Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Travé, Pere; Peñarrubia-María, M Teresa; Ruiz, Mar; Pujol, Marian March
Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75) diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (STAI-S), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention programme in
Kermani, E J
In a study of fifty-three violent psychiatric patients in a psychiatric hospital setting, it was found that there are two distinct major groups of violent patients--one of patients with a long history of antisocial behavior who are often chronically homicidal and suicidal, and another of patients who neither have a history of destructive behavior nor exhibit homicidal or suicidal tendencies. The latter become acutely assaultive only during the course of psychiatric illness. The personality traits and background associated with these two groups offer additional contrasts. Each group presents different problems and, of major importance to the psychiatric practioner, each group requires different management.
Nauer, K A; Kramer, L; Lockard, K L
Presentation of a case study involving a female patient, in her 20s, undergoing routine surgery for removal of atrial myxoma leading to a heart transplant. This case study will show the progression from postcardiotomy failure, the emergent use of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device, the insertion of the HeartMate device, and the final return to the operating room for a heart transplant. The case study will examine the physiologic demands on the patient, as well as the psychological effects from the various life-saving devices.
Studied 15 adolescent runaways in an inpatient long-term treatment setting. Results showed that more runaways were male, and most were away only a short time. In many cases, behavior improvement resulted. Impulsive behavior and anxiety were related to the short time and distance of elopement. (Author/JAC)
Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.
Méndez, A; Granda, H; Meenagh, A; Contreras, S; Zavaleta, R; Mendoza, M F; Izquierdo, L; Sarmiento, M E; Acosta, A; Middleton, D
A total of 97 patients with tuberculosis (TB) and 51 controls from Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, were studied for the presence and absence of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes. The number of patients with either KIR2DL1 or KIR2DL3 differed significantly compared with the controls. However, only the difference in KIR2DL3 remained significant after correction for the number of factors analysed. We also found KIR2DS2 with its presumed C1 group ligand less prevalent in TB patients than in the control group, but this result lost significance after correction.
Campbell, John L; Carter, Mary; Davey, Antoinette; Roberts, Martin J; Elliott, Marc N; Roland, Martin
Background Simulated patient, or so-called ‘mystery-shopper’, studies are a controversial, but potentially useful, approach to take when conducting health services research. Aim To investigate the construct validity of survey questions relating to access to primary care included in the English GP Patient Survey. Design and setting Observational study in 41 general practices in rural, urban, and inner-city settings in the UK. Method Between May 2010 and March 2011, researchers telephoned practices at monthly intervals, simulating patients requesting routine, but prompt, appointments. Seven measures of access and appointment availability, measured from the mystery-shopper contacts, were related to seven measures of practice performance from the GP Patient Survey. Results Practices with lower access scores in the GP Patient Survey had poorer access and appointment availability for five out of seven items measured directly, when compared with practices that had higher scores. Scores on items from the national survey that related to appointment availability were significantly associated with direct measures of appointment availability. Patient-satisfaction levels and the likelihood that patients would recommend their practice were related to the availability of appointments. Patients’ reports of ease of telephone access in the national survey were unrelated to three out of four measures of practice call handling, but were related to the time taken to resolve an appointment request, suggesting responders’ possible confusion in answering this question. Conclusion Items relating to the accessibility of care in a the English GP patient survey have construct validity. Patients’ satisfaction with their practice is not related to practice call handling, but is related to appointment availability. PMID:23561783
Rhodes, Karin V; Miller, Franklin G
Context In connection with health care reform, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a “mystery shopper,” or simulated patient study, to measure access to primary care. But the study was shelved because of public controversy over “government spying” on doctors. Opponents of the study also raised ethical concerns about the use of deception with human subjects without soliciting their informed consent. Methods We undertook an ethical analysis of the use of simulated patient techniques in health services research, with a particular focus on research measuring access to care. Using a case study, we explored relevant methodological considerations and ethical principles relating to deceptive research without informed consent, as well as U.S. federal regulations permitting exceptions to consent. Findings Several relevant considerations both favor and oppose soliciting consent for simulated patient studies. Making research participation conditional on informed consent protects the autonomy of research subjects and shields them from unreasonable exposure to research risks. However, scientific validity is also an important ethical principle of human subjects research, as the net risks to subjects must be justified by the value to society of the knowledge to be gained. The use of simulated patients to monitor access is a naturalistic and scientifically sound experimental design that can answer important policy-relevant questions, with minimal risks to human subjects. As interaction between researchers and subjects increases, however, so does the need for consent. Conclusions As long as adequate protections of confidentiality of research data are in place, minimally intrusive simulated patient research that gathers policy-relevant data on the health system without the consent of individuals working in that system can be ethically justified when the risks and burdens to research subjects are minimal and the research has the potential to generate
Bustamante, Marta F.; Morcillo-Suárez, Carlos; Malhotra, Sunny; Rio, Jordi; Leyva, Laura; Fernández, Oscar; Zettl, Uwe K.; Killestein, Joep; Brassat, David; García-Merino, Juan Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio J.; Urcelay, Elena; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Villar, Lusia M.; Alvarez-Cermeño, Jose Carlos; Farré, Xavier; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Alfredo; Drulovic, Jelena S.; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Chan, Andrew; Oksenberg, Jorge; Navarro, Arcadi; Montalban, Xavier
Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms located in type I interferon (IFN)-induced genes, genes belonging to the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, and genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the response to IFN-β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In a first or screening phase of the study, 384 polymorphisms were genotyped in 830 patients with MS classified into IFN-β responders (n = 416) and nonresponders (n = 414) according to clinical criteria. In a second or validation phase, the most significant polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response were genotyped in an independent validation cohort of 555 patients with MS (281 IFN-β responders and 274 nonresponders). Results: Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the screening phase for further validation: rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.0006), rs6597 (STUB1; p = 0.019), rs3747517 (IFIH1; p = 0.010), rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.017), rs10958713 (IKBKB; p = 0.003), rs2834202 (IFNAR1; p = 0.030), and rs4422395 (CXCL1; p = 0.017). None of these SNPs were significantly associated with IFN-β response when genotyped in an independent cohort of patients. Combined analysis of these SNPs in all patients with MS (N = 1,385) revealed 2 polymorphisms associated with IFN-β response: rs2277302 (PELI3; p = 0.008) and rs832032 (GABRR3; p = 0.006). Conclusions: These findings do not support an association between polymorphisms located in genes related to the type I IFN or TLR pathways or genes encoding neurotransmitter receptors and the clinical response to IFN-β. Nevertheless, additional genetic and functional studies of PELI3 and GABRR3 are warranted. PMID:26445728
Devcić, Sanja; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Silić, Ante
According to the world's prevalence rate, alcoholism is in the third place after heart and blood vessel diseases and malignant tumors. With the development of neuroscience, the causes of alcoholism's biological etiologic sources are still being studied. Considering that dermatoglyphics are highly determined by heritage, we contemplated the possibilities of their discrimination in alcoholic patients in relation to phenotypically healthy subjects. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphics properties of 100 alcoholic patients without psychiatric comorbidity, who have been cured in the Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan two or more times, and those of 100 phenotypically healthy men. Through the t-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the examined groups. Results showed a statistically significant difference on five examined variables. In the calculation of fluctuating asymmetry measure, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlation of values of the right and the left hand on the tested variables, beside one. Chi-square tests showed that there is no relation between the dermatoglyphic qualitative properties of alcoholic patients and those of the examinees from the comparison group. Despite the indisputable genetic role in the genesis of alcoholism, the analysis of the dermatoglyphics carried out in our study did not show any etiological connection between the results of the test on dermatoglyphics and the appearance of alcoholism.
von Delbrück, Orla; Goetzke, Edda; Nagel, Cornelia
1 A long-term study of brotizolam (minimum 4 weeks: maximum 26 weeks) was carried out in hospitalized patients (29 to 95 years) who complained of sleep disturbance. 3.0% of the patients used 0.125 mg, 86.4% used 0.25 mg, and 10.0% used 0.5 mg daily. During the trial there was no evidence of tolerance. 2 There were no symptoms of overdosage, physical and psychological dependency or withdrawal, and there were no interactions with the concurrently prescribed drugs. 3 There were no changes in vital functions, haematology, or in the biochemical investigations of blood or urine which could be attributed to the drug. PMID:6362697
Hueso Gutiérrez, P; Jiménez Alvarez, S; Gil-Carcedo Sañudo, E; Gil-Carcedo García, L M; Ramos Sánchez, C; Vallejo Valdezate, L A
Otomycosis is a common disease. We try to analyze the causative factors for otomycosis in our environment. Our study includes 451 patients with a presumed diagnosis of otomycosis. The patients were included by ear, nose and throat specialist and general doctors; the diagnosis was confirmed in 24.43% and 16.16% respectively. The most common fungal pathogen found was Aspergillus spp. and Candida sp. The high frecuency of Aspergillus Niger may be because of the diferent ways of gathering samples. The abundance of Candida parapsilosis in the samples that came from general doctors may be because the inadequate treatment with topic antibiotics contributes fungal proliferation. We conclude that the causative factors for otomycosis could be avoided or treated. Treatment with antifungal agents is not enought to ensure complete cure, an furthermore the treatment should be aimed to restore the physiology of the external auditory cannal.
Barton, E N; Kelly, D; Morrison, E Y
A retrospective study of 58 hypothyroid patients attending the Endocrine Clinic, University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, between July and August 1989, was undertaken. The age range at initial presentation varied from one month to eighty-four years. The majority of cases (51 or 87.9%) were between 21 and 70 years. There were 50 females (86.2%) and 8 males (13.8%). The underlying causes were idiopathic hypothyroidism (35 or 60.3%), posthyroidectomy (13 or 22.4%), post I131 therapy (6 or 10.4%), panhypopituitarism (3 or 5.2%), hypophysectomy (1 or 1.7%). Biochemical parameters used in diagnosis were serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Forty-six patients (79.2%) had elevated TSH, indicative of a high correlation of elevated TSH with hypothyroidism. Duration of symptomatology prior to diagnosis was one year in 27 patients (46.5%), 2-10 years in 23 (39.6%) and 10 years in 4 cases (6.9%). The major presenting signs and symptoms were lethargy (20 or 34.5%), anaemia (mixed normochromic, microcytic (16 or 27.6%), slow relaxation of tendon reflexes (16 or 27.6%), coarsening of skin (15 or 25.9%), weight gain 10 or 17.2%), hoarseness (9 or 15.5%) and psychiatric symptoms (7 or 12%). The known association of primary hypothyroidism with other autoimmune disorders was not borne out in this study. The time-lapse in diagnosis from symptomatology emphasized the need for clinicians to be more alert to the subtle and varied presentation of hypothyroidism.
Carvalho, Guilherme Machado De; Ramos, Priscila Zonzini; Castilho, Arthur Menino; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia
Auditory neuropathy is a type of hearing loss that constitutes a change in the conduct of the auditory stimulus by the involvement of inner hair cells or auditory nerve synapses. It is characterized by the absence or alteration of waves in the examination of brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with otoacoustic and/or cochlear microphonic issues. At present, four loci associated with non‑syndromic auditory neuropathy have been mapped: Autosomal recessive deafness‑9 [DFNB9; the otoferlin (OTOF) gene] and autosomal recessive deafness‑59 [DFNB59; the pejvakin (PJVK) gene], associated with autosomal recessive inheritance; the autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy gene [AUNA1; the diaphanous‑3 (DIAPH3) gene]; and AUNX1, linked to chromosome X. Furthermore, mutations of connexin 26 [the gap junction β2 (GJB2) gene] have also been associated with the disease. OTOF gene mutations exert a significant role in auditory neuropathy. In excess of 80 pathogenic mutations have been identified in individuals with non‑syndromic deafness in populations of different origins, with an emphasis on the p.Q829X mutation, which was found in ~3% of cases of deafness in the Spanish population. The identification of genetic alterations responsible for auditory neuropathy is one of the challenges contributing to understand the molecular bases of the different phenotypes of hearing loss. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate molecular changes in the OTOF gene in patients with auditory neuropathy, and to develop a DNA chip for the molecular diagnosis of auditory neuropathy using mass spectrometry for genotyping. Genetic alterations were investigated in 47 patients with hearing loss and clinical diagnosis of auditory neuropathy, and the c.35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene was identified in three homozygous patients, and the heterozygous parents of one of these cases. Additionally, OTOF gene mutations were tracked by complete sequencing of 48 exons, although these results
Abstract Objective To evaluate an a priori threshold for advanced imaging in patients with spinal pain. Design Patients with spinal pain in any region for 6 to 52 weeks were assessed to determine if radiologic studies beyond x-ray scans were indicated, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide bone scans. An a priori threshold was set before MRI, CT, or bone scans would be considered. Those who did not have MRI, CT, or bone scans ordered were followed for at least 1 year to determine if any of them went on to be diagnosed with a more serious spinal disorder (eg, infection, fracture, spondylitis, tumour, neurologic compression). Setting Four large primary care clinics in Edmonton, Alta. Participants A total of 1003 consecutively presenting patients with symptoms suspected to be related to the spine (for a duration of generally 6 to 52 weeks) who had not already undergone advanced imaging and did not have a diagnosis of nonbenign back pain. Main outcome measures Number of cases of nonbenign spinal disorder in participants who underwent advanced imaging and participants who did not undergo advanced imaging (ie, did not have any red flags). Results There were 399 women (39.8%) and 604 men (60.2%). The mean (SD) age of the group was 47.2 (14.6) years. The mean (SD) duration of symptoms was 15.1 (8.6) weeks. Of the 1003 participants, 110 met an a priori threshold for undergoing at least 1 of MRI, CT, or bone scan. In these 110 participants, there were newly diagnosed cases of radiculopathy (n = 12), including a case of cauda equina syndrome; spondyloarthropathy (n = 6); occult fracture (n = 2); solitary metastasis (n = 1); epidural lipomatosis (n = 1); osteomyelitis (n = 1), and retroperitoneal hematoma (n = 1), each of which was considered likely to be the cause of the patient’s spinal symptoms. The remaining 893 participants were followed for at least 1 year and none showed evidence of a nonbenign cause of his or her
de Merlo, Gaspar González; Mirasol, Esteban González; García, María Teresa Gómez; Parra, Carmen Ángel; Goy, Enrique Iglesias
Introduction The aim of the study was to devise a strategy to diagnose malign endometrial pathologies (adenocarcinoma or atypical hyperplasia) that minimizes the number of invasive tests done (hysteroscopy, aspiration biopsy or curettage) with no loss of its detection efficiency. Material and methods We retrospectively studied the clinical histories of 779 postmenopausal women at the University Hospital Complex of Albacete, for whom an endometrial study had been done (hysteroscopy, aspiration biopsy or curettage) with a 1-year follow-up between 1 March 2006 and 31 March 2008. Results There were 77 cases of a malignant pathology (66 adenocarcinomas and 11 hyperplasias with atypia); 96.1% had metrorrhagia, and there were only 3 cases of asymptomatic patients (all 3 presented endometrial thickness of > 5 mm: 10, 12 and 15 mm). The sensitivity and specificity of the transvaginal ultrasound, with a 5 mm cut-off point to diagnose a malignant pathology, were 98.4% and 30.1%, respectively; 89.1% and 99.6%, respectively, for aspiration biopsy; 83.9% and 99.1%, respectively, for hysteroscopy without biopsy; and both were 100% for biopsy. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05 and confidence intervals were calculated at 95%. Conclusions In postmenopausal women with metrorrhagia, the first action to take is to do a transvaginal ultrasound, followed by en endometrial study, but only if the endometrium is irregular or endometrial thickness is ≥ 5 mm; in asymptomatic women, the cut-off point should be set at 10 mm. The immediate method of choice is an ambulatory biopsy. PMID:27279854
CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.
SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and
Shahgholian, Nahid; Yousefi, Hojatollah
Background: Chronic renal disease and hemodialysis cause numerous psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual challenges for both patients and their families. Overcoming these challenges is possible only through providing holistic support for the patients. Today, despite the support provided by family and professional caregivers for the patients, patients still express dissatisfaction with the support provided and believe it to be inadequate. In fact, patients and family caregivers and healthcare practitioners seem to have different understandings of the notion of support. Thus, the researcher decided to examine the concept of support from the viewpoint of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive phenomenological research was conducted on 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing hemodialysis. Purposive sampling was performed and continued until data saturation. Data were collected through 30–60 min unstructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: From the analysis of data, 4 themes (psychological support, accompaniment, social support, and spiritual support) and 11 sub-themes were obtained. Psychological support consisted of two sub-themes of psychological support by healthcare practitioners and emotional support by family and relatives. Accompaniment included three sub-themes of assistance in transportation, providing and using medicine, and daily activities. Social support was identified with four sub-themes of promotion of the society's understanding of the patients’ condition, improvement of communication with others, the need for employment, and independence. Spiritual support was identified with two sub-themes of the need for faith and trust in God or Imams and the need to resolve spiritual contradictions. Conclusion: The results showed that from the viewpoint of the participants, the concept of support consisted of psychological support, social support, accompanying the patient
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients' health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy.
Greiding, L; Mathov, E; Casalá, A; Borda, J M; Slazer, M; Núñez, J; Antonowicz, E
Recently, much has been published on the immunological status of patients affected with various lymphomas. In the particular case of Mycosis fungoide, there was no general agreement on the immunological status of the corresponding patients. In fact, López Borrasca et al, found severe depression of cellular immunity in such patients. On the contrary, Blaylock and Clendenning found very little change in cellular immunity, but a very high serum-IgA. We want to offer our experience on this problem with the immunological survey of four patients with the Alibert-Bazin-form of Mycosis fungoide. The following tests were performed on each patient: a) Intracutaneous test with candidina, PPD and other bacterial antigens. b) Sensitization to a concentrate solution of dinitrochlorobencene (DNCB). c) Lymphocyte Transformation Test (LTT), with phytohemagglutinin as mitogen. d) Quantitative determination of IgG, IgM, IgA and beta1C, with the radial immunodiffusion technique (Mancini et al.). e) Agar immunoelectrophoresis. The following results were obtained: 1) The cellular immunity was markedly depressed in the four patients when any of a, b or c-test was performed. 2) All the patients showed very high levels of serum IgA, 150% higher than control. The reason for this is unknown. On the contrary, IgG in serum was less elevated and IgM and beta1C serum levels were normal. 3) No monoclonal bands were found in any case (immunoelectrophoresis). 4) No definite conclusions could be reached due to the limited number of cases, but the uniformity of results should encourage to carry this work further.
Davoodvand, Shirmohammad; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
One of the advanced nursing care procedures emphasized by nursing organizations around the world is patient or nursing advocacy. In addition to illustrating the professional power of nursing, it helps to provide effective nursing care. The aim of the present study was to explain the concept of patient advocacy from the perspective of Iranian clinical nurses. This was a qualitative study that examined the viewpoint and experiences of 15 clinical nurses regarding patient advocacy in nursing. The nurses worked in intensive care units (ICUs), coronary care units (CCUs), and emergency units. The study participants were selected via purposeful sampling. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Data analysis showed that patient advocacy consisted of the two themes of empathy with the patient (including understanding, being sympathetic with, and feeling close to the patient) and protecting the patients (including patient care, prioritization of patients’ health, commitment to the completion of the care process, and protection of patients' rights). The results of this study suggest that nurses must be empathetic toward and protective of their patients. The results of the present study can be used in health care delivery, nursing education, and nursing management and planning systems to help nurses accomplish their important role as patient advocates. It is necessary to further study the connections between patient advocacy and empathy. PMID:27471588
Kelley, Nicola Louise
In summary, this patient has had a very positive experience with his UVB phototheapy treatment. The flaking of the skin has stopped which has made him less conscious in social situations and he is much more comfortable around other people. Being able to observe the improvement in his psoriasis through photography has increased the patient’s confidence and he hopes that the improvement in his condition will continue.
Jiang, Yufeng; Wang, Xuemei; Xia, Lei; Fu, Xiaobing; Xu, Zhangrong; Ran, Xingwu; Yan, Li; Li, Qiu; Mo, Zhaohui; Yan, Zhaoli; Ji, Qiuhe; Li, Qiang
To determine the annual incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for foot ulceration in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in China. To investigate a cohort of 1,333 patients comprising 452 DFU patients and 881 DM patients, who underwent foot screening, physical examination, and laboratory tests in eight hospitals. The patients were assessed at baseline in terms of their demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy disease (PND) screening, periphery artery disease (PAD) screening, assessment of nutritional status, and diabetic control. One year later, the patients were followed up to determine the incidence of new foot ulcers, amputation, and mortality. By univariate analysis, statistically significant differences were found in age, location, gender, living alone (yes/no), occupation, smoking, hypertension, PND, PAD, nephropathy, retinopathy, cataracts, duration of diabetes, Glycosylated hemoglobin A (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose level, postprandial blood glucose level, insulin level, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyeride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), serum albumin, white blood cell, and body mass index. A binary logistic regression model was used to examine which of these risk factors were independent risk factors for foot ulceration. A total of 687 (51.5%) of the 1,333 patients were followed up for an average of 12 months; there were 458 DM patients and 229 DFU patients. A total of 46 patients died during the follow-up period; 13 were DM patients, and 33 were DFU patients. Of the 641 patients, 445 (69.4%) patients were DM patients, and 196 (30.6%) were DFU patients. At follow-up, 36/445 DM patients (8.1%), and 62/196 DFU patients (31.6%), developed new ulcers; 10/196 DFU patients underwent an amputation. The annual incidence of ulceration for DM patients and amputation for DFU patients were 8.1 and 5.1%, respectively. The annual mortality of
El-Bassyouni, H T; Abdel Salam, G H; Saleem, S N; Kayed, H F; Shehab, M I; Eid, M M; Zaki, M E; Zaki, M S
and one lobar case. Conclusion: This study highlights the clinical spectrum in patients with HPE and report a case of HPE and DWM associated with t(12;13). Neuroimaging delineated the pathogenesis underlying developmental defects in HPE. Accurate molecular diagnosis is crucial for further understanding of the pathogenesis of HPE.
Cutler, N R
In clinical trials of dopamine-blocking antipsychotics, significant adverse events may occur in healthy volunteers at dose levels that are well tolerated by schizophrenic patients. Because of these differences in tolerability, bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies of antipsychotics should be performed in schizophrenic patients rather than in healthy volunteers. When clozapine is the drug being investigated, pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies should be carried out in real-life dosage conditions because the half-life of clozapine increases with multiple doses. Under real-life conditions, the evaluation of multiple doses of clozapine in a population of schizophrenic patients can provide direct therapeutic relevance to bioavailability findings. This article discusses patient recruitment and informed consent in pharmacokinetic trials of schizophrenia, issues in studying antipsychotic agents in healthy volunteers versus schizophrenic patients, and a bioequivalency study of Clozaril (Novartis Pharmaceuticals) and generic clozapine (Creighton [Sandoz]) in schizophrenic patients.
Background Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis patient. Interviewees were selected through purposeful and maximum variation sampling. As an example, a patient decision aid on the treatment of knee arthritis was developed upon literature reviews and gathering expert opinion, and was presented at the time of interview. Thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data by using the OpenCode software. Results The results were summarized into three categories and ten codes. The extracted categories were the perceived benefits of using the tools, as well as the patient-related and physician-related barriers in using decision aids. The following barriers in using patient decision aids were identified in this study: lack of patients and physicians’ trainings in shared decision making, lack of specialist per capita, low treatment tariffs and lack of an exact evaluation system for patient participation in decision making. Conclusions No doubt these barriers demand the health authorities’ special attention. Hence, despite patients and physicians’ inclination toward using patient decision aids, these problems have hindered the practical usage of these tools in Iran - as a developing country. PMID:24066792
Lourenço, Mário; Azevedo, Leandra Pinheiro; Gouveia, José Luís
The purpose of this article was to study the relation between depression and its effect on the sexual desire in psychiatric patients. The sample comprised 89 patients from the Psychiatric and Mental Health Department of Alto Ave's Hospital Center, Entidade Publica Empresarial. The obtained results in this exploratory study revealed that depressive symptomatology severity is directly related with sexual desire. Variables gender, age, and working status, as well as, sociocultural levels indicated important and significant differences between patients.
Santiago Pérez, S; Ferrer Gila, T
The occurrence of syncopal episodes is a very frequent event. In the absence of a structural systemic or cardiac disease, syncope is resulting of an anomalous cardiovascular response neurally mediated by the autonomic nervous system. It is the final common manifestation of different abnormal mechanisms and is frequently precipitated by orthostatism. Orthostatic intolerance syndrome refers to the development of symptoms during the upright posture that disappear in supine position. Tachycardia may be one of the clinical features of the syndrome. During orthostatic stress a hyperadrenergic response, with maintained increment of heart rate and associated symptoms, is developed. Changes in blood pressure may be diverse and in some cases hypotension and syncope occurs. Eight patients with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance who underwent autonomic evaluation and were diagnosed from postural tachycardia are presented. In all the cases an abnormal increment of heart rate during tilting was found and it was associated to hyperadrenergic symptoms. Evidence of restricted sympathetic impairment was observed in six cases with distal reduction of sudomotor function and abnormal adrenergic response during Valsalva manoeuvre. Symptoms disappeared or mostly subsided with pharmacological (amitriptyline in one case, phenobarbital in another one and non-cardioselective beta-blockers in six patients) and non-pharmacological treatment. In further examinations heart rate and blood pressure were normal.
Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.
To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.
Gandotra, Sachin; Paul, Sarita E.; Daniel, Mercian; Kumar, Krishan; Raj, Harsh A.; Sujeetha, B.
Assessment of needs of patients with schizophrenia permits practitioners to prioritize, formulate and implement rehabilitation goals. Negative symptoms have been shown to present greater obstacles to effective rehabilitation. The study compared the rehabilitation needs of in and out-patients with schizophrenia, and its relationship with negative symptoms. Thirty each of out patients and short term in-patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were recruited for the study. Patients currently exhibiting severe unmanageable psychoses and depression were excluded. Tools used for the study were DSM-IV-TR, Rehabilitation Needs Assessment Schedule, SANS, HDRS, BPRS, and UKU. Significant difference across the groups were observed as far as needs regarding requirement of help from a voluntary agency, employment, accommodation, leisure activities and help for family was concerned. Moreover, negative symptoms significantly correlated with rehabilitation needs among both groups of patients. The study also elicited family′s expectations of their patients regarding their rehabilitation needs. Further, the implications of the association between some negative symptoms and the felt needs of the patients in their rehabilitation were discussed. A full spectrum of functional behaviours needs to be assessed soon after patients recover from their most recent exacerbation and suitable interventions need to be planned. PMID:21224906
Ibrahim, Salwa; Hossam, Mohammed; Belal, Dawlat
Non-adherence to prescription is common among hemodialysis (HD) patients and has been associated with significant morbidity. At least 50% of HD patients are believed to be non-adherent to some part of their treatment. We aimed to assess the prevalence of non-adherence to dialysis prescription among 100 chronic HD patients. We explored the relationship between non-adherence on one hand and socioeconomic profile, depression scores and cognitive function on the other hand. The impact of patients' non-adherence on nutritional status, quality of life and dialysis adequacy was also assessed. The mean age of the study group was 50.51 ± 12.0 years. There were 62 females and 38 males in the study. Thirty-six patients (36%) were non-compliant to their dialysis prescription. No significant differences were detected between compliant and non-compliant patients in their education level and employment status. Inter-dialytic weight gain, serum phosphorus and depression scores were significantly higher in non-compliant patients compared with compliant patients, whereas body weight, serum albumin, serum calcium, quality of life scores and nutrition scores were significantly higher in compliant patients (P <0.05). In conclusion, non-adherence is highly prevalent among chronic HD patients and is associated with poor quality of life, depression and malnutrition.
Giardina, Traber Davis; Modi, Varsha; Parrish, Danielle E.; Singh, Hardeep
Many health care institutions are implementing patient portals that allow patients to track and maintain their personal health information, mostly in response to the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act requirements. Test results review is an area of high interest to patients and provides an opportunity to foster their involvement in preventing abnormal test results from being overlooked, a common patient safety concern. However, little is known about how patients engage with portals to review abnormal results and which strategies could facilitate that interaction in order to ensure safe follow-up on abnormalities. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore patients’ experiences related to abnormal test result notifications through patient portals. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 13 participants, patients and primary caregivers, between February 2014 and October 2014. Using content analysis, the authors explored patient experiences accessing abnormal test results through their portals. Respondents strongly favored access to all types of abnormal test results, but they raised several concerns including need for more timely notification and not being able to interpret the exact relevance of the result. Respondents’ personal experiences with physicians, test result notification, and the portal heavily influenced respondents’ notification preferences. Patient experiences with portals could be improved by development of strategies to help patients understand and manage the information received. These findings suggest important considerations for health professionals and institutions aiming to better engage patients in follow-up of their test results.
Taylor, Natalie; Hogden, Emily; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Li, Zhicheng; Lawton, Rebecca; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Objectives The UK-developed patient measure of safety (PMOS) is a validated tool which captures patient perceptions of safety in hospitals. We aimed (1) to investigate the extent to which the PMOS is appropriate for use with stroke, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and hip fracture patients in Australian hospitals and (2) to pilot the PMOS for use in a large-scale, national study ‘Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia’ (DUQuA). Participants Stroke, AMI and hip fracture patients (n=34) receiving care in 3 wards in 1 large hospital. Methods 2 phases were conducted. First, a ‘think aloud’ study was used to determine the validity of PMOS with this population in an international setting, and to make amendments based on patient feedback. The second phase tested the revised measure to establish the internal consistency reliability of the revised subscales, and piloted the recruitment and administration processes to ensure feasibility of the PMOS for use in DUQuA. Results Of the 43 questions in the PMOS, 13 (30%) were amended based on issues patients highlighted for improvement in phase 1. In phase 2, a total of 34 patients were approached and 29 included, with a mean age of 71.3 years (SD=16.39). Internal consistency reliability was established using interitem correlation and Cronbach's α for all but 1 subscale. The most and least favourably rated aspects of safety differed between the 3 wards. A study log was categorised into 10 key feasibility factors, including liaising with wards to understand operational procedures and identify patterns of patient discharge. Conclusions Capturing patient perceptions of care is crucial in improving patient safety. The revised PMOS is appropriate for use with vulnerable older adult groups. The findings from this study have informed key decisions made for the deployment of this measure as part of the DUQuA study. PMID:27279478
Wang, C A; Guyton, S W
A study is presented of 14 patients with hyperparathyroid crisis treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1964 and 1978. These patients showed diverse clinical manifestations that were indistinguishable from those in patients with pseudohyperparathyroidism. Their symptoms varied from progressive fatigue, malaise, and weakness to those related to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. The one biochemical alteration commonly found among these patients was the rapid increase in the serum calcium. There was a concomitant rise in the BUN in 50% of the patients and in the creatinine in 80%. The diagnosis was established by an elevated immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in all eight patients (100%) who had the radioimmunoassay; by the presence of subperiosteal resorption of the phalanges in six of the eight patients (75%); and in three of four patients (75%) by the loss of the lamina dura of the teeth. The 12 patients who had surgery all survived; the two who did not died. Thirteen patients (93%) had a neoplasm--an adenoma in 12 and a carcinoma in one. One patient had hyperplasia (7%). Nine patients (64%) received hypocalcemic drug therapy. The serum calcium temporarily fell to 12 mg/100 ml in five patients (56%) but failed to budge in four (44%). Simultaneous treatment with saline infusion, furosemide and with hypocalcemic drugs over a prolonged period compounded the difficulty at operation by increasing interstitial edema. Our findings from this study show prompt surgical intervention as the ideal treatment for hyperparathyroid crisis, preferably, within 72 hours of the acute onset of symptoms. PMID:518179
Turner, R Brigg; Cumpston, Aaron; Sweet, Michael; Briggs, Frank; Slain, Douglas; Wen, Sijin; Craig, Michael; Hamadani, Mehdi; Petros, William
The current recommendations for intravenous (i.v.) acyclovir dosing in obese patients suggest using ideal body weight (IBW) rather than total body weight (TBW). To our knowledge, no pharmacokinetic analysis has validated this recommendation. This single-dose pharmacokinetic study was conducted in an inpatient oncology population. Enrollment was conducted by 1:1 matching of obese patients (>190% of IBW) to normal-weight patients (80 to 120% of IBW). All patients received a single dose of i.v. acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, infused over 60 min. Consistent with current recommendations, IBW was used for obese patients and TBW for normal-weight patients. Serial plasma concentrations were obtained and compared. Seven obese and seven normal-weight patients were enrolled, with mean body mass indexes of 45.0 and 22.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Systemic clearance was substantially higher in the obese than normal-weight patients (mean, 19.4 ± 5.3 versus 14.3 ± 5.4 liters/h; P = 0.047). Area under the concentration-time curve was lower in the obese patients (15.2 ± 2.9 versus 24.0 ± 9.4 mg · h/liter; P = 0.011), as was maximum concentration (5.8 ± 0.9 versus 8.2 ± 1.3 mg/liter; P = 0.031). Utilization of IBW for dose calculation of i.v. acyclovir in obese patients leads to lower systemic exposure than dosing by TBW in normal-weight patients. While not directly evaluated in this study, utilization of an adjusted body weight for dose determination appears to more closely approximate the exposure seen in normal-weight patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01714180.).
Edelbring, Samuel; Dastmalchi, Maryam; Hult, Hakan; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Dahlgren, Lars Owe
Computerised virtual patients (VPs) are increasingly being used in medical education. With more use of this technology, there is a need to increase the knowledge of students' experiences with VPs. The aim of the study was to elicit the nature of virtual patients in a clinical setting, taking the students' experience as a point of departure.…
Weiss, D S
When staff attitudes toward patients in a busy radiology department were becoming somewhat depersonalized, the director of education and training and the department's supervisors put together an educational program to reorient staff members to total patient care. The case study approach taken allowed staff to pinpoint problems and then recommend ways to improve the quality of the department.
Schmelzer, C; Stone, N L
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of cholelithiasis. Compared with open cholecystectomy, this procedure offers shorter hospital stays, shorter recovery time, better cosmetic results, and an overall reduction in health care cost for the patient. As the number of cardiac patients having elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy increases, it is important for the postanesthesia nurse to understand the postoperative assessment and nursing interventions these patients require. Congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema are two potential complications resulting from insufflation of the abdomen and intraoperative fluids. This case study of a cardiac patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy demonstrates important postanesthesia assessment parameters.
Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion
Haberle, Tyler H; Shinkunas, Laura A; Erekson, Zachary D; Kaldjian, Lauris C
Our objective was to validate 6 literature-derived goals of care by analyzing open-ended and closed-ended responses about goals of care from a previous study of hospitalized patients. Eight clinicians categorized patients' open-ended articulations of their goals of care using a literature-derived framework and then compared those categorizations to patients' own closed-ended selections of their most important goal of care. Clinicians successfully categorized patients' open-ended responses using the literature-derived framework 83.5% of the time, and their categorizations matched patients' closed-ended most important goal of care 87.8% of the time. Goals that did not fit within the literature-derived framework all pertained to the goal of understanding a patient's diagnosis or prognosis; this seventh potential goal can be added to the literature-derived framework of 6 goals of care.
