Learner. Of importance in this process were "disorienting dilemmas" that challenged personal perceptions. Critical reflection over such dilemmas led to deeper understanding facilitating the process of change. The essential lesson learned is that the baseline for understanding others is an understanding of one's own meaning perspectives and manner of participation in relation to others and their context. The insights gained have implications for physiotherapists working in development contexts, for other development workers, and for physiotherapists working with patients in clinical practice in a nondevelopment context. Exploring how to collaborate in development contexts could be done using reflective groups with expatriate and local physiotherapists and/or patients. This could lead to greater understanding of oneself, each other, and the local context.
Ro, Hyun Jung; Jung, Se Young; Hwang, Hee; Yoo, Sooyoung; Baek, Hyunyoung; Lee, Kiheon; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong-Soo; Kim, Sarah; Park, Hwayeon
Background Personal health records (PHRs) are web based tools that help people to access and manage their personalized medical information. Although needs for PHR are increasing, current serviced PHRs are unsatisfactory and researches on them remain limited. The purpose of this study is to show the process of developing Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH)'s own PHR system and to analyze consumer's use pattern after providing PHR service. Methods Task force team was organized to decide service range and set the program. They made the system available on both mobile application and internet web page. The study enrolled PHR consumers who assessed PHR system between June 2013 and June 2014. We analyzed the total number of users on a monthly basis and the using pattern according to each component. Results The PHR service named Health4U has been provided from June 2013. Every patient who visited SNUBH could register Health4U service and view their medical data. The PHR user has been increasing, especially they tend to approach via one way of either web page or mobile application. The most frequently used service is to check laboratory test result. Conclusion For paradigm shift toward patient-centered care, there is a growing interest in PHR. This study about experience of establishing and servicing the Health4U would contribute to development of interconnected PHR. PMID:26019761
Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D
We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect.
Pratt, Michael A.; Chu, Henry
Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are a major threat to patient safety and are costly to health systems. Our goal is to predict the HAI performance of a hospital using the patients' experience responses as input. We use four classifiers, viz. random forest, naive Bayes, artificial feedforward neural networks, and the support vector machine, to perform the prediction of six types of HAI. The six types include blood stream, urinary tract, surgical site, and intestinal infections. Experiments show that the random forest and support vector machine perform well across the six types of HAI.
Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H
The present study examined the impressions of personality formed from written descriptions of behavior by over 200 hospitalized male schizophrenics, tested individually when they seemed in contact with reality. One description was of extrovert (E) behavior by a youth named Jim; another was of his introvert (I) behavior in similar settings. Combined communications gave one description immediately after the other. After 150 patients read one of the communications, they were generally willing and able to respond to a 36-item questionnaire about Jim. This also occurred when 96 patients were asked to answer it before any communication, on the basis of their expectations about Jim; 56 subsequently received a communication, followed by readministration of the questionnaire. Patients' responses, before or after the communications, revealed few pathological signs and, like those of normal Ss, could usually be classified as E or I. Patients had less differential effects, and far fewer I responses than normal Ss. Patients and normals showed preconceptions of Jim as extrovertive. Results were discussed in light of the projective hypothesis and other theories.
In your morning meetings, identify those patients who would be a great person to ask for a referral--patients who have expressed pleasure in receiving treatment from you. Then, determine who is going to ask for that referral. You wouldn't want to have EVERY-ONE ask them for a referral, so give someone that responsibility. Be sure that you have done some role playing and have practiced the verbal skills of "asking" for a referral. Get comfortable asking. Know that you will never know what you will get unless you ASK!!! All good businesses ask for referrals from their best customers. Learn from the masters. Pattern your own behavior after those who have acquired admirable results. When you identify patients who have accepted and have been pleased with your treatment, have come to their appointments on time, have gladly paid their bills, and have been a joy to treat, ASK these folks for a referral. More than likely they will refer others to you who are of like character. You can build a practice "on good patients just like you" and expect that to happen!!! Together, as a team, develop ways of acknowledging and nurturing your referral sources. If these wonderful people provide 70+ percent of your new patients, it benefits you to invest time and money in maximizing this source of practice growth.
Background Dentistry in Australia combines business and health care service, that is, the majority of patients pay money for tangible dental procedures such as fluoride applications, dental radiographs, dental fillings, crowns, and dentures among others. There is evidence that patients question dentists’ behaviours and attitudes during a dental visit when those highly technical procedures are performed. However, little is known about how patients’ experience dental care as a whole. This paper illustrates the findings from a qualitative study recently undertaken in general dental practice in Australia. It focuses on patients’ experiences of dental care, particularly on the relationship between patients and dentists during the provision of preventive care and advice in general dental practices. Methods Seventeen patients were interviewed. Data analysis consisted of transcript coding, detailed memo writing, and data interpretation. Results Patients described their experiences when visiting dental practices with and without a structured preventive approach in place, together with the historical, biological, financial, psychosocial and habitual dimensions of their experience. Potential barriers that could hinder preventive activities as well as facilitators for prevention were also described. The offer of preventive dental care and advice was an amazing revelation for this group of patients as they realized that dentists could practice dentistry without having to “drill and fill” their teeth. All patients, regardless of the practice they came from or their level of clinical risk of developing dental caries, valued having a caring dentist who respected them and listened to their concerns without “blaming” them for their oral health status. These patients complied with and supported the preventive care options because they were being “treated as a person not as a patient” by their dentists. Patients valued dentists who made them aware of existing
Pinder, Richard J; Ferguson, Jamie; Møller, Henrik
Objectives This study sought to explore the differential patient satisfaction reported by patients with cancer who are from ethnic minority backgrounds, examining patient-reported experience of interacting with medical and nursing staff. Setting As a secondary analysis, we collated data collected over two consecutive annual rounds of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from September 2012 to November 2013. Participants There were 138 878 responses from 155 hospital trusts across the National Health Service in England, representing a response rate of 63.9% based on the total identified cohort of patients receiving cancer care over those 2 years. Outcomes We used the results of the annual survey, which sought to assess overall patient satisfaction along with patient experience of interacting with clinical nurse specialists, hospital doctors and ward nurses. Results Ethnic minority patients reported lower satisfaction and less positive experiences of care overall. While some of this difference appeared related to demographic and socioeconomic variation, ethnic minority patients remained less positive than those in the White British group, after statistical adjustment. Ethnic minority patients also reported lower confidence in, and less understanding of, healthcare professionals, including clinical nurse specialists, doctors and ward nurses. Conclusions Given the diversity of the British population, as well as the clustering of ethnic minority patients in certain urban areas, a better understanding of the expectations and additional needs of ethnic minority patients is required to improve their experience of and satisfaction with cancer care. PMID:27354083
McLaughlin, Celeste; Olson, Rhonda; White, Mary Joe
Patient privacy issues play a significant role in healthcare policy. However, concern for patient privacy may not always carry over into patient care activities. An Association of Rehabilitation Nurses chapter research committee undertook a study to assess rehabilitation nurses' knowledge of proxemics, personal space, and territoriality and their application in rehabilitation nursing practice. The theoretical framework was Hall's 1966 theory of proxemics. A pretest-posttest design with a 1-hour educational intervention was used with a convenience sample of rehabilitation nurses (N = 43). The tests consisted of 12 multiple-choice questions and 1 open-ended question related to practice. Paired-samples t tests of pretest and posttest scores demonstrated improvement in posttest scores (p <.0005). Analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether there were any differences on the posttest scores when looking at education level, years of work experience, years of work experience in rehabilitation nursing, and certification. Higher education levels correlated with higher test scores (p < .005). Although findings are limited by sample size, results indicate that rehabilitation nurses are not familiar with the impact of proxemics. The nurses'application of these principles in the open-ended question indicates that a patient's personal space in a healthcare setting is determined by the nurse, not the patient. The implications that result from a call to action on these issues are discussed.
Rozenblum, R.; Park, A.; Dunn, M.; Bates, D.W.
Summary Background Personal health records (PHRs) connected to a physician’s electronic health record system hold substantial promise for supporting and engaging patients with chronic disease. Objectives: To explore how U.S. health care organizations are currently utilizing PHRs for chronic disease populations. Methods A mixed methods study including semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire was conducted. A purposive sample was developed of health care organizations which were recognized as exemplars for PHRs and were high performers in national patient satisfaction surveys (H-CAHPS or CAHPS). Within each organization, participants were health IT leaders or those managing high-risk or chronic disease populations. Results Interviews were conducted with 30 informants and completed questionnaires were received from 16 organizations (84% response rate). Most PHRs allowed patients to access health records and educational material, message their provider, renew prescriptions and request appointments. Patient generated data was increasingly being sought and combined with messaging, resulted in greater understanding of patient health and functioning outside of the clinic visit. However for chronic disease populations, there was little targeted involvement in PHR design and few tools to help interpret and manage their conditions beyond those offered for all. The PHR was largely uncoupled from high risk population management interventions and no clear framework for future PHR development emerged. Conclusion This technology is currently underutilized and represents a major opportunity given the potential benefits of patient engagement and shared decision making. A coherent patient-centric PHR design and evaluation strategy is required to realize its potential and maximize this natural hub for multidisciplinary care co-ordination. PMID:25024758
Stringfellow, Erin J.; Kim, Theresa W.; Gordon, Adam J.; Pollio, David E.; Grucza, Richard A.; Austin, Erika L.; Johnson, N. Kay; Kertesz, Stefan G.
Background Community survey data suggest high prevalence of substance use disorders among currently homeless individuals. There is less data regarding illicit drug and alcohol use problems of homeless-experienced persons engaged in primary care. They may have less severe use and require different care responses from primary care teams. Methods We surveyed currently and formerly homeless, i.e., homeless-experienced, persons engaged in primary care at 5 federally-funded programs in the U.S., administering the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). We used the ASSIST definitions of lower, moderate, and high risk to assess a spectrum of lifetime and recent substance use, from any use to likely dependence, and to identify sociodemographic and health status characteristics associated with severity of use. Results Almost one-half of the sample (n = 601) had recently (within the past 3 months) used alcohol, and one-third had recently used an illicit drug. The most commonly used illicit drugs in the past 3 months were cannabis (19%), cocaine (16%), and opioids (7.5%). Over one-half (59%) of respondents had ASSIST-defined moderate or high risk substance use. A significant proportion (31%) of those identified as at moderate risk had no recent substance use, but did report past problematic use. Ten percent of the lower risk group had past problematic use of alcohol. Severity of use was associated with worse health status, but not with housing status or type of homelessness experienced. Conclusions Less severe (moderate risk) use and past problematic use, potentially indicative of remitted substance use disorders, were more common than high risk use in this primary care, homeless-experienced sample. Our findings highlight the urgency of identifying effective ways to reduce risky substance use and prevent relapse in homeless-experienced persons. PMID:26914448
The UK Government published various circulars to indicate the importance of respecting the privacy and dignity of NHS patients following the implementation of the Human Rights Act, 1998. This research used an ethnographic method to determine the extent to which health professionals had in fact upheld the philosophy of these documents. Fieldwork using nonparticipant observation, and unstructured and semistructured interviews with patients and staff, took place over six months in three acute care wards in a large district NHS trust hospital. Applying the principles of phenomenology and grounded theory, the data were analysed and the contents organized into 11 key categories, leading to the formulation of a privacy model. The level of intrusion into patients' privacy by health professionals was measured against the benchmarking of the 'dignity and privacy' factors contained in the Department of Health's The essence of care document and Article 8(2) of the Human Rights Act. The findings established that patients had little privacy in the wards, and that the terms 'privacy of the person' and 'dignity' are interrelated.
Nicholson, Jackie; Davies, Louise
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are a type of central venous access device used to deliver a variety of intravenous therapies, including chemotherapy. PICCs may be placed by interventional radiologists, anaesthetists or, as is increasingly common, by specialist nurses in the hospital setting. However, little is known about how patients feel regarding the PICC insertion procedure. The aim of this study was to interview patients who had undergone a recent PICC insertion in the chemotherapy day unit to identify their experiences. On analysis of the qualitative data obtained from the semi-structured interview, five themes emerged: the context of cancer; expectations; levels of pain and anxiety; coping strategies; and explanation. The findings of this study support some previously described elements of procedural experiences; however, new understanding has provided implications for practice in the areas of expectations, allaying anxiety levels, supporting individual coping strategies and providing explanation. The major limitation of the study was the homogenous sample of oncology patients with a clear link between the patient experience of the PICC insertion and the context of cancer. The main recommendation for further research would be to repeat this study with a broader patient population.
Communicating bad news is often part of a doctor's task. By bad news we mean information which is received as unpleasant by the patient who feels that it can have an unwanted effect in his life. It appears that the way each patient assesses bad news is associated with his personality type, his individual character traits and the adoption of an empathic approach is vital within a therapeutic relationship. The aim of this article was to describe the uninvolved-aloof character or type of personality thoroughly so that any therapist can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. Assessing the denial mechanism may present the hardest task since the patient does not give any hint to the doctor as to how he feels. The degree of informing should be not as much as for the controlling-orderly person but more than the dependent person's, about "average" to "small". Informing Family: He accepts the family's involvement. Relatives need to be alerted about the patient's fragility.
Zidar, Josefina; Sorato, Enrico; Malmqvist, Ann-Marie; Jansson, Emelie; Rosher, Charlotte; Jensen, Per; Favati, Anna; Løvlie, Hanne
Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.
Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…
Metz, Martina L.; Simmt, Elaine S.
In this paper, we explore the implications of adopting (and developing the capacities necessary to adopt) an empathic second-person research perspective. Such a perspective aims to mediate participants' access to their own experience, thereby providing a rich source of first-person data as well as a powerful pedagogical tool. Working within the…
Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A…
Daffern, Michael; Duggan, Conor; Huband, Nick; Thomas, Stuart
Extreme and varied reactions are often encountered when working with patients with personality disorders. Similarly, patients with personality disorder may also hold polarised opinions of the staff involved in their treatment. This study explored the relationship between severity of personality disorder and interpersonal style in patients admitted for treatment to a secure psychiatric unit. Up to four nurses rated each patient's interpersonal style using the Impact Message Inventory, a self-report transactional inventory. Patients then rated the interpersonal style of these same staff. Contrary to expectations, severity of personality disorder was not associated with patients' interpersonal style or to variance in nurses' assessments of patients' interpersonal style. However, patients with more severe personality disorder tended to show greater variability in their assessment of nurses' interpersonal style, specifically their appraisal of staff members' interpersonal dominance. Implications for the assessment of offenders admitted for treatment of their personality disorder are discussed.
Sánchez Palacios, A; Schamann, F; García, J A
Because cats are a common pet in many houses and tourist complexes in the Canary Islands, sensitization to cat epithelium is a frequent problem. A total of 19.2% of patients with intrinsic asthma are sensitized to cat epithelium. In the Canary Islands, the percentage of sensitization among patients with a household cat is 18.1%, which higher is higher than in the rest of Spain (11.9). Many patients with extrinsic asthma sensitized to house dust mites undergo conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy but evolution is unsatisfactory due to sensitization to cat epithelium (whether a cat is present or not). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of sublingual immunotherapy with extract of cat epithelium in monosensitized patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma. Forty patients monosensitized to cat epithelium were selected. Of these, 20 were administered sublingual immunotherapy and another 20 received placebo. The following evaluation was carried out in both groups: in vivo and in vitro: symptom score, skin tests, nasal challenge with cat epithelium, specific IgE determination, specific IgG4 and eosinophilic cationic protein. After 1 year of treatment the cumulative dose was 3.6 micrograms of Fe ld I, equivalent to 10 ng/drop. Duration of treatment was 365 days. Our conclusions, based on our patients in the Canary Islands, were the following: 1. Sublingual Fel d I therapy is effective after 1 year of treatment. 2. There were no modifications in IgE, eosinophilic cationic protein or skin tests. 3. An increase in IgG4 occurred which was related to clinical improvement. 4. In general, tolerance was good, except in one patient who presented urticaria and sublingual pruritus. 5. In polysensitized patients, sublingual immunotherapy to cat epithelium is complementary to immunotherapy to dermatophagoides.
From 1975-1978, minisuction abortion was performed on 1000 women within the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. A 5 mm plastic cannula was used on 896 women and a 6 mm plastic cannula on 33 women; whereas, suction aspiration with Karman syringe and larger plastic cannula was used on 71 patients who were 8-10 weeks of gestation. At least 10 of those patients required an electrical source of suction for complete aspiration. The cannula tip was broken in 2 patients, but both patients expelled the broken pieces spontaneously. It was observed that 50% who underwent minisuction within the first 10 days of missed periods were not pregnant. Any patient with 25 ml aspiration or more was found to be pregnant, but 5-10 ml aspiration with severe uterine cramps suggested the patient was not pregnant. Copper T IUDs were implanted after the abortion with only a slight expulsion rate increase. There was a 2.3% complication rate as opposed to a 4.33% rate for suction curettage in the 1st trimester. Miniabortion is a safe procedure but some nonpregnant women are undergoing the procedure due to unreliable pregnancy diagnosis; minisuction on the 42nd-49th day from the last missed period gives the best results.
Fahlgren, Elin; Nima, Ali A; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo
Background. Osteopathic philosophy and practice are congruent with the biopsychosocial model, a patient-centered approach when treating disease, and the view of the person as a unity (i.e., body, mind, and soul). Nevertheless, a unity of being should involve a systematic person-centered understanding of the patient's personality as a biopsychosociospiritual construct that influences health (i.e., well-being and ill-being). We suggest Cloninger's personality model, comprising temperament (i.e., body) and character (i.e., mind and soul), as a genuine paradigm for implementation in osteopathic practice. As a first step, we investigated (1) the relationships between personality and health among osteopathic patients, (2) differences in personality between patients and a control group, and (3) differences in health within patients depending on the presenting problem and gender. Method. 524 osteopathic patients in Sweden (age mean = 46.17, SD = 12.54, 388 females and 136 males) responded to an online survey comprising the Temperament and Character Inventory and measures of health (well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, harmony in life, energy, and resilience; ill-being: negative affect, anxiety, depression, stress, and dysfunction and suffering associated to the presenting problem). We conducted two structural equation models to investigate the association personality-health; graphically compared the patients' personality T-scores to those of the control group and compared the mean raw scores using t-tests; and conducted two multivariate analyses of variance, using age as covariate, to compare patients' health in relation to their presenting problem and gender. Results. The patients' personality explained the variance of all of the well-being (R (2) between .19 and .54) and four of the ill-being (R (2) between .05 and .43) measures. Importantly, self-transcendence, the spiritual aspect of personality, was associated to high levels of positive emotions and
Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine A Monograph by MAJ Mark Adam Jackson...AMPHIBIOUS LANDING OPERATIONS IN WORLD WAR II: PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN APPLYING AND DEVELOPING DOCTRINE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the services, but a divergence in purpose drove them apart prior to World War II. Soon after the United States entered the War, the Army and Navy would
La Barbera, D.; Bonanno, B.; Rumeo, M. V.; Alabastro, V.; Frenda, M.; Massihnia, E.; Morgante, M. C.; Sideli, L.; Craxì, A.; Cappello, M.; Tumminello, M.; Miccichè, S.; Nastri, L.
Psychological factors, specific lifestyles and environmental stressors may influence etiopathogenesis and evolution of chronic diseases. We investigate the association between Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) and psychological dimensions such as personality traits, defence mechanisms, and Alexithymia, i.e. deficits of emotional awareness with inability to give a name to emotional states. We analyzed a survey of 100 patients with IBD and a control group of 66 healthy individuals. The survey involved filling out clinical and anamnestic forms and administering five psychological tests. These were then analyzed by using a network representation of the system by considering it as a bipartite network in which elements of one set are the 166 individuals, while the elements of the other set are the outcome of the survey. We then run an unsupervised community detection algorithm providing a partition of the 166 participants into clusters. That allowed us to determine a statistically significant association between psychological factors and IBD. We find clusters of patients characterized by high neuroticism, alexithymia, impulsivity and severe physical conditions and being of female gender. We therefore hypothesize that in a population of alexithymic patients, females are inclined to develop psychosomatic diseases like IBD while males might eventually develop behavioral disorders. PMID:28150800
Sacchi, L.; Lanzola, G.; Viani, N.
Summary Objectives This survey aims at highlighting the latest trends (2012-2014) on the development, use, and evaluation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) based decision support systems (DSSs) in medicine, with a particular focus on patient-centered and personalized care. Methods We considered papers published on scientific journals, by querying PubMed and Web of Science™. Included studies focused on the implementation or evaluation of ICT-based tools used in clinical practice. A separate search was performed on computerized physician order entry systems (CPOEs), since they are increasingly embedding patient-tailored decision support. Results We found 73 papers on DSSs (53 on specific ICT tools) and 72 papers on CPOEs. Although decision support through the delivery of recommendations is frequent (28/53 papers), our review highlighted also DSSs only based on efficient information presentation (25/53). Patient participation in making decisions is still limited (9/53), and mostly focused on risk communication. The most represented medical area is cancer (12%). Policy makers are beginning to be included among stakeholders (6/73), but integration with hospital information systems is still low. Concerning knowledge representation/management issues, we identified a trend towards building inference engines on top of standard data models. Most of the tools (57%) underwent a formal assessment study, even if half of them aimed at evaluating usability and not effectiveness. Conclusions Overall, we have noticed interesting evolutions of medical DSSs to improve communication with the patient, consider the economic and organizational impact, and use standard models for knowledge representation. However, systems focusing on patient-centered care still do not seem to be available at large. PMID:26293857
Zunick, Peter V; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W
People with negative self-views may fail to generalize appropriately from success experiences (e.g., Wood, Heimpel, Newby-Clark, & Ross, 2005). We drew on theories regarding self-views (Swann, Griffin, Predmore, & Gaines, 1987) and abstraction (Semin & Fiedler, 1991), as well as past linguistic framing work (e.g., Marigold, Holmes, & Ross, 2007, 2010; Salancik, 1974), to create a new technique to encourage people with negative self-views to generalize broadly from a success experience to the self-concept. We call this technique directed abstraction. In Experiment 1, participants with negative self-views who completed a directed abstraction writing task following success feedback regarding a novel laboratory task generalized more from that success, reporting higher ability levels and greater expectations of future success in the relevant domain. In Experiment 2, directed abstraction produced similar results (including more positive self-related affect, e.g., pride) after participants recalled a past public speaking success. In Experiment 3, participants high in fear of public speaking gave two speeches in a context designed to be challenging yet also to elicit successful performances. Directed abstraction helped these participants generalize from their success to beliefs about their abilities, expectations about the future, and confidence as a speaker. In Experiment 4, directed abstraction following success on a verbal task increased persistence in the face of failure on a subsequent verbal task. We discuss implications for understanding how and when people generalize from a success, compare directed abstraction to existing interventions, and suggest practical applications for this influence technique.
Lenzi, Riccardo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Dallan, Iacopo
Necrotizing cervical soft tissue infections (NCSTIs) are devastating uncommon clinical entities that are often life threatening. We report two patients suffering from NCSTI and treated at our institution. Diagnosis of NCSTI has been confirmed histologically and surgically. Both patients were managed with very aggressive treatment (medical and surgical) and survived with minimal morbidity. Early diagnosis and aggressive, multimodality treatment can reduce mortality and morbidity rates. Thoracic and mediastinal involvement requires appropriate management. A strong clinical suspicion remains one of the most important aspects of the management of such shattering conditions. PMID:23304596
Ames, Nancy J.; Peng, Claudia; Powers, John H.; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Rosenberg, Alice; VanRaden, Mark; Wallen, Gwenyth R.
Context Fever is an important sign of inflammation recognized by health care practitioners and family caregivers. However, few empirical data obtained directly from patients exist to support many of the long-standing assumptions about the symptoms of fever. Many of the literature-cited symptoms, including chills, diaphoresis, and malaise, have limited scientific bases, yet they often represent a major justification for antipyretic administration. Objectives To describe the patient experience of fever symptoms for the preliminary development of a fever assessment questionnaire. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 inpatients, the majority (86%) with cancer diagnoses, who had a recorded temperature of ≥38°C within approximately 12 hours before the interview. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit patient fever experiences. Thematic analyses were conducted by three independent research team members, and the data were verified through two rounds of consensus building. Results Eleven themes emerged. The participants reported experiences of feeling cold, weakness, warmth, sweating, nonspecific bodily sensations, gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, emotional changes, achiness, respiratory symptoms, and vivid dreams/hallucinations. Conclusion Our data not only confirm long-standing symptoms of fever but also suggest new symptoms and a level of variability and complexity not captured by the existing fever literature. Greater knowledge of patients’ fever experiences will guide more accurate assessment of symptoms associated with fever and the impact of antipyretic treatments on patient symptoms in this common condition. Results from this study are contributing to the content validity of a future instrument that will evaluate patient outcomes related to fever interventions. PMID:23742739
Informing a cancer patient has been an issue of particular interest to the scientific community over the last 50 years. Since 1989 we have been studying the characters or personality types based on the Kahana and Bibring's approach as part of Consultation-Liaison (C-L) Psychiatry. The question posed was how these characters or personality types could be useful in the process of informing the cancer patient. The aim of this paper was to describe the emotional-hyperthymic character or type of personality thoroughly, so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. The qualitative method of research through groups with doctors and nurses was used, while the research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of patients' denial varied between "large" and "very large" and sometimes was "medium". Initially, the degree of information was "minimal", then "small" until it reached "medium". A discordance was evident between what the patient showed and what the family reported about him. The patient presented himself as courageous and extrovert, but the relatives considered him as faint-hearted.
Nacci, A; Fattori, B; Ursino, F; Rocchi, V; Matteucci, F; Citi, C; Bruschini, L; Rognini, F; La Vela, R; Dallan, I
Paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction is a nosographic entity that remains to be fully elucidated as far as concerns criteria required for diagnosis and underlying aetiopathogenesis. The disorder manifests with repeated episodes of acute dyspnoea associated with a series of symptoms that may include hoarseness, globus, chest pain and "shortness of breath". A retrospective analysis of cases with acute dyspnoea referred to our Department between June 2004 and June 2005 revealed 3 patients with paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction. In 2 of these 3 cases, concomitant psychiatric morbidity was observed and the third also presented gastro-oesophageal reflux. In one patient, the episodes of dyspnoea were triggered by inspiration of irritating substances. Diagnosis of the condition requires a high level of suspicion, which is confirmed by a laryngoscopic investigation that demonstrates hyperadduction of the true vocal cords and a reduction of at least 50% in the breathing space. From a therapeutic point of view, patients with paradoxical vocal cord dysfunction require, in our opinion, a multidisciplinary approach; in fact, only a team comprising otorhinolaryngologists, phoniatricians, pulmonologists, neurologists, allergologists, psychotherapists and speech therapists is capable of defining the appropriate treatment according to the clinical and psychological characteristics of each individual patient. Our results with speech therapy, focused on respiratory and speech retraining, are reported.
Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon
Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…
Multitudes of language teaching practice shows that great attention drawn to language learning can help language teachers better their teaching and give appropriate learning support to language learners. A critical analysis of the author's English language learning experience is given in the paper, encompassing the approaches used, the role of the…
Naresh, Nirmala; Chahine, Iman
This article describes our transitions through three phases of a reflective cycle as a journey from the past to the future. In the descriptive phase, we delve into our past research experiences and address questions such as: What is the role of mathematics at work? In doing so, we uncovered additional venues for exploration that called for a new…
Alsaif, Omar Abdulaziz
This paper ponders the lasting effects of corporal punishment on students. The paper first considers the benefits and faults of corporal punishment by comparing the experiences of two generations of students and teachers. Starting with the definition of corporal punishment as applied locally and globally, the paper analyzes the reasons for its…
McWhinnie, Harold J.
This paper presents some of the results from a course in art and design. The course involved the use of simple computer programs for the arts. Attention was geared to the development of graphic components for educational software. The purpose of the course was to provide, through lectures and extensive hands on experience, a basic introduction to…
Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J
Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694
Zhang, Jia Wei; Chen, Serena
Why do some people report more personal improvement from their regret experiences than others? Three studies examined whether self-compassion promotes personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 1, we coded anonymous regret descriptions posted on a blog website. People who spontaneously described their regret with greater self-compassion were also judged as having expressed more personal improvement. In Study 2, higher trait self-compassion predicted greater self-reported and observer-rated personal improvement derived from recalled regret experiences. In Study 3, people induced to take a self-compassionate perspective toward a recalled regret experience reported greater acceptance, forgiveness, and personal improvement. A multiple mediation analysis comparing acceptance and forgiveness showed self-compassion led to greater personal improvement, in part, through heightened acceptance. Furthermore, self-compassion's effects on personal improvement were distinct from self-esteem and were not explained by adaptive emotional responses. Overall, the results suggest that self-compassion spurs positive adjustment in the face of regrets.
Customary total laryngectomy is a severe mutilating intervention with understandable efforts to offer better solutions. The author has conducted 95 subtotal reconstructive laryngectomies in the period of 1976 to 1984, with the following effects: decannulation, with the mean time of 6 weeks in 82%; deglutition without difficulties, after the third postoperative month in 90% of operated patients; the restoration of phonetics with sonorous-understandable speech in 11%. An average of a five-year survival of all subtotal reconstructive laryngectomies amounts to 63%. The author is of the opinion that this intervention presents important progress in the treatment of laryngeal carcinoma in certain patients, because it avoids mutilations which occur after total radical laryngectomy. Better results can be expected with the further advancement of the operative technique.
Baron, Molly; Joslin, Shannon; Kim, Jane S; Shet, Narendra S; Pocta, Brigitte; Olivi, Penny
The University of Maryland Medical Center's goal was to improve the safety and comfort of pediatric imaging by enhancing the experience for children. Two pediatric radiologists and two child life specialists worked together to create a training program to help guide radiology technologists on how to approach and interact with children undergoing medical imaging. The results of surveys administered to technologists and parents or caregivers helped refine the strategy for both creating training sessions for technologists and reading materials for children and their parents to optimally prepare for the procedures. Training sessions included information on language choices, developmental considerations, comfort techniques, patient- and family-centered care practices, procedural support techniques, and coping styles. Through the implementation of learning sessions and distraction resources for technologists, and the development of preparation books, the imaging experience for pediatric patients at UMMC has improved.
Stadnik, Ryan D; Brand, Bethany; Savoca, Angela
Assessing patients with dissociative disorders (DD) using personality tests is difficult. On the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 ( J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989 ), DD patients often obtain elevations on multiple clinical scales as well as on validity scales that were thought to indicate exaggeration yet have been shown to be elevated among traumatized individuals, including those with DD. No research has been conducted to determine how DD patients score on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991 ), which includes the symptom exaggeration scale Negative Impression (NIM) and the malingering scales Malingering Index (MAL) and Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF). The goals of this study were to document the PAI profile of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) patients and to determine how the validity and Schizophrenia scales are related to other PAI scales as well as dissociation. A total of 42 inpatients with DID or DDNOS were assessed on the PAI as well as the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II. The DID/DDNOS patients were elevated on many PAI scales, including NIM and, to a lesser extent, MAL, but not RDF. Dissociation scores significantly and uniquely predicted NIM scores above and beyond Depression and Borderline Features. In addition, after we controlled for MAL and RDF, dissociation was positively associated with NIM. In contrast, after we controlled for the other 2 scales, dissociation was not related to MAL and was negatively related to RDF, indicating that RDF and, to a lesser extent, MAL are better correlates of feigning in DD patients than NIM.
Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Ritter, Kathrin; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Lars; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has dominated research on narcissism in the field of social and personality psychology. Surprisingly, it is unclear whether the NPI is useful for identifying pathological narcissism in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). The goal of this study was to close this research gap. We used an extreme-group approach by including NPD patients and healthy controls and comparing their narcissism scores. We further investigated whether explicit self-esteem (assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) suppressed the relationship between group membership and NPI narcissism. According to our results, NPD patients do not score higher on the NPI in comparison to healthy controls. Analysis of indirect effects revealed that differences in NPI scores are suppressed by NPD patients' low self-esteem. Our results indicate that the NPI is not a valid indicator of NPD, unless one controls for self-esteem. Implications for future research are discussed.
When a doctor has to break bad news to the cancer patient, he knows that the news will put a strain on his relationship with the patient. Bad news is any information that changes a person's view of the future in a negative way. The questions: "Do you tell the diagnosis or not? How much information do you reveal? Who do you inform about the diagnosis and/or what do you tell" are very frequent during scientific discussions. Must the patients know or do they also have the right not to know? Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how? The aim of this paper was to describe the dependent character or type of personality, so that a therapist can make a diagnosis in order to determine the informative approach.
