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Sample records for patients population-based estimates

  1. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    PubMed

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  2. Estimated Impact of Emergency Medical Service Triage of Stroke Patients on Comprehensive Stroke Centers: An Urban Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Brian S; Adeoye, Opeolu; Sucharew, Heidi; Broderick, Joseph P; McMullan, Jason; Khatri, Pooja; Widener, Michael; Alwell, Kathleen S; Moomaw, Charles J; Kissela, Brett M; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Ferioli, Simona; Mackey, Jason; Martini, Sharyl; De Los Rios la Rosa, Felipe; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-08-01

    The American Stroke Association recommends that Emergency Medical Service bypass acute stroke-ready hospital (ASRH)/primary stroke center (PSC) for comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) when transporting appropriate stroke patients, if the additional travel time is ≤15 minutes. However, data on additional transport time and the effect on hospital census remain unknown. Stroke patients ≥20 years old who were transported from home to an ASRH/PSC or CSC via Emergency Medical Service in 2010 were identified in the Greater Cincinnati area population of 1.3 million. Addresses of all patients' residences and hospitals were geocoded, and estimated travel times were calculated. We estimated the mean differences between the travel time for patients taken to an ASRH/PSC and the theoretical time had they been transported directly to the region's CSC. Of 929 patients with geocoded addresses, 806 were transported via Emergency Medical Service directly to an ASRH/PSC. Mean additional travel time of direct transport to the CSC, compared with transport to an ASRH/PSC, was 7.9±6.8 minutes; 85% would have ≤15 minutes added transport time. Triage of all stroke patients to the CSC would have added 727 patients to the CSC's census in 2010. Limiting triage to the CSC to patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥10 within 6 hours of onset would have added 116 patients (2.2 per week) to the CSC's annual census. Emergency Medical Service triage to CSCs based on stroke severity and symptom duration may be feasible. The impact on stroke systems of care and patient outcomes remains to be determined and requires prospective evaluation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Patients' estimations of the importance of preventive health services: a nationwide, population-based cross-sectional study in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Luísa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Azevedo, Luís Filipe; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto; Santos, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine, in the context of primary care preventive health services, the level of importance that Portuguese patients attribute to different preventive activities. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary Healthcare, Portugal. Participants 1000 Portuguese adults selected by a stratified cluster sampling design were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone survey. Persons with a cognitive or physical disability that hampered the ability to complete a telephone interview and being a nursing home resident or resident in any other type of collective dwelling were excluded. Outcomes Mean level of importance assigned to 20 different medical preventive activities, using a scale of 1–10, with 1 corresponding to ‘no importance for you and your health’ and 10 indicating ‘very important’. Results The mean level of importance assigned to medical preventive activity was 7.70 (95% CI 7.60 to 7.80). Routine blood and urine tests were considered the most important, with an estimated mean of 9.15 (95% CI 9.07 to 9.24), followed by female-specific interventions (Pap smear, mammography and gynaecological and breast ultrasounds), with mean importance ranging from 8.45 (95% CI 8.23 to 8.63) for mammography to 8.56 (95% CI 8.36 to 8.76) for Pap smear. Advice regarding alcohol consumption (6.18; 95% CI 5.96 to 6.39) and tobacco consumption (5.99; 95% CI 5.75 to 6.23) were considered much less important. Conclusions Our results reveal that Portuguese patients overestimate the importance of preventive medical activities, tend to give more importance to diagnostic and laboratory tests than to lifestyle measures, do not discriminate tests that are important and evidence-based, and seem not be aware of the individualisation of risk. Family physicians should be aware of these optimistic expectations, because these can influence the doctor–patient relationship when discussing these interventions and incorporating personalised risk. PMID:27707825

  4. Work productivity loss and indirect costs associated with new cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia: estimates from population-based register data in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Banefelt, J; Hallberg, S; Fox, K M; Mesterton, J; Paoli, C J; Johansson, G; Levin, L-Å; Sobocki, P; Gandra, S R

    2016-12-01

    To estimate productivity loss and associated indirect costs in high-risk patients treated for hyperlipidemia who experience cardiovascular (CV) events. Retrospective population-based cohort study conducted using Swedish medical records linked to national registers. Patients were included based on prescriptions of lipid-lowering therapy between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 and followed until 31 December 2012 for identification of CV events and estimation of work productivity loss (sick leave and disability pension) and indirect costs. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on CV risk level: history of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Propensity score matching was applied to compare patients with new events (cases) to patients without new events (controls). The incremental effect of CV events was estimated using a difference-in-differences design, comparing productivity loss among cases and controls during the year before and the year after the cases' event. The incremental effect on indirect costs was largest in the CHD risk equivalent cohort (n = 2946) at €3119 (P value <0.01). The corresponding figure in the major CVD history cohort (n = 4508) was €2210 (P value <0.01). There was substantial variation in productivity loss depending on the type of event. Transient ischemic attack and revascularization had no significant effect on indirect costs. Myocardial infarction (€3465), unstable angina (€2733) and, most notably, ischemic stroke (€6784) yielded substantial incremental cost estimates (P values <0.01). Indirect costs related to work productivity losses of CV events are substantial in Swedish high-risk patients treated for hyperlipidemia and vary considerably by type of event.

  5. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Lee, Kristine E; Klein, Barbara EK; Muntner, Paul; Brazy, Peter C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nieto, F Javier; Danforth, Lorraine G; Schubert, Carla R; Tsai, Michael Y; Klein, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample. Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women). We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG) equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L. Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 by the MDRD equation had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was only 1 mg/L (interquartile range, 0.9–1.2 mg/L). This finding was similar for the CG equation. For the Mayo equation, 62.8% of those patients with GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2 had cystatin C levels >1.23 mg/L; their mean cystatin C level was 1.3 mg/L (interquartile range, 1.2–1.5 mg/L). The MDRD and CG equations showed a false-positive rate of >10%. Discussion: We found that the MDRD and CG equations, the current standard to estimate GFR, appeared to overestimate the prevalence of CKD in a general population sample. PMID:20730018

  6. Long-term effect of lithium maintenance therapy on estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with affective disorders: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Clos, Stefan; Rauchhaus, Petra; Severn, Alison; Cochrane, Lynda; Donnan, Peter T

    2015-12-01

    For more than 40 years, the long-term effect of lithium maintenance therapy on renal function has been debated. We aimed to assess the effect of lithium maintenance therapy on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eFGR) in patients with affective disorders, and explore predictors for a decrease in eGFR. This population-based cohort study included adult patients (18-65 years of age at baseline) in Tayside (Scotland, UK) who had recently started on lithium maintenance treatment between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2011 (retrospectively assigned to the lithium group) or those with exposure to other first-line drugs used in the treatment of affective disorders (quetiapine, olanzapine, and semisodium valproate) during the same period (retrospectively assigned to the comparator group). Patients had to have at least 6 months of (incidence) exposure to lithium or any of the comparator drugs, at least two eGFR values available in the observation period (one at baseline and at least one after ≥6 months post baseline). We excluded patients with previous exposure to lithium or one of the comparator drugs, those with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder, those with glomerular disease, tubulo-interstitial disease, or chronic kidney disease stages 4-5 at baseline, and those who had undergone renal transplant before exposure. Maximum follow-up was 12 years. Data were provided by the University of Dundee Health Informatics Centre, who have access to health-related population-based datasets containing data for every patient registered with a regional family doctor. Each patient has a unique ten-digit identifier, the Community Health Index, enabling us to link laboratory tests, dispensed community prescriptions, Scottish Morbidity Records, and mortality records to the patient. All data were anonymised according to Health Informatics Centre standard operating procedures. The primary outcome was the change per year in the eGFR, adjusted for age, sex, and

  7. Leukemia as a cause of death among patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in a population- based cancer registry: improving estimates of MDS-related mortality in the population.

    PubMed

    Polednak, Anthony P; Phillips, Cathryn

    2012-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms diagnosed mostly in elderly persons, are of increasing interest in an aging population and are associated with variable risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The numbers of deaths related to MDS in the population are underestimated in routine US cancer mortality statistics which are based on only the underlying cause (UC) rather than multiple causes (MCs) of death recorded on death certificates. Additional MDS-related deaths, however, may be missed if some MDS patients die with mention of leukemia but not MDS on their death certificate. This requires studies of MCs of death among all MDS patients in population-based tumor registries. This study examined MCs of death among patients diagnosed with MDS in 2001- 2009 and reported to the population-based Connecticut Tumor Registry. MDS was the UC for 199 deaths (25.7% of all 773) and was coded as other than UC for 160 (20.7%). Another 121 (15.7%) death records, however, had leukemia without mention of MDS; the majority were coded to AML and most of the others as unspecified type of acute leukemia. If these 121 deaths are added to the 359 with mention of MDS, the total of MDS-related deaths would be 480 (or 62.1% of all 773 deaths). A total of 178 deaths (23.0% of all 773) were coded to leukemia as the UC, and would be included with leukemia (not MDS) in routine cancer mortality statistics. Leukemia diagnosed since 2010 in MDS patients is reportable to registries as a new primary cancer. This new rule will help central cancer registries to confirm leukemia diagnoses coded on death records, as part of the process of improving surveillance of cancer mortality rates in the population.

  8. Long-term survival, prevalence, and cure of cancer: a population-based estimation for 818 902 Italian patients and 26 cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Dal Maso, L.; Guzzinati, S.; Buzzoni, C.; Capocaccia, R.; Serraino, D.; Caldarella, A.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Falcini, F.; Autelitano, M.; Masanotti, G.; Ferretti, S.; Tisano, F.; Tirelli, U.; Crocetti, E.; De Angelis, R.; Virdone, S.; Zucchetto, A.; Gigli, A.; Francisci, S.; Baili, P.; Gatta, G.; Castaing, M.; Zanetti, R.; Contiero, P.; Bidoli, E.; Vercelli, M.; Michiara, M.; Federico, M.; Senatore, G.; Pannozzo, F.; Vicentini, M.; Bulatko, A.; Pirino, D. R.; Gentilini, M.; Fusco, M.; Giacomin, A.; Fanetti, A. C.; Cusimano, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Persons living after a cancer diagnosis represent 4% of the whole population in high-income countries. The aim of the study was to provide estimates of indicators of long-term survival and cure for 26 cancer types, presently lacking. Patients and methods Data on 818 902 Italian cancer patients diagnosed at age 15–74 years in 1985–2005 were included. Proportions of patients with the same death rates of the general population (cure fractions) and those of prevalent patients who were not at risk of dying as a result of cancer (cure prevalence) were calculated, using validated mixture cure models, by cancer type, sex, and age group. We also estimated complete prevalence, conditional relative survival (CRS), time to reach 5- and 10-year CRS >95%, and proportion of patients living longer than those thresholds. Results The cure fractions ranged from >90% for patients aged <45 years with thyroid and testis cancers to <10% for liver and pancreatic cancers of all ages. Five- or 10-year CRS >95% were both reached in <10 years by patients with cancers of the stomach, colon–rectum, pancreas, corpus and cervix uteri, brain, and Hodgkin lymphoma. For breast cancer patients, 5- and 10-year CRSs reached >95% after 19 and 25 years, respectively, and in 15 and 18 years for prostate cancer patients. Five-year CRS remained <95% for >25 years after cancer diagnosis in patients with liver and larynx cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukaemia. Overall, the cure prevalence was 67% for men and 77% for women. Therefore, 21% of male and 31% of female patients had already reached 5-year CRS >95%, whereas 18% and 25% had reached 10-year CRS >95%. Conclusions A quarter of Italian cancer patients can be considered cured. This observation has a high potential impact on health planning, clinical practice, and patients' perspective. PMID:25149707

  9. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  10. Estimating and modeling the cure fraction in population-based cancer survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Paul C; Thompson, John R; Weston, Claire L; Dickman, Paul W

    2007-07-01

    In population-based cancer studies, cure is said to occur when the mortality (hazard) rate in the diseased group of individuals returns to the same level as that expected in the general population. The cure fraction (the proportion of patients cured of disease) is of interest to patients and is a useful measure to monitor trends in survival of curable disease. There are 2 main types of cure fraction model, the mixture cure fraction model and the non-mixture cure fraction model, with most previous work concentrating on the mixture cure fraction model. In this paper, we extend the parametric non-mixture cure fraction model to incorporate background mortality, thus providing estimates of the cure fraction in population-based cancer studies. We compare the estimates of relative survival and the cure fraction between the 2 types of model and also investigate the importance of modeling the ancillary parameters in the selected parametric distribution for both types of model.

  11. Might gluten traces in wheat substitutes pose a risk in patients with celiac disease? A population-based probabilistic approach to risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Anna; Kruizinga, Astrid G; Neuhold, Susanna; Houben, Geert F; Canela, Miguel A; Fasano, Alessio; Catassi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    In patients with treated celiac disease (CD), the ingestion of gluten traces contained in gluten-free (GF) wheat substitutes (eg, GF bread, flour, and pasta) could cause persisting intestinal mucosal damage. The objective was to evaluate the proportion of CD patients at risk of mucosal damage due to the consumption of GF products in 4 European countries (Italy, Spain, Germany, and Norway). A probabilistic modeling approach was used to assess the risk of gluten intake at the population level. The input variables were 1) consumption of GF products, 2) concentration of gluten traces in GF products determined by the sandwich R5 ELISA method, and 3) the gluten threshold for mucosal damage of 10 to 50 mg/d. Different population and product availability scenarios were examined for risk assessment. The gluten content of 205 commercially available GF products ranged between <5 and 27.8 mg/kg. Overall, 99.5% of the analyzed samples had a gluten concentration <20 mg/kg. Most (94%) had a gluten concentration below the limit of quantification (5 mg/kg). The mean percentage of the CD European population at risk of mucosal damage resulting from consumption of GF products ranged between 0.01 (Germany) and 0.15 (Italy) and remained very low, even in the worst-case scenario (<1%). The adoption of a single gluten threshold (20 mg/kg) for gluten contamination is suggested. GF products in Europe constitute a very safe option for patients with CD. The dietary follow-up of CD patients should focus on other potential sources of gluten contamination.

  12. Stratification of ALS patients' survival: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Couratier, Philippe; Arcuti, Simona; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Nicol, Marie; Raymondeau, Marie; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Preux, Pierre Marie

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and patient risk stratification are areas of considerable research interest. We aimed (1) to describe the survival of a representative cohort of French ALS patients, and (2) to identify covariates associated with various patterns of survival using a risk classification analysis. ALS patients recruited in the FRALim register (2000-2013) were included. Time-to-death analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox model. A recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RECPAM) algorithm analysis identified subgroups of patients with different patterns of survival. Among 322 patients, median survival times were 26.2 and 15.6 months from time of onset and of diagnosis, respectively. Four groups of patients were identified, depending on their baseline characteristics and survival (1) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (median survival time (MST) 10.6 months); (2) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 18.1 months); (3) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (MST: 22.5 months), and (4) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 37.6 months). Median survival time is among the shortest ever reported by a worldwide population-based study. This is probably related to the age structure of the patients (the oldest identified to date), driven by the underlying population (30 % of subjects older than 60 years). Further research in the field of risk stratification could help physicians better anticipate prognosis of ALS patients, and help improve the design of randomized controlled trials.

  13. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  14. Probabilistic estimation of residential air exchange rates for population-based human exposure modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are a key determinant in the infiltration of ambient air pollution indoors. Population-based human exposure models using probabilistic approaches to estimate personal exposure to air pollutants have relied on input distributions from AER meas...

  15. Conditional survival estimates for childhood cancer in Australia, 2002-2011: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Hallahan, Andrew R; Valery, Patricia C; Green, Adèle C; Aitken, Joanne F

    2015-06-01

    Conditional survival estimates take into account the time that a patient has remained alive following diagnosis to provide a realistic perspective on the probability of longer term survival. Such estimates are scarce for childhood cancer, particularly by age at diagnosis or stage of cancer. De-identified population-based data were obtained from the Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry for children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with cancer between 1983 and 2010. Mortality status was followed up to the end of 2011. The hybrid period method was used to calculate relative survival estimates for those who were at risk during the period 2002-2011. Conditional survival stratified by diagnostic group or subgroup, age and stage at diagnosis was then obtained from the ratio of the relative survival estimates at different time points. A total of 13,537 children were eligible for inclusion. Five-year survival for all childhood cancers combined improved from 82% at diagnosis (95% confidence interval=81-83%) to 89% (88-90%) conditional on surviving one year, and 97% (97-98%) conditional on surviving five years after diagnosis. Conditional survival reached 95% within five years of diagnosis for nearly all types of cancer, regardless of a child's age or stage at diagnosis. Most children diagnosed with cancer who are alive five years after diagnosis can anticipate similar survival to children in the general population. This information may help alleviate some of the distress associated with childhood cancer, particularly for those with an initially poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On estimation of time-dependent attributable fraction from population-based case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Ying Qing; Hsu, Li

    2017-01-18

    Population attributable fraction (PAF) is widely used to quantify the disease burden associated with a modifiable exposure in a population. It has been extended to a time-varying measure that provides additional information on when and how the exposure's impact varies over time for cohort studies. However, there is no estimation procedure for PAF using data that are collected from population-based case-control studies, which, because of time and cost efficiency, are commonly used for studying genetic and environmental risk factors of disease incidences. In this article, we show that time-varying PAF is identifiable from a case-control study and develop a novel estimator of PAF. Our estimator combines odds ratio estimates from logistic regression models and density estimates of the risk factor distribution conditional on failure times in cases from a kernel smoother. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal with asymptotic variance that can be estimated empirically from the data. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed estimator performs well in finite sample sizes. Finally, the method is illustrated by a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer.

  17. On the Estimation of Heritability with Family-Based and Population-Based Samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngdoe; Lee, Young; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jeongmin; Kim, Young Jin; Oh, Ji Hee; Min, Haesook; Lee, Meehee; Seo, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, So-Hyun; Sung, Joohon; Cho, Nam H; Kim, Bong-Jo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Elston, Robert C; Won, Sungho; Lee, Juyoung

    2015-01-01

    For a family-based sample, the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix can be parameterized to include the variance of a polygenic effect that has then been estimated using a variance component analysis. However, with the advent of large-scale genomic data, the genetic relationship matrix (GRM) can be estimated and can be utilized to parameterize the variance of a polygenic effect for population-based samples. Therefore narrow sense heritability, which is both population and trait specific, can be estimated with both population- and family-based samples. In this study we estimate heritability from both family-based and population-based samples, collected in Korea, and the heritability estimates from the pooled samples were, for height, 0.60; body mass index (BMI), 0.32; log-transformed triglycerides (log TG), 0.24; total cholesterol (TCHL), 0.30; high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 0.38; low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 0.29; systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.23; and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.24. Furthermore, we found differences in how heritability is estimated--in particular the amount of variance attributable to common environment in twins can be substantial--which indicates heritability estimates should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Burden of diabetes mellitus estimated with a longitudinal population-based study using administrative databases.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Luciana; Cesana, Giancarlo; Furneri, Gianluca; Ciampichini, Roberta; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Chiodini, Virginio; Mangioni, Silvia; Orsi, Emanuela; Fornari, Carla; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) from a longitudinal population-based study. Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI), which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX) within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits) from the National Health Service's perspective. We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male) had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12) years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001) higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost). Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro-/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10) and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01) drugs. Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of diseases such as diabetes mellitus.

  19. Burden of Diabetes Mellitus Estimated with a Longitudinal Population-Based Study Using Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Scalone, Luciana; Cesana, Giancarlo; Furneri, Gianluca; Ciampichini, Roberta; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Chiodini, Virginio; Mangioni, Silvia; Orsi, Emanuela; Fornari, Carla; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) from a longitudinal population-based study. Research Design and Methods Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI), which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX) within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits) from the National Health Service’s perspective. Results We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male) had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12) years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001) higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost). Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro−/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10) and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01) drugs. Conclusions Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of diseases such as

  20. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients: a nationwide Danish population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. Data were obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and personality disorders since 1969. The prevalence of SUDs was examined for the following psychoactive substances: alcohol, opioids, cannabis, sedatives, cocaine, psycho-stimulants and hallucinogens. A total of 463,003 patients were included in the analysis. The prevalence of any lifetime SUD was: 37 % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients). Patients with SUDs were more often men, had fewer years of formal education, more often received disability pension and died due to unnatural causes. The study was the most comprehensive of its kind so far to estimate the prevalence of SUDs in an unselected population-based cohort, and it revealed remarkably high prevalence among the psychiatric patients. The results should encourage continuous focus on possible comorbidity of psychiatric patients, as well as specialised and integrated treatment along with increased support of patients with comorbid disorders.

  1. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  2. Multiple myeloma and infections: a population-based study on 9253 multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Blimark, Cecilie; Holmberg, Erik; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Björkholm, Magnus; Hultcrantz, Malin; Kjellander, Christian; Turesson, Ingemar; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y

    2015-01-01

    Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with multiple myeloma. To estimate the risk of bacterial and viral infections in multiple myeloma patients, we used population-based data from Sweden to identify all multiple myeloma patients (n=9253) diagnosed from 1988 to 2004 with follow up to 2007 and 34,931 matched controls. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of infections. Overall, multiple myeloma patients had a 7-fold (hazard ratio =7.1; 95% confidence interval = 6.8-7.4) risk of developing any infection compared to matched controls. The increased risk of developing a bacterial infection was 7-fold (7.1; 6.8-7.4), and for viral infections 10-fold (10.0; 8.9-11.4). Multiple myeloma patients diagnosed in the more recent calendar periods had significantly higher risk of infections compared to controls (P<0.001). At one year of follow up, infection was the underlying cause in 22% of deaths in multiple myeloma patients. Mortality due to infections remained constant during the study period. Our findings confirm that infections represent a major threat to multiple myeloma patients. The effect on infectious complications due to novel drugs introduced in the treatment of multiple myeloma needs to be established and trials on prophylactic measures are needed.

  3. Stigmatisation in onychomycosis patients: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam

    2009-07-01

    Patients with onychomycosis may experience significant psychosocial problems, similarly to other skin diseases. The objectives of this study were to analyse the level of stigmatisation among subjects with onychomycosis and the effect of anti-mycotic therapy on this feeling. This prospective study was carried out among 1684 patients (1050 women and 634 men, mean age 52.2 ± 15.5 years) with onychomycosis. All subjects were asked to fulfil the stigmatisation questionnaire at the baseline visit and after the completion of the anti-mycotic therapy. Stigmatisation level was assessed with reference to gender, age, education, type and duration of onychomycosis and the number of involved nails. Patients with onychomycosis reported markedly increased feeling of stigmatisation. Fingernail involvement was the major variable negatively influencing the stigmatisation level. Female patients and younger ones appeared to be more stigmatised. No significant relationships were found between stigmatisation level and education, number of involved fingernails or toenails, as well as the duration of onychomycosis. The anti-mycotic therapy resulted in significant reduction of all analysed aspects of stigmatisation to about 40% of the baseline level. Onychomycosis should be considered as an important problem for patients, significantly reducing their physical, mental and social well-being, also leading to marked stigmatisation of patients. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Cost of care for cancer patients in England: evidence from population-based patient-level data

    PubMed Central

    Laudicella, Mauro; Walsh, Brendan; Burns, Elaine; Smith, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health systems are facing the challenge of providing care to an increasing population of patients with cancer. However, evidence on costs is limited due to the lack of large longitudinal databases. Methods: We matched cost of care data to population-based, patient-level data on cancer patients in England. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients age 18 and over with a diagnosis of colorectal (275 985 patients), breast (359 771), prostate (286 426) and lung cancer (283 940) in England between 2001 and 2010. Incidence costs, prevalence costs, and phase of care costs were estimated separately for patients age 18–64 and ⩾65. Costs of care were compared by patients staging, before and after diagnosis, and with a comparison population without cancer. Results: Incidence costs in the first year of diagnosis are noticeably higher in patients age 18–64 than age ⩾65 across all examined cancers. A lower stage diagnosis is associated with larger cost savings for colorectal and breast cancer in both age groups. The additional costs of care because of the main four cancers amounts to £1.5 billion in 2010, namely 3.0% of the total cost of hospital care. Conclusions: Population-based, patient-level data can be used to provide new evidence on the cost of cancer in England. Early diagnosis and cancer prevention have scope for achieving large cost savings for the health system. PMID:27070711

  5. Calibrating a population-based job-exposure matrix using inspection measurements to estimate historical occupational exposure to lead for a population-based cohort in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Bhatti, Parveen; Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Locke, Sarah J.; Portengen, Lutzen; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for the carcinogenicity of lead is inconsistent and requires improved exposure assessment to estimate risk. We evaluated historical occupational lead exposure for a population-based cohort of women (n=74,942) by calibrating a job-exposure matrix (JEM) with lead fume (n=20,084) and lead dust (n=5,383) measurements collected over four decades in Shanghai, China. Using mixed-effect models, we calibrated intensity JEM ratings to the measurements using fixed-effects terms for year and JEM rating. We developed job/industry-specific estimates from the random-effects terms for job and industry. The model estimates were applied to subjects’ jobs when the JEM probability rating was high for either job or industry; remaining jobs were considered unexposed. The models predicted that exposure increased monotonically with JEM intensity rating and decreased 20–50-fold over time. The cumulative calibrated JEM estimates and job/industry-specific estimates were highly correlated (Pearson correlation=0.79–0.84). Overall, 5% of the person-years and 8% of the women were exposed to lead fume; 2% of the person-years and 4% of the women were exposed to lead dust. The most common lead-exposed jobs were manufacturing electronic equipment. These historical lead estimates should enhance our ability to detect associations between lead exposure and cancer risk in future epidemiologic analyses. PMID:22910004

  6. Calibrating a population-based job-exposure matrix using inspection measurements to estimate historical occupational exposure to lead for a population-based cohort in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Bhatti, Parveen; Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ji, Bu-Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Locke, Sarah J; Portengen, Lutzen; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for the carcinogenicity of lead is inconsistent and requires improved exposure assessment to estimate risk. We evaluated historical occupational lead exposure for a population-based cohort of women (n=74,942) by calibrating a job-exposure matrix (JEM) with lead fume (n=20,084) and lead dust (n=5383) measurements collected over four decades in Shanghai, China. Using mixed-effect models, we calibrated intensity JEM ratings to the measurements using fixed-effects terms for year and JEM rating. We developed job/industry-specific estimates from the random-effects terms for job and industry. The model estimates were applied to subjects' jobs when the JEM probability rating was high for either job or industry; remaining jobs were considered unexposed. The models predicted that exposure increased monotonically with JEM intensity rating and decreased 20-50-fold over time. The cumulative calibrated JEM estimates and job/industry-specific estimates were highly correlated (Pearson correlation=0.79-0.84). Overall, 5% of the person-years and 8% of the women were exposed to lead fume; 2% of the person-years and 4% of the women were exposed to lead dust. The most common lead-exposed jobs were manufacturing electronic equipment. These historical lead estimates should enhance our ability to detect associations between lead exposure and cancer risk in the future epidemiologic analyses.

  7. Population-Based Estimates of Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis. United States 2008 – 2011

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Irene Hall, H.; Hu, Xiaohong; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Using National HIV surveillance system data we estimated life expectancy and average years of life lost among person diagnosed with HIV infection during 2008–2011. Methods Population-based surveillance data, restricted to persons with diagnosed HIV infection age 13 years or older, from all 50 states and D.C. were used to estimate life expectancy after HIV diagnosis using the life table method. Generated estimates were compared with life expectancy in the general population in the same calendar year to calculate average years of life lost (AYLL). Life expectancy and average years of life lost were also estimated for subgroups by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The overall life expectancy after HIV diagnosis in the United States, increased 3.43 years from 25.43 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 25.37–25.49) in 2008, to 28.86 (95% CI 28.80–28.92) in 2011. Improvements were observed irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity, transmission category and stage of disease at diagnosis, though the extent of improvement varied by different characteristics. Based on the life expectancy in the general population, in 2010 the AYLL, were 12.8 years for males and 16.5 years for females. By race/ethnicity, on average blacks (13.3 years) and whites (13.4 years) had fewer AYLL than Hispanic/Latinos (14.7). Conclusions Despite improvements in life expectancy among people diagnosed with an HIV infection during 2008–2011, disparities by sex and by race/ethnicity persist. Targeted efforts should continue to further reduce disparities and improve life expectancy after HIV diagnosis. PMID:26890283

  8. Estimating and modelling cure in population-based cancer studies within the framework of flexible parametric survival models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When the mortality among a cancer patient group returns to the same level as in the general population, that is, the patients no longer experience excess mortality, the patients still alive are considered "statistically cured". Cure models can be used to estimate the cure proportion as well as the survival function of the "uncured". One limitation of parametric cure models is that the functional form of the survival of the "uncured" has to be specified. It can sometimes be hard to find a survival function flexible enough to fit the observed data, for example, when there is high excess hazard within a few months from diagnosis, which is common among older age groups. This has led to the exclusion of older age groups in population-based cancer studies using cure models. Methods Here we have extended the flexible parametric survival model to incorporate cure as a special case to estimate the cure proportion and the survival of the "uncured". Flexible parametric survival models use splines to model the underlying hazard function, and therefore no parametric distribution has to be specified. Results We have compared the fit from standard cure models to our flexible cure model, using data on colon cancer patients in Finland. This new method gives similar results to a standard cure model, when it is reliable, and better fit when the standard cure model gives biased estimates. Conclusions Cure models within the framework of flexible parametric models enables cure modelling when standard models give biased estimates. These flexible cure models enable inclusion of older age groups and can give stage-specific estimates, which is not always possible from parametric cure models. PMID:21696598

  9. Risk of fragility fracture among patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based study 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Crowson, C S; Matteson, E L

    2017-02-16

    Incidence of fragility fracture of a population-based cohort of 345 patients with sarcoidosis was compared with age and sex-matched comparators. The incidence of fragility fracture was higher among patients with sarcoidosis with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.18.

  10. Estimating the burden of shigellosis in Thailand: 36-month population-based surveillance study.

    PubMed Central

    Chompook, Pornthip; Samosornsuk, Seksun; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Jitsanguansuk, Supot; Sirima, Nunta; Sudjai, Sanit; Mangjit, Prasitchai; Kim, Deok Ryun; Wheeler, Jeremy G.; Todd, Jim; Lee, Hyejon; Ali, Mohammad; Clemens, John; Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate incidence of shigellosis in the Kaengkhoi district, Saraburi Province, Thailand. METHODS: Population-based surveillance of shigellosis based in treatment centres. The detected rates of treated shigellosis were corrected for the number of cases missed due to the low sensitivity of microbiological culture methods and participants' use of health-care providers not participating in the study. FINDINGS: The overall uncorrected incidence of shigellosis was 0.6/1000 population per year (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5-0.8). The unadjusted incidence of treated shigellosis was highest among children less than 5 years old (4/1000 children per year; 95% CI = 3-6) and significantly lower among people aged > 5 years (0.3/1000 population per year; 95% CI = 0.2-0.5; P < 0.001). Adjusting for cases likely to be missed as a result of culture and surveillance methods increased estimates approximately five times. The majority of Shigella isolates (122/146; 84%) were S. sonnei; the rest were S. flexneri. Of the 22 S. flexneri isolates, the three most frequently encountered serotypes were 2a (36%), 1b (23%) and 3b (28%). A total of 90-95% of S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates were resistant to tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. In contrast to S. sonnei isolates, more than 90% of the S. flexneri isolates were also resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Estimates of incidence of Shigella infection in the community are 10-fold to 100-fold greater than those found from routine government surveillance. The high prevalence of Shigella strains resistant to multiple antibiotics adds urgency to the development of a vaccine to protect against shigellosis in this region of Thailand. PMID:16283050

  11. Pregnancy outcomes in liver transplant patients, a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Sarah; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Mishkin, Daniel S; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2017-02-01

    To determine the incidence of pregnancy in liver transplant (LT) patients in a large population-based cohort and to determine the maternal and fetal risks associated with these pregnancies. We conducted an age-matched cohort study using the US Healthcare and Utilization project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003-2011. We used unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for baseline characteristics, to estimate the likelihood of common obstetric complications in the LT group compared with age-matched nontransplant patients. There were 7 288 712 deliveries and an estimated incidence of 2.1 LTs/100 000 deliveries over the nine-year study period. LT patients had higher rates of maternal complications including hypertensive disorders (OR 6.5, 95% CI: 4.4-9.5), gestational diabetes (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5), anemia (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.9), thrombocytopenia (OR 27.5, 95% CI: 12.7-59.8) and genitourinary tract infections (OR 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.8). Deliveries among women with LT had higher risks of cesarean section (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 2.0-4.1), postpartum hemorrhage (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.7-6.2) and blood transfusion (OR 18.7, 95% CI: 8.5-41.0). Fetal complications in LT patients included preterm delivery (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 3.2-7.0), intrauterine growth restriction (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 2.1-7.7) and congenital anomalies (OR 6.0, 95% CI: 1.1-32.0). Although pregnancies in LT recipients are feasible, they are associated with a high rate of maternal and fetal morbidities. Close antenatal surveillance is recommended.

  12. Estimated verbal IQ and the odds of problem gambling: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rai, D; Hall, W; Bebbington, P; Skapinakis, P; Hassiotis, A; Weich, S; Meltzer, H; Moran, P; Brugha, T; Strydom, A; Farrell, M

    2014-06-01

    The neurocognitive deficits and other correlates of problem gambling are also observable in individuals with lower cognitive abilities, suggesting that a low IQ may be a determinant of problem gambling. There has been very little research into this possibility. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics associated with problem gambling in a large population-based study in England, with a particular focus on IQ. The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 comprised detailed interviews with 7403 individuals living in private households in England. Problem gambling was ascertained using a questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria. Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART). Confounders included socio-economic and demographic factors, common mental disorders, impulsivity, smoking, and hazardous drug and alcohol use. More than two-thirds of the population reported engaging in some form of gambling in the previous year, but problem gambling was rare [prevalence 0.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.0]. The odds of problem gambling doubled with each standard deviation drop in estimated verbal IQ [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4, p = 0.003], after adjusting for other characteristics associated with problem gambling including age, sex, socio-economic factors, drug and alcohol dependence, smoking, impulsivity and common mental disorders. There was no strong relationship observed between IQ and non-problem gambling. People with lower IQs may be at a higher risk of problem gambling. Further work is required to replicate and study the mechanisms behind these findings, and may aid the understanding of problem gambling and inform preventative measures and interventions.

  13. Population based estimates of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatal injuries are at the top of the injury pyramid; however, non-fatal injuries are quite common and impose huge medical expenses on the population. Relying on hospital data will underestimate the incidence of non-fatal injuries. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and out of pocket medical expenses of all injuries in urban population of Tehran (the capital city of Iran). Methods Using the cluster random sampling approach, a household survey of residents of greater Tehran was performed on April 2008. At randomly selected residential locations, interviewers asked one adult person to report all injuries which have occurred during the past year for all household members, as well as the type of injury, place of occurrence, the activity, cause of accidents resulting in injuries, the amount of out of pocket medical expenses for injury, and whether they referred to hospital. Results This study included 2,450 households residing in Tehran during 2007-8. The annual incidence of all injuries was 188.7 (180.7-196.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 68.8 (63.7-74.2), fractures was 19.3 (16.6 - 22.4), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 16.7 (14.2 - 19.6) per 1000 population. The annual incidence of fatal injuries was 33 (7-96) per 100,000 Population. In children aged 15 or less, the annual incidence of all injuries was 137.2 (120.0 - 155.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 64.2 (52.2 - 78.0), fractures was 21.8 (15.0 - 30.7), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 6.8 (3.3 - 12.5) per 1000 population. The mean out of pocket medical expense for injuries was 19.9 USD. Conclusion This population based study showed that the real incidence of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran is more than the formal hospital-based estimates. These injuries impose non trivial medical and indirect cost on the community. The out of pocket medical expense of non-fatal injuries to Tehran population is estimated

  14. Methods of Suicide among Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year nationwide population-based data set was used to explore methods of suicide (violent vs. nonviolent) and possible contributing factors among cancer patients in Taiwan. A total of 1,065 cancer inpatients who committed suicide were included as our study sample. The regression shows that those who had genitourinary cancer were 0.55 times (p…

  15. Outcomes in stage I testicular seminoma: a population-based study of 9193 patients.

    PubMed

    Beard, Clair J; Travis, Lois B; Chen, Ming-Hui; Arvold, Nils D; Nguyen, Paul L; Martin, Neil E; Kuban, Deborah A; Ng, Andrea K; Hoffman, Karen E

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have quantified temporal patterns of cause-specific mortality in contemporary cohorts of men with early-stage seminoma. Given that several management strategies can be applied in these patients, each resulting in excellent long-term survival, it is important to evaluate associated long-term sequelae. In particular, data describing long-term risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are conflicting. We identified 9193 men diagnosed with stage I seminoma (ages 15-70 years) in the population-based SEER registries (1973-2001). We calculated survival estimates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and adjusted hazard rates (AHRs). During 121,037 person-years of follow-up (median, 12.3 years), 915 deaths (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.32) were reported, with significant excesses for suicide (n = 39; SMR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06-1.98), infection (n = 58; SMR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.80-3.00), and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs; n = 291; SMR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61-2.03), but not CVD (n = 201; SMR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.05). After radiotherapy (78% patients), CVD deaths were not increased (n = 158; SMR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76-1.04), in contrast to SMN deaths (n = 246; SMR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.67-2.14). SMN mortality was higher among patients administered radiotherapy than among those not given radiotherapy (AHR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.99-1.88; P = .059), with a cumulative 15-year risk of 2.64% (95% CI, 2.19-3.16). Suicide, although rare, accounted for 1 in 230 deaths. Modern radiotherapy as applied in this large population-based study is not associated with excess CVD mortality. Although increased all-cause mortality exists, cumulative SMN risk is considerably smaller than reported in historical series, but additional follow-up will be required to characterize long-term trends. The increased risk of suicide, previously unreported in men with stage I seminoma, requires confirmation. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  16. Outcomes in Stage I Testicular Seminoma: A Population-Based Study of 9193 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair J.; Travis, Lois B.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Arvold, Nils D.; Nguyen, Paul L.; Martin, Neil E.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Ng, Andrea K.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few studies have quantified temporal patterns of cause-specific mortality in contemporary cohorts of men with early-stage seminoma. Given that several management strategies can be applied in these patients, each resulting in excellent long-term survival, it is important to evaluate associated long-term sequelae. In particular, data describing long-term risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are conflicting. METHODS We identified 9193 men diagnosed with stage I seminoma (ages 15–70 years) in the population-based SEER registries (1973–2001). We calculated survival estimates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and adjusted hazard rates (AHRs). RESULTS During 121,037 person-years of follow-up (median, 12.3 years), 915 deaths (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16–1.32) were reported, with significant excesses for suicide (n =39; SMR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.06–1.98), infection (n =58; SMR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.80–3.00), and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs; n =291; SMR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.61–2.03), but not CVD (n =201; SMR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80–1.05). After radiotherapy (78% patients), CVD deaths were not increased (n =158; SMR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76–1.04), in contrast to SMN deaths (n =246; SMR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.67–2.14). SMN mortality was higher among patients administered radiotherapy than among those not given radiotherapy (AHR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.99–1.88; P =.059), with a cumulative 15-year risk of 2.64% (95% CI, 2.19–3.16). Suicide, although rare, accounted for 1 in 230 deaths. CONCLUSIONS Modern radiotherapy as applied in this large population-based study is not associated with excess CVD mortality. Although increased all-cause mortality exists, cumulative SMN risk is considerably smaller than reported in historical series, but additional follow-up will be required to characterize long-term trends. The increased risk of suicide, previously unreported in men with stage I seminoma, requires confirmation. PMID:23633409

  17. Antidepressants and risk of dementia in migraine patients: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cynthia Wei-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Pan-Yen; Thielke, Stephen; Su, Kuan-Pin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-04-07

    To ascertain the relationship between receipt of antidepressant agents and the risk of subsequent dementia in migraine patients. A population-based case-control analysis, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 1774 patients with dementia and 1774 matched nondementia controls from migraine patients enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance program between 2005 and 2011. The proportional distributions of exposure to three classes of antidepressant were compared between dementia and nondementia groups. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of dementia based on antidepressant exposure. The proportions of subjects taking tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and new-generation antidepressants (NGAs) in dementia versus nondementia groups are 52.3 vs 51.2%, 25.5 vs 30.7%, and 18.8 vs 6.26%, respectively. The adjusted ORs of dementia were 1.02 (95% CI=0.89, 1.17; P=0.56) for TCAs, 0.58 (95% CI=0.50, 0.69; P<0.001) for SSRIs, and 4.23 (95% CI=3.34, 5.37; P<0.001) for NGAs. Treatment with SSRIs was associated with a decreased risk of dementia in migraine patients. TCAs showed no association with dementia risk, and NGAs showed increased risk. Given the possibility of confounding by indication, additional prospective trials and basic research are needed before drawing conclusions about the population-level risks for dementia onset conferred by antidepressant medications.

  18. Survival of solid cancer patients in France, 1989-2013: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cowppli-Bony, Anne; Uhry, Zoé; Remontet, Laurent; Voirin, Nicolas; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Colonna, Marc; Bossard, Nadine; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2017-11-01

    This study provides updates of net survival (NS) estimates at 5, 10, and 15 years as well as survival trends for 35 solid cancers in France using data from 19 population-based cancer registries. The study considered all cases of solid cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2010 in patients older than 15 years of age who were actively followed up until 30 June 2013. NS was estimated using the Pohar-Perme method. The age-standardized NS used the international cancer survival standard weights. The 5-year age-standardized NSs ranged from 4% (pleural mesothelioma) to 93% (prostate) in men and from 10% (pancreas) to 97% (thyroid) in women. The 10-year age-standardized NSs ranged from 2% (pleural mesothelioma) in both sexes to 95% (testis) in men and 91% (thyroid) in women. The most frequent cancers (namely, breast and prostate cancers) had the highest NSs: 87 and 93% at 5 years and 78 and 84% at 10 years, respectively. Several cancers (especially lung, pancreas, and liver cancer) had very poor prognoses (5-year NSs under 20%). Fifteen-year NSs remained high for testis cancer. In most cancers, 5- and 10-year age-standardized NSs increased between 1989 and 2010. Advanced age was associated with a poor prognosis and little improvement in survival. The increases in cancer survival are probably related to earlier diagnosis and therapeutic advances over the last decade. However, poor prognoses are still found in some alcohol-related and tobacco-related cancers and in elderly patients, highlighting the need for more prevention, diagnosis, and treatment efforts.

  19. Implications of incomplete registration of deaths on long-term survival estimates from population-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Hakulinen, Timo

    2009-07-15

    International comparison of population-based cancer survival is a key component of monitoring progress against cancer. Its validity depends to an unknown degree on completeness of ascertainment of deaths in the cancer registries involved which may vary according to legal and administrative circumstances. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of incomplete registration of deaths through various mechanisms on the validity of long-term absolute and relative survival estimates. For that purpose, we simulated underascertainment of deaths through linkage failure of registry data with death certificates with probabilities between 0.1 and 5%, and underascertainment of deaths by unregistered annual emigration with probabilities between 0.05 and 2%, using data from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The expected impact on estimates of 5-, 10- and 15-year absolute and relative survival was assessed. We demonstrate that even modest levels of under-registration of deaths may lead to severe overestimation of long-term survival estimates, ranging from 0 to 31 percent units in the scenarios assessed. In general, relative survival is much more affected than absolute survival, and potential problems are much larger for relative survival estimates in older compared with younger patients. Potential overestimation strongly increases with length of follow-up, and this increase is particularly pronounced for under-registration of deaths because of unrecorded emigration. Every effort should be made in cancer registry based survival analyses to ascertain deaths with close to 100% completeness. When such completeness cannot be achieved, long-term relative survival estimates and their comparison across populations must be interpreted with much caution.

  20. Improved Estimates of Cancer-Specific Survival Rates From Population-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Lynn A. G.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Reichman, Marsha E.; Ruhl, Jennifer; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate estimates of cancer survival are important for assessing optimal patient care and prognosis. Evaluation of these estimates via relative survival (a ratio of observed and expected survival rates) requires a population life table that is matched to the cancer population by age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ideally risk factors for the cancer under examination. Because life tables for all subgroups in a study may be unavailable, we investigated whether cause-specific survival could be used as an alternative for relative survival. Methods We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 2 330 905 cancer patients from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2004. We defined cancer-specific deaths according to the following variables: cause of death, only one tumor or the first of multiple tumors, site of the original cancer diagnosis, and comorbidities. Estimates of relative survival and cause-specific survival that were derived by use of an actuarial method were compared. Results Among breast cancer patients who were white, black, or of Asian or Pacific Islander descent and who were older than 65 years, estimates of 5-year relative survival (107.5%, 106.6%, and 103.0%, respectively) were higher than estimates of 5-year cause-specific survival (98.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 98.4% to 98.8%; 97.4%, 95% CI = 96.2% to 98.2%; and 99.2%, 95% CI = 98.4%, 99.6%, respectively). Relative survival methods likely underestimated rates for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (eg, for white cancer patients aged ≥65 years, relative survival = 54.2%, 95% CI = 53.1% to 55.3%, and cause-specific survival = 60.1%, 95% CI = 59.1% to 60.9%) and the lung and bronchus (eg, for black cancer patients aged ≥65 years, relative survival = 10.5%, 95% CI = 9.9% to 11.2%, and cause-specific survival = 11.9%, 95% CI = 11.2 % to 12.6%), largely because of mismatches between the population with these diseases and

  1. Temporal trends in stroke incidence in South Asian, Chinese and white patients: A population based analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia A; McAlister, Finlay A; Pilote, Louise; Palepu, Anita; Quan, Hude; Hill, Michael D; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about potential ethnic differences in stroke incidence. We compared incidence and time trends of ischemic stroke and primary intracerebral hemorrhage in South Asian, Chinese and white persons in a population-based study. Population based census and administrative data analysis in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia, Canada using validated ICD 9/ICD 10 coding for acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (1997-2010). There were 3290 South Asians, 4444 Chinese and 160944 white patients with acute ischemic stroke and 535 South Asian, 1376 Chinese and 21842 white patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. South Asians were younger than whites at onset of stroke (70 vs. 74 years for ischemic and 67 vs. 71 years for hemorrhagic stroke). Age and sex adjusted ischemic stroke incidence in 2010 was 43% lower in Chinese and 63% lower in South Asian than in White patients. Age and sex adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage incidence was 18% higher in Chinese patients, and 66% lower in South Asian relative to white patients. Stroke incidence declined in all ethnic groups (relative reduction 69% in South Asians, 25% in Chinese, and 34% in white patients for ischemic stroke and for intracerebral hemorrhage, 79% for South Asians, 51% for Chinese and 30% in white patients). Although stroke rates declined across all ethnic groups, these rates differed significantly by ethnicity. Further study is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the higher ischemic stroke incidence in white patients and intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese patients.

  2. Risk of obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Huang, Chien-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep disorders are prevalent medical disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether patients with RA are at an increased risk of developing obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is unclear. Design Using population-based retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of OSA in patients with RA. Setting We used claims data of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Participants We identified a RA cohort with 33 418 patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2010 and a randomly selected non-RA comparison cohort with 33 418 individuals frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year. Primary and secondary outcome measures Incident OSA was estimated by the end of 2011. The HRs of OSA were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results The overall incidence rate of OSA was 75% greater in the RA cohort than in the non-RA cohort (3.04 vs 1.73/10 000 person-years, p<0.001), with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 2.60). Stratified analyses by sex, age group and comorbidity revealed that the incidence rates of OSA associated with RA were higher in all subgroups. Conclusions This population-based retrospective cohort study suggested that patients with RA should be monitored for the risk of developing OSA. PMID:27895064

  3. Cancer survival in adult patients in Spain. Results from nine population-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Chirlaque, M D; Salmerón, D; Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Mateos, A; Torrella, A; Jiménez, R; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Ardanaz, E; Sant, M; Minicozzi, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J

    2017-07-17

    With the aim of providing cancer control indicators, this work presents cancer survival in adult (≥15 years) patients in Spain diagnosed during the period 2000-2007 from Spanish cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE project. Cancer cases from nine Spanish population-based cancer registries were included and analysed as a whole. All primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed in adult patients were eligible for the analysis. Cancer patients were followed until 31 December 2008. For each type of cancer, 1-, 3- and 5-year observed and relative survival were estimated by sex, age and years from diagnosis. Furthermore, age-standardized 5-year relative survival for the period 2000-2007 has been compared with that of the period 1995-1999. Skin melanoma (84.6 95% CI 83.0-86.2), prostate (84.6% 95% CI 83.6-85.6) and thyroid (84.2% CI 95% 82.0-86.6) cancers showed the highest 5-year relative survival, whereas the worst prognosis was observed in pancreatic (6% 95% CI 5.1-7.0) and oesophageal (9.4% 95% CI 7.9-11.1) cancers. Overall, survival is higher in women (58.0%) than in men (48.9%). The absolute difference in relative survival between 2000-2007 and 1995-1999 was positive for all cancers as a whole (+4.8% in men, +1.6% in women) and for most types of tumours. Survival increased significantly for chronic myeloid leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectum cancer in both sexes, and for acute lymphoid leukaemia, prostate, liver and colon cancers in men and Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer in women. Survival patterns by age were similar in Europe and Spain. A decline in survival by age was observed in all tumours, being more pronounced for ovarian, corpus uteri, prostate and urinary bladder and less for head and neck and rectum cancers. High variability and differences have been observed in survival among adults in Spain according to the type of cancer diagnosed, from above 84% to below 10%, reflecting high heterogeneity. The differences in prognosis by age, sex

  4. Risk of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chi-Kuei; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This large-scale, controlled cohort study estimated the risks of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Taiwan. We conducted this population-based study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during the period from 1997 to 2010. Patients with GERD were diagnosed using endoscopy, and controls were matched to patients with GERD at a ratio of 1:4. We identified 15,412 patients with GERD and 60,957 controls. Compared with the controls, the patients with GERD had higher rates of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, depression, anxiety, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease (all P < .05). A total of 85 patients had lung cancer among patients with GERD during the follow-up of 42,555 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0020 per person-year. By contrast, 232 patients had lung cancer among patients without GERD during the follow-up of 175,319 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0013 per person-year. By using stepwise Cox regression model, the overall incidence of lung cancer remained significantly higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI [1.19–1.98]). The cumulative incidence of lung cancer was higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (P = .0012). In conclusion, our large population-based cohort study provides evidence that GERD may increase the risk of lung cancer in Asians. PMID:28028458

  5. Risk of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Kuei; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Kun; Chen, Likwang

    2016-01-01

    This large-scale, controlled cohort study estimated the risks of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Taiwan. We conducted this population-based study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during the period from 1997 to 2010. Patients with GERD were diagnosed using endoscopy, and controls were matched to patients with GERD at a ratio of 1:4. We identified 15,412 patients with GERD and 60,957 controls. Compared with the controls, the patients with GERD had higher rates of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, depression, anxiety, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease (all P < .05). A total of 85 patients had lung cancer among patients with GERD during the follow-up of 42,555 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0020 per person-year. By contrast, 232 patients had lung cancer among patients without GERD during the follow-up of 175,319 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0013 per person-year. By using stepwise Cox regression model, the overall incidence of lung cancer remained significantly higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI [1.19-1.98]). The cumulative incidence of lung cancer was higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (P = .0012). In conclusion, our large population-based cohort study provides evidence that GERD may increase the risk of lung cancer in Asians.

  6. Population-based estimate of prostate cancer risk for carriers of the HOXB13 missense mutation G84E.

    PubMed

    MacInnis, Robert J; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Dowty, James G; Jenkins, Mark A; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2013-01-01

    The HOXB13 missense mutation G84E (rs138213197) is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, but the current estimate of increased risk has a wide confidence interval (width of 95% confidence interval (CI) >200-fold) so the point estimate of 20-fold increased risk could be misleading. Population-based family studies can be more informative for estimating risks for rare variants, therefore, we screened for mutations in an Australian population-based series of early-onset prostate cancer cases (probands). We found that 19 of 1,384 (1.4%) probands carried the missense mutation, and of these, six (32%) had a family history of prostate cancer. We tested the 22 relatives of carriers diagnosed from 1998 to 2008 for whom we had a DNA sample, and found seven more carriers and one obligate carrier. The age-specific incidence for carriers was estimated to be, on average, 16.4 (95% CI 2.5-107.2) times that for the population over the time frame when the relatives were at risk prior to baseline. We then estimated the age and birth year- specific cumulative risk of prostate cancer (penetrance) for carriers. For example, the penetrance for an unaffected male carrier born in 1950 was 19% (95% CI 5-46%) at age 60 years, 44% (95% CI 18-74%) at age 70 years and 60% (95% CI 30-85%) at age 80 years. Our study has provided a population-based estimate of the average risk of prostate cancer for HOXB13 missense mutation G84E carriers that can be used to guide clinical practice and research. This study has also shown that the majority of hereditary prostate cancers due to the HOXB13 missense mutation are 'sporadic' in the sense that unselected cases with the missense mutation do not typically report having a family history of prostate cancer.

  7. Population-Based Estimate of Prostate Cancer Risk for Carriers of the HOXB13 Missense Mutation G84E

    PubMed Central

    Baglietto, Laura; Dowty, James G.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Giles, Graham G.

    2013-01-01

    The HOXB13 missense mutation G84E (rs138213197) is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, but the current estimate of increased risk has a wide confidence interval (width of 95% confidence interval (CI) >200-fold) so the point estimate of 20-fold increased risk could be misleading. Population-based family studies can be more informative for estimating risks for rare variants, therefore, we screened for mutations in an Australian population-based series of early-onset prostate cancer cases (probands). We found that 19 of 1,384 (1.4%) probands carried the missense mutation, and of these, six (32%) had a family history of prostate cancer. We tested the 22 relatives of carriers diagnosed from 1998 to 2008 for whom we had a DNA sample, and found seven more carriers and one obligate carrier. The age-specific incidence for carriers was estimated to be, on average, 16.4 (95% CI 2.5–107.2) times that for the population over the time frame when the relatives were at risk prior to baseline. We then estimated the age and birth year- specific cumulative risk of prostate cancer (penetrance) for carriers. For example, the penetrance for an unaffected male carrier born in 1950 was 19% (95% CI 5–46%) at age 60 years, 44% (95% CI 18–74%) at age 70 years and 60% (95% CI 30–85%) at age 80 years. Our study has provided a population-based estimate of the average risk of prostate cancer for HOXB13 missense mutation G84E carriers that can be used to guide clinical practice and research. This study has also shown that the majority of hereditary prostate cancers due to the HOXB13 missense mutation are ‘sporadic’ in the sense that unselected cases with the missense mutation do not typically report having a family history of prostate cancer. PMID:23457453

  8. Cancer patients' awareness about their diagnosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nord, C; Mykletun, A; Fosså, S D

    2003-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate Norwegian cancer patients' awareness of their prior cancer diagnosis in a general population-based study. A cross-sectional population-based study of cancer patients' responses to the index question: 'Do you have or have you had cancer?' was carried out. We assessed correctness of the response in relation to cancer site, date of diagnosis, marital status, age and education. Smoking was chosen as a marker of health awareness. A total of 65,330 persons participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT-II), performed in 1995-1997. The database of HUNT-II was merged with the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN), thus identifying each of the 2983 (4 percent) participants with an invasive cancer diagnosis. Excluding basal cell epithelioma, a total of 20 percent of the patients denied their prior cancer diagnosis. This group consisted mainly of men (54 percent) and those who were diagnosed as very young or as elderly. More smokers than non-smokers were unaware of their prior malignancy (24 percent versus 20 percent). A 20 percent rate of patients who denied their former malignancy is surprisingly and unacceptably high. Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis should help the patient to develop increased health awareness. It should enable a person to report his or her former cancer diagnosis when necessary.

  9. Doctors' recognition and management of melanoma patients' risk: An Australian population-based study.

    PubMed

    Madronio, C M; Armstrong, B K; Watts, C G; Goumas, C; Morton, R L; Curtin, A; Menzies, S W; Mann, G J; Thompson, J F; Cust, A E

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines recommend that health professionals identify and manage individuals at high risk of developing melanoma, but there is limited population-based evidence demonstrating real-world practices. A population-based, observational study was conducted in the state of New South Wales, Australia to determine doctors' knowledge of melanoma patients' risk and to identify factors associated with better identification and clinical management. Data were analysed for 1889 patients with invasive, localised melanoma in the Melanoma Patterns of Care study. This study collected data on all melanoma diagnoses notified to the state's cancer registry during a 12-month period from 2006 to 2007, as well as questionnaire data from the doctors involved in their care. Three-quarters (74%) of patients had doctors who were aware of their risk factor status with respect to personal and family history of melanoma and the presence of many moles. Doctors working in general practice, skin cancer clinics and dermatology settings had better knowledge of patients' risk factors than plastic surgeons. Doctors were 15% more likely to know the family history of younger melanoma patients (<40years) than of those ≥80 years (95% confidence interval 4-26%). Early detection-related follow-up advice was more likely to be given to younger patients, by doctors aware of their patients' risk status, by doctors practising in plastic surgery, dermatology and skin cancer clinic settings, and by female doctors. Both patient-related and doctor-related factors were associated with doctors' recognition and management of melanoma patients' risk and could be the focus of strategies for improving care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimated Number of Korean Adults with Back Pain and Population-Based Associated Factors of Back Pain : Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Objective We estimated the number of Korean adults with back pain and evaluated population-based associated factors of back pain from a representative sample data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods The number of Korean adults who experienced back pain (experienced patients), those who experienced back pain lasting for three or more months during the past year (chronic patients), and those who were currently suffering from back pain (current patients) were estimated by analyzing the data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007 using surveyfreq procedure of the SAS statistical package. Population-based odds ratios for being experienced, chronic, and current patient according to demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and occupation), and lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) were estimated using surveylogistic procedure. Results It was estimated that there were 5,554,256 (proportion, 15.4%; 95% CI, 4,809,466 - 6,299,046) experienced patients, 2,060,829 (5.7%; 1,557,413-2,564,246) chronic patients, and 3,084,188 (8.5%; 2,600,197 - 3,568,179) current patients among 36,107,225 Korean adults aged 20-89 years in 2007. Each of explanatory variables was significantly associated with at least one of the response variables for back pain. Conclusion Based on our study results, further efforts to investigate epidemiology of back pain, to evaluate associated factors, and to improve treatment outcomes are needed. PMID:20041054

  11. Drug prescription patterns in patients with Addison's disease: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Sundström, Anders; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Blomqvist, Paul; Kämpe, Olle; Bensing, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    There are no published data on drug prescription in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Our objective was to describe the drug prescription patterns in Swedish AD patients before and after diagnosis compared with population controls. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, we identified 1305 patients with both a diagnosis of AD and on combination treatment with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate and fludrocortisone. Direct evidence of the AD diagnosis from patient charts was not available. We identified 11 996 matched controls by the Register of Population. We determined the ratio of observed to expected number of patients treated with prescribed drugs. Overall, Swedish AD patients received more prescribed drugs than controls, and 59.3% of the AD patients had medications indicating concomitant autoimmune disease. Interestingly, both before and after the diagnosis of AD, patients used more gastrointestinal medications, antianemic preparations, lipid-modifying agents, antibiotics for systemic use, hypnotics and sedatives, and drugs for obstructive airway disease (all P values < .05). Notably, an increased prescription of several antihypertensive drugs and high-ceiling diuretics was observed after the diagnosis of AD. Gastrointestinal symptoms and anemia, especially in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, should alert the physician about the possibility of AD. The higher use of drugs for cardiovascular disorders after diagnosis in patients with AD raises concerns about the replacement therapy.

  12. Survival of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, M; Wood, D; Coats, A; Thompson, S; Suresh, V; Poole-Wilson, P; Sutton, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the survival of a population based cohort of patients with incident (new) heart failure and the clinical features associated with mortality.
DESIGN—A population based observational study.
SETTING—Population of 151 000 served by 82 general practitioners in west London.
PATIENTS—New cases of heart failure were identified by daily surveillance of acute hospital admissions to the local district general hospital, and by general practitioner referral of all suspected new cases of heart failure to a rapid access clinic.
INTERVENTIONS—All patients with suspected heart failure underwent clinical assessment, and chest radiography, ECG, and echocardiogram were performed. A panel of three cardiologists reviewed all the data and determined whether the definition of heart failure had been met. Patients were subsequently managed by the general practitioner in consultation with the local cardiologist or admitting physician.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Death, overall and from cardiovascular causes.
RESULTS—There were 90 deaths (83 cardiovascular deaths) in the cohort of 220 patients with incident heart failure over a median follow up of 16 months. Survival was 81% at one month, 75% at three months, 70% at six months, 62% at 12 months, and 57% at 18 months. Lower systolic blood pressure, higher serum creatinine concentration, and greater extent of crackles on auscultation of the lungs were independently predictive of cardiovascular mortality (all p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with new heart failure, mortality is high in the first few weeks after diagnosis. Simple clinical features can identify a group of patients at especially high risk of death.