Halteh, Pierre; Scher, Richard; Artis, Amanda; Lipner, Shari
Importance Subungual melanoma (SM) is a rare subtype of cutaneous melanoma but carries a worse prognosis than similarly staged cutaneous melanomas. Assessing patient knowledge of melanonychia is integral to early diagnosis of SM. Objectives The aim of this paper is to determine patient knowledge of longitudinal melanonychia (LM) and warning signs for SM, frequency of nail self-examinations, and satisfaction of patients with their physician's nail examinations. Design, Setting, and Participants We conducted a survey-based study of 363 random patients at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York, USA, performed at 3 different clinics: a general dermatology clinic (n = 167), a nail specialty clinic (n = 44), and a primary care clinic (n = 152). Main Outcomes and Measures Knowledge of the ABCDEF mnemonic for SM was compared to the ABCD mnemonic for cutaneous melanoma. Analyses were performed for patient behavior regarding suspicious nail changes as well as satisfaction with nail counseling and examination. Results Only 5% (18/363) of the patients in our study had heard of the ABCDEF mnemonic. In contrast, 9.9% (36/363) of the patients had heard of the ABCD mnemonic for cutaneous melanoma. In total, 37/363 (10.2%) patients reported having LM, 32.4% (12/37) of the patients noted changes in color or width of the band, and 10.8% (4/37) presented with pain or bleeding of the nail, with only 45.9% (17/37) seeking medical attention. Only 11.8% (43/363) of the patients stated that their physician asked them about nail changes, and 1.4% (5/363) of the patients stated that they were counseled about the ABCDEF mnemonic. In comparison, 13.8% (50/363) of the patients were advised on the ABCD mnemonic for the cutaneous melanoma mnemonic. While 70.2% (255/363) of the patients stated that they used sunscreen or wore sun-protective clothing, only 31.4% (114/363) assessed their nails for color changes, with 54.9% (128/233) of the patients categorizing themselves as “very unsatisfied” with
Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Rabori, Roghayeh Mehdipour
Background: Patient’s dignity is an important issue which is highlighted in nursing It is an issue that is highly dependent on context and culture. Heart disease is the most common disease in Iran and the world. Identification of facilitator and threatening patient dignity in heart patients is vital. This study aimed to explore facilitator and threatening patient dignity in hospitalized patients with heart disease. Methods: This qualitative content analysis study was performed in 2014 in Kerman, Iran. 20 patients admitted to coronary care units and 5 personnel were selected using purposeful sampling in semi-structured and in depth interviews. Researchers also used documentation and field notes until data saturation. Qualitative data analysis was done constantly and simultaneously with data collection Results: Three central themes emerged: a) Care context which includes human environment and physical environment, b) Holistic safe care including meeting the needs of patients both in the hospital and after discharge, c) Creating a sense of security and an effective relationship between patient and nurse, including a respectful relationship and account the family in health team. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that care context is important for patient dignity as well as physical environment and safe holistic care. PMID:26793729
Kasuki, Leandro; Marques, Nelma Verônica; Nuez, Maria José Braga La; Leal, Vera Lucia Gomes; Chinen, Renata N; Gadelha, Mônica R
Approximately 50 % of all acromegalic patients will require lifelong medical treatment to normalize mortality rates and reduce morbidity. Thus, adherence to therapy is essential to achieve treatment goals. To date, no study has evaluated the frequency and reasons for loss to follow-up in the acromegalic population. The current study aimed at evaluating the frequency of acromegalic patient loss to follow-up in three reference centers and the reasons responsible for their low compliance with treatment. All of the files for the acromegalic patients in the three centers were reviewed. Those patients, who had not followed up with the hospital for more than a year, were contacted via phone and/or mail and invited to participate. Patients who agreed to participate were interviewed, and blood samples were collected. A total of 239 files were reviewed; from these 42 patients (17.6 %) were identified who were lost to follow-up. It was possible to contact 27 of these patients, 10 of whom did not attend the appointments for more than one time and 17 of whom agreed to participate in the study. Fifteen of these 17 patients had active disease (88.2 %), and all of the patients restarted treatment in the original centers. The main reason for loss to follow-up was an absence of symptoms. High-quality follow-up is important in acromegaly to successfully achieve the aims of the treatment. An active search for patients may allow the resumption of treatment in a significant proportion of these cases, contributing to reduced morbidity and mortality in this patient population.
Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo
Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.
... 164254.html Fewer Patients Die During Hospital Inspection Weeks: Study Slight differences in death rates were possibly ... likely to die if they are treated during weeks that inspectors are checking on the staff, a ...
Pauletti, M.; Di Ricco, G.; Solfanelli, S.; Marini, C.; Contini, C.; Giuntini, C.
Isotope venography was used to study the venous circulation proximal to the superior vena cava in two groups of pacemaker patients, one with a single endocavitary electrode and the other with multiple pacing catheters. A control group of patients without pacemakers was also studied. Numerous abnormalities were found, especially in the group with multiple electrodes. These findings suggest that venous obstruction is a common complication of endocardial pacing.
Arboix, A; Padilla, I; Massons, J; Garcia-Eroles, L; Comes, E; Targa, C
The objective was to assess the frequency of pure motor stroke caused by different stroke subtypes and to compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and outcome data of pure motor stroke with those of patients with other lacunar stroke as well as with those of patients with non-lacunar stroke. Data from 2000 patients with acute stroke (n=1761) or transient ischaemic attack (n=239) admitted consecutively to the department of neurology of an acute care 350 bed teaching hospital were prospectively collected in the Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona stroke registry over a 10 year period. For the purpose of the study 222 (12.7%) patients with pure motor stroke were selected. The other study groups included 218 (12.3%) patients with other lacunar strokes and 1321 (75%) patients with non-lacunar stroke. In relation to stroke subtype, lacunar infarcts were found in 189 (85%) patients, whereas ischaemic lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts occurred in 23 (10.4%) patients (atherothrombotic stroke in 12, cardioembolic stroke in seven, infarction of undetermined origin in three, and infarction of unusual aetiology in one) and haemorrhagic lacunar syndromes in 10 (4.5%). Patients with pure motor stroke showed a better outcome than patients with non-lacunar stroke with a significantly lower number of complications and in hospital mortality rate, shorter duration of hospital stay, and a higher number of symptom free patients at hospital discharge. After multivariate analysis, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, non-sudden stroke onset, internal capsule involvement, and pons topography seemed to be independent factors of pure motor stroke in patients with acute stroke. In conclusion, about one of every 10 patients with acute stroke had a pure motor stroke. Pure motor stroke was caused by a lacunar infarct in 85% of patients and by other stroke subtypes in 15%. Several clinical features are more frequent in patients with pure motor stroke than in
Paul, Ashish; John, Bobby; Pawar, Basant; Sadiq, Shalinder
This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and to identify factors contributing to development of ARF in orthopaedic trauma patients. A total of 55 patients who presented over a period of one year with trauma to upper and lower limbs were studied. Patients with renal injury, chest or abdominal injury, isolated fractures of the hands, feet and axial skeleton involvement were excluded. Out of these, five developed acute renal failure, three recovered and two died. The overall incidence of ARF in this study was 9.1%. Patients with lower limb injuries are at higher risk of developing ARF. Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) > or = 7, higher age, patient presenting with shock, increased myoglobin levels in urine and serum have been correlated with a greater risk of patients developing ARF and a higher mortality. This study attempts to determine the magnitude of crush injury causing renal failure and the incidence of renal failure in patients with injuries affecting the appendicular skeleton exclusively.
Beaussart, M; Beaussart-Defaye, J; Lamiaux, J M; Grubar, J C
A longitudinal study of 1,089 epileptic patients followed up by the same specialist between 1965-1991, allowed close observation of the seizures occurring to the patient at the wheel and their consequences and to relate them to detailed epileptological criteria. The results show road accidents caused by epileptic seizures are few and most of them are minor. The repatriation of risks between patients is very uneven. The quality of the neuro-psychic inter-critical state as well as the patients' degree of compliance seem to be more reliable risk indicators than some more traditional criteria like the length of remission between seizures. Although seizures occur more frequently in patients suffering from Complex Partial seizures as opposed to other forms of epileptic seizures, the differences between patients with epilepsy lies mostly in their behaviour and in their own representation of the risks. There is a need for a body of rules and regulations serving as an official framework regulating the driving test. This widely circulated document should take into account the multiplicity of cases, including the small number of patients thought to be dangerous. Its mode of application should allow doctors as well as patients to opt for a realistic attitude based on decision-making criteria involving a thorough knowledge of epilepsy as well as a thorough knowledge of the psychological characteristics of the patient concerned.
Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Ghadiri, Djahanchah P; Karazivan, Philippe; Fernandez, Nicolas; Clavel, Nathalie
To advocate for patients to be more actively involved with the healthcare services they receive, particularly patients living with chronic illness, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Montreal and its affiliated hospitals developed the Patients as Partners concept where the patient is considered a full-fledged partner of the health care delivery team and the patient's experiential knowledge is recognized. This study aims to show how patients view their engagement with healthcare professionals regarding their direct care. Using theoretical sampling, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients with chronic illness who were familiar with the concept of Patients as Partners. Data analysis followed a constructivist grounded theory approach. Patients describe themselves as proactively engaging in three types of practice, regardless of health professionals' openness to their role as partners. The first is a process of continuous learning that allows them to acquire experiential knowledge about their health, as well as scientific information and technical know-how. The second involves their assessment of the healthcare they receive, in terms of its quality and how it aligns with their personal preferences. It includes their assessment of the quality of their relationship with the health professional and of the latter's scientific knowledge and technical know-how. The third type, adaptation practices, builds on patients' learning and assessments to compensate for and adapt to what has been perceived as optimal or non-optimal health or healthcare circumstances. Patients appear to play a more active and less docile role in their own direct care than suggested so far in the literature, regardless of the degree of reciprocity of the partnership or the degree to which the health professional seeks to encourage patient engagement.
Manríquez, Pablo; Acuña, Ana María; Muñoz, Luis; Reyes, Alvaro
Objective: Inhaler technique comprises a set of procedures for drug delivery to the respiratory system. The oral inhalation of medications is the first-line treatment for lung diseases. Using the proper inhaler technique ensures sufficient drug deposition in the distal airways, optimizing therapeutic effects and reducing side effects. The purposes of this study were to assess inhaler technique in pediatric and adult patients with asthma; to determine the most common errors in each group of patients; and to compare the results between the two groups. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Using a ten-step protocol, we assessed inhaler technique in 135 pediatric asthma patients and 128 adult asthma patients. Results: The most common error among the pediatric patients was failing to execute a 10-s breath-hold after inhalation, whereas the most common error among the adult patients was failing to exhale fully before using the inhaler. Conclusions: Pediatric asthma patients appear to perform most of the inhaler technique steps correctly. However, the same does not seem to be true for adult patients. PMID:26578130
Feral-Pierssens, Anne-Laure; Aubry, Adeline; Truchot, Jennifer; Raynal, Pierre-Alexis; Boiffier, Mathieu; Hutin, Alice; Leleu, Agathe; Debruyne, Geraud; Joly, Luc-Marie; Juvin, Philippe; Riou, Bruno
Objectives. To determine whether homeless patients experience suboptimal care in the emergency department (ED) by the provision of fewer health care resources. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study in 30 EDs in France. During 72 hours in March 2015, all homeless patients that visited the participating EDs were included in the study. The primary health care service measure was the order by the physician of a diagnostic investigation or provision of a treatment in the ED. Secondary measures of health care services included ED waiting time, number and type of investigations per patient, treatment in the ED, and discharge disposition. Results. A total of 254 homeless patients and 254 nonhomeless patients were included. After excluding homeless patients that attended the ED for the sole purpose of housing, we analyzed 214 homeless and 214 nonhomeless. We found no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of health care resource consumption, and for our secondary endpoints. Conclusions. We did not find significant differences in the level of medical care delivered in French EDs to homeless patients compared with matched nonhomeless patients. PMID:26985613
Barry, Christine A; Bradley, Colin P; Britten, Nicky; Stevenson, Fiona A; Barber, Nick
Objective To investigate patients' agendas before consultation and to assess which aspects of agendas are voiced in the consultation and the effects of unvoiced agendas on outcomes. Design Qualitative study. Setting 20 general practices in south east England and the West Midlands. Participants 35 patients consulting 20 general practitioners in appointment and emergency surgeries. Results Patients' agendas are complex and multifarious. Only four of 35 patients voiced all their agendas in consultation. Agenda items most commonly voiced were symptoms and requests for diagnoses and prescriptions. The most common unvoiced agenda items were: worries about possible diagnosis and what the future holds; patients' ideas about what is wrong; side effects; not wanting a prescription; and information relating to social context. Agenda items that were not raised in the consultation often led to specific problem outcomes (for example, major misunderstandings), unwanted prescriptions, non-use of prescriptions, and non-adherence to treatment. In all of the 14 consultations with problem outcomes at least one of the problems was related to an unvoiced agenda item. Conclusion Patients have many needs and when these are not voiced they can not be addressed. Some of the poor outcomes in the case studies were related to unvoiced agenda items. This suggests that when patients and their needs are more fully articulated in the consultation better health care may be effected. Steps should be taken in both daily clinical practice and research to encourage the voicing of patients' agendas. PMID:10797036
Choi, Jeeyae; Choi, Jeungok E
To enhance patient safety from falls, many hospital information systems have been implemented to collect clinical data from the bedside and have used the information to improve fall prevention care. However, most of them use administrative data not clinical nursing data. This necessitated the development of a web-based Nursing Practice and Research Information Management System (NPRIMS) that processes clinical nursing data to measure nurses' delivery of fall prevention care and its impact on patient outcomes. This pilot study developed computer algorithms based on a falls prevention protocol and programmed the prototype NPRIMS. It successfully measured the performance of nursing care delivered and its impact on patient outcomes using clinical nursing data from the study site. Results of the study revealed that NPRIMS has the potential to pinpoint components of nursing processes that are in need of improvement for preventing patient from falls.
Önal, Gülsüm; Civaner, M. Murat
Background: In 2004, Patient Rights Units were established in all public hospitals in Turkey to allow patients to voice their complaints about services. Aims: To determine what violations are reflected into the complaint mechanism, the pattern over time, and patients’ expectations of the services. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: A retrospective study performed using the complaint database of the Istanbul Health Directorate, from 2005 to 2011. Results: The results indicate that people who are older than 40 years, women, and those with less than high school education are the most common patients in these units. A total of 218,186 complaints were filed. Each year, the number of complaints increased compared to the previous year, and nearly half of the applications were made in 2010 and 2011 (48.9%). The three most frequent complaints were “not benefiting from services in general” (35.4%), “not being treated in a respectable manner and in comfortable conditions” (17.8%), and “not being properly informed” (13.5%). Two-thirds of the overall applications were found in favour of the patients (63.3%), and but this rate has decreased over the years. Conclusion: Patients would like to be treated in a manner that respects their human dignity. Educating healthcare workers on communication skills might be a useful initiative. More importantly, health policies and the organisation of services should prioritise patient rights. It is only then would be possible to exercise patient rights in reality. PMID:25759767
Goljar, Nika; Burger, Helena; Rudolf, Marko; Stanonik, Irena
The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of balance training in a balance trainer, a newly developed mechanical device for training balance, with conventional balance training in subacute stroke patients. This was a randomized controlled study. Fifty participants met the inclusion criteria and 39 finished the study. The participants were…
Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio
Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.
Park, Seunglee; Lee, Jin-Youn; Jung, Heeyoune; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Seung Ah
Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of dysphagic elderly Korean patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia as well as to examine the necessity of performing a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia in such patients. Method The medical records of dysphagic elderly Korean subjects diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics as well as for VFSS findings. Results In total, medical records of 105 elderly patients (81 men and 24 women) were reviewed in this study. Of the 105 patients, 82.9% (n=87) were admitted via the emergency department, and 41.0% (n=43) were confined to a bed. Eighty percent (n=84) of the 105 patients were diagnosed with brain disorders, and 68.6% (n=72) involved more than one systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus, cancers, chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, chronic renal disorders, and chronic liver disorders. Only 66.7% (n=70) of the 105 patients underwent VFSS, all of which showed abnormal findings during the oral or pharyngeal phase, or both. Conclusion In this study, among 105 dysphagic elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia, only 66.7% (n=70) underwent VFSS in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia. As observed in this study, the evaluation of dysphagia is essential in order to consider elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia, particularly in patients with poor functional status, brain disorders, or more than one systemic disease. A greater awareness of dysphagia in the elderly, as well as the diagnostic procedures thereof, particularly VFSS, is needed among medical professionals in Korea. PMID:23342310
Introduction Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy between what patients with cancer and their relatives experience as important unanswered questions and those which are actually researched. This study aims to challenge the conventional research process by inviting patients with life-threatening cancer (primary malignant brain tumours or acute leukaemia), relatives and patient organisations to join forces with clinical specialists and researchers to identify, discuss and prioritise supportive care and rehabilitation issues in future research. Methods and analysis This is an exploratory qualitative study comprising two sets of three focus group interviews (FGIs): one set for primary malignant brain tumours and the other for acute leukaemia. Separate FGIs will be carried out with patients and relatives including representation from patient organisations and clinical specialists to identify important unanswered questions and research topics within each group. The FGIs will be video/audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. This study will contribute to a patient-centred research agenda that captures issues that patients, their relatives, clinical specialists and researchers consider important. Ethics and dissemination The study is registered at the Danish Data Protection Agency (number: 2012-58-0004) and the Scientific Ethics Review Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark (number: H-15001485). Papers will be published describing the methods applied and the supportive care and rehabilitation issues that are identified as important for future research. Trial registration number ISRCTN57131943; Pre-results. PMID:27221126
Wei, Dong; Tian, Yan; Gao, Hui; Peng, Jingjing; Tan, Yong; Li, Yan
The study was conducted to extend research on the reluctance for emotional disclosure to Chinese patients with a variety of types of cancer. A quantitative survey was conducted among 400 cancer patients in China. Statistical analysis revealed that among four confirmed factors on reluctance for emotional disclosure to physicians, no perceived need scored highest, followed by unwillingness to bother, no practical use, and fear of negative impact. Patient distress was negatively associated with no perceived need and no practical use. Patients with low family support scored significantly lower in all factors except fear of negative impact. Education and income affected the factor of no perceived need. Those patients having limited family support and limited education indicated a higher need for emotional support from their physicians and were more likely to open up to them. Cultural traits should be integrated into supportive cancer care research.
Background Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) as the leading cause of lower limb amputation is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Patient and physician’s education plays a significant role in DFU prevention. While effective treatment and formulation of prevention guidelines for DFU require a thorough understanding of characteristics of DFU patients and their ulcers, there are reports that not only patients’ but also physicians’ information about these characteristics is inadequate. So we conducted this study to investigate these characteristics. Methods Necessary data was collected from medical archives of DFU patients admitted between 2002 and 2008 in two university hospitals. Results 873 patients were included. Mean age was 59.3 ± 11.2 years and most of the patients developed DFU in 5th and 6th decades of their life. 58.1% were men. 28.8% had family history of DM. Mean duration of DM was 172.2 months. Mean duration of DFU was 79.8 days. Only 14.4% of the patients had Hemoglobin A1C < 7%. 69.6% of the patients had history of previous hospitalization due to DM complications. The most prevalent co-morbidities were renal, cardiovascular and ophthalmic ones. Most patients had “ischemic DFU” and DFU in their “right” limb. The most prevalent location of DFU was patients’ toes, with most of them being in the big toe. 28.2% of the patients underwent lower-limb amputations. The amputation rate in the hospital where the “multidisciplinary approach” has been used was lower (23.7% vs. 30.1%). Conclusions Number of patients with DFU is increasing. DFU is most likely to develop in middle-aged diabetic patients with a long duration of DM and poor blood sugar control who have other co-morbidities of DM. Male patients are at more risk. Recurrence of DFU is a major point of concern which underscores the importance of patient education to prevent secondary ulcers. As a result, educating medical and nursing personnel, applying
Gardner, Katy; Chapple, Alison
Objectives To explore barriers to patients being referred for possible revascularisation. Design Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Participants 16 patients aged under 75 years with stable angina and their doctors. Setting General practice in Toxteth, Liverpool. Results Fear of both hospitals and medical tests was common and largely hidden from the doctors. Patients felt they were old, had low expectations of treatment, viewed angina as a chronic illness, and knew little about new developments in angina treatment. Patients and doctors had difficulty in recognising angina symptoms that were not textbook definitions amid multiple comorbidity. Patients saw doctors as busy and did not want to bother them with their condition. Cultural gaps and communication difficulties existed despite all but one patient having English as their first language. Conclusions Listening to patients is vital to address inequitable access to health services: how patients are treated by doctors today affects acceptability of referral tomorrow. Primary care groups in deprived areas should work with communities to address local fears. This will involve collaboration between primary, secondary, and tertiary care. Cultural gaps exist between patients and doctors in deprived areas, and diagnostic confusion can occur particularly in the presence of other psychological and physical morbidity. Adequate time and resources—for example, education for doctors and patients and provision of interpreters—need to be provided if inequitable access to revascularisation procedures is to be addressed. Key messages In different communities and patient groups different myths and fears operate and need to be addressed, as experiences of hospital can profoundly affect patients’ confidence Patients in deprived areas with high mortality rates perceive themselves as “old” at a young age, and expectations of treatment are limited Angina symptoms in inner city primary care may not be the same
Clausen, G; Borchelt, M; Janssen, C; Loos, S; Mull, L; Pfaff, H
Patients' satisfaction has become a central concept in quality assurance. Despite progress in research in this area is still a lack of data for geriatric patients. Referring to the consumer model, satisfaction can be described as a difference between expectations and assessed performance. The aim of this study is to analyze satisfaction among geriatric patients in an in-patient setting. A personal interview was performed 1-2 days before discharge. Patients suffering for dementia or with problems to communicate were excluded. 124 of 268 geriatric patients who were discharged in 2003 were included (inclusion rate 46.3%). 119 were willing to participate (response rate 96.0%). Respondents were between 61 and 96 years old, 39% were male and 42% had serious functional limitations at time of admission. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of a combined index of satisfaction and expectations: a) quality of hotel services; b) experience of neglect; c) provision of medical information and skills. In summary, standardized personal questionnaires can provide valid and reliable data of geriatric patients. Satisfaction of elderly patients is negatively affected by neglect and positively influenced by provision of medical information and a good hotel services.
Dever, Lisa L; Matta, Jyoti S
Digital clubbing is characterized by bulbous enlargement of the distal phalanges due to an increase in soft tissue. It has been associated with a variety of conditions including cyanotic heart disease, neoplasms and infections of the lungs, bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. We conducted an observational study at an urban Veterans Affairs Medical Center outpatient HIV clinic to confirm our clinical impression that clubbing is common in HIV-infected patients and to identify factors that might be associated with it. Clinical, laboratory, and physical examination data including measurement of the circumference of the nail bed and distal phalanx of each finger were obtained on 78 HIV-infected patients seen for their routine care over a 3-month period. A digital index (DI), the ratio of the nail bed:distal phalanx circumference was determined for each patient. Clubbing was found in 28 patients (36%). Clubbed patients did not differ from nonclubbed patients with respect to most patient characteristics; CD4 cell counts and quantitative HIV RNA were similar in both groups. Clubbed patients had a significantly higher DI than controls (1.03 versus 0.96, p < 0.001), were younger (45 versus 49 years, p = 0.04), and had longer duration of HIV disease (48 versus, 42 months, p = 0.03). HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired digital clubbing.
Mirhaghi, Amir; Heydari, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Noghani Dokht Bahmani, Mohsen
Background Triage in the interactive atmosphere of the emergency department (ED) has been described as complex and challenging. Nonemergent ED visits have been accompanied by ethical and legal conflicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of ED nurses’ practice regarding triage of nonemergent patients. Patients and Methods Focused micro-ethnography based on Spradley’s developmental research sequence (DRS) was used. This study was conducted in an emergency department. Data was collected through complete participant observations along with formal and informal interviews, and then analyzed using DRS. Results Nine key informants were interviewed formally. Four main categories emerged from the nurses’ culture: nonemergent patient as an uninvited guest, nonemergent patient as an elephant in a dark room, nonemergent patient as an aggressive client, and being nonemergency unless at risk of death. Conclusions Providing care in the emergency department is significantly affected by nonemergent patients, as the emergency department is a place for critically ill patients thus awareness training program is recommended. PMID:28180119
Diesfeldt, H F
Language is often impaired in patients with a primary degenerative dementia syndrome. Severe dementia may even lead to mutism, a condition in which the person does not produce any spontaneous speech, despite preservation of consciousness. The question is if there are any language abilities left in patients who do not speak. In this single case-study the echolalic behaviour of a patient with severe dementia and mixed transcortical aphasia (or isolation of the speech area) was analysed by means of special linguistic tasks. In repeating sentences violating number agreement, the patient spontaneously corrected the pronoun, the noun or the verb. Furthermore, her verbal output during repetition tasks was highly constrained to lexically acceptable Dutch nouns. Despite extremely poor comprehension, this patient did not repeat verbal utterances in a parrot-like fashion. There are not many reports in the literature of patients who develop a mixed transcortical aphasia as a consequence of primary degenerative dementia. A comparable case was described by H. Whitaker. Single case-studies, such as these, are essential to our insight into the course of language breakdown in senile dementia. The preserved repetition ability of this patient demonstrates the robustness of the articulatory loop system, even if there is a severe comprehension deficit.
Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja
Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217
Voeltz, Michele D; Manoukian, Steven V
The benefit of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes, drug-eluting stents and those at high risk for thromboembolic events has been well established in a number of well-designed randomized controlled studies. Current research in this area has focused on the development of novel antiplatelet agents for clinical use. The BRIDGE trial evaluated the use of cangrelor as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients receiving extended DAPT. The BRIDGE trial results confirm the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in this population. This study is novel as it attempts to address the lapse in thienopyridine therapy required for many surgical and invasive procedures. The future of antiplatelet agents, particularly cangrelor, must also focus on bridging for high-risk patients undergoing noncoronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures. Overall, the BRIDGE trial represents a significant advance for patients appropriate for long-term DAPT.
Lombardo, T; Tamburino, C; Bartoloni, G; Morrone, M L; Frontini, V; Italia, F; Cordaro, S; Privitera, A; Calvi, V
Secondary heart failure induced by organ siderosis is the main cause of death in patients affected by thalassemia major. At present it cannot be predicted whether heart siderosis is correlated with iron overload and little is known about the real cardiac histological pattern of post transfusional hemochromatosis in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia. The study aim was to evaluate cardiac iron overload by non invasive and invasive techniques. Fifteen thalassemic patients were investigated and endomyocardial biopsy performed in ten revealed different grades of endomyocardial iron overload with histochemical positivity. Non invasive techniques are not able to furnish an exact picture of the cardiac hemochromatosis. There was a significant correlation between serum ferritin and myocardial iron grade. Patients with elevated ferritin levels and poor compliance to chelating therapy are at high risk of severe heart hemochromatosis. It was seen that endomyocardial biopsy is a useful tool in studying myocardial iron.
Bender, Melinda; Clark, Maresha; Guevara, Enrique; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok
Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.
Marisavljević, D; Rolović, Z
The purpose of this study was to analyse, by immunomorphometry, megakaryocytopoiesis in patients with myelodysplatsic syndrome. The results revealed that, in spite of marked megakaryocyte hyperplasia, patients with myelodysplastic syndrome suffer from severe peripheral thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocytes in myelodisplastic syndrome have, in average, small cellular and nuclear diameter and 35.3% of them (s. c. micromegakaryocyres) can be identified only by using immunohistochemical technique. In conclusion, there is severe maturation disturbancy, ineffectiveness and disregulation of megakaryocytopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndrome.
Reuwer, Anne Q; Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Battjes, Suzanne; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Stuijver, Danka J F; Bisschop, Peter H; Twickler, Marcel Th B; Meijers, Joost C M; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Stroes, Erik S
Atherothrombosis is a multifactorial process, governed by an interaction between the vessel wall, hemodynamic factors and systemic atherothrombotic risk factors. Recent in vitro, human ex vivo and animal studies have implicated the hormone prolactin as an atherothrombotic mediator. To address this issue, we evaluated the anatomy and function of various microvascular beds as well as plasma atherothrombosis markers in patients with elevated prolactin levels. In this pilot study, involving 10 prolactinoma patients and 10 control subjects, sidestream dark field (SDF) imaging revealed a marked perturbation of the sublingual microcirculation in prolactinoma patients compared to control subjects, as attested to by significant changes in microvascular flow index (2.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.91 ± 0.05, respectively; P = 0.0006), in heterogeneity index (0.28 [IQR 0.18-0.31] vs. 0.09 [IQR 0.08-0.17], respectively; P = 0.002) and lower proportion of perfused vessels (90 ± 4.0% vs. 95 ± 3.0%, respectively; P = 0.016). In the retina, fluorescein angiography (FAG) confirmed these data, since prolactinoma patients more often have dilatated perifoveal capillaries. In plasma, prolactinoma patients displayed several pro-atherogenic disturbances, including a higher endogenous thrombin potential and prothrombin levels as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol levels. Prolactinoma patients are characterized by microvascular dysfunction as well as plasma markers indicating a pro-atherothrombotic state. Further studies are required to assess if prolactin is causally involved in atherothrombotic disease.
Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y
Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.
Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186
Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao
Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.
Selim, Mohamed Khaled; Ahmed, El-Shahat Farag; Abdelgawad, Mamdouh Morsy; El-Kamel, Mohammed Fawzy
Background: Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a disease of unclear etiology. Propionbacterium acnes (P. acnes) was claimed to be an etiological factor. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to document the clinicopathological features of PMH in Egyptian patients and to evaluate the therapeutic outcome. Methods: Patients with clinical features of PMH were recruited. Wood’s lamp examination, skin scrapings for fungi, and skin biopsy specimens were obtained. Biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, PAS, Fontana-Masson, and S100 protein. Patients received either narrow-band UVB (nbUVB) or nbUVB plus daily topical clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide gel 5% (bcUVB). The period of active treatment was 14 weeks followed by a follow-up period of 24 weeks. Results: Twenty-nine patients were included. Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsy specimens showed no significant differences between lesional and normal skin. Fontana-Masson stained sections showed overall reduction of melanin granules in the basal layer of lesional skin only and S100 staining did not detect significant differences in the number of melanocytes in lesional and normal skin. Nearly complete repigmentation was reported in 10 patients treated with bcUVB compared to 9 patients treated with nbUVb with no significant differences between both groups after 14 weeks. Only 2 patients in each group retained the pigmentation and the remaining patients returned to the baseline color before treatment. Conclusions: This study documented the clinicopathological features of PMH among Egyptians. No permanently effective treatment is available. Further studies are needed to prove or disprove the pathogenic role of P. acnes in PMH. PMID:24396712
Wu, Yuan; Feng, Yun; Pang, Jia-Rong; Tang, Mei; Liu, Xiu-Ying; Li, Jia-Quan; Wang, Xue-Feng
In this study, we examined differences in serum laminin expression in patients with intractable epilepsy. Our results suggest that elevated laminin may contribute to the pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy. ELISA and western blots were used to measure laminin in the serum of 30 intractable epilepsy patients, 46 nonintractable epilepsy patients, and 20 normal subjects. By ELISA, serum laminin levels were greater in intractable epilepsy patients (177.396 +/- 30.602) and nonintractable epilepsy patients (121.915 +/- 35.215) than in normal control subjects (67.474 +/- 7.197); laminin was significantly greater in the intractable epilepsy group than in the nonintractable epilepsy group. In western blots, the optical density ratio of laminin to ss-actin was 0.871 +/- 0.032 for the intractable epilepsy group, 0.686 +/- 0.017 for the nonintractable epilepsy group, and 0.385 +/- 0.024 for the normal control group. The optical density ratios of the intractable and nonintractable epilepsy groups were higher than those for the normal control group, and the intractable epilepsy group was even greater than the nonintractable epilepsy group. Thus, laminin is significantly increased in epilepsy patients, and this increase is more profound in intractable epilepsy patients.
Pal, Asutosh; Biswas, Atanu; Pandit, Alak; Roy, Arijit; Guin, Debsankar; Gangopadhyay, Goutam; Senapati, Asit Kumar
Objectives: To assess the visuospatial function in different types of dementia with the visual object and space perception (VOSP) battery and to relate the degree of visuospatial dysfunction with different types and stages of dementia. Materials and Methods: A sample of 53 participants with dementia and equal number of age-, sex-, and education-matched controls were recruited for the study. Participants were evaluated for visuospatial skill using VOSP test battery. The scores of dementia patients were compared with controls and within dementia cohort scores were compared based on stage of dementia. Results: The dementia group scored low in all of the subtests of the VOSP battery in comparison to controls. Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia of Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients performed more poorly than controls in all subtests examining object perception and space perception. The three semantic variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients scored low in all four subtests of object perception, whereas behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) patients performed normally. The scores deteriorated with the advancement of dementia in all patients from the dementia groups. Conclusions: Visuospatial function is significantly impaired in dementia patients particularly in AD, DLB, and VaD patients from the beginning, and the impairment is severe in advanced disease stages. PMID:27011635
Background The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language. Methods This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient. Results The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p<0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be K=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.91 p<0.0001). Conclusion The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings. PMID:23190625
Pranjic, Nurka; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ramic, Enisa
Introduction: embarrassed emotional experience may affect the ability to oncology patient effectively cope with cancer, symptoms and treatment. Distress extends a long period, from common, normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems of PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation and the perception of spiritual crisis. The aim of the research is to determine the level of distress and PTSD in cancer patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, cohort study cases from 2011- 2014 were included patients with cancer who are treated under the supervision of his chosen family medicine doctor. Including a factor for the participation of patients in the study is that from the moment of diagnosis of malignant disease passed <12 months. The total sample was 174 of the planned 200 (response rate=87%). The subjects were divided into three groups. A key factor in the creation of the group was the time elapsed from the moment of acknowledgment and confirmation of the diagnosis: T1 <14 days, n=56 patients; T2>14 days-<6 months, n=79 patients; T3>6 months n=39 patients. To achieve the set goals of the research was used instruments of 3 questionnaires: Questionnaire on the clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease, demographic and individual characteristics; questionnaire distress oncology patient–hospital scales of depression and anxiety, HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) and a rapid test for self-assessment of the symptoms of PTSD. Results: Age of patients was 54.63 ± 11:46 years, and the age of the respondents when they were diagnosed with cancer 54.34 ± 11.26 years. The prevalence of distress was a high 76% 82x higher than expected), and PTSD 55%. Predictors of burnout syndrome in cancer patients are all important determinants of malignant disease: the time elapsed since the diagnosis of the disease which determines the clinical status of malignant disease (β=0.280; P=0.001; 95% CI, 0742
Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud
Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. Results: Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). Conclusion More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients’ privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean. PMID:26755469
Wadia, Rustom S.; Ghiya, Sandesh K.; Singh, Joshita; Sontakke, Santosh M.; Bharadwaj, Vishwas; Sonawane, Rahul V.; Bade, Yogesh P.; Shrikanth, K.; Goli, Nikhil; Chauhan, Rohit Singh; Nadkarni, Nilesh A.