Fried, Terri R.; Tinetti, Mary E.; Iannone, Lynne
Background Clinicians are caring for an increasing number of older patients with multiple diseases, in the face of uncertainty concerning the benefits and harms associated with guideline-directed interventions. Understanding how primary care clinicians approach treatment decision-making for these patients is critical to the design of improving the decision-making process. Methods Focus groups were conducted with study with forty primary care clinicians (physicians, nurse-practitioners, physician assistants) in academic, community, and VA-affiliated primary care practices. Participants were given open-ended questions about their approach to treatment decision-making for older persons with multiple medical conditions. Responses were organized into themes using qualitative content analysis. Results Participants were concerned about their patients’ ability to adhere to complex regimens deriving from guideline-directed care. There was variability in beliefs regarding and approaches to balancing the benefits and harms of guideline-directed care. There was also variability in how they involved patients in the process of decision making, with clinicians describing conflicts between their own and their patients’ goals. Participants listed a number of barriers to making good treatment decisions, including lack of outcome data, the role of specialists, patient and family expectations, and insufficient time and reimbursement. Conclusions The experiences of practicing clinicians suggest that they struggle with the uncertainties of applying disease-specific guidelines to their older patients with multiple conditions. To improve decision making, they need more data, alternative guidelines, approaches to reconciling their own and their patients’ priorities, the support of their subspecialist colleagues, and an altered reimbursement system. PMID:20837819
Lowyck, Benedicte; Luyten, Patrick; Verhaest, Yannic; Vandeneede, Bart; Vermote, Rudi
Recently, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed a multiple level approach toward the classification and diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), with the first level entailing a rating of impairments in levels of personality functioning. Although a number of measures that assess levels of personality functioning have been validated, given its prominent status in the DSM-5 proposal and contemporary theories of personality pathology, the Work Group has called for more research in this area (e.g., Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). In response to this call, this study investigates the relationship between two major, well-validated dimensional measures of levels of personality functioning, that is, the Differentiation-Relatedness Scale (DR-S; Diamond, Blatt, Stayner, & Kaslow, 1991), as scored on the Object Relations Inventory (ORI; Blatt, Wein, Chevron, & Quinlan, 1979), and the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO; Lenzenweger, Clarkin, Kernberg, & Foelsch, 2001), a self-report instrument, and their relationship with different measures of clinical and interpersonal functioning in 70 patients with a PD. First, results showed that higher levels of differentiation and relatedness of descriptions of self and significant others, and of the self in particular, were negatively related to indices of personality functioning as assessed by the IPO. Lower levels of personality functioning, as measured with both the DR-S and the IPO, were positively related to severity of depression, symptomatic distress, self-harm, and interpersonal problems. Finally, results showed that the DR-S and the IPO independently predicted clinical features and interpersonal functioning. Hence, this study lends further support for the concurrent and predictive validity of the DR-S and the IPO in assessing levels of personality functioning. However, more research concerning the validity of these measures in assessing levels of personality functioning is needed
Goodman, Marianne; Patil, Uday; Steffel, Lauren; Avedon, Jennifer; Sasso, Scott; Triebwasser, Joseph; Stanley, Barbara
Minimal data exist on treatment utilization by gender in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study used an online questionnaire to investigate initial and lifetime patterns of utilization of multiple treatment modalities by patients with BPD, and parental satisfaction with treatment. Respondents were parents of probands diagnosed with BPD who completed a 100-question anonymous Internet survey. Of the 495 surveys that were analyzed, 409 pertained to female subjects with BPD and 86 to male subjects with BPD. Results for probands with BPD across gender were notable for similar high lifetime levels of use of care, including hospitalization, day programs, and halfway houses, but not similar levels of use of drug/alcohol rehabilitation services, which was greater among the male subjects with BPD. The male subjects with BPD received significantly less lifetime psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy than the female subjects with BPD, although the duration of medication and psychotherapy treatment did not differ by gender. These results highlight the need for more research to better understand what might account for these gender differences in treatment and improve strategies to provide appropriate care for male patients with BPD.
Bentkover, Stuart H
This article presents a comprehensive clinical approach to plasma resurfacing for skin regeneration. Plasma technology, preoperative protocols, resurfacing technique, postoperative care, clinical outcomes, evidence-based results, and appropriate candidates for this procedure are discussed. Specific penetration depth and specific laser energy measurements are provided. Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration is a skin-resurfacing technique that offers excellent improvement of mild to moderate skin wrinkles and overall skin rejuvenation. It also provides excellent improvement in uniformity of skin color and texture in patients with hyperpigmentation with Fitzpatrick skin types 1 through 4.
Fox, Charles R; Day, David; Griffin, Audrey; Huckstadt, Alicia
Contemporary allied health education requires students experience both a depth and breadth of clinical encounters to prepare them to provide an increasingly broadening and evolving scope of practice. The Physician Assistant (PA) Studies program and the Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) Graduate Nursing Program at Wichita State University, College of Health Professions joined forces to undertake a project to introduce Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to their students. One aspect of this project was the logging method used by students. The PA program further studied the tracking and used three different logging methods with three different cohorts to capture patent encounter data during standard clinical rotations: paper logs, web-based logs and Using Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs). Results indicate that patient encounter data were significantly better using PDAs than the other two methods. This report presents the background and results of the project as well as lessons learned.
Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund; Pedersen, Geir; Urnes, Øyvind; Costa, Paul T
We lack knowledge of the temporal stability of major personality dimensions in patients with personality disorders (PDs). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) is a self-report instrument that operationalizes the Five-Factor Model of personality. This study investigated the relative stability, mean level stability, and individual level stability of the NEO-PI-R scores in patients with PDs (n = 393) and patients with symptom disorders only (n = 131). The NEO-PI-R was administered at admission to short-term day treatment and after an average of 19 months. The results showed a moderate to high degree of stability of NEO-PI-R scale scores with no substantial difference in stability between patients with and without PD. Changes in NEO-PI-R scores were associated with changes in symptom distress. Neuroticism was the least stable domain. The study indicates that the Five-Factor Model of personality dimensions and traits are fairly stable in patients with PDs. The lower stability of Neuroticism may partly be explained by its inherent state aspects.
Hudon, Catherine; Sanche, Steven; Haggerty, Jeannie L.
Objective A small number of patients frequently using the emergency department (ED) account for a disproportionate amount of the total ED workload and are considered using this service inappropriately. The aim of this study was to identify prospectively personal characteristics and experience of organizational and relational dimensions of primary care that predict frequent use of ED. Methods This study was conducted among parallel cohorts of the general population and primary care patients (N = 1,769). The measures were at baseline (T1), 12 (T2) and 24 months (T3): self-administered questionnaire on current health, health behaviours and primary care experience in the previous year. Use of medical services was confirmed using administrative databases. Mixed effect logistic regression modeling identified characteristics predicting frequent ED utilization. Results A higher likelihood of frequent ED utilization was predicted by lower socioeconomic status, higher disease burden, lower perceived organizational accessibility, higher number of reported healthcare coordination problems and not having a complete annual check-up, above and beyond adjustment for all independent variables. Conclusions Personal characteristics such as low socioeconomic status and high disease burden as well as experience of organizational dimensions of primary care such as low accessibility, high healthcare coordination problems and low comprehensiveness of care are prospectively associated with frequent ED utilization. Interventions developed to prevent inappropriate ED visits, such as case management for example, should tailor low socioeconomic status and patients with high disease burden and should aim to improve experience of primary care regarding accessibility, coordination and comprehensiveness. PMID:27299525
Raheja, Gaurav; Tyagi, Megha
Mobility for persons with visual impairments in Indian railway stations poses multidimensional challenges for access to an inclusive travel experience. India is a home to about twenty million persons with diverse disabilities out of which about five million are persons with visual impairments. Diversity of passenger movements on a railway station including persons with visual impairments requires a Universal Design approach to respond to the accessibility issues in these contexts. This research study is based on a series of live on-site experiences conducted along with persons with visual impairments at New Delhi Railway Station. It also includes the generic studies carried out with other diversities of railway passengers including aging, gender and diverse physical abilities. It employs research methods like ethnography, focus group interactions and trace study to develop a deeper understanding of human and spatial parameters of mobility in railway station environments. A Universal Design perspective with a holistic understanding remains critical to the foundation of this research study. While it deals in specific requirements of persons with visual impairments, it also brings an illustration of handling diversity on a railway station from a unique Indian perspective. It concludes by highlighting and reinterpreting the Universal Design India Principles integrating the needs of persons with visual impairments in railway station environments. Brief recommendation for an inclusive mobility experience on railway station forms a vital part of this grounded research study.
Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies – augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview. PMID:27746747
Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies - augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) - exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual's worldview.
Molleman, Lucas; van den Broek, Eva; Egas, Martijn
There is ample evidence that human cooperative behaviour towards other individuals is often conditioned on information about previous interactions. This information derives both from personal experience (direct reciprocity) and from experience of others (i.e. reputation; indirect reciprocity). Direct and indirect reciprocity have been studied separately, but humans often have access to both types of information. Here, we experimentally investigate information use in a repeated helping game. When acting as donor, subjects can condition their decisions to help recipients with both types of information at a small cost to access such information. We find that information from direct interactions weighs more heavily in decisions to help, and participants tend to react less forgivingly to negative personal experience than to negative reputation. Moreover, effects of personal experience and reputation interact in decisions to help. If a recipient's reputation is positive, the personal experience of the donor has a weak effect on the decision to help, and vice versa. Yet if the two types of information indicate conflicting signatures of helpfulness, most decisions to help follow personal experience. To understand the roles of direct and indirect reciprocity in human cooperation, they should be studied in concert, not in isolation.
Noferesti, Samira; Shamsfard, Mehrnoush
Polarity classification is the main subtask of sentiment analysis and opinion mining, well-known problems in natural language processing that have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Existing approaches mainly rely on the subjective part of text in which sentiment is expressed explicitly through specific words, called sentiment words. These approaches, however, are still far from being good in the polarity classification of patients' experiences since they are often expressed without any explicit expression of sentiment, but an undesirable or desirable effect of the experience implicitly indicates a positive or negative sentiment. This paper presents a method for polarity classification of patients' experiences of drugs using domain knowledge. We first build a knowledge base of polar facts about drugs, called FactNet, using extracted patterns from Linked Data sources and relation extraction techniques. Then, we extract generalized semantic patterns of polar facts and organize them into a hierarchy in order to overcome the missing knowledge issue. Finally, we apply the extracted knowledge, i.e., polar fact instances and generalized patterns, for the polarity classification task. Different from previous approaches for personal experience classification, the proposed method explores the potential benefits of polar facts in domain knowledge aiming to improve the polarity classification performance, especially in the case of indirect implicit experiences, i.e., experiences which express the effect of one entity on other ones without any sentiment words. Using our approach, we have extracted 9703 triplets of polar facts at a precision of 92.26 percent. In addition, experiments on drug reviews demonstrate that our approach can achieve 79.78 percent precision in polarity classification task, and outperforms the state-of-the-art sentiment analysis and opinion mining methods.
Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R
Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician
Council, James R.; Greyson, Bruce
Near-death experiences (NDEs) are subjective experiences at the threshold of death which can include strong positive affect, dissociation from the physical body, and paranormal/transcendental phenomena. Empirical investigation of NDEs has typically relied upon retrospective reports and personality studies of individuals who have come close to…
Dispenza, Franco; Watson, Laurel B.; Chung, Y. Barry; Brack, Greg
In this qualitative study, the authors examined the experience of discrimination and its relationship to the career development trajectory of 9 female-to-male transgender persons. Participants were between 21 and 48 years old and had a variety of vocational experiences. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted via telephone and analyzed…
Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica
Existing ways of understanding the transformative potential of students' undergraduate experiences either focus solely on the formal educational elements of these experiences or present an overly static picture of students' intentions in engaging in higher education. In this article we argue that the notion of "personal project" offers a…
Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC) and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26) and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23) were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25) but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23). Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions. PMID:21801440
Urlings, Thijs A. J. Linden, Edwin van der
Percutaneous vertebroplasty with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used increasingly for pain relief in symptomatic neoplastic or osteoporotic compression fractures. However, restoration of the stiffness of the treated vertebrae might propagate secondary fracture of adjacent vertebrae. Elastoplasty might prevent these secondary fractures. We assessed retrospectively our experience with elastoplasty in 12 patients, focusing on silicone migration. During the period from July 2011 to January 2012, all patients with an indication for vertebroplasty were treated with elastoplasty. The exclusion criterion was the presence of posterior wall defects. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were performed to evaluate the presence of perivertebral leakage and pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of leakage was compared with the results obtained for vertebroplasty with PMMA reported in the literature. Other complications during the postprocedural period were recorded. Twenty-one vertebral bodies in 12 patients were treated with elastoplasty. Silicone pulmonary emboli were detected on the postprocedural chest CT in 60 % (6/10) of the patients. Leakage to the perivertebral venous plexus was seen in 67 % (14/21) of the treated vertebrae. One major complication occurred: severe, medication-resistant dyspnea developed in one patient with multiple peripheral silicone emboli. This preliminary evidence suggests that VK100 silicone cement should not be used in elastoplasty because of the increased risk of silicone pulmonary embolism, when compared with the use of PMMA, which occurs worldwide. The major technical disadvantage is that the time taken for the VK100 silicone material to achieve its final strength is too long for practical application.
Background Patient decision aids support people to make informed decisions between healthcare options. Personal stories provide illustrative examples of others’ experiences and are seen as a useful way to communicate information about health and illness. Evidence indicates that providing information within personal stories affects the judgments and values people have, and the choices they make, differentially from facts presented in non-narrative prose. It is unclear if including narrative communications within patient decision aids enhances their effectiveness to support people to make informed decisions. Methods A survey of primary empirical research employing a systematic review method investigated the effect of patient decision aids with or without a personal story on people’s healthcare judgements and decisions. Searches were carried out between 2005-2012 of electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO), and reference lists of identified articles, review articles, and key authors. A narrative analysis described and synthesised findings. Results Of 734 citations identified, 11 were included describing 13 studies. All studies found participants’ judgments and/or decisions differed depending on whether or not their decision aid included a patient story. Knowledge was equally facilitated when the decision aids with and without stories had similar information content. Story-enhanced aids may help people recall information over time and/or their motivation to engage with health information. Personal stories affected both “system 1” (e.g., less counterfactual reasoning, more emotional reactions and perceptions) and “system 2” (e.g., more perceived deliberative decision making, more stable evaluations over time) decision-making strategies. Findings exploring associations with narrative communications, decision quality measures, and different levels of literacy and numeracy were mixed. The pattern of findings was similar for both experimental and real
This paper aims to promote practice development in the difficult area of managing patients' expressions of personal racism within the clinical environment. Racism is a global phenomenon and it is well documented that nurses experience racism within their routine practice. Nurses face unpleasant dilemmas in managing racist patients who are also vulnerable because of their health status. The paper is based on the ethnography of acute mental health nursing, conducted within a UK hospital. The study found that nurses conceptualized patients' expressions of racism as a consequence of their mental ill-health and that they managed this difficult issue through nursing methods of direct engagement, trouble avoidance and the minimization of strangeness. It is concluded that patients' racism cannot be managed by following simple, procedural rules but neither should it be managed 'behind closed doors'. A culture should be facilitated in which nurses can feel secure that colleagues and managers will take their concerns about personal racism extremely seriously and engage with, and value their contribution in working out just what to do in specific cases. The nursing methods discussed can be used as a basis for practice development in this unpleasant and uncomfortable area.
Salgarello, Marzia; Visconti, Giuseppe; Barone-Adesi, Liliana
In plastic breast surgery, the interlocking areolar suture has gained wide popularity since its introduction in 2007 by Hammond and colleagues. The interlocking circumareolar suture plays its role in the setting of circumareolar excisions to achieve a durable areola shaping and to prevent scar widening/hypertrophy and areola spreading/distortion. This study retrospectively reviewed 49 breasts that underwent interlocking suture after July 2011 for both aesthetic and reconstructive indications. For the suturing, 3-0 undyed polyamide thread with a straight cutting needle (Dafilon; B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) was used. This suture material was preferred to Gore-Tex reported by Hammond and colleagues because it is undyed without any microporous configuration, more wieldy, and less expensive. All 49 breasts showed good results in terms of areola shaping and diameter control as well as good scar quality during a mean follow-up period of 12 months (range 2-18 months) (Fig. 2). No infection, suture extrusion, skin fistula, or granuloma were experienced. The suture was not visible at all, and the patients did not report its palpability. However, at careful examination, the thread resulted slightly palpable.
This epileptic disorder has become a classic topic for neuropediatricians and the interest is documented by the large number of publications on this subject. The relative frequency among the epileptic syndromes is an another reason why not only neuropediatricians but also general pediatricians must be fully informed about diagnostic, clinical, imaging and genetic aspects. Early diagnosis is of paramount importance in order to obtain even complete results in patients with so called idiopathic situations. A number of problems are still to be solved. There is no agreement on the type and the schedule of treatment. A common denominator about this problem is not jet available even if some advances in this regard have been accomplished. Of paramount importance is an accurate clinical and laboratory examination as a prerequisite regarding prognosis and results of therapy in every single case. However, even if more than 170 years have elapsed since the first communication of dr. West on the peculiar syndrome that his child was suffering of, the interest of scientists on this subject has now been enriched and rewarded. PMID:20181122
Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth.
Kasalický, M A; Sváb, J; Fried, M; Melechovský, D
At present the most widely used system of CAS is a vocally controlled manipulator of the laparoscope AESOP 3000 (Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning) which makes it possible to implement some operations without the assistance of another surgeon ("Solo-surgery"). Because of financial costs the so far little used equipment ZEUS or DA VINCI are already "master-slave" systems with several robot arms where the surgeon operates by means of manipulators in the controlling unit without direct contact with the patient. At the First Surgical Clinic, General Faculty Hospital and First Medical Faculty Charles Universitx the authors use the robot system AESOP 3000 since March 2000, in particular in laparoscopic gastric banding on account of obesity, in laparoscopic cholecystectomies, laparoscopic gastroenteroanastomoses and operations in the area if the hiatus. This system made it possible to reduce the number of assisting physicians. E.g. in gastric banding one assistant is sufficient, in laparoscopic cholecystectomy it is possible to operate only with a suture nurse. The application of AESOP is particularly useful in laparoscopic appendectomies and inguinal hernioplasties where it makes possible so-called "solo-surgery" or "one man surgery". No doubt, it is however necessary to have the possibility to call immediately another doctor to the operation theatre in case of necessary conversion of laparoscopy of laparotomy. The authors did not record any case of unwanted movement of the robot arm or another serious technical problem. As compared with a manually guided laparoscope during the use of AESOP the number of unwanted or inadequate shifts of the optical equipment or its angular rotation decreased considerably.
Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro
Personal assistance is a type of home care common to many countries even though entitlement and legislative framework may vary from country to country. At present, there exists no knowledge about the family members' experiences of such assistance; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative of working age with a functional disability. Twenty-five family members who had a relative with a severe neurological disease in Sweden were interviewed about the significance of personal assistance, and the qualitative interviews were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The overall findings verify the close connection between the family members' experiences and their perception of the quality of the caring relationship between the personal assistant and the person with disability. The main finding was an appreciation of the personal assistance on the part of the family members. However, in situations where the encounter between the assistant and the relative with disability was perceived negatively, the family members experienced great anxiety. The shortcomings were the inability to maintain a private life with assistance and the limitation of choice because of the shortage of personal assistants. Beyond these general findings, this study found that personal assistance was experienced by the family members in terms of dignity and empowering care. This theme was generated from seven subthemes: Insight into private life, Security through the close relation, Social life through freedom of movement, Influence over the organisation of assistance, Self-determination and understanding, Friendship and mutual respect and Adaption to the dependency on assistance. The findings indicate that responsible officials, work leaders and assistants need constantly to improve the implementation of the law. In such efforts, the experiences of family members described in this study are a source of knowledge.
Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma E.; Pronovost, Peter; Dixon, Lisa B.; Guallar, Eliseo; Ford, Daniel E.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Boonyasai, Romsai T.; Thompson, David
Objective This study explored the risk of patient safety events and associated nonfatal physical harms and mortality in a cohort of persons with serious mental illness. This group experiences high rates of medical comorbidity and premature mortality and may be at high risk of adverse patient safety events. Methods Medical record review was conducted for medical-surgical hospitalizations occurring during 1994–2004 in a community-based cohort of Maryland adults with serious mental illness. Individuals were eligible if they died within 30 days of a medical-surgical hospitalization and if they also had at least one prior medical-surgical hospitalization within five years of death. All admissions took place at Maryland general hospitals. A case-crossover analysis examined the relationships among patient safety events, physical harms, and elevated likelihood of death within 30 days of hospitalization. Results A total of 790 hospitalizations among 253 adults were reviewed. The mean number of patient safety events per hospitalization was 5.8, and the rate of physical harms was 142 per 100 hospitalizations. The odds of physical harm were elevated in hospitalizations in which 22 of the 34 patient safety events occurred (p<.05), including medical events (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3–1.7) and procedure-related events (OR=1.6, CI=1.2–2.0). Adjusted odds of death within 30 days of hospitalization were elevated for individuals with any patient safety event, compared with those with no event (OR=3.7, CI=1.4–10.3). Conclusions Patient safety events were positively associated with physical harm and 30-day mortality in nonpsychiatric hospitalizations for persons with serious mental illness. PMID:27181736
Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Costanzo, Elsa; De Achával, Delfina; Guinjoan, Salvador
Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = -2.602, p = 0.014), eyes (T = -3.593, p = 0.001), ToM stories (T = -4.706, p = 0.000), and Faux pas (T = -2.227, p = 0.035). In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and ToM.
Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Costanzo, Elsa; De Achával, Delfina; Guinjoan, Salvador
Social cognition was assessed in a clinical sample of personality disorder (PD) stable patients receiving ambulatory treatment (N = 17) and healthy matched controls (N = 17) using tests of recognition of emotions in faces and eyes, in a test of social faux pas and in theory of mind (ToM) stories. Results indicated that when compared with healthy controls, individuals with PD showed a clear tendency to obtain lower scoring in tasks assessing recognition of emotion in faces (T = −2.602, p = 0.014), eyes (T = −3.593, p = 0.001), ToM stories (T = −4.706, p = 0.000), and Faux pas (T = −2.227, p = 0.035). In the present pilot study, PD individuals with a normal cognitive efficiency showed an impaired performance at social cognition assessment including emotion recognition and ToM. PMID:26074824
Williams, C; Alderson, P; Farsides, B
Different constructions of the fetus lie at the centre of reproductive, abortion and disability politics. Recent developments mean that, within the same hospital, a fetus may be perceived in contrasting and potentially conflicting ways. It is also argued that the status given to the fetus is directly relevant to the status given to pregnant women. During group discussions facilitated by an ethicist, health-care staff highlighted various perceptions of the fetus which included: person; patient; 'nobody'; commodity. Perhaps not surprisingly in view of the current legal situation, staff tended to claim that it is usually the pregnant women who decides how her fetus will be constructed, and the practitioner who responds to this. However, various ways in which practitioners might influence women's perceptions of their fetus are highlighted, as are some ways in which the perceptions of staff might be influenced. This paper illustrates how sensitive health-care staff will need to be if they are indeed to respond to, rather than shape, women's constructions of their fetus.
Baus, Nicole; Fischer-Kern, Melitta; Naderer, Andrea; Klein, Jakob; Doering, Stephan; Pastner, Barbara; Leithner-Dziubas, Katharina; Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D
Suicide attempts (SA) are common in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Recent studies focus on aspects of personality associated with risk for SA such as deficits in affect regulation including impulse control and aggression. The current study examines associations of dysfunctional personality organization, psychiatric comorbidities as well as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) with SA in a sample of 68 BPD outpatients. Patients with a history of SA yielded higher scores in personality domains of aggression, especially self-directed aggression. Further, a history of SA was associated with a worse general level of personality organization and a higher prevalence rate of NSSI and substance abuse disorder. The results demonstrate that SA in BPD patients might be regarded as a manifestation of impaired personality functioning rather than mere state variables and symptoms. Moreover, these findings might have implications for indication, treatment, and prognosis of Borderline Personality Disorder.
MacLean, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.
A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event. Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than one year after the session. The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change. PMID:21956378
MacLean, Katherine A; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R
A large body of evidence, including longitudinal analyses of personality change, suggests that core personality traits are predominantly stable after age 30. To our knowledge, no study has demonstrated changes in personality in healthy adults after an experimentally manipulated discrete event. Intriguingly, double-blind controlled studies have shown that the classic hallucinogen psilocybin occasions personally and spiritually significant mystical experiences that predict long-term changes in behaviors, attitudes and values. In the present report we assessed the effect of psilocybin on changes in the five broad domains of personality - Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Consistent with participant claims of hallucinogen-occasioned increases in aesthetic appreciation, imagination, and creativity, we found significant increases in Openness following a high-dose psilocybin session. In participants who had mystical experiences during their psilocybin session, Openness remained significantly higher than baseline more than 1 year after the session. The findings suggest a specific role for psilocybin and mystical-type experiences in adult personality change.
Haverkort, J J Mark; Minderhoud, A L C Ben; Wind, Jelte D D; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Ellerbroek, Pauline M
The Major Incident Hospital of the University Medical Centre of Utrecht has a longstanding history of preparing for the management of highly pathogenic and infectious organisms. An assessment of the hospital's preparations for an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever and its experience during admission of a patient with Ebola virus disease showed that the use of the buddy system, frequent training, and information sessions for staff and their relatives greatly increased the sense of safety and motivation among staff. Differing procedures among ambulance services limited the number of services used for transporting patients. Waste management was the greatest concern, and destruction of waste had to be outsourced. The admission of an Ebola patient proceeded without incident but led to considerable demands on staff. The maximum time allowed for wearing personal protective equipment was 45 minutes to ensure safety, and an additional 20 minutes was needed for recovery.
Minderhoud, A.L.C. (Ben); Wind, Jelte D.D.; Leenen, Luke P.H.; Hoepelman, Andy I.M.; Ellerbroek, Pauline M.
The Major Incident Hospital of the University Medical Centre of Utrecht has a longstanding history of preparing for the management of highly pathogenic and infectious organisms. An assessment of the hospital’s preparations for an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever and its experience during admission of a patient with Ebola virus disease showed that the use of the buddy system, frequent training, and information sessions for staff and their relatives greatly increased the sense of safety and motivation among staff. Differing procedures among ambulance services limited the number of services used for transporting patients. Waste management was the greatest concern, and destruction of waste had to be outsourced. The admission of an Ebola patient proceeded without incident but led to considerable demands on staff. The maximum time allowed for wearing personal protective equipment was 45 minutes to ensure safety, and an additional 20 minutes was needed for recovery. PMID:26812146
Imparting bad news to a cancer patient is considered an arduous task, but it seems to be facilitated by the use of the empathic approach. Indeed, doctors who are trained to adhere to a cancer patient informing protocol argue that the hardest step to take is the empathic approach. The usual questions asked are: To tell the diagnosis or not? How much information should we give? Should the patient know or has the right not to know? Is it possible to determine who should say, what, when, and how. The aim of this article was to describe the avoidant character or type of personality, so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing the avoidant personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : The degree of denial varies between "small" and "medium", while the degree of informing varies between "medium" and "small" in order to reach "large" later. Informing the family: The patient reacts to a common approach with the family as he is concerned about inflicting a blow to his image.
Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Geigges, Julian; Voss, Andreas; Weinhold, Jan; Schweitzer, Jochen
This study presents the theoretical background, development, and psychometric properties of the German and English versions of the Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers). It assesses how the members of a personal social system experience their situation within that system. It is designed as a research tool for interventions in which only one member of the system participates (e.g., Family Constellation Seminars). The EXIS.pers was created to measure change on the individual level relating to one's own important personal social system. In Study 1, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for latent variable identification of the original German EXIS.pers (n = 179). In Studies 2 and 3, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the dimensionality of the German (n = 634) and English (n = 310) EXIS.pers. Internal consistencies and cross-cultural structural equivalence were assessed. EFA indicated that a four-factor model provided best fit for the German EXIS.pers. For both the German and English EXIS.pers, CFA provided the best fit for a five-factor bi-level model that included a general factor (Experience In Personal Social Systems) and four dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, Confidence). Good internal consistencies, external associations, and cross-cultural structural equivalence were demonstrated. This study provides first evidence for the German and English EXIS.pers as an economical and reliable measure of an individual's experience within his or her personal social systems.
Trillini, Morounke O; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R
Only little is known about pathological personality traits in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence of personality traits in adults with GTS. We used a variety of rating scales to assess not only personality traits, but also severity of tics, quality of life, and comorbidities (obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression), in a large group (n=50) of patients. Our major finding was that pathological personality traits are very common in patients with GTS encompassing a wide range of different personality traits, but most typically personality traits related to cluster C. Demand-anxious was the most common personality trait, while histrionic personality trait was absent. Patients' quality of life was more impaired by personality traits than comorbidities. Personality traits were more common in patients with comorbid OCD and depression, while comorbid ADHD had no influence. Our findings, therefore, corroborate the hypothesis that GTS plus OCD represents a more severe subtype of GTS, and support the assumption that OCD and depression, but not ADHD, are part of the GTS spectrum.
Walter, Marc; Degen, Bigna; Treugut, Constanze; Albrich, Jürgen; Oppel, Monika; Schulz, André; Schächinger, Hartmut; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A
The Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), one of the most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in heroin-dependent patients, is associated with a lack of affective modulation. The present study aimed to compare the affect-modulated startle responses of opioid-maintained heroin-dependent patients with and without ASPD relative to those of healthy controls. Sixty participants (20 heroin-dependent patients with ASPD, 20 heroin-dependent patients without ASPD, 20 healthy controls) were investigated in an affect-modulated startle experiment. Participants viewed neutral, pleasant, unpleasant, and drug-related stimuli while eye-blink responses to randomly delivered startling noises were recorded continuously. Both groups of heroin-dependent patients exhibited significantly smaller startle responses (raw values) than healthy controls. However, they showed a normal affective modulation: higher startle responses to unpleasant, lower startle responses to pleasant stimuli and no difference to drug-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. These findings indicate a normally modulated affective reactivity in heroin-dependent patients with ASPD.
Alexander, Gene E.; And Others
Much of the literature on affective disorders has been devoted to categorizing, assessing, and treating the mood and behavioral symptoms typically associated with depressive illness, and much research has studied how personality traits interact with these state symptoms. The personality scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) are…
Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Gruber, Carina; Francesconi, Marcel; Dechant, Cornelia; Jilma, Bernd; Delle-Karth, Georg; Grohs, Katharina; Podczeck-Schweighofer, Andrea; Christ, Günter
This was a prospective study comparing two groups: personalized and non-personalized treatment with P2Y12 receptor blockers during a 12-month follow-up. We aimed to investigate whether personalized antiplatelet treatment in patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) improves clinical outcome. Platelet reactivity was assessed by adenosine diphosphate induced aggregation using a multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) in 798 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with HTPR received up to four repeated loading doses of clopidogrel or prasugrel in the personalized treatment group (n=403), whereas no change in the treatment strategy was undertaken in patients with HTPR in the non-personalized treatment group (n=395). There were fewer major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in the personalized treatment group than in the non-personalized treatment group (7.4% compared with 15.3% respectively; P<0.001). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk to develop MACE was 51% lower in the personalized treatment group as compared with the non-personalized treatment group [hazard ratio (HR)=0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.77; P<0.001]. Similarly, there was a clear net benefit of the personalized antiplatelet treatment over the non-personalized treatment (ischemic and bleedings events: 8.2% versus 18.7% respectively; HR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.70; P<0.001). Further analysis indicated that patients with aggregation values within the therapeutic window (21-49 units) experienced the lowest event rates (stent thrombosis and major bleeding: 2.5%) as compared with poor responders (≥50 units: 5.4%) or ultra-responders (0-20 units: 5.2%). In conclusion, personalized antiplatelet treatment might improve patients' outcome without increasing bleeding complications compared with the non-personalized treatment during a 12-month follow-up.
Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Yudoyono, Farid; Setiawan, Cecilia; Sidabutar, Roland; Sutiono, Agung Budi; Faried, Ahmad
Background: Brain tumor patients have a tendency to suffer from psychiatric disturbances. One of the most frequent disturbance experienced by frontal area tumor patients are personality changes. Case Description: In this paper, the authors report a 28-year-old male patient who presented with headache and personality changes, with no other neurological disturbance. The patient became increasingly pensive and apathetic with frontal and cerebellopontine angle tumor. The diagnosis is based on computed tomography scanning images, and histopathological examination of the excised tumor results in meningioma. Conclusion: Before the operation was performed, the patient suffered from personality changes and suicidal tendencies. After the operation, the patient's suicidal tendency was gone, but the personality changes still persist. For this reason, a comprehensive management of the patient is required, including postoperative pharmacological and psychological treatment. PMID:25593758
Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.
A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132
Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D
A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution.