Keywords: heart failure; prognosis; survival; epidemiology PMID:10768897

  13. Obesity and survival in population-based patients with pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2012-12-01

    Obesity has been consistently associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality. However, studies of obesity and overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer are notably lacking, especially in population-based studies. Active and passive follow-up were used to determine vital status and survival for 510 pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Survival rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models as measures of the association between pre-diagnostic obesity and pancreatic cancer survival. An elevated hazard ratio of 1.3 (95 % CI, 0.91-1.81) was observed for obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] compared with normal range BMI (<25) patients. Associations between BMI and overall survival did not statistically significantly vary by known prognostic and risk factors (all p-interaction ≥0.18), yet elevated HRs consistently were observed for obese compared with normal BMI patients [localized disease at diagnosis (HR, 3.1), surgical resection (HR, 1.6), ever smokers (HR, 1.6), diabetics (HR, 3.3)]. Poor survival was observed among men, older patients, more recent and current smokers, whereas improved survival was observed for Asian/Pacific Islanders. Our results in general provide limited support for an association between pre-diagnostic obesity and decreased survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Patterns of reduced survival associated with obesity in some patient subgroups could be due to chance and require assessment in larger pooled studies.

  14. Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Sleep Apnea – A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Chung; Yang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Meng-Ni; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chong, Inn-Wen; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported among patients with sleep apnea (SA). However, this association has not been confirmed in a large-scale study. We therefore performed a population-based cohort study using Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database to investigate the association of SA and ED. From the database of one million representative subjects randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the NHI system in 2010, we identified adult patients having SA and excluded those having a diagnosis of ED prior to SA. From these suspected SA patients, those having SA diagnosis after polysomnography were defined as probable SA patients. The dates of their first SA diagnosis were defined as their index dates. Each SA patient was matched to 30 randomly-selected, age-matched control subjects without any SA diagnosis. The control subjects were assigned index dates as their corresponding SA patients, and were ensured having no ED diagnosis prior to their index dates. Totally, 4,835 male patients with suspected SA (including 1,946 probable SA patients) were matched to 145,050 control subjects (including 58,380 subjects matched to probable SA patients). The incidence rate of ED was significantly higher in probable SA patients as compared with the corresponding control subjects (5.7 vs. 2.3 per 1000 patient-year; adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.8-2.2], p<0.0001). The cumulative incidence was also significantly higher in the probable SA patients (p<0.0001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, probable SA remained a significant risk factor for the development of ED after adjusting for age, residency, income level and comorbidities (hazard ratio = 2.0 [95%CI: 1.5-2.7], p<0.0001). In line with previous studies, this population-based large-scale study confirmed an increased ED incidence in SA patients in Chinese population. Physicians need to pay attention to the possible underlying SA while treating ED patients. PMID:26177206

  15. Estimated prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Kiffer, Carlos Roberto Veiga; Conceição, Orlando Jorge; Santos, Edgar Bortholi; Sabino, Ester; Focaccia, Roberto

    2002-10-01

    Objectives. Estimate the prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis (anti-polio antibodies) in the city of São Paulo/Brazil through a population-based survey. Methods. A quantitative and inductive method was used to draw a representative sample of the population. Randomization and stratification (based on sex, age and residence region) was done, and 1,059 individuals were studied on a home-visit basis (structured questionnaires and blood samples). A microneutralization test was performed to detect anti-polio antibodies against serotypes 1, 2 and 3. Results. The estimated prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis was high, with 94.6% prevalence of anti-polio 1 antibodies, 98.8% anti-polio 2 and 91.9% anti-polio 3. Despite this high prevalence, there were significantly lower prevalence levels in some groups, specially among age and residence region groups. Discussion. Routine child immunization and NIDs with OPV have provided excellent levels of serological immunity to poliomyelitis in the population of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. However, there may be specific groups with a lower prevalence of immunity. Estimations of the prevalence of immunity to poliomyelitis were made in a population-based survey, which could be used as an auxiliary tool for supporting the polio eradication program.

  16. Bowel Obstruction in Elderly Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Winner, Megan; Hershman, Dawn L.; Wright, Jason D.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Bowel obstruction is a common pre-terminal event in abdominal/pelvic cancer that has mainly been described in small single-institution studies. We used a large, population-based database to investigate the incidence, management, and outcomes of obstruction in ovarian cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS We identified patients with stages IC-IV ovarian cancer, aged 65 years or older, in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed between January 1, 1991 and December 31, 2005. We modeled predictors of inpatient hospitalization for bowel obstruction after cancer diagnosis, categorized management of obstruction, and analyzed the associations between treatment for obstruction and outcomes. RESULTS Of 8607 women with ovarian cancer, 1518 (17.6%) were hospitalized for obstruction subsequent to cancer diagnosis. Obstruction at cancer diagnosis (HR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.86–2.52) and mucinous tumor histology (HR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.83) were associated with increased risk of subsequent obstruction. Surgical management of obstruction was associated with lower 30-day mortality (13.4% in women managed surgically vs. 20.2% in women managed non-surgically), but equivalent survival after 30 days and equivalent rates of post-obstruction chemotherapy. Median post-obstruction survival was 382 days in women with obstructions of adhesive origin and 93 days in others. CONCLUSION In this large-scale, population-based assessment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, nearly 20% of women developed bowel obstruction after cancer diagnosis. While obstruction due to adhesions did not signal the end of life, all other obstructions were pre-terminal events for the majority of patients regardless of treatment. PMID:23274561

  17. Osteoporosis in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Ying; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20-49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996-2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis.

  18. Osteoporosis in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20–49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996–2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis. PMID:28207767

  19. Comparison of postoperative outcomes among patients treated by male and female surgeons: a population based matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher Jd; Ravi, Bheeshma; Coburn, Natalie; Nam, Robert K; Detsky, Allan S; Satkunasivam, Raj

    2017-10-10

    Objective To examine the effect of surgeon sex on postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing common surgical procedures.Design Population based, retrospective, matched cohort study from 2007 to 2015.Setting Population based cohort of all patients treated in Ontario, Canada.Participants Patients undergoing one of 25 surgical procedures performed by a female surgeon were matched by patient age, patient sex, comorbidity, surgeon volume, surgeon age, and hospital to patients undergoing the same operation by a male surgeon.Interventions Sex of treating surgeon.Main outcome measure The primary outcome was a composite of death, readmission, and complications. We compared outcomes between groups using generalised estimating equations.Results 104 630 patients were treated by 3314 surgeons, 774 female and 2540 male. Before matching, patients treated by female doctors were more likely to be female and younger but had similar comorbidity, income, rurality, and year of surgery. After matching, the groups were comparable. Fewer patients treated by female surgeons died, were readmitted to hospital, or had complications within 30 days (5810 of 52 315, 11.1%, 95% confidence interval 10.9% to 11.4%) than those treated by male surgeons (6046 of 52 315, 11.6%, 11.3% to 11.8%; adjusted odds ratio 0.96, 0.92 to 0.99, P=0.02). Patients treated by female surgeons were less likely to die within 30 days (adjusted odds ratio 0.88; 0.79 to 0.99, P=0.04), but there was no significant difference in readmissions or complications. Stratified analyses by patient, physician, and hospital characteristics did not significant modify the effect of surgeon sex on outcome. A retrospective analysis showed no difference in outcomes by surgeon sex in patients who had emergency surgery, where patients do not usually choose their surgeon.Conclusions After accounting for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics, patients treated by female surgeons had a small but statistically

  20. The Risk of Cancer in Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Li-Yu; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chang, Wen-Han; Tang, Pei-Ling; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest a link between anxiety disorders and cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of cancer among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using a nationwide population-based dataset. We recruited newly diagnosed OCD patients without antecedent cancer from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2002 and 2011. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated for 22 specific cancer types among OCD patients and we determined the SIRs for subgroups according to age and sex group. In addition, because of a potential detection bias, a subgroup analysis stratified with the duration of the OCD diagnosis was carried out. Among the 52,656 OCD patients, who were followed up for 259,945 person-years (median follow-up = 4.9 years), there were 718 cases of cancer. Patients with OCD did not exhibit an increased overall cancer risk relative to the general population (SIR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.13). An increased SIR was observed among OCD patients only within the first year of OCD diagnosis (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.43).This study indicated that the overall cancer risk was not elevated among OCD patients. An increased SIR observed among OCD patients within the first year of OCD diagnosis may be caused by a surveillance bias, and because paraneoplastic manifestations presented with obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  1. Comorbidity in Adult Bone Sarcoma Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Keller, Johnny; Baerentzen, Steen; Safwat, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    Background. Comorbidity is an important prognostic factor for survival in different cancers; however, neither the prevalence nor the impact of comorbidity has been investigated in bone sarcoma. Methods. All adult bone sarcoma patients from western Denmark treated at the Aarhus Sarcoma Centre in the period from 1979 to 2008 were identified through a validated population-based database. Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were computed, using discharge diagnoses from the Danish National Patient Registry. Survival was assessed as overall and disease-specific mortality. The impact of comorbidity was examined as rates according to the level of comorbidity as well as uni- and multivariately using proportional hazard models. Results. A total of 453 patients were identified. The overall prevalence of comorbidity was 19%. The prevalence increased with age and over the study period. In patients with Ewing/osteosarcoma, comorbidity was not associated with an increased overall or disease-specific mortality. However, patients with bone sarcomas other than Ewing/osteosarcoma had increased overall mortality. Independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival were age, tumor size, stage at diagnosis, soft tissue involvement, grade, and surgery. Conclusion. The prevalence of comorbidity in bone sarcoma patients is low. Comorbidity impaired survival in patients with non-Ewing/nonosteosarcoma, histology. This emphasizes the importance of not only treating the sarcoma but also comorbidity. PMID:24723789

  2. Risks of subsequent epilepsy among patients with hypertensive encephalopathy: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tzu-Tsao; Lin, Chi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether the diagnosis of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is linked to an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy by using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Our study featured a study cohort and a comparison cohort. The study cohort consisted of all patients with newly diagnosed HE between 1997 and 2010, compiled from universal insurance claims data on patients with hypertension taken from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The comparison cohort comprised the remaining hypertensive patients without encephalopathy. The follow-up period was terminated following the development of epilepsy, death, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or the end of 2010. We determined the cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of epilepsy development. The incidence of subsequent epilepsy was 2.25-fold higher in the patients with HE than in comparisons (4.17 vs. 1.85 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 2.06 (95% CI=1.66-2.56) in the multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis. The incidence of epilepsy was higher in men, younger patients with HE, and those with brain disorders. We found that, in Taiwan, patients with HE are at an increased risk of subsequent epilepsy. Physicians should be aware of HE's link to epilepsy when assessing patients with HE. © 2013.

  3. Use of Pathogen-Specific Antibody Biomarkers to Estimate Waterborne Infections in Population-Based Settings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of reviewThis review discusses the utility of pathogen-specific antibody biomarkers for improving estimates of the population burden of waterborne infections, assessing the fraction of infections that can be prevented by specific water treatments, and understanding transm...

  4. Use of Pathogen-Specific Antibody Biomarkers to Estimate Waterborne Infections in Population-Based Settings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose of reviewThis review discusses the utility of pathogen-specific antibody biomarkers for improving estimates of the population burden of waterborne infections, assessing the fraction of infections that can be prevented by specific water treatments, and understanding transm...

  5. Allopurinol Therapy in Gout Patients Does Not Associate with Beneficial Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Population-Based Matched-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Victor C.; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Chang, Wan-Shan; Hong, Ya-Fang; Chang, Tzu-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown an association between gout and/or hyperuricemia and a subsequent increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. Allopurinol reduces vascular oxidative stress, ameliorates inflammatory state, improves endothelial function, and prevents atherosclerosis progression. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that a positive association between allopurinol therapy in gout patients and future cardiovascular outcomes is present using a population-based matched-cohort study design. Methods Patients aged ≥40 years with newly diagnosed gout having no pre-existing severe form of CVD were separated into allopurinol (n = 2483) and non-allopurinol (n = 2483) groups after matching for age, gender, index date, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and atrial fibrillation. The two groups were also balanced in terms of uric acid nephrolithiasis, acute kidney injury, hepatitis, and Charlson comorbidity index. Results With a median follow-up time of 5.25 years, the allopurinol group had a modest increase in cardiovascular risk [relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08–1.34]. A Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for chronic kidney disease, uremia, and gastric ulcer gave a hazard ratio (HR) for cardiovascular outcomes of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.10–1.41) in gout patients receiving allopurinol compared with the non-allopurinol group. In further analysis of patients receiving urate-lowering therapy, the uricosuric agent group (n = 1713) had an adjusted HR of 0.83 (0.73–0.95) for cardiovascular events compared with the allopurinol group. Conclusions The current population-based matched-cohort study did not support the association between allopurinol therapy in gout patients with normal risk for cardiovascular sequels and beneficial future cardiovascular outcomes. Several important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure were not

  6. Missed strokes using computed tomography imaging in patients with vertigo: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Keerat; Austin, Peter C; Kapral, Moira K; Lu, Hong; Atzema, Clare L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of emergency department (ED) patients with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo who received computed tomography (CT) head imaging in the ED and to examine whether strokes were missed using CT imaging. This population-based retrospective cohort study assessed patients who were discharged from an ED in Ontario, Canada, with a diagnosis of peripheral vertigo, April 2006 to March 2011. Patients who received CT imaging (exposed) were matched by propensity score methods to patients who did not (unexposed). If performed, CT imaging was presumed to be negative for stroke because brain stem/cerebellar stroke would result in hospitalization. We compared the incidence of stroke within 30, 90, and 365 days subsequent to ED discharge between groups, to determine whether the exposed group had a higher frequency of early strokes than the matched unexposed group. Among 41 794 qualifying patients, 8596 (20.6%) received ED head CT imaging, and 99.8% of these patients were able to be matched to a control. Among exposed patients, 25 (0.29%) were hospitalized for stroke within 30 days when compared with 11 (0.13%) among matched nonexposed patients. The relative risk of a 30- and 90-day stroke among exposed versus unexposed patients was 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.62) and 1.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.43), respectively. There was no difference between groups at 1 year. Strokes occurred at a median of 32.0 days (interquartile range, 4.0-33.0 days) in exposed patients, compared with 105 days (interquartile range, 11.5-204.5) in unexposed patients. One fifth of patients diagnosed with peripheral vertigo in Ontario received imaging that is not recommended in guidelines, and that imaging was associated with missed strokes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Higher prevalence of dementia in patients with schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Min-Young; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of dementia in patients with and without schizophrenia, with a particular focus on age-specific and sex-specific differences. We conducted a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims database from 2010 to 2013. Using a 10:1 matching ratio, 248,919 patients without schizophrenia and 26,591 patients with schizophrenia were identified based on the ICD-10 code. Patients with dementia were extracted by diagnosis or use of anti-dementia drugs. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and dementia. The prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared with that in matched non-schizophrenia patients (9.9% versus 2.2%, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and underlying comorbidities, conditional logistic regression showed that schizophrenia was associated with dementia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-5.1). When stratified by sex, the AOR was 5.6 (95% CI, 5.0-6.2) among women and 4.0 (95% CI, 3.6-4.5) among men. Moreover, the association between dementia and schizophrenia was strong in elderly patients. The AOR of dementia prevalence was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.1-7.2) in patients aged ≥65 years and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) in patients aged <65 years. Schizophrenia patients were more likely to have dementia compared with non-schizophrenia patients. This association seems greater in higher prevalence groups such as women and patients aged ≥65 years. Further investigation on the mechanism is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Outcome of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Patients with Diabetes: A Historical Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Jesper; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik; Frøslev, Trine; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes (DM) experience increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB), but the prognostic impact of diabetes in patients with SAB remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with and without DM. Methods Population-based medical databases were used to conduct a cohort study of all adult patients with community-acquired SAB in Northern Denmark, 2000–2011. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we computed hazard ratios as estimates of 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs) among patients with and without DM. We further investigated whether the prognostic impact of DM differed among patients with and without recent preadmission healthcare contacts (within 30 days of the current hospitalization) and by age, sex, marital status, level of comorbidity, and DM-related characteristics (e.g., duration of DM and presence of DM complications). Results Among 2638 SAB patients, 713 (27.0%) had DM. Thirty-day cumulative mortality was 25.8% in patients with DM and 24.3% in patients without DM, for an adjusted MRR (aMRR) of 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–1.20). In analyses with and without recent healthcare contacts, the corresponding aMRRs were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62–1.14) and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.91–1.41), respectively. Compared to patients without DM, the aMRR was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.74–1.20) for male patients with DM and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.87–1.47) for female patients with DM. The prognostic influence of DM on mortality did not differ notably with age, level of comorbidity, or characteristics of patients with DM. Conclusion Patients with DM and community-acquired SAB did not experience higher 30-day mortality than patients without DM. PMID:27082873

  9. Leisure-time physical activity in Canadians living with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis: population-based estimates.

    PubMed

    Mack, Diane E; Wilson, Philip M; Gilmore, Jennica C; Gunnell, Katie E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide population-based estimates of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in Canadians diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Data were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 (2005). Those diagnosed with CD (n = 474; 61.60% female) or UC (n = 637; 65.10% female) were compared with those not reporting CD/UC (n = 113,685; 53.60% female). The most prevalent forms of LTPA reported were walking and gardening/yard work. Individuals with CD were more likely to be classified as "inactive" (OR = 1.34; 95% CI [1.12, 1.61]) and less likely to be "active" (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55, 0.87]) than those not reporting CD/UC. These trends were mirrored for those living with UC, although statistical significance was not attained. Despite claims advocating the benefits of LTPA for ameliorating complications associated with CD/UC, prevalence estimates from a population-based sample of Canadians living with CD/UC suggest that the majority do not meet current public health guidelines. Results offer benchmarks for prevalence of LTPA in those diagnosed with CD/UC. Findings suggest that many living with this condition will not benefit from the protective role of LTPA on complications associated with CD/UC.

  10. Estimating Heritability of Prostate Cancer-Specific Survival Using Population-Based Registers.

    PubMed

    Szulkin, Robert; Clements, Mark S; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Wiklund, Fredrik E; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    There is a strong genetic component in prostate cancer development with an estimated heritability of 58%. In addition, recent epidemiological assessments show a familial component in prostate cancer-specific survival, which could be due to either common genetics or environment. In this study we sought to estimate the heritability of prostate cancer-specific survival by studying brothers and father-son pairs in Sweden. We used linkage records from three Swedish national registers: the Multi-Generation Register, the Cancer Register, and the Cause of Death Register. One thousand seven hundred twenty-eight brother pairs and 6,444 father-son pairs, where both family members were diagnosed with prostate cancer, were followed for prostate cancer mortality. By assuming that (i) brothers on average share 50% of their segregating alleles and 100% environment and (ii) fathers and sons share 50% of their segregating alleles and no environment, we implemented a model including influences of additive genetics (heritability), shared environment and non-shared environment for survival data. A conditional likelihood estimation procedure was developed to fit the model. Data simulation was applied to validate model assumptions. In a model that adjusted for age at diagnosis and calendar period, the estimated heritability of prostate cancer-specific survival was 0.10 (95% CI = 0.00-0.20) that was borderline significantly different from zero (P = 0.057). The shared environment component was not significantly different from zero with a point estimate of 0.00 (95% CI = 0.00-0.13). Simulation studies and sensitivity analysis revealed that the estimated heritability component was robust, whereas the shared environmental component may be underestimated. Heritability of prostate cancer-specific survival is considerably lower than for prostate cancer incidence. This supports a hypothesis that susceptibility of disease and progression of disease are separate mechanisms that involve

  11. Treatment of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Legoff, Jorge A; Krause, Megan L; Crowson, Cynthia S; Muskardin, Theresa Wampler; Mason, Thomas; Matteson, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    A population-based cohort was utilized to evaluate medications and intra-articular injection utilization for patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to inform clinical practice and further research. In a geographically defined population, all incident cases of JIA cases were identified between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2013 based first on diagnosis code followed by medical chart confirmation. Medications and intra-articular glucocorticoid injections were abstracted. Predictors of the first disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)/biologic and injections were reported as a hazard ratio (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and sex. Kaplan-Meier methods evaluated therapy at 6 months and 1 year. Injections were reported per 100 person-years (py) with 95 % CI using the Poisson methods. Seventy-one incident cases were identified. Forty-two (59 %) were female with mean age (standard deviation) at diagnosis of 8.2 (5.3) years. Twenty-six (37 %) utilized at least one DMARD or biologic, in which 77 % of these were prescribed in the first 6 months. Subtype of JIA was significantly associated with DMARDs/biologics (p < 0.001). Intra-articular injections were performed in 48 %. The rate of intra-articular injections was 20.7 per 100 py (95 % CI 16.5, 25.6). The rate of joint injections was higher in the first year after diagnosis (p < 0.001) and more common in recent years (p < 0.001). The majority of patients with JIA in a modern population-based cohort do not require DMARDs or biologics. In those who do, the majority receives these within the first 6 months. Intra-articular injections were utilized in almost half of patients with JIA and were increasingly used.

  12. Survival of patients with mixed phenotype acute leukemias: A large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; Munker, Reinhold

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the incidence and treatment outcome of patients with acute biphenotypic leukemias. The World Health Organization (WHO) established the term of acute leukemia of ambiguous phenotype in 2001 (revised in 2008) introducing the term of mixed phenotype acute leukemias. Using the database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER), we identified 313 patients with mixed phenotype acute leukemias and compared them with 14,739 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 34,326 patients with acute myelogenous leukemias diagnosed between 2001 and 2011. As a further control group, 1777 patients were included who were not classified as myeloid, lymphoid or biphenotypic (other acute leukemias). The incidence of mixed phenotype acute leukemias is 0.35 cases/1,000,000 person-years. In a multivariate analysis, the prognosis depends strongly on age (as with other leukemias) and it has the worst outcome of all four types of leukemia. However, the prognosis has improved, comparing 2001-2005 with 2006-2011. We present the first comprehensive, population-based study of acute biphenotypic or mixed phenotype acute leukemias according to the WHO classification. Especially in older patients, the prognosis is unfavorable and new treatments should be investigated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Treatment outcome in a population-based 'real-world' cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Inge G P; Thielen, Noortje; Janssen, Jeroen J W M; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Roosma, Tanja J A; Willemsen, Sten P; Visser, Otto; Cornelissen, Jan J; Westerweel, Peter E

    2017-08-31

    Real-world evaluations of the efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are scarce. A nationwide population-based chronic myeloid leukemia registry was analyzed to evaluate (deep) response rates to first and subsequent treatment lines and eligibility for a treatment cessation attempt in adults diagnosed between January 2008 and April 2013 in the Netherlands. The registries covered 457 patients; 434 in chronic (95%) and 15 patients (3%) in advanced disease phase. 75% of the patients in chronic phase were treated with imatinib and 25% with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor. At 3 years 44% of patients had discontinued their first line treatment, mainly due to intolerance (21%) or treatment failure (19%). At 18 months 73% of patients had achieved a complete cytogenetic response and 63% a major molecular response. Deep molecular responses (MR4.0 and MR4.5) were achieved in 69% and 56% of patients at 48 months. All response milestones were achieved faster in patients treated upfront with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but ultimately also patients initially treated with imatinib reached similar levels of responses. The 6-year cumulative incidence of stop attempt eligibility according to EURO-SKI criteria was 31%. Our findings show that in a 'real-world' setting the long-term outcome of patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is excellent and the conditions for an attempt to stop tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are met by a third of the patients. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in spontaneous brain abscess patients: a population-based comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Jiri; Jakola, Asgeir S; Skyrman, Simon; Förander, Petter; Alpkvist, Peter; Schechtmann, Gaston; Glimåker, Martin; Larsson, Agneta; Lind, Folke; Mathiesen, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    There is a need to improve outcome in patients with brain abscesses and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a promising treatment modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate HBOT in the treatment of intracranial abscesses. This population-based, comparative cohort study included 40 consecutive adult patients with spontaneous brain abscess treated surgically between January 2003 and May 2014 at our institution. Twenty patients received standard therapy with surgery and antibiotics (non-HBOT group), while the remaining 20 patients also received adjuvant HBOT (HBOT group). Resolution of brain abscesses and infection was seen in all patients. Two patients had reoperations after HBOT initiation (10 %), while nine patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group underwent reoperations (p = 0.03). Of the 26 patients who did not receive HBOT after the first surgery, 15 (58 %) had one or several recurrences that lead to a new treatment: surgery (n = 11), surgery + HBO (n = 5) or just HBO (n = 1). In contrast, recurrences occurred in only 2 of 14 (14 %) who did receive HBOT after the first surgery (p < 0.01). A good outcome (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS] of 5) was achieved in 16 patients (80 %) in the HBOT cohort versus 9 patients (45 %) in the non-HBOT group (p = 0.04). HBOT was associated with less treatment failures and need for reoperation and seemingly with improved long-term outcome. Further, HBOT was well tolerated and safe. Prospective studies are warranted to establish the role of HBOT in the treatment of brain abscesses.

  15. Risk of Cancer in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Teng, Chung-Jen; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Method Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Results Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. Conclusion The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk. PMID:25781632

  16. The role of chemoprevention by selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer patients - a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are limited population-based studies focusing on the chemopreventive effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors against colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the trends and dose–response effects of various medication possession ratios (MPR) of selective COX-2 inhibitor used for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted using the Taiwan Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The study comprised 21,460 colorectal cancer patients and 79,331 controls. The conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for COX-2 inhibitors used for several durations (5 years, 3 years, 1 year, 6 months and 3 months) prior to the index date. Results In patients receiving selective COX-2 inhibitors, the OR was 0.51 (95% CI=0.29~0.90, p=0.021) for an estimated 5-year period in developing colorectal cancer. ORs showing significant protection effects were found in 10% of MPRs for 5-year, 3-year, and 1-year usage. Risk reduction against colorectal cancer by selective COX-2 inhibitors was observed as early as 6 months after usage. Conclusion Our results indicate that selective COX-2 inhibitors may reduce the development of colorectal cancer by at least 10% based on the MPRs evaluated. Given the limited number of clinical reports from general populations, our results add to the knowledge of chemopreventive effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors against cancer in individuals at no increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:23217168

  17. A standardized approach to estimating survival statistics for population-based cystic fibrosis registry cohorts.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Goss, Christopher H; Quon, Bradley S; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza; Elbert, Alexander; Stephenson, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to quantify the effect of different statistical techniques, inclusion/exclusion criteria, and missing data on the predicted median survival age. Using the Canadian cystic fibrosis registry (CCFR), the median age of survival was calculated using both the Cox proportional hazards (PH) and the life-table methods. Through simulations, we examined how the median age of survival would change when: (1) patients were excluded, (2) death dates were inaccurate, (3) patients were lost to follow-up, (4) entire years with no clinic visits were excluded even if the​ patient had a visit in subsequent years, and (5) censoring patients at their date of transplant. Simulations were run assuming 5-35% of data were affected by each scenario. Over the period 2009-2013, there were 4,666 individuals in the CCFR with 240 deaths. The observed median age of survival calculated by the Cox PH method was 50.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 47.4, 54.3] and 50.5 from the life-table method (95% CI: 47.5, 53.5). Censoring patients at their transplant date overestimated the median age of survival by 7.2 years (58.1; 95% CI: 53.3, 64.7). Simulations determined that by missing just 15% of deaths, the median age of survival can be overestimated by 3.5 years (54.4; 95% CI: 54.2, 56.1), and having 25% of patients lost to follow-up can underestimate the median age of survival by 3.3 years (47.6; 95% CI: 46.8, 47.7). We present several recommendations to assist national cystic fibrosis registries in calculating and reporting the median age of survival in a standardized fashion. It is imperative to state the statistical method used as well as the proportion lost to follow-up and the treatment of missing data and transplanted patients. Registries must be diligent in their data collection as incomplete data can lead to overestimation and underestimation of survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer risk estimates for family members of a population-based family registry for breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ziogas, A; Gildea, M; Cohen, P; Bringman, D; Taylor, T H; Seminara, D; Barker, D; Casey, G; Haile, R; Liao, S Y; Thomas, D; Noble, B; Kurosaki, T; Anton-Culver, H

    2000-01-01

    Population-based breast and ovarian cancer family registries can facilitate studies to evaluate genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of these malignancies. The purpose of this study is to describe what is, as far as we know, the first population-based breast and ovarian cancer family registry and to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk in relatives of breast and ovarian cancer probands. Population-based consecutive incident cases of breast and ovarian cancer were invited to participate in the University of California, Irvine breast and ovarian family registry. In this study, we report data on 1567 breast cancer and 328 ovarian cancer probands. The operational components of this family registry include enrollment of probands, family history interviewing, confidentiality, pathology, verification and review, biospecimen bank, statistical/genetic analysis, and special studies on positional cloning of known genes. All of the components are tracked through the University of California, Irvine Genetic Research Information System. In non-Hispanic-white breast cancer probands, relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in mothers and sisters is significantly elevated [RR = 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.0 and RR = 2.8 and 95% CI = 2.3-3.3, respectively]. In families of ovarian cancer probands, mothers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-8.7). RR of breast cancer in mothers of Hispanic breast cancer probands is significantly elevated (RR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.6-8.5). No elevation of breast or ovarian cancer risk was observed among relatives of Asian probands. In general, there is a decrease in RR among mothers and sisters with increase in age of onset of probands. In second-degree relatives and first cousins, the breast cancer hazards ratios increase with increase in the number of affected first-degree relatives and decrease with increase in age at onset of the proband.

  19. Stature estimation in a contemporary Japanese population based on clavicular measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Hashimoto, Mari; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2017-03-08

    The aims of this study was to assess the correlation between stature and clavicular measurements in a contemporary Japanese population using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) images, and to establish regression equations for predicting stature. A total of 249 cadavers (131 males, 118 females) underwent postmortem CT scanning and subsequent forensic autopsy between October 2011 and May 2016 in our department. Four clavicular variables (linear distances between the superior margins of the left and right sternal facets to the anterior points of the left and right acromial ends and between the superior margins of the left and right sternal facets to the left and right conoid tubercles) were measured using 3D CT reconstructed images that extracted only bone data. The correlations between stature and each of the clavicular measurements were assessed with Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. These clavicular measurements correlated significantly with stature in both sexes. The lowest standard error of estimation value in all, male, and female subjects was 3.62cm (r(2)=0.836), 3.55cm (r(2)=0.566), and 3.43cm (r(2)=0.663), respectively. In conclusion, clavicular measurements obtained from 3D CT images may be useful for stature estimation of Japanese individuals, particularly in cases where better predictors, such as long bones, are not available.

  20. Impact of appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment on recurrence and mortality in patients with bacteraemia: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim O; Jensen, Ulrich S; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Østergaard, Christian; Knudsen, Jenny D; Wehberg, Sonja; Søgaard, Mette

    2017-02-06

    Data on the impact of empirical antibiotic treatment (EAT) on patient outcome in a population-based setting are sparse. We assessed the association between EAT and the risk of recurrence within one year, short-term- (2-30 days) and long-term (31-365 days) mortality in a Danish cohort of bacteraemia patients. A cohort study including all patients hospitalized with incident bacteraemia during 2007-2008 in the Copenhagen City and County areas and the North Denmark Region. EAT was defined as the antibiotic treatment given at the 1(st) notification of a positive blood culture. The definition of recurrence took account of pathogen species, site of infection, and time frame and was not restricted to homologous pathogens. The vital status was determined through the civil registration system. Association estimates between EAT and the outcomes were estimated by Cox and logistic regression models. In 6483 eligible patients, 712 (11%) had a recurrent episode. A total of 3778 (58%) patients received appropriate EAT, 1290 (20%) received inappropriate EAT, while EAT status was unrecorded for 1415 (22%) patients. The 2-30 day mortality was 15.1%, 17.4% and 19.2% in patients receiving appropriate EAT, inappropriate EAT, and unknown EAT, respectively. Among patients alive on day 30, the 31-365 day mortality was 22.3% in patients given appropriate EAT compared to 30.7% in those given inappropriate EAT. Inappropriate EAT was independently associated with recurrence (HR 1.25; 95% CI = 1.03-1.52) and long-term mortality (OR 1.35; 95% CI = 1.10-1.60), but not with short-term mortality (OR 0.85; 95% CI = 0.70-1.02) after bacteraemia. Our data indicate that appropriate EAT is associated with reduced incidence of recurrence and lower long-term mortality following bacteraemia.

  1. Patients with epilepsy are at an increased risk of subsequent stroke: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chen-Shu; Liao, Chun-Hui; Lin, Che-Chen; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Huang

    2014-05-01

    Epilepsy is well known as a disorder in poststroke patients. However, studies that have investigated the association between epilepsy and the risk of subsequent stroke are limited. This population-based study investigated the incidence and risk of stroke in patients with epilepsy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data. We identified 3812 patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy in 2000-2008 and 15,248 nonepilepsy comparisons frequency matched according to sex, age, and index year. We searched for subsequent stroke diagnoses in both cohorts until the end of 2009. The incidence rates and hazard ratios of stroke were estimated based on sex, age, the average defined daily doses (DDDs) of antiepilepsy drugs, and comorbidity. The stroke incidence of the epilepsy cohort was 3-fold higher than that of the comparison cohort. The age-specific results indicated that in the epilepsy cohort and the comparison cohort, the risk was the highest for the youngest group (20-39 years). The patients with epilepsy exhibited a higher incidence of cerebral stroke than the general population did. In addition, younger patients with epilepsy and patients who took a high doses of antiepileptic drugs exhibited a high risk of stroke. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Laurence; Petersen, Irene; Nazareth, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    About 1% of the general population receives long-term systemic glucocorticoids. The monitoring provided to these patients is unknown. We conducted a population-based cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database. A total of 100,944 adult patients prescribed systemic glucocorticoids for >3 months between January 2000 and December 2012 were studied. The monitoring done before prescribing glucocorticoid therapy and during exposure to the drug was examined. This included measurement of body weight, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and potassium levels, referrals for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA-scan) or to an ophthalmologist/optician, and vaccinations. We assessed factors associated with the odds of being monitored before and during exposure. Before glucocorticoid initiation, weight and blood pressure were monitored in < 20% and < 50% of patients, respectively. Glucose and lipid levels were monitored in less than one-third of the patients, while DEXA-scan and eye monitoring were offered to <15% of them. Vaccination against flu and pneumococcus was given to 57% and 46% of the patients, respectively. During exposure to the drug, <60% of patients who were prescribed the drug for more than a year had their weight, glucose, or lipid levels recorded at least once and <25% of patients were referred at least once for DEXA-scan or screening for eye diseases. Overall, the odds of being monitored were higher in older patients and in those with comorbidities. There were variations in the level of monitoring provided across the UK, but the monitoring has improved over the last 12 years. Although the extent of monitoring of people on long-term glucocorticoids has improved over time, the overall monitoring provided is not satisfactory, particularly in young patients and those without comorbidities.

  3. UNC13A influences survival in Italian ALS patients: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Restagno, Gabriella; Brunetti, Maura; Ossola, Irene; Barberis, Marco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Canosa, Antonio; Manera, Umberto; Moglia, Cristina; Fuda, Giuseppe; Traynor, Bryan J.; Calvo, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The common variant rs12608932, located within an intron of UNC13A gene on chromosome 19p13.3, has been suggested to influence susceptibility to ALS, as well as survival, in patients of north European descent. To examine this possibility further, we evaluated the association of rs12608932 with susceptibility and survival in a population-based cohort of 500 Italian ALS patients and 1,457 Italian control samples. Although rs12608932 was not associated to ALS susceptibility in our series (p=0.124), it was significantly associated with survival under the recessive model (median survival for AA/AC genotypes = 3.5 years [IQR 2.2–6.4]; CC = 2.5 years [IQR 1.6–4.2]; p=0.017). Furthermore, rs12608932 genotype remained an independent prognostic factor in Cox multivariable analysis adjusting for other factors known to influence survival (p=0.023). Overall, minor allele carrier status of rs12608932 was strongly associated with an ~1-year reduction of survival in ALS patients, making it a significant determinant of phenotype variation. The identification of UNC13A as a modifier of prognosis among sporadic ALS patients potentially provides a new therapeutic target aimed at slowing disease progression. PMID:22921269

  4. The impact of truncation and missing family links in population-based registers on familial risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Leu, Monica; Czene, Kamila; Reilly, Marie

    2007-12-15

    Family history information is often incomplete in population-based disease registers because of truncation and/or missing family links. In this study, the authors simulated complete populations of related individuals with realistic age, family structure, and incidence rates. After mimicking the realities of register-based data, such as left truncation of family history and missing family links due to death, the authors explored recovery of familial association parameters from standard epidemiologic models. Truncation of family history produced almost no bias for a familial risk of 2 and 50 years of follow-up, but it had a dramatic impact when the familial risk was 10. The age distribution of disease and the magnitude of background incidence rates also affected family history loss and thus the magnitude of bias. One can safeguard against bias by starting follow-up later, with the number of registration years to be ignored in the analysis depending on the value of familial risk. The missing familial links due to death had no effect, except when there was differential mortality for cases with and without a family history of disease. In summary, truncation, and to a lesser extent missing family links, induces bias in familial risk estimates from population-based registers.

  5. Estimation of LDL Particle Size Using Lipid Indices: A Population-Based Study of 1578 Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Watabe, Yaeko; Arisaka, Osamu; Miyake, Noriko; Ichikawa, Go; Koyama, Satomi; Shimura, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is atherogenic and LDL particles are reduced in diameter in the presence of insulin resistance, forming small, dense LDL. This study was conducted to assess the relationship between commonly used lipid indices and LDL particle size and furthermore to clarify the best surrogate lipid markers that could conveniently be used to estimate LDL particle size in children. We determined LDL particle diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis in 1578 children aged 10-12 years. At the fasting state, the relationships between measured LDL particle size and lipid variables [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), atherogenic index [(TC-HDL-C)/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/apolipoprotein B (Apo B) and non-HDL-C (TC-HDL-C)] were analyzed. The LDL particle diameter was 26.64 (mean) ± 0.48 (SD) nm in boys (n = 820) and 26.66 ± 0.49 nm in girls (n = 758); there was not a statistically significant difference. There were statistically significant correlations between LDL particle size and TG or HDL-C concentrations (r = 0.28∼0.37), but the correlations with LDL-C and ApoB were very weak. The combined lipid measures, such as atherogenic index, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C showed moderate correlations (r = 0.33∼0.38) with LDL particle size; however, the correlation of non-HDL-C with LDL particle size was weak (r = 0.18∼0.19). Simple HDL-C measure appeared to be of comparable value to combined lipid measures. Our data indicate that various lipid indices are not superior to HDL-C levels alone as a clinical tool for estimating LDL particle size. Non-HDL-C was less valuable in this aspect.

  6. A population based estimation of the driver protection provided by passenger cars: France 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Louis; Lenguerrand, Erik

    2008-11-01

    The technology used in cars to protect occupants is constantly developing. Demonstrating the beneficial effects in the field is complex as the most recent vehicles are generally used by drivers who differ from other drivers and who drive in different traffic conditions. This paper presents an overall estimation of the consequences of changes in the secondary safety of cars, taking account of most of these factors. The data come from information collected about injury road traffic crashes by the police in France between 1996 and 2005. The risk of the driver being killed has been evaluated for the 144,034 drivers involved in two-car crashes and for the 63,621 drivers involved in single-car crashes. The study shows that when a recent car is in collision with an older car the driver of the former is better protected than the driver of the latter. These improvements in secondary safety are not observed in the case of single-car crashes, very probably because of higher impact speeds. Our findings also confirm the need for protection systems to be better adapted to the specific characteristics of users and for an improvement in the crash compatibility of vehicles, in particular to overcome the consequences of differences between the masses of vehicles.

  7. Acute cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hyperthyroidism, but most studies have been too small to address the effect of hyperthyroidism on individual cardiovascular endpoints. Our main aim was to assess the association among hyperthyroidism, acute cardiovascular events and mortality. It is a nationwide population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Patient Registry, which covers all Danish hospitals. We compared the rate of all-cause mortality as well as venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic and non-ischemic stroke, arterial embolism, atrial fibrillation (AF) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the two cohorts. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. The study included 85 856 hyperthyroid patients and 847 057 matched population-based controls. Mean follow-up time was 9.2 years. The HR for mortality was highest in the first 3 months after diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: 4.62, 95% CI: 4.40-4.85, and remained elevated during long-term follow-up (>3 years) (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.33-1.37). The risk for all examined cardiovascular events was increased, with the highest risk in the first 3 months after hyperthyroidism diagnosis. The 3-month post-diagnosis risk was highest for atrial fibrillation (HR: 7.32, 95% CI: 6.58-8.14) and arterial embolism (HR: 6.08, 95% CI: 4.30-8.61), but the risks of VTE, AMI, ischemic and non-ischemic stroke and PCI were increased also 2- to 3-fold. We found an increased risk for all-cause mortality and acute cardiovascular events in patients with hyperthyroidism. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Doctor Shopping Behavior for Zolpidem Among Insomnia Patients in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tzu-Hsuan; Lee, Yen-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, You-Meei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although zolpidem is listed as a controlled drug in Taiwan, patients' behavior has not been restricted and has led to the problem of doctor shopping behavior (DSB), leading to overutilization of medical resources and excess spending. The National Health Insurance Administration in Taiwan has instituted a new policy to regulate physicians' prescribing behavior and decrease DSB. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the DSB for zolpidem by insomnia patients and assess related factors. Design and Participants: Data were extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Individuals with a diagnosis of insomnia who received more than one prescription of zolpidem in 2008 were followed for 24 mo. Doctor shopping was defined as ≥ 2 prescriptions by different doctors within ≥ 1 day overlapping in the duration of therapy. The percentage of zolpidem obtained through doctor shopping was used as an indicator of the DSB of each patient. Results: Among the 6,947 insomnia patients who were prescribed zolpidem, 1,652 exhibited DSB (23.78%). The average dose of zolpidem dispensed for each patient during 24 mo was 244.21 daily defined doses. The doctor shopping indicator (DSI) was 0.20 (standard deviation, 0.23) among patients with DSB. Younger age, chronic diseases, high number of diseases, higher premium status, high socioeconomic status, and fewer people served per practicing physicians were all factors significantly related to doctor shopping behavior. Conclusion: Doctor shopping for zolpidem appears to be an important issue in Taiwan. Implementing a proper referral system with efficient data exchange by physician or pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process might reduce DSB. Citation: Lu TH, Lee YY, Lee HC, Lin YM. Doctor shopping behavior for zolpidem among insomnia patients in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1039–1044. PMID:25761979

  9. A population-based estimate of the economic burden of influenza in Peru, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Yeny O; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Rázuri, Hugo; Kasper, Matthew R; Romero, Candice; Ortiz, Ernesto; Gomez, Jorge; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Uyeki, Timothy M; Gilman, Robert H; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2016-07-01

    Influenza disease burden and economic impact data are needed to assess the potential value of interventions. Such information is limited from resource-limited settings. We therefore studied the cost of influenza in Peru. We used data collected during June 2009-December 2010 from laboratory-confirmed influenza cases identified through a household cohort in Peru. We determined the self-reported direct and indirect costs of self-treatment, outpatient care, emergency ward care, and hospitalizations through standardized questionnaires. We recorded costs accrued 15-day from illness onset. Direct costs represented medication, consultation, diagnostic fees, and health-related expenses such as transportation and phone calls. Indirect costs represented lost productivity during days of illness by both cases and caregivers. We estimated the annual economic cost and the impact of a case of influenza on a household. There were 1321 confirmed influenza cases, of which 47% sought health care. Participants with confirmed influenza illness paid a median of $13 [interquartile range (IQR) 5-26] for self-treatment, $19 (IQR 9-34) for ambulatory non-medical attended illness, $29 (IQR 14-51) for ambulatory medical attended illness, and $171 (IQR 113-258) for hospitalizations. Overall, the projected national cost of an influenza illness was $83-$85 millions. Costs per influenza illness represented 14% of the monthly household income of the lowest income quartile (compared to 3% of the highest quartile). Influenza virus infection causes an important economic burden, particularly among the poorest families and those hospitalized. Prevention strategies such as annual influenza vaccination program targeting SAGE population at risk could reduce the overall economic impact of seasonal influenza. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Correlation of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with restless legs syndrome: a population based survey

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, S; Dogu, O; Kaleagasi, H; Aral, M; Metin, O; Camdeviren, H

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an important and common cause of insomnia, and previous studies indicate that psychiatric wellbeing may be impaired among RLS patients. We aimed to investigate the interaction between anxiety/depression and RLS in a population based survey. Methods: Data were drawn from the Mersin University Neuro-Epidemiology Project, a representative community sample of adults aged over 17 years residing in Mersin (n = 3234). Subjects found to be positive for RLS (n = 103) were evaluated for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales and compared with the same number of contemporaneous control subjects. Results: Significantly greater anxiety and depression symptoms were observed among patients with RLS than in the control subjects. Our data also seem to provide initial evidence of a correlation between the severity of RLS and of anxiety and depression symptoms (r = 0.21, p = 0.03 and r = 0.201, p = 0.04 respectively). Conclusions: Assessment of psychiatric status of RLS patients can be helpful and sometimes necessary to determine additional features and treatment strategies of this bothering condition. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings using longitudinal data. PMID:14742594

  11. Helmet use in bicycle trauma patients: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zibung, E; Riddez, L; Nordenvall, C

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the increasing number of bicyclists has evoked the debate on use of bicycle helmet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between helmet use and injury pattern in bicycle trauma patients. We performed a retrospective population-based study of 186 patients treated for bicycle-related injuries at a Level 1 Trauma Centre in Sweden during a 3-year period. Data were collected from case records. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). 43.5% of the 186 patients used a bicycle helmet at the time of the crash. Helmet users were less likely to get head and facial injuries in collisions than non-helmet users (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.07-0.8, and OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02-0.3), whereas no difference was seen in single-vehicle accidents. The risk of limb injuries was higher among helmet users. Non-helmet use is associated with an increased risk of injury to head and face in collisions, whereas helmet use is associated with an increased risk of limb injuries in all types of crashes.

  12. Estimation of the probability of exposure to metalworking fluids in a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla R.; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe here an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (10-90%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally, 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and the US production levels by decade found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. PMID:25256317

  13. Risk of dementia in patients with celiac disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Luchsinger, José A; Freedberg, Daniel E; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-01-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) frequently report cognitive symptoms when they are exposed to gluten, and cognitive deficits have been quantified in patients with newly diagnosed CD. To determine whether patients with CD have an increased risk of dementia. Using a population-based database of older adults (age ≥50 years) with histologically proven CD (duodenal/jejunal villous atrophy) from all 28 pathology departments in Sweden, we compared the incidence of a subsequent dementia diagnosis to those of age- and gender-matched controls. Among patients with CD (n = 8,846) and controls (n = 43,474), the median age was 63 years and 56% were female. During a median follow-up time of 8.4 years, dementia was diagnosed in 4.3% of CD patients and 4.4% of controls (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.95-1.20). Although there was an increased risk of dementia in the first year following a diagnosis of CD (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.15-2.61), this risk was not present in the whole observation period. Among those subjects with a dementia subtype specified, the increased risk was restricted to vascular dementia (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.00-1.64) and was not present for Alzheimer's dementia (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.91-1.37). Patients with CD are not at increased risk for dementia overall, though subgroup analysis suggests that they may be at increased risk for vascular dementia.

  14. Survival in Mediterranean ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Frigola-Capell, Eva; Comin-Colet, Josep; Davins-Miralles, Josep; Gich-Saladich, Ignasi J; Wensing, Michel; Verdú-Rotellar, Jose M

    2013-07-01

    Scarce research has been performed in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure in the Mediterranean area. Our aim was to describe survival trends in our target population and the impact of prognostic factors. We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study in Catalonia (north-east Spain) of 5659 ambulatory patients (60% women; mean age 77 [10] years) with incident chronic heart failure. Eligible patients were selected from the electronic patient records of primary care practices from 2005 and were followed-up until 2007. During the follow-up period deaths occurred in 950 patients (16.8%). Survival after the onset of chronic heart failure at 1, 2, and 3 years was 90%, 80%, 69%, respectively. No significant differences in survival were found between men and women (P=.13). Cox proportional hazard modelling confirmed an increased risk of death with older age (hazard ratio=1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.07), diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio=1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.76), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio=1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.05), and ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio=1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.36). Hypertension (hazard ratio=0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84) had a protective effect. Service planning and prevention programs should take into consideration the relatively high survival rates found in our area and the effect of prognostic factors that can help to identify high risk patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  16. A population-based study of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib in first line.

    PubMed

    Castagnetti, Fausto; Di Raimondo, Francesco; De Vivo, Antonio; Spitaleri, Antonio; Gugliotta, Gabriele; Fabbiano, Francesco; Capodanno, Isabella; Mannina, Donato; Salvucci, Marzia; Antolino, Agostino; Marasca, Roberto; Musso, Maurizio; Crugnola, Monica; Impera, Stefana; Trabacchi, Elena; Musolino, Caterina; Cavazzini, Francesco; Mineo, Giuseppe; Tosi, Patrizia; Tomaselli, Carmela; Rizzo, Michele; Siragusa, Sergio; Fogli, Miriam; Ragionieri, Riccardo; Zironi, Alessandro; Soverini, Simona; Martinelli, Giovanni; Cavo, Michele; Vigneri, Paolo; Stagno, Fabio; Rosti, Gianantonio; Baccarani, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment is based on company-sponsored and academic trials testing different tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as first-line therapy. These studies included patients selected according to many inclusion-exclusion criteria, particularly age and comorbidities, with specific treatment obligations. In daily clinical practice (real-life), inclusion-exclusion criteria do not exist, and the treatment outcome does not only depend on the choice of first-line TKI but also on second- and third-line TKIs. To investigate in a real-life setting the response and the outcome on first-line imatinib, with switch to second generation TKIs in case of unsatisfying response or intolerance, we analyzed all newly diagnosed patients (N = 236), living in two Italian regions, registered in a prospective study according to population-based criteria and treated front-line with imatinib. A switch from imatinib to second-generation TKIs was reported in 14% of patients for side effects and in 24% for failure or suboptimal response, with an improvement of molecular response in 57% of them. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-related survival (LRS) were 85% and 93%, respectively; the 4-year rates of MR(3.0) and MR(4.0) were 75% and 48%, respectively. Cardiovascular complications were reported in 4% of patients treated with imatinib alone and in 6% of patients receiving nilotinib as second-line. Older age (≥70 years) affected OS, but not LRS. These data provide an unbiased reference on the CML management and on the results of TKI treatment in real-life, according to ELN recommendations, using imatinib as first-line treatment and second-generation TKIs as second-line therapy. Am. J. Hematol. 92:82-87, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Risk of Malignancy Among Patients With Sarcoidosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the risk of malignancy in patients with sarcoidosis in a population-based cohort. A cohort of Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents diagnosed with sarcoidosis between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 2013 was identified based on individual medical record review. For each sarcoidosis subject, 2 sex- and age-matched comparator subjects without sarcoidosis were randomly selected. Cases and comparators were then cross-indexed with the Mayo Clinic Cancer Registry, which collected data on every type of malignancy except for nonmelanoma skin cancer, for malignancy ascertainment. A total of 345 incident cases of sarcoidosis and 690 comparators were identified. There was no difference in the prevalence of malignancy at the index date between the 2 groups (4.3% among cases and 4.3% among comparators; P = 1.0). During followup, 36 patients with sarcoidosis and 91 subjects without sarcoidosis developed malignancy, with a cumulative incidence at 10 years of 3.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The difference corresponded to a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.49-1.06). The cumulative incidences at 10 years for individual types of malignancy were also similar between the 2 groups, with nonsignificant HRs. However, subgroup analysis found that cases with extrathoracic involvement were at higher risk of incident hematologic malignancy compared with cases without extrathoracic involvement (HR 1.87 [95% CI 1.09-3.22]). Risk of malignancy was similar among patients with sarcoidosis compared to nonsarcoidosis subjects. However, the risk of incident hematologic malignancy was significantly higher among patients with sarcoidosis with extrathoracic involvement compared to patients without extrathoracic disease. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Population-Based Study of QT Interval Prolongation in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Krati; Ackerman, Michael J.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) (which is obtained from a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and reflects ventricular repolarization duration) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality. Our primary purpose is to determine the impact of QTc prolongation on mortality in RA patients. Methods A population-based inception cohort of patients with RA fulfilling 1987 ACR criteria in 1988–2007 was identified, with an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort and followed until death, migration or 12-31-2008. Data were collected on ECG variables, medications known to prolong QT interval, electrolytes, cardiovascular risk factors and disease status and RA disease characteristics. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine QTc prolongation as predictor of mortality. Results QTc prolongation prior to RA incidence/index date was similar in RA (15%) and non-RA (18%) subjects. During follow-up, the cumulative incidence of QTc prolongation was higher among RA (48% at 20 years after RA incidence) than non-RA (38% at 20 years after index date; p= 0.004). Idiopathic QTc prolongation (excluding prolongations explained by ECG changes, medications, etc.) was marginally associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.91–1.81, p=0.16), but was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.10; 95% CI:0.43–2.86, p= 0.83) in RA. Conclusion RA patients have a significantly elevated risk of developing QTc prolongation. However, idiopathic prolonged QTc was only marginally associated with all-cause mortality in RA patients. The clinical implications of these findings in RA require further study. PMID:25572282

  19. Population based analysis of survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Jared M; Reese, Adam C; Meng, Maxwell V

    2013-02-01

    To identify prognostic factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) and determine the significance of thrombus level on survival. Patients within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database with RCC and VTT were identified and included if managed surgically. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with disease-specific survival. A total of 1,875 patients met the inclusion criteria. One-year survival for patients undergoing surgery was 60% for patients with metastases and 90% for those without. Factors associated with worse survival included larger tumor size (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), medullary, collecting duct, or sarcomatoid histology (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.3), Fuhrman grade 3 (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.3) or grade 4 (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8-4.5) tumors, positive lymph nodes (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.0), and metastases (HR 3.5, 95% CI 2.6-4.8). Thrombus level above the diaphragm (T3c) was not significantly associated with worse survival (HR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.5). In this large, population-based study of patients with RCC and VTT, we identify several disease-specific factors strongly associated with cancer-specific mortality. After controlling for adverse prognostic factors, thrombus level was not associated with worse outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival Trends in Elderly Patients with Glioblastoma in the United States: a Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Bista, Amir; Sharma, Sandhya

    2016-09-01

    Concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide along with radiotherapy following surgery (the Stupp regimen) is the preferred therapy for young patients with glioblastoma as well as for elderly (>70 years) ones with favorable risk factors. This study investigated the survival trend since the introduction of the use of the Stupp regimen in elderly patients in a population-based setting. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database was used to identify patients aged ≥70 years with glioblastoma as the first primary cancer diagnosed from 1999 to 2010. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard method were used for analysis. A total of 5,575 patients were included in the survival analysis. Survival in Stupp era (year of diagnosis ≥2005) was significantly better compared to the pre-Stupp era with p<0.001 by log-rank test, with 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival of 18.8% vs. 12.9%, 6.5% vs. 2.1% and 3.1% vs. 0.9% respectively, and hazard ratio for death in 3 years in the Stupp era was 0.87 (95% confidence interval=0.82-0.92; p<0.001) when compared with the pre-Stupp era. Factors such as younger age (<85 years), female sex, married status, Caucasian race and total resection favored better survival compared to their counterparts. This study shows that the survival of elderly patients with glioblastoma has improved since the introduction of the Stupp regimen. However, there are significant differences in survival rates among various cohorts. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Increased subsequent risk of acute coronary syndrome for patients with depressive disorder: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Nien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible association between subsequent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) risk and depressive disorder. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan to address the research topic. The exposure cohort contained 10 871 patients with new diagnoses of depressive disorders. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched for sex and age with four participants from the general population who did not have any ACS history before the index date (control group). Cox's proportion hazard regression analyses were conducted to estimate the relation between depressive disorders and subsequent ACS risk. Among patients with depressive disorders, the overall risk for developing subsequent ACS was significantly higher than that of the control group (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.63-2.17). Further analysis revealed that the higher risk was observed in patients who were male, were of older age, or whose diagnosis was combined with other comorbidities. The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that depressive disorder is associated with an increased subsequent ACS risk. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Ho, Te-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Pang, See-Tong; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Lin, Po-Hung

    2017-01-01

    Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß = 0.11). The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather.

  3. Disease management programs for patients with asthma in Germany: a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mehring, Michael; Donnachie, Ewan; Mutschler, Robert; Hofmann, Frank; Keller, Manfred; Schneider, Antonius

    2013-07-01

    The primary aim of the disease management program (DMP) for patients with asthma is to improve health outcomes and to reduce costs. Five years after its introduction in Germany, no consensus has yet been reached as to whether DMP has been effective in reaching these goals. To evaluate the DMP for asthma in Bavaria using routinely collected subject medical records. A longitudinal population-based study encompassing over 100,000 DMP participants between 2006 (when the program began) and 2010. The prescription rate of oral corticosteroids dropped from 15.7% in 2006 to 13.6% in 2007, and again from 7.5% in 2008 to 5.9% in 2010 (P < .001). The proportion of subjects with asthma self-management education increased from 4.4% to 23.4% (P < .001). Utilization of an individual asthma action plan increased from 40.3% to 69.3% (P < .001). Hospitalization decreased from 2.8% to 0.7% (P < .001). In the first 4 years of DMP there was an improvement in pharmacotherapy and patient self management. The proportion of subjects requiring hospitalization decreased. Our results suggest that the German DMP for asthma has been effective in enhancing the quality of care in regard to an improved symptom frequency, adherence to guidelines, pharmacotherapy, and hospitalization.