Background: In India, the correlates of leukoaraiosis (LA) have not been widely reported. This study was designed to investigate the factors which correlate with LA. Materials and Methods: We included patients with LA who consented for the study and graded their severity on the basis of Fazekas scale. We excluded patients with LA who did not consent/cooperate for the study as also patients with other white matter changes which mimic LA. Results: LA is a common and under-rated cause of disability. Presentations include cognitive decline, gait disturbance, dysarthria, bladder/bowel sphincter disturbances, and increased risk of stroke. The comorbidities include hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, ischemic heart disease, previous stroke, atrial fibrillation, chronic renal failure, and bariatric surgery. PMID:27994357
Dehkordi, Leila Mardanian; Babashahi, Monireh; Irajpour, Alireza
Background: Decision-making about patients with critical condition transfer from Intensive Care Unit to the general wards be delegated to their families. The aim of the study was explaining the experiences of family caregiver's about care of chronic critically ill patient. Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative content analysis using unstructured interview. Participants were selected purposively from May 2014 to May 2015 and data collection continued until data saturation. Analysis was based on conventional content analysis. Results: Participants’ experiences classified into three main categories as following: nonprofessional care, enhancing factors of care, and inhibiting factors of care. Conclusions: Finding of the current study showed different aspects of care. Care of chronic critically ill patients is a long-term process that affected by different factors. It seems that the exploration of caregivers needs and planning supportive interventions based on their needs improve the quality of care. PMID:28028426
Zisova, L; Valtchev, V; Sotiriou, E; Gospodinov, D; Mateev, G
1-3% of human population is affected by psoriasis. Nail disorders are reported in 10-80% of patients with psoriasis. Nail deformations vary according to their degree of severity but are mainly represented by pitting, Beau's lines, hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, leuconychia or oil drops. Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails, caused by dermatophytes, yeast and moulds. In this study, 228 patients with psoriasis aged between 18 and 72 were examined (48 - from Plovdiv, Bulgaria; 145 - from Pleven, Bulgaria and 35 - from Thessaloniki, Greece); 145 of them were male and 83 of them were female. The examination of the nail material was performed via direct microscopy with 20% KOH and nail samples plated out on Sabouraud agar methodology. The severity of the nail disorders was determined according to the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). Positive mycological cultures were obtained from 62% of the patients with psoriasis (52%- Plovdiv, Bulgaria; 70%- Pleven, Bulgaria and 43%- Thessaloniki, Greece). In 67% of the cases, the infection was caused by dermatophytes, in 24% by yeast, in 6% by moulds and in 3% by a combination of causes. All patients with psoriasis were identified with high levels of NAPSI, whereas the ones with isolated Candida had even higher levels. Seventeen percentage of the patients have been treated with methotrexate, 6% have been diagnosed with diabetes and 22% have been reported with onychomycosis and tinea pedis within the family. An increased prevalence of onychomycosis among the patients with psoriasis was found. Dystrophic nails in psoriasis patients are more predisposed to fungal infections. The mycological examination of all psoriasis patients with nail deformations is considered obligatory because of the great number of psoriasis patients diagnosed with onychomycosis.
Silin, A V; Satygo, E A; Semeleva, E I; Lila, A M
The aim of this study was to determine the functional activity of cranio-mandibular system in patients with TMG osteoarthrosis. The study included 20 patients with TMG osteoarthrosis and 20 healthy subjects representing control group. The EMG examination was performed according to standard protocol developed in Milan University. The symmetry index values in the group with TMG osteoarthrosis were lower than in the control group (78.76±12.29%), while Torque values were higher (8.53±14.62%). EMG standardized indexes allowed differentiating TMG osteoarthrosis.
Taylor, P J; Dalton, R; Fleminger, J J; Lishman, W A
Significant differences in handedness patterns between groups of psychiatric patients and normal controls were identified in two recent British studies, with substantial disagreement in some important findings. Most of the discrepancies were attributable to the different application of a simple classification of handedness data, and the remainder to differences in sample size. Diagnosis, sex and age were then found to have a similar effect on handedness in both studies. Neurotic patients were similar to controls regardless of classification, whereas mixed handedness in personality disorder depended on it. There was no overall excess of left-handedness among schizophrenics, but trends towards excess sinistrality in men and fully dextrality in women approached significance.
Background The use of the Internet as a source of health information is growing among people who experience mental health difficulties. The increase in Internet use has led to questions about online information-seeking behaviors, for example, how psychotherapists and patients use the Internet to ascertain information about each other. The notion of psychotherapists seeking information about their patients online (patient-targeted googling, PTG) has been identified and explored. However, the idea of patients searching for information online about their psychotherapists (therapist-targeted googling, TTG) and the associated motives and effects on the therapeutic relationship remain unclear. Objective This study investigated former and current German-speaking psychotherapy patients’ behavior and attitudes relating to TTG. In addition, patients’ methods of information gathering, motives, and success in searching for information were examined. Furthermore, patients’ experiences and perceptions of PTG were explored. Methods Overall, 238 former and current psychotherapy patients responded to a new questionnaire specifically designed to assess the frequency, motives, use, and outcomes of TTG as well as experiences and perceptions of PTG. The study sample was a nonrepresentative convenience sample recruited online via several German-speaking therapy platforms and self-help forums. Results Of the 238 former and current patients who responded, 106 (44.5%) had obtained information about their therapists; most of them (n=85, 80.2%) had used the Internet for this. Besides curiosity, motives behind information searches included the desire to get to know the therapist better by attempting to search for both professional and private information. TTG appeared to be associated with phases of therapy in which patients felt that progress was not being made. Patients being treated for personality disorders appear to engage more frequently in TTG (rphi = 0.21; P=.004). In general
Thapa, D P; Jha, A K; Kharel, C; Shrestha, S
Geriatric health care has become a major issue worldwide. There are no data regarding geriatric dermatologic diseases are available from Nepal. Patients of 60 years and above were enrolled in the Nepali fiscal year 2067(April 2010-April 2011). The data included age, sex, place, and diagnosis. The aim of the study is to determine the characteristic pattern and frequency of dermatoses in dermatologic patients aged 60 years and above. There were total of 6442 patients who visited out patients department. Out of which frequency of geriatric patients were 330, which constitute about 5.1%. The male to female ratio was 50% each. The most common cutaneous dermatoses was eczema 35.8%, fungal infection 13.6%, viral infection 7%, followed by pruritus 7.3%, scabies and photodermatitis 4.5% each, Inflammatory papulosquamous disorder 3.3%, Bacterial infection and Icthyosis 2.1% each, vesiculobullous 1.8%, tumors and pigmentary disorder 0.6% and Miscellaneous group (keratoderma, callus, urticaria, diabetic ulcer, burgers disease, burning feet syndrome, Rosacea, Drug rash-amoxicillin, senile acne, prurigo nodularis, hansens disease, pellagra, Actinic cheilitis) 15.8%. Few patients had more than one dermatoses which constitute < 1% .Photodermatitis was found to be statistically significant. The most common dermatoses were Eczema in females followed by Photodermatitis and comparatively in males viral and fungal infections were common. This study depicts various characteristic patterns of dermatoses seen in elderly. Eczema and infections was found to be most common diseases seen in elderly. Further epidemiologic studies including treatment, follow-up of elderly patients has to be carried out to know the burden of the disease and decrease morbidity and psychological concern associated with diseases.
Esmaili, Nafiseh; Mortazavi, Hossein; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra
Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.
Esmaili, Nafiseh; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Boreiri, Majid; Soori, Tahereh; Vasheghani Farahani, Iman; Mohit, Mitra
Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females) admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended. PMID:23844280
Lanthén, Klas; Rask, Mikael; Sunnqvist, Charlotta
Objective. To examine psychiatric patients' experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients' experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable. PMID:26199931
Thomsen, Tanja; Beyer, Nina; Aadahl, Mette; Hetland, Merete L.; Løppenthin, Katrine; Midtgaard, Julie; Esbensen, Bente A.
Background Despite increasing interest in investigating sedentary behaviour (SB) in the general population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is little documentation of the subjective experiences of SB in patients with RA. This study aimed to examine how patients with RA describe their daily SB. Methods Fifteen patients with RA (10 women and 5 men) from 23 to 73 years of age and with a disease duration ranging from 4 to 27 years were interviewed following a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using the content analysis method described by Graneheim. Results SB appeared in three categories covering: 1) A constant battle between good and bad days; SB could be a consequence of RA in terms of days with pronounced pain and fatigue resulting in many hours of SB. 2) Adaptation to everyday life; living with the unpredictability of RA included constant modification of physical activity level causing increase in SB, especially during periods of disease flare. Prioritizing and planning of SB also functioned as part of self-management strategies. 3) It has nothing to do with my arthritis; for some patients, SB was not related to RA, but simply reflected a way of living independent of the disease. Conclusions SB is perceived, motivated, and performed differently in patients with RA. An individually tailored approach may be essential in understanding and encouraging patients’ motivation towards sustainable change in SB and activity patterns. PMID:26462971
Jang, Gwon Uk; Kweon, Mi Gyoug; Park, Seol; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Ji Won
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural deformity of the foot joint on the affected side in hemiplegic patients to examine factors that affect this kind of structural deformity. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients and 32 normal adults participated. The foot posture index (FPI) was used to examine the shape of the foot, the modified Ashworth scale test was used to examine the degree of ankle joint rigidity, the navicular drop test was used to investigate the degree of navicular change, and the resting calcaneal stance position test was used to identify location change of the heel bone. [Results] The FPIs of the paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, the non-paretic side of the hemiplegic patients, and normal participants were −0.25 ± 2.1, 1.74 ± 2.3, and 2.12 ± 3.4 respectively. [Conclusion] Our findings indicated that in stroke-related hemiplegic patients, the more severe the spasticity, the more supinated the foot. Further, the smaller the degree of change in the navicular height of hemiplegic patients is, the more supinated the paretic side foot is. Additionally, a greater change in the location of the calcaneus was associated with greater supination of the overall foot. PMID:25642071
Manica, Denise; Schweiger, Cláudia; Netto, Cátia C Saleh; Kuhl, Gabriel
Introduction Although it has been more than 250 years since the first description of choanal atresia (CA), there are still doubts about this abnormality. The differences between unilateral and bilateral forms are seldom discussed. Objectives Aggregate data from patients diagnosed with CA, grouping patients with unilateral and bilateral forms. Methods Retrospective study. Results Eighteen patients were included: 12 (66.6%) presented bilateral atresia, of which 77.8% were mixed bony-membranous type and 22.2% were pure bony type. From the 12 patients with bilateral atresia, 10 presented related malformations, 3 of whom had CHARGE syndrome (coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, genitourinary problems, ear abnormalities). From the remaining 6 patients with unilateral atresia, only 2 showed malformations, 1 renal and 1 cardiac. All patients with unilateral atresia needed only 1 surgical procedure, and patients with the bilateral form needed a median of 2.85 interventions (p = 0.003). The median age of surgical procedure in the unilateral group was 6 years, ranging from 6 months to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 25 days, ranging from 6 days to 6 years (p = 0.003). The median interval between diagnosis and surgery was 9 months in the unilateral group, ranging from 1 month to 18 years, and in the bilateral group was 1 day, ranging from 1 day to 2 months (p = 0.001). Discussion and Conclusions Success rates with the endoscopic approach vary from 62 to 100%. Nonetheless, most of these reports present results without considering the number of compromised sides. In our opinion, unilateral and bilateral cases involve distinct patients (taking into account the related malformations), have diverging clinical presentations, and show discrepant restenosis rates and therefore could be considered in different groups of analysis. PMID:25992054
Naik, Pradeep; Premsagar, B; Mallikarjuna, M
The acute renal failure is the frequent medical complication observed in liver transplant patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cause of acute renal failure in post liver transplant patients. A total of 70 patients who underwent (cadaveric 52, live 18) liver transplantation were categorized based on clinical presentation into two groups, namely hepatorenal failure (HRF, n = 29), and Hepatic failure (HF, n = 41). All the patients after the liver transplant had received tacrolimus, mycophenolate and steroids. We analyzed the modification of diet in renal disease, (MDRD) serum urea, creatinine and albumin before and after 5th and 30th day of liver transplant and data was categorized into survivors and non-survivors group. In HRF survivor group, serum creatinine, and urea levels were high and, albumin, MDRD were low in pre- transplant and reached to normal levels on 30th day of post transplant, and 79.3 % of patients in this group showed resumption of normal kidney function. On the contrary in HRF nonsurvivor group, we did not observed any significant difference and 20.7 % of patients showed irreversible changes after the liver transplant. In HF survivor group, 82.9 % of liver failure patients did not show any deviation in serum creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD, whereas in HF non survivor group, 17.1 % of liver failure patients who had HCV positive before the transplant developed acute renal failure. The levels of creatinine, urea, albumin and MDRD were normal before the transplant and on day 30th, the levels of albumin and MDRD were significantly low whereas serum urea, creatinine levels were high. In conclusion, based on these observations, an diagnosis and treatment of Acute renal failure is important among the liver transplantation cases in the early postoperative period.
Marin, Benoît; Couratier, Philippe; Arcuti, Simona; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Nicol, Marie; Raymondeau, Marie; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Preux, Pierre Marie
The natural history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and patient risk stratification are areas of considerable research interest. We aimed (1) to describe the survival of a representative cohort of French ALS patients, and (2) to identify covariates associated with various patterns of survival using a risk classification analysis. ALS patients recruited in the FRALim register (2000-2013) were included. Time-to-death analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox model. A recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RECPAM) algorithm analysis identified subgroups of patients with different patterns of survival. Among 322 patients, median survival times were 26.2 and 15.6 months from time of onset and of diagnosis, respectively. Four groups of patients were identified, depending on their baseline characteristics and survival (1) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (median survival time (MST) 10.6 months); (2) ALSFRS-R slope >0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 18.1 months); (3) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and definite or probable ALS (MST: 22.5 months), and (4) ALSFRS-R slope ≤0.46/month and possible or probable laboratory-supported ALS (MST: 37.6 months). Median survival time is among the shortest ever reported by a worldwide population-based study. This is probably related to the age structure of the patients (the oldest identified to date), driven by the underlying population (30 % of subjects older than 60 years). Further research in the field of risk stratification could help physicians better anticipate prognosis of ALS patients, and help improve the design of randomized controlled trials.
O'Hara, Nathan N.; Mugarura, Rodney; Slobogean, Gerard P.; Bouchard, Maryse
The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with injuries have increased by 34% from 1990 to 2010, making it the 10th leading cause of disability worldwide, with most of the burden affecting low-income countries. Although disability from injuries is often preventable, limited access to essential surgical services contributes to these increasing DALY rates. Similar to many other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), Uganda is plagued by a growing volume of traumatic injuries. The aim of this study is to explore the orthopaedic trauma patient's experience in accessing medical care in Uganda and what affects the injury might have on the socioeconomic status for the patient and their dependents. We also evaluate the factors that impact an individual's ability to access an appropriate treatment facility for their traumatic injury. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients 18 year of age or older admitted with a fractured tibia or femur at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. As limited literature exists on the socioeconomic impacts of disability from trauma, we designed a descriptive qualitative case study, using thematic analysis, to extract unique information for which little has been previously been documented. This methodology is subject to less bias than other qualitative methods as it imposes fewer preconceptions. Data analysis of the patient interviews (n = 35) produced over one hundred codes, nine sub-themes and three overarching themes. The three overarching categories revealed by the data were: 1) the importance of social supports; 2) the impact of and on economic resources; and 3) navigating the healthcare system. Limited resources to fund the treatment of orthopaedic trauma patients in Uganda leads to reliance of patients on their friends, family, and hospital connections, and a tremendous economic burden that falls on the patient and their dependents. PMID:25360815
Higgins, J; Wiles, R
A questionnaire survey was carried out in 1991 in Wessex regional health authority of a sample of private patients having inpatient treatment in eight independent hospitals, and in pay beds in three National Health Service hospitals. A total of 649 patients replied (response rate 60.7%). Sixty respondents to the questionnaire were also interviewed. The aim of the study was to discover which groups of people chose private care rather than using the NHS, and why. In view of the current emphasis on consumerism in health care, the study also aimed to examine how patients exercised choice in a market situation and how well informed they were when they did so. The questionnaire asked about the role and influence of the general practitioner in patients' decisions to use private health care for treatment. The largest group of respondents were in the 36-50 years age group (34.2%). Of the respondents 59.9% were women, 54.1% were in social class 2 and 77.3% were married or cohabiting. The most common reason for using private health care for treatment was to avoid NHS waiting lists (61.5% of respondents) although they did not necessarily know how long that wait would have been. Patients sought their general practitioner's opinion about whether to use private health care in 187 cases (28.8%). The majority of the 649 patients (71.2%) had decided to use private health care before consulting the general practitioner. However, patients were influenced by their general practitioner's advice on the choice of consultant and choice of hospital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1457153
Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali
Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546
Moridi, Golrokh; Valiee, Sina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nasab, Golnaz Esmaeil; Khaledi, Shahnaz
Introduction Health is an exclusive and subjective phenomenon, and one of the most important situations with regard to perception of health, arises when patients suffer from a chronic disease. This study was conducted within the qualitative research framework and aimed to explore the meanings of health as perceived by a group of Iranian diabetic patients. Methods A descriptive qualitative analysis design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 participants among diabetic patients, who were admitted to the diabetes care centre of Tohid Hospital of the Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran during a ten-month period in 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed through conventional content analysis. Results Based on the findings of the study, three major health-related themes emerged: 1) the syndrome of the healthy body and the happy heart (physical well-being vivacity, satisfaction, and calmness of the mind), 2) life without compulsory limitations (lack of dietary limitations, No activity limitations, lack of social limitations), and 3) exalted spirituality (satisfying self and others, trusting God, remembering God). Conclusion Health care providers should consider the meaning of health in special groups, chiefly in patients with chronic diseases. It facilitates the development of appropriate programmes to improve desirable health levels among diabetic patients. PMID:27790342
Johnson, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Helen; Deaver, Sarah; Johansson, Mark; Calisch, Abby
Simulation is used widely in medical and health professions educational programs. Standardized patients (SPs) are individuals who are trained to simulate specific symptoms or conditions as part of a structured learning experience with students. In this qualitative, phenomenological study the researcher interviewed 8 first-year graduate art therapy…
Hilbers, Julieanne; Haynes, Abby S; Kivikko, Jennifer G
The relationship between spirituality/religion and health is receiving increasing academic interest, but few studies have explored the experience of Australians. This paper presents data from an exploratory survey of patients and families in a public teaching hospital in Sydney. The findings show that the majority of hospital service users:
Dutkiewicz, J; Strek, P; Modrzejewski, M; Olszewski, E
A series of 39 patients with problems of deglutition after total laryngectomy was studied by X-ray screening and manometry. The importance of the retropulsive movement of the tongue on the quality of deglutition has been demonstrated, as has the function of the superior oesophageal constrictor, the effect of a reduced relaxation time, and of the force of suction in reducing its quality.
Buitrago, Francisco; Calvo, Juan Ignacio; Redondo-López, Verónica; Cañón-Barroso, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Pérez, Leoncio; Hinojosa-Díaz, José Francisco
Background Overweight and obesity are positively correlated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Aim To evaluate whether obesity may be considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients of ages from 35 to 74 years followed-up for 10 years. Design of study Observational, longitudinal retrospective study. Setting Primary care practices in Badajoz (Spain). Method A cohort of 899 patients (mean 55.7 years; 58.2% female) without evidence of cardiovascular disease was studied. Results A total of 33.5% of the population were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). Patients meeting the obesity criteria were more commonly female (36.6%) and were older, had higher mean values of blood pressure and triglycerides, higher percentages of diabetes, and higher coronary risk using either the original Framingham or the Framingham function calibrated for the Spanish population (Framingham-REGICOR). During the follow-up period, the rates of cardiovascular events and death in patients with obesity tended to be higher: 16.3% versus 11.7%, P = 0.056 and 4.7% versus 2.2%, P<0.05, respectively. In the final model of the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with obesity were age, sex (male), diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. The highest odds ratio corresponded to smoking (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 3.38). Conclusion Obesity may not be considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients aged from 35 to 74 years followed-up for 10 years. PMID:20822691
Zhang, Xiao-Li; Li, Fei; Zhen, Ya-Min; Li, Ang; Fang, Yu
Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is the most common etiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) after alcohol and gallstone-induced disease. Elevation of serum triglyceride (TG) levels to ≥1000 mg/dl in a patient with AP strongly indicates HTG as the cause. The absolute risk of pancreatitis based on serum TG ≤1000 mg/dl has not been clearly defined. The aims of this study were to address the role of elevated TG levels between 500 and 1000 mg/dl in the clinical course of HTG pancreatitis (HTGP); and assess the relationship between the level of serum TG and disease severity. Methods: A total of 224 HTGP patients between 2007 and 2011 were divided into two subgroups. Totally, 122 patients in Group A had serum TG >1000 mg/dl; 102 patients in Group B had maximal TG levels between 500 and 1000 mg/dl accompanied by lactescent serum; 100 patients with biliary AP and 99 patients with alcoholic AP hospitalized during the study period were enrolled as controls. The clinical and biochemical data were analyzed. Results: The clinical presentation of HTG-induced pancreatitis was similar to other causes. Severe form of AP in Group A was higher than Group B (χ2 = 4.002, P = 0.045). The severity with HTGP was significantly higher as compared to biliary AP (χ2 = 33.533, P = 0.000) and alcoholic AP (χ2 = 7.179, P = 0.007). Systemic complications with HTGP were significantly higher than biliary AP (χ2 = 58.763, P = 0.000). Conclusions: The study demonstrated that TG level ≥500 mg/dl should raise a high degree of suspicion, especially if no other etiology of AP is apparent. The severity of HTGP seems to correlate directly with TG level. HTGP seems be more severe than other causes of AP. PMID:26228216
Ancheta, Irma B
An epidemic disease - a major cause of chronic disability - congestive heart failure adversely affects the health of millions. Congestive heart failure is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular hospital admissions and shares a significant responsibility for the high cost of healthcare. Despite medical and technological advances, studies show that the treatment of heart failure is suboptimal. Physician knowledge and awareness of appropriate treatment may contribute to patient compliance and improve delivery of healthcare. The purpose of this article is to examine how patients with heart failure in a heart failure clinic are managed. Recommendations are proposed and the role of nurses and clinicians in heart failure management is discussed.
Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie
Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available.The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features.The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available.Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis.
Bal, Manjit Singh; Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Mohanvir; Sharma, Swati
The State of Punjab has been in focus because of aperceived increasing rate of cancer. Both print and electronic media have created an impression that Punjab, especially the cotton belt of Malwa Region, has become a high incidence cancer region. Actually the increased number of cancer patients might be at least partly because of increasing population and heightened health awareness and reporting. The purpose of this study is to find out the pattern of cancer amongst patients registered in Mukh Mantri Punjab Cancer Rahat Kosh Scheme (MMPCRKS), under cancer registry at Rajindra Hospital Patiala from the various districts of Punjab. The study covers 500 cancer patients registered under MMPCRKS at Rajindra Hospital Patiala, for free cancer treatment. Information regarding age, gender, religion, method of diagnosis and affected sites was obtained. Results were analyzed statistically. Of the 500 patients, 65% were females and 35% were males. The most affected female age groups were 50-54 and 60-64; while males in the age groups of 65-69 and 60-64 had the highest risk. The leading cancers in females were breast followed by cervix and ovary where as in males they were were colon followed by esophagus and tongue. The commonest histological type was adenocarcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma. The increasing trend of cancer in Punjab is alarming. Since this study is a preliminary investigation, it could provide a leading role in prevention, treatment and future planning regarding cancer in Punjab.
Caligor, Eve; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Devlin, Michael; Rutherford, Bret R; Terry, Madeleine; Roose, Steven P
The feasibility of using a randomized design in a psychoanalytic outcome study was evaluated. Our hypothesis was that it would be feasible to randomize patients to psychoanalysis three or four times weekly on the couch for five years, supportive expressive therapy once or twice weekly for up to forty sessions, and cognitive behavior therapy once or twice weekly for up to forty sessions. Successful randomization was defined as a 30% recruitment rate among eligible patients. Recruitment began in September 2009 and closed in April 2010. A total of 132 subjects responded to study advertisements, 107 of whom (81%) were triaged out. The remaining 25 were scheduled for the first of two clinical interviews, and 21 of 25 (88%) completed the interview. Eleven of the 25 (44%) were determined to be eligible based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight of the 11 accepted the idea of randomization and completed the diagnostic assessment phase. Calculated on the basis of 8 of 11 eligible patients accepting randomization, the 95% confidence interval was that 39% to 92% of eligible subjects would participate in a larger study of this design. Our findings support the feasibility of implementing an RCT comparing psychoanalysis as defined by the American Psychoanalytic Association (three or four times weekly on the couch for approximately five years) with shorter-term dynamic or cognitive behavioral therapy once or twice a week. Pre-treatment characteristics of these eight patients are presented, as are initial reliability data for the treatment adherence scales used in this trial.
Besarab, A; Kaiser, J W; Frinak, S
The administration of parenteral iron dextran to hemodialysis patients is typically intermittent. We sought to determine the most appropriate intervals for sampling iron parameters during intermittent need-based and continuous maintenance regimens and to quantify differences in efficacy between such regimens during long-term therapy. After a single course of 10 consecutive 100-mg iron doses administered to 14 patients on 16 occasions, transferrin saturation (TSAT) and ferritin were unreliable indices of iron status for the next 2 and 6 weeks, respectively. TSAT and ferritin levels at 1 week were virtually identical to those at 2 weeks after the administration of a single 50-mg or 100-mg iron dextran dose to 16 other patients. Twelve patients on maintenance iron therapy (25 to 100 mg/wk; TSAT, 30% to 50%) had a statistically significant decrease in the amount of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) needed to maintain hemoglobin (Hb) levels between 10 and 11 g/dL compared with 12 patients receiving intermittent need-based dosing, an effect that persisted from week 16 to week 72 of the study. Maintenance iron was feasible even in a third group of eight patients targeted to sustain an Hb level of 14 g/dL. In both iron maintenance groups, iron indices could be measured at weekly intervals, and ferritin levels did not progressively increase over time. Continuous maintenance iron dextran used to maintain TSATs of 30% to 50% significantly reduced rHuEPO requirements and resulted in no adverse side effects in chronic hemodialysis patients. After weekly maintenance 25- to 100-mg iron dextran doses, iron indices can be measured after 1 week; a delay of 2 weeks is not necessary.
Zribi, M; Ammari, L; Masmoudi, A; Tiouiri, H; Fendri, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, laboratory findings and therapeutic features of patients with brucellosis. The diagnosis was made by clinical findings, automated blood culture, serology (Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, standard tube agglutination (Wright) and immunofluorerescence). The susceptibility of 13 strains was tested in vitro. The base sequence was determined for four strains. Forty-five cases were collected (31 acute and 14 sub-acute). Contamination was digestive in 62%. Symptoms of patients were fever (93%), sweating (82%), arthralgia (78%) and splenomegaly (51%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined in 80%, leukopenia in 49% and anaemia in 37% of cases. Blood cultures were positives in 39% of cases. The four sequenced strains were identified as Brucella melitensis biovar abortus. Six strains were resistant to sufomethoxazol-trimetoprim (54%). In 93% of cases, the treatment was associated rifampicin and doxycyclin. One patient died. No relapse was reported.
Angel, J V
The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of outpatient intravenous (IV) therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime, in patients > or = 60 years of age and to determine its effect on length of hospital stay. Subset analysis was performed with 62 patients with various infections who had been enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial of IV cefotaxime delivered through a computerized ambulatory delivery system (ADS). Initial treatment was given in hospital if required, followed by home therapy. The overall clinical response rate among evaluable patients was 98%, and the overall bacteriologic response rate was 93%. The mean duration of inpatient therapy was 3.6 days less than the mean of 8.2 days allowed under diagnosis-related group (DRG) allotments. Outpatient therapy with cefotaxime via infusion pump is safe and effective and may reduce hospitalization requirements.
Smith, J.; Botet, J.F.; Yeh, S.D.J.
This is a comprehensive review of 85 patients who had bone sarcoma associated with Paget disease and who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1927 and 1982. There was an almost equal distribution of tumors in the axial and the appendicular skeletons. The pelvis, humerus, femur, and skull were the tumor sites in 80% of cases. The tumors were bulky large soft tissue masses. Lytic lesions were more common than sclerotic lesions. Methylene diphosphonate scans of the bone often showed a cold area that was associated with marked increase in uptake on the gallium scan. Angiography, which was performed in 13 patients, was useful, but CT was much more helpful in showing the soft tissue mass as well as the extent of bony disease. Only three patients in this study survived for five years.
Raja, Sheela; Hasnain, Memoona; Vadakumchery, Tracy; Hamad, Judy; Shah, Raveena; Hoersch, Michelle
Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes. PMID:25993110
Fabre, Stéphanie; Molto, Anna; Dadoun, Sabrina; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Kreis, Sarah; Fautrel, Bruno; Pertuiset, Edouard; Gossec, Laure
Physical activity is recommended in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) but may be insufficiently performed. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity in axial spondyloarthritis and to explore its explanatory factors. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with definite axSpA. The level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long form, IPAQ-L), type of aerobic exercise and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Score were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explain levels of exercise at least as recommended by the World Health Organization. In all, 203 patients were included: mean age 46.0 ± 11.6 years, 108 (53.2 %) males, mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (0-100) 37.8 ± 19.9; 137 (68.8 %) were treated with TNF-inhibitors. In all, 111 patients (54.7 %) were exercising at least as recommended; 96 (47.2 %) were in the 'high physical activity' category. Aerobic exercise >30 min was performed at least once a week by 61 (30.0 %) patients; the most frequent activities were energetic walking (31.0 %) and swimming (21.2 %). Main perceived benefits of exercising were improving physical fitness and functioning of the cardiovascular system, and the main barrier was physical exertion. Patients with paid employment had lower levels of physical activity whereas other demographic variables, disease activity/severity or TNF-inhibitor treatment were not predictive. One half of these patients performed enough physical activity according to the recommendations, similarly to the French population. Levels of physical activity did not appear to be explained by disease-related variables. Physical activity should be encouraged in axSpA.
Merklen-Djafri, Carine; Bessis, Didier; Frances, Camille; Poulalhon, Nicolas; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Cordel, Nadège; Lipsker, Dan
The nosology of bullous lesions or equivalents (vesicles, erosions, and crusts) in patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) is rarely addressed.The primary aim of this study was to draw up a precise phenotypic inventory of such skin lesions; the secondary objective was to assess a potential relationship between the different types of loss of epidermis and extracutaneous lupus manifestations.We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including 22 patients with definite LE and bullous lesions or equivalents. All biopsies were reviewed. Patients were recruited in the dermatology departments of 6 centers. Patients were included if they met the diagnosis of systemic LE according to American College of Rheumatology and/or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria or diagnosis of cutaneous LE based on classic clinical criteria and/or histological ascertainment of LE. Patients were recruited through clinician's memory and photographic collections.Three clinico-pathological patterns could be individualized. First, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-like, sheet-like, skin detachment; sun-exposure, mild mucosal involvement, and dermal mucin deposition allow differential diagnosis with classical Lyell syndrome. Second, vesiculo-bullae and/or crusting occurring on typical lesions of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus or chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Third, tense vesicles and/or blisters with an underlying neutrophilic dermatosis and a usual response to dapsone.A careful analysis of 22 LE patients with epidermal detachment reveals 2 main pathomechanisms: a classic LE interface dermatitis, which can be hyperacute and lead to TEN-like skin detachment; and a neutrophilic dermatosis, with tense vesicles and/or blisters, including classic bullous LE.
Morita, Tatsuya; Murata, Hisayuki; Kishi, Emi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Uchitomi, Yosuke
Although recent empirical studies reveal that fostering patients' perception of meaning in their lives is an essential task for palliative care clinicians, few studies have reported the effects of training programs for nurses specifically aimed at improving these skills. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effects of an educational workshop focusing on patients' feelings of meaninglessness on nurses' confidence, self-reported practice, and attitudes toward caring for such patients, in addition to burnout and meaning of life. The study was designed as a single-institution, randomized controlled trial using a waiting list control. The intervention consisted of eight 180-minute training sessions over four months, including lectures and exercises using structured assessment. A total of 41 nurses were randomly allocated to three groups, which were separately trained, and all were evaluated four times at three-month intervals (before intervention, between each intervention, and after the last intervention). Assessments included validated Confidence and Self-Reported Practice scales, the Attitudes Toward Caring for Patients Feeling Meaningless Scale (including willingness to help, positive appraisal, and helplessness items), the Maslach Burnout Scale, job satisfaction, and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual (FACIT-Sp). One participant withdrew from the study before the baseline evaluation, and the remaining 40 nurses completed the study. The nurses were all female and had a mean age of 31+/-6.4, and mean clinical experience of 8.9+/-5.5 years. There were no significant differences in background among the groups. The intervention effects were statistically significant on the Confidence Scale, the Self-Reported Practice Scale, and the willingness to help, positive appraisal, and helplessness subscales, in addition to the overall levels of burnout, emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, job satisfaction
Tamburini, Marcello; Gangeri, Laura; Brunelli, Cinzia; Boeri, Paolo; Borreani, Claudia; Bosisio, Marco; Karmann, Claude Fusco; Greco, Margherita; Miccinesi, Guido; Murru, Luciana; Trimigno, Patrizia
Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT) for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ), a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81%) completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease). Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness). Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions) has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which emerged from this
Tartaglia, F; Russo, G; Sgueglia, M; Blasi, S; Tortorelli, G; Tromba, L; Krizzuk, D; Merola, R
In the English literature there is no single definition that identifies elderly patients. In our retrospective study, we divided total thyroidectomized patients operated on from 2000 to 2010 in the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, in two groups: group 1 consists of 448 patients over 65 years and group 2 consists of 1275 patients under 65 years. We compared both groups in terms of indications for surgery, histological diagnoses, postoperative complications (laryngeal nerv palsy, hypocalcemia, bleeding and seroma) and mortality. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the type of surgical indication, the type of comorbidities, the incidence of postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. The only data discordant with those in the international literature was the incidence of neoplastic disease that is found to be slightly greater in group 2. In conclusion, total thyroidectomy in patients over 65 years is a safe procedure and is not burdened with a higher percentage of postoperative complications, even if requires a careful preoperative assessment of risk factors related to comorbidity.
Lampe, R.; Kawelke, S.; Mitternacht, J.; Turova, V.; Blumenstein, T.; Alves-Pinto, A.