Imparting bad news had always been an unpleasant task for the physician, as shown from ancient years to our days. In the healthcare sector and as far as the cancer patient is concerned, the imparting of bad news is performed by the patient's doctor within a therapeutic relationship of course. The fundamental question is how a therapist could tailor the information to any patient and if "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how ?". The aim of this paper was to describe the suspicious character or type of personality thoroughly so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing of the suspicious personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : the degree of denial varies between large and very large. The degree of informing varies between medium and small and sometimes minimal. Informing the Family: The hardest family to deal with. Pay attention to litigious mania. Avoid confrontation or be drawn into agreeing with the family views.
The questions "Do you tell the diagnosis or not? How much information do you reveal? Who do you inform about the diagnosis and/or what do you tell" are very frequent during scientific discussions. Must the patients know or do they also have the right not to know? Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how? Is it possible individualizing the informing of a cancer patient according to his character or type of personality? The aim of this paper was to describe the Controlling- Orderly (C-O) character, so any therapist can build up an information strategy to cancer patients. This study took place within the framework of Consulting- Liaison (C-L) psychiatry and included: 1) Training groups in which doctors and nurses participated. 2) The section of C-L Psychiatry of the Psychiatry Department. 3) The training activity in the framework of C-L Psychiatry. 4) The annual seminars of psychooncology for health professionals. How a doctor could use the characteristics of a C-O patient for an empathetic approach and correctly inform him. And how to approach his denial and family in order to tailor the information strategy. Understanding the personality type of C-O patient, his denial mechanisms and the dynamics within his family maximizes the therapist's empathetic approach towards the cancer patient. The therapist can respond at "what, when and how" about to break bad news. A therapist must take into account the main C-O patient characteristics (control and order), as well as the attributes or cognitions: the tendency to use reason, the mechanism of rationalization by which he exercises mental control that leads to doubt. The denial degree is small to minimal, while the degree of information is large to very large.
Kingdon, David G; Ashcroft, Katie; Bhandari, Bharathi; Gleeson, Stefan; Warikoo, Nishchint; Symons, Matthew; Taylor, Lisa; Lucas, Eleanor; Mahendra, Ravi; Ghosh, Soumya; Mason, Anthony; Badrakalimuthu, Raja; Hepworth, Claire; Read, John; Mehta, Raj
This study investigated similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients with clinical diagnoses of schizophrenia or BPD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Axes 1 and 2 and auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma were assessed. A total of 111 patients participated; 59 met criteria for schizophrenia, 33 for BPD, and 19 for both. The groups were similar in their experiences of voices, including the perceived location of them, but they differed in frequency of paranoid delusions. Those with a diagnosis of BPD, including those with schizophrenia comorbidity, reported more childhood trauma, especially emotional abuse. BPD and schizophrenia frequently coexist, and this comorbidity has implications for diagnostic classification and treatment. Levels of reported childhood trauma are especially high in those with a BPD diagnosis, whether they have schizophrenia or not, and this requires assessment and appropriate management.
Krist, Alex H.; Woolf, Steven H.; Bello, Ghalib A.; Sabo, Roy T.; Longo, Daniel R.; Kashiri, Paulette; Etz, Rebecca S.; Loomis, John; Rothemich, Stephen F.; Peele, J. Eric; Cohn, Jeffrey
PURPOSE Health care leaders encourage clinicians to offer portals that enable patients to access personal health records, but implementation has been a challenge. Although large integrated health systems have promoted use through costly advertising campaigns, other implementation methods are needed for small to medium-sized practices where most patients receive their care. METHODS We conducted a mixed methods assessment of a proactive implementation strategy for a patient portal (an interactive preventive health record [IPHR]) offered by 8 primary care practices. The practices implemented a series of learning collaboratives with practice champions and redesigned workflow to integrate portal use into care. Practice implementation strategies, portal use, and factors influencing use were assessed prospectively. RESULTS A proactive and customized implementation strategy designed by practices resulted in 25.6% of patients using the IPHR, with the rate increasing 1.0% per month over 31 months. Fully 23.5% of IPHR users signed up within 1 day of their office visit. Older patients and patients with comorbidities were more likely to use the IPHR, but blacks and Hispanics were less likely. Older age diminished as a factor after adjusting for comorbidities. Implementation by practice varied considerably (from 22.1% to 27.9%, P <.001) based on clinician characteristics and workflow innovations adopted by practices to enhance uptake. CONCLUSIONS By directly engaging patients to use a portal and supporting practices to integrate use into care, primary care practices can match or potentially surpass the usage rates achieved by large health systems. PMID:25354405
Infurna, Maria Rita; Fuchs, Anna; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Reichl, Corinna; Holz, Birger; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael
Previous studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD) development suggest a transgenerational transmission of parent-child relationship quality, which may also be influenced by parents' mental health status. The aim of this study was twofold. First, we aimed to investigate the transgenerational effect of parental bonding experiences on the development of BPD in their offspring. Second, we examined the association between parents' mental health status and BPD in offspring. Ninety-one female adolescent psychiatric inpatients along with 87 mothers and 59 fathers were enrolled in the study. Adolescent BPD was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-II, parental bonding with the Parental Bonding Instrument, and parents´ psychiatric symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire. We found that low parental care produced a transgenerational effect from mother to BPD in offspring. Further, significant associations were found between paternal psychiatric symptoms and adolescent BPD. High paternal stress levels mediated the association between maternal affect reported by fathers and BPD in daughters. There is evidence of a transgenerational effect of parental bonding specifically for female adolescents with BPD, compared with other clinical control subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of including both parents in future research and in early clinical treatment in adolescents with BPD.
Stack, Brendan C; Futran, Neal D; Zang, Billy; Scharf, John E
Improved microsurgical technique has resulted in a high percentage of successful free tissue transfers. When a tissue transfer fails in the head and neck, however, the results are orocutaneous fistulas, carotid artery exposure, and deformity that adds morbidity, expense, and may delay adjuvant therapy. Postoperative monitoring of tissue perfusion can detect early problems in free tissue transfer that may allow for early intervention and salvage. The authors have demonstrated that reflectance photoplethysmography can detect perfusion changes in free tissue transfer within 5 minutes of a pedicle "insult" intraoperatively. Normative data for viable flaps from various donor sites have been established. The authors now report their initial experience with a newly developed reflectance photoplethysmograph based on a hand-held computer for routine clinical use. Their results are compared with a conventional surveillance protocol that included observation, bleeding to pin prick, and bedside duplex scanning of the vascular pedicle. In a series of 30 free tissue transfers (29 patients), there was one ischemic event (skin paddle loss only), which was detected by the monitor. The monitor was able to predict correctly (one flap) survival of a free tissue transfer even when duplex ultrasonic data were indicative of an absence of perfusion. Personal digital assistant-based photoplethysmography appears to be a promising device for bedside diagnosis of free tissue transfer viability or ischemia.
Jackson, Jay W; James, Audrey; Poulsen, Joan Rose; Dumford, Jennifer
We tested a mediation model of weight bias that considers person attributes and contact experiences with overweight individuals. In Study 1, we administered a survey to assess Openness, Agreeableness, Attributional Complexity, contact experiences with overweight individuals, and weight bias. Mediation analyses found that Agreeableness predicted less weight bias through contact experiences. In Study 2, we asked participants to interact with a peer whose weight and attributions regarding the weight were experimentally manipulated. We then measured acceptance of the peer. Agreeableness was found to indirectly predict more acceptance of an overweight peer through Empathy and contact experiences. These results show that contact theory is applicable to the domain of weight bias, and support person-situation approaches to prejudice.
Laudet, Alexandre; Hill, Thomas
Addiction treatment can be effective but fewer than 50% of addiction affected persons are ever treated. Little is known about the addiction and recovery experience of this large subgroup. A national sample of persons in recovery (N = 3,176, 29.5% untreated) was used to begin addressing these questions to inform strategies to encourage help-seeking and to contribute to the small knowledge base on untreated individuals. Study domains were finances, family, social and civic functioning, health, criminal justice involvement, and employment. Treated persons reported significantly greater levels of negative-and fewer positive-experiences in all areas during active addiction than did the untreated group. This gap was significantly narrowed in recovery.
Stevenson, Ian; And Others
Examination of medical records from 40 patients who reported unusual experiences during an illness or injury revealed that only 18 patients were judged to have had serious, life-threatening conditions, while 33 believed they had been dead or near death. Findings suggest that an important precipitator of so-called near-death experience is belief…
Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.
Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and…
Mosquera, Dolores; Gonzalez, Anabel; Leeds, Andrew M
Persistent problems in emotional regulation and interpersonal relationships in borderline patients can be understood as developing from difficulties in early dyadic regulation with primary caregivers. Early attachment patterns are a relevant causal factor in the development of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Links between attachment issues, early history of neglect, and traumatic experiences, and symptoms observed in patients with BPD as per the DSM-5 classification (American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (Fifth ed.). Washington, D.C; (2013)) are described in this article, while delineating possible pathways from attachment disruptions to the specific symptomatology of these patients. The theory of structural dissociation of the personality (TSDP) provides an essential framework for understanding the processes that may lead from insecure early attachment to the development and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Dyadic parent-child interactions and subsequent modulation of emotion in the child and future adult are considered closely related, but other factors in the development of BPD, such as genetic predisposition and traumatic experiences, should also be considered in conceptualizing and organizing clinical approaches based on a view of BPD as a heterogeneous disorder.
Tamborini, Ron; And Others
Investigates the relationship of personality and past film viewing experiences to preferences for different degrees of graphic horror in film, and for female versus male victimization. Finds that the Machiavellian trait of deceit, past exposure to horror films, and, for male subjects only, the enjoyment of pornography were good predictors. (SR)
Adolescent sexual behaviour may show clustering in neighbourhoods, schools and friendship networks. This study aims to assess how experience with sexual intercourse clusters across the social world of adolescents and whether predictors implicated by life history theory or personality traits can account for its between-individual variation and social patterning. Using data on 2877 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we ran logistic multiple classification models to assess the clustering of sexual experience by approximately 17.5 years in schools, neighbourhoods and friendship networks. We examined how much clustering at particular levels could be accounted for by life history predictors and Big Five personality factors. Sexual experience exhibited substantial clustering in friendship networks, while clustering at the level of schools and neighbourhoods was minimal, suggesting a limited role for socio-ecological influences at those levels. While life history predictors did account for some variation in sexual experience, they did not explain clustering in friendship networks. Personality, especially extraversion, explained about a quarter of friends' similarity. After accounting for life history factors and personality, substantial unexplained similarity among friends remained, which may reflect a tendency to associate with similar individuals or the social transmission of behavioural norms. PMID:27853543
Darviri, Christina; Demakakos, Panayotes; Tigani, Xanthi; Charizani, Fotini; Tsiou, Chrysoula; Tsagkari, Christina; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Monos, Dimitrios
This qualitative study provides a comprehensive account of the social and life experiences and strategies and personality attributes that characterize exceptional longevity (living to 100 or over). It is based on nine semi-structured interviews of relatively healthy and functional Greek centenarians of both sexes. The analytic approach was…
Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.
The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…
Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard
The rapid growth of research on Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) over the past decade has paid little attention to research methodology. This paper redresses this lack of attention to research methods and reports on a study conducted on children's personal experiences of Game Sense. The study focuses on the use of year six students'…
Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; And Others
Examined interaction between job performance and specific work experiences on three indicators of personal and family well-being among 336 accountants. Perceptions of nonsupportive and inequitable work environment, role conflict, and extensive time commitment to work were each related to one or more indicators of well-being. (Author)
Leutar, Zdravka; Vitlov, Josipa; Leutar, Ivan
This article presents a qualitative study designed to gain insight into personal experience and perception of abuse in people with intellectual disabilities. Ten members of the organization for people with intellectual disabilities in Zadar, Croatia, who have a diagnosis of light or moderate intellectual disability, were included in the research.…
With the teacher concerns theory (Fuller, 1969) as a theoretical framework, this study has set out to examine how physical education teacher candidates perceive their implementation of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (Hellison, 2003) and how they actually implement it during field experience. Five teacher candidates (three female, two…
Robinson, Armentress D.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the personal, professional, and sociocultural experiences of ten African American female school leaders serving as assistant principals, principals, and central office administrators in four suburban school districts in the southeast region of the…
Eaton, Dennis R.; Rector, Sheila M.
This writing shares the first author's personal experience with alcohol, the negative consequences of his choices, and the ultimate answering of the question, "Am I an alcoholic and should I drink again?" The decision-making process and the eventual answer come from Blaise Pascal, a 17th-century mathematician. This process is explained and…
Comín, Marina; Redondo, Santiago; Daigre, Constanza; Grau-López, Lara; Casas, Miguel; Roncero, Carlos
The aim of this study is to compare the features of two groups of cocaine dependent patients in treatment, one of them with co-morbid diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and the other not. Cross-sectional design, with 143 cocaine-dependent patients attending a drug unit, distributed in two groups: patients with and without Antisocial Personality Disorder. As results, we found that the 15.38% of the sample were diagnosed with an Antisocial Personality Disorder. In relation to socio-demographic variables, Antisocial Personality Disorder patients have less probability of being working or studying (9.1% vs. 47.9%). After multivariate analysis it was found that significantly Antisocial Personality Disorder patients have more opiates dependence (OR: 0.219; 95% IC 0.072-0.660), sedative dependence (OR: 0.203; 95% IC 0.062-0.644) and in more cases show Borderline Personality Disorder (OR: 0.239; 95% IC 0.077-0.746). This study highlights significant differences between cocaine addicts with or without an Antisocial Personality Disorder. All these differences are good indicators of the complexity of the patients with this personality disorder. Better knowledge of their profile will help us to improve the design of specific treatment programs.
Grant, Jon E; Flynn, Meredith; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N
This study sought to examine personality disorders and their related clinical variables in a sample of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) individuals with substance use disorders. Study participants were 145 GLBT patients who were admitted to a residential dual diagnosis chemical dependency treatment program. A total of 136 (93.8%) had at least one personality disorder. The most common personality disorders were borderline (n = 93; 64.1%), obsessive-compulsive (n = 82; 56.6%), and avoidant (n = 71; 49.0%) personality disorders. Preliminary data suggest that there is a high prevalence of personality disorders in the GLBT population undergoing chemical dependency treatment.
Wiklund-Gustin, Lena; Lindholm, Christina; Fagerberg, Ingegerd
Older persons with mental disorders, excluding dementia disorders, constitute a vulnerable group of people. With the future international increase in the older population, mental disorders will increase as well, thus entailing new challenges for their caregivers. These older persons often remain in their own homes, and in Sweden they are cared for by nursing aides. With little previous research, an increased workload and facing new strenuous situations, it is important to make use of the knowledge the nursing aides possess and to deepen the understanding of their experiences. The study aimed at illuminating the meaning of caring for older persons with mental disorders as experienced by nursing aides in the municipal home help service. Interviews with nine female nursing aides were performed and analysed with a phenomenological hermeneutical research method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Being altruistically egoistic emerged as a main theme in the nursing aides’ narratives. The nursing aides’ experiences could be interpreted as a movement between being altruistic and egoistic. The findings revealed a continuous distancing by the nursing aides and their struggle to redress the balance between their altruistic and egoistic actions. Caring for these older persons constitutes a complex situation where distancing functions as a recourse to prioritize oneself and to diminish the value of caring. The study suggests that an increased knowledge base on older persons with mental disorders, followed by continuous supervision, is necessary for the nursing aides to improve the quality of the care given. PMID:22007261
Camps, Jeroen; Stouten, Jeroen; Euwema, Martin
The present study investigates the relation between supervisors’ personality traits and employees’ experiences of supervisory abuse, an area that – to date – remained largely unexplored in previous research. Field data collected from 103 supervisor-subordinate dyads showed that contrary to our expectations supervisors’ agreeableness and neuroticism were not significantly related to abusive supervision, nor were supervisors’ extraversion or openness to experience. Interestingly, however, our findings revealed a positive relation between supervisors’ conscientiousness and abusive supervision. That is, supervisors high in conscientiousness were more likely to be perceived as an abusive supervisor by their employees. Overall, our findings do suggest that supervisors’ Big Five personality traits explain only a limited amount of the variability in employees’ experiences of abusive supervision. PMID:26903919
Gazioglu, Sibel; Cakmak, Vildan Altunayoglu; Ozkorumak, Evrim; Usta, Nuray Can; Ates, Can; Boz, Cavit
Few studies have investigated personality characteristics in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), and little is known about the relationship between personality and clinical characteristics in these patients. We aimed to investigate the personality traits of MS patients and their relationship with clinical characteristics. The study population consisted of 74 MS patients and age-matched, sex-matched, and education level-matched healthy controls. All participants were instructed to complete the self-administered 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. The MS patients exhibited higher harm avoidance (HA) and lower self-directedness scores than the control group, although these differences disappeared after controlling for depression. Duration of the disease was positively correlated with HA and negatively correlated with novelty-seeking scores. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were negatively correlated with reward dependence. Our results suggest a possible relationship between personality characteristics and the stage of the disease or the degree of damage in MS patients.
Torres, Elizabeth B.; Lande, Brian
Background: Following severe trauma to the brain (whether internally generated by seizures, tumors or externally caused by collision with or penetration of objects) individuals may experience initial coma state followed by slow recovery and rehabilitation treatment. At present there is no objective biometric to track the daily progression of the person for extended periods of time. Objective: We introduce new analytical techniques to process data from physically wearable sensors and help track the longitudinal progression of motions and physiological states upon the brain trauma. Setting and Participant: The data used to illustrate the methods were collected at the hospital settings from a pregnant patient in coma state. The patient had brain trauma from a large debilitating seizure due to a large tumor in the right pre-frontal lobe. Main Measures: We registered the wrist motions and the surface-skin-temperature across several daily sessions in four consecutive months. A new statistical technique is introduced for personalized analyses of the rates of change of the stochastic signatures of these patterns. Results: We detected asymmetries in the wrists’ data that identified in the dominant limb critical points of change in physiological and motor control states. These patterns could blindly identify the time preceding the baby’s delivery by C-section when the patient systematically brought her hand to her abdominal area. Changes in temperature were sharp and accompanied by systematic changes in the statistics of the motions that rendered her dominant wrist’s micro-movements more systematically reliable and predictable than those of the non-dominant writst. Conclusions: The new analytics paired with wearable sensing technology may help track the day-by-day individual progression of a patient with post brain trauma in clinical settings and in the home environment. PMID:25852516
Lauri, Mary-Anne; Lauri, Josef
Objective To determine, using the Gordon Personal Profile-Inventory (GPP-I), if the personality traits of first-year pharmacy students match the traits required for patient-centered practice. Methods The GPP-I, which measures the personality traits of ascendency, responsibility, emotional stability, sociability, cautiousness, original thinking, personal relations, and vigor, was administered to incoming pharmacy students at the beginning of their first semester. Results The pharmacy school had attracted students with strong traits of original thinking, followed by personal relations, and vigor. The students, however, were limited in emotional stability and ascendency. Conclusion The pharmacy profession needs to be more proactive in projecting the desired image and communicate its increasingly challenging and patient-oriented practice to attract individuals whose personalities are conducive to current practice models. PMID:20798801
Fassino, Secondo; Amianto, Federico; Gastaldi, Filippo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Brambilla, Francesca; Leombruni, Paolo
Family environment is a pathogenic factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the personality traits of patients with BPD and their parents have never been assessed using the same instrument and then examined for relationships. In the present study, we explored the temperament and character traits of BPD patients and their parents to investigate possible interactions. In total, 56 patients with BPD and their parents were evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and compared with 53 control families. Discriminant and correlation analyses indicated that subjects with BPD displayed higher levels of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-transcendence and lower levels of self-directedness than control subjects. Their fathers displayed higher levels of novelty seeking and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness, and their mothers displayed lower levels of self-directedness compared with levels in control parents. In BPD families, temperament and character traits displayed high levels of discriminatory power. Novelty seeking in offspring with borderline personality disorder was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and their fathers' self-transcendence. Self-directedness in borderline offspring was significantly correlated with both their mothers' and fathers' novelty seeking, and their self-transcendence was significantly correlated with their mothers' novelty seeking and harm avoidance. The different correlational pattern for borderline and control families is discussed. Characteristic personality patterns were found in BPD offspring and in both parents. The relationship between personality traits of borderline offspring and those of their parents may be related to both genetic transmission and family dynamics. Ramifications for treatment are discussed.
Background: Providing patients with a video recording of their visit with a medical professional is a common-sense method for improving patient-provider communication. Objective: To describe the patient and provider experiences to video recording clinical medical encounters and providing the patient with a copy of the video for informational purposes. Methods: Since 2009, over 2,800 patients of eight different neurosurgeons chose to be video recorded during their encounter with the doctor and were provided access to the recording to watch over again as a way to recall what the doctor had said. The video system was set up as a handheld video camera, and video files were downloaded and made accessible to patients via a secure Internet patient portal. Between 2012 and 2014, patients who participated were surveyed regarding their use of the video and what was recorded on the video. The experience of the providers from a clinical and medico-legal standpoint was also reviewed. Results: Three hundred and thirty-three responses to the survey were received (39.2% response rate). More than half of patients (N=333; 56.2%) watched their video more than once, and over two-thirds (N=333; 68.6%) shared their video with a family member, friend, or another physician. Patients self-reported improved memory after watching their videos (N=299; 73.6% could remember more) and 50.2% responded that having the video made them feel more “at ease” with their medical problem (N=299). Overall, 88.0% of respondents indicated that their video had been helpful to them, and 98.5% would recommend having future visits video recorded. No patient made a comment that the video was intrusive or had prevented them from being open with their doctor. Finally, in the high-risk specialty of neurosurgery, none of the 2,807 patients who have been recorded since 2009 have used a video in a medico-legal action. Conclusions: Patient responses to the recording system and having a copy of their video
Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe
The aims of this study were to assess the relative contribution of symptoms and specific psychosocial factors to different domains of quality of life (QoL) in patients with psychotic disorders. Positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; Five-Factor Model personality traits; and attachment dimensions were assessed in 110 patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders. Hierarchical and stepwise regression analyses were conducted. Psychosocial factors were able to predict all domains of QoL, when symptom severity was controlled for. Furthermore, the physical QoL domain was best predicted by attachment, personality, and sex (R = 43.1%); the psychological QoL domain, by personality and depressive symptoms (R = 60.5%); the social domain, by personality and positive symptoms (R = 30.3%); and the environmental domain, by personality and negative symptoms (R = 27.9%). Our findings highlight the role that specific individual characteristics play in different aspects of QoL in patients with psychotic disorders.
Bradley, Sarah E; Frizelle, Dorothy; Johnson, Miriam
Recent reviews conclude that the benefits of attending Specialist Palliative Day Care (SPDC) are likely to be in social, psychological and spiritual domains. However, these areas are not easily identified, leaving researchers and practitioners unclear as to what aspects of these domains patients most need and desire. The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate literature on patient-perceived psychosocial experiences of attendance at SPDC. Twelve studies were included. Evidence showed that patients value a person-centred approach that reduces isolation, increases social support, encourages communication and provides activities. Future research could focus on investigating why patients value the psychosocial experiences reported and how these experiences can be defined in a way that would be meaningful to clinical service commissioners. Once this has been done, clinicians can start to measure more effectively clinical effectiveness and devise justifiable interventions to help this patient group.
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.
Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…
Daffern, Michael; Howells, Kevin
It has been suggested that psychological interventions for personality disorders should focus on improving adaptive expression of the functional needs expressed through problematic behaviors such as aggression. The measurement of function is a necessary condition for devising a function-based treatment approach. Two studies that employ a method…
Kitamura, Toshinori; Watanabe, Kyoko; Takara, Nobue; Hiyama, Kazutoshi; Yasumiya, Rie; Fujihara, Shigeki
The perception of social support may be a trait-like construct stemming from the current personality and early environment as well as a summation of the actual support perceived. A total of 220 community individuals were examined for the effects of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) items and early life experience at home and outside on the number of sources of perceived social support and satisfaction with that support. High extraversion and low neuroticism scores of the EPQ were correlated with the availability of support only in women, while high maternal care and low maternal overprotection in childhood were correlated with the satisfaction with support only in men. Availability of support was also correlated with some types of early life events. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their links to personality and early environment, and may be, to some extent, explainable in terms of them.
ALTUNSOY, Neslihan; ŞAHİNER, Şafak Yalçın; CİNGİ KÜLÜK, Merve; OKAY, Tuncer; ULUSOY KAYMAK, Semra; AYDEMİR, Çiğdem; GÖKA, Erol
Introduction Although substance abuse is an important clinical problem in schizophrenic patients, very little evidence explains why these patients use drugs and alcohol. This study therefore aimed to examine whether premorbid personality disorders affect substance abuse. Methods The sample included 40 male schizophrenic patients with and 40 male schizophrenic patients without substance use disorder comorbidity who had applied to Ankara Numune Research and Training Hospital. Each participant and a family member were interviewed in a structured clinical interview that addressed premorbid personality disorders. Results Altogether, 32 patients (80%) in the group with comorbidity and 28 (70%) in the group without comorbidity had a premorbid personality disorder. Antisocial (35% vs. 0%; p<.001) and borderline (37.5% vs. 5%; p=.001) personality disorders were more often detected in the group with comorbidity, while avoidant (10% vs. 35%; p=.014) and obsessive–compulsive (0% vs. 15%; p=.026) personality disorders were less frequently found in this group. Comparing the group with comorbidity with premorbid personality types, schizophrenic patients with premorbid antisocial personality disorder were more frequently unemployed and hospitalized as well as had an earlier onset age of schizophrenia (p=.034, p=.038 and p=.035, respectively). Schizophrenic patients with premorbid borderline personality disorder had a significantly earlier onset age of substance use (19±5; p=.028). Conclusion Schizophrenic patients with substance use comorbidity variously differ from those without comorbidity and some of these differences may be associated with premorbid personality disorders. PMID:28360728
Myers, Teresa A.; Maibach, Edward W.; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Akerlof, Karen; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.
In this paper, we address the chicken-or-egg question posed by two alternative explanations for the relationship between perceived personal experience of global warming and belief certainty that global warming is happening: Do observable climate impacts create opportunities for people to become more certain of the reality of global warming, or does prior belief certainty shape people's perceptions of impacts through a process of motivated reasoning? We use data from a nationally representative sample of Americans surveyed first in 2008 and again in 2011; these longitudinal data allow us to evaluate the causal relationships between belief certainty and perceived experience, assessing the impact of each on the other over time. Among the full survey sample, we found that both processes occurred: `experiential learning', where perceived personal experience of global warming led to increased belief certainty, and `motivated reasoning', where high belief certainty influenced perceptions of personal experience. We then tested and confirmed the hypothesis that motivated reasoning occurs primarily among people who are already highly engaged in the issue whereas experiential learning occurs primarily among people who are less engaged in the issue, which is particularly important given that approximately 75% of American adults currently have low levels of engagement.
Brooks, Alyssa T; Washington, Shakira; Boekeloo, Bradley O; Gilchrist, Brian; Wang, Min Q
Only 10% of health professionals are from racial/ethnic minority groups, and much research has been focused on encouraging minorities to enter a health career. The lack of health workforce diversity has many implications for the effective delivery of care to an increasingly diverse US population. The goal of this analysis is to examine the influence of personal health experiences on interest in a health career. "Personal Health Experiences" is a newly created scaled variable that assesses the influence of direct and indirect health experiences of respondents. In a sample of 134 predominantly minority 10th graders from underprivileged neighborhoods, the scale had adequate psychometric properties (range 1-7; mean 4.44, SD 1.46, median 4.60, Cronbach's alpha 0.72), and multivariate regression modeling revealed that it predicted increased "Interest in Health Careers" (B=0.46, SE 0.10, p<0.01). Future research is needed to determine the role that personal health experiences play in career choices and one's success in health career decisions. Such information could, for example, help to refine health profession recruitment strategies.
Yilmaz, Edip Erdal; Canan, Fatih; Yildirim, Osman; Cetin, Mehmet Mustafa
Introduction Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a significant factor in describing the burden of illness and the impact of treatment in patients with gastrointestinal disease. Type D (distressed) personality is defined as the co-occurrence of negative affect and social inhibition. Aim To assess the prevalence of type D personality in patients with anal fissure and to investigate whether the presence of a type D personality would affect HRQL in patients with anal fissure. Material and methods One hundred outpatients with anal fissure with no psychiatric comorbidity were consecutively enrolled, along with 100 healthy controls. Type D Scale (DS14) and General Health Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used in the collection of data. Results Patients with anal fissure scored lower on physical roles and bodily pain dimensions of SF-36 than healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Thirty-three patients with anal fissure (33%) and 16 controls (16%) had scored above the cut-off score of the DS14 (p < 0.05). Patients with a type D personality were found to score lower on bodily pain and social roles domains of HRQL than patients without a type D personality. Conclusions Type D personality was associated with increased perceived bodily pain and social roles in patients with anal fissure. Type D personality construct may be an important consideration when assessing HRQL outcomes. A multidimensional approach may be valuable in the assessment of patients presenting with anal fissure, because a subgroup with type-D personality might benefit from psychological therapies. PMID:25061489
Bonaiuto, Marino; Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Psalti, Anastasia; Ariccio, Silvia; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly
This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual's identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one's own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity's features relating to a person's relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one's own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one's own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT's understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one's own place identity, and therefore people-place relations, by means of facilitating a person's flow experience within psychologically meaningful places.
Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen; Weinhold, Jan
This study examined the efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) on individuals' experience in their personal social systems, especially the experience of belonging, autonomy, accord, and confidence. We conducted a single-blind, stratified and balanced, randomized controlled trial. Participants were 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10, 79% women) who were randomly allocated either to the intervention group (3-day FCSs; 64 active participants, 40 observing participants) or to the wait-list group (64 active participants, 40 observing participants). Change was measured short-term (2-week and 4-month follow-up) using the Experience In Social Systems Questionnaire, personal domain (EXIS.pers). EXIS.pers is a new outcome measure being applied for the first time in evaluation research. In addition, we used interpersonal scales derived from established measures (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45; Tool for the Evaluation of the Psychotherapeutic Progress, FEP). The average person in the intervention group showed improved experience in personal social systems, as compared with approximately 73% of the wait-list group after 2 weeks (total score: Cohen's d = .61, p = .000) and 69% of the wait-list group after 4 months (total score: d = .53, p = .000). The results were confirmed in per-protocol analyses (n = 191) by the results of the EXIS.pers dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, and Confidence) and the interpersonal scales derived from the OQ-45 and FEP. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides first evidence that FCSs tend to positively influence participants' experience in their social systems.
Zhu, Yi-Kang; Li, Chun-Bo; Jin, Jin; Wang, Ji-Jun; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Montag, Christian
Prenatal estrogen/testosterone exposure is known to be involved in early brain development. In this context, the ratio of the index finger to ring finger length (2D:4D) has been put forward as an indicator of the intrauterine sex hormonal level. A previous study by Collinson et al. (2010) examined 2D:4D ratios in Asian patients with schizophrenia and found an increased 2D:4D pattern in male patients compared to male healthy controls. In the current study, we tried to replicate the result of this study on the 2D:4D ratio in schizophrenia patients and controls in a Chinese sample. Moreover, we investigated the link between 2D:4D ratios and schizotypal personality traits in the participants of the study. No significant difference between cases and controls in 2D:4D ratios for both hands could be observed. However, a positive association between right 2D:4D ratio and schizotypal personality traits was found in healthy controls (both in the male and female subsamples) suggesting that a high 2D:4D ratio could represent a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia in healthy males and females. Same results were observed for the digit ratio of the left hand and the SPQ in the healthy total and healthy female subsample. Therefore, the inclusion of personality measures to study the link between the digit ratio and schizophrenia might help to provide insights in a potential continuum from healthy to schizophrenic behavior.
Buchanan, Adam H.; Datta, Santanu K.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Hollowell, Gail P.; Beresford, Henry F.; Freeland, Thomas; Rogers, Benjamin; Boling, John; Marcom, P. Kelly; Adams, Martha B.