  4. Patients with Epididymo-Orchitis and Meteorological Impact in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Ho, Te-Wei; Chang, Fung-Wei; Pang, See-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Epididymo-orchitis is a common infectious disease among men, especially men aged 20 to 39 years. The aim of this study was to analyze possible associations of various meteorological indicators on the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Methods and Materials. This nationwide population-based study collected data on cases of epididymo-orchitis that were newly diagnosed from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan. Monthly meteorological indicators, including average temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours, were collected from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan. Data for a total of 7,233 patients with epididymo-orchitis were collected for this study. Results. The monthly incidence of epididymo-orchitis was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, and sunshine hours. The average monthly temperature had a linear correlation with the incidence of epididymo-orchitis (ß = 0.11). The monthly average temperature is significantly related, with a positive linear correlation, to the incidence of epididymo-orchitis in Taiwan. Conclusion. This finding may constitute useful information in terms of helping physicians to distinguish between patients with epididymo-orchitis and testicular torsion in hot or cold weather. PMID:28316630

  5. Estimates of Smoking Before and During Pregnancy, and Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy: Comparing Two Population-Based Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; D'Angelo, Denise V.; England, Lucinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We compared three measures of maternal smoking status—-prepregnancy, during pregnancy, and smoking cessation during pregnancy—between the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) questionnaire and the 2003 revised birth certificate (BC). Methods We analyzed data from 10,485 women with live births in eight states from the 2008 PRAMS survey, a confidential, anonymous survey administered in the postpartum period that is linked to select BC variables. We calculated self-reported prepregnancy and prenatal smoking (last trimester only) prevalence based on the BC, the PRAMS survey, and the two data sources combined, and the percentage of smoking cessation during pregnancy based on the BC and PRAMS survey. We used two-sided t-tests to compare BC and PRAMS estimates. Results Prepregnancy smoking prevalence estimates were 17.3% from the BC, 24.4% from PRAMS, and 25.4% on one or both data sources. Prenatal smoking prevalence estimates were 11.3% from the BC, 14.0% from PRAMS, and 15.2% on one or both data sources. The percentages of prepregnancy smokers who indicated that they quit smoking by the last trimester were 35.1% from the BC and 42.6% from PRAMS. The PRAMS estimates of prepregnancy and prenatal smoking, and smoking cessation during pregnancy were statistically higher than the corresponding BC estimates (t-tests, p<0.05). Conclusions PRAMS captured more women who smoked before and during the last trimester than the revised BC. States implementing PRAMS and the revised BC should consider information from both sources when developing population-based estimates of smoking before pregnancy and during the last trimester of pregnancy. PMID:23633733

  6. Impact of instrument error on the estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in population-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The basis for this study is the fact that instrument error increases the variance of the distribution of body mass index (BMI). Combined with a defined cut-off value this may impact upon the estimated proportion of overweight and obesity. It is important to ensure high quality surveillance data in order to follow trends of estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of instrument error, due to uncalibrated scales and stadiometers, on prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity. Methods Anthropometric measurements from a nationally representative sample were used; the Norwegian Child Growth study (NCG) of 3474 children. Each of the 127 participating schools received a reference weight and a reference length to determine the correction value. Correction value corresponds to instrument error and is the difference between the true value and the measured, uncorrected weight and height at local scales and stadiometers. Simulations were used to determine the expected implications of instrument errors. To systematically investigate this, the coefficient of variation (CV) of instrument error was used in the simulations and was increased successively. Results Simulations showed that the estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity increased systematically with the size of instrument error when the mean instrument error was zero. The estimated prevalence was 16.4% with no instrument error and was, on average, overestimated by 0.5 percentage points based on observed variance of instrument error from the NCG-study. Further, the estimated prevalence was 16.7% with 1% CV of instrument error, and increased to 17.8%, 19.5% and 21.6% with 2%, 3% and 4% CV of instrument error, respectively. Conclusions Failure to calibrate measuring instruments is likely to lead to overestimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in population-based surveys. PMID:23413839

  7. Diagnosis and mortality in prehospital emergency patients transported to hospital: a population-based and registry-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Erika Frischknecht; Larsen, Thomas Mulvad; Jensen, Flemming Bøgh; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Hansen, Poul Anders; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Knowledge about patients after calling for an ambulance is limited to subgroups, such as patients with cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, trauma and stroke, while population-based studies including all diagnoses are few. We examined the diagnostic pattern and mortality among all patients brought to hospital by ambulance after emergency calls. Design Registry-based cohort study. Setting and participants We included patients brought to hospital in an ambulance dispatched after emergency calls during 2007–2014 in the North Denmark Region (580 000 inhabitants). We reported hospital diagnosis according to the chapters of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10), and studied death on days 1 and 30 after the call. Cohort characteristics and diagnoses were described, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate mortality and 95% CIs. Results In total, 148 757 patients were included, mean age 52.9 (SD 24.3) years. The most frequent ICD-10 diagnosis chapters were: ‘injury and poisoning’ (30.0%), and the 2 non-specific diagnosis chapters: ‘symptoms and abnormal findings, not elsewhere classified’ (17.5%) and ‘factors influencing health status and contact with health services’ (14.1%), followed by ‘diseases of the circulatory system’ (10.6%) and ‘diseases of the respiratory system’ (6.7%). The overall 1-day mortality was 1.8% (CI 1.7% to 1.8%) and 30-day mortality 4.7% (CI 4.6% to 4.8%). ‘Diseases of the circulatory system’ had the highest 1-day mortality of 7.7% (CI 7.3% to 8.1%) accounting for 1209 deaths. After 30 days, the highest number of deaths were among circulatory diseases (2313), respiratory diseases (1148), ‘symptoms and abnormal findings, not elsewhere classified’ (1119) and ‘injury and poisoning’ (741), and 30 days mortality in percentage was 14.7%, 11.6%, 4.3% and 1.7%, respectively. Conclusions Patients' diagnoses from hospital stay after calling 1-1-2 in this population-based

  8. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among Medicare patients in nursing homes: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zilberberg, Marya D; Shorr, Andrew F; Jesdale, William M; Tjia, Jennifer; Lapane, Kate

    2017-03-01

    We explored the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) recurrence among Medicare patients in a nursing home (NH) whose CDI originated in acute care hospitals.We conducted a retrospective, population-based matched cohort combining Medicare claims with Minimum Data Set 3.0, including all hospitalized patients age ≥65 years transferred to an NH after hospitalization with CDI 1/2011-11/2012. Incident CDI was defined as ICD-9-CM code 008.45 with no others in prior 60 days. CDI recurrence was defined as (within 60 days of last day of CDI treatment): oral metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or fidaxomicin for ≥3 days in part D file; or an ICD-9-CM code for CDI (008.45) during a rehospitalization. Cox proportional hazards and linear models, adjusted for age, gender, race, and comorbidities, examined mortality within 60 days and excess hospital days and costs, in patients with recurrent CDI compared to those without.Among 14,472 survivors of index CDI hospitalization discharged to an NH, 4775 suffered a recurrence. Demographics and clinical characteristics at baseline were similar, as was the risk of death (24.2% with vs 24.4% without). Median number of hospitalizations was 2 (IQR 1-3) among those with and 0 (IQR 0-1) among those without recurrence. Adjusted excess hospital days per patient were 20.3 (95% CI 19.1-21.4) and Medicare reimbursements $12,043 (95% CI $11,469-$12,617) in the group with a recurrence.Although recurrent CDI did not increase the risk of death, it was associated with a far higher risk of rehospitalization, excess hospital days, and costs to Medicare.

  9. Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Atherothrombotic Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001–2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS), all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2%) was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7%) in our patients (P = 0.0006). In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169). Conclusions This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score. PMID:24647769

  10. Improved outcome in acute myeloid leukemia patients enrolled in clinical trials: A national population-based cohort study of Danish intensive chemotherapy patients

    PubMed Central

    Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Mette; Sengeløv, Henrik; Medeiros, Bruno C.; Kjeldsen, Lars; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Jensen, Morten Krogh; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are critical to improve AML treatment. It remains, however, unclear if clinical trial participation per se affects prognosis and to what extent the patients selected for trials differ from those of patients receiving intensive therapy off-trial. We conducted a population-based cohort study of newly diagnosed Danish AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy between 2000–2013. We estimated accrual rates and compared characteristics, complete remission (CR) rates, and relative risks (RRs) of death at 90-day, 1-year, and 3-years in clinical trial patients to patients treated off-trial. Of 867 patients, 58.3% (n = 504) were included in a clinical trial. Accrual rates were similar across age groups (p = 0.55). Patients with poor performance status, comorbidity, therapy-related and secondary AML were less likely to be enrolled in trials. CR rates were 80.2% in trial-patients versus 68.6% in patients treated off- trial. Also, trial-patients had superior survival at 1-year; 72%, vs. 54% (adjusted RR of death 1.28(CI = 1.06–1.54)), and at 3 years; 45% vs. 29% (adjusted RR 1.14(CI = 1.03–1.26)) compared to patients treated off-trial. Despite high accrual rates, patients enrolled in clinical trials had a favorable prognostic profile and a better survival than patients treated off-trial. In conclusion, all trial results should be extrapolated with caution and population-based studies of “real world patients” have a prominent role in examining the prognosis of AML. PMID:27732947

  11. Incidence and prognosis of parathyroid gland carcinoma: a population-based study in The Netherlands estimating the preoperative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schaapveld, Michael; Jorna, Francisca H; Aben, Katja K H; Haak, Harm R; Plukker, John T M; Links, Thera P

    2011-11-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy and generally is diagnosed after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Lack of a preoperative diagnosis and ill-considered surgical planning with its impact on survival are ill-described. In a retrospective population-based cohort study the clinical features, treatment, recurrences, and survival of 41 parathyroid cancer patients are reported and compared with characteristics of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Patients with parathyroid carcinoma had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels compared with patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Nineteen patients (46%) had a palpable neck mass. A parathyroid hormone level more than 3 times the upper normal limits was suspicious and levels more than 10 times carried a positive predictive value of 84% for carcinoma. Ten-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival rates were 71% and 79%, respectively. Parathyroid hormone levels of more than 3 times upper normal limits, palpable neck mass, and profound hypercalcemia are suspicious signs of carcinoma necessitating surgical exploration by an experienced surgeon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of venous thromboembolism recurrence and bleeding among active cancer patients: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Cheng E.; Ashrani, Aneel A.; Marks, Randolph S.; Petterson, Tanya M.; Bailey, Kent R.; Melton, L. Joseph; Heit, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Active cancer is the major predictor of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence, but further stratification of recurrence risk is uncertain. In a population-based cohort study of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents with active cancer-related incident VTE during the 35-year period from 1966 to 2000 who survived 1 day or longer, we estimated VTE recurrence, bleeding on anticoagulant therapy, and survival and tested cancer and noncancer characteristics and secondary prophylaxis as predictors of VTE recurrence and bleeding, using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Of 477 patients, 139 developed recurrent VTE over the course of 1533 person-years of follow-up. The adjusted 10-year cumulative VTE recurrence rate was 28.6%. The adjusted 90-day cumulative incidence of major bleeding on anticoagulation was 1.9%. Survival was significantly worse for patients with cancer who had recurrent VTE (particularly pulmonary embolism) and with bleeding on anticoagulation. In a multivariable model, brain, lung, and ovarian cancer; myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic disorders; stage IV pancreatic cancer; other stage IV cancer; cancer stage progression; and leg paresis were associated with an increased hazard, and warfarin therapy was associated with a reduced hazard, of recurrent VTE. Recurrence rates were significantly higher for cancer patients with 1 or more vs no predictors of recurrence, suggesting these predictors may be useful for stratifying recurrence risk. PMID:24782507

  13. Increased risk of zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancies: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gradel, Kim O; Nørgaard, Mette; Dethlefsen, Claus; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Kristensen, Brian; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesised that haematological malignancies increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis. The population-based study comprised all first-time Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis cases in two Danish counties (1991-2003), with age- and gender-matched controls from the background population. We linked the study cohort to registries to obtain data on malignancies, chemotherapy (yes/no), and main comorbidities diagnosed before Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Based on this design, we determined incidence rate ratios (IRR) in conditional logistic regression analyses, and we used weighted mean regression curves to evaluate fluctuations in risk 0-5 years after the malignancy diagnosis. Sixty-eight of 13,324 cases (0.5%) and 29 of 26,648 controls (0.1%) had haematological malignancy before their Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis. Comorbidity-adjusted IRR for Salmonella/Campylobacter gastroenteritis in patients with haematological malignancy as compared to patients without malignancy were 4.46 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.88-6.90] for all individuals, 8.33 (95% CI, 4.31-16.1) for Salmonella, and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.15-4.08) for Campylobacter. Stratification on chemotherapy treatment did not change these estimates. In time-related analyses, IRR were 7-8 in the first 2 years after the haematological malignancy diagnosis and 4-5 in the following 3 years. Patients with haematological malignancy had increased long-term risk of enquiring Salmonella or Campylobacter gastroenteritis.

  14. Radiotherapy and Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Esther H. Ellis, Rodney J.; Cherullo, Edward; Colussi, Valdir; Xu Fang; Chen Weidong; Gupta, Sanjay; Whalen, Christopher C.; Bodner, Donald; Resnick, Martin I.; Rimm, Alfred A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of overall and disease-specific survival with the five standard treatment modalities for prostate cancer (CaP): radical prostatectomy (RP), brachytherapy (BT), external beam radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, and no treatment (NT) within 6 months after CaP diagnosis. Methods and Materials: The study population included 10,179 men aged 65 years and older with incident CaP diagnosed between 1999 and 2001. Using the linked Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicare, and death certificate files, overall and disease-specific survival through 2005 among the five clinically accepted therapies were analyzed. Results: Disease-specific survival rates were 92.3% and 23.9% for patients with localized vs. distant disease at 7 years, respectively. Controlling for age, race, comorbidities, stage, and Gleason score, results from the Cox multiple regression models indicated that the risk of CaP-specific death was significantly reduced in patients receiving RP or BT, compared with NT. For localized disease, compared with NT, in the monotherapy cohort, RP and BT were associated with reduced hazard ratios (HR) of 0.25 and 0.45 (95% confidence intervals 0.13-0.48 and 0.23-0.87, respectively), whereas in the combination therapy cohort, HR were 0.40 (0.17-0.94) and 0.46 (0.27-0.80), respectively. Conclusions: The present population-based study indicates that RP and BT are associated with improved survival outcomes. Further studies are warranted to improve clinical determinates in the selection of appropriate management of CaP and to improve predictive modeling for which patient subsets may benefit most from definitive therapy vs. conservative management and/or observation.

  15. Meningioma in Breast Cancer Patients: Population-based Analysis of Clinicopathologic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Milano, Michael T; Grossman, Craig E

    2017-02-01

    Although an association between meningioma and breast cancer (BC) has been postulated, clear mechanisms remain obscure. By conducting population-based analyses in women with both BC and meningioma, hypothesis-generating causal links were pursued. Using the US SEER 18 registry (2004 to 2009), clinicopathologic and demographic characteristics from cohorts of women with only BC (n=279,821) or meningioma (n=19,570) diagnoses were compared with 412 women with both diagnoses (BC-meningioma). BC diagnosis preceded meningioma by >2 months in 48% of women; 20% had synchronous (within 2 mo) disease. Median meningioma size was 1.9 and 2.4 cm in the BC-meningioma and meningioma cohorts, respectively (P=0.0009). Among BC-meningioma patients, meningioma size was similar whether diagnosed >2 months prior, synchronously, or >2 months after BC. Meningioma was pathologically confirmed in 38% of BC-meningioma and 51% of meningioma patients. Distribution of BC histologies was comparable in patients with and without meningioma, with ductal type predominating (80% in BC-meningioma, 83% in BC). Although hormone receptor status of invasive BC was not significantly different between BC-meningioma and BC groups, the BC-meningioma cohort had fewer women with ER+/PR+ in situ disease (P=0.006). BC stage among women with meningioma was more advanced versus women with BC only. Women with BC and meningioma have smaller-sized meningiomas and more advanced BCs compared with women having only 1 diagnosis. As there was no temporal relationship between size and latency between tumor diagnoses, the disparity in meningioma size between BC-meningioma and meningioma cohorts may have BC-associated biological components that warrant further study.

  16. Medication use and survival in diabetic patients with kidney cancer: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nayan, Madhur; Macdonald, Erin M; Juurlink, David N; Austin, Peter C; Finelli, Antonio; Kulkarni, Girish S; Hamilton, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Survival rates in kidney cancer have improved little over time, and diabetes may be an independent risk factor for poor survival in kidney cancer. We sought to determine whether medications with putative anti-neoplastic properties (statins, metformin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)) are associated with survival in diabetics with kidney cancer. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing linked healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. Patients were aged 66 or older with newly diagnosed diabetes and a subsequent diagnosis of incident kidney cancer. Receipt of metformin, statins or NSAIDs was defined using prescription claims. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and the secondary outcome was cancer-specific mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, with medication use modeled with time-varying and cumulative exposure analyses to account for intermittent use. During the 14-year study period, we studied 613 patients. Current statin use was associated with a markedly reduced risk of death from any cause (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.59-0.91) and death due to kidney cancer (adjusted hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI 0.51-0.97). However, survival was not associated with current use of metformin or NSAIDs, or cumulative exposure to any of the medications studied. Among diabetic patients with kidney cancer, survival outcomes are associated with active statin use, rather than total cumulative use. These findings support the use of randomized trials to confirm whether diabetics with kidney cancer should be started on a statin at the time of cancer diagnosis to improve survival outcomes.

  17. Risk of cholecystitis in patients with cancer: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Thomsen, Henrik F; Nørgaard, Mette; Cetin, Karynsa; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E; Fryzek, Jon P; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2008-12-15

    To the authors' knowledge, little information is available regarding the incidence of cholecystitis among patients with cancer. The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study of 51,228 patients with incident cancer, identified in medical databases of western Denmark between 1995 and 2003. A general population comparison cohort of 512,280 persons was assembled using the Danish Civil Registration System. The occurrence of cholecystitis in the 2 groups was determined by linkage to the regional Hospital Discharge Registry. In all, 230 incident diagnoses of cholecystitis were identified in the cancer cohort during 130,185 person-years (median follow-up time: 1.6 years), corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.8 of 1000 person-years. After adjustment for confounders, the relative risk (RR) for cholecystitis among cancer patients compared with the general population cohort was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.20-1.58). Overall, the RR for cholecystitis was doubled during the first 6 months after cancer diagnosis (RR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.50-2.54), after which the RR declined but remained greater than 1 throughout the rest of the follow-up period (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45). Cancer patients between the ages of 51 and 70 years had the highest risk increase for cholecystitis compared with other age groups. During the first 6 months after a cancer diagnosis, pancreatic cancers (12 cholecystitis events; RR = 9.44 [95% CI, 5.18-17.18]) and colorectal cancers (10 cholecystitis events; RR = 4.98 [95% CI, 2.65-9.34]) were found to be associated with the greatest cholecystitis risk increase compared with other tumor types. After 6 months, most cancers were associated with a relatively small increased risk, although there was an RR of 4.72 (95% CI, 1.99-11.21) based on 5 cholecystitis events among thyroid cancer patients. The results of the current study indicate that cholecystitis occurs more frequently among cancer patients than in the general population

  18. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk of displaying inattention, a lack of task persistence, disinterest, non-cooperation, or frustration as he or she completed a series of cognitive and physical tasks with a non-caregiver. Results indicated that boys are about twice as likely as girls to display learning-related behavior problems. Children from lower SES households are about twice as likely as those from high SES households to display such behavior problems, which is largely attributable to the effects of having a mother with a low educational level. Statistically controlling for these factors, we found consistently significant patterns of elevated learning-related behavior problems for some Asian and Native American children. Results for African-American children were mixed. Hispanic children did not have elevated risks of problem behaviors. Only small portions of these effects are explained by variation in the children's gestational or birth characteristics. A significant portion, but still less than half of the socio-demographic effects are attributable to measured features of the children's parenting. This study helps provide population-based estimates of children's risk for learning-related behavior problems while at an age when early interventions are most effective. PMID:19057886

  19. Increased risk of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with migraine: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hsiang; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2015-12-20

    The objectives of this article are to evaluate the association between migraine and trigeminal neuralgia and to investigate the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors on trigeminal neuralgia development. This population-based cohort study was conducted using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Individuals aged ≥ 20 years with neurologist-diagnosed migraine between 2005 and 2009 were included. A non-headache age-, sex-, and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All participants were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for comparison of the risk of trigeminal neuralgia between groups. Both cohorts (n = 137,529 each) were followed for a mean of 3.1 years. During the follow-up period, 575 patients (421,581 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 88 matched controls (438,712 person-years) were newly diagnosed with trigeminal neuralgia (incidence rates, 136.39 and 20.06/100,000 person-years, respectively). The HR for trigeminal neuralgia was 6.72 (95% CI, 5.37-8.41; p < 0.001). The association between migraine and trigeminal neuralgia remained significant in sensitivity analyses. Among migraine subtypes, patients with migraine with aura were at greater risk of trigeminal neuralgia development. No other significant interaction was identified in subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for trigeminal neuralgia. The association between these conditions suggests a linked underlying mechanism, which is worthy of further exploration. © International Headache Society 2015.

  20. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Roy, Pampa; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Kricker, Anne; Marrett, Loraine D.; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto; Gruber, Stephen B.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gallagher, Richard P.; Dwyer, Terence; Busam, Klaus; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Factors known to affect melanoma survival include age at presentation, sex and tumor characteristics. Polymorphisms also appear to modulate survival following diagnosis. Result from other studies suggest that vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (SNPs) impact survival in patients with glioma, renal cell carcinoma, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers; however, a comprehensive study of VDR polymorphisms and melanoma-specific survival is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether VDR genetic variation influences survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma. The analysis involved 3566 incident single and multiple primary melanoma cases enrolled in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study. Melanoma-specific survival outcomes were calculated for each of 38 VDR SNPs using a competing risk analysis after adjustment for covariates. There were 254 (7.1%) deaths due to melanoma during the median 7.6 years follow-up period. VDR SNPs rs7299460, rs3782905, rs2239182, rs12370156, rs2238140, rs7305032, rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs731236 (TaqI) each had a statistically significant (trend P values < 0.05) association with melanoma-specific survival in multivariate analysis. One functional SNP (rs2239182) remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing using the Monte Carlo method. None of the SNPs associated with survival were significantly associated with Breslow thickness, ulceration or mitosis. These results suggest that the VDR gene may influence survival from melanoma, although the mechanism by which VDR exerts its effect does not seem driven by tumor aggressiveness. Further investigations are needed to confirm our results and to understand the relationship between VDR and survival in the combined context of tumor and host characteristics. PMID:26521212

  1. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S; Thomas, Nancy E; Roy, Pampa; Kanetsky, Peter A; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Armstrong, Bruce K; Kricker, Anne; Marrett, Loraine D; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto; Gruber, Stephen B; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gallagher, Richard P; Dwyer, Terence; Busam, Klaus; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Factors known to affect melanoma survival include age at presentation, sex and tumor characteristics. Polymorphisms also appear to modulate survival following diagnosis. Result from other studies suggest that vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (SNPs) impact survival in patients with glioma, renal cell carcinoma, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers; however, a comprehensive study of VDR polymorphisms and melanoma-specific survival is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether VDR genetic variation influences survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma. The analysis involved 3566 incident single and multiple primary melanoma cases enrolled in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study. Melanoma-specific survival outcomes were calculated for each of 38 VDR SNPs using a competing risk analysis after adjustment for covariates. There were 254 (7.1%) deaths due to melanoma during the median 7.6 years follow-up period. VDR SNPs rs7299460, rs3782905, rs2239182, rs12370156, rs2238140, rs7305032, rs1544410 (BsmI) and rs731236 (TaqI) each had a statistically significant (trend P values < 0.05) association with melanoma-specific survival in multivariate analysis. One functional SNP (rs2239182) remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing using the Monte Carlo method. None of the SNPs associated with survival were significantly associated with Breslow thickness, ulceration or mitosis. These results suggest that the VDR gene may influence survival from melanoma, although the mechanism by which VDR exerts its effect does not seem driven by tumor aggressiveness. Further investigations are needed to confirm our results and to understand the relationship between VDR and survival in the combined context of tumor and host characteristics.

  2. Survival Comparison of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in Canada and the United States: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Anne L; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Quon, Bradley S; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza K; Elbert, Alexander; Goss, Christopher H

    2017-04-18

    In 2011, the median age of survival of patients with cystic fibrosis reported in the United States was 36.8 years, compared with 48.5 years in Canada. Direct comparison of survival estimates between national registries is challenging because of inherent differences in methodologies used, data processing techniques, and ascertainment bias. To use a standardized approach to calculate cystic fibrosis survival estimates and to explore differences between Canada and the United States. Population-based study. 42 Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics and 110 U.S. cystic fibrosis care centers. Patients followed in the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (CCFR) and U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 1990 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival between patients followed in the CCFR (n = 5941) and those in the CFFPR (n = 45 448). Multivariable models were used to adjust for factors known to be associated with survival. Median age of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis increased in both countries between 1990 and 2013; however, in 1995 and 2005, survival in Canada increased at a faster rate than in the United States (P < 0.001). On the basis of contemporary data from 2009 to 2013, the median age of survival in Canada was 10 years greater than in the United States (50.9 vs. 40.6 years, respectively). The adjusted risk for death was 34% lower in Canada than the United States (hazard ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.81]). A greater proportion of patients in Canada received transplants (10.3% vs. 6.5%, respectively [standardized difference, 13.7]). Differences in survival between U.S. and Canadian patients varied according to U.S. patients' insurance status. Ascertainment bias due to missing data or nonrandom loss to follow-up might affect the results. Differences in cystic fibrosis survival between Canada and the United States persisted after adjustment for risk factors associated with survival, except for private

  3. Risk of subsequent primary malignancies among patients with prior colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiao; Li, Shuting; Lv, Meng; Wu, Yinying; Chen, Zheling; Shen, Yanwei; Wang, Biyuan; Chen, Ling; Yi, Min; Yang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background The site-distribution pattern and relative risk of subsequent primary malignancies (SPMs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients remains to be determined. Materials and methods A population-based cohort of 288,390 CRC patients diagnosed between 1973 and 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was retrospectively reviewed. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated to estimate the relative risk for SPMs. Results The overall risk of SPMs increased in CRC patients (standardized incidence ratio 1.02) in the first 5 years after CRC diagnosis compared with that in the general population, and was negatively related to age at diagnosis. Risk increased significantly for cancers of the small intestine, ureter, colorectum, renal pelvis, endocrine system, and stomach, and decreased significantly for cancers of the gallbladder, liver, myeloma, and brain, as well as lymphoma. Patients with different prior CRC subsites showed specific sites at high risk of SPM. Prior right-sided colon cancer was associated with cancers of the small intestine, ureter, renal pelvis, thyroid, stomach, pancreas, and breast and prior left-sided colon cancer associated with secondary CRC, whereas rectal cancer was associated with cancers of the vagina, urinary bladder, and lung. Conclusion Risk of SPMs increases in CRC survivors, especially in the first 5 years after prior diagnosis. Intensive surveillance should be advocated among young patients, with specific attention to the small intestine, colorectum, renal pelvis, and ureter. The common sites at high risk of SPM originate from the embryonic endoderm. Genetic susceptibility may act as the main mechanism underlying the risk of multiple cancers. PMID:28352187

  4. Statin use and its effect on all-cause mortality of melanoma patients: a population-based Dutch cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Elisabeth; Hollestein, Loes M; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Joosse, Arjen; Schilling, Bastian; Nijsten, Tamar; Schadendorf, Dirk; de Vries, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical data showed anticancer effects of statins in melanoma, but meta-analyses could not demonstrate a reduced melanoma incidence in statin users. Rather than preventing occurrence, statins might reduce growth and metastatic spread of melanomas and ultimately improve survival. In this population-based study, we investigated the relationship between statin use and survival of melanoma patients. Patients ≥18 years who were diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma (Breslow thickness >1 mm) and registered in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry and in PHARMO Database Network between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2010 were eligible. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality was calculated by employing adjusted time-dependent and time-fixed Cox proportional hazard models. Disease-specific survival was estimated by means of 3-year relative survival rates (RSR). A control cohort of randomly selected patients using statins from PHARMO Database Network matched on age and gender was used to compare RSR of statin users to the general population. After melanoma diagnosis, 171 of 709 patients used statins. Use of statins showed a nonsignificantly decreased hazard of death (adjusted HR 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50–1.61). After stratification for gender, male but not female statin users showed a favorable outcome compared to nonusers (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.32–0.99; HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.62–2.38, respectively). Three-year RSR for male statin users tended to be higher than for nonusers (91% vs. 80.5%, P = 0.06), no differences were observed in women (87.1% vs. 92.5%, P = 0.76). Statin use was not associated with an improved survival of melanoma patients. The trend for better survival of male in contrast to female statin users warrants further research. PMID:24935402

  5. Quality of Life Among a Population-Based Cohort of Older Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neuner, Joan M.; Zokoe, Nathan; McGinley, Emily L.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Yen, Tina W.F.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Nattinger, Ann B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing numbers of older women receive adjuvant breast cancer therapies, but little is known about the long-term effects of current therapies upon health-related quality of life outside of clinical trials. Methods A population-based cohort of postmenopausal women with incident breast cancer aged sixty-five and older was identified from Medicare claims from four states and followed over five years. General health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study SF-12 Health Survey, and breast cancer-related HRQOL was assessed using the breast cancer subscale of the functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT-B BCS). The association of HRQOL with sociodemographic variables, comorbidity, and breast cancer variables (stage, treatments, and treatment sequelae) was examined in longitudinal models. Results Among the 3,083 older breast cancer survivors, general HRQOL as measured by SF-12 mental and physical component scores was similar to norms for non-cancer populations, and remained stable throughout follow-up. Breast cancer treatments, including surgery and radiation, adjuvant hormonal therapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy were not associated with worsened general health scores. A similar pattern was seen for breast cancer-related HRQOL scores, except that chemotherapy was associated with slightly worse scores. Lymphedema occurred in 17% of the cohort, and was strongly associated with all measures of HRQOL. Reductions in general HRQOL with lymphedema development were larger than those with an age increase of 10 years. Conclusions There is little association of breast cancer treatment with HRQOL in older breast cancer patients followed for up to five years, but the development of lymphedema is associated with substantial reductions in HRQOL. PMID:25034932

  6. Incidence of autoimmune diseases in patients with scabies: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chiu, Feng-Hsiang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Fung-Wei; Hsu, Ren-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Scabies is a commonly occurring infectious immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Immune-mediated inflammatory processes are also observed in autoimmune diseases. There have been very few previous studies; however, that have investigated the possible association between scabies and autoimmune diseases. To address this research gap, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study that included a total of 4481 scabies patients and 16,559 control subjects matched by gender, age, insured region, urbanization and income. We tracked both cohorts for a 7-year period to identify the incidence of autoimmune diseases in both groups during that follow-up period. Relatedly, a Cox regression analysis was performed to calculate and compare the hazard ratio (HR) for autoimmune diseases of both groups. An overall increased risk for 19 autoimmune diseases was observed in the scabies patients, with an adjusted HR (aHR) of 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.25). Compared with the control group, the scabies patients exhibited increased risks of hypersensitivity vasculitis (aHR 5.44, 95% CI 1.64-18.07), dermatomyositis (aHR 4.91, 95% CI 1.80-13.38), polyarteritis nodosa (aHR 2.89, 95% CI 1.46-5.73), systemic lupus erythematosus (aHR 2.73, 95% CI 1.33-5.64), psoriasis (aHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.85-2.88), myasthenia gravis (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.31-3.12), type 1 diabetes mellitus (aHR 1.93, 95% CI 1.53-2.44), pernicious anemia (aHR 1.92, 95% CI 1.42-2.61), and rheumatoid arthritis (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.12-1.83). In conclusion, the associations between scabies and a variety of autoimmune diseases may exist. Further studies are needed to clarify the shared etiologies and relationships between scabies and autoimmune diseases.

  7. Alcohol consumption and survival of colorectal cancer patients: a population-based study from Germany.

    PubMed

    Walter, Viola; Jansen, Lina; Ulrich, Alexis; Roth, Wilfried; Bläker, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the association between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis have yielded inconsistent results. The associations of lifetime and 1-y prediagnostic alcohol consumption with relevant prognostic outcomes were evaluated in a large population-based cohort of CRC patients. In 2003-2010, 3121 patients diagnosed with CRC were interviewed on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, medication, and comorbidities. Cancer recurrence, vital status, and cause of death were documented for a median follow-up time of 4.8 y. With the use of Cox proportional hazard regression, associations between lifetime and recent alcohol consumption and overall, CRC-specific, recurrence-free, and disease-free survival were analyzed. In this patient cohort with a median age of 69 y at diagnosis, lifetime abstainers showed poorer overall [adjusted HR (aHR): 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.52] and CRC-specific (aHR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.70) survival than lifetime light drinkers (women: >0-12 g/d; men: >0-24 g/d). Lifetime heavy drinkers showed poorer overall (aHR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.78) and disease-free (aHR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.74) survival. Alcohol abstaining in the year before diagnosis was associated with poorer overall (aHR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), CRC-specific (aHR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.68), and disease-free (aHR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.44) survival. Lifetime abstainers with nonmetastatic disease showed poorer CRC-specific (aHR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.00) and recurrence-free (aHR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.70) survival. Wine abstaining but not beer or liquor abstaining was associated with poorer survival. Associations between alcohol consumption and prognosis varied according to presence of diabetes and age. Prediagnostic alcohol abstaining and heavy drinking were associated with poorer survival after a CRC diagnosis than light drinking. The protective effects of light consumption might be restricted to wine, and associations might differ according to age and presence

  8. Hospital volume and patient outcomes after cholecystectomy in Scotland: retrospective, national population based study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ewen M; O'Neill, Stephen; Meurs, Thomas S; Wong, Pang L; Duxbury, Mark; Paterson-Brown, Simon; Wigmore, Stephen J; Garden, O James

    2012-05-23

    To define associations between hospital volume and outcomes following cholecystectomy, after adjustment for case mix using a national database. Retrospective, national population based study using multilevel modelling and simulation. Locally validated administrative dataset covering all NHS hospitals in Scotland. All patients undergoing cholecystectomy between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2007. Mortality, 30 day reoperation rate, 30 day readmission rate, and length of stay. We identified 59,918 patients who had a cholecystectomy in one of 37 hospitals: five hospitals had high volumes (>244 cholecystectomies/year), 10 had medium volumes (173-244), and 22 had low volumes (<173). Compared with low and medium volume hospitals, high volume hospitals performed more procedures non-electively (17.1% and 19.5% v 32.8%), completed more procedures laparoscopically (64.7% and 73.8% v 80.9%), and used more operative cholangiography (11.2% and 6.3% v 21.2%; χ(2) test, all P<0.001). In a well performing multivariable analysis with bias correction for a low event rate, the odds ratio for death was greater in both the low volume (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.00, P=0.022) and medium volume (1.52, 1.11 to 2.08, P=0.010) groups than in the high volume group. However, in simulation studies, absolute risk differences between volume groups were clinically negligible for patients with average risk (number needed to treat to harm, low v high volume, 3871, 1963 to 17,118), but were significant in patients with higher risk. In models accounting for the hierarchical structure of patients in hospitals, those in medium volume hospitals were more likely to undergo reoperation (odds ratio 1.74, 1.31 to 2.30, P<0.001) or be readmitted (1.17, 1.04 to 1.31, P=0.008) after cholecystectomy than those in high volume hospitals. Length of stay was shorter in high volume hospitals than in low (hazard ratio for discharge 0.78, 0.76 to 0.79, P<0.001) or medium volume hospitals (0

  9. Population-based estimates of still birth, induced abortion and miscarriage in the Indian state of Bihar.

    PubMed

    Kochar, Priyanka S; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Lalit

    2014-12-17

    We report population-based data on still birth, induced abortion and miscarriage from the Indian state of Bihar to assess the magnitude of the problem and to inform corrective action. A representative sample of women from all districts of Bihar with a pregnancy outcome in the last 12 months was obtained through multistage sampling in early 2012. Still birth rate was calculated as fetuses born with no sign of life at 7 or more months of gestation per 1,000 births. Induced abortion and miscarriage rates were defined as expulsion of dead fetuses at less than 7 months of gestation induced by any means or without inducement, respectively, per 1000 pregnancies that had an outcome. Multiple regression models were used to explore possible associations with stillbirths, induced abortions and miscarriages. Multi-level models were developed for the relatively less developed north zone and for the south zone of Bihar to examine contextual factors associated with still births, induced abortions and miscarriages. Still birth rate was estimated as 20 per 1,000 births (95% CI 15.6-24.5), and induced abortion and miscarriage rates as 8.6 (6.6-10.6), and 46 (40.8-51.3) per 1,000 pregnancies with outcome, respectively. The odds of induced abortion and miscarriage were significantly higher in the south zone (odds ratio 2.53 [95% CI 1.79-3.57] and 1.27 [95% CI 1.10-1.47], respectively). In the multi-level model for the north zone, the odds of induced abortion were higher for women with husband's having mean years of education higher than the state mean (2.62; 95% CI 1.47-4.69). Among the nine divisions of Bihar, comprising of groups of districts, higher induced abortion rate was associated with lower neonatal mortality rate (R(2) = 0.68, p = 0.01). These population-based data show a significant burden of still births in Bihar, suggesting that addressing these must become an important part of maternal and child health initiatives. The higher induced abortion in the more

  10. Selective nonresponse bias in population-based survey estimates of drug use behaviors in the United States.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend of decreasing response rates in population surveys, and selective nonresponse represents a major source of potential bias in population-based survey estimates of drug use behaviors, especially estimates based on longitudinal designs. This study compared baseline substance use behaviors among initial respondents who did respond (n = 34,653) and did not respond (n = 8440) to a 3-year follow-up interview in a prospective study of the general U.S. adult population. Differences in nonresponse rates were assessed as a function of past-year drug use behaviors both before and after adjustment for socio-demographic differences potentially associated with these behaviors, and the effects of interactions of the socio-demographic characteristics with the drug use behaviors were assessed in multivariate logistic regression models for response at the 3-year follow-up. Weighted and unweighted nonresponse rates varied between alcohol users and users of other drugs such as cocaine and marijuana, with rates of nonresponse being higher in the latter drug categories. There were also significant differences in nonresponse rates as a function of frequency of use and demographics. More specifically, being married tends to reduce the probability of non-response, while older age, being male, being Asian or Hispanic, and having lower education all substantially increase the probability of nonresponse at Wave 2, even after controlling for relevant covariates. This study provides the substance abuse field with a methodology that users of longitudinal data can apply to test the sensitivity of their inferences to assumptions about attrition patterns.

  11. Selective Nonresponse Bias in Population-Based Survey Estimates of Drug Use Behaviors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is a trend of decreasing response rates in population surveys, and selective nonresponse represents a major source of potential bias in population-based survey estimates of drug use behaviors, especially estimates based on longitudinal designs. Methods This study compared baseline substance use behaviors among initial respondents who did respond (n = 34,653) and did not respond (n = 8,440) to a 3-year follow-up interview in a prospective study of the general U.S. adult population. Differences in nonresponse rates were assessed as a function of past-year drug use behaviors both before and after adjustment for socio-demographic differences potentially associated with these behaviors, and the effects of interactions of the socio-demographic characteristics with the drug use behaviors were assessed in multivariate logistic regression models for response at the 3-year follow-up. Results Weighted and unweighted nonresponse rates varied between alcohol users and users of other drugs such as cocaine and marijuana, with rates of nonresponse being higher in the latter drug categories. There were also significant differences in nonresponse rates as a function of frequency of use and demographics. More specifically, being married tends to reduce the probability of non-response, while higher age, being male, being Asian or Hispanic, and having lower education all substantially increase the probability of nonresponse at Wave 2, even after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions This study provides the substance abuse field with a methodology that users of longitudinal data can apply to test the sensitivity of their inferences to assumptions about attrition patterns. PMID:26373776

  12. Subsequent Malignant Neoplasms in a Population-Based Cohort of Pediatric Cancer Patients: A Focus on the First 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Pole, Jason D; Gu, Lan Ying; Kirsh, Victoria; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-10-01

    The purpose was to describe the development of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) among a population-based cohort of pediatric cancer patients, with a focus on SMNs that occurred within the first 5 years from diagnosis. The cohort was identified from POGONIS, an active provincial registry. Cohort members were Ontario residents ages 0 to 14.9 years at primary diagnosis between January 1985 and December 2008. SMNs that developed <18 years were captured by POGONIS, whereas SMNs diagnosed later were identified through linkage. Cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated, and proportional hazards models were estimated to examine factors associated with SMN development. A total of 7,920 patients were eligible. 2.4% (188/7,920) developed 197 SMNs. Mean follow-up time was 10.7 years (SD = 7.6 years; range, 0.0-26.4 years) with mean time to SMN of 8.5 years (SD = 6.3 years; range, 0.0-24.9 years). The SIR for the development of a SMN was 9.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 8.6-11.4]. 40.6% of SMNs (80/197) developed within 5 years. Early SMNs were more likely to be leukemia and lymphoma. Factors associated with early SMN were primary diagnosis of a bone tumor (OR, 4.88; 95% CI, 1.52-15.60), exposure to radiotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.22), and the highest dose of epipodophyllotoxin (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.88-7.42). Over 40% of SMNs diagnosed in childhood cancer patients occurred in the first 5 years after diagnosis, suggesting a need for early and ongoing surveillance. The early development of certain SMNs reinforces the need for early and continued surveillance at all stages for pediatric cancer patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Factors associated with guideline-recommended KRAS testing in colorectal cancer patients: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Mary E.; Karlitz, Jordan J.; Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Chen, Vivien W.; Lynch, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Response to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors is poorer among Stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with KRAS mutations, thus KRAS testing is recommended prior to treatment. KRAS testing was collected by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries for 2010 CRC cases, and our goal was to provide the first population-based estimates of testing in the U.S. Methods SEER CRC cases diagnosed in 2010 were evaluated (n=30,351). Chi-square tests and logistic regression were conducted to determine patient characteristics associated with KRAS testing, stratified by Stages I-III vs. Stage IV. Log-rank tests were used to examine survival by testing status. Results KRAS testing among Stage IV cases ranged from 39% in New Mexico to 15% in Louisiana. In the model, younger age, being married, living in a metropolitan area, and having primary site surgery were associated with greater odds of receiving KRAS testing. Those who received testing had significantly better survival then those who did not (p<0.0001). Among those who received testing, there was no significant difference in survival by mutated vs. wild type KRAS. Five percent of Stage I-III cases received testing. Conclusions Wide variation in documented KRAS testing for Stage IV CRC patients exists among SEER registries. Age remained highly significant in multivariate models, suggesting it plays an independent role in the patient and/or provider decision to be tested. Further research is needed to determine drivers of variation in testing, as well as reasons for testing in Stage I-III cases where it is not recommended. PMID:25844824

  14. Estimation of the probability of exposure to machining fluids in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Armenti, Karla R; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    We describe an approach for estimating the probability that study subjects were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer. Study subject reports on the frequency of machining and use of specific MWFs (straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic) were used to estimate exposure probability when available. Those reports also were used to develop estimates for job groups, which were then applied to jobs without MWF reports. Estimates using both cases and controls and controls only were developed. The prevalence of machining varied substantially across job groups (0.1->0.9%), with the greatest percentage of jobs that machined being reported by machinists and tool and die workers. Reports of straight and soluble MWF use were fairly consistent across job groups (generally 50-70%). Synthetic MWF use was lower (13-45%). There was little difference in reports by cases and controls vs. controls only. Approximately, 1% of the entire study population was assessed as definitely exposed to straight or soluble fluids in contrast to 0.2% definitely exposed to synthetic/semi-synthetics. A comparison between the reported use of the MWFs and U.S. production levels found high correlations (r generally >0.7). Overall, the method described here is likely to have provided a systematic and reliable ranking that better reflects the variability of exposure to three types of MWFs than approaches applied in the past. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: a list of keywords in the occupational histories that were used to link study subjects to the metalworking fluids (MWFs) modules; recommendations from the literature on selection of MWFs based on type of machining operation, the metal being machined and decade; popular additives to MWFs; the number and proportion of controls who

  15. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients with Insomnia: A Population-based Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Chien, Wu-Chien; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Fei-Ling

    2017-08-18

    We investigated the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with and without insomnia. In this historical cohort study, we performed a secondary analysis of data from 2001 to 2010, which was obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. We developed a Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate the effects of insomnia on T2DM risk. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was applied to compare the differences in the cumulative incidence of T2DM between the groups with and without insomnia. During the follow-up period, the T2DM incidence rate of patients with insomnia was significantly higher than that of patients without insomnia (34.7 vs. 24.3 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did patients without insomnia [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.19]. Among patients aged younger than 40 years, those with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM than did the comparison cohort (adjusted HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.55). Compared with patients without insomnia, the risk tended to increase with the duration of follow-up in patients with insomnia; when the insomnia duration was <4 years, 4-8 years, and >8 years, the risk of T2DM increased by 1.14, 1.38, and 1.51 times (95% CI, 1.03-1.17, 1.15-1.49, and 1.20-1.86), respectively. Patients with insomnia had a higher risk of T2DM, and this risk was particularly pronounced among the young-aged (≤40 years) population. Chronic insomnia could be an important risk factor for T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Use and need for psychosocial support in cancer patients: a population-based sample of patients with minor children.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Johanna Christine; Beierlein, Volker; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna

    2013-06-15

    Cancer patients and their minor children have been shown to experience psychological distress. The objectives of the current study were to 1) describe the need for and use of psychosocial support and 2) determine predictors of family-centered support use in patients with minor children. A population-based sample of 1809 patients was recruited via 2 cancer registries. The eligibility criteria were age 25 years to 55 years, an initial diagnosis received no longer than 6 years before this survey, and having at least 1 minor child. Medical characteristics and self-report measures were used. Overall, approximately 38% cases were identified as being borderline or probable anxiety cases and 16% were identified as being borderline or probable depression cases. Since diagnosis, 44% of the patients had used psychosocial support and 9% had received family-focused and child-focused support. These patients perceived a lower quality of life and poorer family functioning. Approximately 73% of patients with children wanted information concerning or psychosocial services to support their children or parenting. Use of family-centered support was not found to be predicted by disease-related factors (eg, cancer staging) but rather by subjective needs (eg, mental health and having a distressed child in the family). The results of the current study emphasize the importance of child and parenting concerns in psychosocial care in oncology. Screenings for children and appropriate training programs for health care may increase awareness of this issue. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  17. Association of Sjögrens Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis Virus Infection: A Population-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Ching; Wang, Wen-Chang; Wu, Chien-Sheng; Sung, Fung-Chang; Su, Chien-Tien; Shieh, Ying-Hua; Chang, Shih-Ni; Su, Fu-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association between Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and chronic hepatitis virus infection is inconclusive. Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are highly prevalent in Taiwan. We used a population-based case-control study to evaluate the associations between SS and HBV and HCV infections. Materials and Methods We identified 9,629 SS patients without other concomitant autoimmune diseases and 38,516 sex- and age-matched controls without SS from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data between 2000 and 2011. We utilized multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between SS and HBV and HCV infections. Sex- and age-specific (<55 and ≥55 years) risks of SS were evaluated. Results The risk of SS was higher in patients with HCV than in those without chronic viral hepatitis (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 2.16–2.86). Conversely, HBV infection was not associated with SS (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.98–1.24). Younger HCV patients were at a higher risk for SS (<55 years: OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.62–4.35; ≥55 years: OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.84–2.62). Men with HCV were at a greater risk for SS (women: OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.94–2.63; men: OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 2.90–6.16). Only men with chronic HBV exhibited a higher risk of SS (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.21–2.14). Conclusion HCV infection was associated with SS; however, HBV only associated with SS in men. PMID:27560377

  18. Prevalence and risk of migraine in patients with rosacea: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Ashina, Messoud; Gaist, David; Gislason, Gunnar H; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-03-01

    Rosacea features increased neurovascular reactivity; migraine is a complex neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of headache associated with nausea and increased sensitivity to light and sound. We evaluated the prevalence and risk of new-onset migraine in patients with rosacea. All Danish individuals 18 years of age or older were linked in nationwide registers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression. In the total cohort (n = 4,361,688), there were 49,475 patients with rosacea. Baseline prevalence of migraine was 7.3% and 12.1% in the reference population and in patients with rosacea, respectively. The fully adjusted HR of migraine was 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.39) for patients with rosacea. Patients with phymatous rosacea (n = 594) had no increased risk of migraine (adjusted HR 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.80), whereas patients with ocular rosacea (n = 6977) had a 69% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.69; 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.99). Notably, the risk was higher among patients age 50 years or older than in younger individuals, and the risk was only significant among women. We were unable to distinguish between migraine subtypes. We found a significantly higher prevalence and risk of incident migraine especially in female patients with rosacea. These data add to the accumulating evidence for a link between rosacea and the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors for pneumonia among patients with Parkinson’s disease: a Taiwan nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yang-Pei; Yang, Chih-Jen; Hu, Kai-Fang; Chao, A-Ching; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Lim, Shen-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, few studies have been performed to explore the risk factors for pneumonia development in patients with PD. Methods We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with PD to identify the risk factors for these patients developing pneumonia. Participants with newly diagnosed PD between 2000 and 2009 were enrolled from the 2000–2010 National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We compared patients with PD with an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia vs those without, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of pneumonia. Results Of the 2,001 enrolled patients (mean follow-up duration 5.8 years, range: 2.7–14.7 years), 381 (19.0%) had an incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia during the study period. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified older age group (≥80 years of age, hazard ratio [HR] =3.15 [95% confidence interval 2.32–4.28]), male sex (HR =1.59 [1.29–1.96]), certain geographic regions (northern, HR =1.36 [1.04–1.78], southern and eastern, HR =1.40 [1.05–1.88]), rural areas (HR =1.34 [1.05–1.72]), chronic heart failure (HR =1.53 [1.02–2.29]), and chronic kidney disease (HR =1.39 [1.03–1.90]) as risk factors for hospitalization with pneumonia in patients with PD. However, treatment for dental caries was a protective factor (HR =0.80 [0.64–0.99]). Conclusion The results of this study highlight risk factors that are associated with hospitalization with pneumonia, and, for the first time, suggest a link between treated dental caries and a diminished risk of hospitalization with pneumonia in patients with PD. PMID:27175081

  20. Risk of Periodontal Disease in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P <0.001). Patients with at least three emergency visits annually had an aHR of 55.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 50.6 to 61.7) for periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.

  1. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sher-Wei; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Ho, Chung-Han; Yu, Shou-Chun; Kao, Pei-Hsin; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Kuo, Jinn-Rung

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) may involve new-onset anxiety and depression post-discharge. However, long-term population-based studies have lacked access to follow-up conditions in terms of new-onset anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to estimate the long-term risk of new-onset anxiety and depression post-discharge. Methods The Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used in this study. Individuals with tSCI were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic codes of 806 and 952 from 1999–2008. The comparison cohort (other health conditions group) was randomly selected from the LHID2000 and was 1:1 matched by age, sex, index year, and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. All study participants were retrospectively followed for a maximum of 3 years until the end of follow-up, death, or new-onset anxiety (ICD-9-CM: 309.2–309.4) or depression (ICD-9-CM: 296.2, 296.5, 296.82, 300.4, 309.0–309.1, and 311). Persons who were issued a catastrophic illness card for tSCI were categorized as having a severe level of SCI (Injury Severity Score [ISS] ≥16). Poisson regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratios of anxiety or depression between patients with tSCI and other health conditions. The relative risk of anxiety or depression was estimated using a Cox regression analysis, which was adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results Univariate analyses showed that the tSCI patients (n = 3556) had a 1.33 times greater incidence of new-onset anxiety or depression (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.57) compared to the other health conditions group (n = 3556). After adjusting for potential risk factors, the tSCI patients had a significant 1.29-fold increased risk of anxiety or depression compared to the group with other health conditions (95% CI: 1.09–1

  2. Lung cancer survival in Germany: A population-based analysis of 132,612 lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Andrea; Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe; Krilaviciute, Agne; Luttmann, Sabine; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Nennecke, Alice; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer-related death worldwide. In Germany it accounts for 25% of cancer deaths in men, and 14% in women. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of 5-year relative survival by sex, age, histology, and tumour stage in Germany representing a population of 26.7 million people. The study is based on a pooled German dataset including data from 12 population-based cancer registries covering around one third of the German population. A total of 132,612 patients diagnosed with lung cancer from 2002 to 2010 were included in the analysis. Survival estimates for the time period 2007-2010 were calculated using period analysis. Differences in survival between sexes were tested for statistical significance by model-based period analysis (poisson regression model). The relative excess risk (RER) of death (women vs. men) was extracted from the model with the p value for the difference in RER. The overall age adjusted 5-year relative survival was 15.5% (standard error (SE) 0.2) for men and 20.3% (SE 0.3) in women. Survival differed markedly according to age (men: <60 years 18.5% vs. 80+ years 8.4% and women 23.7% vs. 10.6%, respectively), histology (largest difference between histological groups: men 25.7 and women 44.4% points) and stage (men: UICC Ia 62.9%, vs. UICC IV 4.6% and women 75.2% vs. 7.0%, respectively). Our study showed survival advantages for women compared to men, most notably in younger aged patients (RER 0.83, p<0.0001), patients with adenocarcinoma (RER 0.80, p<0.0001), and patients with lower stage cancer (RER 0.62, p<0.0001). This study presents up-to-date survival estimates for lung cancer in Germany. Compared to other European countries survival was relatively high. Women showed higher survival than men independent of age, histology and stage. The reasons for the survival differences require further clarification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma patients in Girona (Spain) over three decades: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Solans, Marta; Serra, Laura; Renart, Gemma; Osca-Gelis, Gemma; Comas, Raquel; Vilardell, Loreto; Gallardo, David; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is characterized by heterogeneous histologic findings, clinical presentation and outcomes. Using the Girona population-based cancer registry data we sought to explore the incidence of HL over three decades in Girona Province (Spain) and examine the relationship between clinical features at diagnosis and survival. From 1985 to 2013, 459 cases were recorded. Patients were stratified by sex, age group, stage at diagnosis, histological subtypes and the presence of B-symptoms. The crude incidence rate (CR) was 2.7 and the corresponding European age-adjusted rate was 2.6, being higher in men than in women (sex ratio=1.6). Incidence remained constant throughout the period of study. Nodular sclerosis was the most frequent histology and showed an increasing incidence over time [estimated annual percentage change=+2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-4.0]. The 5-year observed survival and relative survival of patients diagnosed with HL were 73.1% (95% CI: 69.0-77.5) and 74.6% (95% CI: 70.0-79.4), respectively. No statistical differences in observed survival were observed across the three decades of study (P=0.455). Clinical parameters negatively influencing 5-year relative survival in the multivariate analysis were as follows: age at diagnosis at least 65 years; clinical stage IV; and presence of B-symptoms. These current patterns of presentation and outcomes of HL help delineate key populations in order to explore risk factors for HL and strategies to improve treatment outcomes.

  4. Does urticaria risk increase in patients with celiac disease? A large population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Lindelöf, Bernt; Rashtak, Shadi; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Case reports and smaller case-control studies suggest an association between celiac disease (CD) and urticaria, but risk estimates have varied considerably across studies and as yet there are no studies on CD and the risk of future urticaria. Objective To examine the association between CD and urticaria. Methods We identified 28,900 patients with biopsy-verified CD (equal to Marsh stage 3) and compared them with 143,397 age- and sex-matched controls with regards to the risk of urticaria and chronic urticaria (duration ≥6 weeks). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox regression model. Results During follow-up, 453 patients with CD and no previous diagnosis of urticaria developed urticaria (expected n=300) and 79 of these 453 had chronic urticaria (expected n=41). The corresponding HRs were 1.51 for any urticaria (95%CI=1.36–1.68) and 1.92 for chronic urticaria (95%CI=1.48–2.48). The absolute risk for urticaria in CD was 140/100,000 person-years (excess risk=47/100,000 person-years). Corresponding figures for chronic urticaria were 24/100,00 person-years and 12/100,000 person-years. Patients with CD were also at increased risk of having both urticaria (odds ratio, OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.12–1.52) and chronic urticaria (OR=1.54; 95%CI=1.08–2.18) prior to the CD diagnosis. Conclusion This study suggests that CD is associated with urticaria, especially chronic urticaria. PMID:24135663

  5. How risky is caring for emergency patients at risk of malpractice litigation: a population based epidemiological study of Taiwan's experiences

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Che-Ming; Tsai, Shin-Han; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2009-01-01

    Background Emergency medicine has generally been considered a high risk specialty. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of being sued in the district courts for caring emergency room (ER) patients from the perspective of epidemiology. Methods This research was designed to be a retrospective population based cohort study. We intended to find out the incidence of litigations arising from ER patients and that of birth inpatients in Taiwan, and computed their relative risks. The inclusion criterion was set to be incidents transpired in the time period of 1998 to 2002. The study materials included the reimbursement claim dataset of the National Health Insurance from 1998 to 2002, and the district court decision database of the Judicial Yuan from 1999 to 2006. Results The average annual incidence rate of becoming a plaintiff for ER patients is 0.86 per million, and for birth patients is 33.5 per million. There is a statistically significant difference between birth patients and ER patients. The relative risk comparing ER patients against birth inpatients is 0.03. Conclusion The findings of this population based study indicate that the patient population emergency physicians are facing in Taiwan have relatively lower risks of developing litigation in comparison with the patients that come to give birth. Due to the large volume of ER patients, malpractice still pose a major threat in the emergency department, and misdiagnosis remains the major complaint of plaintiffs in subsequent litigations. PMID:19761596

  6. The Risk of Asthma in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR) of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011. Results The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years) with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–1.76). The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90), those aged 50–64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31–2.09), or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54–2.13). Conclusion Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation. PMID:25658339

  7. Alcohol-Related Mortality in Patients With Psoriasis: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Rosa; Webb, Roger T; Carr, Matthew J; Moriarty, Kieran J; Kleyn, C Elise; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2017-09-15

    People diagnosed with psoriasis have an increased risk of premature mortality, but the underlying reasons for this mortality gap are unclear. To investigate whether patients with psoriasis have an elevated risk of alcohol-related mortality. An incident cohort of patients with psoriasis aged 18 years and older was delineated for 1998 through 2014 using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality records. Patients with psoriasis were matched with up to 20 comparison patients without psoriasis on age, sex, and general practice. Alcohol-related deaths were ascertained via the Office for National Statistics mortality records. A stratified Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the cause-specific hazard ratio for alcohol-related death, with adjustment for socioeconomic status. The cohort included 55 537 with psoriasis and 854 314 patients without psoriasis. Median (interquartile) age at index date was 47 (27) years; 408 230 of total patients (44.9%) were men. During a median (IQR) of 4.4 (6.2) years of follow-up, the alcohol-related mortality rate was 4.8 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI, 4.1-5.6; n = 152) for the psoriasis cohort, vs 2.5 per 10 000 (95% CI, 2.4- 2.7; n = 1118) for the comparison cohort. The hazard ratio for alcohol-related death in patients with psoriasis was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.31-1.91), and the predominant causes of alcohol-related deaths were alcoholic liver disease (65.1%), fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver (23.7%), and mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol (7.9%). People with psoriasis have approximately a 60% greater risk of dying due to alcohol-related causes compared with peers of the same age and sex in the general population. This appears to be a key contributor to the premature mortality gap. These findings call for routine screening, identification and treatment, using the Alcohol Use Disorders

  8. Risk of Venous Thromboembolic Events in Pregnant Patients With Autoimmune Diseases: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bleau, Nathalie; Patenaude, Valerie; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of autoimmune disease on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in pregnant women. Using the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2011, the risk of developing DVT, PE, and VTE among pregnant patients with selected autoimmune diseases was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Our study cohort consisted of 7 917 453 women of which 43 523 had underlying autoimmune diseases. Risk of VTE was high in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Most autoimmune diseases considerably increase the risk of VTE. Thromboprophylaxis may be considered in pregnancies with autoimmune disease, particularly those with systemic lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with migraine: a population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chia; Huang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Mei-Ting; Wang, Hsin-I; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2017-02-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between migraine and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but no longitudinal study has been performed to evaluate the temporal relationship between the two conditions. The purpose of the present population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study was to investigate whether migraineurs are at a higher risk of developing RA. A total of 58,749 subjects aged between 20 and 90 years with at least two ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of migraine were recruited in the migraine group. We fit a logistic regression model that included age, sex, comorbid conditions, and socioeconomic status as covariates to compute the propensity score. The non-migraine group consisted of 58,749 propensity score-matched, randomly sampled subjects without migraine. The RA-free survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the effect of migraine on the risk of RA. During follow-up, 461 subjects in the migraine group and 220 in the non-migraine group developed RA. The incidence rate of RA was 3.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.90-3.49) per 1000 person-years in the migraine group and 1.54 (95% CI 1.34-1.76) per 1000 person-years in the non-migraine group. Compared to the non-migraine group, the crude hazard ratio of RA for the migraine group was 2.15 (95% CI 1.82-2.56, P < 0.0001), and the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 1.91 (95% CI 1.58-2.31, P < 0.0001). This study showed that patients with migraine had an increased risk of developing RA.