Trophic disorders like reduced skin blood circulation are well-known epiphenomenon of cerebral palsy (CP). They can influence quality of life and can lead to skin damages and, as a consequence, to decubitus. Therefore, it is important to analyse temperature regulation in patients with CP. Thermal imaging camera FLIR BCAM SD was used to study the dependency of skin blood circulation in upper extremities of patients with CP on hand dominance, hand force and hand volume. The hand force was evaluated using a conventional dynamometer. The hand volume was measured with a volumeter. A cold stress test for hands was applied in 22 patients with CP and 6 healthy subjects. The warming up process after the test was recorded with the thermal camera. It was confirmed that the hands of patients warm up slower comparing to healthy persons. The patients' working hands warm up faster than non-working ones. A slight correlation was established between the hand grip force of the working hands and their warm up time. No correlation was found between the warming up time and the volume of the hand. The results confirm our assumption that there is a connection of peripheral blood circulation to upper limb motor functions.
Bergbrant, I M; Johansson, S; Robbins, D; Scheynius, A; Faergemann, J; Söderström, T
The humoral and cellular immune-status was studied in 30 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis. Increased frequencies of natural killer cells were found in 46% of patients. Furthermore, subnormal mitogen stimulation responses were demonstrated in 13 patients, whereas two individuals were found to have very high numbers of activated T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Higher-than-normal total serum IgG and IgA was observed in 14 and 11 patients, respectively. For nine of 12 patients with skin lesions, dermal perivascular cell infiltrates were seen. The majority of the infiltrating cells reacted with anti-CD4 antibodies. HLA-DR-expressing keratinocytes were found in two biopsies. The study suggests that patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis may have depressed T-cell function. This could have a bearing on their susceptibility to the Pityrosporum ovale-associated dermatitis. The very high frequencies of activated T cells observed in the peripheral blood of two otherwise healthy seborrhoeic individuals suggests that intermittent systemic immune activation may occur. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common skin disease. It can be diagnosed by its characteristic red to yellow-brown lesions covered with greasy scales distributed in areas with a high number of sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and upper trunk. There is an association between seborrhoeic dermatitis and the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum ovale but its exact aetiological role is not known. The yeast is a member of the normal cutaneous flora but also the aetiological agent of pityriasis versicolor and Pityrosporum folliculitis. P. ovale can activate complement via the direct and alternative pathways. This may play some part in the induction of inflammation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Painold, Annamaria; Anderer, Peter; Holl, Anna K; Letmaier, Martin; Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M; Saletu, Bernd; Bonelli, Raphael M
Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with prominent motor and cognitive decline. Previous studies with small sample sizes and methodological limitations have described abnormal electroencephalograms (EEG) in this cohort. The aim of the present study was to investigate objectively and quantitatively the neurophysiological basis of the disease in HD patients as compared to normal controls, utilizing EEG mapping. In 55 HD patients and 55 healthy controls, a 3-min vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG) was recorded during midmorning hours. Evaluation of 36 EEG variables was carried out by spectral analysis and visualized by EEG mapping techniques. To elucidate drug interference, the analysis was performed for the total group, unmedicated patients only and between treated and untreated patients. Statistical overall analysis by the omnibus significance test demonstrated significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) EEG differences between HD patients and controls. Subsequent univariate analysis revealed a general decrease in total power and absolute alpha and beta power, an increase in delta/theta power, and a slowing of the centroids of delta/theta, beta and total power. The slowing of the EEG in HD reflects a disturbed brain function in the sense of a vigilance decrement, electrophysiologically characterized by inhibited cortical areas (increased delta/theta power) and a lack of normal routine and excitatory activity (decreased alpha and beta power). The results are similar to those found in other dementing disorders. Medication did not affect the overall interpretation of the quantitative EEG analysis, but certain differences might be due to drug interaction, predominantly with antipsychotics. Spearman rank correlations revealed significant correlations between EEG mapping and cognitive and motor impairment in HD patients.
Ozieranski, Piotr; Robins, Victoria; Minion, Joel; Willars, Janet; Wright, John; Weaver, Simon; Martin, Graham P.; Woods, Mary Dixon
Purpose Research on patient safety campaigns has mostly concentrated on large-scale multi-organisation efforts, yet locally led improvement is increasingly promoted. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the design and implementation of an internal patient safety campaign at a large acute National Health Service hospital trust with a view to understanding how to optimise such campaigns. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a qualitative study of a campaign that sought to achieve 12 patient safety goals. The authors interviewed 19 managers and 45 frontline staff, supplemented by 56 hours of non-participant observation. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Findings The campaign was motivated by senior managers’ commitment to patient safety improvement, a series of serious untoward incidents, and a history of campaign-style initiatives at the trust. While the campaign succeeded in generating enthusiasm and focus among managers and some frontline staff, it encountered three challenges. First, though many staff at the sharp end were aware of the campaign, their knowledge, and acceptance of its content, rationale, and relevance for distinct clinical areas were variable. Second, the mechanisms of change, albeit effective in creating focus, may have been too limited. Third, many saw the tempo of the campaign as too rapid. Overall, the campaign enjoyed some success in raising the profile of patient safety. However, its ability to promote change was mixed, and progress was difficult to evidence because of lack of reliable measurement. Originality/value The study shows that single-organisation campaigns may help in raising the profile of patient safety. The authors offer important lessons for the successful running of such campaigns. PMID:25241600
Parent, Jack M.; Anderson, Stewart A.
The epilepsies and related disorders of brain circuitry present significant challenges for using human cells to study disease mechanisms and develop new therapies. Some of these obstacles are being overcome with the use of induced pluripotent stem cell techniques to obtain patient-derived neural cells for in vitro studies and as a source of cell based treatments. The field is evolving rapidly with the addition of genome editing approaches and expanding protocols for generating different neural cell types and three-dimensional tissues, but the application to neurological disorders and particularly to the epilepsies is in its infancy. We discuss the progress made to date, the unique advantages and limitations of using patient-derived cells to study or treat epilepsy, and critical future directions for the field. PMID:25710838
Reveles, Audrey Garcia; Takahashi, Regina Toshie
This study has as its objective to identify the scientific studies dealing with the orientation to patients submitted to ostomy published between 1970 to 2004 and to classify them according to quantity, chronology of publication, authors' function, source, kind of study, topic, origin and key words by using the bibliometrics methodology. A total of 27 publications were collected in the DEDALUS databank, in the LILACS and MEDLINE databases and from a professor of the University of São Paulo's Nursing School (EEUSP, which is a national reference in ostomy in Brazil). Of these, 19 were written by Brazilians and 8 by non-Brazilians; most were written by nurses and enterostomal therapists. Dissertations, theses, orientation manuals, books and articles were found. The origin of the material was academia, laboratories and hospitals. The 1990s concentrated the largest number of studies in this thematic area. All of them have the purpose of elevating patients' self-esteem in order to make them feel that, even with an ostomy, they can have a normal life. Thus the study concludes that the nurse, as an educator for the ostomy patient, should be acquainted with those publications to improve the assistance he/she provides.
Meade, J M
Recent research in southwest Idaho and southeast Oregon indicates that hospital service areas in this rural locality have not changed over time. The 12-county study area includes approximately 42,000 square miles inhabited by only 265,491 people. The focal point of hospital care in this region is Boise, Idaho, with adjacent smaller centers. Data used in the paper came from two sources-a patient-origin study completed in 1968 and a health interview survey completed in 1973. In both studies information was collected on patients' places of residence and where they went to receive hospital care. Because of the 6-year timespan between the studies, it was suspected that there may have been changes in the hospitals' service areas. An examination of some variables that customarily influence hospital service areas, such as number of physicians, number of hospital beds, and size of population, revealed that, despite sizable changes in all these variables, no appreciable changes were noted in the spatial patterns of the hospitals' service areas. This result was unexpected, but it may indicate to others engaged in planning for rural hospitals that updating patient origin studies in their areas may produce only marginal benefits. PMID:815936
Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki
The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy.
ten Napel-Schutz, Marieke C.; Abma, Tineke A.; Bamelis, Lotte; Arntz, Arnoud
A qualitative study was done on patients' perspectives on the first phases of imagery work in the context of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders. Patients participated in a multi-center randomized controlled study of the effectiveness of ST. Patients' experiences and opinions were collected with semistructured in-depth interviews at the…
This is a case-study based on a micro-ethnography analyzing a doctor-patient interaction in an emergency room (ER) in New York City. Drawing on the framework of narrative medicine (Charon, 2006), the study examines how a phenomenological approach to listening to the patient facilitated the patient's narrative orientation not only to relevant…
Hernández-Puiggròs, Patricia; Tesedo Nieto, Javier; Acín Lázaro, María Pilar; Carrera González, Alfredo; Soler, Miguel José Arranz; Maldonado Vega, Sergio
Chronic pain is a serious problem in Spain. This multicenter, epidemiological 3-month follow-up study investigates pain management efficacy in Spanish centers using patient satisfaction criteria. 3,414 eligible adult patients (65,6% female) with moderate to severe chronic pain from 146 pain centers were included. Patient satisfaction was assessed based onto question 18 of Spanish healthcare barometer-CSI. Pain evolution (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and visual analog scale (VAS)), quality of life/EuroQol-5, and pain control expectations fulfillment were also assessed. Mean age was 61.3 years. 64.4% of participating centers employed multidisciplinary pain management approach. After 3 months, mean patient satisfaction was 7.8 (1–10) on the CIS barometer. Medical staff received the highest scores, whereas waiting for tests, appointment request to appointment date time, and waiting times at the center the lowest. Mean pain decreased from 7.4 to 4.0; BPI-SF intensity decreased from 6.5 to 3.8; pain control expectations were met in 78.7% of patients; EuroQoL-5D utility index increased from 0.37 to 0.62, p < 0.001, and health status (VAS) from 40.6 to 61.9, p < 0.001. Chronic pain patients (90%) are satisfied with Spanish centers care; 80% had their pain control expectations met. Quality of life improved remarkably: 71% felt moderately to significantly better. However, waiting times need improvement. PMID:27516902
Rambod, Masoume; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Molazem, Zahra; Khair, Kate
ABSTRACT Background: Pain, as a crucial subsequence of joint hemorrhages in hemophilia patients, is chronic, debilitating, and distracting. This study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences of hemophilia patients in their lives. Methods: This qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on fourteen hemophilia patients who had been referred to a hemophilia center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The study question was “what is the meaning of pain in hemophilia patients’ lives? The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and field notes through purposeful sampling. Then, thematic analysis with van Manen’s six-step methodological framework was used. MAX.QDA qualitative software package, 2010, was used to analyze the data. Results: The three main themes that emerged in this study were “alteration in physical health”, “engagement in psychological problems”, and “impairment in social relationships”. Alteration in physical health consisted of three subthemes, namely “impairment of physical function”, “change in body physics”, and “disturbance in sleep quality”. In addition, two subthemes including “nostalgia of pain in adults with hemophilia” and “psychological distress” emerged from engagement in psychological problems. Finally, “loss of social activity” and “change in relationships” were related to impairment in social relationships. Conclusion: The present study highlighted alteration in physical health, engagement in psychological problems, and impairment in social relationship as a result of pain in hemophilia patients. Thus, healthcare providers and family members have to pay special attention to these problems. Besides, providing complementary therapy interventions is suggested for reducing these issues. PMID:27713894
Roth, Arie; Malov, Nomi; Steinberg, David M; Yanay, Yigal; Elizur, Mayera; Tamari, Mira; Golovner, Michal
"SHL" Telemedicine (established 1987 in Israel) provides professional care to subscribers who use cardiobeepers and contact its medical call center via telecommunication networks. The extended 6-month Acute Coronary Syndrome Israel Survey (ACSIS) 2004 involved all 26 intensive cardiac care units in Israeli hospitals. We compared the 1-year survival rates of the "SHL" Telemedicine subscribers and ACSIS participants who survived hospitalization after sustaining an acute myocardial infarction. The myocardial infarction data for the ACSIS cohort (3,899 patients) and the SHL Telemedicine cohort (699 subscribers) were provided for this study by the ACSIS executive and SHL's files, respectively. One-year mortality was ascertained by telephone contacts with patients or their relatives. Mortality at 1 year was 4.4% for the "SHL" patients and 9.7% for the ACSIS patients (p < 0.0001). The "SHL" cohort was significantly older (p < 0.0001) than the ACSIS cohort (mean age [+/-SD] 69 +/- 11 versus 63 +/- 13 years), had significantly more past myocardial infarctions (p < 0.001), more past strokes (p < 0.0032), more heart failure (p < 0.0001), more hypertension (p = 0.002), and more hyperlipidemia (p < 0.0001). Gender distribution and diabetes status were similar for both groups. In spite of having more risk factors than the ACSIS subjects, the "SHL" Telemedicine subscribers had significantly higher survival rates at 1 year compared to the ACSIS patients, whose outcome is consistent with that of the Western world. Availability of medical call centers in the out-of-hospital setting for patients with suspected cardiac symptoms improves their motivation to seek timely and appropriate medical assistance.
Tod, M; Padoin, C; Minozzi, C; Cougnard, J; Petitjean, O
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of isepamicin, a new aminoglycoside, were studied in 85 intensive care unit (ICU) patients and were compared with those observed in 10 healthy volunteers. A parametric method based on a nonlinear mixed-effect model was used to assess population PK. Isepamicin was given intravenously over 0.5 h at dosages of 15 mg/kg once daily or 7.5 mg/kg twice daily. The data were fitted to a bicompartmental open model. Compared with healthy volunteers, the mean values of the PK parameters were profoundly modified in ICU patients: elimination clearance was reduced by 48%, the volume of distribution in the central compartment (Vc) was increased by 50%, the peripheral volume of distribution was 70% higher, the distribution clearance was 146% lower, and the elimination half-life was ca. 3.4 times higher. The interindividual variability in PK parameters was about 50% in ICU patients. Five covariates (body weight [BW], simplified acute physiology score [SAPS], temperature, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance [CLCR]) were tentatively correlated with PK parameters by multivariate linear regression analysis with stepwise addition and deletion. The variability of isepamicin clearance was explained by three covariates (BW, SAPS, and CLCR), that of Vc was explained by BW and SAPS, and that of the elimination half-life was explained by CLCR and SAPS. Simulation of the concentration-versus-time profile for 500 individuals showed that the mean peak (0.75 h) concentration was 18% lower in ICU patients than in healthy volunteers and that the range in ICU patients was very broad (28.4 to 95.4 mg/liter). Therefore, monitoring of the isepamicin concentration is in ICU patients is mandatory. PMID:8849264
Rudolph, Ch; Schaffranietz, L; Hellmundt, L; Vitzthum, H E; Olthoff, D
For surgery on lumbar disks by the posterior route, patients are placed either on a Wilson frame or in genupectoral position. The aim of the prospective study was to record and describe the haemodynamic changes resulting from the patients' position. After written informed consent had been received, 80 neurosurgical patients undergoing lumbar disk surgery were randomly divided into two groups; group I--Wilson frame, group II--genupectoral position. In each group, 20 patients received total intravenous anaesthesia (Alfentanil or Remifentanil, Propofol) and 20 balanced anaesthesia with Isoflurane and Alfentanil or Remifentanil. Haemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure--MAP and heart rate--HR) were recorded automatically at three measuring times (MT): firstly, after induction of anaesthesia; secondly, before re-direction; thirdly, after re-direction on the Wilson frame or in the genupectoral position. Induction of anaesthesia did not lead to a significant decrease in MAP (MT 1: 92.5 +/- 15.2 mmHg, MT 2: 89 +/- 13.4 mmHg, n = 80). In group I (n = 40), no significant changes were observed in MAP and HR at MT 3 (p = 0.882, p = 0.051). In comparison to group I, the genupectoral position was associated with significant drops in MAP and HR. The genupectoral position caused a significant decrease in MAP (p < 0.001) and HR (p = 0.016) at MT 3. Our data suggest that body weight or body mass index do not necessarily lead to a preference for one of the two possible positions of the patient. Complications resulting from haemodynamic changes were not seen in either group. We recommend the Wilson frame for neurosurgical lumbar disk surgery in cases of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disorders. The adaptive capacities in the genupectoral position as a result of the modifying distribution of blood volume are limited in these patients. Furthermore, the dose-dependent effects of different anaesthetics on haemodynamic parameters in these prone positions should be explored.
CAI, ZHEN; ZHU, CHAO; WANG, LIZHEN; ZHU, LING; ZHANG, ZHIYUAN; ZHU, HANGUANG; WANG, YAN'AN
Mandibular metastatic carcinoma is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of all oral malignancies. To provide greater experience in this field, the present study was conducted in which 6 cases of mandibular metastatic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The origin of the lesions was the prostate in 2 cases, the lungs in 2 cases, the breast in 1 case and the thyroid gland in 1 case. The clinical and computed tomography features, surgical management and follow-up outcomes were investigated. The study indicated that surgeons should include the suspicion of metastasis in the differential diagnosis for mandibular tumor, particularly in patients who have a history of malignancy. A poor prognosis was associated with the examined patients. To extend the survival time as long as possible, a treatment strategy using multiple therapies, including segmental mandibulectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is recommended. PMID:27284368
Guerra, E; di Cagno, A; Mancini, P; Sperandii, F; Quaranta, F; Ciminelli, E; Fagnani, F; Giombini, A; Pigozzi, F
There is growing evidence to show the effectiveness of physical exercise for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Aim of this study was to evaluate aerobic capacity, strength, balance, and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) after exercise, in ambulatory patients with mild MS and matched control healthy participants. Seventeen MS patients aged 48.09 ± 10.0 years, with mild MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale: EDSS 1.5 to 4.5) and 10 healthy sedentary age matched (41.9 ± 11.2 years) subjects volunteered for the study. MS patients underwent medical examination with resting electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, EDSS, and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-MFIS. Both groups also underwent physical assessment with the Berg Balance Scale(,) test (Berg), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of forearm, lower limb, shoulder strength test, and the Borg 10-point scale test. The one-way ANOVA showed significant differences for MFIS (F1.19=9.420; p<0.01), Berg (F1.19=13.125; p<0.01), handgrip MIVC (F1.19=4.567; p<0.05), lower limbs MIVC (F1.19=7.429; p<0.01), and 6MWT (F1.19=28.061; p<0.01) between groups. EDSS, Berg test and Borg scores explained 80% of 6MWT variation. Mild grade EDSS patients exhibited impaired balance, muscle strength, and low self pace-6MWT scores, whereas RPE response after the exercise was similar to that of sedentary individuals. Both groups showed similar global physiological adjustments to exercise.
Fall, Estelle; Chakroun, Nadia; Dalle, Nathalie; Izaute, Marie
This French study explored nurses' involvement in patient education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study design was qualitative. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital nurses. Data analysis was performed according to Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by specific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx). The results showed the important role of hospital nurses in rheumatoid arthritis care. Patient education is a core part of nurses' work, allowing them to give patients information and emotional support. The interviewees displayed skills in helping patients learn to care for themselves. However, patient education mostly concerned patients who are already committed to their health care. Non-adherent patients warrant special attention; their acceptance of their disease, perceptions about disease and treatment, motivation, and autonomy should be specifically addressed. French nurses could benefit from more training, and could be aided by psychologists. Ambulatory services could also be developed for patient education in France, based on examples from other countries.
Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan
Background and study aims Medical error occurs frequently with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aime to assess the frequency and type of endoscopy patient safety incidents (PSIs). Patients and methods A prospective observational study of PSIs in routine diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy was undertaken in a secondary and tertiary care center. Observations were undertaken within the endoscopy suite across pre-procedure, intra-procedure and post-procedure phases of care. Experienced (Consultant-level) and trainee endoscopists from medical, surgical, and nursing specialities were included. PSIs were defined as any safety issue that had the potential to or directly adversely affected patient care: PSIs included near misses, complications, adverse events and “never events”. PSIs were reviewed by an expert panel and categorized for severity and nature via expert consensus. Results One hundred and forty procedures (92 diagnostic, 48 therapeutic) over 37 lists (experienced operators n = 25, trainees n = 12) were analyzed. One hundred forty PSIs were identified (median 1 per procedure, range 0 – 7). Eighty-six PSIs (61 %) occurred in 48 therapeutic procedures. Zero PSIs were detected in 13 diagnostic procedures. 21 (15 %) PSIs were categorized as severe and 12 (9 %) had the potential to be “never events,” including patient misidentification and wrong procedure. Forty PSIs (28 %) were of intermediate severity and 78 (56 %) were minor. Oxygen monitoring PSIs occurred most frequently. Conclusion This is the first study documenting the range and frequency of PSIs in endoscopy. Although many errors are minor without immediate consequence, further work should identify whether prevention of such recurrent errors affects the incidence of severe errors, thus improving safety and quality. PMID:28191498
Leemans, L; Heylen, N; Quanten, A; Deferme, S
The aim of this study was to get a clear idea of the reading frequency of the patient information leaflet (PIL) and to set up a profile of the reader in specific. Apart from that, we also wanted to evaluate the impact of the internet in the patient's search for information on health and medication. Do patients consult the digital PIL and is the FAGG website known by common people? In order to answer these research questions, a specific inquiry was performed in 800 respondents. Some interesting conclusions can be drawn: only one out of four participants reads the full PIL when purchasing a medicine they never used before. People who always read the PIL are mainly older than 65. However, the largest amount of people who never reads the PIL is also situated in the plus 65 scale. In general, men show little interest in reading the PIL unlike woman, who read clearly more often the PIL. The parts of the PIL most often read by patients are the sections on dosage (section 3) and side effects (section 4). Unfortunately, too little attention is paid to the section 2, which contains the most warnings, such as contra-indications. The most important reason why the PIL is not read is because patients believe they get sufficient information from the doctor and the pharmacist. Another remark is that the internet is used by more than half of the respondents to search for health-related information. There is also a remarkable difference between men and woman, men rarely search for health information or information on medicines on the internet. The number of respondents searching for leaflets on the internet is quite limited. Additionally, the Federal Agency Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) website is unknown to most internet users. We can conclude that the actual PIL is read too little. In order to make the PIL more appealing and even more patient friendly than it is actually, taking patients' needs into account should be a priority. The digital leaflet should be drawn
Marchettini, P; Teloni, L; Formaglio, F; Lacerenza, M
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is described as a superficial burning pain associated with other positive and/or negative sensory systems affecting the feet and lower extremities. It is one of the most commonly encountered neuropathic pain syndromes in clinical practice. Presentation may be complicated by multiple symptoms, including allodynia, hyperalgesia, other less well characterized dysesthesias, and serious disruption of social functioning and mood. Peripheral nerve function may deteriorate, which can account for patient reports of diminution of pain after several years of follow-up. Although current understanding holds that the pathogenesis of DPN is multifactorial in nature, long-term studies have shown that rigorous glycemic control is the most relevant factor in clinical intervention and can delay the onset and slow the progression of neuropathy. In addition to glycemic control, other treatment approaches must be examined in order to restore quality of life for patients experiencing painful DPN. Differential diagnosis is required to isolate DPN from other unexplained chronic pain. Neurologic testing in painful DPN is an area of active research and is used to assess the neurologic pathways giving rise to the pain, the degree of neural damage and the degree of subclinical damage. Current treatment options for DPN include mainly antidepressants and anticonvulsants, with other agents such as tramadol, dextromethorphan and memantine being employed or studied. This review article includes a case study of a patient with painful DPN to demonstrate the current management strategies for this neuropathic pain syndrome.
Korngiebel, Diane M.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Burke, Wylie
Purpose Concerns about patient safety and the potential for medical error are largely unexplored for genetic testing despite the expansion of test use. In this preliminary qualitative study we sought the views of genetics professionals about error and patient safety concerns in genomic medicine and factors that might mitigate them. Methods Twelve semi-structured interviews with experienced genetics professionals were conducted. Transcripts were analyzed using selective coding for issues related to error definition, mitigation, and communication. Additional thematic analysis captured themes across content categories. Results Key informants suggested that the potential for adverse events exists in all phases of genetic testing, from ordering to analysis, interpretation, and follow-up. A perceived contributor was lack of physician knowledge about genetics, resulting in errors in test ordering and interpretation. The limitations and uncertainty inherent to rapidly evolving technology were also seen as contributing factors. Strategies to prevent errors included physician education, availability of genetic experts for consultation, and enhanced communication such as improved test reports and electronic decision support. Conclusion Genetic testing poses concerns for patient safety, due to errors and the limitations of current tests. As genomic tests are integrated into medical care, anticipating and addressing the patient safety concerns these key informants identified will be crucial. PMID:27011058
Cortoos, Aisha; De Valck, Elke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Cluydts, Raymond
According to the neurocognitive perspective on insomnia, conditioned arousal results in impairment of information processing, as such interfering with normal sleep processes. In the present study, evening event-related potentials N100 and P200 were evaluated to assess hyperarousal in patients with insomnia and controls. 13 patients (mean age = 40.8) with polysomnographically verified sleep disruptions and 11 good sleepers (mean age = 45.4) were included. An auditory oddball paradigm was administered the evening of the polysomnography. N100 and P200 mean amplitudes and peak latencies at Fz and Cz were analyzed as a measure of respectively general arousability and inhibition of information processing. Patients experiencing insomnia were characterized by decreased P200 amplitudes compared to good sleepers. No significant differences were found for N100 amplitudes and latencies of both ERP waves. These results suggest that this group of patients with objectified insomnia is characterized by an arousal impairment. However, there was no evidence of hyperarousal, considering the normal N100 amplitudes. On the other hand, the inhibition of information processing was distorted. As such, the impairment of de-arousal or de-activation in insomnia is put forward as an additional factor within the arousal model.
Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo
Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888
Banning, Maggi; Gumley, Virginia
Caring is a complex phenomenon. Nurses aim to relieve patient suffering, acknowledge subjective experiences, display empathy but also manage emotions related to care provision. This study explored nurses' perceptions, experiences and emotions related to caring for cancer patients. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore the emotions management of 32 nurses working in a cancer hospital in Pakistan. Data saturation occurred after 20 interviews. Three themes emerged from the data related to caring, acknowledgement of patients' feelings, professional behaviour, patient involvement and emotional control. Some nurses repressed their emotions and feelings over patients who had difficulties sustaining hope. In such cases nurses require supportive networks to assist their emotions management and intra-personal skills. Educational support is needed to help nurses express their views in relation to emotional contagion, significance of repressed emotions and to identify supportive ways to assist nurses to communicate their experiences.
Martínez Lanz, P; Días Coto, C
Several studies have demonstrated either a direct or an indirect relationship between alcoholism and death causes. The present paper is a descriptive study about death causes in 428 alcoholic patients from San José, Costa Rica, metropolitan area, whose death occurred between 1978 and 1988. Sample subjects were males, under 90-year-old at death time. It was found out that basic death causes were: Traumatism and poisoning, 25%; circulatory system illnesses, 20%; digestive system illnesses, 18.5%, and tumors, 15%.
Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej
To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.
Reimand, K; Talja, I; Metsküla, K; Kadastik, U; Matt, K; Uibo, R
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and character of autoimmune derangements in women with reproductive failure. A total of 108 females (age range 17-43, mean 27.5 years), including 16 with primary menstrual cycle disturbances and polycystic ovaries (PCO), 20 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 38 with endometriosis (E), and 34 with chronic anovulation, luteal phase insufficiency, subfertility or unexplained infertility (INF) were investigated. A control group of 392 women was formed from an unselected population sample (age range 17-43, mean 31.0 years). All sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence method to assess common autoantibodies: nuclear (ANA), smooth muscle (SMA), parietal cell (PCA), thyroid microsomal (TMA), reticulin (ARA), mitochondrial (AMA) and liver/kidney microsomal autoantibodies (LKMA). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect antibodies against beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2GPI) and carbonic anhydrase (anti-CA). Our results showed that 40.7% of patients' sera and 14.8% of control sera contained one or more common autoantibodies, ANA and SMA were most frequently detected (difference between two groups P<0.005). Anti-beta 2GPI were found in eight cases (7.4%), including two patients with INF but without other autoantibodies. Anti-CA were revealed in nine cases (8.3%) including patients' PCOS, E and INF. A comparison of patients' clinical data with antibody assay results did not reveal any significant associations. Our results indicate a high prevalence of autoimmune reactions in women with reproductive failure due to the most common causes PCO, PCOS and E as well as in unexplained infertility. This might reflect the propensity to develop autoimmune reactions in such patients, including pathogenic autoimmune reactions to specific target antigens.
Khoshnazar, Tahereh Alsadat Khoubbin; Rassouli, Mrayam; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Lotfi-Kashani, Farah; Momenzadeh, Syrus; Rejeh, Nahid; Mohseny, Maryam
Introduction: Since communication is considered to be one of the central concepts in caregiving practices, this study aims to examine the perception of women with breast cancer in terms of their communication needs. Methods: In this qualitative study, 20 participants (9 women with breast cancer, 10 of health-care professionals, and one family caregiver) were selected through purposive sampling, and a face-to-face semi-structured interview was conducted with each of them. After data collection, all interviews were transcribed and reviewed, and categories were extracted. The data were analyzed with Conventional Content Analysis of Landman and Graneheim using MAXQDA10 software. Results: The analysis resulted in two extracted categories: “therapeutic communication” and “facilitating empathy”, and five subcategories: “trust-building therapist”, “crying out to be heard,” “seeking a soothing presence,” “sharing knowledge,” and “supportive peers”. Conclusion: Identifying and promoting the communicative needs of patients could lead to a considerably better care of patients under treatment. Therefore, therapeutic communication, as an integral part, should be incorporated into the care plan for patients with breast cancer and their families in the Oncology and Palliative Care wards. PMID:27803561
Rogers, Richard; Payne, Joshua W; Correa, Amor A; Gillard, Nathan D; Ross, Colin A
Clinical research has revealed that traumatized patients often elevate feigning indicators on psychological measures, which raises the possibility that traumatization and concomitant dissociation may lead to misclassifications of malingering. Within the domain of feigned mental disorders, the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) is a well established measure with excellent reliability and validity across clinical and forensic settings. Although recent studies have demonstrated its effectiveness with outpatient posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) samples, the SIRS usefulness with severely traumatized patients remains to be investigated. In this study, we recruited traumatized patients for a within-subjects simulation design in which we asked feigners to convincingly portray themselves as examinees claiming total disabilities. When compared to standard instructions, feigned presentations produced substantial effect sizes. Although the standard SIRS classifications produced moderately high sensitivities (M = .82), the false-positive rates were problematic. To minimize false-positives, we constructed a Trauma Index (TI) from 3 primary SIRS scales that appeared unaffected by severe trauma. Implementation of the TI substantially reduced false-positive rates (M = .09).
Shankland, Wesley E
Those engaged in any type of pain practice will encounter patients who have seen many practitioners. This is especially true for clinicians who treat craniofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. In this retrospective study of 300 patients seeking treatment for various types of craniofacial pain, the average age was 43.05 years. A mean average of 3.92 clinicians was consulted with the range of practitioners being one to 26. The average time of pain was 4.15 years. Most of the subjects (210) were in the age groups 21 years to 60 years old. Females comprised 85.30% of the subjects with a mean average age of 43.43 years; 14.70% were male with a mean average age of 41.02 years.
King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P
This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".
Cruz-Cortés, D.; Azorín, J.; Saucedo, V. M.
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a diagnosis technique which allows to visualize a three dimensional distribution of a radioactive material in the brain. This technique is used for evaluating the blood flux and the metabolic function of the diverse brain regions and is very useful to diagnostic several pathologies such as Alzheimer disease, tumors, epilepsy brain hemorrhages, etc. The radioactive tracer used is 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO). We present the results obtained from measurements performed in the chest, back and skull of patients submitted to brain SPECT studies during two hours using home-made LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results obtained showed that the dose received by the patients during two hours are lower than 0.3 mGy.
Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system leads to motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms in brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the dopaminergic system plays an important role in social interactions. The dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia (BG) thought to integrate social cues during the planning and execution of voluntary movements remains, however, largely unexplored. Since PD provides a model to assess this function in humans, our study aimed to investigate the effects of social intentions on actions in non-demented PDpatients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. Participants were instructed to reach for and to grasp an object; they were then told to hand it to another person (social condition) or to place it on a concave frame (individual condition). A 'passive-observer' condition, which was similar to the 'individual' condition except for the presence of an onlooker who simply observed the scene, was also assessed to exclude the possibility that differences might be due to the presence of another person. Movement kinematics were recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Study results demonstrated that the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'social' and the 'individual' conditions; the PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. These results suggest that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating social intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients.
Sánchez, E Cuauhtémoc
This article presents a pilot study to determine the value of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO₂) in the acute management of neonatal hypoxia (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy) and necrotizing enterocolitis. Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and NE were treated in a Sechrist monoplace chamber. Electroencephalogram, evoked potential, ophthalmic evaluation, ultrasonograph, laboratory exams, and radiographs were obtained before and after HBO₂. Treatment protocol was 2.0 atm abs/45 minutes. Preventive myringotomies were conducted in all patients. A follow-up was done at 3 and 6 months. All patients (n = 8) were ventilator-dependent and required bag-valve-mask ventilation by a neonatologist during the treatment. All showed a resolution after HBO₂. There was also a dramatic improvement (P < .05) in hemoglobin, hematocrit, total proteins, serum sodium, triglycerides, and pH. There were favorable changes in all other studies although they did not meet statistical significance. There was a marked reduction of the morbidity and mortality. There were no adverse effects on the ophthalmologic or Central Nervous System. When used promptly, HBO₂ can modify the local and systemic inflammatory response caused by intestinal inflammation or cerebral or systemic hypoxia. It helps to preserve the marginal tissue and recover the ischemic and metabolic penumbra. This pilot study suggests that HBO₂ could be a safe and effective treatment in the acute management of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. There is a need for a prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blinded study to determine the real use of HBO₂ in these cases.
Raveendra, Leena; Hemavathi, Rekha N; Rajgopal, Sushma
Context: Diabetes mellitus is associated with many skin manifestations including vitiligo. Vitiligo occurs more commonly in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. A few recent studies have shown its increased occurrence in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aims: This study aims to study the prevalence of vitiligo in Type 2 diabetic patients and to compare the prevalence of vitiligo in age- and sex-matched group of nondiabetic population. Settings and Design: The present study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Dermatology in a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: Six hundred consecutive consenting patients of Type 2 diabetes were included in the study group and age- and sex-matched controls were healthy nondiabetic adult volunteers attending the Department of Dermatology. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels were done. A complete history, physical examination, and wood's lamp examination to detect vitiligo were conducted. In all those with vitiligo, the type of vitiligo was noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. Comparison between the presence of vitiligo in cases and controls was done using Chi-square test with P = 0.05 for significance. Results: Vitiligo was seen in 12% of cases and 6% of control group which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between cases and controls with respect to type of vitiligo. Conclusions: Vitiligo can occur in Type 2 diabetics as seen in our study and few other recent studies. The exact pathogenesis is not very clear and needs further consideration.
Kim, S H; Kim, Y H; Kim, H J
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a therapeutic laughter program and the number of program sessions on anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 31 patients who received four sessions of therapeutic laughter program comprised and 29 who were assigned to the no-program control group. Scores for anxiety, depression, and stress were measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale. While no change was detected in the control group, the program group reported reductions of 1.94, 1.84, and 2.06 points for anxiety, depression, and stress, respectively (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). Scores decreased significantly after the first therapeutic laughter session (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). As the therapeutic laughter program was effective after only a single session in reducing anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients, it could be recommended as a first-line complementary/alternative therapy.
Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis
We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention.
Guttman, M; Burns, R S; Martin, W R; Peppard, R F; Adam, M J; Ruth, T J; Allen, G; Parker, R A; Tulipan, N B; Calne, D B
Transplantation of autologous adrenal medulla tissue into the striatum has recently been proposed as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. We report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate patients who had adrenal implants placed into the right caudate. 6-[18F] fluoro-L-dopa (6-FD) scans were performed to study the integrity and activity of the implant, and the nigrostriatal dopamine system before and six weeks after transplantation surgery. [68Ga] Gallium-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Ga) scans were also performed to assess the blood brain barrier. The Ga scans performed on two patients showed increased permeability of the blood brain barrier at the surgical site. 6-FD PET scans in five patients did not show a consistent change in striatal uptake following adrenal medullary implantation after six weeks. Further assessment of implant viability with 6-FD PET scans after longer follow up may provide useful information if the blood-brain barrier becomes re-established with the passage of time.
Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a therapeutic laughter program and the number of program sessions on anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 31 patients who received four sessions of therapeutic laughter program comprised and 29 who were assigned to the no-program control group. Scores for anxiety, depression, and stress were measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale. While no change was detected in the control group, the program group reported reductions of 1.94, 1.84, and 2.06 points for anxiety, depression, and stress, respectively (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). Scores decreased significantly after the first therapeutic laughter session (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). As the therapeutic laughter program was effective after only a single session in reducing anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients, it could be recommended as a first-line complementary/alternative therapy. PMID:26064177
Vaajoki, Anne; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri
Evidence-based nursing requires carefully designed interventions. This paper discusses methodological issues and explores practical solutions in the use of music intervention in pain management among adults after major abdominal surgery. There is a need to study nursing interventions that develop and test the effects of interventions to advanced clinical nursing knowledge and practice. There are challenges in carrying out intervention studies in clinical settings because of several interacting components and the length and complexity of the causal chains linking intervention with outcome. Intervention study is time-consuming and requires both researchers and participants' commitment to the study. Interdisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration is also paramount. In this study, patients were allocated into the music group, in which patients listened to music 30 minutes at a time, or the control group, in which patients did not listen to any music during the same period.
Arie, Eduardo Kenzo; Moreira, Norma Sueli Albino; Freire, Gilmar Soares; dos Santos, Bruno Schifer; Yi, Liu Chiao
Objectives The aims of this study were (i) to ascertain the prevalence of different types of metatarsal formula among patients with primary metatarsalgia; (ii) to compare the variable of “shortening of the first metatarsal in relation to the second” (I/II) between the metatarsalgia and control groups; and (iii) to analyze the intra and interobserver concordance by means of Morton's transverse line method and Hardy and Clapham's arc method. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 56 patients by means of radiographs on their 112 ft, of which 56 were in the metatarsalgia group and 56 in the control group. The evaluations were done between December 2012 and June 2013. The measurements were made by three third-year orthopedics residents with prior training in the methods used, and a template was used. Results There was no concordance between the two methods, as shown by Bland–Altman plots, although the intraclass correlation coefficients showed that the intra and interobserver reproducibility was high using the transverse line method (0.78 and 0.85) and moderate using the arc method (0.73 and 0.60). Comparison between the groups showed that there was a statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) such that there was greater shortening of the first metatarsal (3.39 mm) in the control group than in the metatarsalgia group (2.14 mm). In the patients with primary metatarsalgia, the index minus metatarsal formula was more prevalent according to the transverse line method (62.5%) and the zero plus type according to the arc method (71.4%). Conclusion In the present study, it was observed that the metatarsal formula prevalences depended on the measurement method. In both groups, shortening of the first metatarsal predominated. There was no intra or interobserver concordance in either of the two proposed methods. PMID:26401502
Wijayathunga, Vithanage N.; Oakland, Robert J.; Jones, Alison C.; Hall, Richard M.; Wilcox, Ruth K.
Background Vertebroplasty is increasingly used in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. However there are concerns that this intervention may lead to further fractures in the adjacent vertebral segments. This study was designed to parametrically assess the influence of both treatment factors (cement volume and number of augmentations), and patient factors (bone and disc quality) on the biomechanical effects of vertebroplasty. Methods Specimen-specific finite element models of two experimentally-tested human three-vertebral-segments were developed from CT-scan data. Cement augmentation at one and two levels was represented in the respective models and good agreement in the predicted stiffness was found compared to the corresponding experimental specimens. Parametric variations of key variables associated with the procedure were then studied. Findings The segmental stiffness increased with disc degeneration, with increasing bone quality and to a lesser extent with increasing cement volume. Cement modulus did not have a great influence on the overall segmental stiffness and on the change in the elemental stress in the adjoining vertebrae. However, following augmentation, the stress distribution in the adjacent vertebra changed, indicating possible load redistribution effects of vertebroplasty. Interpretation This study demonstrates the importance of patient factors in the outcomes of vertebroplasty and suggests that these may be one reason for the variation in clinical results. PMID:23953004
Britten, Nicky; Denford, Sarah; Harris-Golesworthy, Faith; Jibson, Steph; Pyart, Nigel; Stein, Ken
Embodied health movements work on the boundary between lay and expert knowledge. Consumer groups, depending on their goals, may increase or decrease pharmaceuticalization. This paper reports a small case study about the retrospective evaluation of a specific second line treatment for type 2 diabetes by an existing patient involvement group. The group is part of a research collaboration between academia and the health service in England, and shares some characteristics of embodied health movements. We used the case study to explore whether an institutionally funded non activist patient group can make a more balanced contribution to drug licensing decisions than that made by either access-oriented or injury-oriented consumer groups, without being co-opted by an institutional agenda. The questions we wished to address were how this group evaluated existing mechanisms for licensing drugs; how they balanced scientific and lay knowledge; how they made their decisions; and how they viewed their experiences as panel members. The five panel members were interviewed before and after the panel discussion in July 2013. They were critical of current licensing processes, and used their own embodied experiences of medicines to evaluate expert knowledge. Their decisions on the panel were informed either by a balancing of benefits and harms, or by trust in experts. The case study suggests that such a group may have the potential both to balance the pro-pharmaceuticalization impact of access-oriented groups and to influence forms of pharmaceutical governance.
Cañero-Velasco, M C; Mutti, J E; Gonzalez, J E; Alonso, A; Otegui, L; Adragna, M; Antonuccio, M; Laso, M; Montenegro, M; Repetto, L; Brandi, M; Canepa, J; Baimberg, E
Hemodialized pediatric patients are a risk population for the hepatitis B and C virus infection. The aim of this paper was to study the serum prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in hemodialized children. We study 61 pediatric patients at hemodialisis, 12 on renal transplant, range between 2 and 20 years old (mean: 12.9 years), 23 male and 38 female. The specific anti-HCV IgC were measured by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA Abbott) and confirmed by LIA-TEK (Organon). The anti-HBV were measured by ELISA Abbott and transaminases by cinetic method (ASAT: 29 UI/L and ALT: 33 UI/L). The 19.7% of studied children were HCV (+) and 29.5% were HBV (+), 38.9% of them were HbsAg (+) and 50% anti-HBs (+). The HCV and HBV infection was more elevated in relation to the transfusion number and the hemodilisis time. The elevation of ALT/ASAT activity isn't a right infection index for HCV and HBV in this children.
Navarro Jiménez, B R; Sánchez Navarro, L M
During the period between january 1984 to july 1987 in the Hospital Unit "Presidente Juárez" ISSSTE, Oaxaca (Mexico), for the first time was given dermatology consult to 2,683 patients among them, 23 who had ashy dermatosis (Erithema dyschromicum perstans), a study was done for the present time and the future of the same, discarding it as possible cause of that nosological entity: treponemal disease, parasitic, infectious, hepatic and renal. It is commented in relation with the ashy dermatosis and lichen planus, the clinicals variants and the possible sun etiology.
Nishimura, M; Nishimura, S
Forty-five severely handicapped patients were investigated on body temperature regulation. Poor regulation cases had CT scans showing severe third and lateral ventricle dilatation. Furthermore, in almost all poor regulation cases of perinatal and postnatal onset, CT scans showed extensive low density areas involving the frontal lobe. Electrophysiological studies (sSEP, ABR and blink reflex) could not show definite differences between poor regulation cases and good regulation cases. These findings suggest that hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle and frontal lobe play important roles in body temperature regulation. On the other hand, perinatal or postnatal onset cases frequently had small body surface areas and low serum creatinine.
TAKAGI, Yasushi; MIYAMOTO, Susumu
Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease. PMID:25739435
Takagi, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Susumu
Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by progressive stenosis or by occlusion at the terminal portion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. The unusual vascular network (moyamoya vessels) at the base of the brain with this disease as collateral channels is developed in this disease. Social independence because of cognitive impairment has recently been recognized as an important unsolved social issue with adult moyamoya disease. The patients with cognitive impairment have difficulty in proving their status because the standard neuroradiological and neuropsychological methods to define cognitive impairment with moyamoya disease are not determined. These patients with cognitive impairment should be supported by social welfare as psychologically handicapped persons. Thus Cognitive Dysfunction Survey of the Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease (COSMO-JAPAN study) is planned. In this study, we want to establish a standard finding of the cognitive impairment in patients with moyamoya disease.
Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo
Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12 month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799
Burghaus, S.; Fehm, T.; Fasching, P. A.; Blum, S.; Renner, S. K.; Baier, F.; Brodkorb, T.; Fahlbusch, C.; Findeklee, S.; Häberle, L.; Heusinger, K.; Hildebrandt, T.; Lermann, J.; Strahl, O.; Tchartchian, G.; Bojahr, B.; Porn, A.; Fleisch, M.; Reicke, S.; Füger, T.; Hartung, C.-P.; Hackl, J.; Beckmann, M. W.; Renner, S. P.
Introduction: Endometriosis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a range of different presentations. It is usually diagnosed when patients present with pain and/or infertility, but it has also been diagnosed in asymptomatic patients. Because of the different diagnostic approaches and diverse therapies, time to diagnosis can vary considerably and the definitive diagnosis may be delayed, with some cases not being diagnosed for several years. Endometriosis patients have many unmet needs. A systematic registration and follow-up of endometriosis patients could be useful to obtain an insight into the course of the disease. The validation of biomarkers could contribute to the development of diagnostic and predictive tests which could help select patients for surgical assessment earlier and offer better predictions about patients who might benefit from medical, surgical or other interventions. The aim is also to obtain a better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Material and Methods: To do this, an online multicenter documentation system was introduced to facilitate the establishment of a prospective multicenter case-control study, the IEEP (International Endometriosis Evaluation Program) study. We report here on the first 696 patients with endometriosis included in the program between June 2013 and June 2015. Results: A documentation system was created, and the structure and course of the study were mapped out with regard to data collection and the collection of biomaterials. Conclusion: The documentation system permits the history and clinical data of patients with endometriosis to be recorded. The IEEP combines this information with biomaterials and uses it for scientific studies. The recorded data can also be used to evaluate clinical quality control measures such as the certification parameters used by the EEL (European Endometriosis League) to assess certified endometriosis centers. PMID:27582581
Gotoh, Junichi; Kukita, Kazutaka; Tsuchihashi, Seiichiro; Hattori, Masahiro; Iida, Junichi; Horie, Takashi; Onodera, Kazuhiko; Furui, Hidenori; Tamaki, Toru; Meguro, Junichi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Kawamura, Akio
Data of 36 months were accumulated regarding the effects of lanthanum carbonate (LA) on serum phosphate concentrations in dialysis patients. Fifty-three patients (average age and dialysis history 58.4 years and 9.1 years) were included in this study who have been receiving outpatient treatment since March 2009, and who have been unable to maintain serum phosphate concentrations of ≤6.0 mg/dL via traditional therapeutic agents used for hyperphosphatemia. Patients were given dosage of LA in addition to, or instead of, co-hyperphosphatemia treatments already being received. Mean dosages of calcium carbonate (CC) and sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) before starting LA administration were 1301.9 mg and 2462.3 mg, respectively. Dosage of LA for all cases was 750 mg at initial dose; 1528.3 mg at 5 months; and 1416.7 mg at 30 months. Dosage of other phosphate binders were 905.7 mg of CC and 820.8 mg of SH at 5 months; and 687.5 mg of CC and 1031.3 mg of SH at 30 months. Serum phosphorus levels (P levels) were significantly decreased at 1 month of LA administration, and continued until 30 months of La treatment. These results suggest that LA successfully controlled serum P and Ca concentrations simultaneously within target ranges without affecting serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration, although further long-term prospective cohort study on LA would be required.
Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hillege, Hans; van den Berg, Aad P.; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Sijens, Paul E.
It has been demonstrated that hepatic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) are decreasing in patients with a Fontan circulation. It remains however unclear whether this is a true decrease of molecular diffusion, or rather reflects decreased microperfusion due to decreased portal blood flow. The purpose of this study was therefore to differentiate diffusion and microperfusion using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modeled diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for different liver segments in patients with a Fontan circulation, compare to a control group, and relate with liver function, chronic hepatic congestion and hepatic disease. For that purpose, livers of 59 consecutively included patients with Fontan circulation (29 men; mean-age, 19.1 years) were examined (Oct 2012─Dec 2013) with 1.5T MRI and DWI (b = 0,50,100,250,500,750,1500,1750 s/mm2). IVIM (Dslow, Dfast, ffast) and ADC were calculated for eight liver segments, compared to a control group (19 volunteers; 10 men; mean-age, 32.9 years), and correlated to follow-up duration, clinical variables, and laboratory measurements associated with liver function. The results demonstrated that microperfusion was reduced (p<0.001) in Fontan livers compared to controls with ─38.1% for Dfast and ─32.6% for ffast. Molecular diffusion (Dslow) was similar between patients and controls, while ADC was significantly lower (─14.3%) in patients (p<0.001). ADC decreased significantly with follow-up duration after Fontan operation (r = ─0.657). Dslow showed significant inverse correlations (r = ─0.591) with follow-up duration whereas Dfast and ffast did not. From these results it was concluded that the decreasing ADC values in Fontan livers compared with controls reflect decreases in hepatic microperfusion rather than any change in molecular diffusion. However, with the time elapsed since the Fontan operation molecular diffusion and ADC decreased while microperfusion remained stable. This indicates that after Fontan
Dijkstra, Hildebrand; Wolff, Djoeke; van Melle, Joost P; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Willems, Tineke P; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Hillege, Hans; van den Berg, Aad P; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M F; Sijens, Paul E
It has been demonstrated that hepatic apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) are decreasing in patients with a Fontan circulation. It remains however unclear whether this is a true decrease of molecular diffusion, or rather reflects decreased microperfusion due to decreased portal blood flow. The purpose of this study was therefore to differentiate diffusion and microperfusion using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modeled diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for different liver segments in patients with a Fontan circulation, compare to a control group, and relate with liver function, chronic hepatic congestion and hepatic disease. For that purpose, livers of 59 consecutively included patients with Fontan circulation (29 men; mean-age, 19.1 years) were examined (Oct 2012─Dec 2013) with 1.5T MRI and DWI (b = 0,50,100,250,500,750,1500,1750 s/mm2). IVIM (Dslow, Dfast, ffast) and ADC were calculated for eight liver segments, compared to a control group (19 volunteers; 10 men; mean-age, 32.9 years), and correlated to follow-up duration, clinical variables, and laboratory measurements associated with liver function. The results demonstrated that microperfusion was reduced (p<0.001) in Fontan livers compared to controls with ─38.1% for Dfast and ─32.6% for ffast. Molecular diffusion (Dslow) was similar between patients and controls, while ADC was significantly lower (─14.3%) in patients (p<0.001). ADC decreased significantly with follow-up duration after Fontan operation (r = ─0.657). Dslow showed significant inverse correlations (r = ─0.591) with follow-up duration whereas Dfast and ffast did not. From these results it was concluded that the decreasing ADC values in Fontan livers compared with controls reflect decreases in hepatic microperfusion rather than any change in molecular diffusion. However, with the time elapsed since the Fontan operation molecular diffusion and ADC decreased while microperfusion remained stable. This indicates that after Fontan
Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Soydinç, Hatice Ender; Özler, Ali; Evsen, Mehmet Sıddık; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Sak, Sibel; Gül, Talip
Objective: To assess and compare alterations in the morphology and function of platelets occurring in gestational diabetes and healthy pregnancies. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 77 pregnant women: 42 cases with gestational diabetes and 35 healthy controls. The two groups were compared in terms of demographics and platelet parameters derived from complete blood counts. Results: The mean platelet volume (p=0.001) and HbA1c (p<0.001) were significantly increased in the patients with gestational diabetes. The mean platelet volume was well correlated with the platelet distribution width (rs=0.404, p<0.001) and the platelet count (rs=0.355, p=0.002) Conclusion: The mean platelet volume and other platelet parameters may significantly aid the identification of diabetic pregnants at risk for vascular complications. The role and possible clinical relevance of these changes during diabetic pregnancy need to be investigated in further studies. PMID:24592046
Azarkeivan, Azita; Ansari, Shahla; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hajibeigy, Bashir; Maghsudlu, Mahtab; Nasizadeh, Soheila; Shaigan, Mojgan; Toolabi, Abdolmajid; Salahmand, Mitra
One of transfusion's side effects is alloimmunization against red blood cell (RBC) antigens. Early diagnosis by antibody screening is an important step in the detection of these alloantibodies. The authors studied the frequency of alloimmunization in thalassemic patients of 4 centers (2 adult and 2 pediatric centers) and compared the rates in children (up to 15 years) and adults. Antibody screening tests were performed by gel method according to its standard pattern and respective program. In positive cases, antibody identification test by gel method was performed. Eight hundred thirty-five patients were studied; 548 (65.6%) were adults (mean age = 24.5), and 287 (34.4%) cases were pediatrics (mean age = 10.05). Of these patients, 74.1% had no history of transfusion reaction, whereas 21 (2.5%) had hemolytic complications. Seventy-eight (9.3%) exhibited allergic symptoms, and 117 (14%) cases experienced febrile reactions during transfusion. Antibody screening showed positive results in 22 pediatric cases (7.7%) and 79 adults (14.4%); 72 (71.3%), 19 (18.8%), 3 (3%), and 1 (1%) cases exhibited single, double, triple, and autoantibodies, respectively. Anti-Kell antibody was seen in 34 (33.7%) cases, anti-D was seen in 11 (10.9%) cases, and anti-E in was seen in 10 (9.9%) cases. The authors observed 8 anti-D+C (7.9%) cases, 1 anti-D+E (1%), 3 anti-Kell+E, 3 anti-Kell+Kpa (3%), and 1 anti-Kell+D double antibodies. These antibodies were also a combination of Rh subgroups or Rh and Kell subgroups. The authors observed meaningful relations between history of transfusion reactions and age with antibody screening results (P = .005). Based on alloantibodies types, more than two thirds of them were Rh subgroups and Kell groups. Phenotype determination of RBCs before beginning chronic blood transfusion and careful cross-matching with Kell and Rh subgroups in addition to ABO may help reduce alloimmunization in chronic transfusion patients.
Tsuchida, Kenji; Nagai, Kojiro; Yokota, Narushi; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Shu
In hemodialysis patients, mineral and bone disorder is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and subsequent death through the progression of vascular calcification. Serum phosphorus plays a major role in this process. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the effects of oral phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate (LC), on the mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among a total of 841 patients who underwent maintenance hemodialysis on 1 July 2010, patients who were treated with LC (LC group, N = 324) and those who were treated without LC (NLC group, N = 517) were compared with respect to their all-cause mortality for a long-term observation period of up to 36 months. The mortality rate was compared using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted by the propensity score. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in the LC group versus NLC group was 0.515 (95% confidence interval, 0.328-0.807), suggesting that the use of LC is associated with an almost 50% reduction in the mortality rate. The present retrospective study including all hemodialysis patients demonstrated, for the first time, an association between the use of LC and improved prognosis in hemodialysis patients. Randomized controlled trials should be done in the future to validate our present findings.
Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Gupta, Neelesh; Rukmani, Malligurki Raghurama; Deepika, S.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.
Introduction: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), central autonomic structures get affected early. An insight into autonomic functions in these patients is likely to be of diagnostic importance and thus help in prognosticating and also probably explain unexplained sudden death in some of these patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify autonomic dysfunction prevailing in patients. Then, if there is dysfunction, is the pattern same or different in these two conditions. And if different it will serve as an additional biomarker for specific diagnosis. Patients and Methods: There were 25 patients and 25 controls and six patients and three controls in AD and FTD groups, respectively. The participants who were recruited were assessed for heart rate variability and conventional cardiac autonomic function testing. The parameters were analyzed using LabChart version 7 software and compared with control population using appropriate statistical methods using SPSS version 22 software. Results: The mean overall total power was low in the FTD group (P < 0.001), and there was significant reduction in the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals and root mean square of successive differences (P < 0.001) with elevated sympathovagal balance in the FTD group (P = 0.04). Patients with AD also showed sympathetic dominance, but there was in addition parasympathetic suppression unlike in the FTD group. Conclusion: This study reveals autonomic dysfunction in patients with FTD and AD. Both conditions show sympathetic dominance, probably consecutive to the involvement of central autonomic regulatory structures as a shared domain. It remains to be confirmed if these findings are the cause or effect of neurodegeneration and might open up newer territories of research based on the causal role of neurotransmitters in these regions and thus lead to novel therapeutic options such as yoga. The presence of parasympathetic suppression in AD in
Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph
Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591
Marcum, Julie; Ridenour, Maureen; Shaff, Gaye; Hammons, Mary; Taylor, Monica
Of 124 acute care nurses, 97% felt that patient education was a priority. Inhibiting factors were time, staffing, and patient receptiveness. Enhancers included having time to teach, receiving effective teaching guidance materials, and having access to teaching resources. (SK)
Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno
OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762
van Rosse, Floor; Suurmond, Jeanine; Wagner, Cordula; de Bruijne, Martine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban hospitals with an ethnic diverse patient population. Participants On hospital admission of ethnic minority patients, 20 cases were purposively sampled in which relatives were observed to play a role in the care process. Outcome measures We used documents (patient records) and added eight cases with qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and/or their relatives to investigate the relation between the role of relatives and patient safety. An inductive approach followed by selective coding was used to analyse the data. Results Besides giving social support, family members took on themselves the role of the interpreter, the role of substitutes of the patient and the role of care provider. The taking over of these roles can have positive and negative effects on patient safety. Conclusions When family members take over various roles during hospitalisation of a relative, this can lead to a safety risk and a safety protection for the patient involved. Although healthcare providers should not hand over their responsibilities to the relatives of patients, optimising collaboration with relatives who are willing to take part in the care process may improve patient safety. PMID:27056588
Labus, Janet G.; Dambrot, Faye H.
Investigated differences between 28 hospice and 28 hospital patients who died. Comparison found that hospice patients were younger, had more people living in the home, and had shorter disease history. Age, number of people living in the home, and primary cancer site significantly discriminated between hospice and hospital patients and predicted…
Sy, Alice; Khalidi, Nader; Dehghan, Natasha; Barra, Lillian; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Hoffman, Gary S.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Sreih, Antoine; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Van Assche, Gert; Merkel, Peter A.; Pagnoux, Christian
Background Published small case series suggest that inflammatory bowel disease [IBD; Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)] and vasculitis co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Objectives To describe this association by an analysis of a large cohort of carefully studied patients and through a systematic literature review. Methods Patients with both IBD and vasculitis enrolled in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium (VCRC) Longitudinal Studies, followed in Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc) centers and/or in the University of Toronto’s IBD clinic were included in this case series. A systematic literature review of patients with IBD and vasculitis involved a PubMed search through February 2014. The main characteristics of patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK) and IBD were compared to those in patients with TAK without IBD followed in the VCRC. Results The study identified 32 patients with IBD and vasculitis: 13 with large-vessel vasculitis [LVV; 12 with TAK, 1 with giant cell arteritis (GCA); 8 with CD, 5 with UC]; 8 with ANCA-associated vasculitis [AAV; 6 granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 2 with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)]; 5 with isolated cutaneous vasculitis; and 6 with other vasculitides. Patients with LVV and AAV were mostly female (18/21). The diagnosis of IBD preceded that of vasculitis in 12/13 patients with LVV and 8/8 patients with AAV. The review of the literature identified 306 patients with IBD and vasculitis: 144 with LVV (133 TAK; 87 with IBD preceding LVV), 19 with AAV [14 GPA, 1 EGPA, 4 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)], 66 with isolated cutaneous vasculitis, and 77 with other vasculitides. Patients with IBD and TAK were younger and had more frequent headaches, constitutional symptoms, or gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those patients in the VCRC who had TAK without IBD. Conclusions These findings highlight the risk of vasculitis, especially TAK, in patients
Vogler, J.B. III; Brown, W.H.; Helms, C.A.; Genant, H.K.
The sacroiliac (SI) joints of 45 asymptomatic subjects were prospectively studied to define better the normal appearance of SI joints on CT scans and therby attach appropriate significance to CT signs of sacroiliitis. Joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, erosions, ankylosis, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, and symmetry were evaluted. The results indicate that the SI joints demonstrate symmetry in patients under the age of 30 (100% of subjects in this age group). Those CT findings of sacroiliitis that occurred infrequently in the asymptomatic population, and hence may represent good indicators of sacroiliac disease, include increased sacral subchondral sclerosis in subjects under the age of 40 (11%), bilateral or unilateral uniform joint space of less than 2 mm (2% or 0%, respectively), erosions (2%), and intraarticular ankylosis (0%).
Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ding, Lili; Kaplan, Jennifer; Spigarelli, Michael G; Vinks, Alexander A
The objective was to demonstrate the methodology and process of optimal sparse sampling pharmacokinetics (PK). This utilized a single daily dose of pioglitazone for pediatric patients with severe sepsis and septic shock based upon adult and minimal adolescent data. Pioglitazone pharmacokinetics were modeled using non-compartment analysis WinNonlin Pro (version 5.1) and population kinetics using NONMEM (version 7.1) with first order conditional estimation method (FOCE) with interaction. The initial model was generated from single- and multiple-dose pioglitazone PK data (15 mg, 30 mg, and 45 mg) in 36 adolescents with diabetes. PK models were simulated and overlaid upon original data to provide a comparison best described by a single compartment, first order model. The optimal design was based on the simulated oral administration of pioglitazone to three groups of pediatric patients, age 3.8 (2-6 years), weight 14.4 (7-28 kg); age 9.6 (6.1-11.9 years), weight 36.5 (28.1-48 kg) and age 15.5 (12-17 years,) weight 61.6 (48.1-80 kg). PFIM (version 3.2) was used to evaluate sample study size. Datasets were compiled using simulation for each dose (15, 30 and 45 mg) for the potential age/weight groups. A target dose of 15 mg daily in the youngest and middle groups was considered appropriate with area under the curve exposure levels (AUC) comparable to studies in adolescents. The final optimal design suggested time points of 0.5, 2, 6 and 21 h for 24 h dosing. This methodology provides a robust method of utilizing adult and limited adolescent data to simulate allometrically scaled, pediatric data sets that allow the optimal design of a pediatric trial. The pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone were described adequately and simulated data estimates were comparable to literature values. The optimal design provided clinically attainable sample times and windows.
Miravitlles, Marc; Price, David; Rabe, Klaus F; Schmidt, Hendrik; Metzdorf, Norbert; Celli, Bartolome
Background There is an ongoing debate on whether patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) seen in real-life clinical settings are represented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of COPD. It is thought that the stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria of RCTs may prevent the participation of patients with specific characteristics or risk factors. Methods We surveyed a database of patients recruited into 35 placebo-controlled tiotropium RCTs and also conducted a systematic literature review of large-scale observational studies conducted in patients with a documented diagnosis of COPD between 1990 and 2013. Patient demographics and comorbidities with a high prevalence in patients with COPD were compared between the two patient populations at baseline. Using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA; v 14.0), patient comorbidities in the pooled tiotropium RCTs were classified according to system organ class, pharmacovigilance (PV) endpoints, and Standardised MedDRA Queries to enable comparison with the observational studies. Results We identified 24,555 patients in the pooled tiotropium RCTs and 61,361 patients among the 13 observational studies that met our search criteria. The Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging of patients in the RCTs differed from that in observational studies: the proportion of patients with GOLD stages I+II disease ranged from 40.0% to 51.5% in the RCTs but 24.5% to 44.1% in the observational studies; for GOLD stage III or IV disease these ranges were 7.2%–45.8% (RCTs) and 13.7–42.1% (observational studies). The comorbidities with the highest prevalence reported in the RCTs and observational studies were: hypertension (39.4%–40.0% vs 40.1%–60.6%), other ischemic heart disease (12.3%–14.2% vs 12.5%–41.0%), diabetes (10.3%–10.9% vs 4.0%–38.9%), depression (8.5%–9.5% vs 17.0%–20.6%), and cardiac arrhythmia (7.8%–11.4% vs 11.3%–15.8%). Conclusion The
Li, Gang; Tao, Hong-Bing; Liao, Jia-Zhi; Tang, Jin-Hui; Peng, Fang; Shu, Qin; Li, Wen-Gang; Tu, Shun-Gui; Chen, Zhuo
Patient safety education is conducive to medical students' cognition on patient safety and to improvement of medical quality and safety. Developing patient safety education for medical students is more and more widely recognized by World Health Organization and countries all over the world. However, in China, patient safety courses aiming at medical students are relatively few, and there are few reports about the effect of patient safety courses. This paper explored the influence of patient safety curriculum on medical students' attitude to and knowledge of patient safety. The patient safety curriculum was carried out for 2011-grade undergraduates of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. The students participated in the class according to free choice. After the curriculum, the information of gender, major, attended course, attitude toward patient safety, and knowledge of laws and regulations of the 2011-grade undergraduates were collected. After rejecting invalid questionnaires, the number of undergraduates that participated in the survey was 112 (61 students did not take part in the curriculum; 51 took part in). Chi-square test was applied to analyze patient safety education's influence on medical students' attitude to patient safety and their knowledge mastery situation. The influence of patient safety education on the attitude of medical students to patient safety was not significant, but that on their knowledge of patient safety was remarkable. No matter male or female, as compared with medical students who had not accepted patient safety education, they both had a better acquisition of knowledge after having this education (for male students: 95% CI, 4.556-106.238, P<0.001; for female students: 95% CI, 3.183-33.238, P<0.001). Students majoring in Western Medicine had a relatively better mastery of knowledge of patient safety after receiving patient safety education (95% CI, 6.267-76.271, P<0.001). Short-term patient safety
Linder, Dennis; Dall'olio, Elena; Gisondi, Paolo; Berardesca, Enzo; Gennaro, Emilia De; Pennella, Angelo R; Giannetti, Alberto; Peserico, Andrea; Girolomoni, Giampiero
Many studies have addressed the impact of psoriasis on quality of life, but few studies have investigated patient perception of the disease or the patient-physician relationship. As with most chronic diseases, improvement in the patient-physician relationship may be important in the proper management of patients with psoriasis. To assess how psoriasis and its treatments are subjectively experienced by patients as well as patient expectations with regard to the patient-physician relationship. A discussion agenda for 'focus group meetings' was organized by a group of sociologists, psychologists, educators, researchers, and clinicians active in the field of psychodermatology. Four meetings were held in Northern and Central Italy and participants included one moderator and either eight dermatologists or eight patients. Discussions were based on a predefined agenda and included: (i) the psychological representation of psoriasis; (ii) the hetero- and self-perception of the patient; (iii) the patient-physician relationship; and (iv) the development of an educational intervention for dermatologists in order to improve the patient-physician relationship. A questionnaire, based on the information gathered at the focus groups, was administered to 323 patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis from 17 dermatology clinics throughout Italy. Three hundred patients completed the questionnaire. Psoriasis elicited anger, annoyance at the inconvenience of the disease, and irritation in approximately 50% of the patients, whilst 38% of patients were unable to describe their emotional state. Aspects of life that were limited by psoriasis included clothing (57%), social interactions (43%), and personal hygiene (31%). The disease was often seen by patients as incomprehensible, incurable, and uncontrollable. More than half of the patients stressed their need to be listened to by the treating physician, and their wish that the physician should use simple language and should
Fidel-Kinori, Sara Guila; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Giannoni-Pastor, Anna; Tasqué-Cebrián, Ruth; Arguello, Jose Maria; Casas, Miguel
Psychological symptoms are common among burn survivors. However, knowledge about epidemiology and predictors of psychopathology has shown great heterogeneity in this population. The Fenix-II Project was the first epidemiological study on the psychopathological consequences of burns developed in Spain, providing a detailed analysis of the progression of psychological symptoms during the first six months after injury. Three hundred and thirty-three patients were screened and 183 were included in this study. Posttraumatic, depression and anxiety symptoms showed a general decreasing tendency across time. At 6 months, 34 patients showed clinically significant Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms (20.5% of 166 patients reached at 6 months) as assessed with the MINI Neuropsychiatric Interview. Within this group of patients, anxiety, depression and hyperarousal increased at 30 days, and avoidance 90 days after injury. The most accurate predictors of PTSD were found to be being burned in a Motor Vehicle Crash, risk of social exclusion, low body-image adjustment, anterior trunk location of the burn and life threat perception during the burn-shock period. Considering these factors, clinicians may identify patients at risk of PTSD development, allowing an adequate follow up and preventive interventions which may minimize the psychological consequences of burns.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Diblasi, Catherine; Gonzales, Eva; Silver, Kristi; Zhu, Shijun; Sagherian, Knar; Kongs, Katherine
Personal health records and patient portals have been shown to be effective in managing chronic illnesses. Despite recent nationwide implementation efforts, the personal health record and patient portal adoption rates among patients are low, and the lack of support for patients using the programs remains a critical gap in most implementation processes. In this study, we implemented the Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit in a large diabetes/endocrinology center and assessed its preliminary impact on personal health record and patient portal knowledge, self-efficacy, patient-provider communication, and adherence to treatment plans. Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit is composed of Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit-General, clinic-level resources for clinicians, staff, and patients, and Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit Plus, an optional 4-week online resource program for patients ("MyHealthPortal"). First, Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit-General was implemented, and all clinicians and staff were educated about the center's personal health record and patient portal. Then general patient education was initiated, while a randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the preliminary effects of "MyHealthPortal" using a small sample (n = 74) with three observations (baseline and 4 and 12 weeks). The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than the control group in patient-provider communication at 4 weeks (t56 = 3.00, P = .004). For other variables, the intervention group tended to show greater improvement; however, the differences were not significant. In this preliminary study, Patient-Centered Personal Health Record and Patient Portal Implementation Toolkit showed potential for filling the gap in the current
Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2) from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5) or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3). Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension) prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms). Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding patients from certain
Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Devcić, Sanja; Restek-Petrović, Branka
The factors situated at the bases of the genesis and development of PTSD are divided in: biological, psychological and social factors. Primary factor is a stressful event of extremely dangerous and threatening nature. The sort and the intensity of the stressful event too play an important role, followed by the personality structure, the relation with the environment and the genetic constitution. The study was thought to determine the quantitative dermatoglyphic properties of the digito-palmar complex in patients with PTSD aiming to establish whether there are biological, that is, genetic bases for PTSD, in what measure they determine the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and whether there is a dermatoglyphic marker, characteristic for people with PTSD. We analyzed the quantitative properties of the digito-palmer complex on a group of 100 male examinees over 18 years of age with PTSD, no psychiatric comorbidity, and who were two or more times cured at the Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", comparing them with the quantitative dermatoglyphic properties of a group of 100 phenotypically healthy male examinees over 18 years of age. Using the method of descriptive statistics, we found no statistically significant differences among the results of the examined groups. With the T-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the groups, and the results showed the existence of statistically significant differences among the comparison group and the group of patients with PTSD on three variables. We calculated the Fluctuating Asymmetry (FA) measure, which illustrates the compatibility, that is, the symmetry of the observed property on the right and on the left side of the body, indicating a difference on one variable. The outcome did not confirm the existence of a connection between a particular dermatoglyphic result and the genesis of PTSD. This is, however, in line with the hypothesis that, in patients with PTSD and other psychiatric disorders, there is a multiple effect of
Banerjee, Bhaskar; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Martinez, Jessica A; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Trowers, Eugene; Gibson, Blake A; Della'Zanna, Gary; Richmond, Ellen; Chow, H-H Sherry
Prior research strongly implicates gastric acid and bile acids, two major components of the gastroesophageal refluxate, in the development of Barrett's esophagus and its pathogenesis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to protect esophageal cells against oxidative stress induced by cytotoxic bile acids. We conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the clinical activity of UDCA in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Twenty-nine patients with Barrett's esophagus received UDCA treatment at a daily dose of 13 to 15 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The clinical activity of UDCA was assessed by evaluating changes in gastric bile acid composition and markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), cell proliferation (Ki67), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in Barrett's esophagus epithelium. The bile acid concentrations in gastric fluid were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. At baseline, UDCA (sum of unchanged and glycine/taurine conjugates) accounted for 18.2% of total gastric bile acids. After UDCA intervention, UDCA increased significantly to account for 93.4% of total gastric bile acids (P < 0.0001). The expression of markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was assessed in the Barrett's esophagus biopsies by IHC. The selected tissue biomarkers were unchanged after 6 months of UDCA intervention. We conclude that high-dose UDCA supplementation for 6 months resulted in favorable changes in gastric bile acid composition but did not modulate selected markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the Barrett's esophagus epithelium. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 528-33. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Brian J. Reid, p. 512.
Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.
This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…
Al-Mubarak, Bashayer R.; Bohlega, Saeed A.; Alkhairallah, Thamer S.; Magrashi, Amna I.; AlTurki, Maha I.; Khalil, Dania S.; AlAbdulaziz, Basma S.; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Mustafa, Abeer E.; Alyemni, Eman A.; Alsaffar, Bashayer A.; Tahir, Asma I.; Al Tassan, Nada A.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major causes of parkinsonism syndrome. Its characteristic motor symptoms are attributable to dopaminergic neurons loss in the midbrain. Genetic advances have highlighted underlying molecular mechanisms and provided clues to potential therapies. However, most of the studies focusing on the genetic component of PD have been performed on American, European and Asian populations, whereas Arab populations (excluding North African Arabs), particularly Saudis remain to be explored. Here we investigated the genetic causes of PD in Saudis by recruiting 98 PD-cases (sporadic and familial) and screening them for potential pathogenic mutations in PD-established genes; SNCA, PARKIN, PINK1, PARK7/DJ1, LRRK2 and other PD-associated genes using direct sequencing. To our surprise, the screening revealed only three pathogenic point mutations; two in PINK1 and one in PARKIN. In addition to mutational analysis, CNV and cDNA analysis was performed on a subset of patients. Exon/intron dosage alterations in PARKIN were detected and confirmed in 2 cases. Our study suggests that mutations in the ORF of the screened genes are not a common cause of PD in Saudi population; however, these findings by no means exclude the possibility that other genetic events such as gene expression/dosage alteration may be more common nor does it eliminate the possibility of the involvement of novel genes. PMID:26274610
Mason, Suzanne; Kuczawski, Maxine; Teare, M Dawn; Stevenson, Matt; Goodacre, Steve; Ramlakhan, Shammi; Morris, Francis; Rothwell, Joanne
Objectives Management of anticoagulated patients after head injury is unclear due to lack of robust evidence. This study aimed to determine the adverse outcome rate in these patients and identify risk factors associated with poor outcome. Design Multicentre, observational study using routine patient records. Setting 33 emergency departments in England and Scotland. Participants 3566 adults (aged ≥16 years) who had suffered blunt head injury and were currently taking warfarin. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was rate of adverse outcome defined as death or neurosurgery following initial injury, clinically significant CT scan finding or reattendance with related complication within 10 weeks of initial hospital attendance. Secondary objectives included identifying risk factors for adverse outcome using univariable and multivariable analyses. Results Clinical data available for 3534/3566 patients (99.1%), median age 79 years; mean initial international normalised ratio (INR) 2.67 (SD 1.34); 81.2% Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 15: 59.8% received a CT scan with significant head injury-related finding in 5.4% (n=208); 0.5% underwent neurosurgery; 1.2% patients suffered a head injury-related death. Overall adverse outcome rate was 5.9% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.7%). Patients with GCS=15 and no associated symptoms had lowest risk of adverse outcome (risk 2.7%; 95% CI 2.1 to 3.6). Patients with GCS=15 multivariable analysis (using imputation) found risk of adverse outcome to increase when reporting at least one associated symptom: vomiting (relative risk (RR) 1.8; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.4), amnesia (RR 3.5; 95% CI 2.1 to 5.7), headache (RR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8 to 2.2), loss of consciousness (RR 1.75; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.0). INR measurement did not predict adverse outcome in patients with GCS=15 (RR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2). Conclusions In alert warfarinised patients following head injury, the presence of symptoms is associated with greater risk of adverse outcome. Those with GCS=15
Pasternack, A.; Linder, E.
Renal biopsies and sera of four patients with distal renal tubular acidosis were examined. The findings consisted of immunoglobulin containing mononuclear cellular infiltrates around the distal tubules, bound immunoglobulin and complement in tubules. The sera of the patients contained antibodies reacting with various tissue antigens, among them renal tubular antigens. The results suggest that autoimmunity was involved in the pathogenesis of the renal tubular acidosis in these patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5202740
Selewski, David T; Herreshoff, Emily G; Gipson, Debbie S
Advances in medical care and biomedical research depend on the participation of human subjects. Poor patient enrollment in research has limited past clinical and translational research endeavors in nephrology. Simultaneously, patients and their caregivers are seeking better diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic approaches to improve or restore kidney and overall health. This manuscript will discuss a framework and strategies to optimize patient enrollment within nephrology research and provide examples of success from existing nephrology research programs.
Lindell, A; Denneberg, T; Granerus, G
Total and separate renal functions were evaluated in 40 patients with cystinuria. The average duration of the renal stone disease was 26 years (range 1-53). The patients had been subjected to a stone-preventing regimen composed of increased fluid intake, urinary alkalinization and treatment with a sulphydryl compound, tiopronin or D-penicillamine, for an average of 11.7 years (range 1-24). Urinary cystine concentration was determined regularly to monitor the treatment. All patients were examined with gamma camera renography and an assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and early and late renographic results could be compared in 30 patients. The early renographic evaluation showed that 43% of binephric patients (13/30) had an abnormal relative renal function (RRF) before the start of the stone-preventing treatment. At the late evaluation, 50% of binephric patients (17/34) had an abnormal RRF, while 30% of all patients (12/40) had a GFR below the age-related normal range. Thirty percent of 74 evaluated kidneys (22/74) had a separate GFR below an estimated age-related normal range. At the late evaluation only 30% of the patients had functionally unaffected kidneys with both normal GFR and bilateral normal renography. There was, however, no case with terminal renal failure. The separate GFR of kidneys with a history of staghorn stones was significantly lower than for kidneys without that special type of stones, but otherwise there was no relationship between renal functional impairment and other estimates of the activity of the renal stone disease. In conclusion, impairment of renal function is common in patients with stone-forming cystinuria. Stone-preventive treatment appears to be effective in preserving renal function. The high frequency of renal functional impairment justifies close surveillance of this group of patients. By renographic examination, unilateral changes in renal function can be detected at an early stage and patients at risk for further
Malek, Naveed; Swallow, Diane M.A.; Grosset, Katherine A.; Lawton, Michael A.; Marrinan, Sarah L.; Lehn, Alexander C.; Bresner, Catherine; Bajaj, Nin; Barker, Roger A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Burn, David J.; Foltynie, Thomas; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Wood, Nicholas; Grosset, Donald G.
Background: There is wide variation in the phenotypic expression of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is driven by both genetic and epidemiological influences. Objectives: To define and explain variation in the clinical phenotype of PD, in relation to genotypic variation. Methods: Tracking Parkinson’s is a multicentre prospective longitudinal epidemiologic and biomarker study of PD. Patients attending specialist clinics in the United Kingdom with recent onset (<3.5 years) and young onset (diagnosed <50 years of age) PD were enrolled. Motor, non-motor and quality of life assessments were performed using validated scales. Cases are followed up 6 monthly up to 4.5 years for recent onset PD, and up to 1 year for young onset PD. We present here baseline clinical data from this large and demographically representative cohort. Results: 2247 PD cases were recruited (1987 recent onset, 260 young onset). Recent onset cases had a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 67.6 years (9.3) at study entry, 65.7% males, with disease duration 1.3 years (0.9), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 22.9 (12.3), LEDD 295 mg/day (211) and PDQ-8 score 5.9 (4.8). Young onset cases were 53.5 years old (7.8) at study entry, 66.9% male, with disease duration 10.2 years (6.7), MDS-UPDRS 3 scores 27.4 (15.3), LEDD 926 mg/day (567) and PDQ-8 score 11.6 (6.1). Conclusions: We have established a large clinical PD cohort, consisting of young onset and recent onset cases, which is designed to evaluate variation in clinical expression, in relation to genetic influences, and which offers a platform for future imaging and biomarker research. PMID:26485428
Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Gasparetto, Patrícia Freire; Carneiro, Danilo Santos; Corrêa, Maria Elvira P.; Souza, Cármino Antônio
Introduction. Dental treatment performed in patients receiving continuous oral anticoagulant drug therapy is becoming increasingly common in dental offices. For these patients it is imperative to carry out careful anamnesis, as well as a multiprofessional clinical evaluation with regard to the risk and control of hemorrhagic or thromboembolic episodes. Objectives and Material and Methods. The aim is to evaluate postextraction hemorrhagic or thromboembolic episodes in patients who have been on anticoagulant medications for an uninterrupted period of 48 months. Results. Among the 108 patients evaluated, 215 extractions were performed in which there was only one case of postoperative bleeding. Warfarin was used by 98 patients; Warfarin associated with salicylic acetic acid by 9 patients and salicylic acetic acid in only 1 patient. As regards the serologic tests performed, International Normalized Ratio (INR) ranged from 0.8 to 4.9, with a mean of 3.15. Conclusion. Extractions in patients on oral anticoagulants must be performed in the least traumatic manner possible. It is not necessary to stop anticoagulant therapy to perform extractions. Local hemostasis techniques, such as obliterative sutures alone are sufficient to prevent hemorrhagic complications. PMID:21991458
Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap
Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360
Tripp, Warren H.; Rao, Vijaya; Creary, Ludlow B.
A diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis can be difficult to make in the early stages of disease, especially when patients present with symptoms of a hyperthyroid state that are nonspecific and mild. Using three case histories, the authors demonstrate how an early diagnosis of thyroiditis was made in these patients. PMID:3560246
Hope, Nicholas; Smith, Caroline P; Cullen, Jim R; McCluney, Neil
Introduction Up to 5% of all children have prominent ears. Psychological distress and bullying adversely affect these children and can cause significant social exclusion. In times of austerity, cosmetic procedures such as surgical correction of prominent ears are felt to be an unnecessary cost to the health service. Materials and methods A retrospective case note review of all patients undergoing pinnaplasty was undertaken. Postoperative outcomes were compared against the Royal College of Surgeons of England standards. The Glasgow Benefit Inventory, a validated post-intervention questionnaire, was then posted out to all patients. Results A total of 72 patients were identified. Average age at procedure was 13 years. Eleven patients were above the age of 19 years. Twenty-eight patients were male and forty-four female. Sixty-two cases underwent bilateral pinnaplasty. No patients developed hematoma, and there were no readmissions within 30 days of surgery. Twenty-nine patients responded to the questionnaire (40%), of whom 27 reported a positive impact on their psychosocial well-being with a mean score of 36. Conclusion Pinnaplasty offers patients an opportunity to alleviate the psychological distress of bullying and harassment secondary to the appearance of prominent ears. PMID:27307775
Laroumagne, Sophie; Lepage, Benoît; Hermant, Christophe; Plat, Gavin; Phelippeau, Michael; Bigay-Game, Laurence; Lozano, Stéphanie; Guibert, Nicolas; Segonds, Christine; Mallard, Valérie; Augustin, Nathalie; Didier, Alain; Mazieres, Julien
Bronchial colonisation is frequently reported in patients with lung cancer, and has a potential impact on therapeutic management and prognosis. We aimed to prospectively define the prevalence and nature of bronchial colonisation in patients at the time of diagnosing lung cancer. 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent a flexible bronchoscopy for lung cancer. The type and frequency of bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal colonisation were analysed and correlated with the patients' and tumours' characteristics. Potential pathogens were found in 48.1% of samples: mainly the Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli (8.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (4.3%) and Enterobacter spp. (2.4%); Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus spp. (12.9%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.3%); atypical mycobacteria (2.9%); Candida albicans (42.9%); and Aspergillus fumigatus (6.2%). Aged patients (p=0.02) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.008) were significantly more frequently colonised; however, tumour stage, atelectasis, bronchial stenosis and abnormalities of chest radiography were not associated with a higher rate of colonisation. Squamous cell carcinoma tended to be more frequently colonised than other histological subtypes. Airway colonisation was reported in almost half of patients presenting with lung cancer, mainly in fragile patients, and was significantly associated with worse survival (p=0.005). Analysing colonisation status of patients at the time of diagnosis may help improve the management of lung cancer.
Background Patient-centered care ideally considers patient preferences, values and needs. However, it is unclear if policies such as wait time strategies for hip and knee replacement surgery (TJR) are patient-centred as they focus on an isolated episode of care. This paper describes the accounts of people scheduled to undergo TJR, focusing on their experience of (OA) as a chronic disease that has considerable impact on their everyday lives. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants scheduled to undergo TJR who were recruited from the practices of two orthopaedic surgeons. We first used maximum variation and then theoretical sampling based on age, sex and joint replaced. 33 participants (age 38-79 years; 17 female) were included in the analysis. 20 were scheduled for hip replacement and 13 for knee replacement. A constructivist approach to grounded theory guided sampling, data collection and analysis. Results While a specific hip or knee was the target for surgery, individuals experienced multiple-joint symptoms and comorbidities. Management of their health and daily lives was impacted by these combined experiences. Over time, they struggled to manage symptoms with varying degrees of access to and acceptance of pain medication, which was a source of constant concern. This was a multi-faceted issue with physicians reluctant to prescribe and many patients reluctant to take prescription pain medications due to their side effects. Conclusions For patients, TJR surgery is an acute intervention in the experience of chronic disease, OA and other comorbidities. While policy has focused on wait time as patient/surgeon decision for surgery to surgery date, the patient’s experience does not begin or end with surgery as they struggle to manage their pain. Our findings suggest that further work is needed to align the medical treatment of OA with the current policy emphasis on patient-centeredness. Patient-centred care may require a
Graft selection remains the greatest challenge for surgeons performing rhinoplasty. The preferred choice thus far for nasal reconstruction would be autograft compared to allograft due to its lower rate of infection and extrusion as it does not induce an immune response. We have evaluated 26 patients who underwent open structured rhinoplasty at our center and compared our experience regarding the operative technique, graft availability, indications, and limitations. The racial distribution was 18 Indians, 5 Chinese, and 3 Malays with a mean age, hospitalization, and followup of 30.5 years, 16.9 months, and 4.4 days, respectively. Majority of the patients (57.6%) presented with twisted nose and 30.7% of the patients presented with history of nasal trauma. All the patients had deviated septum of varying severity. The most common graft used was quadrangular cartilage graft and the common complications noted were ala deformity and tip anaesthesia in 7.6% patients respectively. PMID:24078883
Strömberg, L; Ohlén, G; Nordin, C; Lindgren, U; Svensson, O
Mental impairment is a common and serious complication in geriatric surgery. We studied 223 hip fracture patients. They were over 64 years of age (mean 81), with no history of mental deterioration and acutely admitted to hospital from independent living conditions. They were randomized into two groups. One of these was subjected to reorientation measures during the perioperative phase, i.e., presurgery admission to the orthopedic ward, accompanied home visits during the hospital stay and access to reorientation devices--they received a large clock, calendar, radio, TV-set, telephone and were encouraged to wear their own clothing. Otherwise, there were no differences in the treatment given to the two groups. We used monitoring of cognitive function with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and a feedback program for evaluation of the treatment results. There was a low incidence of postoperative cognitive deterioration in both groups, compared with historical controls. However, no difference in mental status was noted when we compared the two groups. The conclusion is that attributes were less important than the psychological environment for postoperative mental deterioration. The mean total continuous hospitalization (transfers between departments and hospitals included) in the reorientation group was 22 (95% CI: 17-43) days, the corresponding figures for the controls were 30 (14-29) days.
McClelland, C.; Kinirons, M.; Geary, L.
OBJECTIVE: To compare patient perception of custom made mouthguards of ideal and less than ideal designs in terms of their comfort and "wearability". METHOD: A mouthguard of ideal design (A) and one incorporating common design faults of underextension and unadjusted occlusion (B) were provided for 22 active sportsmen and women. They were not informed of the details of the design or the status of the protector. Half the participants were asked to wear mouthguard A first and the other half wore B first, each worn for one hour on two consecutive nights. Questionnaires were used to evaluate and rate the comfort and wearability of each mouthguard. RESULTS: Eighteen people completed the study. The ideal appliance was rated as significantly more retentive and comfortable overall and specifically was more comfortable to lips, gums, and tongue. It was also recognised as being less bulky, less likely to keep the teeth apart, or to cause pain in the jaw muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Comfort is likely to be increased if mouthguards are extended labially to within 2 mm of the vestibular reflection, adjusted to allow even occlusal contact, rounded at the buccal peripheries, and tapered at the palatal edges. PMID:10378071
Funnell, Margaret G; Colvin, Mary K; Gazzaniga, Michael S
The purpose of the study was to investigate simple calculation in the two cerebral hemispheres of a split-brain patient. In a series of four experiments, the left hemisphere was superior to the right in simple calculation, confirming the previously reported left hemisphere specialization for calculation. In two different recognition paradigms, right hemisphere performance was at chance for all arithmetic operations, with the exception of subtraction in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm (performance was at chance when the lure differed from the correct answer by a magnitude of 1 but above chance when the magnitude difference was 4). In a recall paradigm, the right hemisphere performed above chance for both addition and subtraction, but performed at chance levels for multiplication and division. The error patterns in that experiment suggested that for subtraction and addition, the right hemisphere does have some capacity for approximating the solution even when it is unable to generate the exact solution. Furthermore, right hemisphere accuracy in addition and subtraction was higher for problems with small operands than with large operands. An additional experiment assessed approximate and exact addition in the two hemispheres for problems with small and large operands. The left hemisphere was equally accurate in both tasks but the right hemisphere was more accurate in approximate addition than in exact addition. In exact addition, right hemisphere accuracy was higher for problems with small operands than large, but the opposite pattern was found for approximate addition.
Hinrichsen, H; Leimenstoll, G; Stegen, G; Schrader, H; Fölsch, U R; Schmidt, W E
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant problem in the management of haemodialysis patients. A high prevalence of HCV infection in haemodialysis patients has been reported. Risk factors such as the number of blood transfusions or duration on haemodialysis have been identified. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HCV by antibody testing and HCV-RNA determination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in haemodialysis patients. Furthermore, liver function tests were performed and epidemiological data were obtained to determine risk factors for HCV in this cohort of patients. Results: A total of 2796 patients from 43 dialysis centres were enrolled. The overall prevalence of HCV (HCV antibody and/or HCV-RNA positivity) was 7.0% (195 patients). Antibody positivity occurred in 171 patients (6.1%). Viraemia was detectable in 111 patients (4.0%). Twenty four of 111 HCV RNA positive patients (21.6%) were negative for HCV antibodies. Thus 0.8% of the entire study population was HCV positive but could not be diagnosed by routine HCV antibody testing. Major risk factors identified by a standard questionnaire in 1717 of 2796 patients were the number of blood transfusions individuals had received and duration of dialysis, the latter including patients who received no blood transfusions. Sequencing of the 5`untranslated region of the genome showed a dominant genotype 1 (77.6%) within the cohort. Further reverse transcription-PCR of the NS5b and core region were performed to document phylogenetic analysis. Comparing nucleic acid sequences detected by PCR, no homogeneity was found and thus nosocomial transmission was excluded. Conclusions: HCV is common in German haemodialysis patients but screening for HCV antibodies alone does not exclude infection with HCV. PMID:12171969
Mercer, MaryBeth; Brinich, Margaret A.; Geller, Gail; Harrison, Krista; Highland, Janelle; James, Katherine; Marshall, Patricia; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Tilburt, Jon; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Farrell, Ruth M.; Sharp, Richard R.
Background Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have access to a growing number of probiotic products marketed to improve digestive health. It is unclear how patients make decisions about probiotics and what role they expect their gastroenterologists to play as they consider using probiotics. Understanding patients’ knowledge, attitudes and expectations of probiotics may help gastroenterologists engage patients in collaborative discussions about probiotics. Study Focus groups were conducted with patients with IBD and IBS at the Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins University. Inductive analytic methods were utilized to identify common themes and draw interpretations from focus group narratives. Results One hundred thirty-six patients participated in 22 focus groups between March and August 2009. Patients viewed probiotics as an appealing alternative to pharmaceutical drugs and understood probiotics as a more “natural,” low-risk therapeutic option. Many patients were hesitant to use them without consulting their gastroenterologists. Patients would weigh the risks and benefits of probiotics, their disease severity and satisfaction with current treatments when considering probiotic use. Conclusions Patients are interested in probiotics but have many unanswered questions about their use. Our findings suggest that patients with IBD and IBS will look to gastroenterologists and other clinicians as trustworthy advisors regarding the utility of probiotics as an alternative or supplement to pharmaceutical drugs. Gastroenterologists and other clinicians who care for patients with these diseases should be prepared to discuss the potential benefits and risks of probiotics and assist patients in making informed decisions about their use. PMID:21716123
Abdulhadi, Nadia; Al Shafaee, Mohammed; Freudenthal, Solveig; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Wahlström, Rolf
Background Patients' expectations and perceptions of the medical encounter and interactions are important tools in diabetes management. Some problems regarding the interaction during encounters may be related to a lack of communication skills on the part of either the physician or the patient. This study aimed at exploring the perceptions of type 2 diabetes patients regarding the medical encounters and quality of interactions with their primary health-care providers. Methods Four focus group discussions (two women and two men groups) were conducted among 27 purposively selected patients (13 men and 14 women) from six primary health-care centres in Muscat, Oman. Qualitative content analysis was applied. Results The patients identified some weaknesses regarding the patient-provider communication like: unfriendly welcoming; interrupted consultation privacy; poor attention and eye contact; lack of encouraging the patients to ask questions on the providers' side; and inability to participate in medical dialogue or express concerns on the patients' side. Other barriers and difficulties related to issues of patient-centeredness, organization of diabetes clinics, health education and professional competency regarding diabetes care were also identified. Conclusion The diabetes patients' experiences with the primary health-care providers showed dissatisfaction with the services. We suggest appropriate training for health-care providers with regard to diabetes care and developing of communication skills with emphasis on a patient-centred approach. An efficient use of available resources in diabetes clinics and distributing responsibilities between team members in close collaboration with patients and their families seems necessary. Further exploration of the providers' work situation and barriers to good interaction is needed. Our findings can help the policy makers in Oman, and countries with similar health systems, to improve the quality and organizational efficiency of
Ulin, Kerstin; Omerovic, Elmir; Ekman, Inger
Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the meaning of narrated symptoms in connection to takotsubo syndrome. Design, method, participants and setting Qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews, 23 women and 2 men aged 39–84 and living in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. The transcribed text was analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Results The interviewees reported a large number of symptoms before, during and after the acute onset of takotsubo syndrome, including pain, affected breathing, lassitude, malaise and nausea. Several of these have not been reported previously. Symptoms before the acute onset were, even if they had been prominent, ignored by the interviewees for various reasons. During the acute phase, the symptoms could no longer be ignored and the interviewees sought healthcare. The remaining residual symptom after discharge from hospital caused a great deal of worry because the interviewees feared that they would be permanent and they felt they could not live this way. On the whole, becoming ill and having a large number of symptoms greatly impacted the lives of the interviewees and made them re-evaluate how they had been living. Furthermore, they reported feeling alone and lost regarding their symptom burden, especially in relation to their residual symptoms, which affected their health and ability to return to daily life. Conclusions Acute symptoms, and symptoms before and after the acute ones, are a major part of the illness experience for patients with takotsubo syndrome and affect their health and well-being. Assessment of symptoms should be an integrated part of care to promote health. One way of achieving this is through the patients’ own narratives of their experiences, which are an important component in person-centred care. PMID:27707826
Ulusoy, Seçkin; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; San, Turhan; Cingi, Cemal
We retrospectively investigated patient satisfaction with different types of hearing aids in 107 patients-60 males and 47 females, aged 8 to 84 years (mean: 53.8)-with unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, each of whom used two different hearing devices for at least 3 years per device. The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids, Turkish edition (IOI-HA-TR) was used to evaluate satisfaction levels; we also calculated our own total individual subjective satisfaction (TISS) scores. We divided 16 different hearing devices into two types: device 1 and device 2; on average, device 2 had more channels, a lower minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency. We found that the IOI-HA-TR scores and TISS scores were higher and usage time was greater during device 2 use, and that there was a positive correlation between IOI-HA-TR and TISS scores. A total of 69 patients (64.5%) used device 2 for more than 8 hours per day, while 38 patients (35.5%) used it for 4 to 8 hours per day during the final 2 weeks of the trial. In contrast, 40 patients (37.4%) used device 1 for more than 8 hours, 50 (46.7%) used it for 4 to 8 hours, and the remaining 17 (15.9%) used it for less than 4 hours; the difference in the duration of use of the two devices was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Younger patients and patients with more education were more satisfied with their devices than were older patients and those who were not as well educated. We conclude that devices with good technologic features such as more channels, a lower minimum frequency, and a higher maximum frequency result in better hearing. Also, based on the age difference that we observed, we recommend that psychological support be provided to older patients with aided hearing to enhance their mental health and quality of life.
Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1) inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2) different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3) experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment. PMID:21235738
Aiuti, F.; Lacava, V.; Garofalo, J. A.; D'Amelio, R.; D'Asero, C.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes of twenty normal controls and twelve patients with primary immunodeficiencies were examined for surface membrane Ig and receptors for C3 complement (B cell markers) and for spontaneous rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes (T cell markers). In patients with defects in T cell function no lymphocytes forming spontaneous rosettes were seen. In patients with B cell deficiency they were normal or increased. Lymphocytes with membrane immunoglobulins were normal in patients with T cell defect and absent in patients with severe agammaglobulinaemia. Lymphocytes with receptors for C3 complement were increased in patients with T defect and normal in patients with most other forms of immunodeficiency studied. PMID:4587827
Muir, Marylou; Heese, Gail Archer; McLean, Daria; Bodnar, Sheila; Rock, Betty Lou
Bariatric admissions across the United States (US) are increasing at an alarming rate. The obesity epidemic costs the US health care system $70 billion per year. Many bariatric surgical and medical patients are admitted to critical care units. The mortality risks for these patients compared with non-bariatric patients is up to 2:1. Managing these patients is a challenge to health care nursing personnel. Patient size, care required, equipment technology, availability, and environmental space can increase risk for injury for nursing personnel and patients. The Health Sciences Center in Winnipeg shares a case study of an admission of a 697-lb patient, reviewing lessons learned, techniques, equipment, and difficulties.
Reindollar, R H; Novak, M; Tho, S P; McDonough, P G
A series of 262 patients with amenorrhea of adult onset are reported. Hypothalamic suppression followed by inappropriate positive feedback, and then hyperprolactinemia and ovarian failure are the most frequently encountered etiologies. Other etiologies are diverse and numerically less frequent. Amenorrhea after use of oral contraceptives, or postpill amenorrhea, occurred in 77 (29%) of all patients. The average age of presentation, prior menstrual history, associated morbidity, and subsequent reproductive potential of each diagnostic group are reported. Adult-onset amenorrhea has a less significant impact on future wellbeing than was reported for a similar-sized group of patients whose amenorrhea developed as a result of pubertal aberrancy.
Lim, P C; Tang, N K
In today's highly competitive healthcare environment, hospitals increasingly realise the need to focus on service quality as a means to improve their competitive position. Customer-based determinants and perceptions of service quality therefore play an important role when choosing a hospital. This paper attempts to determine the expectations and perceptions of patients through the use of a generic, internationally used market research technique called SERVQUAL. An analysis covering 252 patients revealed that there was an overall service quality gap between patients' expectations and perceptions. Thus, improvements are required across all the six dimensions, namely, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and accessibility and affordability.
Norton, J A; Doppman, J L; Collen, M J; Harmon, J W; Maton, P N; Gardner, J D; Jensen, R T
In 1982, a prospective study was initiated of 52 consecutive patients with proven Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), involving surgical exploration with the goal of removing the gastrinoma after an extensive protocol to localize the tumor. Each patient underwent ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) with oral/intravenous (IV) contrast, and selective arteriography. Eighteen patients had metastatic disease identified by imaging studies and confirmed by percutaneous biopsies, and two patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-I) with negative imaging studies; therefore, these 20 patients did not undergo laparotomy. Each of the remaining 32 patients (3 with MEN-I and positive imaging studies) underwent laparotomy, and gastrinomas were removed in 20 patients. Preoperative ultrasound localized tumors in 20% of patients, CT in 40%, arteriography in 60%, and any of the modalities in 70% of patients. Infusion CT and arteriography were 100% specific. In 18 patients with either negative imaging (17) or false-positive imaging (1 ultrasound), gastrinomas were found and removed in six patients (33%). Twenty-four gastrinomas were found in 20 patients at laparotomy: eight in lymph nodes around the pancreatic head, four in the pancreatic head, one in the pancreatic body, three in the pancreatic tail, three in the pyloric channel, one in the duodenal wall, two in the jejunum at the ligament of Treitz, one in the ovary, and multiple liver metastases in one patient. If one excludes patients with MEN-I or liver metastatic disease, 12/28 (43%) of patients were biochemically "cured" immediately after operation. This result decreased to 7/23 (30%) with greater than 6 months follow-up. No patients with gastrinomas resected have developed recurrent gastrinoma on follow-up imaging studies (longest follow-up: 4 years). This study indicates that 95% of metastatic gastrinoma can be diagnosed before operation and that, by a combination of careful imaging studies and thorough exploration
Mattes, J A; Fink, M
To evaluate the heritability of a personality trait, "having temper outbursts," and of associated diagnoses, we obtained histories of first degree relatives on two groups: (1) patients with temper outbursts (N = 33), and (2) diverse psychiatric patients without temper outbursts (N = 12). Family interviews were conducted blind to patient (temper or not) status, using a modified version of the Family History RDC. Though Ns are relatively small, and results therefore require confirmation, the data indicate familial transmission of temper problems; an average of 18.2% of Group 1 relatives had temper problems, compared to 4.3% for Group 2. The trait of having temper outbursts was more strongly transmitted than were specific diagnoses (e.g. Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder or Residual Attention Deficit Disorder) associated with temper outbursts. Patients with neurological conditions apparently related to their temper outbursts were less likely to have positive family histories.
Levy, C L; Sparkes, R S; Carlson, H E
In 2 adult male patients with 49 chromosomes, an XXXXY sex chromosome constitution was confirmed by trypsin-Giemsa banding sites. Clinical findings as well as fingerprint ridge counts were typical of the syndrome. Primary hypogonadism was documented by finding low serum testosterone and raised serum LH and FSH levels. Several radiological abnormalities, not previously described in this syndrome, were seen in 1 patient. Images PMID:568665
Çukurova, Selçuk; Pamuk, Ömer Nuri; Ünlü, Ercüment; Pamuk, Gülsüm Emel; Çakir, Necati
We evaluated the incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis and associated factors in our gouty arthritis patients. We included 55 gouty arthritis patients diagnosed at our center within the last 4 years. The control group included 41 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 34 patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AHU). Atherosclerotic risk factors were determined in all subjects. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the presence of plaques were evaluated by B-mode ultrasonography. The carotid IMT in gouty arthritis patients (0.730 ± 0.19) was significantly higher than in AHU subjects (0.616 ± 0.12) (P = 0.004) and tended to be higher than the RA group (0.669 ± 0.17) (P = 0.1). Atheromatous plaques were significantly more frequent in gouty arthritis patients (16 cases, 29.1%) than in RA patients (5 cases, 12.2%) and AHU subjects (3 cases, 8.8%) (P values, 0.05 and 0.023). Gout patients with plaques were older (P = 0.006) and tended to have tophi more frequently (P = 0.06). Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and the presence of tophi (OR: 12.5, 95% CI: 1.2-140) were independent risk factors for the presence of plaques. Gouty arthritis bears a higher risk of atherosclerosis than both RA and AHU.