Telegenetics – genetic counseling via live videoconferencing – can improve access to cancer genetic counseling (CGC) in underserved areas, but studies on cancer telegenetics have not applied randomized methodology or assessed cost. We report cost, patient satisfaction and CGC attendance from a randomized trial comparing telegenetics with in-person CGC among individuals referred to CGC in four rural oncology clinics. Participants (n=162) were randomized to receive CGC at their local oncology clinic in-person or via telegenetics. Cost analyses included telegenetics system; mileage; and personnel costs for genetic counselor, IT specialist, and clinic personnel. CGC attendance was tracked via study database. Patient satisfaction was assessed one week post-CGC via telephone survey using validated scales. Total costs were $106 per telegenetics patient and $244 per in-person patient. Patient satisfaction did not differ by group on either satisfaction scale. In-person patients were significantly more likely to attend CGC than telegenetics patients (89% vs. 79%, p=0.03), with bivariate analyses showing an association between lesser computer comfort and lower attendance rate (Chi-square=5.49, p=0.02). Our randomized trial of telegenetics vs. in-person counseling found that telegenetics cost less than in-person counseling, with high satisfaction among those who attended. This study provides support for future randomized trials comparing multiple service delivery models on longer-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. PMID:25833335
Buchanan, Adam H; Datta, Santanu K; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Hollowell, Gail P; Beresford, Henry F; Freeland, Thomas; Rogers, Benjamin; Boling, John; Marcom, P Kelly; Adams, Martha B
Telegenetics-genetic counseling via live videoconferencing-can improve access to cancer genetic counseling (CGC) in underserved areas, but studies on cancer telegenetics have not applied randomized methodology or assessed cost. We report cost, patient satisfaction and CGC attendance from a randomized trial comparing telegenetics with in-person CGC among individuals referred to CGC in four rural oncology clinics. Participants (n = 162) were randomized to receive CGC at their local oncology clinic in-person or via telegenetics. Cost analyses included telegenetics system; mileage; and personnel costs for genetic counselor, IT specialist, and clinic personnel. CGC attendance was tracked via study database. Patient satisfaction was assessed 1 week post-CGC via telephone survey using validated scales. Total costs were $106 per telegenetics patient and $244 per in-person patient. Patient satisfaction did not differ by group on either satisfaction scale. In-person patients were significantly more likely to attend CGC than telegenetics patients (89 vs. 79 %, p = 0.03), with bivariate analyses showing an association between lesser computer comfort and lower attendance rate (Chi-square = 5.49, p = 0.02). Our randomized trial of telegenetics vs. in-person counseling found that telegenetics cost less than in-person counseling, with high satisfaction among those who attended. This study provides support for future randomized trials comparing multiple service delivery models on longer-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes.
Humphreys, G F
What follows are the perceptions of two individuals--a patient and a highly respected medical oncologist who did not participate in the care of this patient but read the patient's essay. We encourage readers to share their thoughts about these essays in correspondence.
Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Campos, Rui C; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta; Junqueira, Diana
As part of the research relating personality and depression, this study seeks to predict depressive experiences in aging women according to Sidney Blatt's perspective based on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire were administered. The domains Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted self-criticism, explaining 68% of the variance; the domains Neuroticism and Extraversion predicted dependency, explaining 62% of the variance. The subfactors Neediness and Connectedness were differently related to personality traits. These findings are relevant to the research relating personality and anaclitic / introjective depressive experiences in late adulthood.
Schema, Lynn; McLaughlin, Michaela; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; LeRoy, Bonnie S
Patient anger is challenging for healthcare professionals to manage, particularly when it is directed at them. This study comprises the first in-depth investigation of genetic counselors' experiences with patient anger. Using a brief survey and interview methods, this study explored prevalence and context of patient anger directed at the genetic counselor, how genetic counselors manage patient anger directed at them, and possible thematic differences due to genetic counseling experience. Individuals enrolled in the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) listserv were invited to participate in a study of their experiences with patient anger directed at them. A majority of survey respondents (95.7 %, 243/254) reported experiencing patient anger directed at them, and 19.4 % reported having feared for their safety because of patient anger. Twenty-two survey respondents were purposively selected to participate in individual interviews. Inductive and cross case analysis yielded prevalent themes concerning patient triggers for anger, including bad news, logistical mishaps, and perceived counselor characteristics. Interview results further suggest unaddressed patient anger negatively affected patient and counselor emotional well-being and hindered genetic counseling goals. Prevalent challenges included genetic counselor attempts to accurately recognize, understand, and effectively manage patient anger without taking it personally. Commonly recommended strategies for addressing anger were empathy (i.e., understanding origins of patient anger), anticipating and acknowledging anger, maintaining personal, professional and legal protection, and debriefing with colleagues. Themes were quite similar across counselor experience levels. The findings underscore the importance of training and continuing education regarding patient anger. Additional findings, practice implications, and research recommendations are presented.
Chenail, Ronald J.
From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…
Gorbenko, N I
Overall forty-eight patients with stage I-II hypertensive disease (HD) were examined. A psychological investigation in the patients was conducted as recommended by Eysenck [correction of Isenk], S. Rosenzweig, Luchier. HD patients presenting with aggravated heredity (AH) and their HD parents are more often than not inclined to introversion. In AH-free HD patients, a high level of neuroticism was recordable as was decrement in their ability to compensate anxiety and a low level of social adaptation. It is suggested that AH HD patients might have some mechanism of compensation of anxiety early in the course of the illness.
Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio
Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on middle-aged and older adults. The present research sought to (a) replicate these associations in a young adult sample, (b) examine whether sex, race, or ethnicity moderate these associations, and (c) test whether personality is associated with the subjective experience of body weight and discrepancies between perceived and actual weight. Participants (N = 15,669; M(age) = 29; 53% female; ∼40% ethnic/racial minority) from Wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health completed a Five-Factor Model personality measure and reported their weight, height, and perception of weight category (e.g., overweight); trained staff measured participants' height, weight, and waist circumference. Conscientiousness was associated with healthier weight, with a nearly 5 kg difference between the top and bottom quartiles. Neuroticism among women and Extraversion among men were associated with higher adiposity. Neuroticism was also associated with misperceived heavier weight, whereas Extraversion was associated with misperceived taller and leaner. The associations were similar across race/ethnic groups. Personality is associated with objective and subjective adiposity in young adulthood. Although modest, the effects are consistent with life span theories of personality, and the misperceptions are consistent with the conceptual worldviews associated with the traits.
Solcova, I; Vinokhodova, A G
The article deals with positive personal transformations in a simulated space mission. The investigation was focused on the aspects of control locus, stamina, proactive behavior to overcome challenges, and stress-related personal growth. Besides, ingenious psychophysiological techniques designed to select Russian cosmonauts were used for assessing stress-resistance and ability to control own emotions voluntarily. Experiment Mars-500 simulated the basic features of a mission to Mars. The crew consisted of 6 males 27 to 38 years of age who volunteered to spend 520 days in isolation and confinement in the IBMP experimental facility (Moscow). To detect personality changes, the volunteers were tested before the experiment and after its completion. According to the test results, the participants commonly demonstrated the ability to see the bright side of the Mars-500 adversities, which most often was caused by their social growth. Positive changes were particularly pronounced in the crewmembers who possessed a better ability to control own emotions. The simulated challenges were also beneficial for personal growth of the volunteers.
Lyberg, Anne; Holm, Anne Lise; Lassenius, Erna; Berggren, Ingela; Severinsson, Elisabeth
The aim of this study was to explore experiences of the meaning of family support among older persons with depressive ill-health. Data were collected from twenty-nine participants through semistructured interviews and analysed using interpretative hermeneutic and reflective methodology. The findings revealed a main theme, hovering between feelings of belongingness and aloneness in relationships with family members, based on two themes: a sense of being worthy and a sense of being unworthy. Experiences of support and lack of support from family members were not opposites but connected in internal relationships and can be pictured as a movement on a continuum of ambiguity. Family support promotes the emotional needs of older persons with depressive ill-health to be confirmed. The family plays a vital role, not always by direct assistance, but indirectly by supporting the older person's own “guiding principles” for managing her/his situation. The feelings of aloneness as well as shame and guilt at poor or absent family responsiveness should be adequately addressed. Innovative nursing care can lead to improvement by focusing on acquiescence to the older person's life situation. PMID:24078871
Anderson, Celia Rousseau
In this article, the author employs Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the experiences of mixed race individuals in the United States. Drawing on historical and contemporary conditions involving persons of mixed race, the author considers how key ideas from CRT can be useful to frame an analysis of the experiences of multiracial persons in the…
Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi
The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses.
Pietilae, Elina; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Baschiera, Betty; Arabi, Leila; Lorber, Thomas; Oeggerli, Martin; Savic, Spasenija; Obermann, Ellen; Singer, Thomas; Rothschild, Sacha I.; Zippelius, Alfred; Roth, Adrian B.; Bubendorf, Lukas
Introduction The use of patients’ own cancer cells for in vitro selection of the most promising treatment is an attractive concept in personalized medicine. Human carcinoma cells from malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are suited for this purpose since they have already adapted to the liquid environment in the patient and do not depend on a stromal cell compartment. Aim of this study was to develop a systematic approach for the in-vitro culture of MPEs to analyze the effect of chemotherapeutic as well as targeted drugs. Methods MPEs from patients with solid tumors were selected for this study. After morphological and molecular characterization, they were cultured in medium supplemented with patient-derived sterile-filtered effusion supernatant. Growth characteristics were monitored in real-time using the xCELLigence system. MPEs were treated with a targeted therapeutic (erlotinib) according to the mutational status or chemotherapeutics based on the recommendation of the oncologists. Results We have established a robust system for the ex-vivo culture of MPEs and the application of drug tests in-vitro. The use of an antibody based magnetic cell separation system for epithelial cells before culture allowed treatment of effusions with only moderate tumor cell proportion. Experiments using drugs and drug-combinations revealed dose-dependent and specific growth inhibitory effects of targeted drugs. Conclusions We developed a new approach for the ex-vivo culture of MPEs and the application of drug tests in-vitro using real-time measuring of cell growth, which precisely reproduced the effect of clinically established treatments by standard chemotherapy and targeted drugs. This sets the stage for future studies testing agents against specific targets from genomic profiling of metastatic tumor cells and multiple drug-combinations in a personalized manner. PMID:27548442
Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Brown, Phil; Averick, Mara
We report on interviews conducted with participants in a novel study about environmental chemicals in body fluids and household air and dust. Interviews reveal how personal and collective environmental history influence the interpretation of exposure data, and how participants fashion an emergent understanding of environmental health problems from the articulation of science and experience. To the illness experience literature, we contribute a framework for analyzing a new category of embodied narratives—“exposure experience”—that examines the mediating role of science. We update social scientific knowledge about social responses to toxic chemicals during a period in which science alters public understanding of chemical pollution. This article is among the first published accounts of participants' responses to learning personal exposure data, research identified as critical to environmental science and public health. Our findings raise the importance of reporting even uncertain science and underscore the value of a community-based reporting strategy. PMID:19181047
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
Borderline personality disorder is a complex psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by a number of pathological interpersonal and behavioral symptoms. Because of these symptoms, individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to have difficulties in their relationships with others, including mental health clinicians. Through a literature review, we examined the perceptions and reactions of mental health clinicians toward patients with borderline personality disorder. Our findings indicate that psychiatric nurses are the most studied group of mental health clinicians in this regard, followed by samples of mixed mental health clinicians, and then psychologists. Interestingly, there is no study of psychiatrists only. While sample sizes have been generally small and methodologies have varied, the overwhelming majority of these studies indicate negative perceptions of and emotional responses toward patients with borderline personality disorder. Some researchers have interpreted such findings to suggest that mental health clinicians are more judgmental or prejudicial toward patients with borderline personality disorder, in contrast to other types of mental health patients. However, patients with borderline personality disorder have very complex interpersonal behaviors that tend to illicit negative responses from those around them. Perhaps these data simply reflect a very human reaction to the complex and pathological behaviors of these patients-a conclusion that is relevant to clinicians practicing in either mental health or primary care settings.
Di Vita, Antonella; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Di Tella, Jessica; Propato, Filomena; Guariglia, Cecilia
There is still a matter of debate around the nature of personal neglect. Is it an attention disorder or a body representation disorder? Here we investigate the presence of body representation deficits (i.e., the visuo-spatial body map) in right and left brain-damaged patients and in particular in those affected by personal neglect. 23 unilateral brain-damaged patients (5 left-brain-damaged and 18 right-brain-damaged patients) and 15 healthy controls took part in the study. The visuo-spatial body map was assessed by means of the "Frontal body-evocation subtest (FBE)," in which participants have to put tiles representing body parts on a small wooden board where only the head is depicted as a reference point. In order to compare performance on the FBE with performance on an inanimate object that had well-defined right and left sides, participants also performed the "Car test." Group statistical analysis shows that the performance of patients with personal neglect is significantly worse than that of the controls and patients without personal neglect in the FBE but not in the Car test. Single case analyses of the five patients with pure personal neglect confirm the results of group analysis. Our data supports the hypothesis that personal neglect is a pervasive body representation disorder.
Kayhan, Fatih; Küçük, Adem; Satan, Yılmaz; İlgün, Erdem; Arslan, Şevket; İlik, Faik
Background We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), mood, anxiety, and personality disorders in female patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This case–control study involved 96 patients with FM and 94 healthy women. The SD diagnosis was based on a psychiatric interview in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. Mood and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview. Personality disorders were diagnosed according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, Revised Third Edition Personality Disorders. Results Fifty of the 96 patients (52.1%) suffered from SD. The most common SD was lack of sexual desire (n=36, 37.5%) and arousal disorder (n=10, 10.4%). Of the 96 patients, 45 (46.9%) had a mood or anxiety disorder and 13 (13.5%) had a personality disorder. The most common mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were major depression (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (8.3%), and histrionic personality disorder (10.4%). Conclusion SD, mood, and anxiety disorders are frequently observed in female patients with FM. Pain plays a greater role in the development of SD in female patients with FM. PMID:26937190
Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul
Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.
de São José, José; Barros, Rosanna; Samitca, Sanda; Teixeira, Ana
The topic of social care for older people has gained increasing attention from the part of academics, professionals, policy makers and media. However, we know little about this topic from the perspectives of older persons, which hinders future developments in terms of theory, empirical research, professional practice and social policy. This article presents and discusses a systematic review of relevant qualitative research-based evidence on the older persons' experiences and perspectives of receiving social care published between 1990 and September 2014. This review aimed to obtain answers to the following questions: How is the reception of social care experienced by the older persons? What are the negative and positive aspects of these experiences? What are the factors which influence the experiences? The synthesis of the findings of reviewed papers identified six analytical themes: asking for care as a major challenge; ambivalences; (dis)engagement in decisions concerning care; multiple losses as outcomes of receiving social care; multiple strategies to deal with losses originated by the ageing process; and properties of 'good care'. These themes are discussed from the point of view of their implications for theory, care practice and social policy, and future research.
Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Denney-Koelsch, Erin
Diagnosis of a lethal fetal diagnosis (LFD) early in pregnancy is devastating for parents. Those who choose to continue with the pregnancy report intense emotional reactions and inconsistent, often insensitive treatment by health care providers. This qualitative descriptive study sought to clarify the experiences and needs of families in order to design responsive perinatal palliative care services, and to establish the feasibility and acceptability of conducting intensive interviews of pregnant women and their partners during their pregnancy with a LFD. We interviewed 2 women and 3 couples during pregnancy or just after birth, using open ended questions. Audiotaped responses were analyzed by two investigators. Two dimensions and six themes emerged. In the dimension of Personal Pregnancy Experience, "Grieving Multiple Losses" elucidates that parents grieve the loss of their normal pregnancy, healthy baby and future parenting. "Arrested Parenting" describes their sudden interruption in the normal process of becoming a parent. The theme "My Baby is a Person" reflects parents' unanimous desire to honor and legitimize the humanity of their unborn baby. In the dimension of Interactions of Others, three themes were found. "Fragmented Health Care" describes parent's disjointed and distant encounters with multiple providers. "Disconnected Family and Friends" describes the lack of understanding of what the families were experiencing. "Utterly Alone," which crosses both dimensions, expresses how the parents' sense of social isolation adds to their personal sense of loss and loneliness. Recommendations are made for palliative care's role in respecting and validating the experience of parents living through a doomed pregnancy.
Both patient-centered and person-focused care are important, but they are different. In contrast to patient-centered care (at least as described in the current literature with assessments that are visit-based), person-focused care is based on accumulated knowledge of people, which provides the basis for better recognition of health problems and needs over time and facilitates appropriate care for these needs in the context of other needs. That is, it specifically focuses on the whole person. Proposed enhancements and innovations to primary care do not appear to address person-focused care. Tools to assess person-focused care are available and deserve more widespread use in primary care.
Bassirnia, Anahita; Briggs, Jessica; Kopeykina, Irina; Mednick, Amy; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor
Internalized stigma of mental disorders has significant negative outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between personality traits and internalized stigma of mental disorders in bipolar patients and their treatment partners. Five different questionnaires were utilized in this study: (1) Demographic data questionnaire, (2) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for personality traits, (3) Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) for stigma, (4) Self Report Manic Inventory (SRMI) for mania and (5) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. The scores of personality traits were combined to create externalizing and internalizing personality trait scores. Results showed that patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners both experienced internalized stigma of mental health disorders. There was a significant positive correlation between internalized stigma and internalizing personality traits, but not externalizing traits. In a multi-variate regression analysis, internalizing personality trait score was found to be a significant predictor of internalized stigma. In conclusion, patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners perceive higher level of internalized stigma of mental disorders if they have internalizing personality traits.
Background: Of various spiritual care methods, mindfulness meditation has found consistent application in clinical intervention and research. “Listening presence,” a chaplain's model of mindfulness and its trans-personal application in spiritual care is least understood and studied. Aim: The aim was to develop a conceptualized understanding of chaplain's spiritual care process based on neuro-physiological principles of mindfulness and interpersonal empathy. Materials and Methods: Current understandings on neuro-physiological mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) and interpersonal empathy such as theory of mind and mirror neuron system are used to build a theoretical framework for chaplain's spiritual care process. Practical application of this theoretical model is illustrated using a carefully recorded clinical interaction, in verbatim, between chaplain and his patient. Qualitative findings from this verbatim are systematically analyzed using neuro-physiological principles. Results and Discussion: Chaplain's deep listening skills to experience patient's pain and suffering, awareness of his emotions/memories triggered by patient's story and ability to set aside personal emotions, and judgmental thoughts formed intra-personal mindfulness. Chaplain's insights on and ability to remain mindfully aware of possible emotions/thoughts in the patient, and facilitating patient to return and re-return to become aware of internal emotions/thoughts helps the patient develop own intra-personal mindfulness leading to self-healing. This form of care involving chaplain's mindfulness of emotions/thoughts of another individual, that is, patient, may be conceptualized as trans-personal model of MBI. Conclusion: Chaplain's approach may be a legitimate form of psychological therapy that includes inter and intra-personal mindfulness. Neuro-physiological mechanisms of empathy that underlie Chaplain's spiritual care process may establish it as an evidence-based clinical
Part 1 of this article, published on page 1942, encourages family doctors to consider their patients' personalities in clinical assessment and management. This section discusses patient interviewing, demonstrating how family physicians can listen for `themes' in a patient's conversation that may hold clues to what is bothering him. It is also best to avoid giving a patient too much support in an attempt `to make him feel better' because such support may also prevent him from making mature decisions. It is equally important generally to avoid giving specific advice, because it may prevent patients from taking responsibility for their own actions. The clinician can use his own feelings and reactions to the patient to better understand the patient's personality and problems. Consultation with a psychiatrist can help clarify the family physician's role in assisting a particular patient. Balint groups are recommended for family doctors who are interested in further developing their interviewing skills. PMID:21283433
Chow, Ho Ming; Mar, Raymond A; Xu, Yisheng; Liu, Siyuan; Wagage, Suraji; Braun, Allen R
Past experience of everyday life activities, which forms the basis of our knowledge about the world, greatly affects how we understand stories. Yet, little is known about how this influence is instantiated in the human brain. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how past experience facilitates functional connectivity during the comprehension of stories rich in perceptual and motor details. We found that comprehenders' past experience with the scenes and actions described in the narratives selectively modulated functional connectivity between lower- and higher-level areas within the neural systems for visual and motor processing, respectively. These intramodal interactions may play an important role in integrating personal knowledge about a narrated situation with an evolving discourse representation. This study provides empirical evidence consistent with the idea that regions related to visual and motor processing are involved in the reenactment of experience as proposed by theories of embodied cognition.
Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael
While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.
Unoka, Zsolt; Seres, Imola; Aspán, Nikoletta; Bódi, Nikoletta; Kéri, Szabolcs
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display severe difficulties in interpersonal relationships and impulse control. We explored the possibility that patients with BPD show less trust and more risk-taking behavior in experimental games as compared with controls and with depressed patients with other personality disorders. In the trust game, the participant played the role of an investor who interacted with a trustee via the Internet. The investor could choose a costly action by giving money units (MU) to the trustee. The trustee then could honor the investor's trust by sharing the monetary increase. In the risk game, the investor could transfer money to a lottery, and therefore the payoff depended on luck and not on the decision of another person. Results revealed that the patients with BPD (n = 25) transferred a smaller amount of MUs across 5 consecutive transactions in the trust game as compared with the controls (n = 25) and with the depressed patients (n = 25). In the risk game, the performance of the BPD patients was similar to that of the controls and depressed patients. Trust game performance was predicted by the interpersonal and cognitive sector scores of the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder. Self reports indicated that the patients with BPD were less optimistic regarding the outcome (payoff) of the trust game, but not of the risk game. These results suggest that patients with BPD exhibit less trust during interpersonal interactions, which may be related to stress-related paranoia, dissociation, identity disturbance, and problems in interpersonal relationships.
Hoenigl, Martin; Duettmann, Wiebke; Raggam, Reinhard B; Huber-Krassnitzer, Bianca; Theiler, Georg; Seeber, Katharina; Prueller, Florian; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Prattes, Jürgen; Wagner, Jasmin; Wölfler, Albert; Krause, Robert
Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) are associated with breakthrough invasive mould infections among patients with haematological malignancies. This study evaluated the influence of structured personal on-site patient education on low PPCs. The study was conducted from July 2012 to May 2013 at the Division of Hematology, Medical University Hospital of Graz (Graz, Austria). PPCs were measured in all patients with haematological malignancies receiving the drug prophylactically. Concentrations above the target of 0.5 mg/L were defined as satisfactory and those below this concentration as low. In patients with low PPCs, structured personal on-site education regarding the intake of posaconazole (e.g. intake with fatty/acid food, prevention of nausea and vomiting) was performed. In total, 258 steady-state PPCs were measured in 65 patients [median PPC 0.59 mg/L, interquartile range 0.25-0.92 mg/L; 141/258 (54.7%) satisfactory]. Diarrhoea was the strongest predictor of low PPCs in the multivariate analysis. Initial steady-state PPCs were sufficient in 29 patients and low in 36 patients. Of the 36 patients with low initial steady-state PPCs, 8 were either discharged or antifungal therapy was modified before a follow-up PPC was obtained; in the remaining 28 patients, personal on-site education was performed. In 12/28 patients (43%) the personal on-site education led to sufficient levels, whilst in 16 (57%) PPCs stayed below the target, although increasing from <0.2 mg/L to >0.3 mg/L in 6 of these patients. In conclusion, personal education appears to be a promising tool to increase low PPCs.
Andersson, Per; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ohrvik, John; Leppert, Jerzy
The aim of the present study was to examine how a personal experience of illness and a family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), adjusted for sex, level of education and nationality, affect risk behaviour. Participants were 1,011 and 1,043, 50-year-old men and women from Sweden and Poland, respectively, who were recruited from a primary health care screening programme. Family history, personal experience of illness and risk behaviour (smoking and exercise habits, BMI level) were self-reported. The results showed that smoking behaviour was affected by a personal experience of illness but not by a family history of CVD. No effects of these variables were found on the remaining risk-related variables tested in this study. These results suggest that individuals with a personal experience of illness may be more inclined to change smoking behaviour than the average person. Smoking prevention strategies may therefore benefit from targeting this group in particular.
Consolver, Patti; Phillips, Scott
In 2013, Texas Health Resources began to record discussions with patients at each revenue cycle touch point, from scheduling through registration. The recordings give leaders insight on the accuracy and consistency of information communicated at each touch point and provide a tool for improving customer service. The initiative has improved patient satisfaction and increased point-of-service collections.
Beaty, Roger E; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Benedek, Mathias; Jung, Rex E; Kenett, Yoed N; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Silvia, Paul J
The brain's default network (DN) has been a topic of considerable empirical interest. In fMRI research, DN activity is associated with spontaneous and self-generated cognition, such as mind-wandering, episodic memory retrieval, future thinking, mental simulation, theory of mind reasoning, and creative cognition. Despite large literatures on developmental and disease-related influences on the DN, surprisingly little is known about the factors that impact normal variation in DN functioning. Using structural equation modeling and graph theoretical analysis of resting-state fMRI data, we provide evidence that Openness to Experience-a normally distributed personality trait reflecting a tendency to engage in imaginative, creative, and abstract cognitive processes-underlies efficiency of information processing within the DN. Across two studies, Openness predicted the global efficiency of a functional network comprised of DN nodes and corresponding edges. In Study 2, Openness remained a robust predictor-even after controlling for intelligence, age, gender, and other personality variables-explaining 18% of the variance in DN functioning. These findings point to a biological basis of Openness to Experience, and suggest that normally distributed personality traits affect the intrinsic architecture of large-scale brain systems. Hum Brain Mapp 37:773-779, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shepherd, Stephane M; Campbell, Rachel E; Ogloff, James R P
This study identified the presence of psychopathy (as measured by the PCL-R/PCL:SV instruments) and antisocial personality disorder (APD) and their relationship with future reconviction in an Australian forensic sample (N = 136) of patients with a mental disorder. Patients were tracked for over 4 years postrelease to determine associations between a diagnosis of APD/psychopathy and reoffense. Patients with higher psychopathy scores were found to have an increased likelihood of reincarceration, a higher rate of reconviction, and were reconvicted earlier compared with patients with lower psychopathy scores. Patients with APD were more likely to be reconvicted and reincarcerated during the follow-up period than patients without an APD diagnosis. Despite demonstrating associations with general reconviction, the PCL instruments did not exhibit statistically significant relationships with violence. Implications for the clinical identification of personality disordered patients in forensic settings are discussed.
Capranzano, Piera; Miccichè, Eligio; D'Urso, Lucia; Privitera, Fiorella; Tamburino, Corrado
For decades, warfarin has remained the standard oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Three novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been recently approved for stroke prevention in non-valvular AF: dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Better pharmacological and clinical profiles make these newcomers a preferable alternative over warfarin. Current AF guidelines do not endorse NOACs over warfarin, or one NOAC over another. Indeed, choice of the anticoagulation regimen should be personalized based on the relative efficacy and safety of different agents across subgroups stratified by thrombotic and bleeding risk, as well as on other clinical factors, including anticoagulation control on warfarin, drug interactions, compliance and need for coagulation monitoring. This review appraises i) the randomized evidence on approved NOACs versus warfarin in AF across subgroups stratified by risk factors of stroke and bleeding and by the anticoagulation level reached on warfarin; and ii) clinical factors impacting on the anticoagulation regimen selection.
Baron, Karen Parsley
Personal Health Records (PHRs) allow patients to access and in some cases manage their own health records. Their potential benefits include access to health information, enhanced asynchronous communication between patients and clinicians, and convenience of online appointment scheduling and prescription refills. Potential barriers to PHR use…
Kim, Sung Hwa; Kim, Tae Young; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang
Both emotional and cognitive processes are involved in moral judgments. Ventromedial prefrontal lesions are related to impaired prosocial emotions and emotional dysregulation, and patients with these lesions exhibit increased utilitarian judgments of emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Bipolar patients experiencing manic episode also have impaired emotional regulation and behavioral control. We investigated the characteristics of moral judgment in manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder using the 50 hypothetical moral dilemma task (17 non-moral, 20 personal, and 13 impersonal). Our study included 27 manic bipolar patients, 26 euthymic bipolar patients, and 42 healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to determine whether or not each dilemma was morally acceptable, and their reaction times were recorded. Manic patients showed significantly greater utilitarian judgment than euthymic patients and normal controls for personal moral dilemmas. However, there were no significant between-group differences for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. Our results suggest that increased utilitarian judgments of personal moral dilemmas may be a state-related finding observed only in manic patients. This difference in moral judgment assessments may reflect the decision-making characteristics and underlying neurobiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder, especially during the manic state.
De Fruyt, Filip; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bagby, R. Michael; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Rouillon, Frederic
Structural, mean- and individual-level, differential, and positive personality continuity were examined in 599 patients treated for major depression assigned to 1 of 6 forms of a 6-month pharmacy-psychotherapy program. Covariation among traits from the Five Factor model remained invariant across treatment, and patients described themselves as…
Mariotto, Marco J.; Paul, Gordon L.
The present study examined the "person versus situation" controversy regarding the contribution to variance of behavior in real-life environments of 34 severely disabled psychiatric patients, using reliable and valid observational assessment of both patient behavior and dimensions of situations. (Editor/RK)
Peto, A C
This study describes the first contact of laringectomized people with dance in the Group of Support to Ostomized-Laringectomized Patients. This study aimed at searching for elements about the therapeutic and educative importance of dance to them. The technique utilized was group dynamics with the participation of twenty patients. Music and body movements were resources employed for the development of therapy through dance. Results showed a good involvement of the patients in the dynamics though verbal and non-verbal language as well as a decrease in stress.
Razumnikova, O M; Perfil'ev, A M; Stupak, V V
Personality traits and cognitive functions were studied depending on a tumor localization in the brain in 21 neurosurgical patients and the results were compared with a control group. In patients with brain damage, mostly affected were personality traits associated with emotion regulation and social interaction (neuroticism, psychoticism and social conformity). Increases in psychoticism and decreases in neuroticism were more expressed in patients with a left-hemisphere localization of tumors. The tumor-induced decrease in cognitive abilities was more presented in performing figurative tasks and less in verbal ones. Verbal functions were more decreased in the group with frontal localization of tumor compared to that with parietal localization.
Arbabi, Mohammad; Paast, Negin; Karim, Hamid Reza; Faghfori, Sara; Memari, Amir Hossein
The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show any neurological soft signs compared to healthy controls. Furthermore we sought to examine the role of common symptoms related to BPD, such as depression, anxiety or impulsivity, in association with neurological soft signs. Thirty patients with borderline personality disorder and thirty hospital-based controls were examined for neurological soft signs. The total score of neurological soft signs in BPD was significantly higher than controls. In terms of subscales, patients had higher scores in Sensory Integration and Motor Coordination and other neurological soft signs compared to control group. Multiple regression analysis showed that the impulsivity score was the best significant predictor of neurological soft signs in BPD. The increase of neurological soft signs in patients with BPD may address a non-focal neurological dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.
Bookout, Michelle L; Staffileno, Beth A; Budzinsky, Christine M
Patient-centered care is a key driver for the nation's health system, yet patient experience surveys indicate that hospitals are far from achieving favorable outcomes. Partnering with patients and families through a patient and family advisory council (PFAC) advances the practice of patient-centered care to improve outcomes and experiences. This article describes the process of implementing a PFAC and presents outcomes related to patients' perception of pain management in the acute care hospital setting.
Domsalla, Melanie; Koppe, Georgia; Niedtfeld, Inga; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie
An intense fear of abandonment or rejection is a central feature of social relationships for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A total of 20 unmedicated BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education) played a virtual ball-tossing game including the three conditions: exclusion, inclusion and a control condition with predefined game rules, whereas cerebral activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjective experiences of exclusion were assessed after each blocked condition. Both groups felt similarly excluded during the exclusion condition; however, BPD subjects felt more excluded than HC during the inclusion and control conditions. In all three conditions, BPD patients showed a stronger engagement of the dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. For HC, activation in several cerebral regions such as the insula and the precuneus differed depending on the interaction situation, whereas for BPD subjects activation in these regions was not modulated by experimental conditions. Subjects with BPD differed from HC in both their subjective reactions to and their neural processing of social interaction situations. Our data suggest that individuals with BPD have difficulty in discriminating between social situations, and tend to hypermentalize during social encounters that are not determined by the intentions of others.
Accessible summary Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex and challenging mental health condition for the person and service providers who support them.This paper reports on the results of a survey of 153 people with a diagnosis of BPD about their experiences of attempting to receive support in managing this mental health condition. It provides their perceptions of a range of experiences not reported in the existing literature, including general practitioner roles, urban and rural differences, public and private hospital differences, and comparison of usefulness of support across multiple support types.People with a diagnosis of BPD continue to experience significant discrimination when attempting to get their needs met within both public and private health services. Further education for nurses and other health professionals is indicated to address pervasive negative attitudes towards people with a diagnosis of BPD. Abstract There is limited understanding of the experience of seeking and receiving treatment and care by people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD), their perceptions of barriers to care and the quality of services they receive. This study aimed to explore these experiences from the perspective of Australians with this diagnosis. An invitation to participate in an online survey was distributed across multiple consumer and carer organizations and mental health services, by the Private Mental Health Consumer Carer Network (Australia) in 2011. Responses from 153 people with a diagnosis of BPD showed that they experience significant challenges and discrimination when attempting to get their needs met within both public and private health services, including general practice. Seeking help from hospital emergency departments during crises was particularly challenging. Metropolitan and rural differences, and gender differences, were also apparent. Community supports were perceived as inadequate to meet their needs. This study
Benoot, Charlotte; Bilsen, Johan; Grypdonck, Maria; Deschepper, Reginald
The social environment is an important determinant in the overall experience of having cancer. The purpose of this article is to identify how patients experience living alone during their cancer treatment. Using qualitative methods based on grounded theory techniques, we interviewed a sample of 32 cancer patients. Living alone was an ambiguous experience during cancer treatment: patients experienced both a lack of support as well a gain in privacy, freedom, and know-how. Living alone was also seen as a constitutive element of the patients' identity. Consequently, patients saw living alone as either a threat or as a resource for their adjustment to cancer treatment. These divergent meanings of living alone did share one common attribute, which was that staying independent was their key goal during cancer treatment. Health care providers should be attentive to the heterogeneous aspects of the experience of living alone when critically appraising the independence of patients.
Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen
Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588
Gebhardt, Stefan; Huber, Martin Tobias
Treatment satisfaction of different mental disorders is still poorly understood, but of high clinical interest. Inpatients of a general psychiatric care hospital were asked to fill out questionnaires on satisfaction and clinical variables at admission and discharge. On the basis of an exploratory approach, differences in treatment satisfaction among diagnostic groups were examined by means of one-way analysis of variance. Potential associated clinical and socio-demographic variables were studied using multi/univariate tests. Patients with personality disorders (n=18) showed a significantly lower treatment satisfaction (ZUF-8, Zurich Satisfaction Questionnaire) and a slightly lower improvement of symptoms (CGI, Clinical Global Impression) and global functioning (GAF, Global Assessment of Functioning scale) than that of other diagnostic groups (n=95). Satisfaction in patients with personality disorders correlated much stronger with the symptom improvement and slightly with the functioning level than in patients without personality disorders. Interestingly, in patients with personality disorders psychopharmacological treatment in general (present versus not present) was independent from satisfaction. This exploratory investigation suggests that a lower satisfaction of patients with personality disorders in a general psychiatric hospital is mainly based on a reduced improvement of the symptoms and of the global functioning level. PMID:28217274
Hellzen, O; Asplund, K; Sandman, P O; Norberg, A
Carers working in psychiatric care are sometimes exposed to insane, unpredictable and violent actions. In rare cases a patient appears to be resistant to all forms of pharmacological treatment. Fifteen carers (four registered nurses, 11 enrolled nurses) on a psychiatric ward in Sweden were interviewed about their experiences when caring for a person who acted in a disturbing manner. Narrative interviews were conducted and interpreted using a method inspired by Ricoeur. Four themes were formulated which describe the carers' uncertainty about the future, their inability to interpret the patient's disturbing behaviour and their own overall feeling of meaninglessness. The carers were of the opinion that the patient had the power and ruled the ward, which led to them feeling they were subjugated victims. The interviews also revealed the carers' recognition of forbidden feelings and actions and unknown negative sides. These results were interpreted and reflected on in the light of an ethical framework in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the text. This paper shows that an ethical perspective is important when searching for the meaning of caring for patients acting in a disturbing manner. The study raises the question: 'Is it possible to establish good when evil has dominion?'.
A female patient in her sixties with schizophrenia had secretly disposed of all her medication and was not cooperating with hospital staff for about four months. During one of our consultations she mentioned that she wanted to be out of hospital by a certain date. That date happened to be her grandchild's birthday. It was at this point that she shared her goals with us, and voluntarily started having treatment. She was able to return home three months later, just in time to celebrate her grandchild's birthday with her family. A male patient in his sixties was able to leave the seclusion room after 10 years. The first doctor in charge and other hospital staff had firmly believed that releasing him from the seclusion room wasn't a possibility. However the patient decided he wanted to be discharged and was interested in finding out how to go about it. The moment he realized it was possible, his outlook changed immensely. He gradually started to open up and communicate better with his new doctor in charge, and was able to work towards his newly found goals. Staff members were also surprised when he was able to leave the seclusion room. They realized this patient was another person like them who had dreams and goals, and stopped stereotyping patients who seemed to be 'difficult to handle'. I have always experienced the power of goal sharing at clinical scenes, and have noticed its importance for patients making a start on the road to recovery. In order to discuss goals and the way to go about achieving them, I use a simple drawing of a mountain. I call this mountain 'A Personal Goal Map'. I like to think of myself (the doctor) as the mountain guide, and my patient as the mountain climber. The three key philosophies are acknowledging individuality, diversity and freedom. These are important when we think about where we are now, where we are going, and where we want to be. Firstly at the start point, we need to define the patient's problem and discuss ideas and goals
Brown, Elizabeth J.; Kangovi, Shreya; Sha, Christopher; Johnson, Sarah; Chanton, Casey; Carter, Tamala; Grande, David T.
PURPOSE Previous studies suggest that the highest-risk patients value accessible, coordinated primary care that they perceive to be of high technical quality. We have limited understanding, however, of how low-income, chronically ill patients and the staff who care for them experience each individual step in the primary care process. METHODS We conducted qualitative interviews with uninsured or Medicaid patients with chronic illnesses, as well as with primary care staff. We interviewed 21 patients and 30 staff members with a variety of job titles from 3 primary care practices (1 federally qualified health center and 2 academically affiliated clinics).] RESULTS The interviews revealed 3 major issues that were present at all stages of a primary care episode: (1) information flow throughout an episode of care is a frequent challenge, despite systems that are intended to improve communication; (2) misaligned goals and expectations among patients, clinicians, and staff members are often an impediment to providing and obtaining care; and (3) personal relationships are highly valued by both patients and staff. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable populations and the primary care staff who work with them perceive some of the same challenges throughout the primary care process. Improving information flow, aligning goals and expectations, and developing personal relationships may improve the experience of both patients and staff. PMID:26195680
Olaru, Ioana D; Lange, Christoph; Heyckendorf, Jan
The emergence of MDR-TB is a cause of great concern due to difficulties in patient management and poor treatment outcomes. Currently the duration of treatment and the choice of drugs for patients with MDR-TB are standardized in many countries. This might not be the best approach since the optimal therapy may depend on different pathogen- and host-related features. Combining the introduction of technological innovations such as whole bacillary genome sequencing for the identification of drug-resistance-associated mutations, therapeutic drug monitoring and host-directed therapies with an individualized approach to MDR-TB management will likely lead to more tolerable, shorter and more efficient treatment regimens and an increase in the quality of life of those affected by MDR-TB.
Lang, Elvira V.
The transformation of healthcare from a seller’s market to a consumer’s market has pushed the element of patient satisfaction into the forefront of various medical facility evaluation tools, including those used by Medicare when weighing reimbursement to hospitals for patient care. Research has identified good communication skills to be a key factor in ensuring better patient outcomes, and nurturing patient satisfaction. Because of the growing amount of money at stake for patients’ satisfaction with a facility, the communication skills of individual healthcare providers are bound to impact their employees' reimbursement, bonuses, and promotion options. Although the dangers of “poor communication,” are evident: “poor communication” is a primary reason for filing a law suit in >80% of cases (Avery, 1985). Identifying the characteristics of “good communication” has been difficult. One factor that adds to the confusion is that research has found some long accepted codes of professional communication protocol to actually be counterproductive. Another factor that adds to the uncertainty is that accurate interpretations of some communication events are counterintuitive. Fortunately it has been possible to extract observable, proven, and teachable “good communication” behaviors from large-scale trials in the radiology department. The resultant Comfort Talk™ approach to communication includes rapid rapport techniques, patient-centered talking styles, and use of hypnotic language. This article overviews some of the Comfort Talk™ approaches to patients interaction and provides operational summaries of a sampling of specific Comfort Talk™ communication techniques, which nurses, technologists, and other healthcare workers can implement in their own practices. PMID:23471099
Sorondo, Barbara; Allen, Amy; Fathima, Samreen; Bayleran, Janet; Sabbagh, Iyad
Introduction: This study assessed whether patient portals influence patients’ ability for self-management, improve their perception of health state, improve their experience with primary care practices, and reduce healthcare utilization. Methods: Patients participating in a nurse-led care coordination program received personalized training to use the portal to communicate with the care team. Data analysis included pre-post comparison of self-efficacy (CDSES), health state (EQVAS), functional status (PROMIS®), experience with the provider/practice (CG-CAHPS), and healthcare utilization (admissions and ED visits). Results: A total of 94 patients were enrolled, and 92 (Intent to Treat) were followed up for 7 months to assess their experience, and for 12 months to assess healthcare utilization. Seventy four (mean age 60+13 years) used the portal (Users). Comparison between baseline and 7-month follow-up showed no statistically significant improvements in self-efficacy, perception of health state or experience with the primary care practice. Only functional status improved significantly. ED visits/1000 patients were reduced by 26% and 21% in the Intent to Treat and Users groups, respectively. Hospital admissions/1000 patients were reduced by 46% in the Intent to Treat group and by 38% in the Users group. Discussion: For patients in care coordination, having access to patient portals may improve access to providers and health data that lead to improvements in patients’ functional status and reduce high-cost healthcare utilization, but it does not seem to improve self-efficacy, perception of health state, or experience with primary care practices. Conclusion: In this study, the use of patient portals improved functional status and reduced high-cost healthcare utilization in patients with chronic conditions. PMID:28203611
Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph
Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P<.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients using nasal MO believed it to be somewhat or very helpful in reducing surgical site infections, compared with 71% of patients receiving PI (P>.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients.
Since many years some effects of non surgical laser and light on biological tissue have been demonstrated, in vitro and in vivo. This review is based on the results obtained by me and my colleagues/follower in Italy. Aim of our study is to verify the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of non surgical laser and light therapy on patients with chronic diseases not good treatable with traditional therapies, as diabetes, and central nervous system injuries. In addition, many clinical data have emerged from double-blind trials on laser treatment of rheumatic diseases and in sports medicine. So, we would like to do a review on the state of the art of non surgical laser treatment in medicine, included aesthetic laser and light therapy field. We discuss the indications and limitations of aesthetic laser medicine, as concluded from the data analysis of the published literature and from over thirty years of personal experiences.
Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit; Hermesh, Hagai; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Iancu, Iulian
This study examines the relationship between psychiatrists׳ fear of death and negative emotions toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A survey (N=120) demonstrated that fear of death is associated with stronger negative attitudes toward BPD patients, after controlling for attitudes toward suicide. Our findings emphasize the importance of psychiatrists׳ awareness to their fear of death as a relevant factor for their emotions toward BPD patients.
Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B
Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making.
Lundstrom, Mats; Graneheim, Ulla H.; Eisemann, Martin; Richter, Jorg; Astrom, Sture
Explored are the relationships among personality and emotional reactions, work-related strain, and experiences of burnout among staff exposed vs. not exposed to violence when caring for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Questionnaires measuring personality, emotional reactions, strain and burnout, and exposure to violence were…
Bonaiuto, Marino; Mao, Yanhui; Roberts, Scott; Psalti, Anastasia; Ariccio, Silvia; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly
This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual’s identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one’s own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity’s features relating to a person’s relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one’s own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one’s own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT’s understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one’s own place identity, and therefore people–place relations, by means of facilitating a person’s flow experience within psychologically meaningful places. PMID:27872600
Fang, Farrah; Kemp, Janet; Jawandha, Arshdeep; Juros, Jakub; Long, Laura; Nanayakkara, Sonali; Stepansky, Christian; Thompson, L. Brian; Anzia, Joan
Objective: The authors reviewed the current literature for psychiatry residents' reactions to the suicide of a patient. This review also examines the responses of training programs to residents after such an incident. Method: Using Ovid Medline, the authors conducted a review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2006, with search phrases…
Death, an unavoidable event in the human experience, causes physical as well as mental and spiritual suffering. This paper reports on a nursing experience giving spiritual care to a terminal liver cancer patient between January 17 and February 9, 2009. Eleven nursing logs were used as the source of data for daily information. During the care period, patient religious needs featured prominently, including his desire to become a Christian and his eagerness to know about and help in the arrangement of his funeral. Taking the initiative, the nurse helped link him with religious resources, arranged a minister for his baptism ceremony, had the priest explain funeral proceedings, and assisted with the completion of his entrusted plans. The function of this nursing care intervention was to provide a personal touch to a patient who was in desperate need of warm spiritual care. It is hoped that this report can help caregivers increase their sensitivity toward patient spiritual needs and enhance routine nursing care quality.
Kaufman, Scott Barry; Benedek, Mathias; Jung, Rex E.; Kenett, Yoed N.; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Silvia, Paul J.
Abstract The brain's default network (DN) has been a topic of considerable empirical interest. In fMRI research, DN activity is associated with spontaneous and self‐generated cognition, such as mind‐wandering, episodic memory retrieval, future thinking, mental simulation, theory of mind reasoning, and creative cognition. Despite large literatures on developmental and disease‐related influences on the DN, surprisingly little is known about the factors that impact normal variation in DN functioning. Using structural equation modeling and graph theoretical analysis of resting‐state fMRI data, we provide evidence that Openness to Experience—a normally distributed personality trait reflecting a tendency to engage in imaginative, creative, and abstract cognitive processes—underlies efficiency of information processing within the DN. Across two studies, Openness predicted the global efficiency of a functional network comprised of DN nodes and corresponding edges. In Study 2, Openness remained a robust predictor—even after controlling for intelligence, age, gender, and other personality variables—explaining 18% of the variance in DN functioning. These findings point to a biological basis of Openness to Experience, and suggest that normally distributed personality traits affect the intrinsic architecture of large‐scale brain systems. Hum Brain Mapp 37:773–779, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26610181
Sheng, Daping; Wu, Yican; Wang, Xin; Huang, Dake; Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun
Since serum can reflect human beings' physiological and pathological conditions, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' serum with healthy persons' serum in this study. The H2959/H2931, H1646/H1550, H1314/H1243, H1453/H1400 and H1080/H1550 ratios were calculated, among these ratios, the H2959/H2931 ratio might be a standard for distinguishing gastric cancer patients from healthy persons. Then curve fitting was processed using Gaussian curves in the 1140-1000 cm-1 region, and the result showed that the RNA/DNA ratios of gastric cancer patients' serum were obviously lower than those of healthy persons' serum. The results suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for diagnosis of gastric cancer.
Liu, Hui; Su, Qinglong; Sheng, Daping; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xin
In this paper, FTIR spectroscopy was used to compare gastric cancer patients' red blood cells (RBCs) with healthy persons' RBCs. IR spectra were acquired with high resolution. The A1653/A1543 (the protein secondary structures), A1543/A2958 (the relative content of proteins and lipids), A1106/A1166 (the structure and content changes of sugars) and A1543/A1106 (the relative content of proteins and sugars) ratios of gastric cancer patients' RBCs were significantly different from those of healthy persons' RBCs. Curve fitting results showed that the protein secondary structures and sugars' structures had differences between gastric cancer patients' and healthy persons' RBCs. Additionally, FTIR spectroscopy could obtain 95% sensitivity, 70% specificity, 84.2% accuracy and 80.9% positive predictive value in combination with canconical discriminant analysis. The above results indicate FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for diagnosing gastric cancer.
Perrin, Fabien; Castro, Maïté; Tillmann, Barbara; Luauté, Jacques
Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC) following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally relevant stimuli (i.e., with emotional, autobiographical, or self-related characteristics) are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music’s capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness. PMID:26284020
Godschalk, Thea Cornelia; Hackeng, Christian Marcus; ten Berg, Jurriën Maria
Stent thrombosis (ST) is a severe and feared complication of coronary stenting. Patients who have suffered from ST are usually treated according to the “one-size-fits-all” dosing regimen of aspirin and clopidogrel. Many ST patients show high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) despite this antiplatelet therapy (APT). It has been shown that HPR is a risk factor for major adverse cardiac events. Therefore, ST patients with HPR are at a high risk for recurrent atherothrombotic events. New insights into the variable response to clopidogrel and the advent of stronger P2Y12 inhibitors prasugrel and ticagrelor have changed the attention from a fixed APT treatment strategy towards “personalized APT strategies.” Strategies can be based on platelet function testing, which gives insight into the overall response of a patient to APT. At our outpatient ST clinic, we practice personalized APT based on platelet function testing to guide the cardiologist to a presumed optimal antiplatelet treatment of ST patients. Beside results of platelet function testing, comedication, clinical characteristics, and genetics have to be considered to decide on personalized APT. Ongoing studies have yet to reveal the optimal personalized APT strategy for cardiologists to prevent their patients from atherothrombotic and bleeding events. PMID:23320159
Perrin, Fabien; Castro, Maïté; Tillmann, Barbara; Luauté, Jacques
Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC) following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally relevant stimuli (i.e., with emotional, autobiographical, or self-related characteristics) are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music's capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.
Morandi, Alessandro; Lucchi, Elena; Turco, Renato; Morghen, Sara; Guerini, Fabio; Santi, Rossana; Gentile, Simona; Meagher, David; Voyer, Philippe; Fick, Donna; Schmitt, Eva M.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe
Objective Delirium superimposed on dementia is common and is associated with adverse outcomes. Yet little is known about the patients’ personal delirium experiences. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the delirium superimposed on dementia experience among older patients. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among patients with delirium superimposed on dementia who were admitted to a rehabilitation ward. Delirium was diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Delirium severity and symptoms were evaluated with the Delirium-O-Meter (D-O-M). The experience of delirium was assessed after delirium resolution (T0) and one month later (T1) with a standardized questionnaire and a qualitative interview. Level of distress was measured with the Delirium Experience Questionnaire. Results Of the 30 patients included in the study, 50% had mild dementia; 33% and 17% had moderate and severe dementia. Half of the patients had evidence of the full range of D-O-M delirium symptoms. We evaluated 30 patients at T0 and 20 at T1. At T0, half of the patients remembered being confused as part of the delirium episode, and reported an overall moderate level of related distress. Patients reported high distress related to memories of anxiety/fear, delusions, restlessness, hypokinesia, and impaired orientation. Qualitative interviews revealed six main aspects of patients delirium experiences: Emotions; Cognitive Impairment; Psychosis; Memories; Awareness of Change; and Physical Symptoms. Conclusions The study provides novel information on the delirium experience in patients with dementia. These findings are key for health care providers to improve the everyday care of this important group of frail older patients. PMID:26282373
Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich C; Casson, Alan G
Research on patients' experiences of wait time for scheduled surgery has centered predominantly on the relative tolerability of perceived wait time and impacts on quality of life. We explored patients' experiences of time while waiting for three types of surgery with varied wait times--hip or knee replacement, shoulder surgery, and cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients were recruited by their surgeons. We asked participants about their perceptions of time while waiting in two separate interviews. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), we discovered connections between participant suffering, meaningfulness of time, and agency over the waiting period and the lived duration of time experience. Our findings reveal that chronological duration is not necessarily the most relevant consideration in determining the quality of waiting experience. Those findings helped us create a conceptual framework for lived wait time. We suggest that clinicians and policy makers consider the complexity of wait time experience to enhance preoperative patient care.
Melander-Wikman, Anita; Fältholm, Ylva; Gard, Gunvor
The demographic development indicates an increased elderly population in Sweden in the future. One of the greatest challenges for a society with an ageing population is to provide high-quality health and social care. New information and communication technology and services can be used to further improve health care. To enable elderly persons to stay at home as long as possible, various kinds of technology, such as safety alarms, are used at home. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of elderly persons through testing a mobile safety alarm and their reasoning about safety, privacy and mobility. The mobile safety alarm tested was a prototype in development. Five elderly persons with functional limitations and four healthy elderly persons from a pensioner's organisation tested the alarm. The mobile alarm with a drop sensor and a positioning device was tested for 6 weeks. This intervention was evaluated with qualitative interviews, and analysed with latent content analysis. The result showed four main categories: feeling safe, being positioned and supervised, being mobile, and reflecting on new technology. From these categories, the overarching category 'Safety and mobility are more important than privacy' emerged. The mobile safety alarm was perceived to offer an increased opportunity for mobility in terms of being more active and as an aid for self-determination. The fact that the informants were located by means of the positioning device was not experienced as violating privacy as long as they could decide how to use the alarm. It was concluded that this mobile safety alarm was experienced as a tool to be active and mobile. As a way to keep self-determination and empowerment, the individual has to make a 'cost-benefit' analysis where privacy is sacrificed to the benefit of mobility and safety. The participants were actively contributing to the development process.
Leutar, Zdravka; Vitlov, Josipa; Leutar, Ivan
This article presents a qualitative study designed to gain insight into personal experience and perception of abuse in people with intellectual disabilities. Ten members of the organization for people with intellectual disabilities in Zadar, Croatia, who have a diagnosis of light or moderate intellectual disability, were included in the research. Analysis of responses showed that most participants had experienced psychological, physical and financial abuse. The most frequent perpetrators of abuse were identified by participants as friends, acquaintances and volunteer carers. Typical sites for the experience of abuse were school, social clubs/support institutions, the street and the urban environment. Most participants seek assistance and support in cases of abuse through discussion with their loved ones, mostly their parents and friends. In addition to such informal relationships, some participants mentioned the importance of formal forms of support.
Vollmann, Manja; Pukrop, Jörg; Salewski, Christel
A rheumatic disease can severely impair a person's quality of life. The degree of impairment, however, is not closely related to objective indicators of disease severity. This study investigated the influence and the interplay of core psychological factors, i.e., personality and coping, on life satisfaction in patients with rheumatic diseases. Particularly, it was tested whether coping mediates the effects of personality on life satisfaction. In a cross-sectional design, 158 patients diagnosed with a rheumatic disease completed questionnaires assessing the Big 5 personality traits (BFI-10), several disease-related coping strategies (EFK) and life satisfaction (HSWBS). Data were analyzed using a complex multiple mediation analysis with the Big 5 personality traits as predictors, coping strategies as mediators and life satisfaction as outcome. All personality traits and seven of the nine coping strategies were associated with life satisfaction (rs > |0.16|, ps ≤ 0.05). The mediation analysis revealed that personality traits had no direct, but rather indirect effects on life satisfaction through coping. Neuroticism had a negative indirect effect on life satisfaction through less active problem solving and more depressive coping (indirect effects > -0.03, ps < 0.05). Extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness had positive indirect effects on life satisfaction through more active problem solving, less depressive coping and/or a more active search for social support (indirect effects > 0.06, ps < 0.05). Personality and coping play a role in adjustment to rheumatic diseases. The interplay of these variables should be considered in psychological interventions for patients with rheumatic diseases.
Adorni, A; Capocasale, E; Livrini, M
Treatment of biliary ileus is still controversial in respect of surgical strategy. While some surgeons have agreed enterolithotomy as a simple and safe operation, others prefer to perform enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and repair bilio-enteric fistula at the same time. The authors examine their experience and discuss various modalities of treatment to identify the rational method of therapy in these patients.
Background We believe that instances of neuroticism and common psychiatric disorders are higher in adults with acne vulgaris than the normal population. Objective Instances of acne in adults have been increasing in frequency in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate personality traits and common psychiatric conditions in patients with adult acne vulgaris. Methods Patients who visited the dermatology outpatient clinic at Bozok University Medical School with a complaint of acne and who volunteered for this study were included. The Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL 90-R) Global Symptom Index (GSI), somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (EPQ-RSF) were administered to 40 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria before treatment. The results were compared with those of a control group. Results Of the 40 patients included in this study, 34 were female and 6 were male. The GSI and the somatization, depression, and anxiety subscales of the SCL 90-R were evaluated. Patients with adult acne had statistically significant higher scores than the control group on all of these subscales. In addition, patients with adult acne had statistically significantly higher scores on the neuroticism subscale of the EPQ-RSF. Conclusion Our results show that common psychiatric conditions are frequent in adult patients with acne. More importantly, neurotic personality characteristics are observed more frequently in these patients. These findings suggest that acne in adults is a disorder that has both medical and psychosomatic characteristics and requires a multi-disciplinary approach. PMID:25673931
Fegg, Martin J; Wasner, Maria; Neudert, Christian; Borasio, Gian Domenico
To evaluate the relationship between personal values and individual quality of life (iQoL) in palliative care patients, 75 patients with advanced cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire concerning personal values and a semi-structured interview on their iQoL. Sixty-four patients took part in the study (56% cancer, 44% ALS). The most important personal values were benevolence, self-direction, and universalism, whereas power, achievement, and stimulation were the least important. Self-transcendence values were higher than self-enhancement values in all patients. Compared with healthy adults, palliative care patients scored significantly higher in benevolence and lower in self-enhancement values. Conservation values (security, conformity, tradition) were correlated with higher levels of iQoL (P=0.03). There were no significant differences between ALS and cancer patients. These data suggest that conservation values protect the patients' iQoL in the palliative care situation. The observed shift towards self-transcendence values may be related to coping processes of terminally ill patients. The relationship between self-transcendence values and iQoL should be further investigated.
Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Flett, Gordon L; Madan, Mina; Oh, Paul; Marzolini, Susan; Reitav, Jaan; Hewitt, Paul L; Sturman, Edward D
This study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, Type D personality, and illness-specific coping styles in 100 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Participants completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Type D Scale-14, and the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. Correlational analyses established that emotional preoccupation coping was associated with trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and Type D personality. Perfectionism was linked with both facets of the Type D construct (negative emotionality and social inhibition). Our results suggest that perfectionistic Type D patients have maladaptive coping with potential negative implications for their cardiac rehabilitation outcomes.
Hellström, Ulla W; Sarvimäki, Anneli
Respect for autonomy and self-determination is a central principle in nursing ethics. Autonomy and quality of life are strongly connected, and, at the same time, autonomy is an important quality indicator on how older persons' housing functions. In this study, autonomy was conceived as self-determination. The aim of the study was to describe how older people living in sheltered housing experience self-determination and how they are valued as human beings. Eleven persons living in five different housing facilities for older people in southern Sweden were interviewed. The data were analysed by manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The overall theme expressing the latent content in the interviews emerged as disempowerment, which implied an environment that does not strengthen individual self-determination. The results showed a negative experience of how these older people thought they were valued in the sheltered housing where they lived. In sheltered housing, more attention should be paid to residents' self-determination and sense of value.
van der Linden, Sander
Examining the conceptual relationship between personal experience, affect, and risk perception is crucial in improving our understanding of how emotional and cognitive process mechanisms shape public perceptions of climate change. This study is the first to investigate the interrelated nature of these variables by contrasting three prominent social-psychological theories. In the first model, affect is viewed as a fast and associative information processing heuristic that guides perceptions of risk. In the second model, affect is seen as flowing from cognitive appraisals (i.e., affect is thought of as a post-cognitive process). Lastly, a third, dual-process model is advanced that integrates aspects from both theoretical perspectives. Four structural equation models were tested on a national sample (N = 808) of British respondents. Results initially provide support for the “cognitive” model, where personal experience with extreme weather is best conceptualized as a predictor of climate change risk perception and, in turn, risk perception a predictor of affect. Yet, closer examination strongly indicates that at the same time, risk perception and affect reciprocally influence each other in a stable feedback system. It is therefore concluded that both theoretical claims are valid and that a dual-process perspective provides a superior fit to the data. Implications for theory and risk communication are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25678723
Roberts, Brigit; Chaboyer, Wendy
Dreams and unreal experiences occur commonly in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit. This study describes 31 patients' dreams and explores the relationship between patients' subjective recall 12-18 months after intensive care unit discharge and their observed behaviour during their intensive care unit stay. Semi-structured interviews revealed that 74% of longer-term ICU patients (> or = 3 days) reported dreaming, with the majority also describing frightening hallucinations. Only two patients reported long-term negative psychological sequelae, but the short-term consequence of hallucinations may also have an undiscovered impact on patients' recovery.
Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.
Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376
Torres-Ortuño, A; Cid-Sabatel, R; Barbero, J; García-Dasí, M
This article discusses, from a psychological perspective, the life experience of the adult and ageing person with haemophilia, including psychological issues, aspects of his personal and social integration, decision-making, communication and other factors that may affect treatment adherence and quality of life. The aim was to provide haematologists and healthcare staff with knowledge and resources to improve communication and support for adult persons with haemophilia, and raise awareness on psychosocial issues related to quality of life, sexuality and aspects associated with ageing with haemophilia. Adulthood is a period of many personal and social changes, and ageing with haemophilia is a relatively new phenomenon due to increased life expectancy in this population. Patients have to adapt to the disease continuously when facing new expectations, life projects and issues arising with increasing age, so the healthcare team should be ready to provide support. A good therapeutic alliance with the patient must be accompanied by assessment and counselling in aspects including satisfaction, perceived difficulties and barriers, and emotional needs. Raising awareness of all this will result in the patient benefiting from the recent improvements in treatments.
Pallegama, R W; Ranasinghe, A W; Weerasinghe, V S; Sitheeque, M A M
This study tested the hypothesis that muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients with cervical muscle pain exhibit greater degree of psychological distress compared with patients without cervical muscle pain and controls. Thirty-eight muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients including 10 patients with cervical muscle pain and 41 healthy individuals as controls participated in the study. State and trait anxiety levels were assessed with the Spielberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. Personality traits (extroversion, neuroticism, psychoticism and social desirability) were assessed using the Eysenck's personality questionnaire, and the pain intensities described over the muscles were recorded using a 100 mm visual analogue scale. The muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients, in general, exhibited significantly higher degrees of neuroticism and trait anxiety. The patients with cervical muscle pain demonstrated a significantly higher level of psychoticism compared with the patients without cervical muscle pain and the controls and a significantly higher state anxiety level than the controls. They also demonstrated higher pain intensities in masseter and temporalis muscles compared with patients without cervical muscle pain. It has been suggested that either subjects with psychological distress are prone to temporomandibular disorders, or psychological distress is a manifestation of existing chronic pain conditions. The present findings demand further investigations and broader approach in management, as muscle related temporomandibular disorder patients with cervical muscle pain were both physically and psychologically compromised to a greater degree compared with patients without cervical muscle pain.
Pérez Boluda, M T; Morales Asencio, J M; Carrera Vela, A; García Mayor, S; León Campos, A; López Leiva, I; Rengel Díaz, C; Kaknani-Uttumchandani, S
Although pain is one of the main sources of suffering during the acute phase and rehabilitation in burn patients, it remains as a major challenge for burn care, and clinical management not always correlates with the experience felt by patients. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of pain from people who has suffered severe burns, to identify personal strategies used to cope with this challenging event. A qualitative phenomenological study with purposive sampling was carried out with severe burn patients admitted to a Burn Unit. Through individual in-depth interviews, verbatim transcription and content analysis, two main categories were isolated: a dynamic and changing experience of pain, from the onset to the hospital discharge, and diverse strategies developed by patients to cope with pain, being distraction the most frequently used. Pain experienced acquires its maximum intensity during wound care, and divergent patients' opinions about sedation are present. This study highlights how understanding subjective experiences is an invaluable aid to improve care in pain assessment and management. Furthermore, it points out the need to guarantee patient involvement in the organization and improvement of burn care, inasmuch as traditional professional centered approach is not ensuring an optimal management.
This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations.
Hulland, S; Sigal, M J
The objective of this investigation was to generate a medical and dental profile of patients attending the Mount Sinai Hospital Dental Program for Persons with Disabilities, to determine if certain selected criteria could identify patients likely to require dental care in that setting. The need for dental care under general anesthesia was used as the prime indicator that care should be provided in a hospital setting. A retrospective review of all the charts of the patients enrolled in this hospital program was undertaken. Results indicated that patients who were treated in this hospital-based dental program had the following characteristics: moderate to profound mental retardation (39.5%), moderate to severe behavioral problems (31.1%), and/or a history of seizure activity (29.1%). Behavioral criteria appear to be the predominant reason for the provision of hospital-based dental care for persons with disabilities.
Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Bourbonnais, Anne
Background Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) must adhere optimally to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a daily basis and for their lifetime to maintain an undetectable viral load, allowing them to preserve their health. Taking advantage of the opportunity that information and communication technologies provide to broaden intervention modalities and intensify clinical follow-up, a virtual nursing intervention consisting of four interactive computer sessions was developed to empower PLHIV to manage their ART and symptoms optimally. Compared with other types of information and communication technologies-assisted interventions such as text messages, HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (VIH-TAVIE) requires a certain degree of active engagement on the part of the user to develop and strengthen the self-management skills to optimize adherence. After the intervention’s impact on ART adherence was measured quantitatively, a qualitative study was undertaken to describe how users experience the intervention. Understanding how PLHIV perceive being assisted asynchronously by a virtual nurse was of particular interest. Objective The objective of the study was to explore and describe how PLHIV experience VIH-TAVIE, that is, receiving customized asynchronous accompaniment via a virtual nurse. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 26 PLHIV (20 men, 6 women) who received all four VIH-TAVIE sessions. Participants had been diagnosed with HIV 14 years earlier on average and had been on ART for a mean period of 10 years. The sessions lasted 20-30 minutes each and were received two weeks apart. They are hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the user in a self-management skills-learning process for the purpose of treatment adherence. Semistructured interviews were conducted lasting 30-40 minutes to get participants to share their experience of the intervention through personal stories and what they thought and felt during their participation. Data were analyzed
Kim, S-Y; Kim, S-W; Kim, J-M; Shin, I-S; Baek, H-J; Lee, H-S; Hwang, T-J; Yoon, J-S
Among reports on the psychological variables that influence quality of life (QoL), none has addressed the impact of personality on QoL in patients with haemophilia. We investigated the impact of psychosocial variables including depression and personality on QoL in patients with severe haemophilia. A cross-sectional survey examining psychosocial and clinical characteristics was administered to Korean patients with severe haemophilia. Personality traits were ascertained using the 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory, which quantifies five personality dimensions including extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness. Patient QoL and depression were measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-abbreviated version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) respectively. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used for each domain to determine the impact of psychological variables on QoL. Of the 53 subjects who consented to participate, 46 cases were finally analysed. Multivariate linear regression analyses demonstrated that agreeableness was significantly and positively associated with the physical health domain of QoL. Openness was independently and positively associated with the psychological and social relationship domains of QoL. BDI scores were significantly and negatively associated with all four domains of the QoL. Persistent pain and joint impairment showed strong associations with all domains in a univariate analysis, but the impact was attenuated after adjusting for psychosocial variables. Personality and depression had strong impacts on QoL independent of physical status in patients with severe haemophilia. Providing psychological screening and intervention are recommended for enhancing QoL in patients with severe haemophilia.
Quantin, Catherine; Benzenine, Eric; Auverlot, Bertrand; Jaquet-Chiffelle, David-Olivier; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François-André
Through this article, we point out the unavoidable empowerment of patients with regard to their personal health record and propose the mixed management of patients' medical records. This mixed management implies sharing responsibilities between the patient and the Medical Practitioner (MP) by making patients responsible for the validation of their administrative information, and MPs responsible for the validation of their patients' medical information. We propose a solution to gather and update patients' administrative and medical data in order to reconstitute patients' medical histories accurately. This method is based on two processes. The aim of the first process is to provide patients administrative data, in order to know where and when they received care (name of the health structure or health practitioner, type of care: outpatient or inpatient). The aim of the second process is to provide patients' medical information and to validate it under the responsibility of the MP with the help of patients if needed. During these two processes, the patients' privacy will be ensured through cryptographic hash functions like the Secure Hash Algorithm, which allows the pseudonymization of patients' identities. The Medical Record Search Engine we propose will be able to retrieve and to provide upon a request formulated by the MP all the available information concerning a patient who has received care in different health structures without divulging the patient's true identity. Associated with strong traceability of all access, modifications or deletions, our method can lead to improved efficiency of personal medical record management while reinforcing the empowerment of patients over their medical records.
Somerville, Margaret A.
There are at present two inconsistencies with respect to the sharing of personal health information (PHI) among health care professionals caring for a patient whom the information concerns. First, there is an inconsistency between what is in theory the ethics and law governing the confidentiality and privacy of this information--it may only be…
Smith, Scott W; Levy, Saryn R; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Fiori, Katherine; Bornstein, Robert F
In the present study, we assess the extent to which patient personality features and prototypes are associated with early treatment therapist-rated alliance. The study sample consisted of 94 patients receiving psychodynamic psychotherapy at an outpatient clinic. Clinicians completed the Working Alliance Inventory (J Couns Psychol 36:223-233; Psychother Res 9:405-423) to assess their views of early alliance and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure 200 (SWAP-200; Assessment 5:333-353, Am J Psychiatry 161:1350-1365, 1743-1754; Am J Psychiatry 156:258-272, 273-285) to assess patient personality. The SWAP-200 Narcissistic Clinical Prototype, Dysphoric Q-Factor, and Dysphoric/High-Functioning Neurotic Q-Subfactor significantly correlated with early therapist-rated alliance. Correlations that trended toward significance were also found. Also identified were specific SWAP-200 items that were found to relate to high early therapist-rated alliance scores. These results demonstrate some relationship, albeit small, between patient personality characteristics and therapists' views of the alliance that may serve to further a conceptual understanding of the alliance, specific personality syndromes, and the associated impact on the therapeutic interaction.
Hines, Denise Williams
The use of electronic personal health records is becoming increasingly more popular as healthcare providers, healthcare and government leaders, and patients are seeking ways to improve healthcare quality and to decrease costs (Abrahamsen, 2007). This quantitative, descriptive correlational study examined the relationship between the degree of…
Taylor, George P., Jr.
This study shows that personality instruments are significantly confounded by the somatic characteristics of physically disabled subjects, illustrates the nature and effect of the moderator variable of physical condition on MMPI item endorsements for patients in a specific diagnostic group, and suggests two methods of controlling the moderator…
Clark, T. J. H.; Cochrane, G. M.
A study has been made of the personality of 44 patients with chronic airways obstruction (using the Eysenck Personality Inventory), this being related to the difference between their observed Pv̄co2 and that predicted from their F.E.V.1. This was designed to test the hypothesis that those patients with a lower Pv̄co2 than predicted were the more extravert. The results showed a significant correlation between extraversion and the departure of Pv̄co2 from predicted Those patients having a lower Pv̄co2 than predicted were more extravert than those with a Pv̄co2 higher than predicted. There was no correlation between neuroticism and the Pv̄co2. These results support the hypothesis that the personality of a patient may play an important part in determining the alveolar ventilation found in patients with chronic airways obstruction. Patients known as “pink puffers” could more appropriately be named “pugnacious pink puffers.” PMID:5416616
Schanche, Elisabeth; Stiles, Tore C; McCullough, Leigh; Svartberg, Martin; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark
In the short-term dynamic psychotherapy model termed "Affect Phobia Treatment," it is assumed that increase in patients' defense recognition, decrease in inhibitory affects (e.g., anxiety, shame, guilt), and increase in the experience of activating affects (e.g., sadness, anger, closeness) are related to enhanced self-compassion across therapeutic approaches. The present study aimed to test this assumption on the basis of data from a randomized controlled trial, which compared a 40-session short-term dynamic psychotherapy (N = 25) with 40-session cognitive treatment (N = 25) for outpatients with Cluster C personality disorders. Patients' defense recognition, inhibitory affects, activating affects, and self-compassion were rated with the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (McCullough et al., 2003b) in Sessions 6 and 36. Results showed that increase in self-compassion from early to late in therapy significantly predicted pre- to post-decrease in psychiatric symptoms, interpersonal problems, and personality pathology. Decrease in levels of inhibitory affects and increase in levels of activating affects during therapy were significantly associated with higher self-compassion toward the end of treatment. Increased levels of defense recognition did not predict higher self-compassion when changes in inhibitory and activating affects were statistically controlled for. There were no significant interaction effects with type of treatment. These findings support self-compassion as an important goal of psychotherapy and indicate that increase in the experience of activating affects and decrease in inhibitory affects seem to be worthwhile therapeutic targets when working to enhance self-compassion in patients with Cluster C personality disorders.
Berglund, Sara; Åström, Sture; Lindgren, Britt-Marie
The aim of this study has been to synthesize research on suicidal patients' experiences of the suicide process. A literature search was performed in CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycINFO, and the analysis of the 15 articles covered was based on meta-synthesis. Patients experience a wide variety of feelings regarding their situation during the suicide process, and these exist on two levels: they relate to the different aspects of care that the patients receive and the patients' need to communicate with others and regain hope. The patients in this study described the struggle to maintain hope when life became too difficult and their suffering despite a sense of security, and they sought to achieve emotional balance. A good understanding of how suicidal individuals live with and manage suicidal ideation, while maintaining hope is important for planning effective nursing care. Further research from the patient perspective is needed to further develop psychiatric care for people at risk of suicide.
Heller, Katharina; Bullerjahn, Claudia; von Georgi, Richard
Most of the existing studies on musical practice are concerned with instrumentalists only. Since singers are seldom considered in research, the present study is based on an online-sample of amateur vocal students (N = 120; 92 female, 28 male). The study investigated the correlations between personality traits, flow-experience and several aspects of practice characteristics. Personality was represented by the three personality dimensions extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, assessed by Eysenck's Personality Profiler as well as the trait form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. 'Flow-experience,' 'self-congruence' and 'fear of losing control over concentration,' assessed by the Practice Flow Inventory, served as variables for flow-experience. The practice motivation was measured by the Practice Motivation Questionnaire in four categories ('self,' 'group,' 'audience,' 'teacher'). In addition, the Practice Behavior Questionnaire was used to provide an insight into the practice situation and behavior of singing students. The results show significant correlations: participants with high extraversion-scores experience significantly more flow than less extraverted persons, whereas lesser flow-experience seems to be related to high neuroticism-scores. Nevertheless, there is no influence in flow-experience concerning singing style ('classical' or 'popular'). The longer the practicing time, the more likely students are to achieve flow-experience. However, older singers tend to have less flow-experience. Consequently, singers seem to differ in their personality and practice behavior compared to other musicians. Most of the findings show that having control over one's instrument is decisive for achieving a performance of high quality, especially for singers. On the other hand, certainty in handling an instrument is essential to arouse a flow-feeling. However, flow-experience seems to be common mainly with amateur singers. In conclusion, this offers a starting
Fagerberg, Tomas; Söderman, Erik; Gustavsson, J. Petter; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G.
Abstract Background: Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder. Aims: To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in their responses to the SSP. Methods: Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 107) and healthy controls (n = 119) completed SSP. SSP scores were analyzed for internal consistency and case-control differences by Cronbach’s alfa and multiple analysis of covariance, respectively. Results: Internal consistencies among patients were overall similar to that of controls. The patients scored significantly higher in seven (Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility, Lack of assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, Mistrust) and lower in three (Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression, Adventure seeking) of the 13 scales of the inventory. In three scales (Impulsiveness, Social desirability and Trait irritability) there was no significant difference between the scoring of patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: The reliability estimates suggest that SSP can be used by patients with psychotic disorders in stable remission. Patients score higher on neuroticism-related scales and lower on aggression-related scales than controls, which is in accordance with earlier studies where other personality inventories were used. PMID:27103375
Broun, S N
With the introduction of protease inhibitors and combination therapies, and the dramatic health improvements related to these drugs, psychologists expected to see dramatic improvement in HIV-infected persons with regard to their feelings of hopelessness and depression. Several months after the Vancouver conference in 1996, a curious phenomenon was noted. The clinical manifestations included an initial phase of excitement and hope. Then, as patients began to deal with the psychological changes involved in planning a future rather than a funeral, many began (unconsciously or not) to become noncompliant with their medications. In Dallas, physicians validated this phenomenon, some reporting up to 75% non-compliance rates. This article will address the change from a terminally ill person to one that is chronically ill, and the psychological, social, and existential changes that occur during this shift in identity. It will specifically focus on the fears involved with losing support, disability income, having to possibly reenter the work force (after having not worked and losing job skills), the special issues of women with HIV and, finally, the decision that women are making to get pregnant, expecting a normal life span, and, (with the use of multiple drug therapies during pregnancy) having a healthy, noninfected child.
Reed, Frances M; Fitzgerald, Les; Bish, Melanie R
Choices in care during the end stages of life are limited by the lack of resources and access for rural people. Nursing advocacy based on the holistic understanding of people and their rural communities may increase the opportunity for choice and improve the quality of care for people living and dying at home. Pragmatism and nurse agency theory were used for a practical exploration of how district nurses successfully advocate for rural Australian end-of-life goals to begin the development of a practice model. In two stages of data collection, rural district nurse informants (N = 7) were given the opportunity to reflect on successful advocacy and to write about their experiences before undertaking further in-depth exploration in interviews. They defined successful advocacy as "caring" that empowers people in the "big and small" personal goals important for quality of life. The concepts described that enable successful advocacy were organized into a network with three main themes of "willing" investment in holistic person-centered care, "knowing" people and resources, and feeling "supported." The thematic network description provides deep insight into the emotional skill and moral agency involved in successful end-of-life nurse advocacy and can be used as a sound basis for modeling and testing in future research.
Panek, Paul E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Pruett, Jessica H.
In order to evaluate the gender differences on the experience of aging, 142 individuals 50 years of age and older completed an interview regarding experiences with another individual conveying the message that they were "old." Interviewees were asked about the type of situation, the age and gender of the response person, and the…
Ott, Carol H.; Sanders, Sara; Kelber, Sheryl T.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the grief and personal growth experience of spouses and adult children of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias and the factors contributing to these experiences. Design and Methods: We used a modification of the Marwit-Meuser-Sanders Caregiver Grief model to examine the…
Pampaloni, A; Noccioli, B; Pampaloni, F; Vanini, V
Clefts of the sternum have always attracted attention whether for pathological and physiological features or for research of surgical correction. Two cases of sternal cleft, one with partial ectopia cordis, the other with Cantrell's pentalogy, are presented. Embryology, strategies and several surgical techniques are discussed on the grounds of personal experience. The pediatric surgeon can make a choice among a lot of surgical techniques, because the ectopia cordis and Cantrell's pentalogy are very uncommon and the surgical treatment has a difficult codification. The knowledge of several methods of surgical correction is necessary to reduce high mortality of ectopia cordis and Cantrell's pentalogy. Primary repair in the neonatal period is the best type of management for these rare conditions, because simple closure of the sternal defect during the first month of life avoids the more complex reconstruction necessary in older children.
Gibson, Pamela Reed; Lockaby, Sharon D; Bryant, Jenna Michele
In this paper, we summarize the results of an online survey of persons in the United States with chemical intolerance/multiple chemical sensitivity who sought help from mental health providers, including counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, and others. Respondents reported on their most recent contact with a provider, describing reasons for the contact, accommodations requested and received, and suggestions for how the experience could be more helpful. Overall, though clients were accommodated in small ways, some received no accommodation, and many felt that the providers needed to be more knowledgeable regarding chemical intolerance. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of providers becoming more aware of multiple chemical sensitivity and more willing to make their services accessible to these clients. PMID:27103817
Chiarella, G; Leopardi, G; De Fazio, L; Chiarella, R; Cassandro, C; Cassandro, E
Summary The post-traumatic origin of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo remains the most likely, from a patho-physiologic point of view. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to surgical “traumas” has been described in the medical literature. According to personal experience, these iatrogenic cases represent a rare possibility and may be the consequence of surgical interventions differing according to the anatomical district involved and surgical technique performed. The temporal relationship with the surgical action and clinical features may be involved in some of these cases, even if it is not possible to define any real cause-effect link. Herewith some cases of paroxysmal positional vertigo are described, strongly held to be of iatrogenic origin, focusing on dental and maxillo-facial surgery as risk factors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:17883189
Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Heynen, Simone; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Castellimi, Claudio; Caputo, Barbara; Müller, Henning
Currently, trans-radial amputees can only perform a few simple movements with prosthetic hands. This is mainly due to low control capabilities and the long training time that is required to learn controlling them with surface electromyography (sEMG). This is in contrast with recent advances in mechatronics, thanks to which mechanical hands have multiple degrees of freedom and in some cases force control. To help improve the situation, we are building the NinaPro (Non-Invasive Adaptive Prosthetics) database, a database of about 50 hand and wrist movements recorded from several healthy and currently very few amputated persons that will help the community to test and improve sEMG-based natural control systems for prosthetic hands. In this paper we describe the experimental experiences and practical aspects related to the data acquisition.
Background Evidence-based preventive services offer profound health benefits, yet Americans receive only half of indicated care. A variety of government and specialty society policy initiatives are promoting the adoption of information technologies to engage patients in their care, such as personal health records, but current systems may not utilize the technology's full potential. Methods Using a previously described model to make information technology more patient-centered, we developed an interactive preventive health record (IPHR) designed to more deeply engage patients in preventive care and health promotion. We recruited 14 primary care practices to promote the IPHR to all adult patients and sought practice and patient input in designing the IPHR to ensure its usability, salience, and generalizability. The input involved patient usability tests, practice workflow observations, learning collaboratives, and patient feedback. Use of the IPHR was measured using practice appointment and IPHR databases. Results The IPHR that emerged from this process generates tailored patient recommendations based on guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other organizations. It extracts clinical data from the practices' electronic medical record and obtains health risk assessment information from patients. Clinical content is translated and explained in lay language. Recommendations review the benefits and uncertainties of services and possible actions for patients and clinicians. Embedded in recommendations are self management tools, risk calculators, decision aids, and community resources - selected to match patient's clinical circumstances. Within six months, practices had encouraged 14.4% of patients to use the IPHR (ranging from 1.5% to 28.3% across the 14 practices). Practices successfully incorporated the IPHR into workflow, using it to prepare patients for visits, augment health behavior counseling, explain test results, automatically issue patient
Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.
Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri
Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335
Shao, Yechang; Yin, Honglei; Wan, Chengsong
Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality and assess the relationship between this personality type and self-efficacy/social support in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and methods From January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 532 consecutive patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The participants completed questionnaires containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, Type D personality, self-efficacy, and social support scales, and their medical records were reviewed for additional data. Results Of the 532 patients, 18.2% had Type D personality. Patients with this personality type reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy (P<0.001), total social support (P<0.001), subjective support (P<0.001), and support utilization (P=0.003), but similar level of objective support (P=0.314), compared to those of patients without Type D personality. Negative affectivity and social inhibition, two intrinsic traits of Type D personality, negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support scores. Type D personality was significantly associated with less self-efficacy and social support (P<0.001), controlling for other sociodemographic factors. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with Type D personality than in patients with non-Type D personality. Conclusion This study provides new evidence linking Type D personality with self-efficacy, social support, and poor glycemic control, highlighting the special need for care among T2DM patients with Type D personality. PMID:28360523
Tengvall, Oili; Wickman, Marie; Wengström, Yvonne
Pain after burns is a major clinical problem and researchers continue to report that burn pain remains undertreated. Adequate pain management could contribute to the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder and can give a growing sense of patients' self-confidence and strength. Freedom from pain might be unrealistic, but the objective should be to reduce pain as much as possible. The purpose of this study was to describe burn patients' experiences and memories of pain during burn care and to acquire a deeper understanding of how patients cope with the experience. The study method was qualitative and interviews were conducted with 12 adult burn patients (eight men and four women) 6 to 12 months postburn (mean = 7 months). The mean burn size for the group was 10.6% mean of TBSA and the mean stay in hospital was 16 days. The interviews were analyzed using Kvales' method for structuring analysis. The patients' experiences and memories of pain during the trajectory of care were clearly described by the informants during the interviews. Four themes were identified for pain: becoming aware of pain, allowing oneself to feel pain, different pain experiences, and fragile body surface. Four themes were identified for coping: pragmatic coping, allowing someone to care for you, carrying the pain, and perspectives on the trauma. Both good and bad memories were recorded during the care trajectory, and it is evident that the patient has to carry the pain experience by themselves to a large extent.
Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Mohammadpour, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad
Introduction: The treatment quality of diseases can affect the patient's experience. Due to its different complications among cancer patients, the experience of chemotherapy is unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experience among cancer patients who had received chemotherapy. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. In so doing, 12 cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were purposefully selected were interviewed using an in-depth method. After the required data were collected, they were analyzed by Tanner, Allen, Diekelmann method. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated that the experience of chemotherapy appeared as “a new horizon in life” for the patients. Secondary themes of the new horizon in life included rebirth, understanding of life values, dependence, and need. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in addition to taking into providing mental-spiritual support and reducing the complications of the treatment, nurses in chemotherapy wards should pay attention to the experiences of the patients receiving chemotherapy and enhance hope and positive attitude among them. PMID:26573050
Chung, Man Cheung; Berger, Zoë; Rudd, Hannah
More research is needed to further our understanding of posttraumatic stress responses and comorbidity following myocardial infarction (MI), and to help us identify more clearly the personality traits which indicate that a person is more prone to developing post-MI posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to 1) investigate the comorbidity of patients who suffered from different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder following myocardial infarction (i.e. post-MI PTSD), and 2) investigate to what extent patients with different levels of post-MI PTSD differed in their personality traits. One hundred and twenty MI patients from two general practices were recruited for the study. They were asked to complete the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). They were divided into a no-PTSD group, a partial-PTSD group and a full-PTSD group, according to the scores of the PDS. One hundred and sixteen members of the general public were also recruited for comparison purposes. They were asked to complete the GHQ-28. The results showed that patients with full-PTSD reported significantly more somatic problems, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression than the other two patient groups and the control group. When age, bypass surgery, mental health problems before MI and angioplasty were controlled for, patients with full-PTSD also reported greater symptom severity of the four GHQ subscales than the other two patient groups. Patients with full-PTSD were significantly more neurotic than those with no-PTSD and partial-PTSD. Patients with full-PTSD were less agreeable than patients with no-PTSD. Regression analyses showed that personality did not moderate the relationship between PTSD and comorbidity. To conclude, following MI, those with full-PTSD tend to report more severe comorbidity than those who have not developed PTSD fully. The former can also be distinguished from the
Pegon-Machat, E; Tubert-Jeannin, S; Loignon, C; Landry, A; Bedos, C
France has a system of public coverage that guarantees low-income earners full payment of basic dental health costs. In spite of this coverage and major needs for care, deprived populations have lower access to dental care. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore dentists' experience with low-income patients benefiting from the French universal healthcare coverage system. This study is based on 17 one-on-one semistructured interviews carried out with French private dentists. Dentists distinguished two categories of low-income patients: 'good patients', described as being regular attenders; and 'bad patients', whose main characteristic is irregular attendance. Dentists explained that they have difficulties in dealing with patients who do not keep their appointments. First, dentists feel that they fail in conducting their mission of being a care provider (therapeutic failure). The absence of the patient is also seen as a lack of recognition (relationship failure). Furthermore, dentists do not earn money when patients miss their appointments (financial failure). In this context, many dentists feel discouraged and powerless (personal failure). Moreover, dentists do not understand why patients renounce the dental-care opportunities offered under the system of public coverage (failure of the system). Dentists who repeatedly experience failures related to irregular attendance tend to adopt exclusion strategies.
Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy
We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patients medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patients medical condition worsened.
Ferreira, João Pedro; Mentz, Robert J; Pizard, Anne; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez
The aim of personalized medicine is to offer a tailored approach to each patient in order to provide the most effective therapy, while reducing risks and side effects. The use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) has demonstrated major benefits in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), results with challenging inconsistencies in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 'neutral' preliminary results in acute heart failure. Data derived from landmark trials are generally applied in a 'one size fits all' manner and the development and implementation of more personalized MRA management would offer the potential to improve outcomes and reduce side effects. However, the personalization of pharmacotherapy regimens remains poorly defined in the cardiovascular field (in light of current knowledge) and until further trials targeting specific subpopulations have been conducted, MRAs should be provided to the great majority of HFrEF patients in the absence of contraindication. Spironolactone should be considered for symptomatic HFpEF patients with elevated natriuretic peptides. In the near future, trials should target HFrEF patients using exclusion criteria sourced from landmark trials (e.g. severe renal impairment), select more homogeneous HFpEF populations (e.g. with elevated BNP and structural abnormalities on echocardiography), and determine which patients are likely to benefit from MRAs (e.g. according to prespecified biomarkers).
Claes, Laurence; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Sánchez, Isabel; Menchón, Jose Manuel
In the present study, we investigated personality subtypes and their correlates in a sample of 132 male patients with eating disorder (ED). All patients filled out the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Three personality subtypes emerged. Cluster 1, the adaptive-like subtype, was characterized by a high prevalence of eating-disorder-not-otherwise-specified and low levels of ED and general psychopathology. Cluster 2, the average or socially detached subtype, showed a high prevalence of eating-disorder-not-otherwise-specified, more social problems, less motivation for treatment, and an intermediate position on the psychopathology dimension between patients of clusters 1 and 3. Finally, cluster 3, the maladaptive subtype, was characterized the highest prevalence of bulimia nervosa and the highest scores on ED and general psychopathology. Our data support the presence of the 3 personality subtypes in male patients with ED. Future studies need to address whether patients of different subtypes differ with respect to therapy outcome.
Bloks, Hans; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Callewaert, Ineke; van Furth, Eric
A longitudinal prospective design with four assessments was used to examine the stability of personality traits and their relation to recovery in patients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (N=35), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (N=37), bulimia nervosa (N=47), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (N=27). Recovery is associated with changes in personality traits in the direction of healthy control women. Recovered patients still show higher harm avoidance and higher persistence than healthy control women. These temperament factors seem to be a vulnerability factor for developing an eating disorder. Novelty seeking seems to define the type of eating disorder one is prone to develop. The character dimensions contribute the most to recovery. High self-directedness contributes to a favorable prognosis of bulimic symptomatology, whereas high cooperativeness contributes to an unfavorable prognosis in patients with anorexia nervosa.
Wolf, Jason A
In a healthcare world in which consumerism is no longer a question and value has claimed its place at center stage, leaders are called to think differently about how they operate and manage their organizations. Priorities are curving in new directions with shifts in policy, direction of dollars, and evolution of practice. At the center of this transition is an opportunity for healthcare leaders to recognize that patient experience is the new heart of healthcare leadership.To address quality, safety, service, cost, and population health outcomes, leaders must rethink how they understand and engage in experience efforts overall. An intentional and clear strategic line of sight and purpose are required, including how patient experience is defined, the core concepts it comprises and is influenced by, and the outcomes it ultimately helps achieve. The challenge for leaders is to reconceive how this maximum potential can be achieved as compared with how experience has been traditionally managed through tactical efforts.Quick lists of effective tactics are relatively easy to come by, and leaders are already aware of many, if not most, of them. So why do so many organizations applying these tactics today struggle to maintain the results they seek? The reason is that tactics are only as useful as the framework in which they are applied and as robust as the foundation on which they are implemented. The intent of this article is to stir a dialogue on how to reframe the issue of patient experience.In reframing a collective view about what patient experience is, the way leaders choose to address it must change. This adjustment requires balancing the work of defining patient experience with the strategic intent behind what organizations ultimately aim to achieve. In changing the conversation on patient experience, we move it from an idea that lurks at the edges of healthcare, or that stands as just one of many strategic pillars, to the central call to action for healthcare
Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the most challenging and burdensome chronic diseases of the 21st century and More than 1% of the Iranian urban population older than 20 years develops Type 2 diabetes each year. Living with diabetes mellitus has been described as a dynamic personal transitional adaptation, based on restructuring of the illness perceived experience and management of the self. Adaptation to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is an integral part of diabetes care. This study explored the experiences of facilitators and barriers adaptation to Type 2 Diabetes by Iranian patients. Methods This study was conducted by using qualitative content analysis. Data were collected via in-depth, semi-structured and face to face interviews with 15 patients with type2 diabetes. Results Three themes emerged from collected data, including a) individual context with Beliefs, personal background, and previous experience subthemes. b) supportive system with Family, Society and Health organizations subthemes and c) self-comparison with comparison with other diabetes and comparison with other diseases subthemes. Conclusions Identifying and managing Facilitators and Barriers adaptation to Type 2 Diabetes mellitus are an integral part of diabetes care. This study provides a better understanding of the factors from perspective of patients and it can be utilized by health care providers to adapt their health care and education contents to better meet the needs of people with diabetes. PMID:24401490
Budman, S H; Demby, A; Soldz, S; Merry, J
This study reports on the time-limited (18-month long) group therapy of 49 outpatients, most of whom were diagnosed with DSM-III-R, Axis II personality disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Although many patients did not complete the full course of treatment, those who did experienced many areas of change. Completers reported substantial changes in self-esteem, symptomatology, and diagnosability on Axis II. This type of group treatment appears to be a promising mode of intervention for those with personality disorders.
Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao
Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.
MAZAHERI, Mina; NIKNESHAN, Shekoufeh; DAGHAGHZADEH, Hamed; AFSHAR, Hamid
Background: Personality traits and emotion regulation processes play an important role in human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of positive personality traits (psychological hardiness and interpersonal forgiveness) in emotion regulation of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Methods: The research was a cross-sectional study. Statistical population included all of IBS patients referred to the Subspecialty Center of Psychiatry in Isfahan in 2013. Overall, 123 subjects (100 women, 83.3%, and 30 men, 16.7%) were selected by census method, according to criteria of research and during a particular period. To collect data, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Lang and Goulet Hardiness Scale (LGHS) and Interpersonal forgiveness Inventory (IFI) were used. Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Multivariate and Binary Logistic regression analyses. Results: Mean age of patients was 33.82±10.45 years and 83.3% (100) of them were female. Regression analyses showed that both personality traits of hardiness and forgiveness were as protective factors for emotional dysregulation with OR, 95% CI: 0.93 and 0.96 sequentially, with adjusting demographic variables (age, gender, and education level and disease duration). Conclusion: Patients who are more hardy and forgiving toward others, are likely more successful at adaptive emotion regulation. It emphasizes the positive and beneficial role of the personality traits in regulating of emotional problems of IBS patients. Hence, these variables should be considered as effective factors in the treatment process of the patients. PMID:26056675
Cheung, Mei-chun; Law, Derry; Yip, Joanne
Consumers' aesthetic experience has often been linked with the concept of beauty, which is regarded as subjective and may vary between individuals, cultures and places, and across time. With the advent of brain-imaging techniques, there is more and more evidence to suggest that aesthetic experience lies not only in the eye of the beholder, but also in the brain of the beholder. However, there are gaps in the previous research in this area, as several significant issues have not yet been addressed. Specifically, it is unclear whether the human brain really pays more attention and generates more positive emotional responses to beautiful things. To explore the brain activity relating to consumers' aesthetic experiences, 15 participants were recruited voluntarily to view a series of personal-appearance styles. They were invited to make aesthetic judgments while their brain activity was recorded by electroencephalography. Two electroencephalographic (EEG) indicators, theta coherence and frontal alpha symmetry, were utilized. Theta coherence is a measure of linear synchronization between signals at two electrode sites. It reflects the degree of functional cooperation between the underlying neuronal substrates and was used to explore the attentional processing involved in aesthetic judgments. Frontal alpha asymmetry is derived by subtracting the log-transformed absolute alpha power of the left hemisphere from the analogous log-transformed alpha power of the right hemisphere. It was used as an indicator of emotional response. During aesthetic judgments, long-range theta coherence increased in both hemispheres and more positive frontal alpha asymmetry was found when the styles were judged to be beautiful. Therefore, participants demonstrated brain activity suggestive of central executive processing and more positive emotional responses when they considered styles to be beautiful. The study provides some insight into the brain activity associated with consumers' aesthetic
Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Böhm, Sarah; Keller, Jürgen; Dorst, Johannes; Uttner, Ingo; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée
Despite the fatal outcome and progressive loss of physical functioning in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), many patients maintain contentment in life. It has been shown that non-professionals tend to underestimate the well-being of patients with ALS, but professionals' perspective is yet to be studied. In total, 105 neurologists with varying degrees of experience with ALS were included in an anonymous survey. They were asked to estimate the quality of life and depressiveness of ALS patients with artificial ventilation and nutrition. Physicians' estimations were compared with previously reported subjective ratings of ALS patients with life-prolonging measures. Neurologists with significant experience on ALS and palliative care were able to accurately estimate depressiveness and quality of life of ALS patients with life-prolonging measures. Less experienced neurologists' estimation differed more from patients' reports. Of all life-prolonging measures neurologists regarded invasive ventilation as the measure associated with lowest quality of life and highest depressiveness of the patients. Experienced neurologists as well as neurologists with experience in palliative care are able to better empathize with patients with a fatal illness such as ALS and support important decision processes.
Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud
Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.
Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud
Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491
Thomas, Joseph; Iyer, Neeraj N; Collins, William B
Patient beliefs about their illness can motivate behaviors consistent with good disease management. Perceived high-quality chronic care would be expected to increase likelihood of having such beliefs. Associations between perceived quality of chronic care and illness representations, and associations between patient centeredness and illness representations were assessed among persons with diabetes. A mail survey of diabetic patients visiting a multispecialty physician network serving urban and suburban populations in a large midwestern city was conducted. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care-5A questionnaire was used to assess perceived chronic care quality and patient centeredness. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to assess illness representations. Of 500 mailed surveys, 89 completed surveys were returned. The sample consisted mostly of retirees (61%), Whites (81%), and women (60%). Higher perceived chronic care quality was associated with better disease understanding of diabetes (0.24, p = .05). Patients reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) indicated better disease understanding (-0.26, p = .04) and those reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) perceived less impact of illness (0.29, p = .02). Chronic care quality as defined in the Chronic Care Model and consistency of chronic care with patient expectations (patient centeredness) was associated with illness representations favorable for good self-care management.
Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca; Overton, Valerie
Measures of the patient care experience are now routinely used in public reports and increasingly influence health provider payment. We examined data from 5,002 patients of forty-nine primary care providers to explore the relationship between patient activation-a term referring to the knowledge, skills, and confidence a patient has for managing his or her health care-and the patient care experience. We found that patients at higher levels of activation had more positive experiences than patients at lower levels seeing the same clinician. The observed differential was maintained when we controlled for demographic characteristics and health status. We did not find evidence that patients at higher levels of activation selected providers who were more patient-centric. The findings suggest that the care experience is transactional, shaped by both providers and patients. Strategies to improve the patient experience, therefore, should focus not only on providers but also on improving patients' ability to elicit what they need from their providers.
Knowles, Sarah E; Lovell, Karina; Bower, Peter; Gilbody, Simon; Littlewood, Elizabeth; Lester, Helen
Objective To explore patient experience of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) for depression in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (Randomised Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Computerised Therapy, REEACT). Design Qualitative semistructured interviews with 36 participants. Participants Depressed patients with a Patient Health Questionnaire 9 of 10 or above recruited into the REEACT randomised controlled trial. Setting Primary care settings in England. Results Participant experience was on a continuum, with some patients unable or unwilling to accept psychological therapy without interpersonal contact while others appreciated the enhanced anonymity and flexibility of cCBT. The majority of patients were ambivalent, recognising the potential benefits offered by cCBT but struggling with challenges posed by the severity of their illness, lack of support and limited personalisation of programme content. Low completion rates were commonly reported, although more positive patients reported greater engagement. Both positive and ambivalent patients perceived a need for monitoring or follow-up to support completion, while negative patients reported deliberate non-adherence due to dissatisfaction with the programme. Patients also reported that severity of depression impacted on engagement, and viewed cCBT as unsuitable for patients undergoing more severe depressive episodes. Conclusions The study demonstrates both the unique demands and benefits of computerised therapy. cCBT was preferred by some patients and rejected by others, but the majority of patients were ambivalent about the therapy. cCBT could be offered within a menu of options in stepped care if matched appropriately to individual patients or could be offered with enhanced support to appeal to a greater number of patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN91947481. PMID:26621513
Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M
Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options. Reminiscence and music therapy are thus viable options. Lazar et al.  previously performed a systematic review with regards to the utilization of technology to delivery reminiscence based therapy to individuals who are living with dementia and has highlighted that technology does have benefits in the delivery of reminiscence therapy. However, to date, there has been a paucity of M-health innovations in this area. In addition, most of the current innovations are not personalized for each of the person living with Dementia. Prior research has highlighted the utility for open source repository in bioinformatics study. The authors hoped to explain how they managed to tap upon and make use of open source repository in the development of a personalized M-health reminiscence therapy innovation for patients living with dementia. The availability of open source code repository has changed the way healthcare professionals and developers develop smartphone applications today. Conventionally, a long iterative process is needed in the development of native application, mainly because of the need for native programming and coding, especially so if the application needs to have interactive features or features that could be personalized. Such repository enables the rapid and cost effective development of application. Moreover, developers are also able to further innovate, as less time is spend in the iterative process.
Waserman, J; Criollo, M
A 37-item survey covering a variety of somatopsychic domains was constructed to explore patients' subjective response to treatment with clozapine. The survey was administered to 130 patients with diagnoses of chronic schizophrenic or schizoaffective disorders who were on a stable clozapine regimen. The majority reported improvement in their level of satisfaction, quality of life, compliance with treatment, thinking, mood, and alertness. Most patients reported worsening in nocturnal salivation, and smaller numbers reported worsening in various gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms and weight gain. This general health survey highlights the patients' positive regard for clozapine, despite adverse bodily experiences. Subjective reports are a useful component of outcome measures of drug treatment.
Yilmaz, Edip Erdal; Canan, Fatih; Yıldırım, Osman; Cetin, Mehmet Mustafa
Introduction Haemorrhoids are one of the most common reasons that patients seek consultation from a colon and rectal surgeon. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) is a significant factor in describing the burden of illness and the impact of treatment in patients with gastrointestinal disease. Type D (distressed) personality is defined as the co-occurrence of negative affect and social inhibition. Aim To assess the prevalence of type D personality in patients with haemorrhoids and to investigate whether the presence of a type D personality would affect HrQoL in patients with haemorrhoids. Material and methods One hundred and six outpatients with symptomatic haemorrhoids with no psychiatric comorbidity were consecutively enrolled, along with 96 healthy controls. The Type D Scale (DS14) and the General Health Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used in the collection of data. Results Of 106 patients evaluated, 29.2% met criteria for type D personality. Patients with haemorrhoids scored lower on bodily pain and vitality dimensions of SF-36 than did healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Patients with a type D personality were found to score lower on bodily pain domain of HrQoL than patients without a type D personality. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association of type D personality with bodily pain dimension of the SF-36 in patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids (r = –0.315, p < 0.01). Conclusions Type D personality was associated with increased perceived bodily pain in patients with haemorrhoids. Consideration of type D personality construct personality traits could improve risk stratification in research and clinical practice in this patient group. PMID:25276256
Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Caspi, Opher; Miller, Ariel
The current understanding that the key for successful healthcare is an integrated approach, involving predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine, is leading major changes. These are: a shift from medical decisions based on 'trial and error' to informed therapeutics based on diagnostics (theranostics); a shift from a 'disease-centered' to a 'patient-centered' approach; and a shift from a 'reactive' to 'proactive' medical approach. It is essential that not only the physician, but also the patient, becomes proactive. Therefore, beyond the integration of genomic medicine and predictive biomarkers into practice, patient empowerment and participatory medicine are gaining increasing attention. This requires, besides appropriate sharing of information between patients and healthcare providers, new insights in patient involvement, such as patient-reported outcomes, both at the clinical trial stage of drug development and during post-marketing follow-up assessments. Patient empowerment and participatory medicine, as part of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine, are especially crucial in paving the way towards optimized healthcare in complex and chronic neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
Danielsson, Louise; Rosberg, Susanne
Although there is a vast amount of research on different strategies to alleviate depression, knowledge of movement-based treatments focusing on body awareness is sparse. This study explores the experiences of basic body awareness therapy (BBAT) in 15 persons diagnosed with major depression who participated in the treatment in a randomized clinical trial. Hermeneutic phenomenological methodology inspired the approach to interviews and data analysis. The participants' experiences were essentially grasped as a process of enhanced existential openness, opening toward life, exceeding the tangible corporeal dimension to also involve emotional, temporal, and relational aspects of life. Five constituents of this meaning were described: vitality springing forth, grounding oneself, recognizing patterns in one's body, being acknowledged and allowed to be oneself, and grasping the vagueness. The process of enhanced perceptual openness challenges the numbness experienced in depression, which can provide hope for change, but it is connected to hard work and can be emotionally difficult to bear. Inspired by a phenomenological framework, the results of this study illuminate novel clinical and theoretical insight into the meaning of BBAT as an adjunctive approach in the treatment of depression.
Danielsson, Louise; Rosberg, Susanne
Although there is a vast amount of research on different strategies to alleviate depression, knowledge of movement-based treatments focusing on body awareness is sparse. This study explores the experiences of basic body awareness therapy (BBAT) in 15 persons diagnosed with major depression who participated in the treatment in a randomized clinical trial. Hermeneutic phenomenological methodology inspired the approach to interviews and data analysis. The participants’ experiences were essentially grasped as a process of enhanced existential openness, opening toward life, exceeding the tangible corporeal dimension to also involve emotional, temporal, and relational aspects of life. Five constituents of this meaning were described: vitality springing forth, grounding oneself, recognizing patterns in one's body, being acknowledged and allowed to be oneself, and grasping the vagueness. The process of enhanced perceptual openness challenges the numbness experienced in depression, which can provide hope for change, but it is connected to hard work and can be emotionally difficult to bear. Inspired by a phenomenological framework, the results of this study illuminate novel clinical and theoretical insight into the meaning of BBAT as an adjunctive approach in the treatment of depression. PMID:25956354
Lusli, Mimi; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B M; Miranda-Galarza, Beatriz; Peters, Ruth M H; Cummings, Sarah; Seda, Francisia S S E; Bunders, Joske F G; Irwanto
Persons affected by leprosy or by disabilities face forms of stigma that have an impact on their lives. This study seeks to establish whether their experiences of stigma are similar, with a view to enabling the two groups of people to learn from each other. Accounts of experiences of the impact of stigma were obtained using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion with people affected by leprosy and by disabilities not related to leprosy. The analysis shows that there are a lot of similarities in impact of stigma in terms of emotions, thoughts, behaviour, and relationships between the two groups. The main difference is that those affected by leprosy tended to frame their situation in medical terms, while those living with disabilities described their situation from a more social perspective. In conclusion, the similarities offer opportunities for interventions and the positive attitudes and behaviours can be modelled in the sense that both groups can learn and benefit. Research that tackles different aspects of stigmatization faced by both groups could lead to inclusive initiatives that help individuals to come to terms with the stigma and to advocate against exclusion and discrimination.
Cole, Barbara Ann
This paper examines narrative methodologies as one approach to exploring issues of gender, education and social justice and, particularly, insights into "undoing gender". It furthermore examines the possibilities of exploring gender and its multiple intersections in a range of global and policy contexts through the use of personal experience approaches. The "storying" of lived experience is examined as a means of challenging dominant discourses which can construct and other individuals and groups in relation to many aspects of gender and education. Drawing on intersectionality, as a complex and developing feminist theory, the paper considers ways in which narrative can illuminate often hidden complexities while seeking to avoid generalisations and essentialisms. The difficulties of using narrative in relation to these aims are explored in the light of the warnings of feminist writers such as Michele Fine and bell hooks. The paper briefly considers narrative as both methodology and phenomenon, and finally, drawing on critical discourse analysis, discusses the potential of intersectionality and narrative in relation to undoing gender.
Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H
The individual considerations of frail women who are elderly as to the use of personal emergency response systems (PERS) are discussed within this article, and they derived from a larger longitudinal study that explores the home care experience of older widows. Participants were 11 frail women (aged 81-94) who perceived a risk of "falling and not being found" and did not have a PERS. A descriptive phenomenological method was used to analyze PERS-related data obtained during interviews with each woman in her home. With regard to considering the use of a PERS, experiences were structured variously by "getting by fine without it," "waiting to get it until I really need it," "convincing myself that I might get it later," and "borrowing no more trouble than I already have." Consistent interventions by home care professionals may perhaps be needed to increase PERS utilization rates. To develop effective interventions, further descriptive research is deemed necessary to explore drawbacks and barriers to PERS use by older frail women.
Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O
Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism. PMID:23002409
Massen, Jorg J M; Antonides, Alexandra; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Bionda, Thomas; Koski, Sonja E
Human and nonhuman animals show personality: temporal and contextual consistency in behavior patterns that vary among individuals. In contrast to most other species, personality of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, has mainly been studied with non-behavioral methods. We examined boldness, exploration tendency, persistence and tool-orientation in 29 captive chimpanzees using repeated experiments conducted in an ecologically valid social setting. High temporal repeatability and contextual consistency in all these traits indicated they reflected personality. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed two independent syndromes, labeled exploration-persistence and boldness. We found no sex or rank differences in the trait scores, but the scores declined with age. Nonetheless, there was considerable inter-individual variation within age-classes, suggesting that behavior was not merely determined by age but also by dispositional effects. In conclusion, our study complements earlier rating studies and adds new traits to the chimpanzee personality, thereby supporting the existence of multiple personality traits among chimpanzees. We stress the importance of ecologically valid behavioral research to assess multiple personality traits and their association, as it allows inclusion of ape studies in the comparison of personality structures across species studied behaviorally, and furthers our attempts to unravel the causes and consequences of animal personality.
Sváb, J; Fried, M; Bortlík, M; Lukás, M; Horejs, J
The First Surgical Clinic of the First Medical Faculty Charles University and General Faculty Hospital Prague made operations of the pancreas ever since 1971. In the work sooner or later all approaches to surgical treatment of pancreatitis were reflected. The authors present a brief review of results and their own experience since 1994 when duodenum sparing operations were introduced. Indications for surgical treatment were based on the diagnosis by US, CT and ERCP, in exceptional cases MR, after evaluation by a pancreatologist, roentgenologist and surgeon. The group of patients with chronic pancreatitis was extended by 15 patients from a group operated because of preoperative suspicion of a malignant pancreatic tumour not confirmed during and after surgery. In those Whipple's operation was performed. The same operation was performed in three patients with chronic pancreatitis with serious changes in the area of the head of the pancreas. In 111 patients a drainage and duodenum sparing operation was performed. Of these in 46x according to Neger, 9x according to Frey, 10x modification of these operations, 37x Partington-Rochelle's procedure. The authors did not record postoperative complications after the classical Beger operation and the hospital stay was on average by five days shorter as compared with the classical method of Whipple. When evaluating postoperative complaints and problems (pain, malnutrition, physical constitution and social position) the authors recorded equally favourable results as after non-complicated duodenopancreatectomy. They varied, depending on the patient s co-operation round 87% while after longitudinal drainage of the duct a satisfactory result was recorded in 78% of the operated patients. The authors consider Beger's operation logical because of the removal of the main tissue mass of the head of the pancreas, responsible for pain, complications caused by fibrosis in the area round the bile duct and duodenum, responsible for the
Martínez, María Pilar; Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Miró, Elena; Medina, Ana; Lami, María José
This study examined the relationship between several cognitive-affective factors of the fear-avoidance model of pain, the big five model of personality, and functional impairment in fibromyalgia (FM). Seventy-four FM patients completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20, the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire, and the Impairment and Functioning Inventory. Results indicated that the cognitive-affective factors of pain are differentially associated with personality traits. Neuroticism and conscientiousness were significant predictors of pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness were significant predictors of pain anxiety. Personality traits did not contribute significantly to vigilance to pain. The effect of neuroticism upon pain anxiety was mediated by pain catastrophizing, and neuroticism showed a trend to moderate the relationship between impairment and pain anxiety. Results support the fear-avoidance model of pain. Implications of the findings for the understanding and management of FM are discussed.
Joe, Soohyun; Joo, Yeonho
Bipolar patients often experience subjective symptoms even if they do not have active psychotic symptoms in their euthymic state. Most studies about subjective symptoms are conducted in schizophrenia, and there are few studies involving bipolar patients. We examined the nature of the subjective symptoms of bipolar patients in their euthymic state, and we also compared it to that of schizophrenia and normal control. Thirty bipolar patients, 25 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 normal control subjects were included. Subjective symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Frankfurter Beschwerde Fragebogen (K-FBF) and the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL90-R). Euthymic state was confirmed by assessing objective psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). K-FBF score was significantly higher in bipolar patients than in normal controls, but similar to that in schizophrenia patients (F=5.86, p=0.004, R2=2033.6). In contrast, SCL90-R scores did not differ significantly among the three groups. Euthymic bipolar patients experience subjective symptoms that are more confined to cognitive domain. This finding supports the hypothesis that subtle cognitive impairments persists in euthymic bipolar patients. PMID:18303193
Yamagiwa, M; Sakakura, Y; Ukai, K; Majima, Y; Hamaguchi, Y; Harada, T; Kubo, M
In order to elucidate the effect of recognition of head and neck malignancies on patients' psychosomatic condition and personality, we applied the Cornell Medical Index Health Questionnaire (CMI) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and collected medical and psychological data from 35 male (42-78 years of age; average 62.5) and 15 female (20-76 years of age; average 54.7) patients with malignant head and neck tumors (10 nose and paranasal, 8 oral, 8 pharyngeal, 14 laryngeal, 6 thyroid gland and 4 others). The two tests were done twice for each patients; at first immediately before hospitalization for treatment of the tumors at Mie University Hospital and secondly just before discharge from the hospital. The period of hospitalization ranged 1 to 13 months, average 3.3 months. At the end of hospitalization doctors and nurses who had mainly taken care of the patients estimated the patients' recognition of their malignancy by analyzing behavior and information mainly from their family and classified patients into three groups; Group R (Patients who recognized that they were patients with head and neck malignancies) comprised 22 patients, Group N (who did not recognize the condition) comprised 15 and Group U (who could not be classified into Groups R or N) comprised 13. Comparison among the three groups revealed the followings. 1) Patients in Group R were relatively young (average 56.3 years) and extrovert (estimated by MPI) and their somatic and psychological complaints registered on the CMI were less than those in other 2 groups. Psychosomatic condition after recognition that they had been patients with malignant tumors was better than before.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sulzer, Sandra H.; Meunchow, Elizabeth; Potvin, Annabelle; Harris, Jessica; Gigot, Grant
Background Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has historically been difficult to diagnose, and laden with stigma, leading to a variety of clinical responses to patients who present with symptoms. Aims 1. To understand how clinicians communicate the diagnosis of BPD with patients. 2. To compare these practices with patient communication preferences. 3. To use patient preferences to evaluate clinician practices. Methods Semi-structured interviews with mental health care providers and experts (n=32) were compared with patients (n=10) and patient primary written accounts (n=22). Grounded theory was used to explore causal pathways between clinical practice and patient responses. Results The majority of clinicians sampled did not actively share the BPD diagnosis with their patients, even when they felt it was the most appropriate diagnosis. The majority of patients wanted to be told that they had the disorder, as well as have their providers discuss the stigma they would face. Patients who later discovered that their diagnosis had been withheld consistently left treatment. Conclusions Clinicians believed that by not using the BPD label they were acknowledging or sidestepping the stigma of the condition. However, from the perspective of patients, open communication was essential for maintaining a therapeutic relationship. PMID:26360788
Miller, Colleen E.; Jezewski, Mary Ann
This phenomenological investigation was undertaken to gain a better understanding of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' experience with natalizumab (Tysabri; Biogen Idec Inc, Cambridge, MA) treatment and its impact on their quality of life (QOL). Twenty MS patients who were receiving natalizumab treatment were recruited by the physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and social worker of the William C. Baird Multiple Sclerosis Center in Buffalo, New York, between March 2009 and November 2009. Patients were invited to participate if they had relapsing-remitting MS, had received at least six treatments of natalizumab, and could articulate their experience. An interviewer obtained informed consent, gathered basic demographic information, and then tape-recorded the participants' accounts of their experience with natalizumab. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and de-identified before being submitted to the investigators for analysis. The Atlas.ti qualitative data analysis program (Scolari, Berlin, Germany) was used to manage the data. Patients found natalizumab easy to tolerate and effective; moreover, they described improvement in their QOL. Patients must weigh the benefits of control of their MS against the increased risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with natalizumab treatment. Information from this study will be used to educate professionals involved in MS patient care as well as patients and families considering treatment with natalizumab. PMID:24453731
Brook, Olga R; Siewert, Bettina; Weinstein, Jeffrey; Ahmed, Muneeb; Kruskal, Jonathan
Recently enacted healthcare legislation and the associated payment reforms have shifted the focus from traditional fee for service models to adding measurable and appreciable value to the patient experience. The value equation links quality to costs, and quality metrics are now directly related to patient outcomes and the patient experience. To participate effectively in this new paradigm requires not only that we provide excellent, timely and appropriate patient-centric care at all times, but that we are able to measure and manage the feedback we obtain from our patients. Of course, in order to provide value-added care, we must know not only who our customers are, but what they value. In this review, we explore factors that impact patient perception and experience with imaging services. We further illustrate different ways that patient feedback can be elicited and provide pros and cons of each approach. Collecting appropriate data is insufficient by itself; such data must be carefully analyzed, and opportunities for improvement must be identified, introduced, and monitored ahead of future surveys.
Wouters, Hans; Van Dijk, Liset; Geers, Harm C. J.; Winters, Nina A.; Van Geffen, Erica C. G.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.
Background Non-adherence to statins is substantial and is associated with numerous perceptions and experiences. However, time limits in clinical practice constrain in depth explorations of these perceptions and experiences. Objectives To propose and examine a strategy aimed at an efficient assessment of a wide array of perceptions and experiences regarding the efficacy, side effects, and practical problems of statins. Furthermore, to assess associations between this wide array of experiences and perceptions and non-adherence and to examine whether patients' 'perceived self-efficacy' moderated these associations. Methods Patients were recruited through community pharmacies. A wide array of specific patient perceptions and experiences was efficiently assessed using the electronic Tailored Medicine Inventory that allows people to skip irrelevant questions. Adherence was measured through self-report and pharmacy refill data. Results Of the two-hundred twenty-nine patients who participated (mean age 63.9, standard deviation 10.2), 40%-70% doubted the necessity of or lacked knowledge about the efficacy of statins, 20%-35% of the patients were worried about joint and muscle side effects or had experienced these, and 23% had encountered practical problems regarding information about statins, intake of tablets, the package, or the blister. Experiencing more practical problems was associated with increased unintentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.54, 95%CI:1.13–2.10, P < 0.01), whereas worrying about side effects was associated with increased intentional non-adherence (Odds ratio 1.90, 95%CI:1.17–3.08, P < 0.01). Higher 'perceived self-efficacy' did not moderate these associations. Conclusions Insight into patients' specific barriers with regard to appropriate statin use may reveal personal reasons for being non-adherent. The Tailored Medicine Inventory is a promising tool to devise individualized intervention strategies aimed at improving adherence by the clinician-patient
Dickey, Chandlee C.; Morocz, Istvan A.; Minney, Daniel; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Panych, Lawrence P.; Khan, Usman; Zacks, Rayna; Terry, Douglas P.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.
Introduction Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia demonstrate deficits in prosody recognition. To examine prosody along the schizophrenia spectrum, antipsychotic-naïve schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) subjects and healthy control subjects were compared. It was hypothesized that SPD subjects would perform more poorly; with cognitive and demographic factors contributing to the poor performance. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) was selected as the region-of-interest (ROI) given its known abnormalities in SPD and its important role in the processing of prosody. Methods SPD and healthy comparison (HC) subjects were matched on age, IQ, and parental social-economic status (PSES). Cognitive measures included the Speech Sound Perception Test (SSPT) to examine phonological processing (SPD= 68, HC = 74) and the Verbal Fluency task to examine executive functioning (SPD = 129, HC = 138). The main experiment was a novel fMRI task of prosody identification using semantically neutral sentences spoken with emotional prosody (SPD = 16, HC = 13). Finally, volumetric measurement of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), a key region for processing prosody, and partially overlapping with the STG, was performed (SPD = 30, HC = 30). Results Phonological processing and executive functioning were both impaired in SPD subjects compared with HC subjects. Contrary to the prediction, SPD subjects, as a group, were similar to HC subjects in terms of correctly indentifying the emotion conveyed and reaction time. Within the SPD group, prosody identification accuracy was influenced by executive functioning, IQ and perhaps PSES, relationships not found with HC subjects. Phonological perception aided prosody identification in both diagnostic groups. As expected, both groups activated the STG while performing the prosody identification task. However, SPD subjects may have been less “efficient” in their recruitment of STG neurons. Finally, SPD subjects demonstrated a trend toward smaller STS
Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng
Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), and fasting blood glucose (p < 0.001) were significantly higher among those who experienced the earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). Conclusions Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258
Reiss, Neele; Vogel, Friederike; Nill, Marco; Graf-Morgenstern, Mechthild; Finkelmeier, Britta; Lieb, Klaus
Patients with severe and chronic psychiatric disorders, such as Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), are hospitalized frequently, but we often find a high ambivalence regarding treatment in this group of patients. 31 patients with severe BPD participated in an inpatient Schema Therapy (ST) treatment program and evaluated both the intensive ST treatment program and group therapy elements regarding their treatment -satisfaction. A high global treatment satisfaction with the ST treatment program was demonstrated and we found a higher treatment satisfaction in patients with than without BPD specific symptom reductions. Remarkable differences in treatment satisfaction showed when looking at the evaluation of group therapies. The results of the present study demonstrate treatment satisfaction of BPD patients in inpatient ST and give directions for the future development of these programs.
Lee, Vivian S; Miller, Thomas; Daniels, Chrissy; Paine, Marilynn; Gresh, Brian; Betz, A Lorris
Whether patient satisfaction scores can act as a catalyst for improving health care is highly debated. Some argue that pursuing patient satisfaction is overemphasized and potentially at odds with providing good care because it leads providers to overtest and overtreat patients and to bend to unreasonable patient demands, all to improve their ratings. Others cite studies showing that high patient satisfaction scores correlate with improved health outcomes. Ideally, assessing patient satisfaction metrics will encourage empathy, communication, trust, and shared decision making in the health care delivery process. From the patient's perspective, sharing such metrics motivates physicians to provide patient-centered care and meets their need for easily accessible information about their providers. In this article, the authors describe a seven-year initiative, which began in 2008, to change the culture of the University of Utah Health Care system to deliver a consistently exceptional patient experience. Five factors affected the health system's ability to provide such care: (1) a lack of good decision-making processes, (2) a lack of accountability, (3) the wrong attitude, (4) a lack of patient focus, and (5) mission conflict. Working groups designed initiatives at all levels of the health system to address these issues. What began as a patient satisfaction initiative evolved into a model for physician engagement, values-based employment practices, enhanced professionalism and communication, reduced variability in performance, and improved alignment of the mission and vision across hospital and faculty group practice teams.
Iversen, K R; Heimly, V; Lundgren, T I
In Norway, organizational changes in hospitals and a stronger focus on patient safety have changed the way of organizing and managing paper based patient records. Hospital-wide patient records tend to replace department based records. Since not only clinicians, but also other non-medical staff have access to the paper records, they also have easy access to all the information which is available on a specific patient; such a system has obvious 'side effects' on privacy and security. Computer based patient records (CPRs) can provide the solution to this apparent paradox if the complex aspects of security, privacy, effectiveness, and user friendliness are focused on jointly from the outset in designing such systems. Clinical experiences in Norway show that it is possible to design patient record systems that provide a very useful tool for clinicians and other health care personnel (HCP) while fully complying with comprehensive security and privacy requirements.
Kelly, Brendan D; Casey, Patricia; Dunn, Graham; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Dowrick, Christopher
Individuals with personality disorders (especially paranoid personality disorder) tend to be reluctant to engage in treatment. This paper aimed to elucidate the role of personality disorder in predicting engagement with psychological treatment for depression. The Outcomes of Depression International Network (ODIN) involves six urban and three rural study sites throughout Europe at which cases of depression were identified through a two-stage community survey. One patient in seven who was offered psychological treatment for depression had a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder (most commonly paranoid personality disorder). Forty-five percent of patients who were offered psychological treatment for depression did not complete treatment. The odds of completion were higher for patients with a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder, especially paranoid, anxious or dependent personality disorder. The relatively low number of cases with some specific personality disorders (e.g. schizoid personality disorder) limited the study's power to reach conclusions about these specific disorders. This study focused on a community-based sample which may lead to apparently lower rates of engagement when compared to studies based on treatment-seeking populations. Episodes of depression in the context of personality disorder may represent a valuable opportunity to engage with patients who might otherwise resist engagement.
Barnow, Sven; Herpertz, Sabine C; Spitzer, Carsten; Stopsack, Malte; Preuss, Ulrich W; Grabe, Hans J; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J
This study examined correlations of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms with scales from Cloninger's psychobiological model taking gender and psychiatric comorbidity into consideration. Inpatients with BPD (n = 202) were compared to several control groups including psychiatrically healthy persons (n = 327), subjects with affective disorders (n = 46), alcohol use disorders (n = 47), cluster C personality disorders (n = 23) and antisocial personality disorder (n = 25). The results indicate that only males with BPD presented an 'explosive' temperament suggested by Cloninger, with simultaneously high levels of novelty seeking and harm avoidance. In contrast, women with BPD were characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, but not novelty seeking. Regarding temperament and character dimensions our analyses suggest that patients with BPD could be characterized, in particular, by a combination of high harm avoidance and very low self-directedness. The specific temperament configuration of BPD postulated by Cloninger's psychobiological model could only partially be supported. The results provide support for the importance of controlling for gender effects when investigating the applicability of dimensional models with respect to personality disorders.
Oldham, John M.; Gonzalez, Sylvia; Fowler, J. Christopher
Objective: Polypharmacy is common and especially challenging in the context of borderline personality disorder in light of impulsivity and self-harm associated with the disorder, risk of adverse drug-drug interactions, and financial burden. Reduction in polypharmacy could be conceptualized as a high priority in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. This case aims to demonstrate that potential. Method: This case report presents outcomes data for an individual with borderline personality disorder during the course of an extended psychiatric hospitalization. Symptomatic change is based on the Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic, Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms scales and World Health Organization 5-Item Well-Being Index. Change in polypharmacy is presented both in terms of absolute number and complexity of the medication regimen. Clinical outcomes data are provided at 2, 12, and 24 weeks postdischarge. Results: During a 56-day hospitalization, the patient demonstrated clinical improvement across clinical domains—all occurred within the context of reduced number (43%) and complexity (40%) of her medication regimen. Symptomatic improvement was sustained up to 6 months postdischarge. Conclusions: Despite good intentions, polypharmacy can be associated with iatrogenic harm and contribute to functional impairment, especially in the context of borderline personality disorder, in which symptomatic fluctuations are part of the illness itself. A reduction in the patient’s high-risk polypharmacy during treatment represents a noteworthy treatment outcome in and of itself. Additional measures of medication risk and liability have the potential to become markers of clinical effectiveness. PMID:26693036
Rodríguez-Bailón, María; Triviño, Mónica; Lupiáñez, Juan
Executive Control is required to deal with novel situations or when an action plan is needed. This study aimed to highlight the executive attention deficits of patients with frontal lobe damage. To do so, the ANT-I task (Attention Network Test-Interactions) was administered for the first time to a group of 9 patients with frontal damage caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a matched control group. This task made it possible to measure the three attentional networks proposed by Posner and Dehaene (1994) and their interactions. Results on the alerting and orienting networks did not show any significant differences between the groups. However, a significant effect of group on the executive control network was observed. In addition, participants' personality was assessed with a clinical inventory (the Millon Personality Inventory) that showed a significant positive correlation between borderline personality disorder and the conflict index. These results suggest that frontal lobe damage causes an exclusive impairment in the conflict resolution network that is related to personality traits characterized by a lack of behavioral control. More research will be necessary to study this causal relationship.
Sváb, J; Pesková, M; Fried, M; Gürlich, R; Krska, Z; Bortlík, M; Lukás, M; Horejs, J
The First Surgical Clinic of the First Medical Faculty of Charles University and General Faculty Hospital in Prague made operations of the pancreas ever since 1971. In the work sooner or later all approaches to surgical treatment pancreatitis were reflected. The authors present a brief review of results and their own experience since 1994 when duodenum-sparing operations were introduced. Indications for surgical treatment were based on the diagnosis by US, CT and ERCP, in exceptional case MR, after evaluation by a pancreatologist, roentgenologist and surgeon. The group of patients with chronic pancreatitis was extended by 21 patients from a group operated because of preoperative suspicion of a malignant pancreatic tumour not confirmed during and after surgery. In those Whipple's operation was preformed. The same operation was performed in three patients with chronic pancreatitis with serious changes in the area of the head of the pancreas. In 123 patients a drainage and duodenum sparing operation was preformed, of these in 57 according to Beger, 19 according to Frey, 37 Partington-Rochelle's procedure. The authors record two sepsis postoperative complications after the classical Beger operation and the hospital stay was on average by five days shorter as compared with the classical method of Whipple. When evaluating postoperative complaints and problems (pain, malnutrition, physical constitution and social position) the authors recorded equally favourable results as after non-complicated duodenopancreatectomy. They varied, depending on the patients co-operation round 84-87% while authors consider Beger's operation logical because of the removal of the main tissue mass of the head of the pancreas, responsible for pain, complications caused by fibrosis in the area round the bile duct and duodenum, responsible for the deteriation of the compartment syndrome in the left half of the gland. Its result is destruction of the remainder of exocrine and endocrine tissue. Of
Yin, Yi; Zhang, Weijun; Hu, Zhenyu; Jia, Fujun; Li, Yafang; Xu, Huiwen; Zhao, Shuliang; Guo, Jing; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong
In China, caregivers for family members with schizophrenia play an important role in treatment and recovery but may experience stigma and discrimination simply because of their family relationship. The object of this study was to measure the degrees and correlates of stigma and discrimination experiences among this group. Four hundred twenty-seven caregivers participated in this hospital-based and cross-sectional study in Ningbo and Guangzhou, China. Data were collected by trained interviewers using fixed questionnaires. Stigma and discrimination experiences were measured by the Modified Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (MCESQ). Caregivers’ social support was measured by the Social Support Rating Scale. Parametric analysis, nonparametric analysis and multivariate linear regression were used. The mean (SD) score of MCESQ was 2.44(0.45), 2.91(0.71) for stigma experiences and 1.97(0.37) for discrimination experiences on a five-point score (“1 = never” and “5 = very often”). Approximately 65% of caregivers reported that they tried to conceal their family members’ illness, and 71% lacked the support of friends. The experience of stigma was significantly negatively associated with the perceived social support of caregivers (standard β = −0.2,p<0.001). Caregivers who were children of the patients experienced fewer stigmas than other (standard β = −0.18, p<0.001). Urban residence (standard β = −0.12, p<0.01) and patients did not complete primary school education (standard β = −0.13, p<0.01) were negatively related with stigmas. In addition, stigma and discrimination was more experienced in Zhejiang than in Guangdong (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study performed that caregivers of people with schizophrenia in China experienced general stigmas and rare discrimination and found the relations with social support, kinship, patient’s educational level and regional differences. More interventions and supports should
Buemi, Michele; Caccamo, Chiara; Floccari, Fulvio; Coppolino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Donatella; Giacobbe, Maria Stella; Senatore, Massimino; Aloisi, Carmela; Ruello, Antonella; Sturiale, Alessio; Ientile, Riccardo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Coppolino, Salvatore; Villari, Antonino; Frisina, Nicola
The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) is a self-administered scoring system that has been widely used and validated as a quality of life (QOL) assessment tool. In our study, a cluster analysis of SF-36 scores was performed in 50 healthy volunteers (controls) and 50 neurobiologically asymptomatic patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Firstly, we assayed the tendency to form clusters from each of the investigated dimensions. Statistic analysis was performed using the Student's t-test for independent measurements and multiple regression analysis. Secondly, we attempted to evaluate if the MHD to apply to both groups a general psychobiological personality model developed by Cloninger in 1987. Cloninger describes three independent personality dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA)and reward dependence (RD). Each personality dimension would be the expression of hereditary variations integrating the three main brain systems, respectively: dopaminergic, serotoninergic and noradrenergic. Finally, we then aimed to investigate possible interferences among the seric concentrations of the neuromodulators and SF-36 scores, in the attempt to identify, using a simple approach, the complex personality structure of MHD patients. QOL self-assessment and seric neuromodulators were measured in both groups, choosing an interdialytic day for MHD patients. We found that MHD patients perceived a significant worsening in their QOL in all investigated dimensions with respect to the controls. In addition, they showed significantly lower dopamine and serotonine concentrations and significantly higher noradrenaline concentrations. Therefore, our study, confirmed data reported previously in the literature, that cluster analysis of SF-36 scores provides different results in the MHD population in comparison to normal subjects. In fact, comparing the hierarchical trees of both groups, it appeared evident that in MHD patients, cluster dimensions were greater than in the
Sun, Xu; May, Andrew; Wang, Qingfeng
This article describes an experimental study investigating the impact on user experience of two approaches of personalization of content provided on a mobile device, for spectators at large sports events. A lab-based experiment showed that a system-driven approach to personalization was generally preferable, but that there were advantages to retaining some user control over the process. Usability implications for a hybrid approach, and design implications are discussed, with general support for countermeasures designed to overcome recognised limitations of adaptive systems.