  10. Delayed Onset Urticaria in Depressive Patients with Bupropion Prescription: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ti; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Shen, Cheng-Che; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mu-Hong; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Wang, Wei-Shu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Bupropion, which is widely used in patients with depressive disorder, may cause allergic reactions. However, the real prevalence of these side effects may be overlooked and underreported due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Objective This study aimed to estimate the real incidence of bupropion-induced urticaria and clarify the delayed onset phenomenon. Methods We conducted a nationwide cohort study between 2000 and 2009 using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Dataset. Among 65,988 patients with depressive disorders, we identified new users of bupropion with depressive disorders (bupropion cohort, n = 2,839) and matched them at a ratio of 1:4 regarding age and sex (non-bupropion matched cohort, n = 11,356). The risk of urticaria was compared between the two cohorts. Results The risk of urticaria occurrence was higher in bupropion users than in matched controls within 4 weeks of starting the medication (risk ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.54; p = 0.001). The occurrence of urticaria in the bupropion cohort were more frequent on Days 15–28 than Day 1–14 (p = 0.002). Cox proportional hazards model showed that a history of urticaria was an independent risk factor for developing bupropion-induced urticaria. Conclusions Of the antidepressants, bupropion may pose a higher risk of drug-induced urticaria, and this condition might be ignored due to the delayed onset phenomenon. Depressive patients with a history of urticaria are at higher risk of the adverse drug reaction. This study emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of this adverse outcome to bupropion use. PMID:24244611

  11. Evidence of improving survival of patients with rectal cancer in France: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Finn-Faivre, C; Maurel, J; Benhamiche, A; Herbert, C; Mitry, E; Launoy, G; Faivre, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Over the past 20 years there have been many changes in the management of rectal cancer. Their impact on the overall population is not well known. 
AIMS—To determine trends in management and prognosis of rectal cancer in two French regions. 
SUBJECTS—1978 patients with a rectal carcinoma diagnosed between 1978 and 1993. 
METHODS—Time trends in treatment, stage at diagnosis, operative mortality, and survival were studied on a four year basis. A non-conditional logistic regression was performed to obtain an odds ratio for each period adjusted for the other variables. To estimate the independent effect of the period a multivariate relative survival analysis was performed. 
RESULTS—Over the 16 year period resection rates increased from 66.0% to 80.1%; the increase was particularly noticeable for sphincter saving procedures (+30.6% per four years, p=0.03). The percentage of patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy increased from 24.0% to 40.0% (p=0.02). The proportion of patients with Dukes' type A cancer increased from 17.7% to 30.6% with a corresponding decrease in those with more advanced disease. Operative mortality decreased by 31.1% per four years (p=0.03). All these improvements have resulted in a dramatic increase in relative survival (from 35.4% for the 1978-1981 period to 57.0% for the 1985-1989 period). 
CONCLUSIONS—Substantial advances in the management of rectal cancer have been achieved, but there is evidence that further improvements can be made in order to increase survival. 

 Keywords: rectal cancer; treatment; stage at diagnosis; survival; time trends; cancer registries PMID:10026324

  12. Venous Thromboembolism and Cerebrovascular Events in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Crowson, Cynthia S.; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Saitta, Antonino; Salvarani, Carlo; Matteson, Eric L.; Warrington, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and cerebrovascular events in a community-based incidence cohort of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) compared to the general population. Methods A population-based inception cohort of patients with incident GCA between January 1, 1950 and December 31, 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota and a cohort of non-GCA subjects from the same population were assembled and followed until December 31, 2013. Confirmed VTE and cerebrovascular events were identified through direct medical record review. Results The study population included 244 patients with GCA with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 76.2 ± 8.2 years (79% women) and an average length of follow-up of 10.2 ± 6.8 years. Compared to non-GCA subjects of similar age and sex, patients diagnosed with GCA had a higher incidence (%) of amaurosis fugax (cumulative incidence ± SE: 2.1 ± 0.9 versus 0, respectively; p = 0.014) but similar rates of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and VTE. Among patients with GCA, neither baseline characteristics nor laboratory parameters at diagnosis reliably predicted risk of VTE or cerebrovascular events. Conclusion In this population-based study, the incidence of VTE, stroke and TIA was similar in patients with GCA compared to non-GCA subjects. PMID:26901431

  13. Increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with herpes zoster: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-yuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2014-05-01

    The association between herpes zoster and cardiovascular complications remains vague with limited study on the association between these two disorders. This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with herpes zoster. From insurance claims data of Taiwan, 19,483 patients with herpes zoster diagnosed in 1998-2008 and 77,932 subjects without herpes zoster were identified in this study. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of arrhythmia and coronary artery disease. The incidence rate ratio and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of the cardiovascular complications with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. The incidence of arrhythmia was 1.17-fold greater in the herpes zoster cohort than in the non-herpes zoster cohort (13.2 vs. 11.3 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.16 (P < 0.01). The coronary artery disease incidence in the herpes zoster cohort was 1.16-fold higher than that in the non-herpes zoster cohort (9.02 vs. 7.83 per 1,000 person-years), with an adjusted HR of 1.11 (P < 0.01). Over the stratified follow-up years, adjusted HRs were 1.22 (95% CI = 1.12-1.34) for arrhythmia and 1.14 (95% CI = 1.02-1.28) for coronary artery disease within 2 years after herpes zoster diagnosis. The risk measured for these disorders declined over time. Comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia also contributed to these cardiovascular disorders with greater extent. It is concluded that the contribution of herpes zoster to the risk of arrhythmia and cardiovascular diseases is less strong than that of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

  14. Population-based consultation patterns in patients with shoulder pain diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the annual consultation prevalence and new onset consultation rate for doctor-diagnosed shoulder pain conditions. Methods We identified all residents in the southernmost county in Sweden who received a shoulder pain diagnosis during 2006 (ICD-10 code M75). In subjects who did not consult due to such disorders during 2004 and 2005, we estimated the new onset consultation rate. The distribution of specific shoulder conditions and the length of the period of repeated consultation were calculated. Results Annual consultation prevalence was 103/10 000 women and 98/10 000 men. New onset consultation rate was 80/10 000 women (peak in age 50–59 at 129/10 000) and 74/10 000 men (peak in age 60–69 at 116/10 000). About one fifth of both genders continued to consult more than three months after initial presentation, but only a few percent beyond two years. Rotator cuff - and impingement syndromes were the most frequent diagnoses. Conclusion The annual consultation prevalence for shoulder pain conditions (1%) was similar in women and men, and about two thirds of patients consulted a doctor only once. Impingement and rotator cuff syndromes were the most frequent diagnoses. PMID:23190941

  15. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy Decisions in a Population-Based Sample of Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jagsi, Reshma; Hawley, Sarah T; Griffith, Kent A; Janz, Nancy K; Kurian, Allison W; Ward, Kevin C; Hamilton, Ann S; Morrow, Monica; Katz, Steven J

    2017-03-01

    Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) use is increasing among women with unilateral breast cancer, but little is known about treatment decision making or physician interactions in diverse patient populations. To evaluate patient motivations, knowledge, and decisions, as well as the impact of surgeon recommendations, in a large, diverse sample of patients who underwent recent treatment for breast cancer. A survey was sent to 3631 women with newly diagnosed, unilateral stage 0, I, or II breast cancer between July 2013 and September 2014. Women were identified through the population-based Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registries of Los Angeles County and Georgia. Data on surgical decisions, motivations for those decisions, and knowledge were included in the analysis. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression of the data were conducted to identify factors associated with (1) CPM vs all other treatments combined, (2) CPM vs unilateral mastectomy (UM), and (3) CPM vs breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Associations between CPM receipt and surgeon recommendations were also evaluated. All statistical models and summary estimates were weighted to be representative of the target population. Receipt of CPM was the primary dependent variable for analysis and was measured by a woman's self-report of her treatment. Of the 3631 women selected to receive the survey, 2578 (71.0%) responded and 2402 of these respondents who did not have bilateral disease and for whom surgery type was known constituted the final analytic sample. The mean (SD) age was 61.8 (12) years at the time of the survey. Overall, 1301 (43.9%) patients considered CPM (601 [24.8%] considered it very strongly or strongly); only 395 (38.1%) of them knew that CPM does not improve survival for all women with breast cancer. Ultimately, 1466 women (61.6%) received BCS, 508 (21.2%) underwent UM, and 428 (17.3%) received CPM. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with CPM included younger age

  16. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Among Patients With Cirrhosis in a Population-based Integrated Health Care Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Singal, Amit G; Tiro, Jasmin; Li, Xilong; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Chubak, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis. We retrospectively characterized HCC surveillance among cirrhosis patients followed between January 2010 and December 2012 at an integrated health care delivery system in Washington state. Consistent surveillance was defined as an ultrasound every 6 months, and inconsistent surveillance was defined as ≥1 ultrasound during the 2-year follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify correlates of HCC surveillance receipt. Of 1137 patients with cirrhosis, 22 (2%) underwent consistent surveillance, 371 (33%) had inconsistent surveillance, and 744 (65%) received no surveillance during follow-up. Correlates of HCC surveillance receipt in multivariate analysis included Gastroenterology/Hepatology subspecialty care [odds ratio (OR), 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.46], Child Pugh B/C cirrhosis (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.43), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.35), and etiology of liver disease. Compared with hepatitis C-infected patients, patients with hepatitis B infection were more likely to undergo surveillance (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.28-5.81), whereas patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.56) were less likely to undergo surveillance. Although one third of patients undergo inconsistent HCC surveillance, <2% of patients receive guideline-concordant biannual HCC surveillance.

  17. Profiling the different needs and expectations of patients for population-based medicine: a case study using segmentation analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study illustrates an evidence-based method for the segmentation analysis of patients that could greatly improve the approach to population-based medicine, by filling a gap in the empirical analysis of this topic. Segmentation facilitates individual patient care in the context of the culture, health status, and the health needs of the entire population to which that patient belongs. Because many health systems are engaged in developing better chronic care management initiatives, patient profiles are critical to understanding whether some patients can move toward effective self-management and can play a central role in determining their own care, which fosters a sense of responsibility for their own health. A review of the literature on patient segmentation provided the background for this research. Method First, we conducted a literature review on patient satisfaction and segmentation to build a survey. Then, we performed 3,461 surveys of outpatient services users. The key structures on which the subjects’ perception of outpatient services was based were extrapolated using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation. After the factor analysis, segmentation was performed through cluster analysis to better analyze the influence of individual attitudes on the results. Results Four segments were identified through factor and cluster analysis: the “unpretentious,” the “informed and supported,” the “experts” and the “advanced” patients. Their policies and managerial implications are outlined. Conclusions With this research, we provide the following: – a method for profiling patients based on common patient satisfaction surveys that is easily replicable in all health systems and contexts; – a proposal for segments based on the results of a broad-based analysis conducted in the Italian National Health System (INHS). Segments represent profiles of patients requiring different strategies for delivering health services. Their

  18. The application of cure models in the presence of competing risks: a tool for improved risk communication in population-based cancer patient survival.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Sandra; Lambert, Paul C; Andersson, Therese M-L; Björkholm, Magnus; Dickman, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying cancer patient survival from the perspective of cure is clinically relevant. However, most cure models estimate cure assuming no competing causes of death. We use a relative survival framework to demonstrate how flexible parametric cure models can be used in combination with competing-risks theory to incorporate noncancer deaths. Under a model that incorporates statistical cure, we present the probabilities that cancer patients (1) have died from their cancer, (2) have died from other causes, (3) will eventually die from their cancer, or (4) will eventually die from other causes, all as a function of time since diagnosis. We further demonstrate how conditional probabilities can be used to update the prognosis among survivors (eg, at 1 or 5 years after diagnosis) by summarizing the proportion of patients who will not die from their cancer. The proposed method is applied to Swedish population-based data for persons diagnosed with melanoma, colon cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia between 1973 and 2007.

  19. Estimated incidence of cardiovascular complications related to type 2 diabetes in Mexico using the UKPDS outcome model and a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of complications, life expectancy and diabetes related mortality in the Mexican diabetic population over the next two decades using data from a nation-wide, population based survey and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) outcome model Methods The cohort included all patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated during the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut) 2006. ENSANut is a probabilistic multistage stratified survey whose aim was to measure the prevalence of chronic diseases. A total of 47,152 households were visited. Results are shown stratified by gender, time since diagnosis (> or ≤ to 10 years) and age at the time of diagnosis (> or ≤ 40 years). Results The prevalence of diabetes in our cohort was 14.4%. The predicted 20 year-incidence for chronic complications per 1000 individuals are: ischemic heart disease 112, myocardial infarction 260, heart failure 113, stroke 101, and amputation 62. Furthermore, 539 per 1000 patients will have a diabetes-related premature death. The average life expectancy for the diabetic population is 10.9 years (95%CI 10.7-11.2); this decreases to 8.3 years after adjusting for quality of life (CI95% 8.1-8.5). Male sex and cases diagnosed after age 40 have the highest risk for developing at least one major complication during the next 20 years. Conclusions Based on the current clinical profile of Mexican patients with diabetes, the burden of disease related complications will be tremendous over the next two decades. PMID:21214916

  20. Study of animal-borne infections in the mucosas of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and population-based controls.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N; Nayar, Gopi; Hamel, Andre; Blanchard, James F

    2003-11-01

    Crohn's disease may be triggered by an infection, and it is plausible to consider that such an infection may be animal borne and ingested with our food. There has been considerable interest in the past in determining whether Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. avium) might be the etiologic agent in Crohn's disease since it causes a disease in cattle that is similar to Crohn's disease in humans. We aimed to determine if there was an association between Crohn's disease and infection with M. avium or other zoonotic agents and compared the findings with those for patients with ulcerative colitis, unaffected siblings of Crohn's disease patients, or population-based controls without inflammatory bowel disease. Patients under age 50 years with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, unaffected siblings of patients, or healthy controls drawn from a population-based age- and gender-matched registry were enrolled in a study in which subjects submitted to a questionnaire survey and venipuncture. A nested cohort underwent colonoscopy plus biopsy. Samples were batched and submitted to PCR for the detection of M. avium and other zoonotic agents known to cause predominately intestinal disease in cattle, sheep, or swine. Only one patient with ulcerative colitis, no patients with Crohn's disease, and none of the sibling controls were positive for M. avium, whereas 6 of 19 healthy controls were positive for M. avium. Since the control subjects were significantly older than the case patients, we studied another 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were older than age 50 years, and another single subject with ulcerative colitis was positive for M. avium. One other subject older than age 50 years with ulcerative colitis was positive for circovirus, a swine-borne agent of infection. In conclusion, by performing PCR with mucosal samples from patients with Crohn's disease and controls, no association between Crohn's disease and infection with M. avium or any of the

  1. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  2. Epidemiology of Locomotive Organ Disorders and Symptoms: An Estimation Using the Population-Based Cohorts in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Noriko; Nakamura, Kozo

    Although locomotive organ diseases such as osteoporotic fractures and osteoarthritis are major reasons for disability and require support, little information is available regarding the epidemiology of musculoskeletal dysfunction and its symptoms including knee pain and lumbar pain in Japan. The research on osteoarthritis/osteoporosis against disability (ROAD) study is a prospective cohort study that aims at elucidating the environmental and genetic background for locomotive organ diseases, and has been ongoing since 2005. In this review, epidemiological indices such as prevalence of locomotive organ diseases including knee osteoarthritis, lumbar spondylosis, and osteoporosis were clarified using baseline survey results of the ROAD study. The number of subjects with such diseases was estimated. In addition, 3-year follow-up data from the ROAD study revealed the effect of osteoarthritis on the occurrence of osteoporosis, and vice versa. The prevalences of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis were shown to be high. Also, the large estimates of patients with these conditions suggest that urgent strategies are needed for addressing locomotive organ diseases that cause disability in the elderly. We also clarified the prevalence of knee pain, lumbar pain, and their co-existence using the survey results of the longitudinal cohorts of motor system organ study. We found that both knee pain and lumbar pain were prevalent in 12.2 % of the total population and the presence of knee pain affected lumbar pain, and vice versa.

  3. A population-based case-series of Ontario patients who develop a vertebrobasilar artery stroke after seeing a chiropractor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Stephanie; Boyle, Eleanor; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J David

    2011-01-01

    The current evidence suggests that association between chiropractic care and vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) stroke is not causal. Rather, recent epidemiological studies suggest that it is coincidental and reflects the natural history of the disorder. Because neck pain and headaches are symptoms that commonly precede the onset of a VBA stroke, these patients might seek chiropractic care while their stroke is in evolution. However, very little is known about the characteristics of these patients. In fact, only small clinical case series and physician surveys have described the characteristics of chiropractic patients who later develop a VBA stroke. To date, no population-based study has described this group of patients. Therefore, the objective of our study is to describe the characteristics of Ontario VBA stroke patients who consulted a chiropractor within the year before their stroke. We conducted a population-based case series using administrative health care records of all Ontario residents hospitalized with VBA stroke between April 1, 1993, and March 31, 2002. Three databases were deterministically linked to extract the relevant information. We describe the demographic, health care utilization, and comorbidities of VBA patients. Ninety-three VBA stroke cases consulted a chiropractor during the year before their stroke. The mean age was 57.6 years (SD, 16.1), and 50% were female. Most cases had consulted a medical doctor during the year before their stroke, and 75.3% of patients had at least one cerebrovascular comorbidity. The 3 most common comorbidities were neck pain and headache (prevalence, 66.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 57.0%-76.3%), diseases of the circulatory system (prevalence, 63.4%; 95% CI, 54.8%-74.2%), and diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (prevalence, 47.3%; 95% CI, 38.7%-58.1%). Our population-based analysis suggests that VBA stroke patients who consulted a chiropractor the year before their stroke are older than previously

  4. Cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A population-based cohort study in northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gini, Andrea; Bidoli, Ettore; Zanier, Loris; Clagnan, Elena; Zanette, Giorgio; Gobbato, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo; Serraino, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an elevated risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risk and survival in individuals with type 2 DM (T2DM) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. A retrospective population-based cohort study of 32,247 T2DM patients aged 40-84 years was conducted through a record linkage of local healthcare databases and cancer registry for the period 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and 5-year survival probabilities after T2DM and cancer diagnosis were computed. The SIRs for all cancers (n=2069) was 1.28 (95%CI: 1.23-1.34). The highest SIRs were observed for cancers of the liver, female genital organs, small intestine, and pancreas. After 3 years from T2DM diagnosis, a reduced risk of prostate cancer (SIR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.54-0.96) was found in men aged 65-74 years, and a higher risk for breast cancer (SIR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.00-1.52) was found among T2DM female patients. The overall 5-year survival after T2DM was 88.7%. Furthermore, T2DM appeared to have a negative effect on survival of women with breast cancer. This population-based study confirmed that T2DM patients are at increased risk of several cancers, and of premature death in women with breast cancer.

  5. Survival after colorectal cancer in patients with Crohn's disease: A nationwide population-based Danish follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mette; Mose, Hanne; Gislum, Mette; Skriver, Mette V; Jepsen, Peter; Nørgård, Bente; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2007-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known about the impact of CD on CRC prognosis. Based on nationwide population-based registries, we compared survival among CRC patients with CD and CRC patients without CD. We used the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Hospital Discharge Registry to identify all patients diagnosed with CRC, with and without CD, in Denmark between 1977 and 1999. We ascertained the stage distribution at the time of CRC diagnosis and 1- and 5-yr survival both for patients with Crohn-associated CRC and patients with non-Crohn CRC. Cox regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs), adjusting for gender, age, calendar year, and stage. We identified 100 CRC patients with CD and 71,438 CRC patients without CD. At the time of diagnosis, patients with CD were younger, but stage distributions were similar in the two groups. The overall HR for CRC with CD compared to CRC without CD was 1.82 (95% CI 1.36-2.43) after 1 yr of follow-up, and 1.57 (95% CI 1.24-1.99) after 5 yr of follow-up. Subanalyses showed that the effect of CD on CRC survival was more pronounced in the youngest patients (0-59 yr), in men, and in patients whose tumors had regional spread. We found that CD worsens the prognosis of CRC, particularly CRC with regional spread.

  6. Risk of Headache-Related Healthcare Visits in Patients With Celiac Disease: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Roy, Abhik; Alaedini, Armin; Green, Peter H R; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-03-12

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are reported to be at increased risk for headaches, though large studies are lacking. We aimed to examine the risk of headache-related healthcare encounters in patients with CD in a nationwide population-based setting. In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we searched all (n = 28) pathology departments in Sweden and identified patients with CD based on the presence of villous atrophy (VA). Each patient was matched to up to 5 controls, by age, gender, calendar period, and region. Using Cox proportional hazards, we tested for an association between CD and subsequent headache-related visit. We also tested this association for those with intestinal inflammation but normal villi, and subjects with positive CD serologies but normal histology. Among 28,638 patients with CD and 143,126 controls, headache-related visit occurred in 1,337 (4.7%) and 4,102 (2.9%), respectively. The incidence of headache-related visit was 423 per 100,000 person-years in CD patients and 254 per 100,000 person-years in controls (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.56-1.77; P < .0001). Individuals having inflammation without VA on small intestinal biopsy (n = 12,898; HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.90-2.27; P < .0001) and those with normal mucosa but positive CD serology (n = 3,617; HR 1.83; 95% CI 1.57-2.12; P < .0001) were also at increased risk for headache-related visit. In this population-based study we found a significantly increased risk of headache-related visits in patients with CD; this increase was also present in patients with intestinal inflammation and those with positive CD serology but with normal mucosal architecture on small bowel biopsy. Though limited by surveillance bias, this study indicates that headache-related visits are more common in these populations. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  7. Variables affecting survival after second primary lung cancer: A population-based study of 187 Hodgkin's lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Michael T.; Li, Huilin; Constine, Louis S.; Travis, Lois B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients successfully treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are at known risk for subsequent malignancies, the most common of which is lung cancer. To date, no population-based study has analyzed prognostic variables for overall survival (OS) among HL survivors who developed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods For 187 HL patients who developed NSCLC (among 22,648 HL survivors), we examined the impact of the following variables on OS after NSCLC diagnosis: gender, race, sociodemographic status (based upon county of residence), calendar year and age at NSCLC diagnosis, NSCLC histology and grade, HL stage and subtype, radiation for HL and latency between HL and NSCLC. Patients were grouped by NSCLC stage as follows: localized, regional or distant. All patients were reported to the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. For those variables significant on univariate analyses, hazard ratios (HR) were derived from Cox proportional hazards model. Results Sociodemogaphic status, gender and latency between NSCLC and HL did not significantly affect OS of any NSCLC stage group. For patients with localized NSCLC, a history of mixed celluarlity HL was associated with a 3-fold improved OS (P=0.006). For patients with regional NSCLC, prior radiotherapy for HL was associated with a 2-fold worse OS (P=0.025). Conclusions A history of mixed cellularity HL subtype and a history of no radiotherapy for HL are favorable prognostic factors among patients who develop NSCLC. Further research into clinicopathologic and treatment-associated variables potentially affecting OS after second primary NSCLC among HL survivors is warranted. PMID:22295164

  8. Increased Incidence of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Adult Patients following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yi-Ching; Tu, Hung-Pin; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Su, Chen-Hsiang; Shi, Hon-Yi; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Furthermore, we aimed to explore the risk factors of the development of HZ and PHN in patients after TBI. This population-based, longitudinal analysis was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (consisting of 1,000,000 beneficiaries) from 1996 to 2010. Using the longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study to evaluate the incidence of HZ and PHN in adult TBI patients and controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to compare differences in the development of HZ and PHN. The effects of gender, comorbidity and surgery on the risk of HZ and PHN development were assessed by subgroup analyses. Over a 15-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of HZ in 28,234 TBI patients (604.00/100,000 person-years) was significantly higher than 34,085 controls (322.21/100,000 person-years) (P<0.0001, by log-rank test). Females showed a significantly higher incidence of HZ than males (p for interaction = 0.0010). The time to HZ development in the follow-up period was 5.9 years in TBI patients compared to 9.9 years in the control set (p <0.0001). TBI patients were 2.93 and 2.11 times likely to develop HZ and PHN, respectively, than the general population. The incidences of HZ and PHN in TBI patients were also significantly greater than for controls in the CCI = 0 subgroup. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based cohort study to reveal that TBI is an independent risk factor for HZ and PHN in TBI patients, especially in females. Physician should pay attention to the possibility of HZ and PHN in TBI patients and be aware that HZ vaccination early after brain trauma may lower the incidence of HZ and PHN.

  9. Population-based prevalence of CDKN2A and CDK4 mutations in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    PubMed

    Helsing, Per; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Ariansen, Sarah; Steine, Solrun J; Maehle, Lovise; Aamdal, Steinar; Langmark, Frøydis; Loeb, Mitchell; Akslen, Lars A; Molven, Anders; Andresen, Per Arne

    2008-02-01

    The presence of multiple primary cutaneous melanomas (MPM) has been advocated as guidance to identifying melanoma families. Frequencies of CDKN2A mutations in materials of sporadic MPM cases from pigmented lesion clinics vary between 8 and 15%. Patients with MPM have therefore been regarded as good candidates for CDKN2A mutational screening. We describe a population-based study where all persons in Norway diagnosed with MPM between 1953 and 2004 (n = 738 alive per April 2004) were invited to participate. Three-hundred-and-ninety patients (52.8%) responded confidentially. Mutations in CDKN2A were found in 6.9% of the respondents. Eighty-one MPM patients (20.8%) reported that they belonged to melanoma families, and 17 (21.0%) of these harboured a CDKN2A mutation, compared to 3.2% of the nonfamilial cases. The probability of finding a CDKN2A mutation increased when the patients had three or more melanomas, or a young age of onset of first melanoma. We identified five novel CDKN2A variants (Ala57Gly, Pro81Arg, Ala118Val, Leu130Val, and Arg131Pro) and four that previously have been reported in melanoma families (Glu27X, Met53Ile, Arg87Trp, and Ala127Pro). A large deletion (g.13623_23772del10150) encompassing exon 1alpha and the 5' part of exon 2 was detected in six patients with a family history of melanoma. Three patients, belonging to the same family, had the CDK4 Arg24His mutation. The frequency of CDKN2A mutations was lower than previously reported in other studies, an observation which probably is due to the population-based design of our study.

  10. Management and Outcomes of Bowel Obstruction in Patients with Stage IV Colon Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Winner, Megan; Mooney, Stephen J.; Hershman, Dawn L.; Feingold, Daniel L.; Allendorf, John D.; Wright, Jason D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bowel obstruction is a common complication of late-stage abdominal cancer, especially colon cancer, which has been investigated predominantly in small, single-institution studies. OBJECTIVE We used a large, population-based data set to explore the surgical treatment of bowel obstruction and its outcomes after hospitalization for obstruction among patients with stage IV colon cancer. DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PATIENTS We identified 1004 patients aged 65 years or older in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database diagnosed with stage IV colon cancer January 1, 1991 to December 31, 2005, who were later hospitalized for bowel obstruction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We describe outcomes after hospitalization and analyzed the associations between surgical treatment of obstruction and outcomes. RESULTS Hospitalization for bowel obstruction occurred a median of 7.4 months after colon cancer diagnosis, and median survival after obstruction was approximately 2.5 months. Median hospitalization for obstruction was about 1 week and in-hospital mortality was 12.7%. Between discharge and death, 25% of patients were readmitted to the hospital at least once for obstruction, and, on average, patients lived 5 days out of the hospital for every day in the hospital between obstruction diagnosis and death. Survival was 3 times longer in those whose obstruction claims suggested an adhesive obstruction origin. In multivariable models, surgical compared with nonsurgical management was not associated with prolonged survival (p = 0.134). LIMITATIONS Use of an administrative database did not allow determination of quality of life or relief of obstruction as an outcome, nor could nonsurgical interventions, eg, endoscopic stenting or octreotide, be assessed. CONCLUSIONS In this population-based study of patients with stage IV colon cancer who had bowel obstruction, overall survival following obstruction was poor irrespective of

  11. Incidence and types of preventable adverse events in elderly patients: population based review of medical records

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Eric J; Brennan, Troyen A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and types of preventable adverse events in elderly patients. Design Review of random sample of medical records in two stage process by nurses and physicians to detect adverse events. Two study investigators then judged preventability. Setting Hospitals in US states of Utah and Colorado, excluding psychiatric and Veterans Administration hospitals. Subjects 15 000 hospitalised patients discharged in 1992. Main outcome measures Incidence of preventable adverse events (number of preventable events per 100 discharges) in elderly patients (⩾65 years old) and non-elderly patients (16-64 years). Results When results were extrapolated to represent all discharges in 1992 in both states, non-elderly patients had 8901 adverse events (incidence 2.80% (SE 0.18%)) compared with 7419 (5.29% (0.37%)) among elderly patients (P=0.001). Non-elderly patients had 5038 preventable adverse events (incidence 1.58% (0.14%)) compared with 4134 (2.95% (0.28%)) in elderly patients (P=0.001). Elderly patients had a higher incidence of preventable events related to medical procedures (such as thoracentesis, cardiac catheterisation) (0.69% (0.14%) v 0.13% (0.04%)), preventable adverse drug events (0.63% (0.14%) v 0.17% (0.05%)), and preventable falls (0.10% (0.06%) v 0.01% (0.02%)). In multivariate analyses, adjusted for comorbid illnesses and case mix, age was not an independent predictor of preventable adverse events. Conclusions Preventable adverse events were more common among elderly patients, probably because of the clinical complexity of their care rather than age based discrimination. Preventable adverse drug events, events related to medical procedures, and falls were especially common in elderly patients and should be targets for efforts to prevent errors. PMID:10720355

  12. Technique failure in Korean incident peritoneal dialysis patients: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shina; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Hann, Hoo Jae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee; Choi, Kyu Bok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol

    2016-12-01

    Technique failure is an important issue for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we aimed to analyze technique failure rate in detail and to determine the predictors for technique failure in Korea. We identified all patients who had started dialysis between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008, in Korea, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. A total of 7,614 PD patients were included, and the median follow-up was 24.9 months. The crude incidence rates of technique failure in PD patients were 54.1 per 1,000 patient-years. The cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year technique failure rates of PD patients were 4.9%, 10.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. However, those technique failure rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis were overestimated compared with the values by competing risks analysis, and the differences increased with the follow-up period. In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus and Medical Aid as a crude reflection of low socioeconomic status were independent risk factors in both the Cox proportional hazard model and Fine and Gray subdistribution model. In addition, cancer was independently associated with a lower risk of technique failure in the Fine and Gray model. Technique failure was a major concern in patients initiating PD in Korea, especially in diabetic patients and Medical Aid beneficiaries. The results of our study offer a basis for risk stratification for technique failure.

  13. Increased risk of tinnitus in patients with temporomandibular disorder: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Hui-Tzu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wang, Tang-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This study determined whether there is an increased risk of tinnitus in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We used information from health insurance claims obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance (TNHI). Patients aged 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with TMJ disorder served as the study cohort. The demographic factors and comorbidities that may be associated with tinnitus were also identified, including age, sex, and comorbidities of hearing loss, noise effects on the inner ear, and degenerative and vascular ear disorders. A higher proportion of TMJ disorder patients suffered from hearing loss (5.30 vs. 2.11 %), and degenerative and vascular ear disorders (0.20 vs. 0.08 %) compared with the control patients. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of tinnitus in the TMJ disorder cohort was 2.73-fold higher than that in the control patients, with an adjusted HR of 2.62 (95 % CI = 2.29-3.00). The comorbidity-specific TMJ disorder cohort to the control patients' adjusted HR of tinnitus was higher for patients without comorbidity (adjusted HR = 2.75, 95 % CI = 2.39-3.17). We also observed a 3.22-fold significantly higher relative risk of developing tinnitus within the 3-year follow-up period (95 % CI = 2.67-3.89). Patients with TMJ disorder might be at increased risk of tinnitus.

  14. Bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients: a population-based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Kiril E. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased infection rates. We studied clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients. Patients were selected from a nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. A total of 183 of 1447 episodes (13%) occurred in diabetes patients. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients was 3.15 per 100,000 patients per year and the risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis was 2.2-fold higher for diabetes patients. S. pneumoniae was the causative organism in 139 of 183 episodes (76%) and L. monocytogenes in 11 of 183 episodes (6%). Outcome was unfavourable in 82 of 183 episodes (45%) and in 43 of 183 episodes (23%) the patient died. Diabetes was associated with death with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI 1.12–2.37, P = 0.011), which remained after adjusting for known predictors of death in a multivariable analysis (OR 1.98 [95% CI 1.13–3.48], P = 0.017). In conclusion, diabetes is associated with a 2-fold higher risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis. Diabetes is a strong independent risk factor for death in community-acquired adult bacterial meningitis. PMID:27845429

  15. Estimating the completeness of gastric cancer registration in Ardabil/Iran by a capture-recapture method using population-based cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Khodadost, Mahmoud; Yavari, Parvin; Babaei, Masoud; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Sarvi, Fatemeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Khodadost, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of cancer incidences is essential for cancer prevention and control programs. Capture-recapture methods have been recommended for reducing bias and increasing the accuracy of cancer incidence estimations. This study aimed to estimate the completeness of gastric cancer registration by the capture-recapture method based on Ardabil population-based cancer registry data. All new cases of gastric cancer reported by three sources, pathology reports, death certificates and medical records that reported to Ardabil population-based cancer registry in 2006 and 2008 were enrolled in the study. The duplicate cases based on the similarity of first name, surname and fathers names were identified between sources. The estimated number of gastric cancers was calculated by the log-linear method using Stata 12 software. A total of 857 new cases of gastric cancer were reported from three sources. After removing duplicates, the reported incidence rates for the years 2006 and 2008 were 35.3 and 32.5 per 100,000 population, respectively. The estimated completeness calculated by log-linear method for these years was 36.7 and 36.0, respectively. These results indicate that none of the sources of pathology reports, death certificates and medical records individually or collectively fully cover the incident cases of gastric cancer. We can obtain more accurate estimates of incidence rates using the capture-recapture method.

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Chang, Ching-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted. PMID:27822287

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Liu, Chun-Kai; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Ching-Mao; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N = 11,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn's disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted.

  18. Impact of molecular subtypes on metastatic breast cancer patients: a SEER population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yue; Liu, Yi-Rong; Ji, Peng; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the significance and impact of molecular subtyping stratification on metastatic breast cancer patients, we identified 159,344 female breast cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database with known hormone receptor (HoR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. 4.8% of patients were identified as having stage IV disease, and were more likely to be HER2+/HoR−, HER2+/HoR+, or HER2−/HoR−. Stage IV breast cancer patients with a HER2+/HoR+ status exhibited the highest median overall survival (OS) (44.0 months) and those with a HER2−/HoR− status exhibited the lowest median OS (13.0 months). Patients with a HER2−/HoR+ status had more bone metastasis, whereas patients with a HER2+/HoR− status had an increased incidence of liver metastasis. Brain and lung metastasis were more likely to occur in women with a HER2−/HoR− status. The multivariable analysis revealed a significant interaction between single metastasis and molecular subtype. No matter which molecular subtype, women who did not undergo primary tumour surgery had worse survival than those who experienced primary tumour surgery. Collectively, our findings advanced the understanding that molecular subtype might lead to more tailored and effective therapies in metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:28345619

  19. Increased risk of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects aged ≥18 years from the National Health Research Institute database in the year 2005. Subjects with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 2005 were identified. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of chronic liver disease were also defined. We compared the prevalence and associated factors of chronic liver disease between patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. We also compared the incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder (13.9%) was 2.68 times higher than that of the general population (5.8%) in 2005. The average annual incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder from 2006 to 2010 was also higher than that of the general population (2.95% vs. 1.73%; risk ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.01). Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly higher prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease than those in the general population, and younger patients with bipolar disorder have a much higher prevalence and incidence than those in the general population. Male sex, second-generation antipsychotic or antidepressant use, and hyperlipidemia were associated factors for chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns and predictors of colorectal cancer care coordination: A population-based survey of Australian patients.

    PubMed

    Durcinoska, Ivana; Young, Jane M; Solomon, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Improving care coordination is a key priority for health services. The aims of this study were to identify patient- and health service-related predictors of poorly coordinated care and to explore patient preferences to assist care coordination. Patients with incident colorectal cancer, identified from a state-wide cancer registry, completed a self-report questionnaire 6 to 8 months after their diagnosis. Care coordination was assessed with the Cancer Care Coordination Questionnaire for Patients. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict factors associated with a poor experience with cancer care coordination. Among 560 patients (56% response rate), care coordination experiences were normally distributed (mean score, 76.1; standard deviation, 10.9). Patients who had 3 or more comorbid conditions (β, -4.56; standard error [SE], 1.46; P = .006), little or no understanding of the health system (β, -4.34; SE, 0.94; P < .001), and no regular general practitioner (GP; β, -4.09; SE, 2.07; P = .049) experienced poorer care coordination. At the health service level, patients who did not receive a written pretreatment plan (β, -4.15; SE, 0.95; P < .001) or did not see a cancer care coordinator (β, -3.29; SE, 1.03; P = .001) had lower scores. The most preferred resources included information packs (92%), written care plans (88%), and improved access to their own personal medical records (electronic, 86; paper, 84%), with most patients preferring a shared GP and surgeon care model. There was wide variation in experiences across the state. The factors associated with lower scores provide a focus for targeted strategies for improving patients' experience with colorectal cancer care coordination. Cancer 2017;123:319-326. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Patterns of Referral to Radiation Oncology among Patients with Bladder Cancer: a Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Quirt, J S; Siemens, D R; Zaza, K; Mackillop, W J; Booth, C M

    2017-03-01

    Radical radiotherapy is a reasonable alternative to cystectomy for some patients with invasive bladder cancer, and postoperative radiotherapy may be indicated in patients at high risk of local recurrence. Here we describe pre- and postoperative radiation oncology consultation among patients with bladder cancer in Ontario. Records of radiotherapy and surgery were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) to identify all patients who received treatment with curative intent for bladder cancer between 1994 and 2008. Billing records were linked to the OCR to determine which patients were seen by radiation oncology before radical therapy or after cystectomy. Factors associated with radiation oncology consultation were explored by logistic regression. In total, 5259 patients with bladder cancer underwent treatment with curative intent in Ontario between 1994 and 2008. Of these, 3879 had primary cystectomy and 1380 had primary radiotherapy. Thirty-two per cent (1698/5259) of all patients were seen by radiation oncology. Independent factors associated with radiation oncology consultation included advanced age (P < 0.001), greater comorbidity (P < 0.001) and earlier year of diagnosis (P < 0.001). Rates also varied widely across geographical regions (range 20-57%); this variation was highly significant on multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). Only 10% (370/3759) of patients with cystectomy had a preoperative radiation oncology consultation. Ten per cent of patients treated by cystectomy (386/3879) were seen by radiation oncology in the postoperative setting; rates varied widely across regions (range 6-44%). These geographical variations were highly significant in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.001), which also showed that younger patients, those with higher stage (pT or pN), and those with positive margins, were more likely to have a postoperative radiation oncology consultation (all P < 0.001). Only 19% (80/420) of cases with positive margins had a postoperative

  2. High Risk of Depressive Disorders in Patients With Gout: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Changchien, Te-Chang; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common in patients with depressive disorders. However, the relationship between gout and depression is unclear. We explored the causal relationship among gout, antigout medication, and the associated risk of incidental depressive disorders.In this nationwide cohort study, we sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database to recruit 34,050 patients with gout as the gout cohort and 68,100 controls (without gout) as the nongout cohort. Our primary endpoint was the diagnosis of depressive disorders during follow-up. The overall study population was followed up until depression diagnosis, withdrawal from the NHI program, or the end of the study. The differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between both cohorts were determined using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for continuous variables. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of gout on the risk of depression, represented using the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval.Patients with gout exhibited a higher risk of depressive disorders than controls did. The risk of depressive disorders increased with age and was higher in female patients and those with hypertension, stroke, and coronary artery disease. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and prednisolone use was associated with a reduced risk of depression. Patients with gout who had received antigout medication exhibited a reduced risk of depressive disorders compared with nongout patients.Our findings support that gout increases the risk of depressive disorders, and that antigout medication use reduces the risk.

  3. Increased risk of comorbid rheumatic disorders in vitiligo patients: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chong Won; Eun, Sung Hye; Choi, Kwang Hyun; Bae, Jung Min

    2017-08-01

    Vitiligo is a common acquired depigmentation disorder. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo is associated with a variety of autoimmune disorders. However, a large-scale epidemiological study focused on comorbid rheumatic disorders has not been undertaken. To clarify the associations between vitiligo and various rheumatic disorders, we performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. Between 2009 and 2013, totals of 86 210 patients with vitiligo and 172 420 age- and sex-matched controls without vitiligo were enrolled in this study. Vitiligo patients were found to be at increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis, but no significant association was found between vitiligo and dermatomyositis/polymyositis, Behçet's disease or ankylosing spondylitis. Subgroup analysis showed an increased risk of dermatomyositis/polymyositis in male and ankylosing spondylitis in female vitiligo patients. The risks of dermatomyositis/polymyositis or ankylosing spondylitis were higher in young vitiligo patients. Our study confirms a significant association between vitiligo and rheumatic disorders. Differences in comorbid rheumatic disorders by age group and sex suggest the need for patient-specific approaches. Careful consideration of rheumatic disorders is required for the proper management of comorbidities in vitiligo patients. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. The risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with gout: a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Jui; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chang, Hui-Ping; Chua, Sarah; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Lin, Cheng-Jei; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Hang, Chi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have found that systemic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Gout is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder, but little evidence exists regarding whether the risk of AF is increased in patients with gout. The National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan was used in this study, and gout was defined as the occurrence of at least one episode of an acute gout attack requiring medical treatment. A total of 63264 gout and 63264 age- and gender-matched patients were included as the study population. The Cox model was used to evaluate the risk of AF in patients with gout. Patients with gout experienced a greater frequency of co-morbidities compared to patients without gout. The cumulative incidences of AF were 4.61% and 3.04% in patients with and without gout, respectively (log-rank test, P < 0.001). After adjusting for co-morbidities and prescription medication use, gout was found to be associated with AF [hazard ratio (HR), 1.38]. Moreover, the HR for AF decreased with increasing age in our study. Gout was found to be associated with an increased risk of developing AF after adjusting for potential confounders. PMID:27599578

  5. Risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster infection: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether the risk of cancer is increased among patients with herpes zoster is unclear. We investigated the risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster using a nationwide health registry in Taiwan. Methods: We identified 35 871 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during 2000–2008 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We analyzed the standardized incidence ratios for various types of cancer. Results: Among patients with herpes zoster, 895 cases of cancer were reported. Patients with herpes zoster were not at increased risk of cancer (standardized incidence ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.06). Among the subgroups stratified by sex, age and years of follow-up, there was also no increased risk of overall cancer. Interpretation: Herpes zoster is not associated with increased risk of cancer in the general population. These findings do not support extensive investigations for occult cancer or enhanced surveillance for cancer in patients with herpes zoster. PMID:22988158

  6. Comparison of outcomes after use of biphasic or monophasic defibrillators among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a nationwide population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Seizan; Yasunaga, Hideo; Ogawa, Toshio; Koike, Soichi; Akahane, Manabu; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Hatanaka, Tetsuo; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2012-09-01

    The use and popularity of the biphasic waveform defibrillator as a replacement for the monophasic waveform defibrillator are increasing, but it is unclear whether this can improve the rate of survival among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who received defibrillation shock with the biphasic waveform defibrillator was better than that of patients who received defibrillation shock with the monophasic defibrillator. This prospective, nationwide, population-based, observational study included 21 172 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with initial ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007. Defibrillation shock was performed by monophasic defibrillator on 8224 (39%) patients and by biphasic defibrillator on 12 948 (61%) patients. The rate of survival at 1 month with minimal neurological impairment was 11.6% (951/8192) in the monophasic defibrillator group and 12.8% (1653/12 928) in the biphasic defibrillator group. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis using a generalized estimation equation showed no significant difference between the biphasic and monophasic groups in 1-month survival with minimal neurological impairment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.26; P=0.42). Confirmatory propensity score analyses showed similar results. Although monophasic defibrillators are being replaced by biphasic defibrillators, our nationwide population-based observational study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant association between defibrillation waveform and 1-month survival rate with minimal neurological impairment.

  7. Risk of fractures in vitiligo patients treated with phototherapy-A retrospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lo, Po-Ching; Li, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Weng-Foung; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Liu, Han-Nan; Chang, Yun-Ting; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Tsai, Tsen-Fang

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy might increase bone mineral density. However, it is unknown whether phototherapy can reduce the risk of fractures in patients with vitiligo. To investigate the effect of phototherapy on fracture risks in vitiligo patients aged 40 or older. This population-based cohort study used the 2000-2010 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) to identify 3863 patients newly diagnosed with vitiligo between 2003 and 2009 at age ≥40 years. Study subjects were classified into three cohorts: (1) frequent phototherapy; (2) infrequent phototherapy; and (3) no phototherapy. Patients were followed until the first hip or vertebral fracture or 31 December 2010. Data were analysed using Cox regression models and also stratified by age and gender. Frequent phototherapy decreased the fracture risks (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=0.32, p=0.009) in vitiligo patients. Stratification by age and gender confirmed the fracture prevention effect of frequent phototherapy in patients aged 40-64 years (aHR=0.14, p=0.016) and in female patients (aHR=0.31, p=0.024). This study provides the first evidence that frequent phototherapy can reduce the risk of fractures among middle-aged and among female vitiligo patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Clinical features of colorectal cancer patients in advanced age: a population-based approach.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Stefania; Colantoni, Alessandra; Kaleci, Shaniko; Benatti, Piero; Tesini, Ester; de Leon, Maurizio Ponz

    2016-03-01

    In the immediate future, the number of geriatric patients will continue to rise; consequently we should expect an increase of colorectal cancer, a disease of the elderly population. Through the data of a Cancer Registry, we examined (a) the effect of ageing on the main features of colorectal cancer; (b) changes in management, especially for individuals older than 80 years; and (c) changes in prognosis and survival in subgroups of patients with different age. The Registry provided information on colorectal cancer up to 2010 (27 years). A total of 5293 patients were registered; these were divided into three groups: A (0-64 years), B (65-79) and C (80 or more). Three periods of observation were chosen: 1 (1984-1992), 2 (1993-2001) and 3 (2001-2010). Group A included 1571 patients (29 %), Group B 2539 (48 %) and Group C 1183 (22.3 %). The fraction of old individuals increased during the 27 years of the investigation. In these patients, tumours were predominantly localized to the right colon (42.6 %). The rate of surgery and ratio between curative and palliative approaches were similar among the three groups (p < 0.38). There was disparity (p < 0.002) in the administration of chemotherapy (5.8 % of the elderly vs 34.4 % in remaining patients). Survival increased over time in all three groups. In the elderly, average 5-year survival was 31 % in period 1 and 55 % in period 3. These data show that in Western countries, the standard of care for colorectal cancer diagnosed in geriatric patients has improved over the last 30 years.

  9. Determinants of mortality in elderly patients with tuberculosis: a population-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Y-F; Feng, J-Y; Pan, S-W; Chuang, P-H; Su, V Y-F; Su, W-J

    2017-05-01

    Elderly individuals with tuberculosis (TB) are more likely to have a non-specific clinical presentation of TB and high mortality. However, factors associated with mortality in elderly TB patients have not been extensively studied. This retrospective cohort study aimed to identify factors associated with death among elderly Taiwanese with TB. All elderly patients with TB from 2006 to 2014 in Taipei, Taiwan, were included in a study. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with death in elderly TB patients. The mean age of the 5011 patients was 79·7 years; 74·1% were men; 32·7% had mortality during the study follow-up period. After controlling for potential confounders, age ⩾75 years (reference: 65-74 years), male sex, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), malignancy, acid-fast bacilli-smear positivity, TB-culture positivity, pleural effusion on chest radiograph and notification by an ordinary ward or intensive care unit were associated with a higher risk of all-cause death; while high school, and university or higher education, cavity on chest radiograph and directly observed therapy were associated with a lower risk of all-cause death. This study found that the proportion of death among elderly patients with TB in Taipei, Taiwan, was high. To improve TB treatment outcomes, future control programmes should particularly target individuals with comorbidities (e.g. ESRD and malignancy) and those with a lower socio-economic status (e.g. not educated).

  10. Doctor Shopping Behavior for Zolpidem Among Insomnia Patients in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tzu-Hsuan; Lee, Yen-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, You-Meei

    2015-07-01

    Although zolpidem is listed as a controlled drug in Taiwan, patients' behavior has not been restricted and has led to the problem of doctor shopping behavior (DSB), leading to overutilization of medical resources and excess spending. The National Health Insurance Administration in Taiwan has instituted a new policy to regulate physicians' prescribing behavior and decrease DSB. This retrospective study aimed to analyze the DSB for zolpidem by insomnia patients and assess related factors. Data were extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Individuals with a diagnosis of insomnia who received more than one prescription of zolpidem in 2008 were followed for 24 mo. Doctor shopping was defined as ≥ 2 prescriptions by different doctors within ≥ 1 day overlapping in the duration of therapy. The percentage of zolpidem obtained through doctor shopping was used as an indicator of the DSB of each patient. Among the 6,947 insomnia patients who were prescribed zolpidem, 1,652 exhibited DSB (23.78%). The average dose of zolpidem dispensed for each patient during 24 mo was 244.21 daily defined doses. The doctor shopping indicator (DSI) was 0.20 (standard deviation, 0.23) among patients with DSB. Younger age, chronic diseases, high number of diseases, higher premium status, high socioeconomic status, and fewer people served per practicing physicians were all factors significantly related to doctor shopping behavior. Doctor shopping for zolpidem appears to be an important issue in Taiwan. Implementing a proper referral system with efficient data exchange by physician or pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process might reduce DSB. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Statin use and mortality among ovarian cancer patients: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Verdoodt, Freija; Kjaer Hansen, Merete; Kjaer, Susanne K; Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Statin use has been suggested to improve prognosis in cancer patients, however, for ovarian cancer, the evidence is sparse. From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified patients aged 30-84 years with a histologically verified first diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2013. Data on filled prescriptions, death, and potential confounding factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between post-diagnostic statin use and all-cause or ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Among 4,419 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, post-diagnostic statin use was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.78-1.04) or ovarian cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76-1.08). There was little evidence of a dose-response relationship and the neutral associations persisted in sensitivity analyses. In women with endometrioid or clear cell tumour histology, cancer-specific mortality was reduced by 30-40% among statin users compared to non-users, however the analyses were limited by small numbers. Significantly reduced mortality with statin use was observed in subcohorts of new users of statins and of patients not using low-dose aspirin. In conclusion, we found no strong evidence of an association between post-diagnostic statin use and reduced mortality in ovarian cancer patients. However, our finding of potential differential susceptibility to statins among patients with different histologic types of ovarian cancer warrants further evaluation. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Survival benefit of glioblastoma patients after FDA approval of temozolomide concomitant with radiation and bevacizumab: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Du, Xianglin L.; Lu, Guangrong; Zhu, Jay-Jiguang

    2017-01-01

    Few population-based analyses have investigated survival change in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with concomitant radiotherapy-temozolomide (RT-TMZ) and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) and then bevacizumab (BEV) after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, respectively. We aimed to explore the effects on survival with RT-TMZ, adjuvant TMZ and BEV in general GBM population based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) databases. A total of 28933 GBM patients from SEER (N = 24578) and TCR (N = 4355) between January 2000 and December 2013 were included. Patients were grouped into three calendar periods based on date of diagnosis: pre-RT-TMZ and pre-BEV (1/2000–2/2005, P1), post-RT-TMZ and pre-BEV (3/2005–4/2009, P2), and post-RT-TMZ and post-BEV (5/2009–12/2013, P3). The association between calendar period of diagnosis and survival was analyzed in SEER and TCR, separately, by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. We found a significant increase in median overall survival (OS) across the three periods in both populations. In multivariate models, the risk of death was significantly reduced during P2 and further decreased in P3, which remained unchanged after stratification. Comparison and validation analysis were performed in the combined dataset, and consistent results were observed. We conclude that the OS of GBM patients in a “real-world” setting has been steadily improved from January 2000 to December 2013, which likely resulted from the administrations of TMZ concomitant with RT and adjuvant TMZ for newly diagnosed GBM and then BEV for recurrent GBM after respective FDA approval. PMID:28467795

  13. Cardiovascular complications and mortality after diabetes diagnosis for South Asian and Chinese patients: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Baiju R; Victor, J Charles; Chiu, Maria; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia S; Austin, Peter C; Manuel, Douglas G; Hux, Janet E

    2013-09-01

    Many non-European ethnic groups have an increased risk for diabetes; however, the published literature demonstrates considerable uncertainty about the rates of diabetes complications among minority populations. The objective of this study was to determine the risks of cardiovascular complications and of mortality after diabetes diagnosis for South Asian and Chinese patients, compared with European patients. A population-based cohort study identified all 491,243 adults with newly diagnosed diabetes in Ontario, Canada, between April 2002 and March 2009. Subjects were followed until March 2011 for the first occurrence of any cardiovascular complication of diabetes (coronary artery disease, stroke, or lower-extremity amputation) and for all-cause mortality. Median follow-up was 4.7 years. The crude incidence of cardiovascular complications after diabetes diagnosis was 17.9 per 1,000 patient-years among European patients, 12.0 among South Asian patients, and 7.7 among Chinese patients. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular complications relative to European patients were 0.95 (95% CI 0.90-1.00; P = 0.056) and 0.50 (0.46-0.53; P < 0.001) for South Asian and Chinese patients, respectively. Mortality was lower for both minority groups (adjusted HR for South Asian patients 0.56 [95% CI 0.52-0.60]; P < 0.001; for Chinese patients 0.58 [0.55-0.62]; P < 0.001). Chinese patients were at substantially lower risk than European patients for cardiovascular complications after diabetes diagnosis, whereas South Asian patients were at comparable risk. Mortality after diabetes diagnosis was markedly lower for both minority populations.

  14. Coprescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Western Medications among Prostate Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2012-01-01

    Use of herbal medicine is popular among cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the coprescription of CHM and WM among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. This cross-sectional retrospective study used a population-based database containing one million beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Claims and prescriptions were analyzed. In 2007, 218 (22.4%) prostate cancer patients were CHM users. Among CHM users, 200 (91.7%) patients with 5618 (79.5%) CHM prescriptions were on coprescription of CHM and WM. A total of 484 types of CHM and 930 types of WM were used. The most commonly used CHMs on coprescription were Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang, Ma Zi Ren Wan, and Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang. The most commonly used WMs on coprescription were magnesium oxide, amlodipine, and aspirin. The average number of prescriptions per user per year was 261.2 versus 151.7 in all (P < 0.001), 123.6 versus 76.9 in WM (P = 0.033), and 34.8 versus 5.1 in CHM (P < 0.001) for patients with and without coprescription, respectively. In conclusion, use of CHM among prostate cancer patients was popular in Taiwan. Most CHMs were used with WM concurrently. The potential drug-herb interactions should be investigated, especially for patients with more prescriptions. PMID:21792368

  15. The Utilization of Rehabilitation in Patients with Hemophilia A in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rehabilitation plays an important role in the physical health of patients with hemophilia. However, comprehensive information regarding the utilization of rehabilitation for such patients remains scarce. Aim This population-based study aimed to examine the characteristics, trends, and most important factors affecting rehabilitation usage in patients with hemophilia A using a nationwide database in Taiwan. Methods Data from 777 patients with hemophilia A who were registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database between 1998 and 2008 were analyzed using SAS 9.0. Results Musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures and clotting factor VIII concentrate costs were identified as factors affecting rehabilitation usage; musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures (odds ratio = 3.788; P < 0.001) were the most important predictor of whether a patient with hemophilia A would use rehabilitation services. Joint disorders, arthropathies, bone and cartilage disorders, intracranial hemorrhage, and brain trauma were common diagnoses during rehabilitation use. The costs of physical therapy (physiotherapy) comprised the majority (71.2%) of rehabilitation therapy categories. Increasingly, rehabilitation therapy was performed at physician clinics. The total rehabilitation costs were <0.1% of the total annual medical costs. Conclusion Musculoskeletal or nervous system-related surgical procedures and increased use of clotting factor VIII concentrate affect the rehabilitation utilization of patients with hemophilia A the most. The findings in this study could help clinicians comprehensively understand the rehabilitation utilization of patients with hemophilia A. PMID:27690229

  16. Use of lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yu; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Huang, Wan-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2016-11-01

    Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, which is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. To investigate the association between lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A retrospective cohort study was designed using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Patients using lithium comprised the index drug group and patients using anticonvulsants only comprised the control group. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of cancer. Compared with anticonvulsant-only exposure, lithium exposure was associated with significantly lower cancer risk (HR = 0.735, 95% CI 0.554-0.974). The hazard ratios for the first, second and third tertiles of the cumulative defined daily dose were 0.762 (95% CI 0.516-1.125), 0.919 (95% CI 0.640-1.318) and 0.552 (95% CI 0.367-0.831), respectively. Lithium is associated with reduced overall cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship for cancer risk reduction was observed. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  17. Work productivity in a population-based cohort of patients with spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Emma; Bremander, Ann; Bergman, Stefan; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Petersson, Ingemar F

    2013-09-01

    To assess work productivity and associated factors in patients with SpA. This cross-sectional postal survey included 1773 patients with SpA identified in a regional health care register. Items on presenteeism (reduced productivity at work, 0-100%, 0 = no reduction) were answered by 1447 individuals. Absenteeism was defined as register-based sick leave using data from a national register. Disease duration, disease activity (BASDAI), physical function (BASFI), health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), anxiety (HAD-a), depression (HAD-d), self-efficacy [Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (ASES) pain and symptom], physical activity and education were also measured. Forty-five per cent reported reduced productivity at work with a mean reduction of 20% (95% CI 18, 21) and women reported a higher mean reduction than men (mean 23% vs 17%, P < 0.001). Worse quality of life, disease activity, physical function and anxiety all correlated with reduced productivity (r = 0.52-0.66, P < 0.001), while sick leave did not. Worse outcomes on the EQ-5D (β-est -9.6, P < 0.001), BASDAI (β-est 7.8, P < 0.001), BASFI (β-est 7.3, P < 0.001), ASES pain (β-est -0.5, P < 0.001) and HAD-d (β-est 3.4, P < 0.001) were associated with reduced productivity at work in patients with SpA regardless of age, gender and disease subgroup. ASES symptoms, HAD-a and education level <12 years were associated with reduced productivity but were not significant in all strata for age, gender and disease subgroup. Work productivity was reduced in patients with SpA and more so in women. Worse quality of life, disease activity, physical function, self-efficacy and depression were all associated with reduced productivity at work in patients with SpA.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of depression in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Seyed Saadat, Seyed Mohammad; Hosseininezhad, Mozaffar; Bakhshayesh, Babak; Seyed Saadat, Seyedeh Nastaran; Nabizadeh, Seyedeh Parand

    2014-05-01

    Depression is a frequent symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS) which has a negative impact on quality of life and cognitive status. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression, and status of antidepressant use in Iranian MS patients. One-hundred and sixty patients with definite MS were included. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Fatigue and depression were evaluated using the fatigue severity scale and Beck depression inventory-II. Cognitive performance and disability were examined by mini-mental status examination and expanded disability status scale. Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the associated factors of depression and antidepressant use. The prevalence of depression and severe depression was 59.4 and 18.1 %, respectively. However, only 21.1 % of patients were on antidepressant treatment, while the prevalence of unrecognized/untreated depression was found to be as high as 44.1 %. Multivariable analysis showed that fatigue (P < 0.0001, OR = 5.98, 95 % CI = 2.9-12.3) and older age (P = 0.027, OR = 2.24, 95 % CI = 1.09-4.6) were associated with depression in MS patient. A significant association was found between fatigue and antidepressant use (P = 0.001, OR = 6.81, 95 % CI = 2.26-20.48). Our findings demonstrate that depression is significantly associated with fatigue and older age, regardless of other factors. Moreover, despite the high prevalence of depression in MS, most patients do not receive adequate treatment.