Lieberman, D.; Schlaeffer, F.; Boldur, I.; Lieberman, D.; Horowitz, S.; Friedman, M. G.; Leiononen, M.; Horovitz, O.; Manor, E.; Porath, A.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the causes of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients admitted to hospital. METHODS: A prospective study was performed on 346 consecutive adult patients (54% men) of mean (SD) 49.3 (19.5) years (range 17-94) admitted to a university affiliated regional hospital in southern Israel with community-acquired pneumonia over a period of one year. Convalescent serum samples were obtained from 308 patients (89%). The aetiological diagnosis for community-acquired pneumonia was based on positive blood cultures and/or significant changes in antibody titres to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, respiratory viruses, Coxiella burnetii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella sp. RESULTS: The aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia was identified in 279 patients (80.6%). The distribution of causal agents was as follows: S pneumoniae, 148 patients (42.8%); M pneumoniae, 101 (29.2%); C pneumoniae, 62 (17.9%); Legionella sp, 56 (16.2%); respiratory viruses, 35 (10.1%); C burnetii, 20 (5.8%); H influenzae 19 (5.5%); and other causes, 21 patients (6.0%). In patients above the age of 55 years C pneumoniae was the second most frequent aetiological agent (25.5%). In 133 patients (38.4%) more than one causal agent was found. CONCLUSIONS: The causal agents for community-acquired pneumonia in Israel are different from those described in other parts of the world. In many of the patients more than one causal agent was found. In all these patients treatment should include a macrolide antibiotic, at least in the first stage of their illness. PMID:8711652
Lee, Hye Jin; Son, Jeong Min; Mun, Jihee; Kim, Dong Wook
Background and Purpose: Zonisamide (ZNS) is one of new antiepileptic drug, which is known to inhibit seizure through multiple mechanisms of action. In Korea, ZNS was approved as an antiepileptic drug in 1992 and has been used for epilepsy patients with partial and generalized seizures. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of ZNS in patients with epilepsy and to identify the incidence of adverse events in real clinical setting. Methods: This study was carried out in patients who received ZNS for epilepsy. Patients who were observed for at least 12 weeks after treatment with ZNS were included as evaluable subjects. Information regarding the status and type of adverse events occurring during the course of treatment with ZNS was obtained regardless of causal relationship to ZNS and efficacy was assessed by the study physicians and patients at 12 weeks post dose of ZNS. Results: A total of 1,948 patients were included in the study, and ZNS efficacy was evaluated in 1,744 patients. ZNS was used as a monotherapy in 1,095 patients and as an adjunctive drug in 853 patients. Of the total patients, 1,345 (69.1%) patients had partial seizure, 563 patients had generalized seizure, and 40 patients were undetermined. Adverse events were reported in 65 patients (3.34%) including 1 case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, but no incidence of serious unexpected adverse drug reactions were reported. 755 patients (43.29%) became seizure free with ZNS treatment, and additional 322 patients (18.41%) experienced marked improvement with ZNS treatment. Conclusions: Our study shows the safety and tolerability of ZNS treatment in patients with epilepsy in real clinical setting. In addition, ZNS was found to be an effective option as a monotherapy or in patients with generalized seizure. PMID:26819941
Clark, Jeffrey K.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Banter, Amy E.; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Background: Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is one of the leading health behaviors most associated with mortality, morbidity, and social problems. Adolescents need reliable sources of information to help them promote healthy sexual behaviors. Physicians in the United States are often seen by adolescents as a reliable and trustworthy source of accurate sexual information. However, many physicians feel uncomfortable or ill-prepared to deal with sexuality issues among their adolescent patients. Purpose: This study examined the impact of family resident physicians’ sexual attitudes, knowledge, and comfort, on the delivery of sexuality-related patient education to their adolescent patients. Materials and Methods: Pre-post-test scales were administered to 21 physicians. Data were also collected for patient (n=644) charts. Factors that determined the delivery of sexuality-related patient education were analyzed. Results: Results indicate that sexuality-related patient education was rarely provided to adolescent patients. Conclusions: Adolescent sexuality education is not a high priority for physicians. Professional medical organizations should play a leadership role in training physicians on delivering sexuality education to adolescent patients. PMID:24478998
Ishii, N; Maeyama, Y; Karashima, T; Nakama, T; Kusuhara, M; Yasumoto, S; Hashimoto, T
Only a few reports have been published of detailed clinical studies of pemphigus in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceous (PF), who were newly diagnosed in the dermatology department of Kurume University Hospital, Japan, over the past 11 years. The primary site of involvement was the oral mucosa in 21 patients (75%) with PV. At the initial visit, most of the patients with PV had moderate to severe disease. With regard to management, systemic corticosteroids were the mainstay of treatment for patients with PV, and plasmapheresis was the most frequently used adjuvant therapy. Dapsone was the mainstay of treatment for the patients with PF. The patients were investigated for any association with an underlying malignancy; in patients with PV, lung, stomach and uterine cancers (one patient each) were seen.
Sioua, S; Monsel, F; Attia, C; Elghelbazouri, F; Amara, W
Implantable cardiac defibrillators and resynchronization devices (CRT-D) are frequently used for heart failure patients. This is a retrospective study which included 50 patients with a CRT-D. The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac events (death, hospitalization for acute heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias). During 30-month follow-up, 4 patients (8%) died, 10 patients were hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure (20%) and 5 patients (10%) presented an appropriate choc for a ventricular arrhythmia. In total, 19 patients presented at least one cardiac event (38%). An improvement in dyspnea was reported in 84% of patients. An improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was reported in 74% of patients and 12% of them have normalized LVEF. In this study, the majority of patients implanted with a CRT-D presented an improvement of their symptoms. However, residual cardiac events were reported and remain unpredictable.
Carlucci, Annalisa; Vitacca, Michele; Malovini, Alberto; Pierucci, Paola; Guerrieri, Aldo; Barbano, Luca; Ceriana, Piero; Balestrino, Antonella; Santoro, Carmen; Pisani, Lara; Corcione, Nadia; Nava, Stefano
Discussion about patients' end-of-life (E-o-L) preferences should be part of the routine practice. Using a semi-structured interview with a scenario-based decision, we performed a prospective multicentre study to elicit the patients' E-o-L preferences in very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We also checked their ability to retain this information and the respect of their decisions when they die. Forty-three out of ninety-one of the eligible patients completed the study. The choice of E-o-L practice was equally distributed among the three proposed options: endotracheal intubation (ETI), 'ceiling' non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and palliation of symptoms with oxygen and morphine. NIV and ETI were more frequently chosen by patients who already experienced them. ETI preference was also associated with the use of anti-depressant drugs and a low educational level, while a higher educational level and a previous discussion with a pneumologist significantly correlated with the preference for oxygen and morphine. Less than 50% of the patients retained a full comprehension of the options at 24 hours. About half of the patients who died in the follow-up period were not treated according to their wishes. In conclusion, in end-stage COPD more efforts are needed to improve communication, patients' knowledge of the disease and E-o-L practice.
Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cabri, Giulio; Carretti, Eleonora; Galli, Giacomo; Giambalvo, Nina; Rioli, Giulia; Saraceni, Serena; Spiga, Giulia; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Ferri, Paola
Purpose To investigate the perception of dignity among patients hospitalized in a psychiatric setting using the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI), which had been first validated in oncologic field among terminally ill patients. Patients and methods After having modified two items, we administered the Italian version of PDI to all patients hospitalized in a public psychiatric ward (Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment of a northern Italian town), who provided their consent and completed it at discharge, from October 21, 2015 to May 31, 2016. We excluded minors and patients with moderate/severe dementia, with poor knowledge of Italian language, who completed PDI in previous hospitalizations and/or were hospitalized for <72 hours. We collected the demographic and clinical variables of our sample (n=135). We statistically analyzed PDI scores, performing Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and principal factor analysis, followed by orthogonal and oblique rotation. We concomitantly administered to our sample other scales (Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, Global Assessment of Functioning and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales) to analyze the PDI concurrent validity. Results With a response rate of 93%, we obtained a mean PDI score of 48.27 (±19.59 SD) with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient =0.93). The factorial analysis showed the following three factors with eigenvalue >1 (Kaiser’s criterion), which explained >80% of total variance with good internal consistency: 1) “Loss of self-identity and social role”, 2) “Anxiety and uncertainty for future” and 3) “Loss of personal autonomy”. The PDI and the three-factor scores were statistically significantly positively correlated with the Hamilton Scales for Depression and Anxiety but not with other scale scores. Conclusion Our preliminary research suggests that PDI can be a reliable tool to assess patients’ dignity perception in a psychiatric setting, until now
Chang, Il-Chi; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Chi-Ling; Chen, Chao-Long; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Po-Huang; Chen, Miin-Fu; Lee, Chuan-Mo; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Lo, Gin-Ho; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Hong, Chih-Chen; Eng, Hock-Liew; Wang, John; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Yen, Tseng-Chang; Liaw, Yun-Fan
Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cancer death in Taiwan. Chronic viral hepatitis infections have long been considered as the most important risk factors for HCC in Taiwan. The previously published reports were either carried out by individual investigators with small patient numbers or by large endemic studies with limited viral marker data. Through collaboration with 5 medical centers across Taiwan, Taiwan liver cancer network (TLCN) was established in 2005. All participating centers followed a standard protocol to recruit liver cancer patients along with their biosamples and clinical data. In addition, detailed viral marker analysis for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were also performed. This study included 3843 HCC patients with available blood samples in TLCN (recruited from November 2005 to April 2011). There were 2153 (56.02%) patients associated with HBV (HBV group); 969 (25.21%) with HCV (HCV group); 310 (8.07%) with both HBV and HCV (HBV+HCV group); and 411 (10.69%) were negative for both HBV and HCV (non-B non-C group). Two hundred two of the 2463 HBV patients (8.20%) were HBsAg(-), but HBV DNA (+). The age, gender, cirrhosis, viral titers, and viral genotypes were all significantly different between the above 4 groups of patients. The median age of the HBV group was the youngest, and the cirrhotic rate was lowest in the non-B non-C group (only 25%). This is the largest detailed viral hepatitis marker study for HCC patients in the English literatures. Our study provided novel data on the interaction of HBV and HCV in the HCC patients and also confirmed that the HCC database of TLCN is highly representative for Taiwan and an important resource for HCC research. PMID:27082566
van der Bilt, Ivo A C; Vendeville, Jean-Paul; van de Hoef, Tim P; Begieneman, Mark P V; Lagrand, Wim K; Kros, Johan M; Wilde, Arthur A M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Niessen, Hans W M
Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) such as electrocardiographic changes, echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, and elevated troponin levels are independently associated with a poor prognosis. They are caused by catecholaminergic stress coinciding with influx of inflammatory cells into the heart. These abnormalities could be a sign of a myocarditis, potentially giving insight in pathophysiology and treatment options. These inflammatory cells are insufficiently characterized, and it is unknown whether myocarditis is associated with SAH. Myocardium of 25 patients who died of SAH and 18 controls was stained with antibodies identifying macrophages (CD68), lymphocytes (CD45), and neutrophil granulocytes (myeloperoxidase). Myocytolysis was visualized using complement staining (C3d). CD31 was used to identify putative thrombi. We used Mann-Whitney U testing for analysis. In the myocardium of SAH patients, the amount of myeloperoxidase-positive (P < .005), CD45-positive (P < .0005), and CD68-positive (P < .0005) cells was significantly higher compared to controls. Thrombi in intramyocardial arteries were found in 22 SAH patients and 1 control. Myocytolysis was found in 6 SAH patients but not in controls. Myocarditis, consisting of an influx of neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages, coinciding with myocytolysis and thrombi in intramyocardial arteries, occurs in patients with SAH but not in controls. These findings might explain the cardiac abnormalities after SAH and may have implications for treatment.
Macchi, Claudio; Cassigoli, Silvia; Lova, Raffaele Molino; Roccuzzo, Aurelio; Miniati, Benedetta; Ceppatelli, Simone; Conti, Andrea A; Gensini, Gian Franco
Videocapillaroscopy is a new technique allowing a noninvasive examination of the capillary framework of the skin by using a contact probe with magnifying lenses and a cold-light epiluminescence system. The aim of this article was to investigate, by videocapillaroscopy, the microcirculation of the skin of the stump in 70 consecutive patients with unilateral transfemoral amputation. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to their tolerance (A) or intolerance (B) to a prosthesis with an Icelandic-Swedish-New York socket. Subgroup A included 48 patients, 17 diabetic and 31 nondiabetic, and subgroup B included 22 patients, 16 diabetic and 6 nondiabetic. In subgroup B, the caliber of capillary loops was significantly larger (mean +/-standard deviation, 23.6 +/-2.04 vs. 16.2 +/-1.96 microm; P < 0.001), neoangiogenesis was significantly more frequent (82%vs. 25%, P < 0.001), and the presence of microaneurysms (64%vs. 15%, P < 0.001) and microhemorrhages (36%vs. 4%, P < 0.001) was also more frequent. Surprisingly, some such diabetes-like microvascular changes were also found in the six nondiabetic patients of subgroup B. By using multiple logistic regression analysis, intolerance to the prosthesis was significantly related to microvascular changes (P = 0.001) but not to diabetes (P = 0.601), although diabetes was unequally distributed in the two subgroups.
Kanwar, A J; Dogra, S; Handa, S; Parsad, D; Radotra, B D
Lichen planus pigmentosus is a fairly common disorder of pigmentation in Indians, but reports comprising a sizeable number of patients are lacking in the literature. We now describe the clinical and epidemiological features and histopathological findings for 124 lichen planus pigmentosus patients. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients attending our centre during the past 12 years was undertaken. Of the 124 patients (56 male, 68 female), the majority (48.4%) had the disease for 6 months to 3 years. The face and neck were the commonest sites affected with pigmentation varying from slate grey to brownish-black. The pattern of pigmentation was mostly diffuse (77.4%), followed by reticular (9.7%), blotchy (7.3%) and perifollicular (5.6%). Lichen planus was noted in 19 patients with typical histopathological changes of the disorder. Lichen planus pigmentosus, a distinct clinical entity commonly encountered in the Indian population, should be considered in the spectrum of lichenoid disorders as a variant of lichen planus.
Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Fu-de; Zhao, Ming-hui
The elderly population has significantly increased in China. However, data regarding renal histopathology in this population is lacking. The present study retrospectively analyzed renal disease spectrum of 430 elderly patients who had received renal biopsy at Peking University First Hospital between January 2003 and December 2012. Among 6049 patients receiving renal biopsies during the same period, 430 (7.10%) were elderly (≥65 years). The ratio of male (263 patients) to female (167 patients) was 1.57:1, with an age of 70.29±3.99 (range 65-82) years at the time of biopsy. The most common indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (59.53%), followed by acute kidney injury (AKI, 19.53%) and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN, 16.05%). The most common renal histopathology in primary glomerular disease was idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN, 61.02%), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.22%), minimal change disease (MCD, 9.32%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (6.78%). ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, 43.95%) was the leading secondary glomerular disease, followed by HBV-related glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN, 24.2%), and amyloidosis (14.01%). In patients with nephrotic syndrome, iMN (50%) was the leading cause, followed by HBV-GN (16.02%), MCD (7.81%), and amyloidosis (7.81%). In patients with iMN, 89.5% presented as nephrotic syndrome, 8.39% as CGN. In patients with AKI, the leading cause was AAV (48.12%), followed by acute interstitial nephritis (20.48%) and acute tubular necrosis (8.43%). In conclusion, in elderly Chinese patients, the most common renal histopathology pattern was iMN in patients with nephrotic syndrome, and AAV in patients with AKI.
Rodríguez-Hernandez, M; Hirano, M; Naini, A; Santiestéban, R
In 1992-1994, a disorder known as the epidemic neuropathy afflicted more than 50,000 Cubans. Three different forms of the illness were identified: epidemic optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy and mixed optic and peripheral neuropathy. The causes are still unknown. Skeletal muscle biopsy samples were analyzed by standard histological techniques and by biochemical assays. Elevated activities of citrate synthase, a non-respiratory-chain mitochondrial matrix enzyme, suggested possible mitochondrial proliferation in 7 of the 8 patients. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) levels were higher in the patients than in the controls (p = 0.04). Levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and the reduced compounds NADH and NADPH were comparable in patients and controls. Elevations of succinate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activities and high NADP(+) levels suggest that alterations of mitochondrial functions may be associated with this disorder.
Richards, R N; Uy, M; Meharg, G
Women with facial hirsutism are burdened with hairs that often interfere with personal and work activities. Temporary hair removal is a major component in the management of hirsute patients. From a caseload of 1,000 patients, we submitted questionnaires to 271 and interviewed 135. We found that shaving was the most helpful and most frequently used temporary method. Judicious plucking can be helpful if tolerated, but care must be taken to avoid folliculitis, pigmentation, and scarring. Waxing and depilatories were used by less than 6 percent of patients on the face and by about 20 percent on other parts of the body. The avoidance of irritants and the use of hydrocortisone 1 percent cream are important in the management of any irritation due to hair removal techniques. Cosmetic coverups may be helpful.
Mohamedali, Mustafa; Sandoval, Joanna; Thiruvarooran, Vikarnan; Stacey, Holly; O'Neill, Meagan; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Durbano, Sara; Alibhai, Shabbir M H
To date, no study has examined the value of providing study newsletters in educating and motivating participants taking part in longitudinal intervention studies and reducing attrition in studies. The study team examined perceptions and satisfaction towards study newsletters, and their potential benefits, in a population of older men with prostate cancer participating in two ongoing longitudinal trials. Two study newsletters issues were mailed out 4 months apart to prostate cancer patients participating in a bone health and/or exercise intervention trial. Participants (n = 133) were invited to complete an 18-item custom-designed survey examining perceptions towards and satisfaction with the newsletter, and provide feedback about what makes an ideal study newsletter. Analyses were primarily descriptive. Resources required to produce a study newsletter were also calculated. Of 133 participants, 83 usable surveys were returned (response rate 62.4%). The mean satisfaction rating for the newsletter was 8.5/10 (SD 1.9) (10 = highly satisfied). Seventy eight percent said the newsletter encouraged them to continue to participate in the study, and 93% indicated that providing such study newsletters should be optional (64%) or mandatory (29%). Each newsletter required 31 h of study personnel time (mostly research student) to produce. Study participants were very satisfied with the newsletter and the majority indicated that study newsletters should be a regular practice in all long-term studies and may improve participant retention. Producing a newsletter is a low-cost method of educating participants in longitudinal studies. Its impact on recruitment and retention should be examined in clinical trials.
Kawanami, T; Kato, T; Daimon, M; Tominaga, M; Sasaki, H; Maeda, K; Arai, S; Shikama, Y; Katagiri, T
A 58 year old patient with dementia, oral dyskinesia, and diabetes mellitus is described. He had an undetectable concentration of serum caeruloplasmin, as an autosomal recessive trait. Brain MRI disclosed a pronounced hypointensity in the bilateral putamina, caudate, and dentate nuclei on both T1 and T2 weighted images. Pathological findings were mainly in those regions of the brain and consisted of neuronal cell loss with gliosis, heavy iron deposition, and spheroids. Visceral organs also had iron deposition, especially severe in the liver and pancreas. The present patient and other recorded cases constitute a clinicopathological entity of hereditary caeruloplasmin deficiency, different from Wilson's disease. Images PMID:8937346
Lindberg, Elisabeth; Persson, Eva; Hörberg, Ulrica; Ekebergh, Margaretha
Although the importance of patient participation is acknowledged in today's healthcare, many challenges remain before patient participation can become an integral part of care provision. The ward round has traditionally been the forum for crucial decisions about patient care, but often with limited possibilities for patient participation. As part of the process of improving patient participation, the round in the present study has been replaced by a team meeting (TM) to which the patient has been invited. The aim of this study is to highlight nurses' experiences of older patients' participation in TMs. The research process was guided by the principles of phenomenological reflective life world research. Data were collected in a Swedish hospital, in a ward specializing in older patients. Nine nurses, who had invited and planned for a patient to participate in TMs and/or had experienced TMs in which patients participated, were interviewed. The essential meaning of patient participation in the TM, as experienced by the nurses, is that patient participation can be supported by a safe relationship in which the patient can make his or her voice heard. Participation is challenged by the patients' vulnerability and by the subordinated role assigned to the patient. The essential meaning is further described by its constituents: "the need for a guide," "patient participation challenged by structures," and "creating space for the whole human being." In conclusion, the nurse plays a core role in guiding the patient in an unfamiliar situation. The meaning of patient participation in the TM needs to be discussed by professionals so that the patient perspective is present.
Lindberg, Elisabeth; Persson, Eva; Hörberg, Ulrica; Ekebergh, Margaretha
Although the importance of patient participation is acknowledged in today's healthcare, many challenges remain before patient participation can become an integral part of care provision. The ward round has traditionally been the forum for crucial decisions about patient care, but often with limited possibilities for patient participation. As part of the process of improving patient participation, the round in the present study has been replaced by a team meeting (TM) to which the patient has been invited. The aim of this study is to highlight nurses' experiences of older patients' participation in TMs. The research process was guided by the principles of phenomenological reflective life world research. Data were collected in a Swedish hospital, in a ward specializing in older patients. Nine nurses, who had invited and planned for a patient to participate in TMs and/or had experienced TMs in which patients participated, were interviewed. The essential meaning of patient participation in the TM, as experienced by the nurses, is that patient participation can be supported by a safe relationship in which the patient can make his or her voice heard. Participation is challenged by the patients' vulnerability and by the subordinated role assigned to the patient. The essential meaning is further described by its constituents: "the need for a guide," "patient participation challenged by structures," and "creating space for the whole human being." In conclusion, the nurse plays a core role in guiding the patient in an unfamiliar situation. The meaning of patient participation in the TM needs to be discussed by professionals so that the patient perspective is present.
Frantz, Robert P.; Schilz, Robert J.; Chakinala, Murali M.; Badesch, David B.; Frost, Adaani E.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Barst, Robyn J.; Rosenberg, Daniel M.; Miller, Dave P.; Hartline, Brian K.; Benton, Wade W.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively reported outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) treated with epoprostenol in the modern-day era of oral therapy and combination treatments. The Registry to Prospectively Describe Use of Epoprostenol for Injection (Veletri, prolonged room temperature stable-epoprostenol [RTS-Epo]) in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PROSPECT) was established to prospectively describe the course of PAH in patients prescribed RTS-Epo. METHODS: PROSPECT is a multicenter, US-based drug registry of primarily group 1 patients with PAH treated with RTS-Epo who were parenteral-naive or parenteral-transitioned at enrollment. Patients were followed until discontinuation of RTS-Epo, withdrawal, loss to follow-up, death, or end of study (maximum 1 year). One-year freedom from hospitalization (FH) and survival estimates were summarized by prostacyclin history (parenteral-naive or parenteral-transitioned), sex, and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). RESULTS: A total of 336 patients were included. The overall 1-year FH estimate was 51.0% ± 2.8% and was lower in parenteral-naive patients than parenteral-transitioned patients (42.8% ± 4.3% vs 57.1% ± 3.7%, respectively; P = .002). FH estimates were lower in male patients than female patients (38.3% ± 5.9% vs 54.6% ± 3.2%, respectively; P < .015) and in patients with CRI than patients without CRI (17.0% ± 8.4% vs 53.7% ± 2.9%, respectively; P < .001). The overall 1-year survival estimate was 84.0% ± 2.1%. Survival was poorer in parenteral-naive patients, male patients, and patients with CRI. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of hospitalization and mortality remain high in patients with PAH. In particular, patients who are parenteral-naive at initiation of RTS-Epo therapy, male patients, and patients with CRI require close monitoring and aggressive clinical management. PMID:25320967
Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Spaite, D W; Lyver, M B; Munkley, D P; Field, B J; Dagnone, E; Maloney, J P; Jones, G R; Luinstra, L G; Jermyn, B D; Ward, R; DeMaio, V J
The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study represents the largest prehospital study yet conducted, worldwide. This study will involve more than 25,000 cardiac arrest, trauma, and critically ill patients over an 8-year period. The study will evaluate the incremental benefit of rapid defibrillation and prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support measures for cardiac arrest survival and the benefit of Advanced Life Support for patients with traumatic injuries and other critically ill prehospital patients. This article describes the OPALS study with regard to the rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.
Upshaw, Charles B.
Electrocardiographic differences occur between African-American and white persons. The cardiac rhythms of 2123 African-American and white hospital patients from 20 through 99 years of age were studied in a consecutive manner. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases dramatically with advancing age in both African-American and white patients. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation begins to increase at age 60 years and continues to increase through the 10th decade of life, although the rate of rise of the prevalence of atrial fibrillation is less in African-American patients compared with white patients. The cause of the reduced prevalence of atrial fibrillation in African-American patients remains unexplained. Atrial fibrillation occurs in 2.5% of African-American patients compared with 7.8% of white patients attending an urban hospital. There is little difference in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation between men and women. Atrial fibrillation occurs nearly seven times more often than does atrial flutter. PMID:11995632
Diederich, Adele; Swait, Joffre; Wirsik, Norman
Health systems worldwide are grappling with the need to control costs to maintain system viability. With the combination of worsening economic conditions, an aging population and reductions in tax revenues, the pressures to make structural changes are expected to continue growing. Common cost control mechanisms, e.g. curtailment of patient access and treatment prioritization, are likely to be adversely viewed by citizens. It seems therefore wise to include them in the decision making processes that lead up to policy changes. In the context of a multilevel iterative mixed-method design a quantitative survey representative of the German population (N = 2031) was conducted to probe the acceptance of priority setting in medicine and to explore the practicability of direct public involvement. Here we focus on preferences for patients' characteristics (medical aspects, lifestyle and socio-economic status) as possible criteria for prioritizing medical services. A questionnaire with closed response options was fielded to gain insight into attitudes toward broad prioritization criteria of patient groups. Furthermore, a discrete choice experiment was used as a rigorous approach to investigate citizens' preferences toward specific criteria level in context of other criteria. Both the questionnaire and the discrete choice experiment were performed with the same sample. The citizens' own health and social situation are included as explanatory variables. Data were evaluated using corresponding analysis, contingency analysis, logistic regression and a multinomial exploded logit model. The results show that some medical criteria are highly accepted for prioritizing patients whereas socio-economic criteria are rejected. PMID:22590619
Fenollosa, J; Seminario, P; Montijano, C
Zones of osteolysis occur in mobilized and in well-fixed prostheses with the classic ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene-metal couple. However, since 1981 with the use of the ceramic couple in cemented hip prostheses in young patients, osteolysis has not been observed. The prostheses in patients with a longer followup do not show signs of wear in the bearing or signs of bone lysis in the well-fixed prostheses. Cementless prostheses with the same type of ceramic bearing have been used since 1990 in patients with more than 30 years of life expectancy, in an effort to eliminate loosening at the cement-bone interface. The cementless prostheses performed well with spot welds visible 3 months after the operation, which still are present at 7 years of followup. Lysis has not been observed behind the cup or around the stem. In the current series, head ruptures and accidents in the stem and neck junction produced by the modularity of the prostheses did not occur. The authors focus on the positive results shown by ceramic bearings and describe the results of 31 cemented, five hybrid, and 58 uncemented prostheses with ceramic bearings in patients younger than 50 years of age.
Gordon, Wayne; And Others
The course of psychosocial adjustment to cancer was examined in 105 adults with cancer of the lung, breast and skin. Half of the patients received a program of systematic psychosocial rehabilitation plus evaluation, and the other half received only an evaluation, consisting of a series of psychometric instruments and a problem-oriented structured…
The ascending peripheral neuropathy and paralysis that result from Guillain-Barre Syndrome's (GBS) demyelination of peripheral nerves is a challenge to health professionals; the patient requires support during the acute disease process and during the remyelination recovery period, often lasting months to years. The staff of a major metropolitan teaching hospital's critical care unit (CCU) and physiotherapy departments developed a hydrotherapy treatment programme for a ventilated patient with GBS. Through careful planning and appropriate preparation, it was found that hydrotherapy could successfully and safely be incorporated into a patient's treatment regimen. The benefits included improved range of movement due to the supportive nature of water, anecdotal increased strength, size and movement of remyelinating muscles and a psychological improvement. Although this patient has not recovered from GBS to be independent, hydrotherapy was a valuable part of the treatment regimen and it could be suggested the increase muscle strength lead to improved respiratory function and enabled weaning from ventilation, reducing intensive care length of stay and cost.
Taylor, R E Russell
Mucociliary transport can be assessed by monitoring the clearance rate of inhaled, dried, and crushed technetium-99m labeled sulfur colloid. A case is described of a patient who had a history of recurrent sinusitis, purulent sputum production, and infertility. It was thought he might have Kartagener syndrome, and his mucociliary clearance was shown to be abnormal.
Akerlund, Britt Mari; Norberg, Astrid
Interviewed five caregiving nursing staff members involved in dementia care concerning their ambivalent feelings toward spoon-feeding a severely demented patient. Although tube-feeding was regarded as an easier way to provide nourishment, spoon-feeding was preferred because it provided more human contact and love. (Author/NB)
Liebhaber, Harvey; Krugman, Saul; McGregor, Dorothy; Giles, Joan P.
A virus has been isolated from the serum and urine of patients with infectious hepatitis. This virus is a member of the parinfluenza group. It is serologically distinct from the known members of the group, but apparently is antigenically related to the simian type-2 parainfluenza viruses. A causal relationship between WB virus and infectious hepatitis has not been established. PMID:4285254
Wynne, K M; Dieppe, P A; Scott, J; Huskisson, E C
A simple method is described which allows sequential monitoring of the endocytic activity of blood and synovial fluid cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing therapy with levamisole. Evidence of immediate (24 hours) and long-term (5-7 weeks) cellular phagocytic enhancement is presented. Images PMID:7259330
Blake, Sue; Ruel, Brian; Seamark, Clare; Seamark, David
Background Chronic non-cancer pain is an increasing problem in health care. This study was initiated by a patient wanting to discover more about the experiences of other patients requiring strong opioid analgesia for such pain. Aim To determine the attitudes and experiences of patients receiving long-term strong opioid medication for chronic non-cancer pain in primary care. Design of study Qualitative study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Setting A semi-rural general practice in southwest England. Method The study data came from a focus group and 10 individual patient interviews. A patient researcher was involved in the design, conduct, and analysis of the project. Results The impact of pain affected participants in every aspect of their daily lives. Attitudes to strong opioid medication were both positive and negative. Concerns about starting medication usually centred on fears of addiction, being seen as an addict, or that the patients may have a more serious condition than they had previously thought. However, these fears were tempered by an appreciation of the benefits that strong opioids brought in terms of pain relief and consequent gains in a nearer-to-normal existence. The data did not produce any evidence of addictive behaviour or of tolerance despite these initial fears. Patients adopted a trade off approach, balancing pain relief with medication side effects, accepting more pain for a reduction in sedation and nausea. All patients described coping strategies they developed themselves and learned from outside influences, such as pain clinic courses and support from the GP. There was realism that total pain relief was not possible, but that a balance could be struck. Conclusion Chronic non-cancer pain is associated with high levels of distress and psychosocial impairment. Patients in this study appreciated the benefits of strong opioid medication, having come to terms with fears of addiction and learned coping strategies. These findings
Samimi Ardestani, Seyed Mehdi; Faridhosseini, Farhad; Shirkhani, Fatemeh; Karamad, Ardeshir; Farid, Layla; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Motlagh, Ali
Background: There are important differences regarding cancer disclosure in various geographical populations (Europeans, Western Asia, Eastern Asia), depending on multiple sociocultural factors, and therefore, there is no standard protocol on this issue, especially in Iran. Objectives: To evaluate the amount of information that Iranian patients have and their preference for the disclosure of the cancer diagnosis. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive research, patients admitted in the oncology departments of 3 referral medical centers, Imam Hussein, Shohada-e-Tajrish and Modarres, in Tehran, from March 2007 to April 2008, were questioned about their awareness and knowledge regarding their diagnosis. Two different structured questionnaires were designed for the people who know and who didn't know their diagnosis. For the former, the survey concerned their psychological reactions to their situations, whether they would prefer to know about their diagnosis and by whom they are preferred to be informed .For the latter, the questionnaire included their preference whether to know the diagnosis and their current emotional state. Descriptive statistics and chi square test was applied to analyze gathering Data, using SPSS version 14. Results: 60.3% of the patients knew their diagnosis. Among the subjects who did not know their diagnosis, 88% preferred to be more informed about their diagnosis and 68% had some psychological reaction to their situations. Among the subjects who knew their diagnosis, 92.1 % preferred to know their diagnosis, 73.6% preferred to be informed directly by their physicians. Following the diagnostic disclosure, 81.5% reported that they had felt nervous, anxious and worried. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian patients with malignancy want to know the truth and they prefer to be informed directly by their doctors. PMID:26834800
Elsey, Christopher; Challinor, Alexander; Monrouxe, Lynn V.
Bedside teaching encounters (BTEs) involve doctor-patient-student interactions, providing opportunities for students to learn with, from and about patients. How the differing concerns of patient care and student education are balanced in situ remains largely unknown and undefined. This video ethnographic study explores "patient…
Redford, Maryann; Gift, Helen C.
A University of North Carolina study using focus groups of dentists and patients found dentist-patient interactions play an important role in treatment decision-making, and are predicated on non-clinical factors, including dentists' intuition and judgment and patient impressions of dentists' examination styles, personalities, and interpersonal…
Novak, Primoz; Vidmar, Gaj; Kuret, Zala; Bizovicar, Natasa
Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) frequently develops in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. The number of patients with CIPNM admitted to inpatient rehabilitation is increasing. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the outcome of their rehabilitation. Twenty-seven patients with CIPNM were included in…
There is a paucity of data regarding intentional weight loss in obese heart failure patients. This study sought to ascertain the safety and effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program in patients with systolic heart failure and metabolic syndrome. Patients (n=20) with systolic heart failure (e...
Saitoh, Shinji; Harada, Naoki; Jinno, Yoshihiro; Niikawa, Norio; Imaizumi, Kiyoshi; Kuroki, Yoshikazu; Fukushima; Yoshimitsu; Sugimoto, Tateo; Renedo, Monica
We analyzed 61 Angelman syndrome (AS) patients by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. On the basis of molecular findings, the patients were classified into the following 4 groups: familial cases without deletion, familial cases with submicroscopic deletion, sporadic cases with deletion, and sporadic cases without deletion. Among 53 sporadic cases, 37 (70%) had molecular deletion, which commonly extended from D15S9 to D15S12, although not all deletions were identical. Of 8 familial cases, 3 sibs from one family had a molecular deletion involving only 2 loci, D15S10 and GABRB3, which define the critical region for AS phenotypes. The parental origin of deletion, both in sporadic and familial cases, was exclusively maternal and consistent with a genomic imprinting hypothesis. Among sporadic and familial cases without deletion, no uniparental disomy was found and most of them were shown to inherit chromosomes 15 from both parents (biparental inheritance). A discrepancy between cytogenetic and molecular deletion was observed in 14 (26%) of 53 patients in whom cytogenetic analysis could be performed. Ten (43%) of 23 patients with a normal karyotype showed a molecular deletion, and 4 (13%) of 30 patients with cytogenetic deletion, del(15) (q11q13), showed no molecular deletion. Most clinical manifestations, including neurological signs and facial characteristics, were not distinct in each group except for hypopigmentation of skin or hair. Familial cases with submicroscopic deletion were not associated with hypopigmentation. These findings suggested that a gene for hypopigmentation is located outside the critical region of AS and is not imprinted. 37 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Moreno Padilla, F; Díez Herranz, M; Peñafiel Marfil, R; García Rospide, V; González Ríos, L; Ramosa Bruno, J; Ros Die, E
Sanguineous flow is studied in a group of patients with unilateral obliteration of iliac artery. This flow was particularly studied during exercise with the purpose of determinate the modifications on the flow produced by exercise. For this purpose, 11 patients with no associated pathologies were studied during more than a year follow-up.