Tarter, Robin; Demiris, George; Pike, Kenneth; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker
Introduction At the end of life, patients with dementia often experience high levels of pain due to complex interplay of disease processes and numerous barriers to symptom management. In the hospice setting, informal caregivers play an essential role in pain management. This study describes their experience managing pain in hospice patients with dementia. Methods We conducted a qualitative analysis of audio-recorded interviews with informal caregivers of hospice patients with dementia who had chosen pain as the challenge they wanted to work on within a problem-solving therapy intervention. Results The thematic analysis of sessions with 51 caregivers identified 4 themes: difficulty in communicating with patients, lack of consistent guidance from health-care professionals, perceived uncertainty about the etiology of pain, and secondary suffering. Discussion Our findings indicate the possible need for increased support for caregivers, including educational interventions targeting pain etiology and assessment, and improved communication with health-care professionals. PMID:27303062
Ziebland, Sue; Evans, Julie; Toynbee, Polly
Abstract Objective Initial analysis of an interview study with patients about their experiences of lymphoma identified a strong emergent theme suggesting people were surprised to receive good care in the UK National Health Service. This qualitative analysis helps illuminate the disparity between public perceptions of NHS care and individual experiences. Participants and setting Forty‐one women and men with lymphoma were interviewed at home by an academic social scientist; nine who had had all their treatment before 1997 were excluded from this analysis. Design Initial qualitative thematic analysis used constant comparison and axial coding. Using narrative analytic methods, we explored how the accounts of positive experiences were structured and framed as well as what was said. Results Every person we interviewed described positive experiences of the NHS. These included the skills and humanity of the specialist staff involved in their care, the team work, the organization of care and communication and information. However, these positive experiences were often framed as personal good fortune rather than an indication that a high standard might be expected of NHS cancer care. Participants’ accounts also suggest a discrepancy through the use of framing devices that imply that less professional, kind and caring treatment might be expected. Conclusion People may be able to maintain the apparently contradictory opinions that the NHS is not very good, even if their own experience of care is excellent, if they construct their own experience as ‘lucky’. Health professionals could help by reassuring patients with a more positive, realistic expectation of specialist care. PMID:20579116
Mondal, Pritish; Loyson, Amber; Lascano, Jorge; Hegde, Satyanarayan
Ivacaftor is the first novel cystic fibrosis pharmaceutical that acts at the molecular level to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and was first approved for clinical use in 2012. We are sharing our single center experience of five patients: four from pediatric age group and one adult patient. All patients had both subjective and objective improvements in their health. Despite established lung disease, our patients had significant improvement in both their FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and FEF25-75 and BMI (body mass index). Larger studies demonstrated only 6.7% improvement in mean FEV1 after starting Ivacaftor therapy but their patient population had normal lung function to begin with. In contrast our case series demonstrates that, in patients with established lung disease and diminished lung function, Ivacaftor can be expected to result in much higher recovery in lung function. Mean FEV1 improved by 35% in our case series. Ivacaftor is extremely expensive, costing $300,000 per patient per year requiring lifelong therapy, hence requiring prior authorizations from most third-party payers in the USA. The knowledge shared from our experience will be useful for other clinicians to petition healthcare policymakers on behalf of their patients.
Dupont, Alexandra; Wheeler, Jane; Herndon, James E; Coan, April; Zafar, S Yousuf; Hood, Linda; Patwardhan, Meenal; Shaw, Heather S; Lyerly, H Kim; Abernethy, Amy P
Notebook-style computers (e/Tablets) are increasingly replacing paper methods for collecting patient-reported information. Discrepancies in data between these methods have been found in oncology for sexuality-related questions. A study was performed to formulate hypotheses regarding causes for discrepant responses and to analyze whether electronic data collection adds value over paper-based methods when collecting data on sensitive topics. A total of 56 breast cancer patients visiting Duke Breast Clinic (North Carolina) participated by responding to 12 subscales of 5 survey instruments in electronic (e/Tablet) format and to a paper version of 1 of these surveys, at each visit. Twenty-one participants (38%) provided dissimilar responses on paper and electronic surveys to one item of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) Social Well-Being scale that asked patients to rate their satisfaction with their current sex life. Among these 21 patients were 8 patients who answered the question in the electronic environment, and 13 patients who answered both paper and electronic versions but with different responses. Eleven patients (29%) did not respond to the item on either e/Tablet or paper; 45 patients (80%) answered it on e/Tablet; and 37 patients (66%) responded on the paper version. The e/Tablet electronic system may provide a "safer" environment than paper questionnaires for cancer patients to answer private or highly personal questions on sensitive topics such as sexuality.
Ottevanger, Petronella B; Wennekes, Lianne; Dekker, Helena M; van der Maazen, Richard WM; Mandigers, Caroline MPW; van Krieken, Johan HJM; Blijlevens, Nicole MA; Hermens, Rosella PMG
Background An overload of health-related information is available for patients on numerous websites, guidelines, and information leaflets. However, the increasing need for personalized health-related information is currently unmet. Objective This study evaluates an educational e-tool for patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) designed to meet patient needs with respect to personalized and complete health-related information provision. The e-tool aims to help NHL patients manage and understand their personal care pathway, by providing them with insight into their own care pathway, the possibility to keep a diary, and structured health-related information. Methods Together with a multidisciplinary NHL expert panel, we developed an e-tool consisting of two sections: (1) a personal section for patients’ own care pathway and their experiences, and (2) an informative section including information on NHL. We developed an ideal NHL care pathway based on the available (inter)national guidelines. The ideal care pathway, including date of first consultation, diagnosis, and therapy start, was used to set up the personal care pathway. The informative section was developed in collaboration with the patient association, Hematon. Regarding participants, 14 patients and 6 laymen were asked to evaluate the e-tool. The 24-item questionnaire used discussed issues concerning layout (6 questions), user convenience (3 questions), menu clarity (3 questions), information clarity (5 questions), and general impression (7 questions). In addition, the panel members were asked to give their feedback by email. Results A comprehensive overview of diagnostics, treatments, and aftercare can be established by patients completing the questions from the personal section. The informative section consisted of NHL information regarding NHL in general, diagnostics, therapy, aftercare, and waiting times. Regarding participants, 6 patients and 6 laymen completed the questionnaire. Overall, the
Cohen, Philip R; Kurzrock, Razelle
Dr. Ida Lystic is a gastroenterologist who trained at the OTHER (Owen T. Henry and Eugene Rutherford) Medical Center, after having completed her MD degree at the prestigious Harvey Medical School (recently renamed the Harvey Provider School). She accepted a faculty position at the BEST (Byron Edwards and Samuel Thompson) Medical Center. Dr. Lystic shares her experiences on a typical morning in gastroenterology clinic. Although her clinic start date was delayed by 2 months after becoming sick following a mandatory flu shot and having to complete more than 70 hours of compliance training modules, she is now familiar with the BEST system. Clinic scheduling priorities include ensuring that the staff can eat lunch together and depart at 5:00 pm. It is a continual challenge to find time to complete the electronic medical record after BEST changed from the SIMPLE (Succinct Input Making Patients Lives Electronic) system to LEGEND (referred to as Lengthy and Excessively Graded Evaluation and Nomenclature for Diagnosis by her colleagues). To maintain clinic punctuality, a compliance spreadsheet is e-mailed monthly to the Wait Time Committee. Their most recent corrective action plan for tardy physicians included placing egg timers on the doors and having nurses interrupt visits that exceed the allotted time. Administrative decisions have resulted in downsizing personnel. Patients are required to schedule their own tests and procedures and follow-up appointments-causing low patient satisfaction scores; however, the money saved lead to a large year-end bonus for the vice president of BEST Efficiency, who holds "providers" accountable for the poor patient experience. Although Dr. Ida Lystic and the gastroenterology clinic at "the BEST Medical Center" are creations of the authors' imagination, the majority of the anecdotes are based on actual events.
Oliveira, Eloíde André; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte
Descriptive survey aimed at identifying which aspects of body hygiene are valued by a nursing staff both in regard to personal body hygiene and to patients body hygiene. This survey has been conducted inside eight public health institutions, and the sample consisted of 126 nursing professionals, corresponding to 12.8% of a total of 986 people of the nursing personnel in such institutions. When considering personal body hygiene, the number of nail and hair care related quotes was higher than the number of answers concerning basic aspects such as hands hygiene, and this fact has called our attention. In patients body hygiene, a shower was the highest regarded aspect by the nursing staff; oral hygiene by registered nurses and nursing aids; and nail care by registered nurses and nursing technicians.
Nicolò, Giuseppe; Carcione, Antonino; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo
A multifaceted self allows selection of those sides that are most suited to a situation and an interpersonal context, thus improving adaptation. Patients suffering from personality disorders display a limited range of self-aspects, and their relationships are stereotyped and maladaptive. Another problem is that some of these sides scarcely reach consciousness and usually remain in the background. In the case of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) the self-part that is fragile is unlikely to reach consciousness, so that people suffering from this disorder are impervious and detached. We present a case of a psychotherapist working with a woman suffering from NPD by facilitating the emergence of the fragile part of her self, hidden by angry and scornful characters. We demonstrate, moreover, how reaching such a self-part is associated with an improvement in the patient's interpersonal relationships outside the consulting room.
Diamond, Diana; Meehan, Kevin B
This article presents a therapeutic approach for patients with severe personality disorders, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), a manualized evidence-based treatment, which integrates contemporary object relations theory with attachment theory and research. Case material is presented from a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient in TFP whose primary presenting problems were in the arena of sexuality and love relations, and whose attachment state of mind showed evidence of oscillation between dismissing and preoccupied mechanisms. Clinical process material is presented to illustrate the tactics and techniques of TFP and how they have been refined for treatment of individuals with NPD. The ways in which conflicts around sexuality and love relations were lived out in the transference is delineated with a focus on the interpretation of devalued and idealized representations of self and others, both of which are key components of the compensatory grandiose self that defensively protects the individual from an underlying sense of vulnerability and imperfection.
Krueger, T.C.; Tallent, M.B. Jr.; Richie, R.E.; Johnson, H.K.; MacDonell, R.C.; Turner, B.
This review examines a 20-year experience in renal transplantation at our center to determine the effects of immunosuppression on the subsequent development of malignancies. Twenty patients had 21 malignancies from primary sites other than skin, yielding an incidence of 2.5%. There were 0.65 malignancies for each 100 cumulative patient years of immunosuppression. Suppression of the host immune response is associated with an increased incidence of malignancies.
Asanuma, Yuko; Yamanouchi, Kazushi; Sasaki, Noriko; Hosogoe, Sachiko
An extension course for nurses providing details about the Act on the Protection of Personal Information was offered using a remote conferencing system. Experiences or problems related to disclosure of patient data were collected from the participants using a questionnaire. Most of the problems were placed in the category of disclosure of personal data to a third party, followed by those related to security safeguards and administration of employees. It is necessary for the JMHLW to gather more cases in order to expand the number of items in the Casebook by JMHLW. Also, systematic on-the-job education will be needed for nurses.
Nurjannah, Intansari; FitzGerald, Mary; Foster, Kim
Absconding from psychiatric institutions is a relatively common phenomenon. Yet patients' experience of absconding is a perspective that has received little attention in the West and none in Indonesia. A case study using mixed methods was undertaken in order to provide a profile of absconding events over a 1-year period in a psychiatric setting in Indonesia. In the qualitative phase of the study, in a semistructured interview, 16 patients who absconded described their experiences of absconding. Three themes of experience were identified: the call to home, hopes and realities, and us and them. The call to home theme described patients' eagerness to connect with family and others and to feel safe. Hopes and realities identified patients' hopes for happiness, which were dashed by the realities of life at home and in the hospital. The final theme, us and them, described the competing interests and different opinions of patients in relation to others including hospital staff and family. There is a need for changes to mental health policy and service provision in order to reduce the incidence of absconding in Indonesia and enable patients and their families to receive adequate support while living in the community.
Maludzińska, Ewa; Rudzińska, Monika; Stępień, Artur; Szczudlik, Andrzej
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune neurological disorder with antibodies against antigens involved in neurotransmission of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). About 10% of patients with SPS may develop ataxia. This cerebellar variant is a distinct subset of SPS with more severe and complex clinical phenotype. We report the clinical, neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings in a 39-year-old female with cerebellar variant of SPS.
Buchheim, Anna; Erk, Susanne; George, Carol; Kächele, Horst; Martius, Philipp; Pokorny, Dan; Spitzer, Manfred; Walter, Henrik
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 17 healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for 2 min. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients' inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear.
Miller, Thomas; Daniels, Chrissy; Paine, Marilynn; Gresh, Brian; Betz, A. Lorris
Whether patient satisfaction scores can act as a catalyst for improving health care is highly debated. Some argue that pursuing patient satisfaction is overemphasized and potentially at odds with providing good care because it leads providers to overtest and overtreat patients and to bend to unreasonable patient demands, all to improve their ratings. Others cite studies showing that high patient satisfaction scores correlate with improved health outcomes. Ideally, assessing patient satisfaction metrics will encourage empathy, communication, trust, and shared decision making in the health care delivery process. From the patient’s perspective, sharing such metrics motivates physicians to provide patient-centered care and meets their need for easily accessible information about their providers. In this article, the authors describe a seven-year initiative, which began in 2008, to change the culture of the University of Utah Health Care system to deliver a consistently exceptional patient experience. Five factors affected the health system’s ability to provide such care: (1) a lack of good decision-making processes, (2) a lack of accountability, (3) the wrong attitude, (4) a lack of patient focus, and (5) mission conflict. Working groups designed initiatives at all levels of the health system to address these issues. What began as a patient satisfaction initiative evolved into a model for physician engagement, values-based employment practices, enhanced professionalism and communication, reduced variability in performance, and improved alignment of the mission and vision across hospital and faculty group practice teams. PMID:26606723
Kumar, Pallavi; Wright, Alexi A; Hatfield, Laura A; Temel, Jennifer S; Keating, Nancy L
Purpose To determine whether hospice use by patients with cancer is associated with their families' perceptions of patients' symptoms, goal attainment, and quality of end-of-life (EOL) care. Methods We interviewed 2,307 families of deceased patients with advanced lung or colorectal cancer who were enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study (a multiregional, prospective, observational study) and died by 2011. We used propensity-score matching to compare family-reported outcomes for patients who did and did not receive hospice care, including the presence and relief of common symptoms (ie, pain, dyspnea), concordance with patients' wishes for EOL care and place of death, and quality of EOL care. We also examined associations between hospice length of stay and these outcomes among hospice enrollees. Results In a propensity-score-matched sample of 1,970 individuals, families of patients enrolled in hospice reported more pain in their patient compared with those not enrolled in hospice. However, families of patients enrolled in hospice more often reported that patients received "just the right amount" of pain medicine (80% v 73%; adjusted difference, 7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1 to 12 percentage points) and help with dyspnea (78% v 70%; adjusted difference, 8 percentage points; 95% CI, 2 to 13 percentage points). Families of patients enrolled in hospice also more often reported that patients' EOL wishes were followed (80% v 74%; adjusted difference, 6 percentage points; 95% CI, 2 to 11 percentage points) and "excellent" quality EOL care (57% v 42%; adjusted difference, 15 percentage points; 95% CI, 11 to 20). Families of patients who received > 30 days of hospice care reported the highest quality EOL outcomes. Conclusion Hospice care is associated with better symptom relief, patient-goal attainment, and quality of EOL care. Encouraging earlier and increased hospice enrollment may improve EOL experiences for patients with
Lin, Mei-Feng; Chiou, Jaw-Haw; Chou, Mei-Hsien; Hsu, Mei-Chi
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived the significant experiences of psychiatric patients related to token therapy. A qualitative in-depth interview was applied to collect individual opinions and perceptions. The 13 patients included in this study, all of whom had been diagnosed with mental disorders, received a six-month program of token therapy. Semi-structured interviews of approximately 40 minutes each were held with each participant and transcribed for further analysis in accordance with the principals of content analysis. The three significant domains of experience of participants receiving token therapy included: (1) acknowledgement of token therapy significance, (2) appreciation of each step in terms of personal achievement, and (3) reinforcement from personal changes and family support. Findings support the application of token therapy in psychiatric rehabilitation settings using the strategy of applying appropriate positive or negative logos to communicate reinforcement in an immediate manner that is further enhanced by the public tracking of accumulated patient scores on an evaluation board. In this manner, the therapeutic environment is imbued with a critical empowerment function. The effective application in the future of token therapy in mental health rehabilitation programs is recommended.
Kelleher, Erin; Giampietro, Philip F; Moreno, Megan A
Marfan syndrome (MS) is a connective tissue disorder that affects thousands of adolescents [Population Reference Bureau, 2013]. Some adolescent patients with MS may use social media to express their experiences and emotions, but little is known about what patients choose to share online. To investigate social media content related to Marfan syndrome we used search terms "Marfan syndrome" and "Marfans" on six different social media sites. The top five recent and popular posts for each site were collected and coded weekly for five weeks. Posts were excluded if they were reshared content or not in English. A codebook was developed using an iterative process to categorize posts and comments. Out of 300 posts collected 147 posts (49.0%) were included for evaluation. Categories of displayed content included personal pictures, memes and pictures featuring symptoms of MS (41.5%) and personal MS experiences (27.1% of posts). One quarter of the posts specifically mentioned a positive experience or how thankful the profile owner was for their life. A unique category of posts (13.7%) referenced Austin Carlile, a celebrity singer with MS, as a role model. Physicians and healthcare providers may consider using social media to understand common MS concerns and to place future health education materials.
Modern psychopharmacotherapy is currently in contention both outside and within the field of psychiatry. Conventional psychopharmacology paradigms focusing just on a disease perspective, biological narrative and a "one fits all" treatment are often regarded as inadequate and disjunctive. A significant proportion of psychiatric patients achieve no improvement or only partial improvement in their symptoms, while many of them suffer adverse and even toxic effects of medications. Psychopharmacotherapy as a sole form of treatment may carry the wrong message that patients don't have to change their life style and don't have to learn any new skills, they just have to receive their medication on time because the only problem is in brain chemistry. Evidence-based psychopharmacotherapy and person-centered narrative psychopharmacotherapy are not competitors but a complementuary duality, as intimately connected as brain and soul. Narrative preserves individuality, distinctivenesss and therapeutic context, whereas quantitative methods and evidence-based guidelines offer a solid foundation for what is reliably and generally correct. The purpose of person-centered psychopharmacotherapy is to empower the patients to control their disease, to re-author their problematic life story, to obtain full personal recovery and to regain control over their life.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex, serious, and high-cost psychiatric disorder. The high prevalence of patients with BPD and co-occurring depression, eating disorders, and substance-use disorders in primary care and mental health settings contribute to their high use of resources in these practice settings. Regardless of treatment challenges associated with BPD, researchers suggest a more positive outlook in the treatment of this complex psychiatric condition. This article focuses on areas in which nurses can strengthen their understanding of underpinnings and multimodal approaches, assess the patient's immediate needs, and manage distressful emotional states and impulsivity.
Bishop, Mark D; Torres-Cueco, Rafael; Gay, Charles W; Lluch-Girbés, Enrique; Beneciuk, Jason M; Bialosky, Joel E
Manual therapy (MT) is a passive, skilled movement applied by clinicians that directly or indirectly targets a variety of anatomical structures or systems, which is utilized with the intent to create beneficial changes in some aspect of the patient pain experience. Collectively, the process of MT is grounded on clinical reasoning to enhance patient management for musculoskeletal pain by influencing factors from a multidimensional perspective that have potential to positively impact clinical outcomes. The influence of biomechanical, neurophysiological, psychological and nonspecific patient factors as treatment mediators and/or moderators provides additional information related to the process and potential mechanisms by which MT may be effective. As healthcare delivery advances toward personalized approaches there is a crucial need to advance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms associated with MT effectiveness. PMID:26401979
Yousafzai, Aisha K; Dlamini, Phindile J; Groce, Nora; Wirz, Sheila
Although there has been research focused on the disabling consequences of HIV/AIDS, there has been very little documented information about HIV/AIDS for individuals with disability prior to infection. There is evidence to suggest that people with disabilities face inequalities in accessing health information and services. The aim of this study was to explore whether disabled and non-disabled young adults in Swaziland perceive HIV/AIDS similarly. A qualitative study using focus-group discussions was conducted. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 56 non-disabled adults (aged 16-29 years) and four focus groups were conducted with a total of 32 adults with either a physical or hearing disability (aged 18-32 years). The focus-group schedule explored knowledge about HIV/AIDS, personal risk and experiences of health-seeking practices. Information and awareness about HIV/AIDS was good in both rural and urban areas among the non-disabled participants, who obtained their information from a wide range of sources. In contrast, participants with disability, who obtained information about HIV/AIDS from a limited range of sources, lacked knowledge about HIV/AIDS and were misinformed about modes of transmission. Women with disabilities described experiences of sexual exploitation and abuse, which was perceived to be higher among disabled women than their non-disabled peers; they felt this was because disabled women were perceived to be 'free' from the HIV virus by non-disabled men. Further research is necessary to enable HIV/AIDS programmes to address the specific needs of people with disabilities.
Siblings of pediatric cancer patients experience difficulties coping and adapting to the experience of a cancer diagnosis. A variety of emotional and behavioral changes as well as somatic complaints have been reported. Children describe many negative changes after their sibling is diagnosed with cancer. Many social supports and therapeutic interventions have been proposed for siblings, one of which is a camp experience. The literature has demonstrated that camps have a positive impact and offer siblings of children with cancer a supportive peer environment. Camp encourages discussion with peers and health care providers and facilitates participation in activities that improve knowledge, social confidence, and self-esteem. Nurses can help siblings by recommending camp experiences, volunteering at camps, and adding a camp experiences to existing sibling support programs.
Sheffield, B.S.; Tessier-Cloutier, B.; Li-Chang, H.; Shen, Y.; Pleasance, E.; Kasaian, K.; Li, Y.; Jones, S.J.M.; Lim, H.J.; Renouf, D.J.; Huntsman, D.G.; Yip, S.; Laskin, J.; Marra, M.; Schaeffer, D.F.
Background Gastrointestinal carcinomas are genomically complex cancers that are lethal in the metastatic setting. Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing allow for the simultaneous characterization of multiple oncogenic pathways. Methods We report 3 cases of metastatic gastrointestinal carcinoma in patients enrolled in the Personalized Onco-Genomics program at the BC Cancer Agency. Real-time genomic profiling was combined with clinical expertise to diagnose a carcinoma of unknown primary, to explore treatment response to bevacizumab in a colorectal cancer, and to characterize an appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Results In the first case, genomic profiling revealed an IDH1 somatic mutation, supporting the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in a malignancy of unknown origin, and further guided therapy by identifying epidermal growth factor receptor amplification. In the second case, a BRAF V600E mutation and wild-type KRAS profile justified the use of targeted therapies to treat a colonic adenocarcinoma. The third case was an appendiceal adenocarcinoma defined by a p53 inactivation; Ras/raf/mek, Akt/mtor, Wnt, and notch pathway activation; and overexpression of ret, erbb2 (her2), erbb3, met, and cell cycle regulators. Summary We show that whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing can be achieved within clinically effective timelines, yielding clinically useful and actionable information. PMID:28050146
Evolutionary theory predicts that humans should adjust their life-history strategies in response to local ecological threats and opportunities in order to maximize their reproductive success. Cues representing threats to individuals' lives and health in modern, Western societies may come in the form of local ages at death, morbidity rate and crime rate in their local area, whereas the adult sex ratio represents a measure of the competition for reproductive partners. These characteristics are believed to have a strong influence over a wide range of behaviours, but whether they are accurately perceived has not been robustly tested. Here, we investigate whether perceptions of four neighbourhood characteristics are accurate across eight neighbourhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that median age at death and morbidity rates are accurately perceived, whereas adult sex ratios and crime rates are not. We suggest that both neighbourhood characteristics and personal experiences contribute to the formation of perceptions. This should be considered by researchers looking for associations between area-level factors. PMID:28083095
Brosnan, Caragh; Cribb, Alan; Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare
The ethical issues neuroscience raises are subject to increasing attention, exemplified in the emergence of the discipline neuroethics. While the moral implications of neurotechnological developments are often discussed, less is known about how ethics intersects with everyday work in neuroscience and how scientists themselves perceive the ethics of their research. Drawing on observation and interviews with members of one UK group conducting neuroscience research at both the laboratory bench and in the clinic, this article examines what ethics meant to these researchers and delineates four specific types of ethics that shaped their day-to-day work: regulatory, professional, personal and tangible. While the first three categories are similar to those identified elsewhere in sociological work on scientific and clinical ethics, the notion of 'tangible ethics' emerged by attending to everyday practice, in which these scientists' discursive distinctions between right and wrong were sometimes challenged. The findings shed light on how ethical positions produce and are, in turn, produced by scientific practice. Informing sociological understandings of neuroscience, they also throw the category of neuroscience and its ethical specificity into question, given that members of this group did not experience their work as raising issues that were distinctly neuro-ethical.
Freeman, G K; Richards, S C
While much has been written about the benefits of personal continuity of care there has been little research about the views of patients. In this cross sectional study 111 patients from three group practices (one of which ran a personal list system) were interviewed at home within a week of consulting a general practitioner. Patients were selected randomly from a systematic series of consulting sessions and a semi-structured interview was administered. Patients receiving more personal continuity of care were likely to be older, to have booked their most recent appointment further in advance, to desire personal continuity of care, to have an external health locus of control and to have a lower extroversion score. In the practice with a personal list, patients had a high level of continuity of care, were satisfied and showed little interest in having a choice of doctor. In the combined list practices patients valued their choice of doctor but often could not exercise it enough and they were more critical. They made more suggestions for change than those in the practice with a personal list system, mostly about receptionists and appointments. It is concluded that most patients like to see the same doctor, but they may not be willing to wait two days for this if there is a quicker option. It may be difficult to deliver both personal continuity of care and choice in group practice. PMID:8312019
Godlewski, D; Adamczak, M; Wojtyś, P
Previous studies have failed to explain why the mortality rate of cancer patients is higher in Poland than other countries in the European Union. We aimed to evaluate the health care system in Poland during the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this multicentre study, 125 cancer patients treated at 15 centres across Poland participated in focus group interviews in 2014. We identified and assessed crucial elements that affect a patients' experience from the early onset of symptoms, through to diagnosis and treatment. We found that the majority of patients were dissatisfied with the length of time taken to diagnose cancer. Throughout diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, patients reported a lack of communication from health care professionals. While dealings with oncologists and medical staff were viewed favourably, patients felt the cancer centres were not well organised. Patients recommended that having one doctor in charge of an individual's treatment and follow-up would improve patient care and well-being. A late cancer diagnosis may be contributing to the high mortality rate observed in Poland. In the future, new policies should be developed to reduce the time to cancer diagnosis, increase communication with health care professionals and improve the organisation of cancer care for patients.
Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Åström, Sture
This study illuminates adult relatives' experiences of everyday life close to a person with mental ill-health. The study was based on nine diaries and four narrative interviews with relatives of people with mental ill-health. Data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The participants experienced everyday life as a constant fight, for better and for worse, with psychiatric care. They were fighting for the mentally ill person's right to care; sometimes they felt resigned, but yet they had a confidence in the care. Their mission in life was to sacrifice themselves, meaning that they felt indispensable and became lonely and socially isolated. They considered their mission to last until death set them apart because they were keeping a family secret, and had great worries about the future. We conclude that relatives experience a two-folded stigma in living close to a person with mental ill-health and in becoming lonely and socially isolated.
Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying
The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p < 0.001), and experience much more symptoms that they attributed to their illness (6.65 ± 2.54 vs. 7.31 ± 2.36, p = 0.023). Significant differences were found between Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p < 0.001) and MCS (41.7 1 ± 10.20 vs. 46.35 ± 9.31, p = 0.012). The correlation analysis demonstrated that Type D was negatively associated with physical component score (PCS) (r = -0.29, p < 0.01), mental component score (MCS) (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), and social support (r = -0.24, p < 0.001). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we found that Type D personality was independently associated with PCS (β = -0.32, p < 0.001) and MCS (β = -0.24, p < 0.001). Type D personality was a predictor of poor QoL in CAPD patients
Croce, A; Moretti, A; Bianchedi, M; Neri, G; Falcone, G
Primitive T4 laryngeal neoplasms with anterior invasion and neoplasm recurring after partial and subtotal intervention often invade the soft prelaryngeal tissues and in these cases the neoplastic illness can be no longer be controlled be "organ surgery". The widened forwarding total laryngectomy, "squared" or "carrè" laryngectomy according to some Authors of French School, is a surgical procedure not "on an organ" but "in an area" or "region" which proposes to delete, in one step, the larynx, the bone hyoid, the fasciae and the prelaryngeal muscles, the thyroid gland and, if necessary, a more or less large quantity of anterior cervical skin. If the removal involves a vast cutaneous area, it is necessary to mend the loss of substance by wrapping around a miocutaneous flap of pectoralis mayor muscle. In the last five years, 4 male patients, between 48 and 73 years, were treated with widened forwarding total laryngectomy. They were all carriers of epidermoid laryngeal carcinomas with various degrees of differentation: primitive in one patients, recidivist after performance of partial (cordectomy) and subtotal (two Labayle) surgery in the other three patients. In the only case of T4 primitive laryngeal neoplasm it was necessary to carry out a functional neck dissection bilaterally. Loss of substance always required the use of a miocutaneous flap of pectoralis mayor muscle except in one patient in which the removal of the prelaryngeal tissues was limited and therefore it was possible to make a direct seam. We always completely removed the thyroid gland, the prelaryngeal muscular system and skin of the preceding stomy (in the Labayle) sparing, on the other hand, the hyoid bone. Only one patient, who died due to recurrence a year after surgery, underwent complemental percutaneous radiotherapy. At present, three patients are alive and NED: one after 5 years, the others are in excellent conditions although the follow-up is still brief. According to our experience, we can
Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan
This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of <0.05. The average of innovativeness variables (M:74.12), harm avoidance (M: 65.17), reward dependence (M:50.030), and self-directedness (M:35.02) in case group in comparison with control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS.
Griffiths, Roland R.; Richards, William A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; McCann, Una D.; Jesse, Robert
Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious pu