  19. Adjunctive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Sun, Mao-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liang, Kai-Li

    2015-03-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic illness with a high prevalence worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of adjunctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use in patients with CRS. Data were retrieved from a dataset made available by the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) containing the medical records of 1,000,000 randomly sampled beneficiaries insured in the year 2000. Patients newly diagnosed with CRS in the year 2000 were enrolled, and their medical records during the period 2000 to 2011 were collected and analyzed. A total of 14,806 CRS subjects were enrolled in this study: 10,512 were non-TCM users and 4294 were TCM users. TCM group had a significantly higher proportion of females, were younger, and a greater proportion lived in urban areas compared with the non-TCM group (all p < 0.0001). Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the TCM users received herbal remedies. The most common Chinese herbal formula used was Xin-Yi-Qing-Fei-Tang and the most commonly used single herb was Baizhi. The hazard ratio (HR) for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) was 0.17 for TCM users (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.20) compared with non-TCM users after adjusting for age, sex, urbanization, and comorbidities. Our investigation found that 29% of CRS patients used TCM in addition to Western medical treatment. A lower proportion of patients in the TCM group underwent ESS compared with that in the non-TCM group. These findings may be of value in further studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of TCM use in CRS patients. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Predicting patient ‘cost blooms’ in Denmark: a longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Suzanne; Milstein, Arnold; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Pedersen, Lars; Mackey, Lester; Betterton, Jean-Raymond; Janson, Lucas; Shah, Nigam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the ability of standard versus enhanced models to predict future high-cost patients, especially those who move from a lower to the upper decile of per capita healthcare expenditures within 1 year—that is, ‘cost bloomers’. Design We developed alternative models to predict being in the upper decile of healthcare expenditures in year 2 of a sample, based on data from year 1. Our 6 alternative models ranged from a standard cost-prediction model with 4 variables (ie, traditional model features), to our largest enhanced model with 1053 non-traditional model features. To quantify any increases in predictive power that enhanced models achieved over standard tools, we compared the prospective predictive performance of each model. Participants and Setting We used the population of Western Denmark between 2004 and 2011 (2 146 801 individuals) to predict future high-cost patients and characterise high-cost patient subgroups. Using the most recent 2-year period (2010–2011) for model evaluation, our whole-population model used a cohort of 1 557 950 individuals with a full year of active residency in year 1 (2010). Our cost-bloom model excluded the 155 795 individuals who were already high cost at the population level in year 1, resulting in 1 402 155 individuals for prediction of cost bloomers in year 2 (2011). Primary outcome measures Using unseen data from a future year, we evaluated each model's prospective predictive performance by calculating the ratio of predicted high-cost patient expenditures to the actual high-cost patient expenditures in Year 2—that is, cost capture. Results Our best enhanced model achieved a 21% and 30% improvement in cost capture over a standard diagnosis-based model for predicting population-level high-cost patients and cost bloomers, respectively. Conclusions In combination with modern statistical learning methods for analysing large data sets, models enhanced with a large and diverse set of features

  1. Smoking, cessation, and cessation counseling in patients with cancer: A population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Apoorva T; Toll, Benjamin A; Chagpar, Anees B; Judson, Benjamin L

    2016-04-15

    Smoking is known to be carcinogenic and an important factor in the outcome of cancer treatment. However, to the authors' knowledge, smoking habits and smoking cessation counseling in patients with cancer have been poorly studied. The authors sought to analyze smoking habits among Americans diagnosed with cancer in a nationally representative dataset. The cancer supplement of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2010 was used to obtain information regarding self-reported smoking behavior in a representative sample of the US population. Cancer history, smoking history, quitting behavior, cessation counseling, cessation approaches, and sociodemographic variables were analyzed. A total of 27,157 individuals were interviewed for the NHIS in 2010, representing 216,052,891 individuals, 7,058,135 of whom had ever smoked and 13,188,875 of whom had been told that they had cancer. Approximately 51.7% of individuals diagnosed with cancer and who were active smokers reported being counseled to quit smoking by a health professional within the previous 12 months. Cancer survivors were no more likely to quit smoking than individuals in the general population. Those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer were found to be no more likely to report quitting smoking than those with other types of cancers. Rates of quitting did not appear to vary based on the type of smoking cessation method used (P = .50). Patients with cancer, including those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer, do not appear to be more likely to quit smoking than the general population. Only approximately one-half of patients with cancer who smoke are counseled to quit. Smoking cessation in patients with cancer is an important area for intervention and investigation. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark; Baird, Lynn G; Desbiens, Sophie; Berndt, Ernst; Hillert, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition from each full EDSS with explanatory variables age, sex, age at onset, time in current EDSS, highest prior EDSS, MS course and treatment. All factors (except sex) investigated had statistically significant impacts on transitions from at least one EDSS. However, significance and size of the effect are dependent on the EDSS state of the patient. Greater age, longer time in a state, highest prior EDSS, having progressive MS and treatment had significant impacts, whereas age at onset had minor impact. Our study confirms that established factors associated with MS disease worsening in time to disease milestones also have impacts on annual progression. This approach adds granularity to what EDSS these factors have an influence.

  3. Suicide in patients with gastric cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Akitomo; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted this study to examine the rate of suicide in patients with gastric cancer and to identify factors associated with increased risk of suicide using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The database was queried for patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancer from 1998 to 2011. The rate of suicide and standardized mortality ratio were calculated. Multivariable analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with increased risk of suicide. A total of 65 535 patients with 109 597 person-years of follow-up were included. A total of 68 patients died of suicide. The age-adjusted rate of suicide was 34.6 per 100 000 person-years (standardized mortality ratios, 4.07; 95% confidence interval, 3.18-5.13). The rate of suicide was highest within the first 3 months after cancer diagnosis (standardized mortality ratios, 67.67; 95% confidence interval, 40.74-106.15). Results of multivariable analyses showed that male sex (incidence rate ratio, 7.15; 95% confidence interval, 3.05-16.78; P < 0.0001), White race (incidence rate ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-10.35; P = 0.0491), unmarried status (incidence rate ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.30; P = 0.0060) and distant stage disease (incidence rate ratio, 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-4.92; P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with increased risk of suicide. Patients with gastric cancer have an ~4-fold higher risk of suicide compared with the general US population. The suicide risk is highest within the first 3 months after diagnosis. Male sex, White race, unmarried status and distant stage disease are significantly associated with increased risk of suicide. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Oral Anticoagulants Initiation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Real-World Data from a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L.; Hurtado, Isabel; García-Sempere, Aníbal; Peiró, Salvador; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about initial prescription of currently used oral anticoagulants (OAC), and correlated characteristics in real-world practice. We aimed to assess patterns of initiation of Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in naive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and the factors associated with starting treatment with NOAC. Methods: Population-based retrospective cohort study of all patients with NVAF who had a first prescription of OAC from November 2011 to February 2014 in the Valencia region, Spain (n = 21,881). Temporal trends of OAC initiation are described for the whole population and by type of OAC and therapeutic agent. Factors associated with starting treatment with NOAC (vs. VKA) were identified using logistic multivariate regression models. Results: Among the patients initiating OAC, 25% started with NOAC 2 years after market release. Regarding temporal trends, prescription of NOAC doubled during the study period. VKA prescription also increased (by around 13%), resulting in a 30% rise in total treatment initiation with OAC during 2011–2014. NOAC initiation (vs. VKA) was associated with a lower baseline risk of thromboembolism and higher income. Conclusions: In this Spanish population-based cohort, initiation of OAC therapy saw a rapid increase, mainly but not exclusively, due to a two-fold rise in the use of NOAC. Initiation with NOAC was associated with a lower baseline risk of thromboembolism and higher income, which opposes the indications of NOAC use and reflects disparities in care. Inadequate prescription patterns might threaten the effectiveness and safety of these therapies, thus monitoring OAC prescription is necessary and should be setting-specific. PMID:28261098

  5. Oral Anticoagulants Initiation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Real-World Data from a Population-Based Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Hurtado, Isabel; García-Sempere, Aníbal; Peiró, Salvador; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about initial prescription of currently used oral anticoagulants (OAC), and correlated characteristics in real-world practice. We aimed to assess patterns of initiation of Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in naive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and the factors associated with starting treatment with NOAC. Methods: Population-based retrospective cohort study of all patients with NVAF who had a first prescription of OAC from November 2011 to February 2014 in the Valencia region, Spain (n = 21,881). Temporal trends of OAC initiation are described for the whole population and by type of OAC and therapeutic agent. Factors associated with starting treatment with NOAC (vs. VKA) were identified using logistic multivariate regression models. Results: Among the patients initiating OAC, 25% started with NOAC 2 years after market release. Regarding temporal trends, prescription of NOAC doubled during the study period. VKA prescription also increased (by around 13%), resulting in a 30% rise in total treatment initiation with OAC during 2011-2014. NOAC initiation (vs. VKA) was associated with a lower baseline risk of thromboembolism and higher income. Conclusions: In this Spanish population-based cohort, initiation of OAC therapy saw a rapid increase, mainly but not exclusively, due to a two-fold rise in the use of NOAC. Initiation with NOAC was associated with a lower baseline risk of thromboembolism and higher income, which opposes the indications of NOAC use and reflects disparities in care. Inadequate prescription patterns might threaten the effectiveness and safety of these therapies, thus monitoring OAC prescription is necessary and should be setting-specific.

  6. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA): a population based gap analysis of trauma patients in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Edward Benjamin Graham; Morrison, Jonathan James; Madureira, Ricardo Mondoni; Lendrum, Robbie; Fragoso-Iñiguez, Marisol; Edwards, Antoinette; Lecky, Fiona; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Jansen, Jan Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-compressible torso haemorrhage (NCTH) carries a high mortality in trauma as many patients exsanguinate prior to definitive haemorrhage control. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct that has the potential to bridge patients to definitive haemostasis. However, the proportion of trauma patients in whom REBOA may be utilised is unknown. Methods We conducted a population based analysis of 2012–2013 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data. We identified the number of patients in whom REBOA may have been utilised, defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3 to abdominal solid organs, abdominal or pelvic vasculature, pelvic fracture with ring disruption or proximal traumatic lower limb amputation, together with a systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Patients with non-compressible haemorrhage in the mediastinum, axilla, face or neck were excluded. Results During 2012–2013, 72 677 adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in England and Wales were identified. 397 patients had an indication(s) and no contraindications for REBOA with evidence of haemorrhagic shock: 69% men, median age 43 years and median Injury Severity Score 32. Overall mortality was 32%. Major trauma centres (MTCs) received the highest concentration of potential REBOA patients, and would be anticipated to receive a patient in whom REBOA may be utilised every 95 days, increasing to every 46 days in the 10 MTCs with the highest attendance of this injury type. Conclusions This TARN database analysis has identified a small group of severely injured, resource intensive patients with a highly lethal injury that is theoretically amenable to REBOA. The highest density of these patients is seen at MTCs, and as such a planned evaluation of REBOA should be further considered in these hospitals. PMID:26598631

  7. Improving outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy: a population-based, 12-year trend analysis of 7446 patients.

    PubMed

    Brügger, Lukas; Rosella, Laura; Candinas, Daniel; Güller, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis has become increasingly used over the past decade. The objective of this trend analysis is to assess whether clinical outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy have improved over the past 12 years. This analysis is based on the prospective database of the Swiss Association of Laparoscopic and Thoracoscopic Surgery. All patients undergoing emergency laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis from 1995 to 2006 were included. The following outcomes were assessed for each of the 12 years: conversion rates, intraoperative complications, surgical postoperative complications, general postoperative complications, rate of reoperations, and length of hospital stay. Unadjusted and risk-adjusted multivariable analyses were performed. Statistical significance was set at a level of P < 0.05. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Data from 7446 patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis were prospectively collected. Over the period of observation, the conversion rate decreased significantly from 2.2% to 1.2% (P(trend)< 0.001), as did intraoperative complications (from 3.1% to 0.7%; P(trend)< 0.001), surgical postoperative complications (from 6.1% to 1.9%; P(trend)< 0.001), general postoperative complications (from 4.9% to 1.5%; P(trend)< 0.001), and rates of reoperations (from 3.4% to 0.7%; P(trend)< 0.001). Average postoperative length of hospital stay also significantly decreased from 4.9 to 3.5 days (P(trend)< 0.001). Our investigation provides compelling evidence that intraoperative complications, surgical and general postoperative complications, conversion rates, rates of reoperations, and average length of hospital stay have significantly decreased over the past decade in patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis. The present trend analysis is the first one in the literature encompassing more than a decade and reporting clinical outcomes after laparoscopic appendectomy for acute

  8. Irradiation enhanced risks of hospitalised pneumonopathy in lung cancer patients: a population-based surgical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shih-Kai; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lo, Yuan-Chen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Chien, Nai-Chuan; Li, Szu-Chi; Liu, Dai-Wei; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Chan, Michael Wy; Lin, Hon-Yi

    2017-09-27

    Pulmonary radiotherapy has been reported to increase a risk of pneumonopathy, including pneumonitis and secondary pneumonia, however evidence from population-based studies is lacking. The present study intended to explore whether postoperative irradiation increases occurrence of severe pneumonopathy in lung cancer patients. The nationwide population-based study analysed the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (covered >99% of Taiwanese) in a real-world setting. From 2000 to 2010, 4335 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients were allocated into two groups: surgery-RT (n=867) and surgery-alone (n=3468). With a ratio of 1:4, propensity score was used to match 11 baseline factors to balance groups. Irradiation was delivered to bronchial stump and mediastinum according to peer-audited guidelines. Hospitalised pneumonia/pneumonitis-free survival was the primary end point. Risk factors and hazard effects were secondary measures. Multivariable analysis identified five independent risk factors for hospitalised pneumonopathy: elderly (>65 years), male, irradiation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Compared with surgery-alone, a higher risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy was found in surgery-RT patients (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.93-2.51; 2-year hospitalised pneumonia/pneumonitis-free survival, 85.2% vs 69.0%; both p<0.0001), especially in elderly males with COPD and CKD (HR, 13.74; 95% CI, 6.61-28.53; p<0.0001). Unexpectedly, we observed a higher risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy in younger irradiated-CKD patients (HR, 13.07; 95% CI, 5.71-29.94; p<0.0001) than that of elderly irradiated-CKD patients (HR, 4.82; 95% CI, 2.88-8.08; p<0.0001). A high risk of hospitalised pneumonopathy is observed in irradiated patients, especially in elderly males with COPD and CKD. For these patients, close clinical surveillance and aggressive pneumonia/pneumonitis prevention should be considered. Further investigations are required to

  9. Spectrum of mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients - a population-based study from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Minárik, Gabriel; Plank, Lukáš; Lasabová, Zora; Szemes, Tomáš; Burjanivová, Tatiana; Szépe, Peter; Buzalková, Veronika; Porubský, David; Sufliarsky, Jozef

    2013-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of gastrointestinal tract and are characterized by presence of mutations in tyrosine kinases cKIT (KIT) and PDGFRα (PDGFRA). Mutations identified are highly heterogeneous, but some mutations are associated with specific clinical features of the tumor. Samples from 278 GIST patients collected during the period 2004-2011 were screened for mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of KIT and 12, 14 and 18 of PDGFRA. Results of mutation screening were summarized and tested for possible association with clinical parameters of tumors. Mutations were identified in 83.81% of patients. Most frequent mutations were found in KIT exon 11 reaching frequency of 62.95%. Other exons contributed to the mutation pool with frequencies 8.27%, 7.55%, 2.52%, 1.44%, 1.08%, and 0.00%, in decreasing order KIT exon 9, PDGRFA exons 18 and 12, KIT exon 13, PDGFRA exon 14, and KIT exon 17. General linear model analysis showed no effect of any individual analyzed mutation on the phenotypic variables, but we confirmed association between mutations KIT exon 9 p. 503-504_dup2, and PDGFRA exon 18 p. D842V and intestinal and gastric localization of tumors. © 2012 APMIS Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patterns of Recurrence After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: A Population-Based Study of 2223 Consecutive Low- and Intermediate-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Andrea C.; Morris, W. James Pickles, Tom; Keyes, Mira; McKenzie, Michael; Tyldesley, Scott

    2015-03-15

    Objectives: This study examined patterns of recurrence after low–dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB), estimated local recurrence rate and compared that rate to the estimated local recurrence rate after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A prospective database was maintained with clinical, dosimetric, and outcome data for all LDR-PB implantation procedures performed at our institution. From 1998 to 2008, 2223 patients with prostate cancer received LDR-PB without supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Patients who developed Phoenix-defined biochemical failure were reviewed for sites of relapse and investigations completed. Results: At a median follow-up of 5 years, 108 of 2223 patients (4.8%) developed biochemical relapse. In 1 additional patient, local relapse was found on transurethral prostate resection, but his prostate-specific antigen concentration was well short of triggering Phoenix-defined failure. Of the 109 patients with disease relapse, 18 of 2223 (0.8%) had a proven local recurrence, and 30 of 2223 (1.3%) had a proven distant recurrence. The remaining 61 of 2223 patients (2.7%) had unidentified sites of recurrence; of these, 57 patients (93%) had digital rectal examinations (DREs), 18 (30%) had post-treatment biopsies, 45 (74%) had bone scans, and 34 (56%) had computed tomography imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. If every biochemical failure were local, the local recurrence rate would be as high as 4.9%; however, by excluding those with proven distant failure and those with both a negative DRE and biopsy, we estimate that the local recurrence rate is 2.7% or less. Conclusions: In the context of limitations of the study design, our population-based analysis indicates that the local recurrence rate after LDR-PB is as low or lower than that after RP in our jurisdiction.

  11. Predicting high-cost pediatric patients: derivation and validation of a population-based model.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Lindsey J; Saloner, Brendan; Wherry, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Health care administrators often lack feasible methods to prospectively identify new pediatric patients with high health care needs, precluding the ability to proactively target appropriate population health management programs to these children. To develop and validate a predictive model identifying high-cost pediatric patients using parent-reported health (PRH) measures that can be easily collected in clinical and administrative settings. Retrospective cohort study using 2-year panel data from the 2001 to 2011 rounds of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A total of 24,163 children aged 5-17 with family incomes below 400% of the federal poverty line were included in this study. Predictive performance, including the c-statistic, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values, of multivariate logistic regression models predicting top-decile health care expenditures over a 1-year period. Seven independent domains of PRH measures were tested for predictive capacity relative to basic sociodemographic information: the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener; subjectively rated health status; prior year health care utilization; behavioral problems; asthma diagnosis; access to health care; and parental health status and access to care. The CSHCN screener and prior year utilization domains exhibited the highest incremental predictive gains over the baseline model. A model including sociodemographic characteristics, the CSHCN screener, and prior year utilization had a c-statistic of 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.74), surpassing the commonly used threshold to establish sufficient predictive capacity (c-statistic>0.70). The proposed prediction tool, comprising a simple series of PRH measures, accurately stratifies pediatric populations by their risk of incurring high health care costs.

  12. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke.We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000-2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts.The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05-1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03-1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) for men and women, respectively.This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further.

  13. Risk of depressive disorder among patients with herpes zoster: a nationwide population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Wei, Han-Ting; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2014-05-01

    Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the endogenous varicella zoster virus infection. Previous studies have shown that herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia were associated with anxiety, depression, and insomnia. However, no prospective study has investigated the association between herpes zoster and the development of depressive disorder. Subjects were identified through the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients 18 years or older with a diagnosis of herpes zoster and without a psychiatric history were enrolled in 2000 and compared with age-/sex-matched controls (1:4). These participants were followed up to the end of 2010 for new-onset depressive disorder. A total of 1888 patients with herpes zoster were identified and compared with 7552 age-/sex-matched controls in 2000. Those with herpes zoster had a higher incidence of developing major depression (2.2% versus 1.4%, p = .018) and any depressive disorder (4.3% versus 3.2%, p = .020) than did the control group. The follow-up showed that herpes zoster was an independent risk factor for major depression (hazard ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-2.13) and any depressive disorder (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.70), after adjusting demographic data and comorbid medical diseases. This is the first study to investigate the temporal association between herpes zoster and depressive disorder. Further studies would be required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology about this association and whether proper treatment of herpes zoster could decrease the long-term risk of depressive disorder.

  14. The frequency and impact of hypoglycemia among hospitalized patients with diabetes: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Guijarro-Merino, Ricardo; Zapatero, Antonio; Barba, Raquel; Guijarro-Contreras, Ana; Tinahones, Francisco; Bernal-López, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and its impact on the length of stay and all-cause in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with diabetes. We used data from the Basic Minimum Data Set of the Spanish National Health System. Hypoglycemia was defined as having an ICD-9-CM code 250.8, 251.0, 251.1, and 251.2, and categorized as primary if it was the main cause of admission and secondary if it occurred during the hospital stay. The association between hypoglycemia and the study outcomes was evaluated in two cohorts - with and without secondary hypoglycemia - matched by propensity scores and using multivariate models. Among the 5,447,725 discharges with a diagnosis of diabetes recorded from January 1997 to December 2010, there were 92,591 (1.7%) discharges with primary hypoglycemia and 154,510 (2.8%) with secondary hypoglycemia. The prevalence of secondary hypoglycemia increased from 1.1% in 1997 to a peak of 3.8% in 2007, while the prevalence of primary hypoglycemia remained fairly stable. Primary hypoglycemia was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Odds ratio [OR] 0.06; 95% Confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.10) and a significant decrease in time to discharge (Hazard ratio [HR] 2.53; 95% CI, 2.30-2.76), while secondary hypoglycemia was associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.15) and a significant increase in time to discharge (HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.80). In conclusion, the prevalence of secondary hypoglycemia is increasing in patients with diabetes and is associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital mortality and a longer hospital stay.

  15. Effects of gender and age on development of concurrent extrapulmonary tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Lai, Chung-Chih; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of adult-onset tuberculosis (TB) result from reactivation of a pre-existing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually invades the respiratory tract and most patients develop intrapulmonary TB; however, some patients develop concurrent pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The purpose of the present study was to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with an increased risk of concurrent extra-pulmonary diseases in patients with pulmonary TB. We compared patients who had isolated pulmonary TB with patients who had concurrent pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. We initially analyzed one-million randomly selected subjects from the population-based Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Based on analysis of 5414 pulmonary TB patients in this database, women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (OR: 1.30, p = 0.013). A separate analysis of the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital database, which relied on sputum culture-proven pulmonary TB, indicated that women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (OR: 1.62, p = 0.039). There was no significant gender difference in extra-pulmonary TB for patients younger than 45 years in either database. However, for patients 45 years and older, women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (insurance database: 9.0% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.016, OR: 1.36; hospital database: 27.3% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.008, OR = 1.98). Our results indicate that among patients who have pulmonary TB, older females have an increased risk for concurrent extra-pulmonary TB.

  16. Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis, Psoriasis and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, YiDing; Haynes, Kevin; Love, Thorvardur Jon; Maliha, Samantha; Jiang, Yihui; Troxel, Andrea B.; Hennessy, Sean; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Margolis, David J.; Choi, Hyon; Mehta, Nehal N.; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to quantify the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and psoriasis without known PsA compared to the general population after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A population-based longitudinal cohort study from 1994–2010 was performed in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care medical record database in the United Kingdom. Patients aged 18–89 with PsA, RA, or psoriasis were included. Up to 10 unexposed controls matched on practice and index date were selected for each patient with PsA. Outcomes included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and the composite outcome (MACE). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) for each outcome adjusted for traditional risk factors. A priori we hypothesized an interaction between disease status and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) use. Results Patients with PsA (N=8,706), RA (N=41,752), psoriasis (N=138,424) and unexposed controls (N=81,573) were identified. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the risk of MACE was higher in PsA patients not prescribed a DMARD (HR 1.24, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.49), patients with RA (No DMARD: HR 1.39, 95%CI: 1.28 to 1.50, DMARD: HR 1.58, 95%CI: 1.46 to 1.70), patients with psoriasis not prescribed a DMARD (HR 1.08, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.15) and patients with severe psoriasis (DMARD users: HR 1.42, 95%CI: 1.17 to 1.73). Conclusions Cardiovascular risk should be addressed with all patients affected by psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25351522

  17. Rosacea in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: A Population-based Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Spoendlin, Julia; Karatas, Gülistan; Furlano, Raoul I; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous manifestations are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) (ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD]). Previous case reports described patients with IBD who developed rosacea. IBD and rosacea are inflammatory epithelial diseases, presumably associated with changes in the innate immune system. We explored the association between IBD and incident rosacea. We conducted a population-based matched (1:1) case-control analysis on the association between IBD and rosacea, stratified by IBD disease duration and severity. We used data from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Cases had an incident diagnosis of rosacea recorded between 1995 and 2013. Among 80,957 rosacea cases and the same number of controls, a history of UC was associated with an increased risk of rosacea (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.90), with the highest OR in those with short UC duration (OR 2.85, 95% confidence interval, 1.80-4.50 for patients with <2 years of disease history). A history of CD yielded an overall OR of 1.49 (95% CI, 1.25-1.77), which did not correlate with disease duration. Additional analyses on IBD disease severity yielded evidence for a higher risk of rosacea in those with higher UC and CD activity. Our findings provide evidence that patients with IBD may be at increased risk of rosacea (higher in UC), particularly during phases of increased IBD-associated gastrointestinal tract inflammation.

  18. Real world heart failure epidemiology and outcome: A population-based analysis of 88,195 patients

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Emili; Clèries, Montse; Bustins, Montse; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Enjuanes, Cristina; Moliner, Pedro; Ruiz, Sonia; Verdú-Rotellar, José María; Comín-Colet, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is frequent and its prevalence is increasing. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic features of HF patients, the 1-year follow-up outcomes and the independent predictors of those outcomes at a population level. Methods and results Population-based longitudinal study including all prevalent HF cases in Catalonia (Spain) on December 31st, 2012. Patients were divided in 3 groups: patients without a previous HF hospitalization, patients with a remote (>1 year) HF hospitalization and patients with a recent (<1 year) HF admission. We analyzed 1year all-cause and HF hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality. Logistic regression was used to identify the independent predictors of each of those outcomes. A total of 88,195 patients were included. Mean age was 77 years, 55% were women. Comorbidities were frequent. Fourteen percent of patients had never been hospitalized, 71% had a remote HF hospitalization and 15% a recent hospitalization. At 1-year follow-up, all-cause and HF hospitalization were 53% and 8.8%, respectively. One-year all-cause mortality rate was 14%, and was higher in patients with a recent HF hospitalization (24%). The presence of diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation or chronic kidney disease was independently associated with all-cause and HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Hospital admissions and emergency department visits the previous year were also found to be independently associated with the three study outcomes. Conclusions Outcomes are different depending on the HF population studied. Some comorbidity, an all-cause hospitalization or emergency department visit the previous year were associated with a worse outcome. PMID:28235067

  19. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population.From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011.The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10-1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53-5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10-1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81-3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids.Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases.

  20. Estimates of over-diagnosis of breast cancer due to population-based mammography screening in South Australia after adjustment for lead time effects.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Kerri; Duffy, Stephen W; Lynch, John; Hiller, Janet; Farshid, Gelareh; Roder, David

    2015-09-01

    To estimate over-diagnosis due to population-based mammography screening using a lead time adjustment approach, with lead time measures based on symptomatic cancers only. Women aged 40-84 in 1989-2009 in South Australia eligible for mammography screening. Numbers of observed and expected breast cancer cases were compared, after adjustment for lead time. Lead time effects were modelled using age-specific estimates of lead time (derived from interval cancer rates and predicted background incidence, using maximum likelihood methods) and screening sensitivity, projected background breast cancer incidence rates (in the absence of screening), and proportions screened, by age and calendar year. Lead time estimates were 12, 26, 43 and 53 months, for women aged 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 respectively. Background incidence rates were estimated to have increased by 0.9% and 1.2% per year for invasive and all breast cancer. Over-diagnosis among women aged 40-84 was estimated at 7.9% (0.1-12.0%) for invasive cases and 12.0% (5.7-15.4%) when including ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). We estimated 8% over-diagnosis for invasive breast cancer and 12% inclusive of DCIS cancers due to mammography screening among women aged 40-84. These estimates may overstate the extent of over-diagnosis if the increasing prevalence of breast cancer risk factors has led to higher background incidence than projected. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk…

  2. Estimating micro area behavioural risk factor prevalence from large population-based surveys: a full Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Seliske, L; Norwood, T A; McLaughlin, J R; Wang, S; Palleschi, C; Holowaty, E

    2016-06-07

    An important public health goal is to decrease the prevalence of key behavioural risk factors, such as tobacco use and obesity. Survey information is often available at the regional level, but heterogeneity within large geographic regions cannot be assessed. Advanced spatial analysis techniques are demonstrated to produce sensible micro area estimates of behavioural risk factors that enable identification of areas with high prevalence. A spatial Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate the micro area prevalence of current smoking and excess bodyweight for the Erie-St. Clair region in southwestern Ontario. Estimates were mapped for male and female respondents of five cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The micro areas were 2006 Census Dissemination Areas, with an average population of 400-700 people. Two individual-level models were specified: one controlled for survey cycle and age group (model 1), and one controlled for survey cycle, age group and micro area median household income (model 2). Post-stratification was used to derive micro area behavioural risk factor estimates weighted to the population structure. SaTScan analyses were conducted on the granular, postal-code level CCHS data to corroborate findings of elevated prevalence. Current smoking was elevated in two urban areas for both sexes (Sarnia and Windsor), and an additional small community (Chatham) for males only. Areas of excess bodyweight were prevalent in an urban core (Windsor) among males, but not females. Precision of the posterior post-stratified current smoking estimates was improved in model 2, as indicated by narrower credible intervals and a lower coefficient of variation. For excess bodyweight, both models had similar precision. Aggregation of the micro area estimates to CCHS design-based estimates validated the findings. This is among the first studies to apply a full Bayesian model to complex sample survey data to identify micro areas with variation in risk

  3. Success Story of Targeted Therapy in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Population-Based Study of Patients Diagnosed in Sweden From 1973 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Björkholm, Magnus; Ohm, Lotta; Eloranta, Sandra; Derolf, Åsa; Hultcrantz, Malin; Sjöberg, Jan; Andersson, Therese; Höglund, Martin; Richter, Johan; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Dickman, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) management changed dramatically with the development of imatinib mesylate (IM), the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein. In Sweden, the drug was approved in November 2001. We report relative survival (RS) of patients with CML diagnosed during a 36-year period. Patients and Methods Using data from the population-based Swedish Cancer Registry and population life tables, we estimated RS for all patients diagnosed with CML from 1973 to 2008 (n = 3,173; 1,796 males and 1,377 females; median age, 62 years). Patients were categorized into five age groups and five calendar periods, the last being 2001 to 2008. Information on use of upfront IM was collected from the Swedish CML registry. Results Relative survival improved with each calendar period, with the greatest improvement between 1994-2000 and 2001-2008. Five-year cumulative relative survival ratios (95% Cls) were 0.21 (0.17 to 0.24) for patients diagnosed 1973-1979, 0.54 (0.50 to 0.58) for 1994-2000, and 0.80 (0.75 to 0.83) for 2001-2008. This improvement was confined to patients younger than 79 years of age. Five-year RSRs for patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.94) and 0.25 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.47) for patients younger than 50 and older than 79 years, respectively. Men had inferior outcome. Upfront overall use of IM increased from 40% (2002) to 84% (2006). Only 18% of patients older than 80 years of age received IM as first-line therapy. Conclusion This large population-based study shows a major improvement in outcome of patients with CML up to 79 years of age diagnosed from 2001 to 2008, mainly caused by an increasing use of IM. The elderly still have poorer outcome, partly because of a limited use of IM. PMID:21576640

  4. Risk of tinnitus in patients with sleep apnea: A nationwide, population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Malcolm; Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the risk of tinnitus in patients with sleep disturbance or sleep apnea. Case control study. We identified 21,798 middle-aged and elderly patients with otolaryngologist-diagnosed tinnitus between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012, from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 108,990 controls were also identified from the same database based on frequency-matching on 10-year age interval, sex, and year of index date of the cases. Diagnoses of sleep disturbance (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] codes 780.50, 780.52, 307.4) and sleep apnea (ICD-9-CM codes 780.51, 780.53, 780.57) in the cases and controls prior to the index date were assessed. The risks of tinnitus in patients with sleep disturbance and sleep apnea were separately evaluated with multivariate logistic regression analyses. The mean age of the total 130,788 patients was 59.8 years, and 47% of them were males. The risk of tinnitus was higher in patients with sleep disturbance compared to those without the condition (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] [95% CI] = 1.11-1.17), and the risk of tinnitus was higher in patients with sleep apnea compared to those without the condition (adjusted OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.16-1.60). In this population-based, case-control study, the risk of tinnitus was found to be significantly higher among middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese patients with sleep disturbances, especially with sleep apnea. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2171-2175, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Time trend of multiple myeloma and associated secondary primary malignancies in Asian patients: a Taiwan population-based study.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Huey-En; Lin, Cheng-Li; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Wen-Li; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Studies involving second malignancies in patients with multiple myeloma are limited for the Asian population. Using data from population-based insurance claims, we assessed the risk of developing secondary malignancies after multiple myeloma, in particular hematologic malignancies. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 3970 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma from the registry of catastrophic illnesses between 1997 and 2009. A total of 15880 subjects without multiple myeloma were randomly selected as comparisons from the insured population, frequency-matched based on gender, age, and the date of diagnosis. The incidence of secondary malignancies was ascertained through cross-referencing with the National Cancer Registry System. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for analyses. The incidence of multiple myeloma in the insured population increased annually. The overall incidence of secondary malignancy was lower in the multiple myeloma cohort than in the comparison cohort (93.6 vs. 104.5 per 10,000 person-years, IRR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78-1.04). The incidence of hematologic malignancies was 11-fold greater for multiple myeloma patients (47.2 vs. 4.09 per 10,000 person-years) with an adjusted HR of 13.0 (95% CI = 7.79-21.6) compared with the comparison cohort. The relative risk of secondary malignancy was also strong for myeloid leukemia (21.2 vs. 1.36 per 10,000 person-years). Gender- and age-specific analysis for secondary hematologic malignancies showed that males and patients with multiple myeloma <60 years of age had a higher risk of secondary malignancy than females and patients with multiple myeloma >60 years of age. In conclusion, patients with multiple myeloma, especially younger patients, are at a high risk of hematologic malignancies.

  6. Significantly Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Gallstone Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Olaiya, Muideen Tunbosun; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Lien, Li-Ming; Hsieh, Fang-I

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether gallstone disease (GD) increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large population-based cohort. Methods A study population including 6,981 patients with GD was identified from The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2004 and 2005. GD patients were defined as patients with principal discharge diagnoses of cholelithiasis using the ICD-9-CM code 574. 27,924 patients without GD were randomly selected and matched for age and gender. All patients were followed for 6 years or until diagnosis for CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of developing CVD with adjustment for age, gender and co-morbid conditions. Results During the six years follow-up period, 935 patients with GD and 2,758 patients without GD developed CVD. Patients with GD had an elevated risk of CVD (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.43) when compared with those without GD. Similar relationship was observed when CVD was categorized i.e. stroke (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32), coronary heart disease (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.58) and heart failure (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.73). When GD was classified according to the level of severity, using patients without GD as reference, the risks of CVD were elevated in patients with non-severe GD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46) as well as those with severe GD (HR, 1.20, 95% CI, 1.02-1.40), after adjusting for age, gender and comorbidities. In age-stratified analysis, patients aged 18-40 years with GD were at higher risk of developing CVD (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.84) than older GD patients. Conclusion This study found an increased risk of CVD in patients diagnosed with GD. The excess risk was particularly high in younger GD patients. Prevention of GD could help reduce the risk of developing CVD, and the better effect could be achieved for the younger age groups. PMID:24098504

  7. Disease Associations With Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: A Population-Based Study of 17,398 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bida, John P.; Kyle, Robert A.; Therneau, Terry M.; Melton, L. Joseph; Plevak, Matthew F.; Larson, Dirk R.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically study the association of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) with all diseases in a population-based cohort of 17,398 patients, all of whom were uniformly tested for the presence or absence of MGUS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 77% (21,463) of the 28,038 enumerated residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Informed consent was obtained from patients to study 17,398 samples. Among 17,398 samples tested, 605 cases of MGUS and 16,793 negative controls were identified. The computerized Mayo Medical Index was used to obtain information on all diagnoses entered between January 1, 1975, and May 31, 2006, for a total of 422,663 person-years of observations. To identify and confirm previously reported associations, these diagnostic codes were analyzed using stratified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, and total person-years of observation. RESULTS: We confirmed a significant association in 14 (19%) of 75 previously reported disease associations with MGUS, including vertebral and hip fractures and osteoporosis. Systematic analysis of all 16,062 diagnostic disease codes found additional previously unreported associations, including mycobacterium infection and superficial thrombophlebitis. CONCLUSION: These results have major implications both for confirmed associations and for 61 diseases in which the association with MGUS is likely coincidental. PMID:19648385

  8. Statin improves survival in patients with EGFR-TKI lung cancer: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Huang, Ru-Jiun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Long-term use of statins has been reported to reduce the risk of death in patients with lung cancer. This study investigated the effect of statin use among patients with lung cancer receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) therapy. A nationwide, population-based case-control study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012, a total of 1,707 statin and 6,828 non-statin matched lung cancer cohorts with EGFR-TKIs treatment were studied. Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of death (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.54–0.62, p < 0.001). In addition, statin use was associated with a significantly longer median progression-free survival (8.3 months, 95% CI: 7.6–8.9 vs. 6.1 months, 95% CI: 6.0–6.4, p < 0.001) and median overall survival (35.5 months, 95% CI: 33.8–38.1 vs. 23.9 months, 95% CI: 23.4–24.7, p < 0.001). In conclusion, statins might potentially enhance the therapeutic effect and increase survival in patients with lung cancer receiving EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:28158206

  9. Predictors of 5-year local, regional, and distant recurrent events in a population-based cohort of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fung, Filgen; Cornacchi, Sylvie D; Vanniyasingam, Thuva; Dao, Dyda; Thabane, Lehana; Simunovic, Marko; Hodgson, Nicole; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Reid, Susan; Heller, Barbara; Lovrics, Peter J

    2017-02-01

    The study purpose was to identify tumor and surgeon predictors of local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), and distant metastasis (DM) after breast cancer (BC) surgery in a population-based cohort. Consecutive BC surgical cases from 12 hospitals in South Central Ontario between May 2006 and October 2006 were included. Data collected on chart review included patient and tumor factors, surgery type, adjuvant treatment, surgeon specialty, surgeon case volume, and practice type. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed. Median follow-up was 5.5 years for 402 patients (97% of sample). LR, RR, and DM occurred in 18 (4.5%), 10 (2.5%), and 47 (12%) patients, respectively. Significant predictors of BC recurrence (LR or RR or DM) were tumor size and grade, nodal status, and lymphovascular invasion on multivariable analysis. Tumor factors such as size, grade, lymphovascular invasion, and nodal status predicted BC recurrence, while practice type, surgeon specialty, and case volume did not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk of cardiovascular disease among patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study, 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-02-01

    A higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in several chronic inflammatory diseases. However, data on sarcoidosis are limited.In this study, 345 patients with incident sarcoidosis in Olmsted County (Minnesota, USA) during 1976-2013 were identified based on comprehensive medical record review. 345 sex- and age-matched comparators were also identified from the same underlying population. Medical records were individually reviewed for CVD, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischaemic attack, peripheral arterial disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age, sex, calendar year and cardiovascular risk factors were used to compare the rate of development of CVD between cases and comparators.The prevalence of CVD before the index date was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusting for age, sex and calendar year, the risk of incident CVD after the index date was significantly elevated among patients with sarcoidosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.15-2.16). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors yielded an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.08-2.53). Significantly increased risk was also observed for several types of CVD, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular accident.Increased incidence of CVD among patients with sarcoidosis was demonstrated in this population-based cohort, even after controlling for baseline traditional atherosclerotic risk factors.

  11. Validation of the PROMIS Physical Function Measures in a Diverse U.S. Population-Based Cohort of Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; Potosky, Arnold L.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Hahn, Elizabeth; Cella, David; Fries, James; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Paddock, Lisa; Moinpour, Carol M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function measures in a diverse, population-based cancer sample. Methods Cancer patients 6–13 months post diagnosis (n=4,840) were recruited for the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study. Participants were diagnosed between 2010–2013 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or cancers of the colorectum, lung, breast, uterus, cervix, or prostate. Four PROMIS Physical Function short forms (4a, 6b, 10a, and 16) were evaluated for validity and reliability across age and race-ethnicity groups. Covariates included gender, marital status, education level, cancer site and stage, comorbidities, and functional status. Results PROMIS Physical Function short forms showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α =0.92 – 0.96), convergent validity (Fatigue, Pain Interference, FACT Physical Well-Being all r≥0.68) and discriminant validity (unrelated domains all r≤0.3) across survey short forms, age, and race-ethnicity. Known group differences by demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics performed as hypothesized. Ceiling effects for higher-functioning individuals were identified on most forms. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence that PROMIS Physical Function measures are valid and reliable in multiple race-ethnicity and age groups. Researchers selecting specific PROMIS short forms should consider the degree of functional disability in their patient population to ensure that length and content are tailored to limit response burden. PMID:25935353

  12. Increased risk of dementia in patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000–2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. Results During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8.84 vs 5.75 per 1000 person-y). A 1.88-fold increased risk of dementia (95% confidence interval, 1.76–2.01) was observed after adjustment for age, sex, and several comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, head injury, depression, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cancer, liver disease, chronic infection/inflammation, autoimmune disease, malnutrition). Conclusions We found that patients with AKI exhibited a significantly increased risk of developing dementia. This study provides evidence on the association between AKI and long-term adverse outcomes. Additional clinical studies investigating the related pathways are warranted. PMID:28192452

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival: a population-based study of adult patients diagnosed in Osaka, Japan, during the period 1993-2004.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Nakaya, Tomoki; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Rachet, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Long-term recession of the Japanese economy during the 1990s led to growing social inequalities whilst health inequalities also appeared. The 2007 National Cancer Control Program of Japan targeted "equalisation of cancer medical services", but the system to monitor health inequalities was still inadequate. We aimed to measure socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in Japan. We analysed 13 common invasive, primary, malignant tumours diagnosed from 1993 to 2004 and registered by the population-based Cancer Registry of Osaka Prefecture. An ecological socioeconomic deprivation index based on small area statistics, divided into quintile groups, was linked to patients according to their area of residence at the time of diagnosis. We estimated one-, five-year and conditional five-year net survival by sex, period of diagnosis (1993-1996/1997-2000/2001-2004) and deprivation group. Changes in survival over time, deprivation gap in survival, and change in deprivation gap were estimated at one and five years after diagnosis using variance-weighted least square regression. The deprivation gap in one-year net survival was narrower than in five-year net survival and conditional five-year survival. During the study period, there was no change in deprivation gap, except for reductions for pancreas (men) and stomach (women), and an increase for lung (men) in one-year survival. We observed a linear association between level of survival and deprivation gap at five years and conditional five years, but no association at one-year survival. A wide deprivation gap in survival was observed in most of the adult, solid, malignant tumours, within the universal healthcare system in Japan. Overall, cancer survival improved in Osaka without any widening of inequalities in cancer survival in 1993-2004, shortly after the long-term economic recession and deep modifications in the social and work environments in Japan. The longer term impact of the recession on inequalities in cancer survival

  14. Sex differences in colorectal cancer survival: population-based analysis of 164,996 colorectal cancer patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Majek, Ondrej; Gondos, Adam; Jansen, Lina; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Nennecke, Alice; Eberle, Andrea; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is considerably higher in men compared to women; however, there is inconclusive evidence of sex differences in CRC prognosis. We aimed to assess and explain sex differences in 5-year relative survival using standard and model-based period analysis among 164,996 patients diagnosed with CRC from 1997 to 2006 and reported to 11 German cancer registries covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Age-adjusted 5-year relative survival was higher in women (64.5% vs. 61.9%, P<0.0001). A substantial survival advantage of women was confirmed in multivariate analysis after adjusting for CRC stage and subsite in subjects under 65 years of age (relative excess risk, RER 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.90), but not in older subjects (RER 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.04); this pattern was similar in the 1st and in the 2nd to 5th year after diagnosis. The survival advantage of women varied by CRC stage and age and was most pronounced for localized disease (RERs 0.59-0.88 in various age subgroups) and in patients under 45 years of age (RERs 0.59, 0.72 and 0.76 in patients with localized, regional or advanced disease, respectively). On the contrary, sex differences in survival did not vary by location of CRC. In conclusion, our large population-based study confirmed a survival advantage of female compared to male CRC patients, most notably in young and middle aged patients and patients with localized disease. The effect of sex hormones, either endogenous or through hormonal replacement therapy, might be the most plausible explanation for the observed patterns.

  15. Clopidogrel use and cancer-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Blánaid M; Murray, Liam J; Hughes, Carmel; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-08-01

    Concerns were raised about the safety of antiplatelet thienopyridine derivatives after a randomized control trial reported increased risks of cancer and cancer deaths in prasugrel users. We investigate whether clopidogrel, a widely used thienopyridine derivative, was associated with increased risk of cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in cancer patients. Colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients, newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009, were identified from the National Cancer Data Repository. Cohorts were linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, providing prescription records, and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (up to 2012). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in post-diagnostic clopidogrel users were calculated using time-dependent Cox regression models. The analysis included 10 359 colorectal, 17 889 breast and 13 155 prostate cancer patients. There was no evidence of an increase in cancer-specific mortality in clopidogrel users with colorectal (HR = 0.98 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77, 1.24) or prostate cancer (HR = 1.03 95%CI 0.82, 1.28). There was limited evidence of an increase in breast cancer patients (HR = 1.22 95%CI 0.90, 1.65); however, this was attenuated when removing prescriptions in the year prior to death. This novel study of large population-based cohorts of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients found no evidence of an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality among colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients using clopidogrel. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Cheng; Pai, Fu-Tzu; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Ching-Mao; Chang, Hen-Hong; Lee, Yu-Chen; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2015-12-24

    Large-scale study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) usage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the TCM usage among RA patients in Taiwan. We examined the "registry for catastrophic illness patient dataset" of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD; n=23 million people) in Taiwan. Patients (n=25,263) newly diagnosed as RA in 2001-2009 were included and then followed-up until the end of 2011. Based on the medical utilization, they were further categorized into TCM users (n= 6891; 27.3%) and non-TCM users (n=18,372; 72.7%). The demographic data and core prescription patterns of the TCM users were analyzed. Compared to non-TCM user, TCM users were younger (mean age: 49.6 versus 54.0 years), had a higher female/male ratio (82.7%/17.3% versus 74.1%/25.9%), resided in more urbanized area. Herbal remedies were the most commonly used therapeutic approach (76.4%), followed by combining acupuncture (21.1%). The frequency of outpatient visits in TCM users was higher across all disease categories except circulatory system. The most commonly prescribed formula and herb was Shang-Jong-Shiah-Tong-Yong-Tong-Feng-Wan and Rhizoma Corydalis, respectively. The analysis of core pattern revealed that Dang-Gui-Nian-Tong-Tang, Shu-Jing-Huo-Xie-Tang, Gui-Zhi-Shao-Yao-Zhi-Mu-Tang, Myrrha and Olibanum, were among the most frequently used combinations. RA patients who had anxiety and depression, allergic rhinitis, osteoporosis, menstrual disorder, and menopausal syndrome were prone to have more TCM visits compared to non-TCM users. Our population-based study revealed the high prevalence and specific usage patterns of TCM in the RA patients in Taiwan. The information could be used for further pharmacological investigation and clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stroke Among Patients With Dizziness, Vertigo, and Imbalance in the Emergency Department: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Brown, Devin L.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Smith, Melinda A.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance are common presenting symptoms in the emergency department. Stroke is a leading concern even when these symptoms occur in isolation. The objective of the present study was to determine the “real-world” proportion of stroke among patients presenting to the emergency department with these dizziness symptoms (DS). Methods From a population-based study, patients >44 years of age presenting with DS to the emergency department, or directly admitted to the hospital, were identified. Demographics, the frequency of new cerebrovascular events, and the frequency of isolated DS (ie DS with no other stroke screening term or accompanying neurologic signs or symptoms) were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of age, gender, ethnicity, and isolated DS with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA). The association of the presenting symptoms with stroke/TIA was also assessed. Results Stroke/TIA was diagnosed in 3.2% (53 of 1666) of all patients with DS. Only 0.7% (9 of 1297) of those with isolated DS had a stroke/TIA. Patients with stroke/TIA were slightly older than those without stroke/TIA (69.3±11.7 vs 65.3±12.9, P=0.02). Male gender was associated with stroke/TIA, whereas isolated DS was negatively associated with stroke/TIA. Patients with imbalance (dizziness as referent) were more likely to have stroke/TIA. Conclusions The proportion of cerebrovascular events in patients presenting with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance is very low. Isolated dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance strongly predicts a noncerebrovascular cause. The symptom of imbalance is a predictor of stroke/TIA. PMID:16946161

  18. Psychiatric Diagnoses, Medication and Risk for Disability Pension in Multiple Sclerosis Patients; a Population-Based Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Philip; Alexanderson, Kristina; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Hillert, Jan; Jokinen, Jussi; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Tinghög, Petter

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is common among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The majority of MS patients of working ages are on disability pension. The aims of this study were to chart the prevalences of psychiatric diagnoses and medications among MS patients of working ages, and to investigate their association with the risk for future disability pension. Methods This nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study includes 10,750 MS patients and 5,553,141 non-MS individuals who in 2005 were aged 17–64 years. Psychiatric diagnoses and medications were identified using nationwide registers. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated adjusting for socio-demographics. Furthermore, a survival analysis with five-year follow-up was performed among the 4,571 MS patients not on disability pension in 2005, with psychiatric diagnoses and medication as risk factors, and disability pension as the outcome. Results Among MS patients, 35% had been prescribed psychiatric medication compared to 10% of non-MS individuals, adjusted OR 3.72 (95% CI 3.57 to 3.88). Ten percent of MS patients had received a psychiatric diagnosis, compared to 5.7% of non-MS individuals, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.94). Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), were the most commonly prescribed drugs (17%) among MS patients, while depression (4.8%) was the most common psychiatric diagnosis. In the survival analysis, MS patients with any psychiatric diagnosis had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.83 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.18) for disability pension compared to other MS patients. MS patients with any psychiatric drug prescription had a HR for disability pension of 2.09 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.33). Conclusion Psychiatric diagnoses and medications are common among MS patients and adversely affect risk for disability pension. This highlights the importance of correct diagnosis and management of psychiatric comorbidity, in a clinical as well as in a societal perspective. PMID:25093730

  19. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  20. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms--prevalence estimates in different age groups: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V; Søndergaard, Jens; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2015-02-01

    To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. Web-based cross-sectional survey study. Nationwide in Denmark. A random sample of 51,090 women aged 20 years or above from the general population. An internet-based questionnaire study regarding the prevalence estimates of symptom experiences. A total of 18 symptoms of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer were selected through an extensive literature search, which included national and international guidelines. Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. A total of 26,466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks, and the median number of experienced symptoms was 2 (interquartile range 1-4). The most common symptoms were tiredness (53.0%) and abdominal bloating (36.7%); postmenopausal bleeding (2.3%) and involuntary weight loss (2.8%) were least frequent. Most of the symptoms were more prevalent among younger women, whereas only dyspnea and increased urgency of urination were more frequent among older women. Among younger women, multiple abdominal symptoms often occurred simultaneously and frequently in combination with pelvic pain, whereas older women were more likely to report single symptoms. Gynecological alarm symptoms are frequent in the general population, mostly among younger women. Older women reported fewer symptoms, and these often appeared as single symptoms. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Estimating the completeness of physician billing claims for diabetes case ascertainment using population-based prescription drug data

    PubMed Central

    Lix, L. M.; Kuwornu, J. P.; Kroeker, K.; Kephart, G.; Sikdar, K. C.; Smith, M.; Quan, H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Changes in physician reimbursement policies may hinder the collection of billing claims in administrative data; this can result in biased estimates of disease prevalence and incidence. However, the magnitude of data loss is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate completeness of capture of disease cases for Manitoba physicians paid by fee-for-service (FFS) and non-fee-for-service (NFFS) methods. Methods: Manitoba’s administrative data were used to identify a cohort (≥ 20 years) with a new diabetes medication between 1 April, 2007, and 31 March, 2009. Cohort members were classified by payment method of the prescribing physician (i.e. FFS vs. NFFS). The cohort was then classified as missing or not missing a diabetes diagnosis using physician claims and hospital records. Then, χ2 statistics were used to test for differences in the characteristics of the two groups. Results: The cohort consisted of 12 394 individuals; 86.4% had a prescription for a diabetes medication from an FFS physician. A total of 1172 physicians (81.8% FFS) prescribed these medications for the cohort. Cohort members with a prescription from an FFS physician were older and more likely to reside in the urban Winnipeg health region than those with a prescription from a NFFS physician. A greater percentage of NFFS physicians’ cases were missing a diabetes diagnosis (18.7% vs. 14.9% for FFS physicians). Conclusion: The results suggest minimal loss of physician claims associated with remuneration policies in Manitoba. This method of assessing data completeness could be applied to other chronic diseases and jurisdictions to estimate completeness. PMID:26959724

  2. Direct Estimates of the Genomic Contributions to Blood Pressure Heritability within a Population-Based Cohort (ARIC).

    PubMed

    Salfati, Elias; Morrison, Alanna C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable trait with multiple environmental and genetic contributions, with current heritability estimates from twin and family studies being ~ 40%. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphism data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study to estimate BP heritability from genomic relatedness among cohort members. We utilized data on 6,365,596 and 9,578,528 genotyped and imputed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in 8,901 European ancestry (EA) and 2,860 African Ancestry (AA) ARIC participants, respectively, and a mixed linear model for analyses, to make four observations. First, for BP measurements, the heritability is ~20%/~50% and ~27%/~39% for systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in European and African ancestry individuals, respectively, consistent with prior studies. Second, common variants with allele frequency >10% recapitulate most of the BP heritability in these data. Third, the vast majority of BP heritability varies by chromosome, depending on its length, and is largely concentrated in noncoding genomic regions annotated as DNaseI hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Fourth, the majority of this heritability arises from loci not harboring currently known cardiovascular and renal genes. Recent meta-analyses of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and admixture mapping have identified ~50 loci associated with BP and hypertension (HTN), and yet they account for only a small fraction (~2%) of the heritability.

  3. Do Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) processes influence survival in patients with colorectal cancer? A population-based experience.

    PubMed

    Munro, Alastair; Brown, Mhari; Niblock, Paddy; Steele, Robert; Carey, Frank

    2015-10-13

    MDT (multidisciplinary team) meetings are considered an essential component of care for patients with cancer. However there is remarkably little direct evidence that such meetings improve outcomes. We assessed whether or not MDT (multidisciplinary team) processes influenced survival in a cohort of patients with colorectal cancer. Observational study of a population-based cohort of 586 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed in Tayside (Scotland) during 2006 and 2007. Recommendations from MDT meetings were implemented in 411/586 (70.1 %) of patients, the MDT+ group. The remaining175/586 (29.9 %) were either never discussed at an MDT, or recommendations were not implemented, MDT- group. The 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 63.1 % (MDT+) and 48.2 % (MDT-), p < 0.0001. In analysis confined to patients who survived >6 weeks after diagnosis, the rates were 63.2 % (MDT+) and 57.7 % (MDT-), p = 0.064. The adjusted hazard rate (HR) for death from colorectal cancer was 0.73 (0.53 to 1.00, p = 0.047) in the MDT+ group compared to the MDT- group, in patients surviving >6 weeks the adjusted HR was 1.00 (0.70 to 1.42, p = 0.987). Any benefit from the MDT process was largely confined to patients with advanced disease: adjusted HR (early) 1.32 (0.69 to 2.49, p = 0.401); adjusted HR(advanced) 0.65 (0.45 to 0.96, p = 0.031). Adequate MDT processes are associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer. However, some of this effect may be more apparent than real - simply reflecting selection bias. The MDT process predominantly benefits the 40 % of patients who present with advanced disease and conveys little demonstrable advantage to patients with early tumours. These results call into question the current belief that all new patients with colorectal cancer should be discussed at an MDT meeting.

  4. Symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with advanced cancer - A population-based study in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Sjøgren, Per; Timm, Helle; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-06-01

    The aims were to describe symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Greenlandic patients with advanced cancer and to assess the applicability and internal consistency of the Greenlandic version of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 core version 3.0. A Greenlandic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30 v.3.0 was developed. The translation process included independent forward translation, reconciliation and independent back translation by native Greenlandic-speaking translators who were fluent in English. After pilot testing, a population-based cross-sectional study of patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative treatment was conducted. Internal consistency was examined by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients for five function scales and three symptom scales. Of the 58 patients who participated in the study, 47% had reduced social functioning, 36% had reduced physical and role functioning and 19% had reduced emotional and cognitive functioning. Furthermore, 48% reported fatigue, and 33% reported financial problems. The Greenlandic version of the EORTC had good applicability in the assessment of symptoms and quality of life. Acceptable Cronbach's alpha coefficients (above 0.70) were observed for the physical, role and social functioning scales, the fatigue scale and the global health status scale. Patients with undergoing palliative treatment in Greenland for advanced cancer reported high levels of social and financial problems and reduced physical functioning. This indicates a potential for improving palliative care service and increasing the focus on symptom management. The Greenlandic version of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 represents an applicable and reliable tool to describe symptoms and health-related quality of life among Greenlandic patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment outcome in Hodgkin's disease in patients above the age of 60: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Enblad, G; Glimelius, B; Sundström, C

    1991-04-01

    All persons in three Swedish counties afflicted with Hodgkin's disease between 1979 and 1988 were traced. The objective was to analyze, in unselected, population-based material, whether an assumed worse prognosis in the elderly could be due to differences in staging procedures, treatment intensity, decreased tolerance to therapy or to a more aggressive disease. After histopathological revision, 163 of 202 patients (autopsy cases excluded) were accepted as HD, 61 (37%) of them above the age of 60. Although staging procedures had been more intense in the young, the elderly patients had a more advanced stage at diagnosis, and tended more often to have B-symptoms. The intensity of staging procedures did not seem to influence survival. The 5-yr relative survival was 37% above and 85% below the age of 60. Radiotherapy was the primary treatment in 12 (20%) above and 41 (41%) below the age of 60 with 5-yr relative survival figures of 84% and 85%, respectively. Thirty-seven patients (61%) above and 61 (59%) below 60 were treated with combination chemotherapy (MOPP/ABVD, MOPP, ChlVPP/OPEC) with curative intent. The 5-yr relative survival was 33% and 86%, respectively. The majority of the elderly patients (54%) received less than 40% of the planned chemotherapy dose. The main reason for this pronounced reduction was intolerance to therapy, with 8 treatment-related deaths. We conclude that tolerance to combination chemotherapy in the elderly patients with HD is poor and could be the major reason for poor treatment outcome in this age group.

  6. Risk of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with myocardial infarction: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hsin-Pei; Chien, Wu-Chien; Cheng, Wei-Tung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with adverse cardiovascular events after an acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, most studies focusing on anxiety or depression have used rating scales or self-report methods rather than clinical diagnosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between psychiatrist-diagnosed psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular prognosis.We sampled data from the National Health Insurance Research Database; 1396 patients with MI were recruited as the study cohort and 13,960 patients without MI were recruited as the comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the effect of MI on the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders.During the first 2 years of follow-up, patients with MI exhibited a significantly higher risk of anxiety disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 5.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.61-5.54) and depressive disorders (adjusted HR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.88-10.88) than those without MI did. Greater risk for anxiety and depressive disorders was observed among women and patients aged 45 to 64 years following an acute MI. Patients with post-MI anxiety had a 9.37-fold (95% CI: 4.45-19.70) higher risk of recurrent MI than those without MI did after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.This nationwide population-based cohort study provides evidence that MI increases the risk of anxiety and depressive disorders during the first 2 years post-MI, and post-MI anxiety disorders are associated with a higher risk of recurrent MI.

  7. Association between the time to surgery and survival among patients with colon cancer: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Flemming, J A; Nanji, S; Wei, X; Webber, C; Groome, P; Booth, C M

    2017-08-01

    Factors associated with time-to-surgery (TTS) and survival in colon cancer has not been well studied. Cancer Care Ontario recommends surgery within 42 days of diagnosis and that 90% of patients meet this benchmark. We describe factors associated with TTS and survival in routine clinical practice. Retrospective population-based cohort study of patients receiving elective colonic resection after diagnosis of colon cancer in Ontario, Canada from 2002 to 2008 followed until 2012. Factors associated with TTS were identified using multivariate log-binomial and Quantile regression at 42 days and 90th percentiles. The association between TTS and cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were examined using multivariate Cox regression. 4326 patients; median age 71 years and 52% male. Median TTS was 24 days (IQR 14-37); at the 90th percentile 56 days. Factors associated with TTS ≥ 42 days and >90th percentile included older age, co-morbid illness, surgeon volume, and stage I disease (P < 0.05 for all). In patients whose TTS was either at 42 days or 90th percentile, those ≥80 years old waited two weeks longer than those <60 years, individuals with co-morbid illness waited 10 days longer than without co-morbidity, and patients with stage I disease waited 10 days longer than those with stage IV disease (P < 0.05 for all). Delay in TTS > 42 days or >90th percentile was not associated with OS or CSS. Age, co-morbidity, and stage of cancer are associated with TTS. There was no association between TTS and CSS or OS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung and kidney: a dangerous liaison? A population-based cohort study in COPD patients in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fedeli, Ugo; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Gennaro, Nicola; Ferroni, Eliana; Gallerani, Massimo; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Manfredini, Roberto; Fabbian, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD is among the major causes of death, and it is associated with several comorbid conditions. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently diagnosed in older people living in Western societies and could impact COPD patients’ mortality. We evaluated the relationship between burden of comorbidities, CKD, and mortality in a population-based cohort of patients discharged with a diagnosis of COPD. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted evaluating 27,272 COPD patients. Recruitment of COPD subjects and identification of CKD and other comorbidities summarized by the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were based on claims data coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Severity of COPD was classified by hospital diagnosis or exemption from medical charges due to respiratory failure or previous hospitalizations for COPD. The impact of comorbidities on survival was assessed by Cox regression. Results Less than 40% of patients were still alive at the end of a median follow-up of 37 months (17 months for patients who died and 56 months for those alive at the end of follow-up). After adjustment for age, gender, and severity score of COPD, CKD (hazard ratio =1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.30–1.42) independently from comorbidities summarized by the CCI was a significant risk factor for mortality. Conclusion In spite of limitations due to the use of claims data, long-term survival of COPD patients was heavily affected by the presence of CKD and other comorbidities. PMID:28184156

  9. The proportion cured of patients diagnosed with Stage III-IV cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sweden 1990-2007: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Hanna; Lyth, Johan; Andersson, Therese M-L

    2016-06-15

    The survival in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is highly dependent on the stage of the disease. Stage III-IV CMM patients are at high risk of relapse with a heterogeneous outcome, but not all experience excess mortality due to their disease. This group is referred to as the cure proportion representing the proportion of patients who experience the same mortality rate as the general population. The aim of this study was to estimate the cure proportion of patients diagnosed with Stage III-IV CMM in Sweden. From the population-based Swedish Melanoma Register, we included 856 patients diagnosed with primary Stage III-IV CMM, 1990-2007, followed-up through 2013. We used flexible parametric cure models to estimate cure proportions and median survival times (MSTs) of uncured by sex, age, tumor site, ulceration status (in Stage III patients) and disease stage. The standardized (over sex, age and site) cure proportion was lower in Stage IV CMMs (0.15, 95% CI 0.09-0.22) than non-ulcerated Stage III CMMs (0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.55) with a statistically significant difference of 0.33 (95% CI = 0.24-0.41). Ulcerated Stage III CMMs had a cure proportion of 0.27 (95% CI 0.21-0.32) with a statistically significant difference compared to non-ulcerated Stage III CMMs (difference 0.21; 95% CI = 0.13-0.30). The standardized MST of uncured was approximately 9-10 months longer for non-ulcerated versus ulcerated Stage III CMMs. We could demonstrate a significantly better outcome in patients diagnosed with non-ulcerated Stage III CMMs compared to ulcerated Stage III CMMs and Stage IV disease after adjusting for age, sex and tumor site. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Acute Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) are the most commonly used pesticides against insects. Little is known regarding the relationship between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in patients hospitalized for acute OP and CM poisoning from 2000 to 2011. The comparison cohort was matched with the poisoned cohort at a 4:1 ratio based on age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. During the follow-up period, the incidence of dementia was 29.4 per 10,000 person-years in the poisoned group, and represented a 1.98-fold increased risk of dementia compared with the control cohort (95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.47). This study provides evidence on the association between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. Regular follow-up of poisoned patients for dementia is suggested.

  11. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Nonapnea Sleep Disorders in Using Different Types of Hypnotics: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Yeh, Mei-Chang; Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    There has been insufficient evidence on whether exposure to hypnotics affects the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine patients with nonapnea sleep disorders using zolpidem, benzodiazepines (BZDs), or a combination of both, and their risk of T2DM. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using data from 1997 to 2011. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were employed for this study. A total of 45,602 patients with nonapnea sleep disorders and use of hypnotics were identified as the study cohort. The control cohort comprised 40,799 age- and sex-matched patients. We conducted a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate the effects of hypnotics on risk of T2DM. The overall incidence of T2DM was 20.1 per 1000 person-years for patients using zolpidem, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (11.9 per 1000 person-years). Overall, patients with nonapnea sleep disorders using zolpidem had a higher risk of T2DM compared with patients not using zolpidem and the control cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-1.48). We also observed a significantly higher risk of T2DM in patients with both zolpidem and BZD use (adjusted HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91) than that of those without zolpidem use and BZD use. Compared with patients not using hypnotics, patients using zolpidem had a higher risk of developing T2DM; the risk was particularly pronounced in those using both zolpidem and BZDs.

  12. Risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei-Yi; Wang, Jen-Hung; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Hung, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Orr, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease which can cause troublesome symptoms and affect quality of life. In addition to esophageal complications, GERD may also be a risk factor for extra-esophageal complications. Both GERD and coronary artery disease (CAD) can cause chest pain and frequently co-exist. However, the association between GERD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in GERD patients with an age-, gender-, and comorbidity matched population free of GERD. We also examine the association of the risk of AMI and the use of acid suppressing agents in GERD patients. Methods We identified patients with GERD from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 54,422 newly diagnosed GERD patients; 269,572 randomly selected age-, gender-, comorbidity-matched subjects comprised the comparison cohort. Patients with any prior CAD, AMI or peripheral arterial disease were excluded. Incidence of new AMI was studied in both groups. Results A total 1,236 (0.5%) of the patients from the control group and 371 (0.7%) patients from the GERD group experienced AMI during a mean follow-up period of 3.3 years. Based on Cox proportional-hazard model analysis, GERD was independently associated with increased risk of developing AMI (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–1.66, P < 0.001). Within the GERD group, patients who were prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for more than one year had slightly decreased the risk of developing AMI, compared with those without taking PPIs (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.31–1.04, P = 0.066). Conclusions This large population-based study demonstrates an association between GERD and future development of AMI, however, PPIs use only achieved marginal significance in reducing the occurrence of AMI in GERD patients. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate

  13. Population-based use of sphincter-preserving surgery in patients with rectal cancer: is there room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Devon P; Porter, Geoff A; Johnson, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Treatment of rectal cancer in North America has been associated with lower rates of sphincter-preserving surgery in comparison with other regions. It is unclear if these lower rates are due to patient, tumor, or treatment factors; thus, the potential to increase the use of sphincter-preserving surgery is unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the factors associated with the use of sphincter-preserving surgery and to quantify the potential for an increase in sphincter preservation. This population-based retrospective cohort study used patient-level data collected through a comprehensive, standardized review of hospital inpatient and outpatient medical records and cancer center charts. This study was conducted in all hospitals providing rectal cancer surgery in a Canadian province. All patients with a new diagnosis of rectal cancer from July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2006 who underwent potentially curative radical surgery were included. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with receiving a permanent colostomy. Patients were categorized as having received an appropriate or potentially inappropriate colostomy based on a priori determined patient, tumor, operative, and pathologic criteria. Of 466 patients who underwent radical surgery, 48% received a permanent colostomy. There was significant variation in the rate of sphincter-preserving surgery among the 10 hospitals that provided rectal cancer care (12%-73%, p = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, male sex, low tumor height, and increasing tumor stage were associated with the receipt of a permanent colostomy. Among patients who received a permanent stoma, 65 of 224 (29%) patients received a potentially inappropriate stoma. On multivariate analysis, male sex and treatment in a medium- or low-volume hospital was associated with the receipt of a potentially inappropriate colostomy. This study was limited by its retrospective design. These data suggest that the receipt of a permanent colostomy by

  14. Monophasic versus biphasic defibrillation for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a nationwide population-based study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Conventional monophasic defibrillators for out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients have been replaced with biphasic defibrillators. However, the advantage of biphasic over monophasic defibrillation for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients who underwent monophasic defibrillation with those who underwent biphasic defibrillation. Methods This prospective, nationwide, population-based observational study included pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009. The primary outcome measure was survival at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment. The secondary outcome measures were survival at 1 month and the return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association between defibrillator type (monophasic or biphasic) and outcomes. Results Among 5,628 pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients (1 through 17 years old), 430 who received defibrillation shock with monophasic or biphasic defibrillator were analyzed. The number of patients who received defibrillation shock with monophasic defibrillator was 127 (30%), and 303 (70%) received defibrillation shock with biphasic defibrillator. The survival rates at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment were 17.5% and 24.4%, the survival rates at 1 month were 32.3% and 35.6%, and the rates of return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival were 24.4% and 27.4% in the monophasic and biphasic defibrillator groups, respectively. Hierarchic logistic regression analyses by using generalized estimation equations found no significant difference between the two groups in terms of 1-month survival with minimal neurologic impairment (odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87 to 2.83; P = 0.14) and 1-month survival (OR

  15. Improved Survival in Patients with Viral Hepatitis-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Recommended Abdominal Ultrasound Surveillance in Ontario: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Hla-Hla; Campitelli, Michael A.; Yeung, Latifa T.; Zaheen, Ahmad; Yoshida, Eric M.; Earle, Craig C.

    2015-01-01

    The optimal schedule for ultrasonographic surveillance of patients with viral hepatitis for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear owing to a lack of reliable studies. We examined the timing of ultrasonography in patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC and its impact on survival and mortality risk while determining predictors of receiving surveillance before HCC diagnosis. A population-based retrospective cohort analysis of patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC in Ontario between 2000 and 2010 was performed using data from the Ontario Cancer Registry linked health administrative data. HCC surveillance for 2 years preceding diagnosis was assigned as: i) ≥2 abdominal ultrasound screens annually; ii) 1 screen annually; iii) inconsistent screening; and iv) no screening. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and parametric models to correct for lead-time bias. Associations between HCC surveillance and the risk of mortality after diagnosis were examined using proportional-hazards regression adjusting for confounding factors. Overall, 1,483 patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC were identified during the study period; 20.2% received ≥1 ultrasound screen annually (routine surveillance) for the 2 years preceding diagnosis. The 5-year survival of those receiving routine surveillance was 31.93% (95% CI: 25.77–38.24%) and 31.84% (95% CI: 25.69–38.14%) when corrected for lead-time bias (HCC sojourn time 70 days and 140 days, respectively). This is contrasted with 20.67% (95% CI: 16.86–24.74%) 5-year survival in those who did not undergo screening. In the fully adjusted model, compared to unscreened patients, routine surveillance was associated with a lower mortality risk and a hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64–0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68–0.97), corrected for the respective lead-time bias. Our findings suggest that routine ultrasonography in patients with viral hepatitis is associated with improved survival

  16. Improved Survival in Patients with Viral Hepatitis-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Recommended Abdominal Ultrasound Surveillance in Ontario: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Thein, Hla-Hla; Campitelli, Michael A; Yeung, Latifa T; Zaheen, Ahmad; Yoshida, Eric M; Earle, Craig C

    2015-01-01

    The optimal schedule for ultrasonographic surveillance of patients with viral hepatitis for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear owing to a lack of reliable studies. We examined the timing of ultrasonography in patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC and its impact on survival and mortality risk while determining predictors of receiving surveillance before HCC diagnosis. A population-based retrospective cohort analysis of patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC in Ontario between 2000 and 2010 was performed using data from the Ontario Cancer Registry linked health administrative data. HCC surveillance for 2 years preceding diagnosis was assigned as: i) ≥ 2 abdominal ultrasound screens annually; ii) 1 screen annually; iii) inconsistent screening; and iv) no screening. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and parametric models to correct for lead-time bias. Associations between HCC surveillance and the risk of mortality after diagnosis were examined using proportional-hazards regression adjusting for confounding factors. Overall, 1,483 patients with viral hepatitis-induced HCC were identified during the study period; 20.2% received ≥ 1 ultrasound screen annually (routine surveillance) for the 2 years preceding diagnosis. The 5-year survival of those receiving routine surveillance was 31.93% (95% CI: 25.77-38.24%) and 31.84% (95% CI: 25.69-38.14%) when corrected for lead-time bias (HCC sojourn time 70 days and 140 days, respectively). This is contrasted with 20.67% (95% CI: 16.86-24.74%) 5-year survival in those who did not undergo screening. In the fully adjusted model, compared to unscreened patients, routine surveillance was associated with a lower mortality risk and a hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64-0.91) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68-0.97), corrected for the respective lead-time bias. Our findings suggest that routine ultrasonography in patients with viral hepatitis is associated with improved survival and

  17. Long-term renal outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kor, Chew-Teng; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Lian, Ie-Bin; Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Tarng, Der-Cherng; Chang, Chia-Chu

    2017-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of death and disability worldwide. The relationship between TBI and kidney diseases is largely unknown. Methods We aimed to determine whether TBI is associated with long-term adverse renal outcomes. We performed a nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched cohort study of 32,152 TBI patients and 128,608 propensity score-matched controls. Data were collected by the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 2000 to 2012. Our clinical outcomes were chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite endpoint of ESRD or all-cause mortality. Results The incidence rate of CKD was higher in the TBI than in the control cohort (8.99 vs. 7.4 per 1000 person-years). The TBI patients also showed higher risks of CKD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.20; P < 0.001) and composite endpoints (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15; P = 0.022) than the control groups, but the ESRD was not significantly different between the groups. In subgroup analyses, the risks of incident CKD and composite endpoints were significantly raised in TBI patients aged < 65 years and/or without comorbidities. However, the risks of both CKD and composite outcome were little affected by the severity of TBI. Conclusions TBI has a modest but significant effect on incident CKD and composite endpoint, but not on ESRD alone. TBI patients under 65 are at greater risk of CKD and composite outcome than their older counterparts. PMID:28196132

  18. Safety of valproic acid in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Tony; Yao, Zhan; Camacho, Ximena; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant that also inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), a property that could worsen pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The clinical significance of this property is unknown. We therefore compared the risk of COPD exacerbation in older patients with COPD commencing treatment with either valproic acid or phenytoin, an anticonvulsant that does not affect HDAC. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of Ontario residents with COPD aged 66 years or older who started treatment with valproic acid or phenytoin between 1 April 1993 and 30 November 2012. The primary outcome was a hospital admission or emergency department visit for a COPD exacerbation within 240 days of drug initiation. A secondary outcome examined initiation of oral corticosteroids in the outpatient setting. Results During the study period, we identified 4596 COPD patients who commenced valproic acid and 8478 who commenced phenytoin. Following multivariable adjustment, valproic acid did not increase the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.26). Although valproic acid was associated with a lower risk of initiating oral corticosteroids in the first thirty days following commencement of anticonvulsant therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 0.32; 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.49), no difference was observed during subsequent follow-up. Conclusion Among older patients with COPD, treatment with valproic acid does not increase the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes relative to phenytoin. These findings suggest that valproate-induced HDAC inhibition is of little clinical relevance in this context. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25656984

  19. Safety of valproic acid in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Tony; Yao, Zhan; Camacho, Ximena; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant that also inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), a property that could worsen pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The clinical significance of this property is unknown. We therefore compared the risk of COPD exacerbation in older patients with COPD commencing treatment with either valproic acid or phenytoin, an anticonvulsant that does not affect HDAC. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of Ontario residents with COPD aged 66 years or older who started treatment with valproic acid or phenytoin between 1 April 1993 and 30 November 2012. The primary outcome was a hospital admission or emergency department visit for a COPD exacerbation within 240 days of drug initiation. A secondary outcome examined initiation of oral corticosteroids in the outpatient setting. During the study period, we identified 4596 COPD patients who commenced valproic acid and 8478 who commenced phenytoin. Following multivariable adjustment, valproic acid did not increase the risk of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.26). Although valproic acid was associated with a lower risk of initiating oral corticosteroids in the first thirty days following commencement of anticonvulsant therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 0.32; 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.49), no difference was observed during subsequent follow-up. Among older patients with COPD, treatment with valproic acid does not increase the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes relative to phenytoin. These findings suggest that valproate-induced HDAC inhibition is of little clinical relevance in this context. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Population-based estimates of acute gastrointestinal and foodborne illness in Barbados: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maria; St John, Joy; Applewhaite, Tyrone; Gaskin, Pamela; Springer, Karen; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the burden and impact of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and foodborne diseases (FBDs) in Barbados through a retrospective, cross-sectional population survey and laboratory study in August 2010-August 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with one person from each of 1,710 randomly-selected households. Of these, 1,433 (84%) interviews were completed. A total of 70 respondents reported having experienced AGE in the 28 days prior to the interview, representing a prevalence of 4.9% and an annual incidence rate of 0.652 episodes per person-year. Age (p = 0.01132), season (p = 0.00343), and income (p < 0.005) were statistically associated with the occurrence of AGE in the population. Norovirus was the leading foodborne pathogen causing AGE-related illness. An estimated 44,270 cases of AGE were found to occur during the period of the study and, for every case of AGE detected by surveillance, an additional 204 cases occurred in the community. Economic costs of AGE ranged from BD$ 9.5 million to 16.5 million (US$ 4.25-8.25) annually. This study demonstrated that the public-health burden and impact of AGE and FBD in Barbados were high and provided the necessary baseline information to guide targeted interventions.

  1. Genetic distances between popcorn populations based on molecular markers and correlations with heterosis estimates made by diallel analysis of hybrids.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, R E F; Prioli, A J; Amaral, A T; Scapim, C A; Simon, G A

    2009-08-11

    Diallel analysis was used to obtain information on combining ability, heterosis, estimates of genetic distances by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and on their correlations with heterosis, for the popcorn varieties RS 20, UNB2, CMS 43, CMS 42, Zélia, UEM J1, UEM M2, Beija-Flor, and Viçosa, which were crossed to obtain all possible combinations, without reciprocals. The genitors and the 36 F(1) hybrids were evaluated in field trials in Maringá during two growing seasons in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Based on the results, strategies for further studies were developed, including the construction of composites by joining varieties with high general combining ability for grain yield (UNB2 and CMS 42) with those with high general combining ability for popping expansion (Zélia, RS 20 and UEM M2). Based on the RAPD markers, UEM J1 and Zélia were the most genetically distant and RS 20 and UNB2 were the most similar. The low correlation between heterosis and genetic distances may be explained by the random dispersion of the RAPD markers, which were insufficient for the exploitation of the popcorn genome. We concluded that an association between genetic dissimilarity and heterosis based only on genetic distance is not expected without considering the effect of dominant loci.

  2. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Sui; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chang, Yun-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2017-07-01

    Asian population-based data evaluating all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of all-cause mortality (stratified according to onset status, disease severity, and concomitant psoriatic arthritis) and cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis. Our study cohort consisted of 80,167 patients with newly diagnosed psoriasis between 2001 and 2012 in the National Health Insurance Database. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained from the National Death Registry of Taiwan. All-cause and cause-specific crude mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. A total of 7,198 deaths were identified during the follow-up period (508,505 person-years). The standardized mortality ratios were 1.53 for severe psoriasis (95% confidence interval = 1.45-1.60), 1.47 for early-onset psoriasis (95% confidence interval = 1.34-1.61), and 1.47 for patients with psoriatic arthritis (95% confidence interval = 1.36-1.58). In the cause-specific mortality analysis, the absolute and excess risks of death were highest for malignancies (3.6 and 1.57 deaths per 1,000 patient-years, respectively) and circulatory system diseases (3.0 and 1.44 deaths per 1,000 patient-years, respectively). Patients with severe psoriasis, early-onset psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis had higher all-cause mortality risks. In particular, patients with psoriasis had higher excess risks of mortality from malignancies and circulatory system diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of dietary HCA intakes in a large-scale population-based prospective study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Nishioka, Sachiko; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2002-09-30

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known mutagens and animal carcinogens formed in cooked meat and fish. Japanese people generally consume more fish than animal meat, and chopped and stir-fried method of meat preparation is favored as much as the grilled cooking method. Therefore, it is supposed that the foods contributing to HCA intake in Japan are different from those in western countries. However, dietary HCA intake levels and their main sources have not been estimated in Japan. The purpose of this study was to assess individual intake levels of specific HCAs in subjects of the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based prospective study on cancer and cardiovascular disease (JPHC study). Individual intake levels of six predominant HCAs (Trp-P-1, MeIQ, MeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) were calculated for 39035 JPHC study participants (18290 men and 20745 women) from four geographic areas (9412 from Iwate, 12018 from Akita, 9896 from Nagano, and 7709 from Okinawa) based on a self-reported food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Mean daily HCA intake levels (ng/kg per day) for subjects in the mainland areas (Iwate, Akita, and Nagano) were 1.06 (inter quartile range 0.50-1.35) in men and 1.10 (inter quartile range 0.53-1.40) in women. Mean daily HCA intake levels (ng/kg per day) for subjects in Okinawa Island were lower than those in the mainland; 0.83 (inter quartile range 0.33-1.04) in men and 0.92 (inter quartile range 0.33-1.18) in women. PhIP accounted for more than 60% of total HCA intake, followed by MeIQx and MeIQ. More than 50% of total HCA intake was derived from fish in the mainland, whereas more than 50% was from pork in Okinawa. Our study suggests that grilled fish are the major dietary sources of HCAs in Japanese, except those in Okinawa Island.

  4. Increased Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Yen-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that autoimmune disease is associated with development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aim to assess the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and COPD risk in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the catastrophic illness registry of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 10,623 patients with SLE newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with four people without SLE on age, sex, and index year from the general population. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of COPD. The risk of COPD was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models including age, sex, index year and comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of COPD was 1.73–fold higher in the SLE cohort than in the control cohort (17.4 vs. 10.1 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI = 1.62–1.84). Age related analysis showed increased incidence of COPD with age in both SLE and control cohorts. However, adjusted HR maximum was observed in the youngest age group (adjusted HR: 4.33, 95% CI, 2.39–7.85) while adjusted HR minimum was witnessed in the oldest age group (adjusted HR: 1.19, 95% CI, 0.85–1.22). Conclusion Patients with SLE have a significant risk of developing COPD than the control population. Based on the findings from this study, it can be hypothesized that in addition to cigarette smoke SLE may be a determining factor for COPD incidence. However, further investigation is needed to corroborate this hypothesis. PMID:24622340

  5. Decreased risk of stroke in patients receiving traditional Chinese medicine for vertigo: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Livneh, Hanoch; Lin, I-Hsin; Lu, Ming-Chi; Yeh, Chia-Chou

    2016-05-26

    Patients with vertigo are reported to exhibit a higher risk of subsequent stroke. However, it remains unclear if Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the most common form of complementary and alternative medicine, can help lower the risk of stroke for these patients. So the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of TCM on stroke risk among patients with vertigo. This longitudinal cohort study used the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 112,458 newly diagnosed vertigo patients aged ≥20 years who received treatment between 1998 and 2007. Among these patients, 53,203 (47.31%) received TCM after vertigo onset (TCM users), and the remaining 59,201 patients were designated as a control group (non-TCM users). All enrollees received follow-up until the end of 2012 to measure stroke incidence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute the hazard ratio (HR) of stroke in recipients of TCM services. During 15-year follow-up, 5532 TCM users and 12,295 non-TCM users developed stroke, representing an incidence rate of 13.10% and 25.71% per 1000 person-years. TCM users had a significantly reduced risk of stroke compared to non-TCM users (adjusted HR=0.64; 95% confidence interval CI=0.59-0.74). The predominant effect was observed for those receiving TCM for more than 180 days (adjusted HR=0.52; 95% CI=0.49-0.56). Commonly used TCM formulae, including Ban-Xia-Bai-Zhu-Tian-Ma-Tang, Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan-Tang, Bai Zhi (Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root), Ge Gen (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, root) and Hai Piao Xiao (Endoconcha Sepiae, Cuttlefish Bone) were significantly associated with lower risk of stroke. Results of this population-based study support the effects of TCM on reducing stroke risk, and may provide a reference for stroke prevention strategies. The study results may also help to integrate TCM into clinical intervention programs that provide a favorable prognosis for vertigo patients

  6. Disease management programs for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Germany: a longitudinal population-based descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mehring, Michael; Donnachie, Ewan; Bonke, Florian Cornelius; Werner, Christoph; Schneider, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the disease management program (DMP) for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 is to improve the quality of health care and the treatment process. 12 years after its introduction in Germany, there is still no consensus as to whether DMP has been effective in reaching these goals. A retrospective longitudinal population-based study between 2004 and 2015 were conducted to evaluate the DMP for type 2 diabetes in Bavaria using routinely collected patient medical records hold from the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians of Bavaria. During the first 12 years of DMP, the number of participants increased continually to reach 580,222 in 2015. The proportion of participants older than 70 years increased during the observation from 41.6 to 51.1%. The percentage of smokers increased slightly from 9 to 11%. Similarly, the distribution of body mass index remained constant with approximately 50% of patients having a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Control of HbA1c was without an appreciable change over the course, with between 8.3 and 9.4% of all patients with uncontrolled values higher than 8.5%. Prescription of metformin increased from 40.5% in 2004 to 54.1% in 2015. Among patients receiving insulin, the proportion receiving a combined therapy with metformin increased from 28.4% in 2004 to 50.8% in 2015. In contrast, the percentage with insulin monotherapy decreased from 55.4 to 33.7%. The proportion of patients with a diabetic education increased within the course from 12.8 to 29.3%. Data from the German DMP for type 2 diabetes demonstrates an improvement in the quality of care with respect to pharmacotherapy and patient education and therefore to an improved adherence to guidelines. However, no appreciable improvement was observed with regard to smoking status, obesity or HbA1c control.

  7. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects.

  8. Prevalence of Periodontitis in Patients with Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Swedish Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kaja; Nise, Lena; Kats, Anna; Luttropp, Elin; Catrina, Anca Irinel; Askling, Johan; Jansson, Leif; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Lundberg, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. Methods Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. Results The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. Conclusions Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects. PMID:27203435

  9. Risk of digoxin intoxication in heart failure patients exposed to digoxin–diuretic interactions: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng-Ting; Su, Chen-Yi; Chan, Agnes L F; Lian, Pei-Wen; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2010-01-01

    AIMS To quantify the digoxin intoxication risk associated with exposure to digoxin–diuretic interactions, and evaluate whether the risk varies by diuretic type, individually or in combination. METHODS This was a population-based nested case–control study in which data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan were analysed. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 154 058 heart failure (HF) patients taking digoxin between 2001 and 2004, in whom digoxin intoxication requiring a hospitalization (ICD-9 code 972.1) occurred in 595 cases. A total of 28 243 matched controls were also selected for analysis. Cases were 3.08 times (adjusted OR 3.08, 95% CI 2.50, 3.79) more likely to have been prescribed diuretic medication in the previous month than controls. Regarding the class of diuretics, loop diuretics carried the greatest risk (adjusted OR 2.97, 95% CI 2.35, 3.75), followed by thiazides (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.70, 3.29) and potassium-sparing diuretics (OR 1.72, 95% CI 0.83, 3.56). The risk was also observed to vary with different combinations of diuretics, and the loops/thiazides/potassium-sparing diuretics combination carried the greatest risk (adjusted OR 6.85, 95% CI 4.93, 9.53). Among the individual diuretics examined, hydrochlorothiazide carried the greatest risk (adjusted OR 4.63, 95% CI 2.50, 8.57). CONCLUSIONS This study provided empirical evidence that digoxin–diuretic interactions increased the risk of hospitalization for digoxin intoxication in HF patients. The risk was particularly high for concomitant use of digoxin with a combination of loop diuretics, thiazide and potassium-sparing diuretics. The combined use of digoxin and diuretics should be avoided if possible. PMID:20653679

  10. Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Macedo, Silvia Elaine Cardozo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. PMID:25410839

  11. Predicting dementia in primary care patients with a cardiovascular health metric: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Johannes Baltasar; Ander, Karl-Heinz; Brönner, Monika; Etgen, Thorleif; Förstl, Hans; Poppert, Holger; Sander, Dirk; Bickel, Horst

    2016-07-26

    Improving cardiovascular health possibly decreases the risk of dementia. Primary care practices offer a suitable setting for monitoring and controlling cardiovascular risk factors in the older population. The purpose of the study is to examine the association of a cardiovascular health metric including six behaviors and blood parameters with the risk of dementia in primary care patients. Participants (N = 3547) were insurants aged ≥55 of the largest German statutory health insurance company, who were enrolled in a six-year prospective population-based study. Smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed by general practitioners at routine examinations. Using recommended cut-offs for each factor, the patients' cardiovascular health was classified as ideal, moderate, or poor. Behaviors and blood parameters sub-scores, as well as a total score, were calculated. Dementia diagnoses were retrieved from health insurance claims data. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Over the course of the study 296 new cases of dementia occurred. Adjusted for age, sex, and education, current smoking (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.09-2.85), moderate (1.38, 1.05-1.81) or poor (1.81, 1.32-2.47) levels of physical activity, and poor fasting glucose levels (1.43, 1.02-2.02) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Body mass index, blood pressure, and cholesterol were not associated with dementia. Separate summary scores for behaviors and blood values, as well as a total score showed no association with dementia. Sensitivity analyses with differently defined endpoints led to similar results. Due to complex relationships of body-mass index and blood pressure with dementia individual components cancelled each other out and rendered the sum-scores meaningless for the prediction of dementia.

  12. Developing estimates of frequency and intensity of exposure to three types of metalworking fluids in a population-based case-control study of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C; Park, Dong-Uk; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Armenti, Karla R.; Johnson, Alison; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Background A systematic, transparent, and data-driven approach was developed to estimate frequency and intensity of exposure to straight, soluble, and synthetic/semi-synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs) within a case-control study of bladder cancer in New England. Methods We assessed frequency using individual-level information from job-specific questionnaires wherever possible, then derived and applied job group-level patterns to likely exposed jobs with less information. Intensity estimates were calculated using a statistical model developed from measurements and determinants extracted from the published literature. Results For jobs with probabilities of exposure ≥0.5, median frequencies were 8 to 10 hours per week, depending on MWF type. Median intensities for these jobs were 2.5, 2.1, and 1.0 mg/m3 for soluble, straight, and synthetic/semi-synthetic MWFs, respectively. Conclusions Compared to case-by-case assessment, these data-driven decision rules are transparent and reproducible and may result in less biased estimates. These rules can also aid future exposure assessments of MWFs in population-based studies. PMID:25060071

  13. Novel nomograms for survival and progression in HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal cancer: a population-based study of 1,542 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Jensen, David H.; Carlander, Amanda-Louise Fenger; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise; Olsen, Caroline Holkmann; Andersen, Elo; Garnæs, Emilie; Cilius, Finn; Specht, Lena; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background No study has combined tumour and clinical covariates for survival to construct an individual risk-profile for overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and survival after progression (SAP) in patients with HPV+ and HPV– oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Based on the largest-to-date, unselected, population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with OPSCC, we performed a comprehensive analysis of long-term OS, TTP, and SAP and constructed novel nomograms to evaluate patients' prognoses. Results At a median follow-up of 4.0 years (range: 0.8–15.8 yrs.), 690 deaths were recorded. The 5-year OS, TTP, and SAP for the HPV+/p16+ subgroup were 77%, 82%, and 33, vs. 30%, 66%, and 6% for the HPV–/p16– group (P < 0.01). 376 patients failed to maintain disease control with a median TTP of 13 months in the HPV+/p16+ subgroup vs. 8.5 months in the HPV–/p16– subgroup (P < 0.05). HPV combined with p16 status remained one of the most informative covariates in the final Cox regression model for OS, TTP, and SAP. Methods We included all patients diagnosed with OPSCC (n = 1,542) between 2000–2014 in Eastern Denmark. Survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to construct predictive, internally validated nomograms. Conclusion The HPV+/p16+ subgroup had improved OS, TTP, and SAP compared with other combinations of HPV and p16 after adjusting for covariates. Nomograms were constructed for 1-, 5- and 10-year survival probability. Models may aid patients and clinicians in their clinical decision making as well as in counselling, research, and trial design. PMID:27708214

  14. Survival of 86,690 patients with thyroid cancer: A population-based study in 29 European countries from EUROCARE-5.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, L; Tavilla, A; Pacini, F; Serraino, D; van Dijk, B A C; Chirlaque, M D; Capocaccia, R; Larrañaga, N; Colonna, M; Agius, D; Ardanaz, E; Rubió-Casadevall, J; Kowalska, A; Virdone, S; Mallone, S; Amash, H; De Angelis, R

    2017-05-01

    Incidence rates of thyroid cancer (TC) increased in several countries during the last 30 years, while mortality rates remained unchanged, raising important questions for treatment and follow-up of TC patients. This study updates population-based estimates of relative survival (RS) after TC diagnosis in Europe by sex, country, age, period and histology. Data from 87 cancer registries in 29 countries were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 dataset. One- and 5-year RS were estimated using the cohort approach for 86,690 adult TC patients diagnosed in 2000-2007 and followed-up to 12/31/2008. RS trends in 1999-2007 and 10-year RS in 2005-2007 were estimated using the period approach. In Europe 2000-2007, 5-year RS after TC was 88% in women and 81% in men. Survival rates varied by country and were strongly correlated (Pearson ρ = 75%) with country-specific incidence rates. Five-year RS decreased with age (in women from >95% at age 15-54 to 57% at age 75+), from 98% in women and 94% in men with papillary TC to 14% in women and 12% in men with anaplastic TC. Proportion of papillary TC varied by country and increased over time, while survival rates were similar across areas and periods. In 1999-2007, 5-year RS increased by five percentage points for all TCs but only by two for papillary and by four for follicular TC. Ten-year RS in 2005-2007 was 89% in women and 79% in men. The reported increasing TC survival trend and differences by area are mainly explained by the varying histological case-mix of cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metastatic small cell carcinoma of the prostate: Population-based analysis of patient characteristics and treatment paradigms.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew; Richards, Kyle A; Patel, Sanjay; Weiner, Adam; Eggener, Scott E; Szmulewitz, Russell Z

    2015-02-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare malignancy comprising<1% of prostate cancers. Little is known about population-based treatment patterns for metastatic small cell carcinoma of the prostate. We evaluated clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival outcomes. Using the National Cancer Database, we identified patients between 1998 and 2011 diagnosed with pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate as their only malignancy who presented with nodal involvement or distant metastasis. Treatment information was available for 379 patients. Of them, 122 (32.5%) underwent chemotherapy (CT) alone, 25 (6.7%) received hormonal therapy (androgen-deprivation therapy) alone, 10 (2.7%) underwent radiation therapy alone, 3 (1%) underwent radical prostatectomy, and 167 (44.4%) underwent combination therapy. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 35.3% and 4.4%, respectively. Those receiving any CT as part of their treatment had a median survival of 9.3 vs. 3.2 months for those not receiving it (P<0.001). Those receiving CT, androgen-deprivation therapy, and radiation had a median survival of 15.1 vs. 7 months for those receiving CT alone (P<0.001). On multivariable analysis (controlling for age, Charlson comorbidity index, extent of metastasis, prostate-specific antigen level, and type of treatment), older age (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.41-9.34; P = 0.007) and distant metastatic disease (HR = 7.17; 95% CI: 1.62-31.8; P = 0.010) increased risk of death, whereas receipt of CT (HR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05-0.44; P = 0.001) decreased risk of death. Men presenting with metastatic small cell carcinoma of the prostate have poor overall survival. Older patients and those presenting with distant metastases have an increased risk of death. It appears that patients receiving CT experience a modest survival benefit. The role of hormonal therapy in this population remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk of infective endocarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y S; Chang, C C; Chen, Y H; Chen, W S; Chen, J H

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are considered vulnerable to infective endocarditis and prophylactic antibiotics are recommended before an invasive dental procedure. However, the evidence is insufficient. This nationwide population-based study evaluated the risk and related factors of infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We identified 12,102 systemic lupus erythematosus patients from the National Health Insurance research-oriented database, and compared the incidence rate of infective endocarditis with that among 48,408 non-systemic lupus erythematosus controls. A Cox multivariable proportional hazards model was employed to evaluate the risk of infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort. Results After a mean follow-up of more than six years, the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had a significantly higher incidence rate of infective endocarditis (42.58 vs 4.32 per 100,000 person-years, incidence rate ratio = 9.86, p < 0.001) than that of the control cohort. By contrast, the older systemic lupus erythematosus cohort had lower risk (adjusted hazard ratio 11.64) than that of the younger-than-60-years systemic lupus erythematosus cohort (adjusted hazard ratio 15.82). Cox multivariate proportional hazards analysis revealed heart disease (hazard ratio = 5.71, p < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio = 2.98, p = 0.034), receiving a dental procedure within 30 days (hazard ratio = 36.80, p < 0.001), and intravenous steroid therapy within 30 days (hazard ratio = 39.59, p < 0.001) were independent risk factors for infective endocarditis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions A higher risk of infective endocarditis was observed in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Risk factors for infective endocarditis in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort included heart disease, chronic kidney disease, steroid pulse therapy within 30 days, and a

  17. Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer-A nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Moseholm, E; Lindhardt, B Ø

    2017-08-12

    A new cancer patient pathway for patients presenting with non-specific signs and symptoms (NSSC-CPP) was implemented nationally in Denmark in 2012. This study aims to describe, on a national level, the characteristics of patients referred to the Danish NSSC-CPP, and to estimate the prevalence and distribution of cancers and other diagnosis in this population. A population-based cohort study using the Danish national registries, including all patients who completed a diagnostic course through the NSSC-CPP between 2012 and 2015. Cancer prevalence is presented as the percentage of included patients who were diagnosed with cancer after completing a NSSC-CPP diagnostic course. Associations between patient characteristics and cancer diagnosis were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The mean age of the 23,934 patients included in the analysis was 64.6 years and 47% where male. In total, 11% of all patients received a cancer diagnosis after completing a diagnostic course in the NSSC-CPP; the most common types were breast cancer (18%) hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue cancer (15%), and malignant melanoma (12%). The most common non-cancer diagnosis was non-specific symptoms/observation (54%). Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with cancer within six months following a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP. The prevalence of cancer in the NSSC-CPP was 11%. The most common cancer diagnosis was breast cancer, hematopoietic and lymphoid cancer and malignant melanoma. A small proportion of patients receiving a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP were diagnosed with cancer in the six months following their NSSC-CPP course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for incident venous thromboembolism in active cancer patients: A population based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ashrani, Aneel A; Gullerud, Rachel E; Petterson, Tanya M; Marks, Randolph S; Bailey, Kent R; Heit, John A

    2016-03-01

    Independent risk factors for cancer-associated incident venous thromboembolism (VTE) and their magnitude of risk are not fully characterized. To identify non-cancer and cancer-specific risk factors for cancer-associated incident VTE. In a population-based retrospective case-control study, we used Rochester Epidemiology Project and Mayo Clinic Cancer Registry resources to identify all Olmsted County, MN residents with active cancer-associated incident VTE, 1973-2000 (cases; n=570) and 1-3 residents with active cancer matched to each case on age, sex, date and duration of active cancer (controls; n=604). Using conditional logistic regression, we tested cancer and non-cancer characteristics for an association with VTE, including a cancer site VTE risk score. In the multivariable model, higher cancer site VTE risk score (OR=1.4 per 2-fold increase), cancer stage≥2 (OR=2.2), liver metastasis (OR=2.7), chemotherapy (OR=1.8) and progesterone use (OR=2.1) were independently associated with VTE, as were BMI<18.5kg/m(2) (OR=1.9) or ≥35kg/m(2) (OR=4.0), hospitalization (OR=7.9), nursing home confinement (OR=4.7), central venous (CV) catheter (OR=8.5) and any recent infection (OR=1.7). In a subgroup analysis, platelet count≥350×10(9)/L at time of cancer diagnosis was marginally associated with VTE (OR=2.3, p=0.07). Cancer site, cancer stage≥2, liver metastasis, chemotherapy, progesterone, being underweight or obese, hospitalization/nursing home confinement, CV catheter, and infection are independent risk factors for incident VTE in active cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do fall-risk-increasing drugs have an impact on mortality in older hip fracture patients? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kragh Ekstam, Annika; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the mortality in hip fracture patients with regard to use of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs), by comparing survival in exposed and nonexposed individuals. Design This was a general population-based cohort study. Settings Data on hip fracture patients were retrieved from three national databases. Participants All hip fracture patients aged 60 years or older in a Swedish county in 2006 participated in this study. Measurements We studied the mortality in hip fracture patients by comparing those exposed to FRIDs, combinations of FRIDs, and polypharmacy to nonexposed patients, adjusting for age and sex. For survival estimates in patients using four or more FRIDs, a Cox regression analysis was used, adjusting for age, sex, and use of any four or more drugs. Results First-year all-cause mortality was 24.6% (N=503) in 2,043 hip fracture patients aged 60 years or older, including 170 males (33.8%) and 333 females (66.2%). Patients prescribed four or more FRIDs, five or more drugs (polypharmacy), psychotropic drugs, and cardiovascular drugs showed significantly increased first-year mortality. Exposure to four or more FRIDs (518 patients, 25.4%) was associated with an increased mortality at 30 days with odds ratios (ORs) 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–2.79), 90 days with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.19–2.04), 180 days with OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.20–1.97), and 365 days with OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.13–1.80). Cox regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and use of any four or more drugs showed a significantly higher mortality in patients treated with four or more FRIDs at 90 days (P=0.015) and 180 days (P=0.012) compared to patients treated with three or less FRIDs. Conclusion First-year all-cause mortality was significantly higher in older hip fracture patients exposed before the fracture to FRIDs, in particular to four or more FRIDs, polypharmacy, psychotropic, and cardiovascular drugs. Interventions aiming to optimize both safety

  20. Necrotizing Fasciitis Among Patients With Liver Cirrhosis in Texas, 2001 - 2010: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2016-02-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a risk factor for necrotizing fasciitis (NF), and is associated with markedly worse outcomes than for NF among non-cirrhosis patients. Only limited, mostly single-center, data were reported to date on the epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization and outcomes of NF among patients with cirrhosis. We studied a population-based cohort of adult hospitalizations associated with cirrhosis, who had a diagnosis of NF during the years 2001 - 2010, using the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File. The annual volume of NF hospitalizations was benchmarked against all annual hospitalizations with a diagnosis of cirrhosis. The patterns of demographics, chronic comorbidities, evolving organ failure, resource utilization and outcomes were examined. There were 371,745 hospitalizations associated with liver cirrhosis, with 381 NF hospitalizations during study period. The annual volume of NF hospitalizations rose 7.9%/year (P = 0.0287), while its incidence among cirrhosis-associated hospitalizations remained unchanged (P = 0.2955). Non-cirrhosis comorbidities were reported in 69.6% and ICU care was required in 67.2% of NF hospitalization. The key changes noted between 2001 - 2003 and 2008 - 2010 among NF hospitalizations included rising mean (SD) Deyo-Charlson index 2.4 (1.5) vs. 3.9 (2.4) (P < 0.0001), development of ≥ 3 organ failures in 9.1% vs. 39.8% (P < 0.0001), and discharge to long-term care facilities 7.8% vs. 21.1% (P = 0.0204). Hospital mortality was unchanged (26% vs. 33.1%; P = 0.3659). Inflation-adjusted total hospital charges did not change (P = 0.1025) during study period. The present cohort of NF associated with liver cirrhosis is the largest reported to date. A rising annual volume of NF events matched a corresponding increase in cirrhosis-associated hospitalizations. There was increasing burden of chronic comorbidity and rising severity of illness, with a majority of patients requiring ICU care. Case fatality was high and there has

  1. Influence of socioeconomic environment on survival in patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Launay, L; Dejardin, O; Pornet, C; Morlais, F; Guittet, L; Launoy, G; Bouvier, V

    2012-01-01

    The influence of social environment on survival in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in many studies, subjects living in the most deprived areas having a poorer prognosis. Geographic remoteness and limited access to specialized care centers are often associated with socioeconomic deprivation. The aim was to assess the influence of social environment and geographic remoteness on the relative survival of patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer between 1997 and 2004 in the department of Calvados in France. The study population, which was provided by the Calvados digestive cancer registry, included 629 patients. Relative survival was used to estimate the influence of social environment and geographic remoteness on patient survival. Five-year survival rates were 14.1%, 15.1%, 11.8%, 8.8%, and 11.4%, respectively, for patients living in the least to the most deprived areas (P= 0.39). The influence of social environment was significant after adjustment for clinical variables, patients living in the most deprived areas having the worst survival. These discrepancies cannot totally be explained by differences in access to care, cancer extension, or morphology at diagnosis. No association was observed between distance to the nearest cancer center and survival. Social environment appears to induce disparities among patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer, with a worse prognosis for patients living in the most deprived areas.

  2. Differing Methods and Definitions Influence DALY estimates: Using Population-Based Data to Calculate the Burden of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ryan G; Ibinda, Fredrick; Tollman, Stephen; Lindholm, Lars; Newton, Charles R; Bertram, Melanie Y

    2015-01-01

    The disability adjusted life year (DALY) is a composite measure of disease burden that includes both morbidity and mortality, and is relevant to conditions such as epilepsy that can limit productive functioning. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study introduced a number of new methods and definitions, including a prevalence-based approach and revised disability weights to calculate morbidity and new standard life expectancies to calculate premature mortality. We used these approaches, and local, population-based data, to estimate the burden of convulsive epilepsy in rural South Africa. Comprehensive prevalence, incidence and mortality data on convulsive epilepsy were collected within the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeastern South Africa between 2008 and 2012. We estimated DALYs using both prevalence- and incidence-based approaches for calculating years of life lived with disability. Additionally, we explored how changing the disease model by varying the disability weights influenced DALY estimates. Using the prevalence-based approach, convulsive epilepsy in Agincourt resulted in 332 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 216-455) and 4.1 DALYs per 1,000 individuals (95%UI: 2.7-5.7) annually. Of this, 26% was due to morbidity while 74% was due to premature mortality. DALYs increased by 10% when using the incidence-based method. Varying the disability weight from 0.072 (treated epilepsy, seizure free) to 0.657 (severe epilepsy) caused years lived with disability to increase from 18 (95%UI: 16-19) to 161 (95%UI: 143-170). DALY estimates are influenced by both the methods applied and population parameters used in the calculation. Irrespective of method, a significant burden of epilepsy is due to premature mortality in rural South Africa, with a lower burden than rural Kenya. Researchers and national policymakers should carefully interrogate the methods and data used to calculate DALYs as this will influence policy priorities and resource allocation.

  3. Partitioning of excess mortality in population-based cancer patient survival studies using flexible parametric survival models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Relative survival is commonly used for studying survival of cancer patients as it captures both the direct and indirect contribution of a cancer diagnosis on mortality by comparing the observed survival of the patients to the expected survival in a comparable cancer-free population. However, existing methods do not allow estimation of the impact of isolated conditions (e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality) on the total excess mortality. For this purpose we extend flexible parametric survival models for relative survival, which use restricted cubic splines for the baseline cumulative excess hazard and for any time-dependent effects. Methods In the extended model we partition the excess mortality associated with a diagnosis of cancer through estimating a separate baseline excess hazard function for the outcomes under investigation. This is done by incorporating mutually exclusive background mortality rates, stratified by the underlying causes of death reported in the Swedish population, and by introducing cause of death as a time-dependent effect in the extended model. This approach thereby enables modeling of temporal trends in e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality simultaneously. Furthermore, we illustrate how the results from the proposed model can be used to derive crude probabilities of death due to the component parts, i.e., probabilities estimated in the presence of competing causes of death. Results The method is illustrated with examples where the total excess mortality experienced by patients diagnosed with breast cancer is partitioned into excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality. Conclusions The proposed method can be used to simultaneously study disease patterns and temporal trends for various causes of cancer-consequent deaths. Such information should be of interest for patients and clinicians as one way of improving prognosis after cancer is through adapting treatment

  4. Concomitant NSAID use during antipsychotic treatment and risk of 2-year relapse - a population-based study of 16,253 incident patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Ole; Petersen, Liselotte; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Clinical trials have indicated antipsychotic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among incident patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to study, in a population-based setting, whether concomitant use of NSAIDs or paracetamol, changed 2-year relapse risk for schizophrenia. We identified all incident patients with schizophrenia in Denmark diagnosed 1996-2012 initiating antipsychotic treatment within the year after diagnosis. We calculated concomitant treatment intervals for antipsychotic and NSAID or paracetamol use. Hazard rate ratios (HRR) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for important covariates. 2-year relapse, i.e. (re)-hospitalizations with schizophrenia. Among 16,235 incident patients with schizophrenia using antipsychotics, 1480 (9.1%) used NSAIDs and 767 (4.7%) paracetamol. Concomitant use of NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia relapse (HRR = 1.21; 95%-CI = 1.11-1.31), particularly associated with acetylsalicylic acid and diclofenac. Concomitant use of paracetamol was not associated with schizophrenia relapse (HRR = 0.97; 95%-CI = 0.87-1.08). Subgroup analyses showed that individuals with somatic comorbidity and NSAID use had an increased relapse-risk, except for individuals with a prior hospital diagnosis for musculoskeletal disease and NSAID use who had a decreased relapse-risk (HRR = 0.82; 95%-CI = 0.71-0.94). The increased relapse risk associated with concomitant NSAID use among incident patients with schizophrenia may indicate a potential impact of underlying somatic comorbidity.

  5. Impact of fluconazole susceptibility on the outcome of patients with candidaemia: data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, M; Guinea, J; Lora-Pablos, D; Zaragoza, Ó; Puig-Asensio, M; Almirante, B; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Aguado, J M

    2017-09-01

    The clinical correlation of fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) for Candida isolates and its integration with pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) parameters is unclear. We analysed the impact of fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) and AUC24/MIC ratio on the outcome of candidemic patients. We included 257 episodes of candidaemia treated with fluconazole monotherapy for ≥72 hours from a population-based surveillance conducted in 29 hospitals (CANDIPOP Project). AST was centrally performed by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution methods. Primary outcome was clinical failure (30-day mortality and/or persistent candidaemia for ≥72 hours from initiation of therapy). Secondary outcomes included early (3-7 days) and late (3-30 days) mortality. Rates of clinical failure, early and late mortality among evaluable episodes were 32.3% (80/248), 3.1% (8/257) and 23.4% (59/248). There was no relationship between fluconazole MIC values or PK/PD parameters and clinical failure. Although MIC values ≥2 mg/L by EUCAST (positive predictive value 32.1%, negative predictive value 68.7%) and ≥0.5 mg/L by CLSI (positive predictive value 34.8%, negative predictive value 74.4%) appeared to be optimal for predicting clinical failure, no significant associations remained after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval 0.48-5.79; p 0.423). Lack of association was consistent for alternative thresholds (including proposed clinical breakpoints). The only association found for secondary outcomes was between an AUC24/MIC ratio >400 h by CLSI and early mortality (odds ratio 0.18; 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.98; p 0.026). High fluconazole MIC values did not negatively impact outcome of patients with candidaemia treated with fluconazole. No effect of PK/PD targets on

  6. Investigating the utilization of radiological services by physician patients: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jeng; Li, Chung-Pin

    2013-07-23

    Advances in radiology technology have contributed to a substantial increase in utilization of radiology services. Physicians, who are well educated in medical matters, would be expected to be knowledgeable about prudent or injudicious use of radiological services. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the utilization of radiology modalities among physician and non-physician patients. This nationwide population-based cohort study was carried out using data obtained from the Taiwan National Insurance Database from 1997 to 2008. Physicians and comparison controls selected by propensity score matching were enrolled in the current study. The claims data of ambulatory care and inpatient discharge records were used to measure the utilization of various radiology modalities. Utilization rates of each modality were compared between physicians and non-physicians, and odds ratios of the utilization of each radiology modality were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of X-ray, MRI, and interventional procedures utilization during the study period. The utilization of most radiologic services increased among physicians and the comparison group during the observation period. Compared to non-physicians, physicians had significantly higher utilization rates of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but lower utilization rates of X-rays, sonography, and interventional procedures. After adjusting for age, gender, major diseases, urbanicity, and residential regions, logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to non-physicians, the physicians used significantly more MRI (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68-2.84, P < 0.001) and significantly less X-rays and interventional procedures (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72-0.99, P = 0.04 for X-rays and OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83, P < 0.001 for interventional procedures). Being a physician was a significant predictor of greater usage

  7. A model measuring therapeutic inertia and the associated factors among diabetes patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ying; Shau, Wen-Yi; Yeh, Hseng-Long; Chen, Tsung-Tai; Hsieh, Jun Yi; Su, Syi; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis conducted on the patterns related to therapeutic inertia with the aim of uncovering how variables at the patient level and the healthcare provider level influence the intensification of therapy when it is clinically indicated. A cohort study was conducted on 899,135 HbA1c results from 168,876 adult diabetes patients with poorly controlled HbA1c levels. HbA1c results were used to identify variations in the prescription of hypoglycemic drugs. Logistic regression and hierarchical linear models (HLMs) were used to determine how differences among healthcare providers and patient characteristics influence therapeutic inertia. We estimated that 38.5% of the patients in this study were subject to therapeutic inertia. The odds ratio of cardiologists choosing to intensify therapy was 0.708 times that of endocrinologists. Furthermore, patients in medical centers were shown to be 1.077 times more likely to be prescribed intensified treatment than patients in primary clinics. The HLMs presented results similar to those of the logistic model. Overall, we determined that 88.92% of the variation in the application of intensified treatment was at the within-physician level. Reducing therapeutic inertia will likely require educational initiatives aimed at ensuring adherence to clinical practice guidelines in the care of diabetes patients. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Physical Activity Is not Associated with Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate among Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Results from the Population-Based Longitudinal Doetinchem Study

    PubMed Central

    Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hulsegge, Gerben; Hartman, Linda; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.

    2015-01-01

    There is debate as to whether physical inactivity is associated with reduced kidney function. We studied the prospective association of (changes in) physical activity with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in adult men and women. We included 3,935 participants aged 26 to 65 years from the Doetinchem Cohort study, examined every 5 years for 15 years. Physical activity was assessed at each round using the Cambridge Physical Activity Index. Using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation, GFR was estimated from routinely measured cystatin C concentrations, examining all available samples per participant in one assay run. We determined the association between 1) physical activity and eGFR and 2) 5-year changes in physical activity (becoming inactive, staying inactive, staying active, becoming active) and eGFR, using time-lagged generalized estimating equation analyses. At baseline, 3.6% of the participants were inactive, 18.5% moderately inactive, 26.0% moderately active, and 51.9% active. The mean (± SD) eGFR was 107.9 (± 14.5) mL/min per 1.73 m2. Neither physical activity nor 5-year changes in physical activity were associated with eGFR at the subsequent round. The multivariate adjusted βeGFR was 0.57 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -1.70, 0.56) for inactive compared to active participants. Studying changes in physical activity between rounds, the adjusted βeGFR was -1.10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (95% CI -4.50, 2.30) for those who stayed inactive compared with participants who became active. Physical activity was not associated with eGFR in this population-based study of adults. PMID:26465150

  9. The risk of depression in patients with cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Te-Chun; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Huang, Yu-Jhen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-03-01

    The association between cholelithiasis and depression remains unclear. We examined the risk of depression in patients with cholelithiasis. From the National Health Insurance population claims data of Taiwan, we identified 14071 newly diagnosed cholelithiasis patients (4969 symptomatic and 9102 asymptomatic) from 2000 to 2010. For each cholelithiasis patient, 4 persons without cholelithiasis were randomly selected in the control cohort from the general population frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to monitor the occurrence of depression. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of depression were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model after controlling for age, sex and comorbidities. The overall incidence rates of depression were 1.87- and 1.83-fold greater in the symptomatic and asymptomatic cholelithiasis subcohorts than in the control cohort (incidence, 10.1 and 9.96 vs 5.43 per 1000 person-years, respectively). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed higher variable-specific aHRs in women than in men, in younger patients than in older patients, and in those without comorbidities than in those with any comorbidity. Cholecystectomy reduced the hazard of developing depression with aHRs of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.99) for symptomatic cholelithiasis patients and 0.76 (95% CI 0.60-0.96) for asymptomatic patients. Patients with cholelithiasis are at a higher risk of developing depression than the general population. Patients could be benefited from cholecystectomy and have the hazard of developing depression significantly reduced.

  10. Risk of depressive disorder among patients with head and neck cancer: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chang-Ming; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk of depressive disorder among patients with head and neck cancer. We identified 48 548 patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan who were newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with an individual without head and neck cancer, based on index year, sex, age, occupation category, urbanization level, monthly income, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional Registry of Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of head and neck cancer on the risk of depressive disorder. Patients with head and neck cancer had a significantly higher risk of depressive disorder than the matched cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05-3.61), with the highest risk seen in the hypopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with head and neck cancer had >3 times the incidence of depressive disorder, relative to the comparison group. Psychological evaluation and support are essential in head and neck cancer survivors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Patient Navigation for Comprehensive Cancer Screening in High-Risk Patients Using a Population-Based Health Information Technology System: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Percac-Lima, Sanja; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Zai, Adrian H; Chang, Yuchiao; Oo, Sarah A; Guimaraes, Erica; Atlas, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    Patient navigation (PN) to improve cancer screening in low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations usually focuses on navigating for single cancers in community health center settings. We evaluated PN for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using a population-based information technology (IT) system within a primary care network. Randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 in 18 practices in an academic primary care network. All patients eligible and overdue for cancer screening were identified and managed using a population-based IT system. Those at high risk for nonadherence with completing screening were identified using an electronic algorithm (language spoken, number of overdue tests, no-show visit history), and randomized to a PN intervention (n = 792) or usual care (n = 820). Navigators used the IT system to track patients, contact them, and provide intense outreach to help them complete cancer screening. Mean cancer screening test completion rate over 8-month trial for each eligible patient, with all overdue cancer screening tests combined using linear regression models. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients completing any and each overdue cancer screening test. Among 1612 patients (673 men and 975 women; median age, 57 years), baseline patient characteristics were similar among randomized groups. Of 792 intervention patients, patient navigators were unable to reach 151 (19%), deferred 246 (38%) (eg, patient declined, competing comorbidity), and navigated 202 (32%). The mean proportion of patients who were up to date with screening among all overdue screening examinations was higher in the intervention vs the control group for all cancers combined (10.2% vs 6.8%; 95% CI [for the difference], 1.5%-5.2%; P < .001), and for breast (14.7% vs 11.0%; 95% CI, 0.2%-7.3%; P = .04), cervical (11.1% vs 5.7%; 95% CI, 0.8%-5.2%; P = .002), and colon (7.6% vs 4.6%; 95% CI, 0.8%-5.2%; P

  12. Risk of contracting pneumonia among patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between predialysis chronic kidney disease and contracting pneumonia in Taiwan. We employed a population-based, retrospective cohort design using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Program. There were 18807 subjects aged 20-84 years who were newly diagnosed with predialysis chronic kidney disease between 2000 to 2012 as the predialysis chronic kidney disease group and 18807 randomly selected subjects without chronic kidney disease as the non-chronic kidney disease group. The predialysis chronic kidney disease and non-chronic kidney disease groups were matched according to sex, age, comorbidities, and the year of index date. The incidence of contracting pneumonia among both groups at the end of 2013 was calculated. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for contracting pneumonia being associated with predialysis chronic kidney disease. The overall incidence of contracting pneumonia was 1.47-fold higher in the predialysis chronic kidney disease group than that in the non-chronic kidney disease group (24.6 vs. 16.7 per 1, 000 person-years, 95% CI 1.40, 1.55). After adjusting for co-variables, the HR of contracting pneumonia became 1.52 for subjects with predialysis chronic kidney disease (95% CI 1.43, 1.60) compared to subjects without chronic kidney disease. With even further analysis, in the absence of any comorbidity, the adjusted HR of contracting pneumonia was 1.53 for subjects with predialysis chronic kidney disease alone (95% CI 1.32, 1.76). Patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease have a 1.52-fold increased risk of contracting pneumonia as compared to those with non-chronic kidney disease. Even in the absence of any comorbidity, a greater than average risk of contracting pneumonia remains present. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China

  13. Survival of multiple myeloma patients in the era of novel therapies confirms the improvement in patients younger than 75 years: a population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Samantha; Marcheselli, Luigi; Bari, Alessia; Liardo, Eliana V; Marcheselli, Raffaella; Luminari, Stefano; Quaresima, Micol; Cirilli, Claudia; Ferri, Paola; Federico, Massimo; Sacchi, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    Novel treatments for multiple myeloma (MM) have shown promising results in clinical trials, but the advantage in unselected patients is still unclear. In order to evaluate whether novel therapies impact survival of MM patients, we performed a population-based analysis on data collected by the Modena Cancer Registry from 1989 to 2009. The analysis evaluated 1206 newly diagnosed MM patients collected in the years 1988-96 (conventional therapy), 1997-05 (high dose melphalan and autologous transplant), and 2006-09 (novel agents era). Both relative survival (RS) and overall survival (OS) improved over the years, but not equally in the three groups. For patients aged <65 years, RS improved in 1997-05 and 2006-09 compared with previous years and a trend to improvement was observed from 1997-05 to 2006-09. For patients aged 65-74 years, RS improved significantly in 2006-09 compared with 1988-96 and 1997-05. No amelioration was observed for patients 75+ years old. OS confirmed RS. In conclusion, the survival of MM patients aged <65 and, in particular, 65-74 years, has improved over time, especially after 2006. This observation provides circumstantial evidence that novel therapies might impact patient survival. Despite the limits of this study, these data refer to an unselected population, giving a picture of every day clinical practice.

  14. Cost evaluation of out-of-country care for patients with eating disorders in Ontario: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Claire; Macdonald, Erin M.; Green, Diane; Colton, Patricia; Olmsted, Marion; Bondy, Susan; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders, specifically anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified, represent a substantial burden to the health care system. Our goal was to estimate the economic burden of patients who received specialized inpatient care for an eating disorder out of country. Method: We conducted a cost-of-illness study evaluating health care costs among patients in Ontario who received specialized inpatient care for an eating disorder out of country from 2003 to 2011, from the public third-party payer perspective. Using linked administrative databases, we estimated net costs of eating disorders for 2 patient groups: those who received specialized inpatient care both out of country and in province (n = 160), and those who received specialized inpatient care out of country only (n = 126). Results: Patients approved for specialized out-of-country inpatient care were mostly girls and young women from high-income, urban neighbourhoods. Total net costs varied annually and were higher for patients treated both out of country and in province (about $11 million before 2007, $6.5 million after) than for those treated out of country alone (about $5 million and $2 million, respectively). The main cost drivers were out-of-country care and physician services. Interpretation: Costs associated with eating disorder care represent a substantial economic burden to the Ontario health care system. Given the high costs of out-of-country care, there may be opportunity to redirect these funds to increase capacity and expertise for eating disorder treatment within Ontario. PMID:28018879

  15. Seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia: a population-based nested case-control analysis.

    PubMed

    Imfeld, Patrick; Bodmer, Michael; Schuerch, Markus; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2013-04-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have an increased risk of developing seizures or epilepsy. Little is known about the role of risk factors and about the risk of developing seizures/epilepsy in patients with vascular dementia (VD). The aim of this study was to assess incidence rates (IRs) of seizures/epilepsy in patients with AD, VD, or without dementia, and to identify potential risk factors of seizures or epilepsy. We conducted a follow-up study with a nested case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD). We identified patients aged ≥65 years with an incident diagnosis of AD or VD between 1998 and 2008 and a matched comparison group of dementia-free patients. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of developing seizures/epilepsy in patients with AD or VD, stratified by age at onset and duration of dementia as well as by use of antidementia drugs. Among 7,086 cases with AD, 4,438 with VD, and 11,524 matched dementia-free patients, we identified 180 cases with an incident diagnosis of seizures/epilepsy. The IRs of epilepsy/seizures for patients with AD or VD were 5.6/1,000 person-years (py) (95% CI 4.6-6.9) and 7.5/1,000 py (95% CI 5.7-9.7), respectively, and 0.8/1,000 py (95% CI 0.6-1.1) in the dementia-free group. In the nested case-control analysis, patients with longer standing (≥3 years) AD had a slightly higher risk of developing seizures or epilepsy than those with a shorter disease duration, whereas in patients with VD the contrary was observed. Seizures or epilepsy were substantially more common in patients with AD and VD than in dementia-free patients. The role of disease duration as a risk factor for seizures/epilepsy seems to differ between AD and VD. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. A population-based case-control study of drinking-water nitrate and congenital anomalies using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to develop individual-level exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Holtby, Caitlin E; Guernsey, Judith R; Allen, Alexander C; Vanleeuwen, John A; Allen, Victoria M; Gordon, Robert J

    2014-02-05

    Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water nitrate exposure estimates from measured nitrate concentrations from 140 temporally monitored private wells and 6 municipal water supplies. Cases of major congenital anomalies in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 2006 were selected from province-wide population-based perinatal surveillance databases and matched to controls from the same databases. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to test for an association between drinking-water nitrate exposure and congenital anomalies after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors. Employing all nitrate data there was a trend toward increased risk of congenital anomalies for increased nitrate exposure levels though this was not statistically significant. After stratification of the data by conception before or after folic acid supplementation, an increased risk of congenital anomalies for nitrate exposure of 1.5-5.56 mg/L (2.44; 1.05-5.66) and a trend toward increased risk for >5.56 mg/L (2.25; 0.92-5.52) was found. Though the study is likely underpowered, these results suggest that drinking-water nitrate exposure may contribute to increased risk of congenital anomalies at levels below the current Canadian maximum allowable concentration.

  17. A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Drinking-Water Nitrate and Congenital Anomalies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Develop Individual-Level Exposure Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Caitlin E.; Guernsey, Judith R.; Allen, Alexander C.; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Allen, Victoria M.; Gordon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water nitrate exposure estimates from measured nitrate concentrations from 140 temporally monitored private wells and 6 municipal water supplies. Cases of major congenital anomalies in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 2006 were selected from province-wide population-based perinatal surveillance databases and matched to controls from the same databases. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to test for an association between drinking-water nitrate exposure and congenital anomalies after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors. Employing all nitrate data there was a trend toward increased risk of congenital anomalies for increased nitrate exposure levels though this was not statistically significant. After stratification of the data by conception before or after folic acid supplementation, an increased risk of congenital anomalies for nitrate exposure of 1.5–5.56 mg/L (2.44; 1.05–5.66) and a trend toward increased risk for >5.56 mg/L (2.25; 0.92–5.52) was found. Though the study is likely underpowered, these results suggest that drinking-water nitrate exposure may contribute to increased risk of congenital anomalies at levels below the current Canadian maximum allowable concentration. PMID:24503976

  18. Risk of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS): a population-based study of 17 315 patients.

    PubMed

    Roeker, L E; Larson, D R; Kyle, R A; Kumar, S; Dispenzieri, A; Rajkumar, S V

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increased risk of acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in persons with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). We used a large population-based cohort of individuals systematically screened for the presence or absence of MGUS. MGUS status was then linked to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and MDS. A total of 17 315 patients age 50 and older (605 MGUS and 16 710 controls) with a cumulative 435 021 person-years of follow-up were studied. MGUS patients had a significantly higher risk of developing MDS compared with controls, hazard ratio 2.4 (95% CI 1.08, 5.32), P=0.031. There was no statistically significant increase in the risk of AML (RR 1.36 P=0.675), and no increased risk of developing ALL.

  19. Management of rectal cancers in relation to treatment guidelines: a population-based study comparing Italian and French patients.

    PubMed

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Faivre, Jean; Sant, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated rectal cancer management at the population level. We compared how rectal cancers diagnosed in Italy (2003-2005) and France (2005) were managed, and evaluated the extent to which management adhered to European guidelines. Samples of 3938 Italian and 2287 French colorectal cancer patients were randomly extracted from 8 and 12 cancer registries respectively. Rectal cancer patients (860 Italian, 559 French) were analysed. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) of being treated with curative intent, receiving sphincter-saving surgery, and receiving preoperative radiotherapy. Similar proportions of Italian and French patients were treated with curative intent (70% vs. 67%; OR=0.92 [0.73-1.16]); the respective proportions receiving sphincter-saving surgery were 21% and 33% (OR=1.15 [0.86-1.53]). In about 50% of those treated with curative intent, ≥ 12 lymph nodes were harvested in both countries. The proportion receiving postoperative radiotherapy was higher in Italy than in France (25% vs. 11%, p<0.01), but French patients were more likely to receive preoperative radiotherapy (52% vs. 21%; OR=4.06 [2.79-5.91]). The proportions of patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy and the numbers of lymph nodes sampled were low in both countries. Centralising treatment and potentiating screening would be practical ways of improving outcomes and adhering to guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Celecoxib and sulfasalazine had negative association with coronary artery diseases in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A nation-wide, population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chih; Leong, Pui-Ying; Yeo, Kai-Jieh; Li, Ting-Yu; Wang, Yu-Hsun; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Wei, James Cheng-Chung

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effects of celecoxib and sulfasalazine on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Using the claims data of Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) database, a nationally representative data that contain the medical records of 23 million Taiwan residents, we randomly selected 1 million cohort from the database, and then we enrolled only patients who were newly diagnosed with AS (n = 4829) between year 2001 and 2010, excluding patients who had CAD (ICD-9- CM codes: 410-414) before the diagnosis of AS (n = 4112). According to propensity score matched 1:2 on age, gender, AS duration, Charlson comorbidity index, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, 236 and 472 patients were included in the case (AS with CAD) and control (AS without CAD) groups, respectively. We used the WHO defined daily dose (DDD) as a tool to assess the dosage of sulfasalazine and celecoxib exposure. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of CAD associated with use of sulfasalazine and celecoxib.Among 4112 AS patients, 8.4% (346/4112) developed CAD. CAD in AS patients were positively associated with age of 35 to 65, Charlson comorbidities index (CCI), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. There was no gender difference between case and control groups. After adjustment for age, gender, CCI, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, sulfasalazine users with an average daily dose ≥ 0.5 DDD (0.5 gm/day) had negative association with CAD events as compared to sulfasalazine nonusers (OR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40-0.99, P < 0.05). NSAIDs, including celecoxib, etoricoxib, but no naproxen and diclofenac were negatively associated with CAD. Celecoxib users, with an average daily dose > 1.5 DDD, were negatively associated with CAD events, compared to celecoxib nonusers (OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89; P < 0.05).In this 10-year population-based

  1. Do patients with intake of drugs labelled as sleep disturbing really sleep worse? A population based assessment from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    PubMed

    Lehnich, Anna-Therese; Kowall, Bernd; Kuß, Oliver; Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea; Weinreich, Gerhard; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stang, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The sleep disturbing effect of many drugs is derived from clinical trials with highly selected patient collectives. However, the generalizability of such findings to the general population is questionable. Our aim was to assess the association between intake of drugs labelled as sleep disturbing and self-reported nocturnal sleep disturbances in a population-based study. We used data of 4221 participants (50.0% male) aged 45 to 75 years from the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study in Germany. The interview provided information on difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep and early morning arousal. We used the summary of product characteristics (SPC) for each drug taken and assigned the probability of sleep disturbances. Thereafter, we calculated cumulative probabilities of sleep disturbances per subject to account for polypharmacy. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) using log Poisson regression models with robust variance. The adjusted PRs of any regular nocturnal sleep disorder per additional sleep disturbing drug were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97, 1.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.00, 1.07) for men and women, respectively. Estimates for each regular nocturnal sleep disturbance were similarly close to 1. PRs for regular nocturnal sleep disturbances did not increase with rising cumulative probability for drug-related sleep disturbances. SPC-based probabilities of drug-related sleep disturbances showed barely any association with self-reported regular nocturnal sleep disturbances. We conclude that SPC-based probability information may lack generalizability to the general population or may be of limited data quality. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Suicide in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a population-based study of 36 788 Swedish patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Cruz, L; Rydell, M; Runeson, B; D'Onofrio, B M; Brander, G; Rück, C; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H; Mataix-Cols, D

    2016-07-19

    The risk of death by suicide in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is largely unknown. Previous studies have been small and methodologically flawed. We analyzed data from the Swedish national registers to estimate the risk of suicide in OCD and identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behavior in this group. We used a matched case-cohort design to estimate the risk of deaths by suicide and attempted suicide in individuals diagnosed with OCD, compared with matched general population controls (1:10). Cox regression models were used to study predictors of suicidal behavior. We identified 36 788 OCD patients in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1969 and 2013. Of these, 545 had died by suicide and 4297 had attempted suicide. In unadjusted models, individuals with OCD had an increased risk of both dying by suicide (odds ratio (OR)=9.83 (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.72-11.08)) and attempting suicide (OR=5.45 (95% CI, 5.24-5.67)), compared with matched controls. After adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, the risk was reduced but remained substantial for both death by suicide and attempted suicide. Within the OCD cohort, a previous suicide attempt was the strongest predictor of death by suicide. Having a comorbid personality or substance use disorder also increased the risk of suicide. Being a woman, higher parental education and having a comorbid anxiety disorder were protective factors. We conclude that patients with OCD are at a substantial risk of suicide. Importantly, this risk remains substantial after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. Suicide risk should be carefully monitored in patients with OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 July 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.115.

  3. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram Nv; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, M L; Reddy, Yogesh Nv

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft-Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m(2), 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2), 25-29.99 kg/m(2), and ≥30 kg/m(2) were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex.

  4. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Prashanth; Abraham, Georgi; Reddy, Yuvaram NV; Lakshmanasami, Ravivarman; Prakash, ML; Reddy, Yogesh NV

    2016-01-01

    This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. PMID:27729810

  5. Drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system and survival from cancer: a population based study of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patient cohorts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly prescribed to the growing number of cancer patients (more than two million in the UK alone) often to treat hypertension. However, increased fatal cancer in ARB users in a randomized trial and increased breast cancer recurrence rates in ACEI users in a recent observational study have raised concerns about their safety in cancer patients. We investigated whether ACEI or ARB use after breast, colorectal or prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with increased risk of cancer-specific mortality. Methods Population-based cohorts of 9,814 breast, 4,762 colorectal and 6,339 prostate cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 were identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and confirmed by cancer registry linkage. Cancer-specific and all-cause mortality were identified from Office of National Statistics mortality data in 2011 (allowing up to 13 years of follow-up). A nested case–control analysis was conducted to compare ACEI/ARB use (from general practitioner prescription records) in cancer patients dying from cancer with up to five controls (not dying from cancer). Conditional logistic regression estimated the risk of cancer-specific, and all-cause, death in ACEI/ARB users compared with non-users. Results The main analysis included 1,435 breast, 1,511 colorectal and 1,184 prostate cancer-specific deaths (and 7,106 breast, 7,291 colorectal and 5,849 prostate cancer controls). There was no increase in cancer-specific mortality in patients using ARBs after diagnosis of breast (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.06 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84, 1.35), colorectal (adjusted OR = 0.82 95% CI 0.64, 1.07) or prostate cancer (adjusted OR = 0.79 95% CI 0.61, 1.03). There was also no evidence of increases in cancer-specific mortality with ACEI use for breast (adjusted OR = 1.06 95% CI 0.89, 1.27), colorectal (adjusted OR = 0

  6. Risk of subsequent dementia in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Shih; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Chi-Yu; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) with subsequent dementia. Using universal insurance claims data, we identified a study cohort of 5,504 participants with HE newly diagnosed between 1997 and 2010 and a comparison cohort of 22,016 healthy participants. Incidence and risks of dementia were estimated for both cohorts until the end of 2010. The dementia incidence was 1.45-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.27-1.66] higher in the study cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.38 (95% CI = 1.19-1.59) for the study cohort. The risk was higher for males than for females and elderly patients. With an incidence of 13.4 per 1,000 person-years, the HR of dementia increased to 2.09 (95% CI = 1.18-3.71) for the HE patients with the comorbidities of head injury and diabetes compared to those without HE and comorbidities. The risk of developing dementia declined with the follow-up time. Hypertensive patients with HE displayed a significantly higher risk for dementia than those without HE. The risk increased further in those with the comorbidities of head injury and diabetes. Physicians should be aware of the link between HE and dementia when assessing patients with HE. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Managed care's clinical and economic impact on patients with type II diabetes in France: a controlled population-based study.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Laurent; François, Patrice; Fourny, Magali; Ohrond, Céline; Chanut, Charles; Labarère, José; Auquier, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of five type II diabetes managed care programmes (MCPs) in clinical and economic terms at the community level in which these programmes function in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. A prospective, controlled, before-and-after study (2001-2004) compared diabetic patients who lived in departments (localities) with (the experimental group) and without a MCP (the control group). Quality of care was estimated by the conformity of health care professionals' practices when following-up type II diabetes. Costs are compared from a health service perspective. The study finds that of 626 patients enrolled, 529 lived in departments with an MCP and 97 patients in departments without. Type II diabetes follow-up globally improved between the two study periods (2001 and 2004), but the study did not show significant differences between the two groups, except for the proportion of creatinine and ophthalmologic examinations, which were higher for the control group. The study did not find significant differences in the increase of costs between the two groups from 2001 to 2004. This type of study could constitute a methodological model to assess the MCPs population impact. MCPs probably did not reach a critical size in terms of patient recruitment and healthcare professional adhesion to have a significant impact at a population level. The study highlights a number of points to consider for future MCPs in France.

  8. Epidemiology of Anaphylactic Shock and Its Related Mortality in Hospital Patients in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Jr; Kuo, Chang-Fu; Chung, Ting-Ting; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2017-05-11

    Anaphylactic shock is potentially life-threatening. However, there is a paucity of data about its incidence and associated mortality, particularly in Asian populations. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of anaphylactic shock and its related mortality after the hospitalization of patients in the general population of Taiwan. The National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify patients with anaphylactic shock and estimate its incidence for inpatients sampled from 2005 to 2012. The pattern of anaphylactic shock and anaphylactic shock-related mortality rate was also examined. Of 22,080,199 patients who were admitted to hospitals from 2005 to 2012, there were 2289 incident cases of anaphylactic shock and 2219 people were included. Incidence of hospitalizations due to anaphylactic shock ranged from 12.71 to 13.23 per million of the population between 2005 and 2012. The incidence of anaphylactic shock in our study was substantially lower than other western countries, including the United States. There were 24 deaths due to drug-induced anaphylactic shock among the hospitalizations; overall mortality rate was 1.08%. Eighteen (0.81%) patients died within 30 days; 22 (0.99%) died within two months following the anaphylactic shock. The highest incidence occurred in patients aged 70-79 years. Conversely, food-induced anaphylactic shock was not influenced by age. In conclusion, drug-induced anaphylactic shock was a major cause of deaths due to anaphylactic shock in hospitalized patients. Most cases of anaphylactic shock occurred in the older population, and the mortality rate was lower in females than in males, though the difference was not significant.

  9. Measles vaccination coverage estimates from surveys, clinic records, and immune markers in oral fluid and blood: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of measles and polio in low-income countries illustrate that conventional methods for estimating vaccination coverage do not adequately identify susceptible children. Immune markers of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases in oral fluid (OF) or blood may generate more accurate measures of effective vaccination history, but questions remain about whether antibody surveys are feasible and informative tools for monitoring immunization program performance compared to conventional vaccination coverage indicators. This study compares six indicators of measles vaccination status, including immune markers in oral fluid and blood, from children in rural Bangladesh and evaluates the implications of using each indicator to estimate measles vaccination coverage. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study of children ages 12–16 months in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, ascertained measles vaccination (MCV1) history from conventional indicators: maternal report, vaccination card records, ‘card + history’ and EPI clinic records. Oral fluid from all participants (n = 1226) and blood from a subset (n = 342) were tested for measles IgG antibodies as indicators of MCV1 history and compared to conventional MCV1 coverage indicators. Results Maternal report yielded the highest MCV1 coverage estimates (90.8%), followed by EPI records (88.6%), and card + history (84.2%). Seroprotection against measles by OF (57.3%) was significantly lower than other indicators, even after adjusting for incomplete seroconversion and assay performance (71.5%). Among children with blood results, 88.6% were seroprotected, which was significantly higher than coverage by card + history and OF serostatus but consistent with coverage by maternal report and EPI records. Children with vaccination cards or EPI records were more likely to have a history of receiving MCV1 than those without cards or records. Despite similar MCV1 coverage estimates across

  10. Trends in various types of surgery for hysterectomy and distribution by patient age, surgeon age, and hospital accreditation: 10-year population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ping; Huang, Kuan-Hui; Long, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Tang, Chao-Hsiun

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the trends in various types of hysterectomy (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and subtotal) and their distribution according to patient age, surgeon age, and hospital accreditation in Taiwan. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Population-based National Health Insurance (NHI) database. Women with NHI in Taiwan undergoing various types of hysterectomy to treat noncancerous lesions. Data for this study were obtained from the Inpatient Expenditures by Admissions files of the NHI research database, released by the NHI program in Taiwan for 1996-2005. A total of 234,939 women who underwent various types of hysterectomy were identified for analysis. The number of hysterectomies performed annually remained stationary during the 10-year study. Total abdominal hysterectomies decreased significantly (77.33% in 1996 vs 45.68% in 2005), laparoscopic hysterectomies increased significantly (5.20% vs 40.40%), vaginal hysterectomies decreased (14.70% vs 8.86%), and subtotal abdominal hysterectomies increased (2.76% vs 5.06%). Laparoscopic hysterectomy was more commonly performed in middle-aged women; vaginal hysterectomy was more common in older women; and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy was more common in younger women. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed more commonly in regional hospitals (33.11%), followed by medical centers (30.17%) and local hospitals (17.78%). Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed more commonly in not-for-profit hospitals (30.25%), followed by private hospitals (29.32%) and government-owned hospitals (25.91%). There has been considerable change in the types of surgery used for hysterectomy in Taiwan over the past 10 years. As a minimally invasive approach, laparoscopic hysterectomy represents a profound change for both patients and surgeons. Copyright © 2010 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2)

    PubMed Central

    Allemani, Claudia; Weir, Hannah K; Carreira, Helena; Harewood, Rhea; Spika, Devon; Wang, Xiao-Si; Bannon, Finian; Ahn, Jane V; Johnson, Christopher J; Bonaventure, Audrey; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Chen, Wan-Qing; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Rachet, Bernard; Soeberg, Matthew J; You, Hui; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Storm, Hans; Tucker, Thomas C; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15–99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0–14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995–2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005–09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15–19% in North America, and as low as 7–9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10–20% between 1995–99 and 2005–09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer

  12. Estimate of the benefits of a population-based reduction in dietary sodium additives on hypertension and its related health care costs in Canada.

    PubMed

    Joffres, Michel R; Campbell, Norm R C; Manns, Braden; Tu, Karen

    2007-05-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations. To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives. Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure. Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension prevalence and result in health care cost savings in Canada.

  13. Estimate of the benefits of a population-based reduction in dietary sodium additives on hypertension and its related health care costs in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Joffres, Michel R; Campbell, Norm RC; Manns, Braden; Tu, Karen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide. One-quarter of the adult Canadian population has hypertension, and more than 90% of the population is estimated to develop hypertension if they live an average lifespan. Reductions in dietary sodium additives significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and population reductions in dietary sodium are recommended by major scientific and public health organizations. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the reduction in hypertension prevalence and specific hypertension management cost savings associated with a population-wide reduction in dietary sodium additives. METHODS: Based on data from clinical trials, reducing dietary sodium additives by 1840 mg/day would result in a decrease of 5.06 mmHg (systolic) and 2.7 mmHg (diastolic) blood pressures. Using Canadian Heart Health Survey data, the resulting reduction in hypertension was estimated. Costs of laboratory testing and physician visits were based on 2001 to 2003 Ontario Health Insurance Plan data, and the number of physician visits and costs of medications for patients with hypertension were taken from 2003 IMS Canada. To estimate the reduction in total physician visits and laboratory costs, current estimates of aware hypertensive patients in Canada were used from the Canadian Community Health Survey. RESULTS: Reducing dietary sodium additives may decrease hypertension prevalence by 30%, resulting in one million fewer hypertensive patients in Canada, and almost double the treatment and control rate. Direct cost savings related to fewer physician visits, laboratory tests and lower medication use are estimated to be approximately $430 million per year. Physician visits and laboratory costs would decrease by 6.5%, and 23% fewer treated hypertensive patients would require medications for control of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these estimates, lowering dietary sodium additives would lead to a large reduction in hypertension

  14. Improved survival for patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of chemo-immunotherapy: a Danish population-based study of 10455 patients

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha-Bang, C; Simonsen, J; Rostgaard, K; Geisler, C; Hjalgrim, H; Niemann, C U

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is in rapid transition, and during recent decades both combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy have been introduced. To evaluate the effects of this development, we identified all CLL patients registered in the nation-wide Danish Cancer Register between 1978 and 2013. We identified 10 455 CLL patients and 508 995 CLL-free control persons from the general population. Compared with the latter, the relative mortality rate between CLL patients and their controls decreased from 3.4 (95% CI 3.2–3.6) to 1.9 (95% CI 1.7–2.1) for patients diagnosed in 1978–1984 and 2006–2013, respectively. The improved survival corresponded to a decreasing risk of death from malignant hematological diseases, whereas the risk of death from infections was stable during the study period. These population-based data substantiate the improved survival for patients treated with chemo-immunotherapy demonstrated in clinical studies. PMID:27834937

  15. Impact of one or two visits strategy on hypertension burden estimation in HYDY, a population-based cross-sectional study: implications for healthcare resource allocation decision making

    PubMed Central

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Rapi, Stefano; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Baldereschi, Marzia; Massetti, Luciano; Padeletti, Luigi; Gensini, Gian Franco; Zhao, Dong; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

    2012-01-01

    Context The prevalence of hypertension in developing countries is coming closer to values found in developed countries. However, surveys usually rely on readings taken at a single visit, the option to implement the diagnosis on readings taken at multiple visits, being limited by costs. Objective To estimate more accurately the magnitude and extent of the resource that should be allocated to the prevention of hypertension. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey with triplicate blood pressure (BP) readings taken on two separate home-visits. Setting Rural and urban locations in three areas of Yemen (capital, inland and coast). Participants A nationally representative sample of the Yemen population aged 15–69 years (5063 men and 5179 women), with an overall response rate of 92% in urban and 94% in rural locations. Main outcome measure Hypertension diagnosed as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs. Results Hypertension prevalence (age-standardised to the WHO world population 2001) based on fulfilling the same criteria on both visits (11.3%; 95% Cl 10.7% to 11.9%), was 35% lower than estimation based on the first visit (17.3%; 16.5% to 18.0%). Advanced age, blood glucose ≥7 mmol/l or proteinuria ≥1+ at dipstick test at visit one were significant predictors of confirmation at visit 2. The 959 participants found to be hypertensive at visit 1 or at visit 2 only and thus excluded from the final diagnosis had a rate of proteinuria (5.0%; 3.8% to 6.5%) comparable to rates of the general population (6.1%; 5.6% to 6.6%), and of subjects normotensive at both visits (5.6%; 5.1% to 6.2%). Only 1.9% of Yemen population classified at high or very high cardiovascular (CV) risk at visit 1 moved to average, low or moderate CV risk categories after two visits. Conclusions Hypertension prevalence based on readings obtained after two visits is 35% lower than estimation based on the first visit

  16. Estimation of iodine nutrition and thyroid function status in late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Development and application of a population-based pregnancy model.

    PubMed

    Lumen, A; George, N I

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a deterministic biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) pregnancy model was developed to evaluate moderate thyroid axis disturbances with and without thyroid-active chemical exposure in a near-term pregnant woman and fetus. In the current study, the existing BBDR model was adapted to include a wider functional range of iodine nutrition, including more severe iodine deficiency conditions, and to incorporate empirically the effects of homeostatic mechanisms. The extended model was further developed into a population-based model and was constructed using a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic framework. In order to characterize total (T4) and free (fT4) thyroxine levels for a given iodine status at the population-level, the distribution of iodine intake for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S was reconstructed using various reverse dosimetry methods and available biomonitoring data. The range of median (mean) iodine intake values resulting from three different methods of reverse dosimetry tested was 196.5-219.9μg of iodine/day (228.2-392.9μg of iodine/day). There was minimal variation in model-predicted maternal serum T4 and ft4 thyroxine levels from use of the three reconstructed distributions of iodine intake; the range of geometric mean for T4 and fT4, was 138-151.7nmol/L and 7.9-8.7pmol/L, respectively. The average value of the ratio of the 97.5th percentile to the 2.5th percentile equaled 3.1 and agreed well with similar estimates from recent observations in third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. In addition, the reconstructed distributions of iodine intake allowed us to estimate nutrient inadequacy for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. via the probability approach. The prevalence of iodine inadequacy for third-trimester pregnant women in the U.S. was estimated to be between 21% and 44%. Taken together, the current work provides an improved tool for evaluating iodine nutritional status and the corresponding thyroid function status in

  17. Comparison of Algorithm-based Estimates of Occupational Diesel Exhaust Exposure to Those of Multiple Independent Raters in a Population-based Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Algorithm-based exposure assessments based on patterns in questionnaire responses and professional judgment can readily apply transparent exposure decision rules to thousands of jobs quickly. However, we need to better understand how algorithms compare to a one-by-one job review by an exposure assessor. We compared algorithm-based estimates of diesel exhaust exposure to those of three independent raters within the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study, and identified conditions under which disparities occurred in the assessments of the algorithm and the raters. Methods: Occupational diesel exhaust exposure was assessed previously using an algorithm and a single rater for all 14 983 jobs reported by 2631 study participants during personal interviews conducted from 2001 to 2004. Two additional raters independently assessed a random subset of 324 jobs that were selected based on strata defined by the cross-tabulations of the algorithm and the first rater’s probability assessments for each job, oversampling their disagreements. The algorithm and each rater assessed the probability, intensity and frequency of occupational diesel exhaust exposure, as well as a confidence rating for each metric. Agreement among the raters, their aggregate rating (average of the three raters’ ratings) and the algorithm were evaluated using proportion of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa (κw). Agreement analyses on the subset used inverse probability weighting to extrapolate the subset to estimate agreement for all jobs. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) models were used to identify patterns in questionnaire responses that predicted disparities in exposure status (i.e., unexposed versus exposed) between the first rater and the algorithm-based estimates. Results: For the probability, intensity and frequency exposure metrics, moderate to moderately high agreement was observed among raters (κw = 0.50–0.76) and between the

  18. Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Patients Who Have Received Opioid Substitution Treatment: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Midgard, Håvard; Bramness, Jørgen G; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Haukeland, John W; Dalgard, Olav

    2016-01-01

    There is limited data on hepatitis C (HCV) treatment uptake among people who inject drugs including individuals receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). We aimed to calculate cumulative HCV treatment uptake, estimate annual treatment rates, and identify factors associated with HCV treatment among individuals who have received OST in Norway. This observational study was based on linked data from The Norwegian Prescription Database and The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases between 2004 and 2013. Both registries have national coverage. From a total of 9919 individuals who had been dispensed OST (methadone, buprenorphine or buprenorphine-naloxone), we included 3755 individuals who had been notified with HCV infection. In this population, dispensions of HCV treatment (pegylated interferon and ribavirin), benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics were studied. Among 3755 OST patients notified with HCV infection, 539 (14%) had received HCV treatment during the study period. Annual HCV treatment rates during OST ranged between 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-2.2) in 2005 and 2.6% (95% CI 1.9-3.5) in 2008 with no significant changes over time. HCV treatment uptake was not associated with age or gender, but associated with duration of active OST (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.11 per year; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), high (> 80%) OST continuity (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.17-2.25), and heavy benzodiazepine use (aOR 0.65; 95% CI 0.49-0.87). Cumulative HCV treatment uptake among OST patients notified with HCV infection in Norway between 2004 and 2013 was 14%. Annual treatment rates during OST remained unchanged below 3% per year. High continuity of OST over time and absence of heavy benzodiazepine use predicted HCV treatment uptake. Increased awareness for HCV among OST patients is needed as tolerable and efficient directly acting antiviral treatment is being introduced.

  19. Mortality Implications of Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Secondary Prevention Patients: Contrasting Mortality in Primary Prevention Patients From a Prospective Population-Based Registry.

    PubMed

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Porta-Sánchez, Andreu; Ha, Andrew C T; Fischer, Hadas D; Wang, Xuesong; Austin, Peter C; Lee, Douglas S; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2017-08-19

    We sought to examine the mortality impact of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy between patients who received ICD for primary versus secondary prevention purposes. From a prospective, population-based registry, we identified 7020 patients who underwent de novo ICD implantation between February 2007 and May 2012 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and analyzed the mortality impact of first appropriate ICD therapy (shock and antitachycardia pacing [ATP]) as a time-varying covariate. There were 1929 (27.5%) patients who received ICDs for secondary prevention purposes. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. Compared with those with secondary prevention ICDs, patients with primary prevention ICDs had more medical comorbidities, and lower ejection fraction. Patients who experienced appropriate ICD shock or ATP had greater risk of death compared with those who did not, irrespective of implant indication. In the primary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate shock and ATP were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.72-2.33) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.52-1.97), respectively. In the secondary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate ICD shock and ATP were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.20-1.77) and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.16-1.64), respectively. Despite having a more favorable clinical profile, occurrence of appropriate ICD shock or ATP in patients with secondary prevention ICDs was associated with similar magnitudes of mortality risk as those with primary prevention ICDs. A heightened degree of care is warranted for all patients who experience appropriate ICD shock or ATP therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Estimated glomerular filtration rate within the normal or mildly impaired range and incident non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Results from a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Alon; Haim, Moti; Hoshen, Moshe; Balicer, Ran D; Reges, Orna; Leibowitz, Morton; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Hasdai, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, in particular in the significant renal impairment range (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), is associated with incident atrial fibrillation. This association is less established within the normal or mildly impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate range. Methods Using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate formula, we identified ambulatory adults (>22 years old) without rheumatic heart disease or prosthetic valves and with 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)<estimated glomerular filtration rate<130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in their index visit, for incident, newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation. We analyzed cohorts with and without prior cardiovascular disease. Results Over a mean follow-up of 104 months and >10 m patient-years of follow-up (∼75% <60 years old, ∼57% females), >65,000 individuals had ≥1 atrial fibrillation event (incident atrial fibrillation rate 5.1% and 5.8% excluding or including prior cardiovascular disease, or 49 and 55 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively). In both cohorts, individuals with versus without incident atrial fibrillation had lower mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (∼83 versus 95 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, overall a 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with a mean increase in incident atrial fibrillation of 1.5% and 2.4% in the cohorts excluding or including prior cardiovascular disease, respectively ( p < 0.001 for both). However, a graded association between lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and atrial fibrillation was observed in the 90-130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) range, whereas a blunted association was observed in the 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) range. Conclusion Within the 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2 )< estimated glomerular filtration rate

  1. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  2. Association Between Carotid Bulb Diaphragm and Ischemic Stroke in Young Afro-Caribbean Patients: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Joux, Julien; Boulanger, Marion; Jeannin, Severine; Chausson, Nicolas; Hennequin, Jean-Luc; Molinié, Vincent; Smadja, Didier; Touzé, Emmanuel; Olindo, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    Carotid bulb diaphragm (CBD) has been described in young carotid ischemic stroke (CIS) patients, especially in blacks. However, the prevalence of CBD in CIS patients is unknown, and whether CBD is a risk factor for CIS remains unclear. We assessed the association between CBD and incident CIS in a population-based study. We selected all young (<55 years) CIS patients from a 1-year population-based cohort study in the Afro-Caribbean population of Martinique in 2012. All patients had a comprehensive work-up including a computed tomographic angiography. We calculated CIS associated with ipsilateral CBD incidence with 95% confidence intervals using Poisson distribution. We then selected age- and sex-matched controls among young (<55 years) Afro-Caribbean stroke-free patients admitted for a road crash who routinely had computed tomographic angiography. Odds ratio (ORs) were calculated by conditional logistic regression adjusted for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and smoking. CIS associated with ipsilateral CBD incidence was 3.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.1). Prevalence of ipsilateral CBD was 23% in all CIS and 37% in undetermined CIS patients. When restricted to undetermined CIS, CBD prevalence was 24 times higher than that in controls (adjusted OR, 24.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-325.6). CBD is associated with an increased risk of ipsilateral CIS in young Afro-Caribbean population. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Patients Who Have Received Opioid Substitution Treatment: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bramness, Jørgen G.; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Haukeland, John W.; Dalgard, Olav

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims There is limited data on hepatitis C (HCV) treatment uptake among people who inject drugs including individuals receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). We aimed to calculate cumulative HCV treatment uptake, estimate annual treatment rates, and identify factors associated with HCV treatment among individuals who have received OST in Norway. Methods This observational study was based on linked data from The Norwegian Prescription Database and The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases between 2004 and 2013. Both registries have national coverage. From a total of 9919 individuals who had been dispensed OST (methadone, buprenorphine or buprenorphine-naloxone), we included 3755 individuals who had been notified with HCV infection. In this population, dispensions of HCV treatment (pegylated interferon and ribavirin), benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics were studied. Results Among 3755 OST patients notified with HCV infection, 539 (14%) had received HCV treatment during the study period. Annual HCV treatment rates during OST ranged between 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–2.2) in 2005 and 2.6% (95% CI 1.9–3.5) in 2008 with no significant changes over time. HCV treatment uptake was not associated with age or gender, but associated with duration of active OST (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.11 per year; 95% CI 1.07–1.15), high (> 80%) OST continuity (aOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.17–2.25), and heavy benzodiazepine use (aOR 0.65; 95% CI 0.49–0.87). Conclusions Cumulative HCV treatment uptake among OST patients notified with HCV infection in Norway between 2004 and 2013 was 14%. Annual treatment rates during OST remained unchanged below 3% per year. High continuity of OST over time and absence of heavy benzodiazepine use predicted HCV treatment uptake. Increased awareness for HCV among OST patients is needed as tolerable and efficient directly acting antiviral treatment is being introduced

  4. Coverage of the 2011 Q Fever Vaccination Campaign in the Netherlands, Using Retrospective Population-Based Prevalence Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk-Conditions for Chronic Q Fever

    PubMed Central

    Vanrolleghem, Ann M.; Isken, Leslie D.; van Deuren, Marcel; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.; Timen, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2011, a unique Q fever vaccination campaign targeted people at risk for chronic Q fever in the southeast of the Netherlands. General practitioners referred patients with defined cardiovascular risk-conditions (age >15 years). Prevalence rates of those risk-conditions were lacking, standing in the way of adequate planning and coverage estimation. We aimed to obtain prevalence rates retrospectively in order to estimate coverage of the Q fever vaccination campaign. Methods With broad search terms for these predefined risk-conditions, we extracted patient-records from a large longitudinal general-practice research-database in the Netherlands (IPCI-database). After validation of these records, obtained prevalence rates (stratified for age and sex) extrapolated to the Q fever high-incidence area population, gave an approximation of the size of the targeted patient-group. Coverage calculation addressed people actually screened by a pre-vaccination Q fever skin test and serology (coverage) and patients referred by their general practitioners (adjusted-coverage) in the 2011 campaign. Results Our prevalence estimate of any risk-condition was 3.1% (lower-upper limits 2.9-3.3%). For heart valve defects, aorta aneurysm/prosthesis, congenital anomalies and endocarditis, prevalence was 2.4%, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Estimated number of eligible people in the Q fever high-incidence area was 11,724 (10,965-12,532). With 1330 people screened for vaccination, coverage of the vaccination campaign was 11%. For referred people, the adjusted coverage was 18%. Coverage was lowest among the very-old and highest for people aged 50–70 years. Conclusion The estimated coverage of the vaccination campaign was limited. This should be interpreted in the light of the complexity of this target-group with much co-morbidity, and of the vaccine that required invasive pre-vaccination screening. Calculation of prevalence rates of risk-conditions based on the IPCI-database was

  5. Coverage of the 2011 Q fever vaccination campaign in the Netherlands, using retrospective population-based prevalence estimation of cardiovascular risk-conditions for chronic Q fever.

    PubMed

    Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; Schoffelen, Teske; Vanrolleghem, Ann M; Isken, Leslie D; van Deuren, Marcel; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Timen, Aura

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a unique Q fever vaccination campaign targeted people at risk for chronic Q fever in the southeast of the Netherlands. General practitioners referred patients with defined cardiovascular risk-conditions (age >15 years). Prevalence rates of those risk-conditions were lacking, standing in the way of adequate planning and coverage estimation. We aimed to obtain prevalence rates retrospectively in order to estimate coverage of the Q fever vaccination campaign. With broad search terms for these predefined risk-conditions, we extracted patient-records from a large longitudinal general-practice research-database in the Netherlands (IPCI-database). After validation of these records, obtained prevalence rates (stratified for age and sex) extrapolated to the Q fever high-incidence area population, gave an approximation of the size of the targeted patient-group. Coverage calculation addressed people actually screened by a pre-vaccination Q fever skin test and serology (coverage) and patients referred by their general practitioners (adjusted-coverage) in the 2011 campaign. Our prevalence estimate of any risk-condition was 3.1% (lower-upper limits 2.9-3.3%). For heart valve defects, aorta aneurysm/prosthesis, congenital anomalies and endocarditis, prevalence was 2.4%, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively. Estimated number of eligible people in the Q fever high-incidence area was 11,724 (10,965-12,532). With 1330 people screened for vaccination, coverage of the vaccination campaign was 11%. For referred people, the adjusted coverage was 18%. Coverage was lowest among the very-old and highest for people aged 50-70 years. The estimated coverage of the vaccination campaign was limited. This should be interpreted in the light of the complexity of this target-group with much co-morbidity, and of the vaccine that required invasive pre-vaccination screening. Calculation of prevalence rates of risk-conditions based on the IPCI-database was feasible. This procedure proved an

  6. Population-based estimate of trauma-related deaths for law enforcement personnel: Risks for death are higher and increasing over time.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Alexander L; Cripps, Michael W; Abdelfattah, Kareem R; Inaba, Kenji; Weiser, Thomas G; Spain, David A; Staudenmayer, Kristan L

    2017-08-01

    Trauma-related deaths remain an important public health problem. One group susceptible to death due to traumatic mechanisms is US law enforcement (LE). We hypothesized that LE officers experienced a higher chance of violent death compared with the general US population and that risks have increased over time. The National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance is a population-based survey of occupational deaths. It includes data for workers who died during 1985 to 1998 in one of 30 US states (EARLY period). Additional deaths were added from 23 US states in 1999, 2003 to 2004, 2007 to 2010 (LATE period). Mortality rates are estimated by calculating proportionate mortality ratios (PMR). A PMR above 100 is considered to exceed the average background risk for all occupations. All adults older than 18 years whose primary occupation was listed as "law enforcement worker" were included in the analysis. Law enforcement personnel were more likely to die from an injury compared with the general population (Fig. 1). The overall PMR for injury in EARLY was 111 (95% confidence interval [CI], 108-114; p < 0.01), and for LATE was 118 (95% CI, 110-127; p < 0.01). Four mechanisms of death reached statistical significance: motor vehicle traffic (MVT)-driver, MVT-other, intentional self-harm, and assault/homicide. The highest PMR in EARLY was associated with firearms (PMR, 272; 95% CI, 207-350; p < 0.01). The highest PMR in LATE was associated with death due to being a driver in an MVT (PMR, 194; 95% CI, 169-222; p < 0.01). There were differences in risk of death by race and sex. White females had the highest PMR due to assault and homicide (PMR, 317; 95% CI, 164-554; p < 0.01). All groups had similar risks of death due to intentional self-harm (PMR, 130-171). The risk of death for US LE officers is high and increasing over time, suggesting an at-risk population that requires further interventions. Targeted efforts based on risk

  7. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D; Morgenthaler, S; Blondal, T; Lindebjerg, J; Sørensen, F B; Jakobsen, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients. Methods: A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves. Results: High miRNA-21 expression was associated with an unfavourable recurrence-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS), hazard ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.76) (P=0.028). The generated RF-CSS index divided the traditional high-risk patients into subgroups with 5-year RF-CSS rates of 87% and 73%, respectively (P<0.001). The overall survival (OS) index identified three different subgroups (P<0.001). Cross-validated 5-year OS rates were 88%, 68%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusions: This population-based study supports miRNA-21 as an additional prognostic biomarker in patients with stage II colon cancer. Furthermore, the introduction of a risk index may guide the use of postoperative adjuvant treatment in a more appropriate way compared with current practice. PMID:25051407

  8. Population-based cohort follow-up study of all patients operated for borderline ovarian tumor in western Sweden during an 11-year period.

    PubMed

    Akeson, M; Zetterqvist, B-M; Dahllöf, K; Jakobsen, A-M; Brännström, M; Horvath, G

    2008-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) make up around 10-20% of all epithelial ovarian tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the outcome of a complete large population-based cohort of patients treated for BOT. All patients (n= 399) treated for BOT in the western part of Sweden (population around 1.6 million) between 1993 and 2004 were followed. The treatment consisted of primary staging surgery with addition of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy for the majority of aneuploid tumors. Data relating to the surgical procedure, FIGO stage, histopathology, ploidy status, adjuvant chemotherapy, and disease state (recurrence or death) at follow-up visits were continuously entered into a cancer quality registry. Data concerning cases and deaths were also controlled against the Swedish National Cancer Registry. The median age of the BOT patients was 55 years (range 16-90). The relative 5- and 10-year survivals were 99.9% (95% CI 96.3-102.4) and 103.5% (95% CI 97.2-108.2), respectively. Aneuploidy was found in 63 (17%) patients, with significantly more aneuploid tumors found among patients of older (>60 years) age. Out of the 399 patients, 8 had recurrence of the disease. Three of the eight patients died from the disease. Five patients with recurrence are alive, three of these patients with no signs of disease after additional treatment. This complete long-term follow-up of a large population-based cohort of BOT patients shows that there is a good overall survival in this patient group.

  9. Health Outcomes of Population-Based Pharmacy Outreach to Increase Statin Use for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grembowski, David; Ralston, James D; Anderson, Melissa L

    2016-08-01

    In 2003, Group Health implemented a pharmacy-based, systemwide outreach effort to increase the preventive use of statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in enrollees at risk for cardiovascular disease, including all enrollees with diabetes. To estimate the associations between the use of statins and major vascular events and the total costs in 2006-2010 for enrollees with diabetes, using a pharmacy-based, systemwide outreach. In a 14-year (1997-2010) longitudinal cohort study design, the study population consisted of 6,975 Group Health enrollees with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, who were enrolled continuously and had no statin use before the Group Health outreach in 1997-2002. Health outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Statin exposure was measured by cumulative statin use since 2003, weighted by the effect of the statin type and dose on the lowering of low-density lipoprotein levels. Regression models estimated associations between cumulative statin use, health outcomes, and total costs in 2006-2010. Among enrollees with no statin use before outreach began in 2003, about half had no or low exposure to statins by the end of 2005. In 2006-2010, cumulative statin use was greater among enrollees with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Greater statin use was related to lower cardiovascular deaths and incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction, greater but nonsignificant all-cause mortality, and unrelated to total costs. Population-based pharmacy outreach increased statin use for eligible enrollees with diabetes, which was related to better cardiovascular outcomes. Generally, statin use was unrelated to all-cause mortality and total costs. This study was funded by Grant No. R21 HS019501 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and was conducted as part of the AHRQ announcement Optimizing Prevention and Healthcare Management for the Complex Patient (R21; RFA-HS-10

  10. Predictors of mortality among patients undergoing colectomy for ischemic colitis: A population-based, United States study

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Matthew D; Ravindran, Nikila C; Hubbard, James; Myers, Robert P; Ghosh, Subrata; Beck, Paul L; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad; Prusinkiewicz, Chris; Heitman, Steven J; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic colitis is a potentially life-threatening condition that can require colectomy for management. OBJECTIVE: To assess independent predictors of mortality following colectomy for ischemic colitis using a nationally representative sample of hospitals in the United States. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify all patients with a primary diagnosis of acute vascular insufficiency of the colon (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 557.0 and 557.9) who underwent a colectomy between 1993 and 2008. Incidence and mortality are described; multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of mortality. RESULTS: The incidence of colectomy for ischemic colitis was 1.43 cases (95% CI 1.40 cases to 1.47 cases) per 100,000. The incidence of colectomy for ischemic colitis increased by 3.1% per year (95% CI 2.3% to 3.9%) from 1993 to 2003, and stabilized thereafter. The postoperative mortality rate was 21.0% (95% CI 20.2% to 21.8%). After 1997, the mortality rate significantly decreased at an estimated annual rate of 4.5% (95% CI −6.3% to −2.7%). Mortality was associated with older age, 65 to 84 years (OR 5.45 [95% CI 2.91 to 10.22]) versus 18 to 34 years; health insurance, Medicaid (OR 1.69 [95% CI 1.29 to 2.21]) and Medicare (OR 1.33 [95% CI 1.12 to 1.58]) versus private health insurance; and comorbidities such as liver disease (OR 3.54 [95% CI 2.79 to 4.50]). Patients who underwent colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy (OR 0.78 [95% CI 0.65 to 0.93]) had lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Colectomy for ischemic colitis was associated with considerable mortality. The explanation for the stable incidence and decreasing mortality rates observed in the latter part of the present study should be explored in future studies. PMID:25575108

  11. Donor-Site Hernia Repair in Abdominal Flap Breast Reconstruction: A Population-Based Cohort Study of 7929 Patients.

    PubMed

    Mennie, Joanna C; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O'Donoghue, Joe M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A

    2015-07-01

    The authors investigated hernia repair rates following pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM), free TRAM, and deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction in English National Health Service hospitals. Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent pedicled TRAM, free TRAM, or DIEP flap breast reconstruction procedures in English National Health Service hospitals between April of 2006 and March of 2012 were identified using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Women who underwent mastectomy without reconstruction acted as controls, and hernia repair rates were calculated for all four groups. Multiple Cox regression was performed to estimate the relative risk of hernia repair among the reconstruction groups, adjusted for age, obesity, previous abdominal surgery, reconstruction year, and bilateral flap harvest. Between 2006 and 2012, 7929 women had a DIEP or TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The overall hernia repair rate within 3 years was 2.45 percent after abdominal flap breast reconstruction, and 0.28 percent among the 15,679 women who had mastectomy only. Mean time to hernia repair following an abdominal flap harvest was 17.7 months. Compared with DIEP flaps, free and pedicled TRAM flap procedures were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.81 (95 percent CI, 1.24 to 2.64) and 2.89 (95 percent CI, 1.91 to 4.37), respectively. The only independent risk factor for hernia repair was age older than 60 years (p = 0.039). Abdominally based autologous breast reconstruction carries a small risk of subsequent donor-site hernia repair. The rates herein can be used to inform patients and to assess quality of care across service providers. Therapeutic, III.

  12. The high prevalence of unrecognized anaemia in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    New, J P; Aung, T; Baker, P G; Yongsheng, G; Pylypczuk, R; Houghton, J; Rudenski, A; New, R P; Hegarty, J; Gibson, J M; O'Donoghue, D J; Buchan, I E

    2008-05-01

    Anaemia occurs early in the course of diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is little evidence about the prevalence of anaemia in people with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia, by stage of CKD, in the general diabetic population. Haemoglobin (Hb) was measured on all glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) samples and the most recent (< 4 months) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was obtained. Anaemia (at treatment level) was defined as Hb < 110 g/l or the use of erythropoetic stimulating agents (ESA). Twelve per cent (10-14%) of people had Hb < 110 g/l. The prevalence of anaemia increased progressively with worsening CKD. People with CKD stage 3 accounted for the largest number of people with anaemia; 18% (95% CI 13-24%) had Hb < 110 g/l. Those with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and not on ESA or dialysis were four (2-7) times more likely than patients with better renal function to have Hb < 110 g/l. The relation between Hb and eGFR became approximately linear below an eGFR of 83 ml/min/1.73 m2, where, for every 1 ml/min/1.73 m2 fall in eGFR, there was a 0.4 (0.3-0.5) g/l fall in haemoglobin. This study demonstrates that anaemia, at levels where treatment is indicated, occurs commonly in people with diabetes and CKD stage 3 or worse. The screening for anaemia in current diabetes management should be extended.

  13. Higher incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery: a nationwide, population-based, case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Chi; Liu, Keng-Chang; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Koo, Malcolm

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the risk of incident rheumatoid arthritis in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery using a nationwide health claims database. A nationwide, population-based, case-control study. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 1147 patients (aged 20-100 years) with rheumatoid arthritis and 5735 controls who were frequency-matched for sex, 10-year age interval and year of catastrophic illness certificate application date (index year) were identified. All participants were retrospectively traced, up to 14 years prior to their index year, for diagnosis of osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis-related surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to quantify the association between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The risks of rheumatoid arthritis were significantly higher in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (adjusted OR=5.24, p<0.001) and osteoarthritis-related surgery (adjusted OR=2.27, p<0.001). This large nationwide, population-based, case-control study showed a higher risk of rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwanese patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis might be a triggering factor of rheumatoid arthritis in environment-sensitised and genetically susceptible individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. [Population-based study of tear production in healthy individuals and patients with dry eye syndrome in Altai Republic].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Shirina, M A

    2012-01-01

    For the first time population-based study of tear production was performed, prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome (DES) were determined in native ethnic group of Altai Republic--tubalars. Authors examined 673 people, representing 44% of the whole tubalar population. The mean total tear production (Shirmer test I) was 13,3 +/- 0,3 mm in healthy (without DES signs) tubalars. It ranges in 22,6% of healthy tubalars from 0 to 5 mm, in 20,8%--6 to 11 mm, in 20,5%--12 to 17 mm, in 34,5%-- > 17 mm. Prevalence of DES in tubalar population is 86,18 per thousand. Total tear production (Shirmer test I) in tubalars with DES ranges from 0 to 5 mm in 34%, 6-11 mm in 31,5%, 12-17 mm in 21% and > 17 mm in 13% of eyes. This results showed Shirmer test I to be nonspecific in diagnosis of DES. In author's opinion this test may be useful for follow-up and for assessment of treatment efficacy.

  15. Mucosal Healing in Patients with Celiac Disease and Outcomes of Pregnancy: a Nationwide Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Stephansson, Olof; Green, Peter HR; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Studies have associated undiagnosed celiac disease with adverse outcomes of pregnancy. We investigated the association between persistent villous atrophy and outcomes of pregnancy in women with celiac disease. Methods We collected data on 337 women with celiac disease who gave birth (to 460 infants) within 5 years of a follow-up biopsy, from 28 pathology departments in Sweden. We compared birth outcomes from women whose follow-up biopsy showed persistent villous atrophy (Marsh score, 3; n=142; 31% of study population) to those of women with mucosal recovery (n=318, 69%). We used multivariable logistic regression (adjusted for maternal age, parity, country of birth, smoking, infant sex, and calendar year of birth) evaluate the association between persistent villous atrophy and pregnancy outcomes. Results Intrauterine growth restriction occurred during 3.5% of pregnancies in women with persistent villous atrophy vs 3.8% of those with mucosal healing (adjusted odds ratio, 1, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-1.99). There was no significant association between persistent villous atrophy and low birth weight (aOR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.41-2.39), preterm birth (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.72-3.83), or Caesarian section (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.51-1.46). Conclusions Although undiagnosed celiac disease has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, we found no evidence from a nationwide population-based study that persistent villous atrophy, based on analysis of follow-up biopsies, increases risk, compared with mucosal healing. PMID:25460563

  16. Increased risk for stroke in burn patients: a population-based one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the frequency and risk of stroke following hospitalization for burn through the analysis of a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We identified 692 hospitalized subjects who had received a diagnosis of burn. We randomly selected 2768 comparison subjects to match the study subjects by sex and age group. We individually tracked each subject for one year identifying all those who received a diagnosis of stroke during that period. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to calculate the longitudinal hazard of stroke between the two cohorts. We found that the incidence rate of stroke during the one-year follow-up period was 6.65 (95% CI: 4.92-8.79) per 100 person-years and 2.75 (95% CI: 2.18-3.42) per 100 person-years for study cohort and comparison cohort, respectively. After adjusting for urbanization level, monthly income, geographic region, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, and chronic kidney disease, and censoring the cases that died from non-stroke causes, the hazard ratio (HR) for stroke during the one-year follow-up period for study cohort was 2.52 (95% CI=1.73-3.68, P<0.001) that of comparison subjects. We further analyzed the HR of stroke according to the extent of burned body surface area (<10%, 10-29%, and >29%). We found that there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke during the one-year follow-up period among these three groups of subjects. We found that burn victims were at higher risk for subsequent stroke that matched comparison subjects during one-year follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Attitudes towards euthanasia in severely ill and dementia patients and cremation in Cyprus: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population studies on end-of-life decisions have not been conducted in Cyprus. Our study aim was to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes of Greek Cypriots towards end-of-life issues regarding euthanasia and cremation. Methods A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Cyprus. One thousand randomly selected individuals from the population of Cyprus age 20 years or older were invited to participate. Beliefs and attitudes on end-of-life decisions were collected using an anonymous and validated questionnaire. Statistical analyses included cross-tabulations, Pearson’s chi-square tests and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 308 males and 689 females participated in the survey. About 70% of the respondents did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by them and 77% did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by relatives. Regarding cremation, 78% were against and only 14% reported being in favor. Further statistical analyses showed that male gender, being single and having reached higher educational level were factors positively associated with support for euthanasia in a statistically significant fashion. On the contrary, the more religiosity expressed by study participants, the less support they reported for euthanasia or cremation. Conclusions The vast majority of Greek Cypriots does not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia and also do not support cremation. Certain demographic characteristics such as age and education have a positive influence towards attitudes for euthanasia and cremation, while religiosity exerts a strong negative influence on the above. Family bonding as well as social and cultural traditions may also play a role although not comprehensively evaluated in the current study. PMID:24060291

  18. Attitudes towards euthanasia in severely ill and dementia patients and cremation in Cyprus: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Televantos, Anastasios; Talias, Michael A; Charalambous, Marianna; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2013-09-23

    Population studies on end-of-life decisions have not been conducted in Cyprus. Our study aim was to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes of Greek Cypriots towards end-of-life issues regarding euthanasia and cremation. A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Cyprus. One thousand randomly selected individuals from the population of Cyprus age 20 years or older were invited to participate. Beliefs and attitudes on end-of-life decisions were collected using an anonymous and validated questionnaire. Statistical analyses included cross-tabulations, Pearson's chi-square tests and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 308 males and 689 females participated in the survey. About 70% of the respondents did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by them and 77% did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by relatives. Regarding cremation, 78% were against and only 14% reported being in favor. Further statistical analyses showed that male gender, being single and having reached higher educational level were factors positively associated with support for euthanasia in a statistically significant fashion. On the contrary, the more religiosity expressed by study participants, the less support they reported for euthanasia or cremation. The vast majority of Greek Cypriots does not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia and also do not support cremation. Certain demographic characteristics such as age and education have a positive influence towards attitudes for euthanasia and cremation, while religiosity exerts a strong negative influence on the above. Family bonding as well as social and cultural traditions may also play a role although not comprehensively evaluated in the current study.

  19. Risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with common preexisting sensorineural hearing impairment: a population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Koo, Malcolm; Hwang, Juen-Haur

    2015-01-01

    The role of preexisting sensorineural hearing impairment on the risk for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to assess the risk of SSHL in patients with common preexisting sensorineural hearing impairment using population-based data. A population-based case-control study design was used to analyze claims data between January 2001 and December 2011 obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The cases consisted of 514 patients with SSHL and the controls were frequency matched to 2,570 cases by sex, 10-year age group, and year of index date. Common sensorineural hearing impairments were retrospectively assessed in the cases and controls. Associations between sensorineural hearing impairment and risk of SSHL were evaluated using unconditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The mean age for the 3,084 study subjects was 53.1 years (standard deviation, S.D. = 15.6). Of the 514 cases, 49 (9.5%) had sensorineural hearing impairment while only 44 (1.7%) of the 2,570 controls had the same condition. Univariate logistic regression analyses indicated that preexisting sensorineural hearing impairment was significantly associated with SSHL (odds ratio, OR = 6.05, p < 0.001). Other comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia also showed significant associations with SSHL. Similar results were obtained when the association between SSHL and sensorineural hearing impairment was adjusted with either all the covariates (adjusted OR = 6.22, p < 0.001) or with only those selected using a backward elimination procedure (adjusted OR = 6.20, p < 0.001). Results from this population-based case-control study revealed that common sensorineural hearing impairment might be a novel risk factor for SSHL.

  20. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a population-based study: Link between etiology and patients characteristics, process-of-care, clinical evolution and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The etiologic profile of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for each age group could be similar among inpatients and outpatients. This fact brings up the link between etiology of CAP and its clinical evolution and outcome. Furthermore, the majority of pneumonia etiologic studies are based on hospitalized patients, whereas there have been no recent population-based studies encompassing both inpatients and outpatients. Methods To evaluate the etiology of CAP, and the relationship among the different pathogens of CAP to patients characteristics, process-of-care, clinical evolution and outcomes, a prospective population-based study was conducted in Spain from April 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007. Patients (age >18) with CAP were identified through the family physicians and the hospital area. Results A total of 700 patients with etiologic evaluation were included: 276 hospitalized and 424 ambulatory patients. We were able to define the aetiology of pneumonia in 55.7% (390/700). The most frequently isolated organism was S. pneumoniae (170/390, 43.6%), followed by C. burnetti (72/390, 18.5%), M. pneumoniae (62/390, 15.9%), virus as a group (56/390, 14.4%), Chlamydia species (39/390, 106%), and L. pneumophila (17/390, 4.4%). The atypical pathogens and the S. pneumoniae are present in pneumonias of a wide spectrum of severity and age. Patients infected by conventional bacteria were elderly, had a greater hospitalization rate, and higher mortality within 30 days. Conclusions Our study provides information about the etiology of CAP in the general population. The microbiology of CAP remains stable: infections by conventional bacteria result in higher severity, and the S. pneumoniae remains the most important pathogen. However, atypical pathogens could also infect patients in a wide spectrum of severity and age. PMID:22691449

  1. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status, Surgical Resection and Type of Hospital on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer. A Population-Based Study in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van der Geest, Lydia G. M.; de Jong, Koert P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic inequalities in pancreatic cancer patients and especially its effect in patients who had a resection is not known. Hospital type in which resection is performed might also influence outcome. Patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from 1989 to 2011 (n = 34,757) were selected from the population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry. Postal code was used to determine SES. Multivariable survival analyses using Cox regression were conducted to discriminate independent risk factors for death. Patients living in a high SES neighborhood more often underwent resection and more often were operated in a university hospital. After adjustment for clinicopathological factors, risk of dying was increased independently for patients with intermediate and low SES compared to patients with high SES. After resection, no survival difference was found among patients in the three SES groups. However, survival was better for patients treated in university hospitals compared to patients treated in non-university hospitals. Low SES was an independent risk factor for poor survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. SES was not an adverse risk factor after resection. Resection in non-university hospitals was associated with a worse prognosis. PMID:27832174

  2. Anxiety and depressive disorders among patients with esophageal cancer in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Yu; Ku, Fan-Chen; Wang, Yen-Po; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Pan-Ming; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lu, Ti; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Teng, Chung-Jen; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-03-01

    The comorbidity of depression with anxiety disorders is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, worse quality of life, poorer adherence to treatment, and greater suicide risk in cancer patients. To assess the risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders after the diagnosis of esophageal cancer compared with a matched cohort by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We conducted a retrospective study of 28,454 patients (14,227 patients with esophageal cancer and 14,227 matched patients) who were selected from the NHIRD. Patients were observed for a maximum of 12 years to determine the incidence of new-onset anxiety and depressive disorders for which antidepressants had been prescribed. A Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in esophageal cancer patients. The cumulative incidence of anxiety and depressive disorders in the esophageal cancer patients was significantly higher than that in the matched cohort (P < .001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.24 (95 % confidence interval, CI = 1.95-2.56, P < .001) in the esophageal cancer cohort compared with the matched cohort. Independent risk factors for developing anxiety and depressive disorders among the patients with esophageal cancer included cirrhosis, cerebrovascular disease, and surgical treatment. Esophageal cancer may be a prominent risk factor for anxiety and depressive disorders. Based on our data, we suggest that attention should be focused on esophageal cancer patients with comorbid cirrhosis and cerebrovascular disease and those who have received surgical interventions.

  3. Long-term Effect of Radiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients with Mucinous Tumor: A Large Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xu; Jia, Senhao; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Zheng; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2017-01-01

    Due to distinct biological behavior of mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) and signet ring cell cancer (SRC), the efficacy of radiotherapy on long-term outcome for rectal cancer (RC) patients with mucinous tumors is still unclear. Here, we identified 1808 RC patients with MAC/SRC from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) database from 2004 to 2013. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to different therapeutic strategies, including surgery alone and surgery combined with radiotherapy. Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to access the influence of therapeutic strategy on long-term survival outcomes. The 5-year and 10-year cancer specific survival (CSS) were improved in stage II and III patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy compared with patients who underwent surgery alone. These results were further confirmed following propensity score matching. In addition, radiotherapy was deemed as independent good prognostic factor in patient with MAC/SRC. In subgroup analysis, the result also demonstrated that long-term survival was improved following radiotherapy. However, there was no prognostic difference between preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy. In conclusion, radiotherapy could improve survival for RC patients with MAC and SRC, but only for patients in stage II and III. This finding supported the application of radiotherapy in clinical practice. PMID:28272410

  4. Survival of older patients with metastasised breast cancer lags behind despite evolving treatment strategies--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    de Glas, N A; Bastiaannet, E; de Craen, A J M; van de Velde, C J H; Siesling, S; Liefers, G J; Portielje, J E A

    2015-02-01

    Older women are more likely to be diagnosed with primary metastasised breast cancer than their younger counterparts. Evolving treatment strategies of metastasised breast cancer have resulted in improved survival in younger patients, but it remains unclear if this improvement has occurred in older patients as well. The aim of this study was to assess changes in treatment strategies over time in relation to overall and relative survival of older patients compared to younger patients with primary metastasised breast cancer. All patients with a breast cancer diagnosis and distant metastases at first presentation (stage IV), between 1990 and 2012, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Changes in treatment over time per age-group (<65 years, 65-75 years and >75 years) were assessed using logistic regression. Overall survival over time was calculated using Cox Regression Models and relative survival was assessed using the Ederer II method. Overall, 14,310 patients were included. Treatment strategies have strongly changed in the past twenty years; especially the use of chemotherapy has increased (P<0.001 in all age-groups). Overall survival of patients <65 has significantly improved (Hazard Ratio (HR) per year 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.98-0.99, P<0.001), but the survival of older patients has not improved (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, P=0.86 for patients aged 65-75 and HR 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.01, P=0.46 for patients aged >75). Similarly, relative survival has improved in patients <65 but not in women aged 65-75 and >75. Overall and relative survival of older patients with metastasised breast cancer at first presentation have not improved in recent years in contrast with the survival of younger patients, despite increased treatment with chemotherapy for women of all ages. Future studies should focus on stratification models that can be used to predict which patients may benefit from specific treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Quantitative analysis of SMN1 gene and estimation of SMN1 deletion carrier frequency in Korean population based on real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Mi; Kim, Sang-Wun; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Koo, Soo Kyung; Jo, Inho; Kang, Seongman; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2004-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by homozygous absence of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) in approximately 94% of patients. Since most carriers have only one SMN1 gene copy, several SMN1 quantitative analyses have been used for the SMA carrier detection. We developed a reliable quantitative real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye and studied 13 patients with SMA and their 24 parents, as well as 326 healthy normal individuals. The copy number of the SMN1 gene was determined by the comparative threshold cycle (Ct) method and albumin was used as a reference gene. The homozygous SMN1 deletion ratio of patients was 0.00 and the hemizygous SMN1 deletion ratio of parents ranged from 0.39 to 0.59. The deltadelta Ct ratios of 7 persons among 326 normal individuals were within the carrier range, 0.41-0.57. According to these data, we estimated the carrier and disease prevalence of SMA at 1/47 and 1/8,496 in Korean population, respectively. These data indicated that there would be no much difference in disease prevalence of SMA compared with western countries. Since the prevalence of SMA is higher than other autosomal recessive disorders, the carrier detection method using real-time PCR could be a useful tool for genetic counseling.

  6. Are Non-cardiac Surgeries Safe for Dialysis Patients? – A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cherng, Yih-Giun; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Xiao, Duan

    2013-01-01

    Background End-stage renal disease represents a risk complex that complicates surgical results. The surgical outcomes of dialysis patients have been studied in specific fields, but the global features of postoperative adverse outcomes in dialysis patients receiving non-cardiac surgeries have not been examined. Methods Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used to study 8,937 patients under regular dialysis with 8,937 propensity-score matched-pair controls receiving non-cardiac surgery between 2004 and 2007. We investigated the influence of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, effects of hypertension and diabetes, and impact of additional comorbidities on postoperative adverse outcomes. Results Postoperative mortality in dialysis patients was higher than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56 to 4.33) when receiving non-cardiac surgeries. Complications such as acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, bleeding, and septicemia were significantly increased. Postoperative mortality was significantly increased among peritoneal dialysis patients (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.70 to 4.31) and hemodialysis patients (OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.62 to 4.47) than in controls. Dialysis patients with both hypertension and diabetes had the highest risk of postoperative complications; these risks increased with number of preoperative medical conditions. Patients under dialysis also showed significantly increased length of hospitalization, more ICU stays and higher medical expenditures. Conclusion Surgical patients under dialysis encountered significantly higher postoperative complications and mortality than controls when receiving non-cardiac surgeries. Different dialysis techniques, pre-existing hypertension/diabetes, and various comorbidities had complication-specific impacts on surgical adverse outcomes. These findings can help surgical teams provide better risk assessment and postoperative care for dialysis patients. PMID:23516581

  7. Age-dependent improvement in median and long-term survival in unselected population-based Nordic registries of patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sorbye, H; Cvancarova, M; Qvortrup, C; Pfeiffer, P; Glimelius, B

    2013-09-01

    In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) trials, median survival has increased from 6 months to above 20 months during the previous decades. Uncertainty exists in how this survival improvement has translated to the general mCRC population. Survival data from patients with synchronous mCRC were collected from the Norwegian (1980-2008), Swedish (1996-2008) and Danish (2001-09) cancer registries. A total of 29 628 patients were identified. From 1980-1985 to 2006-2008, median survival increased from 5 to 10 months for Norwegian patients. Three-year survival increased from 7% to 21% and 5-year survival from 4% to 9%. For patients <60 years, median survival was doubled to 16 months, 3-year survival increased fourfold up to 28% and 5-year survival threefold up to 14%. Similar improvements were seen in Sweden and Denmark. In all countries, the improved outcome was seen especially for younger patients and much less for patients >75 years of age. An increase in median and long-term survival over time was found in unselected population-based registries of patients with synchronous mCRC. The improved outcome in survival was especially seen in younger patients, raising concerns over our ability to adapt available treatment options for elderly patients.

  8. Adverse Outcomes after Major Surgery in Patients with Pressure Ulcer: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Lun; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative adverse outcomes in patients with pressure ulcer are not completely understood. This study evaluated the association between preoperative pressure ulcer and adverse events after major surgeries. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 17391 patients with preoperative pressure ulcer receiving major surgery in 2008-2010. With a propensity score matching procedure, 17391 surgical patients without pressure ulcer were selected for comparison. Eight major surgical postoperative complications and 30-day postoperative mortality were evaluated among patients with pressure ulcer of varying severity. Results Patients with preoperative pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than controls for postoperative adverse outcomes, including septicemia, pneumonia, stroke, urinary tract infection, and acute renal failure. Surgical patients with pressure ulcer had approximately 1.83-fold risk (95% confidence interval 1.54-2.18) of 30-day postoperative mortality compared with control group. The most significant postoperative mortality was found in those with serious pressure ulcer, such as pressure ulcer with local infection, cellulitis, wound or treatment by change dressing, hospitalized care, debridement or antibiotics. Prolonged hospital or intensive care unit stay and increased medical expenditures were also associated with preoperative pressure ulcer. Conclusion This nationwide propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study showed increased postoperative complications and mortality in patients with preoperative pressure ulcer. Our findings suggest the urgency of preventing and managing preoperative pressure ulcer by a multidisciplinary medical team for this specific population. PMID:26000606

  9. Comparison of dementia risk between end stage renal disease patients with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis--a population based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ping-Hsun; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ming-Yen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-02-23

    A higher risk of dementia was reported in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) compared to those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Selection bias and competing risk of death were not considered in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate dementia risk in patients undergoing HD and PD by using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. We enrolled 52,332 incident HD patients and 3292 incident PD patients who were older than 40 years between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2007. During the study period, 3775 patients were diagnosed with dementia in the HD group (177.5 per 10,000 person-years incidence rate) and 181 patients in the PD group (145.9 per 10,000 person-years incidence rate). The results revealed that the higher hazard ratio of HD compared with PD for dementia disappeared after controlling for demographic characteristics, propensity score, and competing death risk (subdistribution hazard ratio was 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 0.940-1.255). In conclusion, HD did not increase the risk of dementia in dialysis-dependent patients compared to PD.

  10. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stundner, O; Chiu, Y-L; Sun, X; Ramachandran, S-K; Gerner, P; Vougioukas, V; Mazumdar, M; Memtsoudis, S G

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84,655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% (n = 6163) also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood product transfusion and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (odds ratio (OR) 1.50, confidence interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood product transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians.

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Systemic Lupus Erythematous Patients after Pregnancy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ting-Fang; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Chung, Mu-Chi; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Jung; Ho, Wen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on long-term maternal outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking. The study aimed to explore the relationships among SLE, pregnancy, outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and overall mortality. Methods We established a retrospective cohort study consisting of four cohorts: pregnant (case cohort) and nonpregnant SLE patients, as well as pregnant and nonpregnant non-SLE patients. One case cohort and three comparison cohorts were matched by age at first pregnancy and index date of pregnancy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. All study subjects were selected based on the index date to the occurrence of ESRD or overall death. Cox proportional hazard regression models and Kaplan–Meier curves were used in the analysis. Results SLE pregnant patients exhibited significantly increased risk of ESRD after adjusting for other important confounders, including immunosuppressant and parity (HR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.35–7.52 for pregnant non-SLE; and HR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.24–6.15 for nonpregnant non-SLE patients). No significant differences in ESRD incidence were observed in pregnant and nonpregnant SLE patients. Pregnant SLE patients exhibited better clinical condition at the baseline and a significantly lower risk of overall mortality than nonpregnant SLE patients. Conclusions Our data support current recommendations for SLE patients to avoid pregnancy until disease activity is quiescent. Multicenter recruitment and clinical information can be used to further examine the association of SLE and ESRD (or mortality) after pregnancy. PMID:27992461

  12. Increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with bipolar disorder: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng

    2017-10-01

    We conducted this nationwide study to examine the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among patients with bipolar disorder in Taiwan. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects who were aged ≥18 years in 2005. Patients with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder were identified. Study participants with one primary or secondary diagnosis of COPD for either ambulatory or inpatient care were also identified. We compared the prevalence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. In addition, we further investigated this cohort from 2006 to 2010 to detect incident cases of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder compared with the general population. The factors associated with COPD among patients with bipolar disorder were also analyzed. The prevalence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder was higher than in the general population in 2005 (5.68% vs. 2.88%, odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.67). The average annual incidence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder was also higher than in the general population (2.03% vs. 1.03%, risk ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-2.29) from 2006 to 2010. Some risk factors for COPD such as substance use, obesity, or lifestyle pattern were not available in this study. Patients with bipolar disorder had a higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared with the general population. Higher prevalence of COPD among bipolar patients was associated with increased age, males, hypertension, and second-generation antidepressant use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the clinical value of targeted massively parallel sequencing in a longitudinal, prospective population-based study of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S Q; Fellowes, A; Doig, K; Ellul, J; Bosma, T J; Irwin, D; Vedururu, R; Tan, A Y-C; Weiss, J; Chan, K S; Lucas, M; Thomas, D M; Dobrovic, A; Parisot, J P; Fox, S B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Recent discoveries in cancer research have revealed a plethora of clinically actionable mutations that provide therapeutic, prognostic and predictive benefit to patients. The feasibility of screening mutations as part of the routine clinical care of patients remains relatively unexplored as the demonstration of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of tumours in the general population is required to assess its value towards the health-care system. Methods: Cancer 2015 study is a large-scale, prospective, multisite cohort of newly diagnosed cancer patients from Victoria, Australia with 1094 patients recruited. MPS was performed using the Illumina TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel. Results: Overall, 854 patients were successfully sequenced for 48 common cancer genes. Accurate determination of clinically relevant mutations was possible including in less characterised cancer types; however, technical limitations including formalin-induced sequencing artefacts were uncovered. Applying strict filtering criteria, clinically relevant mutations were identified in 63% of patients, with 26% of patients displaying a mutation with therapeutic implications. A subset of patients was validated for canonical mutations using the Agena Bioscience MassARRAY system with 100% concordance. Whereas the prevalence of mutations was consistent with other institutionally based series for some tumour streams (breast carcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma), others were different (lung adenocarcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma), which has significant implications for health economic modelling of particular targeted agents. Actionable mutations in tumours not usually thought to harbour such genetic changes were also identified. Conclusions: Reliable delivery of a diagnostic assay able to screen for a range of actionable mutations in this cohort was achieved, opening unexpected avenues for investigation and treatment of cancer patients. PMID:25742471

  14. Results of a population-based-assessment: we need better communication and more profound patient involvement.

    PubMed

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Pregartner, Gudrun; Leitgeb, Karina; Hoffmann, Magdalena; Berghold, Andrea; Smolle, Christian; Brunner, Gernot; Kamolz, Lars Peter

    2017-04-01

    In Austria several regulations were published in order to support initiatives to increase patient safety. Since then, many patient safety projects were implemented in Austrian hospitals; therefore, it was the aim of the current survey to examine the perceptions of Austrian citizens with respect to topics relevant to patient safety. Between 8 and 22 October 2015 a qualitative cross-sectional telephone interview study was performed. A sample of citizens above 14 years of age was randomly drawn. The survey contained 6 questions. In each of the nine states of Austria, a representative number of citizens were interviewed. In total 1021(female: 52.3%) telephone interviews were performed and 249 (24.7%) citizens stated that trust/confidence in patient safety is very high, 571 (55.9%) assessed the reputation of a hospital as very important and 739 (72.4%) stated that a detailed explanation of the treatment as well as information on associated risk factors and possibilities of further treatments is very important. Of the respondents 722 (70.7%) stated that patient safety measures in a given hospital are very important, 807 (79.0%) stated that it is important to be informed about patient safety measures and 547 (53.6%) stated that if something did not satisfactorily function they would complain to the hospital. Significant differences occurred for states with and without university hospitals. The results of the survey give cause for concern as the majority of interviewed citizens have medium or low trust/confidence in patient safety. Furthermore, more than two-thirds of Austrian citizens revealed that detailed explanation of treatment, information on associated risk factors, information about patient safety measures to predict medical errors and information about patient safety measures which are in place in a hospital are very important. The study showed that patient safety is an important topic for Austrian citizens and they want to be informed and involved. The

  15. A population-based observational study on the factors associated with the completion of palliative chemotherapy among patients with oesophagogastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Groene, Oliver; Crosby, Tom; Hardwick, Richard Henry; Riley, Stuart; Greenaway, Kimberley; Cromwell, David

    2015-03-04

    Palliative chemotherapy is routinely given to patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic oesophagogastric (O-G) cancer. We examine which patients with O-G cancer in England receive palliative chemotherapy, and identify factors associated with treatment completion. A prospective population-based observational study. All English National Health Service (NHS) trusts diagnosing patients with O-G cancer. Data were prospectively collected on patients diagnosed with invasive epithelial cancer of the oesophagus or stomach between 1 October 2007 and 30 June 2009 in English NHS hospitals, and those who had palliative treatment intent. We calculated the proportion of patients with different characteristics (eg, age, sex, stage at diagnosis, performance status) starting palliative chemotherapy. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with non-completion of chemotherapy. There were 9768 patients in the study whose treatment intent was palliative. Among these, 2313 (24%) received palliative chemotherapy. It was received by 51% of patients aged under 55 years but only 9% of patients aged 75 years or over. Overall, 917 patients (53%) completed their treatment among the 1741 patients for whom information on treatment completion was recorded. Treatment completion ranged from 50-60% for patients with good performance status but was under 35% for patients aged 55 years or older with poor performance status. Treatment completion was not associated with site of cancer, pretreatment stage, sex, comorbidities or histology. Completion rates of palliative chemotherapy in patients with O-G cancer are low and elderly patients with poor performance status are very unlikely to complete a palliative chemotherapy treatment. Clinicians and patients should consider this information when balancing potential (survival) benefits, toxicity of treatment and its effect on quality of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  16. Weight loss and undernutrition in community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's dementia: From population based studies to clinical management.

    PubMed

    Droogsma, E; van Asselt, D; De Deyn, P P

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss and undernutrition are commonly described in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been associated with various adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is important to know what the best approach is to community-dwelling AD patients with a risk of developing a poor nutritional status; however, there is currently no evidence on which to base nutritional recommendations. Expert based recommendations are that the nutritional status should be part of the work-up of all AD patients. If weight loss of 5% or more has occurred in 3-6 months or if the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) classifies a patient as undernourished, a nutritional intervention should be started. The intervention should be multifactorial and encompass treatment of the underlying proposed causes and risk factors of weight loss and undernutrition as well as improvement of the nutritional status by increasing energy and protein intake combined with daily physical activity.

  17. Incidence and prognosis of tuberculosis in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. A Danish nationwide population based study.

    PubMed Central

    Thulstrup, A. M.; Mølle, I.; Svendsen, N.; Sørensen, H. T.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the incidence rate and prognosis of tuberculosis in a cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis in Denmark. In a study cohort of 22675 patients with liver cirrhosis, we identified 151 cases of tuberculosis from 1977 to 1993. The incidence rate was 168.6 per 100000 person-years of risk, and the highest incidence rate was among men above 65 years of age, with an incidence rate of 246.0 per 100000 person-years of risk. The 30-day case-fatality rate was 27.3% and the 1-year case fatality rate was 47.7%. The results demonstrate that patients with liver cirrhosis are at increased risk of tuberculosis. Additionally, it is suggested that liver cirrhosis is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis, and that patients with liver cirrhosis who acquire tuberculosis have a poor prognosis. PMID:10813146

  18. Health Care Utilization, Patient Costs, and Access to Care in US Adults With Eczema: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the health burden of adult eczema in the United States. To study the out-of-pocket costs, health care access and utilization in adult eczema in the United States. Two US population-based studies, the 2010 and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys, surveyed 27 157 and 34 613 adults (ages 18-85 years). History of eczema. The out-of-pocket costs, lost workdays, days in bed, and access to care. Adults with eczema had $371 to $489 higher out-of-pocket costs per person-year compared with those without eczema, with higher odds of increased out-of-pocket costs (survey multinomial logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] [95% CIs] for NHIS 2012, <$1 to 499: OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.54; $500 to $1999: OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.22-1.81; $2000-$2999: OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.36-2.21; $3000-$4999: OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.56-2.73; ≥$5000: OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.34-2.27; P < .001). Adults with eczema were significantly more likely to have at least 6 lost workdays from all causes (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.26-1.84), 1 to 2 half-days (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51); 3 to 5 half-days (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.54-2.20), and at least 6 half-days (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.92-2.62) in bed and increased health care utilization with more physician visits (1-3 visits: OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.40-2.07; 4-9 visits: OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 2.00-3.00; and ≥10 visits: OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.69-4.12), urgent or emergency care visits (1-3 visits: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.29-1.66; 4-9 visits: OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.27-2.57; and ≥10 visits: OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.19-4.99) and hospitalizations (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.17-1.60). Adults with eczema had significantly limited access to care with inability to afford prescription medications (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.92-2.81), were unable to get an appointment soon enough (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.73-2.41), had to wait too long to see a physician (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.28-1.97), had delayed care (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.49-2.01), and were not able to get care (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1

  19. Risk of breast cancer among patients with bioprosthetic or mechanical valve replacement: a population-based study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianguang; Zöller, Bengt; Giaccia, Amato; Haile, Robert; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-11-01

    The association between breast cancer and warfarin is inconclusive as most previous studies examined their association using patients with thromboembolism, whereas thromboembolism itself is a risk factor for cancer. We explored this issue using patients received mechanical heart valves replacement as a proxy for warfarin exposure as these patients need a lifelong warfarin treatment, and compared them with patients received bioprosthesis valves replacement (short-term warfarin treatment) in Sweden between 1987 and 2010. Patients who were operated on for valve replacement were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry and linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to examine the hazard ratios of subsequent breast cancer. A total of 12,242 women were operated on for valve replacement (5481 with mechanical valve and 6401 with bioprosthetic valve). For the entire cohort, the HR of breast cancer was 1.49 (95 % CI 1.09-2.02) among patients with mechanical valve replacement compared to those with bioprosthetic valve replacement. After controlling for a number of confounding factors using propensity score weighting, the HR was 1.69 (95 % CI 1.15-2.47). Our study found that patients with mechanical valve replacement have an increased risk of breast cancer compared to those with bioprosthetic valve replacement. If confirmed, this increased risk should be considered when recommending breast cancer screening for women with mechanical valve replacement. Long-term use of warfarin may explain the observed increase. If so, patients who have used warfarin long-term for other reasons should be studied for a possible increased risk of breast cancer.

  20. A population-based analysis of incentive payments to primary care physicians for the care of patients with complex disease

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, M. Ruth; Law, Michael R.; Peterson, Sandra; Garrison, Scott; Hurley, Jeremiah; Cheng, Lucy; McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2007, the province of British Columbia implemented incentive payments to primary care physicians for the provision of comprehensive, continuous, guideline-informed care for patients with 2 or more chronic conditions. We examined the impact of this program on primary care access and continuity, rates of hospital admission and costs. Methods: We analyzed all BC patients who qualified for the incentive based on their diagnostic profile. We tracked primary care contacts and continuity, hospital admissions (total, via the emergency department and for targeted conditions), and cost of physician services, hospital care and pharmaceuticals, for 24 months before and 24 months after the intervention. Results: Of 155 754 eligible patients, 63.7% had at least 1 incentive payment billed. Incentive payments had no impact on primary care contacts (change in contacts per patient per month: 0.016, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.047 to 0.078) or continuity of care (mean monthly change: 0.012, 95% CI −0.001 to 0.024) and were associated with increased total rates of hospital admission (change in hospital admissions per 1000 patients per month: 1.46, 95% CI 0.04 to 2.89), relative to preintervention trends. Annual costs per patient did not decline (mean change: $455.81, 95% CI −$2.44 to $914.08). Interpretation: British Columbia’s $240-million investment in this program improved compensation for physicians doing the important work of caring for complex patients, but did not appear to improve primary care access or continuity, or constrain resource use elsewhere in the health care system. Policymakers should consider other strategies to improve care for this patient population. PMID:27527484

  1. Risk of pneumonia among patients with chronic kidney disease in outpatient and inpatient settings: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Che-Yi; Wang, Shu-Ming; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wang, I-Kuan; Hsiao, Lien-Cheng; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Wang, Ruey-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more at risk for pneumonia than the general population. Patients with pneumonia are usually treated as outpatients. However, previous studies were conducted on the basis of inpatient pneumonia. This method may underestimate the risk of pneumonia in patients with CKD. Therefore, we investigated the risk of pneumonia among CKD patients in both outpatient and inpatient settings. A total of 15,562 patients with CKD and 62,109 individuals without CKD (matched for age and gender) were taken as subjects in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan National Insurance from 1996 to 2010. The incidence density rates of inpatient and outpatient pneumonia were calculated. The risk factors associated with pneumonia were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustments for confounders. The incidence density rate of pneumonia was 65.6 per 1000 person-years in patients with CKD and 28.4 per 1000 person-years in individuals without CKD. The incidence density rate of inpatient pneumonia was 43.3 per 1000 person-years in patients with CKD and 16.6 per 1000 person-years in individuals without CKD. CKD was associated with increased risk of pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-2.05; P < 0.001), outpatient pneumonia (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.31-1.49), and inpatient pneumonia (aHR, 2.17; 95% CI, 2.07-2.29, P < 0.001). Patients' comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), were independently associated with increased risk of pneumonia.CKD is associated with the increased risk of both outpatient and inpatient pneumonia. This association is independent of comorbid diabetes, CVD, asthma, and COPD.

  2. Mortality and cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with Barrett's oesophagus: a population-based nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Erichsen, R; Horvath-Puho, E; Lund, J L; Dellon, E S; Shaheen, N J; Pedersen, L; Davey Smith, G; Sørensen, H T

    2017-04-01

    Patients with Barrett's oesophagus may be at increased risk of mortality overall, and cardiovascular disease has been suggested as the main underlying cause of death. To examine cause-specific mortality and risk of cardiovascular events among patients with Barrett's oesophagus. Utilising existing Danish data sources (1997-2011), we identified all patients with histologically verified Barrett's oesophagus (n = 13 435) and 123 526 members of the general population matched by age, sex and individual comorbidities. We calculated cause-specific mortality rates and incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases. We then compared rates between patients with Barrett's oesophagus and the general population comparison cohort, using stratified Cox proportional hazard regression. Patients with Barrett's oesophagus had a 71% increased risk of overall mortality. The cause-specific mortality rate per 1000 person-years for patients with Barrett's oesophagus was 8.5 for cardiovascular diseases, 14.7 for non-oesophageal cancers, and 5.4 for oesophageal cancer. Compared to the general population cohort, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.38), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.65-1.90), and 19.4 (95% CI: 16.1-23.4), respectively. The incidence rates of cardiovascular diseases per 1000 person-years for Barrett's oesophagus patients and for persons from the general population cohort, respectively, varied from 0.4 and 0.2 for subarachnoid bleeding (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% CI: 0.87-1.39) to 8.1 and 5.9 for congestive heart failure (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI: 1.21-1.46). Prophylactic measures targeted at cardiovascular diseases and non-oesophageal cancers potentially could be more important than measures against oesophageal cancer, for improving prognosis among patients with Barrett's oesophagus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Influenza vaccination reduces hemorrhagic stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Wang, Ta-Jung; Sung, Li-Chin; Kao, Pai-Feng; Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Hao, Wen-Rui; Chen, Chun-Chao; Hsu, Yi-Ping; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The risk of hemorrhagic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is low but the consequences of its occurrence are extremely severe. In this study, we investigated the association of influenza vaccination with the risk of hemorrhagic stroke to develop an efficient strategy for reducing this risk in patients with AF. In this study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients who received a diagnosis of AF (n=14,454) before January 1, 2005 (index date) and were followed until December 31, 2012. Propensity scores were calculated using a logistic regression model to determine the effects of vaccination by accounting for covariates that predict receiving the intervention (vaccine). A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for hemorrhagic stroke in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients with AF. The study population comprised 6570 patients who did (2547 [38.77%]) and did not receive (4023 [61.23%]) influenza vaccination. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) for hemorrhagic stroke were lower in the vaccinated patients than in the unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs=0.97 [0.59-1.60], 0.51 [0.30-0.87], and 0.72 [0.50-1.03], respectively). Influenza vaccination exerts dose-response and synergistic protective effects against hemorrhagic stroke in patients with AF who have a high risk of hemorrhagic stroke (i.e., male sex, age≥75years, Charlson comorbidity index ≥3, and hypertension) and reduces the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Osteonecrosis following short-term, low-dose oral corticosteroids: a population-based study of 24 million patients.

    PubMed

    Dilisio, Matthew F

    2014-07-01

    Although the association between chronic, high-dose corticosteroid use and osteonecrosis is well known, the incidence of osteonecrosis following short-term, low-dose steroid taper packs has never been reported across a large population. The goal of this study was to report the incidence and risk of osteonecrosis after methylprednisolone taper pack (MTP) prescriptions in a multicenter electronic medical records database. A commercially available software platform was used to evaluate the records of 24,533,880 patients to determine the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who had received single or multiple MTP over a 12-year period. This was compared with the incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who had never been prescribed an MTP. Patients with a history of osteonecrosis or prior corticosteroid use were excluded from the study. A total of 98,390 patients were identified who had received a single MTP. One hundred thirty (0.132%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.176%-0.283%) of these patients were subsequently diagnosed with osteonecrosis. The incidence of osteonecrosis in patients who had been prescribed 2 or more MTPs was 0.230% (95% CI, 0.176%-0.283%). Compared with the 0.083% incidence of osteonecrosis in the control group that had never been prescribed an MTP, the relative risk of osteonecrosis after the prescription of a single MTP or multiple MTPs was 1.591 and 2.763, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between cohorts (P<.001). Short-term, low-dose oral corticosteroid administration may be associated with a low but statistically significant increased incidence of osteonecrosis when compared with patients who have never been prescribed a steroid product.

  5. Population-based cost-offset estimation for the treatment of borderline personality disorder: projected costs in a currently running, ideal health system.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Eva-Maria; Kliem, Sören; Kröger, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is considered one of the most expensive mental disorders in terms of direct and indirect costs. The aim of this study was to carry out a cost-offset estimation of disorder-specific psychotherapy for BPD at the population level. The study investigated whether the possible financial benefits of dialectical behavior therapy outweigh the therapy costs, assuming a currently running, ideal health system, and whether the estimated cost-benefit relationships change depending upon the number of patients willing to be treated. A formula was elaborated that allows the user to calculate cost-benefit relationships for various conservative or progressive scenarios, with different stages of individuals' willingness to be treated (10%-90%). The possible costs and benefits of BPD-related treatment were evaluated using a 12-month, prevalence-based approach. The annual costs for untreated BPD were 8.69 billion EUR annually. The cost-benefit relationship for the treatment remained constant at 1.52 for all scenarios, implying that for each EUR invested, 1.52 EUR can be gained within one year, independent of the willingness to be treated. Additional intangible benefits were calculated with the aid of Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Findings suggest that BPD-related treatment might well be efficient at the population level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adherence in patients transferred from immediate release metformin to a sustained release formulation: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, L A; Morris, A D; Pearson, E R

    2009-04-01

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral agent used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is effective at reducing glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) and decreasing microvascular and macrovascular disease. However, up to 25% of patients develop gastrointestinal side effects leading to cessation in 5-10% of users. Metformin XL (glucophage SR) is a once a day preparation that delays absorption, leading to decreased peak metformin concentrations. We hypothesised that the XL preparation of metformin would be better tolerated than the standard immediate release (IR) preparation leading to improved adherence to therapy. In a retrospective observational study, we studied adherence and glycaemic control in patients prescribed metformin IR and XL preparations in Tayside, UK. Metformin XL was used by 137 patients during the study period. Overall adherence was greater in the XL group (80%) compared with the 10,772 patients in the IR group (72%, p = 0.0026). In the 40 patients who changed from metformin IR to metformin XL who had sufficient data to determine adherence, the adherence increased from 62% in the IR group to 81% in the XL group (p < 0.0001). This was associated with an HbA1c reduction from 9.1 to 8.4% (p = 0.0739, n = 29). Metformin XL use is associated with increased adherence compared with the IR preparation, although the mechanism for this cannot be determined from this study. In patients intolerant of metformin IR the XL preparation should be considered.

  7. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Tung-Ti; Tsao, Jung-Ying; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-08-02

    Uterine fibroid (myoma) is one of the most common diseases in women. Although there are several studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbs, there is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of uterine fibroid. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid, prescribed by licensed TCM doctors in Taiwan. A random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed uterine fibroid between 2002 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, the frequency as well as average daily dose of Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with uterine fibroid, were analyzed. Overall, 35,786 newly diagnosed subjects with uterine fibroid were included. Majority of these patients (87.1%; n=31,161) had visited TCM clinics. Among them, 61.8% of their visits used Chinese herbal remedies. Patients less than 45 years of age tended to use TCM more frequently than elder patients. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) was the most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula, while San-Leng (Rhizoma Sparganii) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. Our study identified the characteristics and prescription patterns of TCM for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan. Further basic mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer among patients with diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipids: a population-based register study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Attner, Bo; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Lithman, Thor; Noreen, Dennis; Olsson, Håkan

    2012-05-01

    To study how the incidence of cancer is related to diabetes, obesity or abnormal blood lipids. Diagnosis of diabetes, obesity or abnormal blood lipids was studied 0-10 years prior to the diagnosis of cancer in 19,756 cases of cancer and in 147,324 controls matched regarding age, sex and domicile. Diabetes was significantly more common prior to diagnosis in patients with liver, pancreatic, colon and urinary tract/bladder cancer and in patients with breast cancer diagnosed with diabetes 0-4 years prior to the cancer diagnosis. A lower risk of diabetes was seen in patients with prostate carcinoma among individuals with diabetes diagnosed 5-10 years prior to the cancer diagnosis. The findings remained after adjusting for obesity and high blood lipids. Obesity was significantly more common in patients with endometrial, colon and kidney cancer and with breast cancer above the age of 60 years in those where obesity was diagnosed close to the diagnosis of cancer. High blood lipids were significantly more common in patients with ovarian cancer and less common in patients with breast cancer. The study confirms some previous findings concerning comorbidity and cancer and highlights some new ones.

  9. Predictable biomarkers of developing lymphoma in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Hsiang; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chen, Hsiang-Cheng; Huang, Ren-Yeong; Wu, Chi-Tsung; Liu, Feng-Cheng; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2017-07-25

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) is commonly known to be correlated with lymphoma. This study included 16,396 individuals in the SS cohort and 65,584 individuals in the non-SS cohort, all of whom were enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance database between 2000 and 2010. We evaluated the risk factors of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the primary SS cohort by applying a Cox multivariable proportional-hazards model. We increased the correlation of patients with SS and NHL, with an adjusted HR of 4.314 (95% CI 2.784 - 6.685). Of the 16,396 SS patients, 66 individuals had salivary gland slices without NHL development, while the other 16,330 individuals that did not have salivary gland slices revealed 30 individuals that developed NHL. Of the 16,396 SS patients, 128 individuals underwent immunomodulator agent therapy (including hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and rituximab) without NHL development. None of the 30 individuals that developed NHL from SS received immunomodulator agents. We found that patients with SS were at an increased risk of developing NHL, with the most common NHL subgroup being diffused large B-cell lymphoma. SS patients who were candidates for salivary gland slices or immunomodulator agents were associated with a lower risk of developing lymphoma over time. We recommend that patients at a higher risk upon diagnosis of SS receive close follow-up and aggressive treatment.

  10. Increased long-term risk of hearing loss in patients with traumatic brain injury: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Che; Shih, Cheng-Ping; Cheng, Chun-An; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Fu-Huang; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2017-03-21

    We investigated incidences of hearing loss among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to evaluate whether they had a higher risk of hearing loss than the general population. Cohort study. Inpatient data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 were recorded. Patients with TBI and a retrospective comparison cohort were analyzed. Each subject was individually traced from their index date to identify subjects who subsequently received a diagnosis of hearing loss. Cox regression analyses were applied to determine the risk of TBI-related hearing loss. Follow-up data from the TBI and comparison cohorts were collected over 10 years for 553,286 and 1,106,572 patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that TBI significantly increased the risk of hearing loss (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.125, 95% confidence interval = 2.045-2.546, P = .027). In our subgroup analyses by type of injury, patients with TBI due to traffic injury had the highest associated risk of hearing loss compared with the risk of non-TBI traffic injury patients, followed by patients with crushing/cutting/piercing injuries and falls. Our study shows that TBI led to a higher risk of long-term hearing loss. Traffic injuries were the most common injury related to hearing loss. Prevention, rather than treatment, may be the best policy for preventing hearing loss. 2b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine usage in patients with stroke in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lin, Che-Chen; Chang, Chin-Hsien; Chiu, Cheng-Di; Chou, Li-Wei; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2016-06-20

    Stroke has been the leading causes of death worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for stoke patients for thousands of years. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage and prescription patterns in stroke patients in Taiwan. We analyzed a random sample of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, prescription patterns and mortality rate among stroke patients were analyzed. We identified 23,816 patients who were newly diagnosed with stroke between 2001 and 2009 by their diagnostic codes (ICD-9-CM 430-438). Among them, 4302 patients had hemorrhagic stroke while 19,514 patients had ischemic stroke. Overall, 12% of the stroke patients (n=2862) were TCM users. The median interval between stroke onset to the first TCM consultation is 12.2 months. Among the TCM users, more than half (52.7%) of the patients received both Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture/traumatology treatment. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang and Dan-shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae; Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge) was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. TCM users had a higher incidence rate ratio in myalgia, myositis, fasciitis and insomnia than non-TCM users. Mental disorders such as anxiety and depression are common in both TCM and non-TCM users. Comparing with the non-TCM users, the TCM users had a lower mortality rate (adjusted hazard ratios were 0.44 in overall stroke, 0.50 in ischemic stroke and 0.25 in hemorrhagic stroke). Adjunctive TCM use may reduce the risk of mortality rate among stroke patients. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang and Dan-shen are the most common prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb for stroke patients, respectively. Future study investigating the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective efficacy of Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang and Dan-shen in stroke is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  12. Adjuvant treatments do not alter the quality of life in elderly patients with colorectal cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Jooste, Valérie; Bonnetain, Franck; Cottet, Vanessa; Bizollon, Marie-Hélène; Bernard, Marie-Pierre; Faivre, Jean

    2008-08-15

    The current study was performed to longitudinally assess the impact of adjuvant treatments on the quality of life (QoL) of elderly colorectal cancer survivors. The Burgundy Digestive Cancer Registry was used to select all patients aged > or =75 years who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 2003 and 2005. A total of 209 patients were asked to complete questionnaires during the first year after diagnosis: at the time of inclusion in the study (Q0), at 3 months after the initial diagnosis (Q3), at 6 months after the initial diagnosis (Q6), and at 12 months after the initial diagnosis (Q12) using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. A total of 125 patients (60%) responded. Mixed model analyses of variance for repeated measurement were used to compare QoL scores according to therapeutic schemes. Interactions between time of follow-up and treatment were tested. Patient sex, age, location of the tumor, and TNM stage of disease did not appear to differ significantly between respondents and nonrespondents. Global Health and Emotional Functioning improved for colon cancer survivors between Q0 and Q12, and were noted to improve between Q3 and Q12 for rectal cancer patients. According to French recommendations, patients who received chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer (P = .176) or radiotherapy for rectal cancer (P = .959) reported no significant changes in Global Health compared with those patients not receiving adjuvant therapies. Patients treated with chemotherapy reported better Physical Functioning than patients who did not received chemotherapy (P = .0113). To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first to examine trends over time with regard to the influence of adjuvant treatments for colon and rectal cancers on QoL in a general aged population. Providing evidence that adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer has no negative impact on the QoL of elderly patients is of great significance in encouraging

  13. Risk of cancer in patients with genital warts: A nationwide, population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ching-Yi; Lo, Yu-Cheng; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Lai, Chou-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Background Condyloma acuminata currently affects around 1% of sexually active adults, and its incidence is increasing. The coexistence of genital warts (GW) and certain cancers and an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and various malignancies have been reported. Therefore, we conducted this large national study to analyze the risk of malignancies among men and women with GW in Taiwan. Methods and findings Between January 2000 and December 2013, approximately 3 million patients were reported to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Of these patients, 21,763 were diagnosed with GW. In the same time period, a total of 213,541 cancer cases were reported to the registry, of which 1002 were recorded among patients with GW. The age-specific incidence rates of GW and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of malignancies compared to the general population were calculated. Women acquired GW earlier than men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 32.63±12.78 years. The highest incidence rate for both genders peaked at 20–29 years. Of the 1002 patients with GW and malignancies, the SIR was 1.95 (95%CI 1.83–2.07). The most markedly increased risk was found for HPV-related cancers, with a SIR of 9.74 (95%CI 3.70–15.77). Significantly elevated risks were also noted for smoking-related cancers, anogenital cancers, cervix in situ, colon, rectum, lung, kidney, and prostate cancers. Most cancers developed within 10 years after the diagnosis of GW. Conclusions Patients with GW have an increased risk of HPV-related cancers, especially anogenital malignancies in Taiwan. The elevated risk of other cancers highlights differences in exposure and risk factors among patients with GW compared to the general population. Cancer screening and HPV vaccination programs should be emphasized for at-risk patients. PMID:28806741

  14. Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Li-Yu; Huang, Min-Wei; Shen, Cheng-Che; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26-1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11-1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture.

  15. Impact of Home Hospice Care on Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Kao, Yee-Hsin

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of home hospice care was helping patients to die at home, and reducing symptom burden. The study objective was to explore the impact of home hospice care on death at home, end-of-life (EOL) care, and health care costs among patients with advanced lung cancer in their last month of life. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Claims Database, we analyzed factors associated with home hospice care using logistic regression analysis. We enrolled 568 patients with advanced lung cancer under hospice care who died during 1997-2011, of which 238 (41.9%) received home hospice care. Compared with the inpatient hospice (IH) group, the home hospice (HH) group had a larger portion die at home (55.5% versus 22.1%, p < 0.001), but a smaller portion stayed in hospital more than 14 days in their last month of life (67.3% versus 40.8%, p < 0.001). The mean health care cost was less in the HH group than in the IH group (US $1,385.00 ± $1,370.00 and US $2,155.00 ± $1,739.00 [p < 0.001], respectively). Female patients' (p = 0.001) decreased hospital stay in the last month of life (p < 0.001) and longer hospice care duration (p = 0.003) were predictors of receiving home hospice care in advanced lung patients. Home hospice care enables patients with advanced lung cancer to increase the 33.4% chance of dying at home, to spend an average of eight-days less in hospital stay, and to save 35.7% health care costs in the last month of life, compared with their counterparts with only inpatient hospice care. Female patients' decreased hospital stay and longer hospice care duration were the predictors of receiving home hospice care.

  16. Increased risk of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in patients with major depressive disorder: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, En-Liang; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chou, Pesus

    2013-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and risk factors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The National Health Research Institute provided a database of 1,000,000 random subjects for health service studies. We identified subjects aged ≥18 years who had at least 1 service claim during 2005 with a primary diagnosis of MDD or with a primary or secondary diagnosis of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. We also compared the incidence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism among patients with MDD and the general population from 2006 through 2010. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with MDD was higher than that in the general population (1.20% vs. 0.30%; odds ratio, 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-4.03) in 2005. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism was also higher in patients with MDD than in the general population (2.46% vs. 0.79%; odds ratio, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.29-3.35) in 2005. The annual incidence of hypothyroidism was higher in patients with MDD than that in the general population (0.40% vs. 0.13%; risk ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-3.06). The annual incidence of hyperthyroidism was also higher in patients with MDD than that in the general population (0.72% vs. 0.32%; risk ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.43). Patients with MDD had a higher prevalence and a higher incidence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism than the general population. Female sex was a risk factor for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in MDD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of age-related macular degeneration in patients with prostate cancer: a nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, S-Y; Lin, C-L; Chang, C-H; Wu, H-C; Lin, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2017-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) can be related to increased systemic oxidative stress and dihydrotestosterone level, which are also reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We conducted a cohort study to determine whether patients with PC have an increased risk of AMD. Data were collected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database for the 1999-2010 period. The study PC cohort comprised 22 084 patients aged ≥18 years with a first diagnosis of PC. The comparison cohort consisted of age-, occupation-, and urbanization level-matched patients at a ratio of 1 : 1. The primary outcome was the incidence of AMD, which was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional hazards modeling. The mean follow-up periods (standard deviation) for the patients with AMD in the age-, occupation-, and urbanization level-matched PC cohort and non-PC cohorts were 4.69 (2.90) and 5.51 (2.82) years. The mean age of the PC cohort was 73.9 years and that of the non-PC cohort was 73.2 years, with approximately 85.9% of the patients aged >65 years. The PC cohort had a higher risk of AMD than did the propensity score-matched non-PC cohort with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.39). Compared with PC cohort receiving no injection hormone therapy, the PC cohort receiving injection hormone therapy had a lower risk of AMD (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.76). PC is associated with an increased risk of AMD. Patients with PC receiving injected form of androgen deprivation therapy had a lower risk of AMD than patients with PC not receiving injected form of androgen-deprivation therapy.

  18. Statins dose-dependently exert a chemopreventive effect against lung cancer in COPD patients: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ping; Hao, Wen-Rui; Kao, Pai-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Chen, Chun-Chao; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased lung cancer risk. We evaluated the association of statin use with lung cancer risk in COPD patients and identified which statins possess the highest chemopreventive potential. Results After adjustment for age, sex, CCI, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urbanization level, and monthly income according to propensity scores, lung cancer risk in the statin users was lower than that in the statin nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.37). Of the individual statins, lovastatin and fluvastatin did not reduce lung cancer risk significantly. By contrast, lung cancer risk in patients using rosuvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin was significantly lower than that in statin nonusers (aHRs = 0.41, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.58, respectively). Statins dose-dependently reduced lung cancer risk in all subgroups and the main model with additional covariates (nonstatin drug use). MATERIALS AND METHODS The study cohort comprised all patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2012. Our final study cohort comprised 43,802 COPD patients: 10,086 used statins, whereas 33,716 did not. Patients were followed up to assess lung cancer risk or protective factors. In addition, we also considered demographic characteristics, namely age, sex, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]), urbanization level, monthly income, and nonstatin drug use. The index date of statin use was the COPD confirmation date. To examine the dose–response relationship, we categorized statin use into four groups in each cohort: < 28, 28–90, 91–365, and > 365 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs). Patients receiving < 28 cDDDs were defined as nonstatin users. Conclusions Statins dose-dependently exert a significant chemopreventive effect against lung cancer in COPD patients. Rosuvastatin

  19. Risk of Vertebral Fracture in Patients Diagnosed with a Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Li-Yu; Huang, Min-Wei; Shen, Cheng-Che; Huang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chiao-Lin; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported that depression may play a crucial role in the occurrence of vertebral fractures. However, a clear correlation between depressive disorders and osteoporotic fractures has not been established. We explored the association between depressive disorders and subsequent new-onset vertebral fractures. Additionally, we aimed to identify the potential risk factors for vertebral fracture in patients with a depressive disorder. METHODS: We studied patients listed in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were diagnosed with a depressive disorder by a psychiatrist. The comparison cohort consisted of age- and sex-matched patients without a depressive disorder. The incidence rate and hazard ratios of subsequent vertebral fracture were evaluated. We used Cox regression analysis to evaluate the risk of vertebral fracture among patients with a depressive disorder. RESULTS: The total number of patients with and without a depressive disorder was 44,812. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) between these 2 cohorts indicated that depressive disorder patients had a higher risk of developing a subsequent vertebral fracture (IRR=1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.26–1.57, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the depressive disorder cohort showed a higher risk of vertebral fracture than the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=1.24, 95% CI=1.11–1.38, p<0.001). Being older than 50 years, having a lower monthly income, and having hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autoimmune disease, or osteoporosis were considered predictive factors for vertebral fracture in patients with depressive disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive disorders may increase the risk of a subsequent new-onset vertebral fracture. PMID:28226032

  20. Persistence with antihypertensives in uncomplicated treatment-naïve very elderly patients: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Hee; Yu, Yun Mi; Ah, Young-Mi; Chang, Min Jung; Lee, Ju-Yeun

    2017-08-24

    Limited studies have evaluated the medication-taking behavior in very elderly hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence and adherence with antihypertensive agents in treatment-naïve patients, along with other related factors, according to age. Adult (19-64 years), elderly (65-79 years), and very elderly (≥80 years) uncomplicated hypertensive patients starting antihypertensive monotherapy were identified from the National Health Insurance claims database. The first-year treatment persistence and adherence rates measured using the medication possession ratio were assessed and compared in these three age cohorts. After propensity score matching, three age cohorts with 6689 patients each were assembled from 228,925 uncomplicated hypertensive patients who began antihypertensive monotherapy in 2012. The treatment persistence and adherence rates over the first year were the lowest in the very elderly (59.5% and 62.8%, respectively) and highest in the elderly (65.2% and 67.9%, respectively) patients among the three age cohorts (p < 0.001). The adjusted risk for treatment non-persistence was significantly higher in the very elderly (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.27) compared with the elderly. Having more comorbidities, being a beneficiary of medical aid, and having a diagnosis of dementia were unique positive predictors for treatment persistence in the very elderly, along with common predictors such as female sex, dyslipidemia, and an initially chosen antihypertensive therapeutic class other than beta blockers and thiazide diuretics. Very elderly patients were less likely to continue antihypertensive therapy over the first year compared with their younger counterparts. Our findings suggest that a low comorbidity index and lack of medical aid support negatively affect the treatment persistence in this population.

  1. Increased risk of bone fracture among patients with urinary calculi: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ou, S-M; Chen, Y-T; Shih, C-J; Tarng, D-C

    2015-04-01

    Urinary calculi were associated with higher risk of vertebral and upper limb fracture. Therefore, patients with urinary calculi should be evaluated carefully because they may have a higher risk of subsequent fracture later in life. The contribution of urinary calculi to reduced bone mineral density has been recognized. However, the association of urinary calculi with the risk of fracture remains inconclusive. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of overall fracture and fractures at different anatomic sites in patients with urinary calculi. The records of inpatients and outpatients with urinary calculi were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010. Among patients with urinary calculi at the cohort entry, controls were matched using propensity scores on a 1:1 ratio. All subjects were followed up from the date of enrollment until fracture occurrence, death, or December 31, 2010. There were 46,243 Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of urinary calculi and 46,243 controls without calculi enrolled. Among these patients, 6005 patients with a diagnosis of urinary calculi and 5339 controls developed fractures during a median follow-up period of 5.3 years. Patients with urinary calculi had a higher incidence of fracture compared with controls (23.9 versus 22.1 per 1000 person-years) and a greater risk of overall fractures (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.08, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), mainly located at the vertebrae (aHR 1.15, 95 % CI, 1.06-1.25) and upper limb (aHR 1.07, 95 % CI, 1.01-1.14), but the risk for hip fracture was not increased (aHR 1.09, 95 % CI, 0.96-1.22). Urinary calculus is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent fracture. Patients with urinary calculi should pay attention to the future vertebral and upper limb fractures.

  2. Readmissions in Cancer Patients After Receiving Inpatient Palliative Care in Taiwan: A 9-Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Chun-Ku; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have reported on readmissions among cancer patients receiving inpatient palliative care (IPC). This study investigated readmissions in cancer patients after their first discharge from IPC in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010.This study was a secondary data analysis using information from the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. We included subjects ≥20 years old diagnosed with malignant neoplasms who were listed in the registry of catastrophic illness. Patients diagnosed with cancer before January 1, 2002 or who had ever been admitted to an inpatient hospice palliative care unit before the study period were excluded. Readmission was defined as hospital readmission at least once after discharge from first admission to IPC until mortality or the end of the study period.A total of 42,022 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of these patients were male (60.4%). The mean age of cancer diagnosis was 64.0 ± 14.4 years for men and 64.5 ± 14.7 years for women. The mean age at first hospice ward admission was 65.2 ± 14.2 years for men and 65.9 ± 14.9 years for women. During their first admission to IPC, 59.2% patients died, and the median stay of first IPC admission was 8.0 days. Among those discharged alive from their first admission to IPC, 64.9% were readmitted, and 19.4% of these patients were readmitted on the same day of discharge. From first IPC discharge until mortality, 54.8% of patients were readmitted once, 23.9% were readmitted twice, 9.9% were readmitted 3 times, and 11.5% were readmitted 4 or more times. Being male, having a higher insurance premium level, having a longer length of stay during first IPC admission, being admitted to a teaching hospital, or being admitted to a tertiary hospital increased the adjusted hazard ratio for readmission.We found that terminal cancer patients in Taiwan received relatively late referrals for first admission to IPC and experienced a high

  3. Persistence with prostaglandin agonist use with and without adjunctive therapy for glaucoma patients: a Canadian population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Iskedjian, Michael; Covert, David W; Walker, John H

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness and visual disability. Few studies have examined persistence and adherence with topical medications in glaucoma patients. The objective of this study was to compare patient persistence with prostaglandin agonist (PA) monotherapy versus with concomitant adjunctive therapy (AT) in Canada. Data were obtained from the Québec prescription claims database. Persistence rates were determined for previously treated naive glaucoma patients at 1 year after their index date for use of any of the three available PAs (bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost). Patients who had at least 334 days on their index PA were defined as being persistent during the analysis timeframe. Patient baseline demographics and persistence rates were reported. A logistic regression was used for comparing the PA and PA + AT groups, which incorporated baseline cofounders, such as age and sex, in the analyses. From an initial cohort of 28 534 patients, 14 893 were identified as naive to glaucoma therapy and had a PA as their index therapy. Of these, 11 197 (75.2%) continued to receive monotherapy and 3696 (24.8%) had an AT added to the PA; 59.0% were females, and the average age was 70.5 ± 11.3 years. Overall, at the end of the first year of therapy, 57.4% of patients were persistent on their index PA; however, a statistically significant difference was observed between the two subgroups, with 54.6% for those receiving PA monotherapy and 65.8% for those receiving PA + AT (p < 0.01) persistent with therapy. On average, 10.5 prescriptions per year were dispensed to persistent patients. In this Canadian population, persistence rates fall to approximately 60% at the end of the first year of therapy, with patients taking AT being more persistent. Similar persistence analyses are warranted on other populations, and would yield helpful data for conducting economic evaluations of non-persistence.

  4. How Many Patients Become Functionally Dependent after a Stroke? A 3-Year Population-Based Study in Joinville, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Reis, Felipe Ibiapina

    2017-01-01

    The decrease in stroke mortality will increase the burden of survivors with functional dependence (FD). The aim of this study was to evaluate how many patients become functionally dependent over 3 years after an incident event in Joinville, Brazil. The proportion of FD (defined as a modified Rankin score 3 to 5) among stroke survivors from the Joinville Stroke Registry was assessed using a validated telephone interview. Incidence of FD after stroke in Joinville in one year was 23.24 per 100,000 population. The overall proportion of FD among stroke survivors at discharge was 32.7%. Of 303 patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke (IS), one-third were FD at discharge, and 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively at 1, 2 and 3 years. Among 37 patients with haemorrhagic stroke (HS), 38% were dependent at discharge, 16% after 1 and 2 years and 14% after 3. Among 27 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), 19% were dependent at discharge and 4% from 1 to 3 years. Among IS subtypes, cardioembolic ones had the worst risk of FD. (RR 19.8; 95% CI: 2.2 to 175.9). Our results showed that one-third of stroke survivors have FD during the first year after stroke in Brazil. Therefore, a city with half a million people might expect 120 new stroke patients with FD each year. PMID:28107401

  5. Longitudinal risk of herpes zoster in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving chemotherapy: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shih-Feng; Wu, Wan-Hsuan; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Liu, Yi-Chang; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Chang, Chao-Sung

    2015-09-22

    This study investigated the incidence of and risk factors for herpes zoster in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who were receiving anti-lymphoma treatment. The overall incidence density of herpes zoster was 12.21% (472/3865); 11.79% (258/2188) of the patients received conventional chemotherapy and 12.76% (214/1677) of the patients received rituximab-containing chemotherapy. For the patients who received conventional chemotherapy, the risk factors included female gender, multiple courses of chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. For the patients who received rituximab-containing chemotherapy, the risk factors included female gender, diabetes mellitus, multiple courses of chemotherapy, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and higher accumulated rituximab dose. The majority of the herpes zoster episodes occurred within the first two years after the diagnosis of NHL. After adjusting for the propensity score matching, rituximab-containing chemotherapy was not associated with a higher overall incidence density of herpes zoster (P = 0.155). However, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy increased the short-term risk of herpes zoster with adjusted odd ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.05-1.81, P = 0.021) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.08-1.73, P = 0.010) during the 1-year and 2-year follow-up periods, respectively.

  6. Increased risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with depressive disorders: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-S; Lin, Y-S; Liu, C-F; Weng, S-F; Lin, C; Lin, B-S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence rates and risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among patients with depressive disorders. Data for 27 547 patients with newly diagnosed depressive disorders and 27 547 subjects without depressive disorders between 2001 and 2008 were yielded from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss incidence at the end of 2011 was determined. Cumulative incidence and adjusted hazard ratio were computed. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss incidence was 1.45 times higher in the depressive disorders group compared to the non-depressive disorders group (p = 0.0041), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.460. A significant increased risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss was noted in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and hyperlipidaemia (p < 0.05). The results suggest an increased risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with depressive disorders. Co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and hyperlipidaemia significantly aggravated the risk. Depressive disorders might be considered a risk factor for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. It remains to be seen whether control of depressive disorders can decrease the incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with depressive disorders.

  7. Revisiting a dogma: similar survival of patients with small bowel and gastric GIST. A population-based propensity score SEER analysis.

    PubMed

    Guller, Ulrich; Tarantino, Ignazio; Cerny, Thomas; Ulrich, Alexis; Schmied, Bruno M; Warschkow, Rene

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present analysis was to assess whether small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is associated with worse cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) compared with gastric GIST on a population-based level. Data on patients aged 18 years or older with histologically proven GIST was extracted from the SEER database from 1998 to 2011. OS and CSS for small bowel GIST were compared with OS and CSS for gastric GIST by application of adjusted and unadjusted Cox regression analyses and propensity score analyses. GIST were located in the stomach (n = 3011, 59 %), duodenum (n = 313, 6 %), jejunum/ileum (n = 1288, 25 %), colon (n = 139, 3 %), rectum (n = 172, 3 %), and extraviscerally (n = 173, 3 %). OS and CSS of patients with GIST in the duodenum [OS, HR 0.95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.19; CSS, HR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.76-1.29] and in the jejunum/ileum (OS, HR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.85-1.10; CSS, HR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.81-1.10) were similar to those of patients with gastric GIST in multivariate analyses. Conversely, OS and CSS of patients with GIST in the colon (OS, HR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.07-1.83; CSS, HR 1.89, 95 % CI 1.41-2.54) and in an extravisceral location (OS, HR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.14-1.77; CSS, HR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.11-1.84) were significantly worse than those of patients with gastric GIST. Contrary to common belief, OS and CSS of patients with small bowel GIST are not statistically different from those of patients with gastric GIST when adjustment is made for confounding variables on a population-based level. The prognosis of patients with nongastric GIST is worse because of a colonic and extravisceral GIST location. These findings have implications regarding adjuvant treatment of GIST