Farber, Steven; Tate, Janet; Frank, Cyndi; Ardito, David; Kozal, Michael; Justice, Amy C; Scott Braithwaite, R
The role of financial incentives in HIV care is not well studied. We conducted a single-site study of monetary incentives for viral load suppression, using each patient as his own control. The incentive size ($100/quarter) was designed to be cost-neutral, offsetting estimated downstream costs averted through reduced HIV transmission. Feasibility outcomes were clinic workflow, patient acceptability, and patient comprehension. Although the study was not powered for effectiveness, we also analyzed viral load suppression. Of 80 eligible patients, 77 consented, and 69 had 12 month follow-up. Feasibility outcomes showed minimal impact on patient workflow, near-unanimous patient acceptability, and satisfactory patient comprehension. Among individuals with detectable viral loads pre-intervention, the proportion of undetectable viral load tests increased from 57 to 69 % before versus after the intervention. It is feasible to use financial incentives to reward ART adherence, and to specify the incentive by requiring cost-neutrality and targeting biological outcomes.
Albano, Maria Grazia; Jourdain, Patrick; De Andrade, Vincent; Domenke, Aukse; Desnos, Michel; d'Ivernois, Jean-François
Therapeutic patient education programmes on heart failure have been widely proposed for many years for heart failure patients, but their efficiency remains questionable, partly because most articles lack a precise programme description, which makes comparative analysis of the studies difficult. To analyse the degree of precision in describing therapeutic patient education programmes in recent randomized controlled trials. Three major recent recommendations on therapeutic patient education in heart failure inspired us to compile a list of 23 relevant items that an 'ideal' description of a therapeutic patient education programme should contain. To discover the extent to which recent studies into therapeutic patient education in heart failure included these items, we analysed 19 randomized controlled trials among 448 articles published in this field from 2005 to 2012. The major elements required to describe a therapeutic patient education programme were present, but some other very important pieces of information were missing in most of the studies we analysed: the patient's educational needs, health literacy, projects, expectations regarding therapeutic patient education and psychosocial status; the educational methodology used; outcomes evaluation; and follow-up strategies. Research into how therapeutic patient education can help heart failure patients will be improved if more precise descriptions of patients, educational methodology and evaluation protocols are given by authors, ideally in a standardized format.
Rodríguez-Soto, M E; Fernández-Andreu, C M; Moya Duque, S; Rodríguez Díaz, R M; Martínez-Machín, G
Physical examination of nails was carried out in 210 elderly patients and nail scrapings were obtained from onychomycosis suggested lesions in order to determine their causative agents, incidence and clinical characteristics. Diagnostic was confirmed by the isolation of the agents from 74 patients, mainly from toe-nails (incidence 35.2). Tinea pedis occurred in 25% of the cases and Diabetes mellitus was the most prevalent associated disease and the most frequent clinical characteristics were the thickening, the opacity and the presence of longitudinal strias in the surface of the nails. It was compared the results obtained by microscopic examination and by culture. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common dermatophyte isolated; Candida parapsilosis was dominant among Candida species.
Kingi, Lawrence; Grech, Roger; Lam, Michael; Dissanayake, Ajith; Otter, Simon
This case history describes a rare complaint - Calciphylaxis, seen in a New Zealand Maori patient undergoing renal dialysis. This condition causes non-healing tissue ulceration, typically with sepsis and is associated with a very high mortality rate. The need for vigilance among health professionals is highlighted, including the risk factors that may faciliate an early diagnosis; together with the value associated with a multi-disciplinary team approach to management.
Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Alban, Rebecca E.; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R.; Oberhelman, Richard A.
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Conclusion: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level. PMID:25566523
Study Design of the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (microSOAP): an International Multicenter Observational Study of Sublingual Microcirculatory Alterations in Intensive Care Patients
Vellinga, Namkje A. R.; Boerma, E. Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Pearse, Rupert M.; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can
Objective. Sublingual microcirculatory alterations are associated with an adverse prognosis in several critical illness subgroups. Up to now, single-center studies have reported on sublingual microcirculatory alterations in ICU patient subgroups, but an extensive evaluation of the prevalence of these alterations is lacking. We present the study design of an international multicenter observational study to investigate the prevalence of microcirculatory alterations in critically ill: the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP). Methods. 36 ICU's worldwide have participated in this study aiming for inclusion of over 500 evaluable patients. To enable communication and data collection, a website, an Open Clinica 3.0 database, and image uploading software have been designed. A one-session assessment of the sublingual microcirculation using Sidestream Dark Field imaging and data collection on patient characteristics has been performed in every ICU patient >18 years, regardless of underlying disease. Statistical analysis will provide insight in the prevalence and severity of sublingual alterations, its relation to systemic hemodynamic variables, disease, therapy, and outcome. Conclusion. This study will be the largest microcirculation study ever performed. It is expected that this study will also establish a basis for future studies related to the microcirculation in critically ill. PMID:22666566
Yılmaz, M; Uçar, S K; Aşçı, G; Canda, E; Tan, F A; Hoşcoşkun, C; Çoker, M; Töz, H
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alfa-galactosidase A (AGALA) and leads to progressive impairment of renal function in almost all male patients and in a significant proportion of female patients. FD is underdiagnosed or even misdiagnosed in patients undergoing kidney transplantation. We initiated a selective screening study for FD among kidney transplant patients in our center. In this study, 1095 male and female patients were included. Dried blood samples on Guthrie papers were used to analyze galactosidase A enzyme for male patients. Genetic analyses were performed in all female and male patients with low enzyme activity. In total, 648 female and 447 male patients with functioning grafts were evaluated. Among 1095 patients, 5 male patients had AGALA activity below threshold and 3 female patients had galactosidase alpha gene DNA variations. One male patient had a disease-causing mutation. The other 4 patients had polymorphisms causing low enzyme activity. All the 3 female patients had mutations that were associated with FD according to Human Gene Mutation Database (ID: CM025441). In contrast, these mutations were reported as unknown clinical significance in Clinvar (rs149391489). The patients with clinical findings suggesting FD were planned to be analyzed for Lyso Gb3. In our selective screening study, 8 variations were found among 1095 kidney transplantation patients, which needs further investigation to determine causes of FD. Clinical findings, physical examination, and family history are also necessary to evaluate the genetic changes as a mutation in this selected population.
Background Cancer health disparities affecting low-income and minority patients are well documented. Root-causes are multifactorial, including diagnostic and treatment delays, social and financial barriers, and poor communication. Patient navigation and communication coaching (activation) are potential interventions to address disparities in cancer treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test the effectiveness of an intervention combining patient navigation and activation to improve cancer treatment. Methods/Design The Rochester Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) is a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, patient-level randomized trial (RCT) of patient navigation and activation, targeting newly-diagnosed breast and colorectal cancer patients in Rochester, NY. The goal of the program is to decrease cancer health disparities by addressing barriers to receipt of cancer care and promoting patient self-efficacy. The intervention uses trained, paraprofessional patient navigators recruited from the target community, and a detailed training and supervisory program. Recruited patients are randomly assigned to receive either usual care (except for baseline and follow-up questionnaires and interviews) or intervention. The intervention patients receive tailored assistance from their patient navigators, including phone calls, in-person meetings, and behind-the-scenes coordination of care. A total of 344 patients have been recruited. Outcomes measured at three month intervals include timeliness of care, patient adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life, self-efficacy, health literacy, and cancer knowledge. Discussion This unique intervention combining patient navigation and patient activation is designed to address the multifactorial problem of cancer health disparities. If successful, this study will affect the design and implementation of patient navigation programs. Trials Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00496678 PMID:20939928
Brånemark, R; Berlin, O; Hagberg, K; Bergh, P; Gunterberg, B; Rydevik, B
Patients with transfemoral amputation (TFA) often experience problems related to the use of socket-suspended prostheses. The clinical development of osseointegrated percutaneous prostheses for patients with a TFA started in 1990, based on the long-term successful results of osseointegrated dental implants. Between 1999 and 2007, 51 patients with 55 TFAs were consecutively enrolled in a prospective, single-centre non-randomised study and followed for two years. The indication for amputation was trauma in 33 patients (65%) and tumour in 12 (24%). A two-stage surgical procedure was used to introduce a percutaneous implant to which an external amputation prosthesis was attached. The assessment of outcome included the use of two self-report questionnaires, the Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA) and the Short-Form (SF)-36. The cumulative survival at two years' follow-up was 92%. The Q-TFA showed improved prosthetic use, mobility, global situation and fewer problems (all p < 0.001). The physical function SF-36 scores were also improved (p < 0.001). Superficial infection was the most frequent complication, occurring 41 times in 28 patients (rate of infection 54.9%). Most were treated effectively with oral antibiotics. The implant was removed in four patients because of loosening (three aseptic, one infection). Osseointegrated percutaneous implants constitute a novel form of treatment for patients with TFA. The high cumulative survival rate at two years (92%) combined with enhanced prosthetic use and mobility, fewer problems and improved quality of life, supports the 'revolutionary change' that patients with TFA have reported following treatment with osseointegrated percutaneous prostheses.
Hasegawa, Toshinori; Kato, Takenori; Kida, Yoshihisa; Sasaki, Ayaka; Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Kondoh, Takeshi; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Sato, Manabu; Sato, Mitsuya; Nagano, Osamu; Nakaya, Kotaro; Nakazaki, Kiyoshi; Kano, Tadashige; Hasui, Koichi; Nagatomo, Yasushi; Yasuda, Soichiro; Moriki, Akihito; Serizawa, Toru; Osano, Seiki; Inoue, Akira
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery in patients with jugular foramen schwannomas (JFSs). METHODS This study was a multiinstitutional retrospective analysis of 117 patients with JFSs who were treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) at 18 medical centers of the Japan Leksell Gamma Knife Society. The median age of the patients was 53 years. Fifty-six patients underwent GKS as their initial treatment, while 61 patients had previously undergone resection. At the time of GKS, 46 patients (39%) had hoarseness, 45 (38%) had hearing disturbances, and 43 (36%) had swallowing disturbances. Eighty-five tumors (73%) were solid, and 32 (27%) had cystic components. The median tumor volume was 4.9 cm(3), and the median prescription dose administered to the tumor margin was 12 Gy. Five patients were treated with fractionated GKS and maximum and marginal doses of 42 and 21 Gy, respectively, using a 3-fraction schedule. RESULTS The median follow-up period was 52 months. The last follow-up images showed partial remission in 62 patients (53%), stable tumors in 42 patients (36%), and tumor progression in 13 patients (11%). The actuarial 3- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 91% and 89%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that pre-GKS brainstem edema and dumbbell-shaped tumors significantly affected PFS. During the follow-up period, 20 patients (17%) developed some degree of symptomatic deterioration. This condition was transient in 12 (10%) of these patients and persistent in 8 patients (7%). The cause of the persistent deterioration was tumor progression in 4 patients (3%) and adverse radiation effects in 4 patients (3%), including 2 patients with hearing deterioration, 1 patient with swallowing disturbance, and 1 patient with hearing deterioration and hypoglossal nerve palsy. However, the preexisting hoarseness and swallowing disturbances improved in 66% and 63% of the patients, respectively
Esmaili, Nafiseh; Hallaji, Zahra; Soori, Tahereh; Chams Davatchi, Cheyda
Bullous pemphigoid is an immunobullous disease with high mortality and morbidity. Different aspects and characteristics in the patients vary in different areas in the world. Our objective was to study clinical and demographic characteristics of bullous pemphigoid in Iranian patients. In a retrospective descriptive study, we reviewed 122 patients with bullous pemphigoid within 1987-2007. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment, relapses and outcome were evaluated. The mean age of 122 patients was 65 ± 18.11 years including 35.2% male and 64.8% female. The most common manifestations were cutaneous bullae (97.5%). 27% had oral lesions. 30.3% had eosinophillia. 90 patients(73.8%) received oral prednisolone, 29 patients (23.8%) topical steroid, 2 patients tetracycline and 1 patient dapsone. 89 patients were followed after admission. Out of them 44 patients experienced first relapse and 22 patients second relapse. 41 cases (46%) were completely controlled. 11 cases (12%) were not controlled. Clinical and general characteristics of bullous pemphigoid patients differ in various regions in the world.
Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.
Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846
de Thurah, Annette; Nørgaard, Mette; Harder, Ingegerd; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian
Objective of the study is to investigate how compliance during the first year of methotrexate (MTX) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is influenced by the patients' perception of the necessity for and concern about MTX, the patients' functional disability, and the dose of MTX. A total of 126 RA patients completed a questionnaire at start of MTX treatment and after 9 months. The MTX compliance was measured by using the Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR). The prevalence of having a CQR score in the bottom quartile was stratified according to age, gender, the duration of RA, MTX dose, years of school education, functional disability, use of folic acid, and co-morbidity. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by using log-binomial regression. The necessity and concern scales of the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire were dichotomised into high perception of MTX necessity and low concern about MTX treatment, and the crude and adjusted PR of having a CQR score in the bottom quartile were estimated. The prevalence of having a CQR in the bottom quartile was 23%, both at baseline and after 9 months, and this finding was not associated with the MTX dose level or the patients' functional disability. Among patients with a CQR in the bottom quartile, the prevalence of having low perceptions of MTX necessity was 37.1 versus 14.0% for patients with high perceptions of necessity [adjusted PR: 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.8)]. The same tendency was seen after 9 months. The prevalence of having a CQR in the bottom quartile or not was almost equally distributed among patients who had high or low concerns about treatment at baseline. After 9 months, however, the prevalence of having a CQR in the bottom quartile was 18.9% for patients who had low concerns about the MTX treatment, versus 37.7% for patients who had higher concerns about the treatment [adjusted PR: 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-1.3)]. During the first year of treatment
Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J
Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of health literacy and patient empowerment on diabetes self-care behaviour in patients in metropolitan Turkish diabetes centres. The conceptual background is provided by the psychological health empowerment model, which holds that health literacy without patient empowerment comes down to wasting health resources, while empowerment without health literacy can lead to dangerous or suboptimal health behaviour. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study was conducted with 167 patients over the age of 18 from one of two diabetes clinics in a major Turkish City. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to eligible outpatients who had an appointment in one of the clinics. Health literacy was measured by a newly translated Turkish version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and the Chew self-report scale. Patient empowerment was measured by a 12-item scale based on Spreitzer's conceptualisation of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Self-care behaviour was measured by the Self-care behaviours were measured by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). Level of diabetes knowledge was measured by Diabetes Knowledge Test. Results Two subscales of empowerment, impact and self-determination, predicted self-reported frequency of self-care behaviours. Neither health literacy nor diabetes knowledge had an effect on self-care behaviours. Conclusions Health literacy might be more effective in clinical decisions while empowerment might exert a stronger influence on habitual health behaviours. PMID:26975936
Savilahti, E; Launiala, K; Kuitunen, P
There are at least 20 rare autosomal recessive disorders that are excessively common in Finland of which congenital lactase deficiency is one. During the last 17 years we have found 16 cases. In each case the mother noted watery diarrhoea, generally after the first feed of breast milk, and at the latest, by age 10 days. The lactose malabsorption was verified at a mean age of 36 (range 3-90) days, by which time the infants were dehydrated and 15 of them weighed less than at birth (mean weight for age was -2.8 SDs). On a lactose-free elimination diet (a group of 6 on Nutramigen and a group of 10 on soy-based formula) the children caught up in growth. One infant in each group showed allergic symptoms. While the infants were being breast fed their faeces contained 20 to 80 g/l lactose. In 24 peroral lactose tolerance tests, the greatest rise in blood glucose concentration was 0.8 mmol/l. Only 2 patients showed abnormal absorption when tested within a week of lactose elimination, and in each absorption tests became normal during the elimination period. Slight to partial villous atrophy of the jejunum was present in 4 early specimens, but in later ones the mean villous height was normal. The mean height of the epithelial cells was reduced and there were fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes in patients. The lactase activities in jejunal biopsy specimens were lower than in most patients with acquired lactase deficiency, with some overlap. The maltase and sucrase activities were normal.
Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Räisänen, Teppo; Hummastenniemi, Niko
Customer relationship management research is utilized to explain the need for a more patient-oriented support in patient care. This article presents a European study on how various hospital units of a single healthcare organization have utilized a patient relationship management system--in particular a patient treatment follow-up system--and how it affects patient care and the knowledge work performed by the medical staff. Eight physicians were interviewed at a university hospital on whether patient treatment was improved through a follow-up system that had been in use in the case organization for three years. The interviewees represented various hospital units, and all of them had used the system at their own unit. The results indicate that it is possible to improve patient care through more personalized treatment. The follow-up treatment system seems to be a tool to create and maintain better communication with the patients rather than just a technological solution. It may help better understand and analyze both individual patients and patient groups. For individual physicians it provides a way to reflect professional skills. The system was lacking in its support for one-to-one communication with patients. Nevertheless, the system is an example of patient relationship management which may help healthcare units to move towards a more patient-oriented care.
Hemmink, G J M; Ten Cate, L; Bredenoord, A J; Timmer, R; Weusten, B L A M; Smout, A J P M
In patients whose main symptom is excessive belching, supragastric belching appears to be the predominant mechanism. This belch pattern is characterized by a rapid influx of air into the oesophagus, immediately followed by rapid air expulsion. The rate at which supragastric belching occurs is influenced by attention and distraction, suggesting a behavioural disorder and speech therapy may be of benefit to these patients. In 17 consecutive patients with excessive belching, concurrent impedance monitoring and high-resolution manometry were performed to ascertain the mechanism of belching. Patients with supragastric belches were referred to a speech therapist, who was familiar with the concept of supragastric belching. Before and after treatment by the speech therapist, patients filled out a VAS scale regarding the severity of their symptoms. In all patients, supragastric belches were identified with impedance monitoring. Eleven patients were referred to a speech therapist, six patients were not able or willing to undergo repetitive treatments. Eleven patients completed treatment by the speech therapist consisting of 10 (8-10) sessions. Overall, the VAS scales showed a significant improvement of the severity of symptoms (P < 0.05). Six of the 11 patients reported a large decrease (>30%) in their symptoms and four patients reported a modest decrease (<30%). In one patient, the VAS scores indicated an increase in symptoms. Speech therapy performed by a well-informed speech pathologist leads to a significant symptom reduction in patients with excessive supragastric belching. This is the first study indicating benefit of a treatment for excessive belching.
Olitsky, Peter K.; Gates, Frederick L.
During the course of animal experiments with the anaerobic filter-passing organisms cultivated from epidemic influenzal sources, certain pulmonary infections with ordinary bacteria have been observed. The experiments also have shown that the lungs of animals infected with Bacterium pneumosintes are less resistant than normal lungs to infection with ordinary bacteria. The demonstration of this fact invites a comparison of the course of these experimental bacterial infections with the sequence of postinfluenzal pneumonias attributable to similar organisms in man. These observations furnish additional proof of the identity of Bacterium pneumosintes and the active agent derived from the nasopharyngeal secretions of patients in the early hours of epidemic influenza. PMID:19868538
Chak, L.Y.; Paryani, S.B.; Sikic, B.I.; Lockbaum, P.; Torti, F.M.; Carter, S.K.
The diagnostic accuracy of clinical studies done in 38 patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung was analyzed by comparing the test results to autopsy findings. The chest radiograph was accurate in 31 of 38 patients (82%). The accuracy of the chest radiograph was higher in evaluating the lung parenchyma and mediastinum than in evaluating the hilum and pleura. Computerized tomographic brain scan was accurate in 11 of 12 patients. However, all the diagnostic studies used for assessing the liver, including physical examination, serum liver enzyme and bilirubin measurements, and radionuclide liver scan, were only moderately accurate. More accurate studies for detecting liver metastasis in patients with small cell carcinoma are needed.
Keiding, Susanne; Pavese, Nicola
We review PET- and MR studies on hepatic encephalopathy (HE) metabolism in human subjects from the point of views of methods, methodological assumptions and use in studies of cirrhotic patients with clinically overt HE, cirrhotic patients with minimal HE, cirrhotic patients with no history of HE and healthy subjects. Key results are: (1) Cerebral oxygen uptake and blood flow are reduced to 2/3 in cirrhotic patients with clinically overt HE but not in cirrhotic patients with minimal HE or no HE compared to healthy subjects. (2) Cerebral ammonia metabolism is enhanced due to increased blood ammonia in cirrhotic patients but the kinetics of cerebral ammonia uptake and metabolism is not affected by hyperammonemia. (3) Recent advantages in MR demonstrate low-grade cerebral oedema not only in astrocytes but also in the white matter in cirrhotic patients with HE.
Fontalba, Ana; Fernandez-L, Africa; García-Alegria, Eva; Albiñana, Virginia; Garrido-Martin, Eva M; Blanco, Francisco J; Zarrabeitia, Roberto; Perez-Molino, Alfonso; Bernabeu-Herrero, Maria E; Ojeda, Maria-Luisa; Fernandez-Luna, Jose L; Bernabeu, Carmelo; Botella, Luisa M
Background Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant and age-dependent vascular disorder characterised mainly by mutations in the Endoglin (ENG) or activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1, ACVRL1) genes. Methods Here, we have identified 22 ALK1 mutations and 15 ENG mutations, many of which had not previously been reported, in independent Spanish families afflicted with HHT. Results We identified mutations in thirty-seven unrelated families. A detailed analysis of clinical symptoms was recorded for each patient analyzed, with a higher significant presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) in HHT1 patients over HHT2. Twenty-two mutations in ALK1 and fifteen in ENG genes were identified. Many of them, almost half, represented new mutations in ALK1 and in ENG. Missense mutations in ENG and ALK1 were localized in a tridimensional protein structure model. Conclusion Overall, ALK1 mutations (HHT2) were predominant over ENG mutations (HHT1) in our Spanish population, in agreement with previous data from our country and other Mediterranean countries (France, Italy), but different to Northern Europe or North America. There was a significant increase of PAVM associated with HHT1 over HHT2 in these families. PMID:18673552
Kelly, Jessica M; Schwamm, Lee H; Bianchi, Matt T
Telemedicine is an increasingly recognized option for cost-effective management of chronic conditions. We surveyed Sleep Clinic patients about their experiences and preferences regarding different forms of telemedicine. Adult Sleep Clinic patients seen between 2009 and 2011 received a brief survey either by postal mail (n = 156) or, for those with an available email address, electronically (n = 282). The overall response rate was 28.1% (n = 123 responses), with email response rates being higher than postal mail responses. The most commonly reported barriers to in-person physician visits were parking cost (44%), time away from work/school (34%), and cost of gas (26%). Whereas 89% of respondents indicated using telephone and 55% of respondents indicated using email to communicate with providers, none reported experience with video telemedicine. Despite this lack of experience, over 60% reported feeling comfortable or willing to try it. Of those who were uncomfortable about video telemedicine, the two main reasons were that in-person visits feel more natural (48%) and that the doctor might need to perform an examination (24%). More than half of respondents reported willingness to pay a copay for a video visit. Video telemedicine represents a feasible option for chronic sleep disorders management.
Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Khajeh-Mehrizi, Ahmad
Background Aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare disease in which hematopoietic stem cells are severely diminished resulting in hypocellular bone marrow and pancytopenia. Etiology of AA includes auto immunity, toxins, infection, ionizing radiation, drugs and rare genetic disorders, but in the majority of cases no cause can be identified. In the present study we assessed response rate, survival, relapse and clonal evolution in patients with AA treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Methods Patients with AA who received immunosuppressive therapy between May 1998 and September 2013 were included in this study. Patients with non-severe AA (NSAA) were treated with cyclosporine (CsA) and danazol while patients with severe AA (SAA) as well as patients with NSAA who progressed to SAA after beginning of the treatment, were candidates for receiving antithymocyte globulin in addition to CsA and danazol. Results Among the 63 studied patients, 29 (46%) had NSAA and 34 (54%) had SAA. Three months after treatment, overall response was 58.6% in NSAA and 12.9% in patients with SAA. Survival of all patients at 5, 10 and 15 years were 73%, 55% and 49%, respectively. Survival rates were significantly higher in patients with NSAA compared to patients with SAA as well as in patients who responded at 6 months compared to non-responders. The relapse risk was 39.7% at 10 years. Relapse occurred in patients who discontinued the therapy more than those who continued taking CsA (p value<0.01). The risk of clonal evolution was 9.9% at 10 years and 22.8% at 15 years after treatment. Conclusion This long-term retrospective study indicated that immunosuppressive therapy should be recommended to patients with AA. Also, our experience indicated that immunosuppressive therapy should not be discontinued after response to therapy in patients with both NSAA and SAA due to high risk of relapse. Low dose of CsA should be continued indefinitely. PMID:25970182
Viswanatha, Borlingegowda; Sumatha, Dadarao; Vijayashree, Maliyappanahalli Siddappa
A comparative clinical study was carried out that included 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompetent patients and 50 cases of otomycosis in immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation, predisposing factors, mycologic profile, and treatment outcomes were compared. Aspergillus spp were the most commonly isolated fungi in the immunocompetent group, and Candida albicans in the immunocompromised group. Bilateral involvement was more common in the immunocompromised group. All the patients were treated with topical clotrimazole ear drops. Four patients in the immunocompromised group did not respond to treatment with clotrimazole but were treated successfully with fluconazole ear drops. Three patients had a small tympanic membrane perforation due to otomycosis.
Takemura, Takaubu; Takahashi, Tetsu; Fukuda, Masayuki; Ohnuki, Takayoshi; Asunuma, Tomokazu; Masuda, Yutaka; Kondoh, Hideaki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tetsuo
Sleep bruxism (SB) has been believed to be related to stress and psychosocial factors, however their implicit relationship has remained unclear. This study was conducted on patients visiting our clinic with SB and masticatory muscle disorders (MMD) for the purpose of clarifying personality and behavioral traits. This study was conducted on patients of MMD visiting our clinic. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration study was performed on each patient. Twenty-seven (27) patients were divided into two groups: 17 patients with SB and 10 patients without. The SB group showed a significantly lower level of E (extrapunitive) reaction than the nonSB group. SB patients showed a significantly higher level of M (impunitive) reaction than those without SB. Concerning the directions of aggression, the percentage of E-A (extraaggression) was significantly lower in SB patients than in those without. On the other hand, the percentage of I-A (intraaggression) was significantly higher in patients with SB than those without. Our study found a new aspect of the patients with MMD and SB: they are not only intraaggressive, but are also unable to be extrapunitive and extraaggressive. Consequently, they are unable to demonstrate adequate self-assertiveness in stressful situations.
Dworkin, James P; Dowdall, Jayme R; Kubik, Mark; Thottam, Prasad John; Folbe, Adam
Globus sensation (GS) is a common benign finding that is often associated with frequent throat clearing and is commonly a result of laryngopharyngeal reflux. The primary objective of this investigation was to examine the role of the modified barium swallow study (MBSS) with esophagram in the diagnosis and management patients who present with chief complaints of a GS. We hypothesize that these radiographic swallow studies do not add clinically significant information in the investigation of this common complaint. Retrospective chart review of patients with chief complaints of GS between 2000 and 2009 who underwent both MBSS and esophagram was conducted. Of the 380 patients who underwent MBSS, only 68 patients were eligible for this study. Over 70 % of patients were on reflux medicines, 81 % of the MBSS studies were normal, 62 % of the esophagram results were normal, 18 % of patients had a hiatal hernia, and 10 % exhibited signs of reflux. Esophagoscopy was performed in 45 % of patients, of which 35 % were normal. One patient initially had a normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy and then was subsequently diagnosed with gastric CA. Fifty-nine percent of patients underwent CT Neck with IV contrast, of which 67 % had minor findings. Positive findings are often benign and can be treated with reflux medications. Esophagoscopy was often normal and most sensitive only for hiatal hernia. No hypopharyngeal cancer was noted. Therefore, MBSS and esophagram for patients with GS are most often negative and fail to add significant diagnostic information.
Robotham, D; Waterman, S; Oduola, S; Papoulias, C; Craig, T; Wykes, T
Objectives Research registers using Consent for Contact (C4C) can facilitate recruitment into mental health research studies, allowing investigators to contact patients based on clinical records information. We investigated whether such a register was useful for mental health research, seeking the perspectives of patients and research investigators. Setting and design In 2012, a C4C register was developed in a large secondary mental health provider within the UK; almost 9000 patients have joined. This mixed-method study audited the effectiveness of the register. Participants A ‘mystery shopper’ exercise was conducted, and patients (n=21) were recruited to ask clinicians about the availability of research opportunities. Structured interviews were conducted with patients (n=52) about their experiences of being on the register. Similar interviews were conducted with 18 investigators from 19 studies, who had attempted to use the register to recruit participants. Outcome measures The impact of C4C on study recruitment, and whether it helped patients learn about research. Results So far, the register has provided 928 individuals with 1085 research opportunities (in 60% of cases, the individual agreed to participate in the study). Clinicians were willing to link patients to research opportunities, but often lacked information about studies. For patients, the register provided opportunities which they may not otherwise have; 27 of 52 had participated in studies since joining the register (18 participating for the first time). Most investigators used the register to supplement recruitment to their studies, but described problems in prescreening potential participants from a clinical record for complex studies. Conclusions Although the register helped investigators recruit for studies, and provided patients with research opportunities, clinicians' input is still useful for identifying suitable participants. C4C registers should be adapted to provide clinicians with
Berg, Siv Hilde; Rørtveit, Kristine; Walby, Fredrik A; Aase, Karina
Introduction Suicide prevention in psychiatric care is arguably complex and incompletely understood as a patient safety issue. A resilient healthcare approach provides perspectives through which to understand this complexity by understanding everyday clinical practice. By including suicidal patients and healthcare professionals as sources of knowledge, a deeper understanding of what constitutes safe clinical practice can be achieved. Methods This planned study aims to adopt the perspective of resilient healthcare to provide a deeper understanding of safe clinical practice for suicidal patients in psychiatric inpatient care. It will describe the experienced components and conditions of safe clinical practice and the experienced practice of patient safety. The study will apply a descriptive case study approach consisting of qualitative semistructured interviews and focus groups. The data sources are hospitalised patients in a suicidal crisis and healthcare professionals in clinical practice. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Regional Ethics Committee (2016/34). The results will be disseminated through scientific articles, a PhD dissertation, and national and international conferences. These findings can generate knowledge to be integrated into the practice of safety for suicidal inpatients in Norway and to improve the feasibility of patient safety measures. Theoretical generalisations can be drawn regarding safe clinical practice by taking into account the experiences of patients and healthcare professionals. Thus, this study can inform the conceptual development of safe clinical practice for suicidal patients. PMID:28132001
Mioni, G.; Mattalia, G.; Stablum, F.
In this study, we investigated time perception in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifteen TBI patients and 15 matched healthy controls participated in the study. Participants were tested with durations above and below 1s on three different temporal tasks that involved time reproduction, production, and discrimination tasks. Data…
Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…
Cain, Rebecca; Neailey, Kevin; Hooberman, Lucy
Background The growth in the volume of online patient feedback, including online patient ratings and comments, suggests that patients are embracing the opportunity to review online their experience of receiving health care. Very little is known about health care professionals’ attitudes toward online patient feedback and whether health care professionals are comfortable with the public nature of the feedback. Objective The aim of the overall study was to explore and describe general practitioners’ attitudes toward online patient feedback. This paper reports on the findings of one of the aims of the study, which was to explore and understand the concerns that general practitioners (GPs) in England have about online patient feedback. This could then be used to improve online patient feedback platforms and help to increase usage of online patient feedback by GPs and, by extension, their patients. Methods A descriptive qualitative approach using face-to-face semistructured interviews was used in this study. A topic guide was developed following a literature review and discussions with key stakeholders. GPs (N=20) were recruited from Cambridgeshire, London, and Northwest England through probability and snowball sampling. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed in NVivo using the framework method, a form of thematic analysis. Results Most participants in this study had concerns about online patient feedback. They questioned the validity of online patient feedback because of data and user biases and lack of representativeness, the usability of online patient feedback due to the feedback being anonymous, the transparency of online patient feedback because of the risk of false allegations and breaching confidentiality, and the resulting impact of all those factors on them, their professional practice, and their relationship with their patients. Conclusions The majority of GPs interviewed had reservations and concerns about online patient feedback and
Minguez-Zuazo, Ana; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; La Touche, Roy; Lara, Sergio Lerma
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment for patients with cervicogenic dizziness that consisted of therapeutic education and exercises. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory and Neck Disability Index were used. Secondary outcomes included range of motion, postural control, and psychological variables. Seven patients (two males and five females) aged 38.43±14.10 with cervicogenic dizziness were included. All the participants received eight treatment sessions. The treatment was performed twice a week during a four weeks period. Outcome measures included a questionnaire (demographic data, body chart, and questions about pain) and self-reported disability, pain, and psychological variables. Subjects were examined for cervical range of motion and postural control. All of these variables were assessed pre- and postintervention. Participants received eight sessions of therapeutic education patient and therapeutic exercise. The majority of participants showed an improvement in catastrophism (mean change, 11.57±7.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.96-18.17; d=1.60), neck disability (mean change, 5.14±2.27.28; 95% CI, 3.04-7.24; d=1.32), and dizziness disability (mean change, 9.71±6.96; 95% CI, 3.26-16.15; d=1.01). Patients also showed improved range of motion in the right and left side. Therapeutic patient education in combination with therapeutic exercise was an effective treatment. Future research should investigate the efficacy of therapeutic patient education and exercise with larger sample sizes of patients with cervicogenic dizziness.
Lee, Boram; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyeyoung; Han, Youngyih; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Sim, Jina; Yoon, Myonggeun
This study was conducted for the purpose of establishing a quality-assurance (QA) system for brachytherapy that can ensure patient-specific QA by enhancing dosimetric accuracy for the patient's therapy plan. To measure the point-absorbed dose and the 2D dose distribution for the patient's therapy plan, we fabricated a solid phantom that allowed for the insertion of an applicator for patient-specific QA and used an ion chamber and a film as measuring devices. The patient treatment plan was exported to the QA dose-calculation software, which calculated the time weight of dwell position stored in the plan DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) file to obtain an overall beam quality correction factor, and that correction was applied to the dose calculations. Experiments were conducted after importing the patient's treatment planning source data for the fabricated phantom and inserting the applicator, ion chamber, and film into the phantom. On completion of dose delivery, the doses to the ion chamber and film were checked against the corresponding treatment plan to evaluate the dosimetric accuracy. For experimental purposes, five treatment plans were randomly selected. The beam quality correction factors for ovoid and tandem brachytherapy applicators were found to be 1.15 and 1.10 - 1.12, respectively. The beam quality correction factor in tandem fluctuated by approximately 2%, depending on the changes in the dwell position. The doses measured by using the ion chamber showed differences ranging from -2.4% to 0.6%, compared to the planned doses. As for the film, the passing rate was 90% or higher when assessed using a gamma value of the local dose difference of 3% and a distance to agreement of 3 mm. The results show that the self-fabricated phantom was suitable for QA in clinical settings. The proposed patient-specific QA for the treatment planning is expected to contribute to reduce dosimetric errors in brachytherapy and, thus, to enhancing treatment
Minguez-Zuazo, Ana; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; La Touche, Roy; Lara, Sergio Lerma
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment for patients with cervicogenic dizziness that consisted of therapeutic education and exercises. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory and Neck Disability Index were used. Secondary outcomes included range of motion, postural control, and psychological variables. Seven patients (two males and five females) aged 38.43±14.10 with cervicogenic dizziness were included. All the participants received eight treatment sessions. The treatment was performed twice a week during a four weeks period. Outcome measures included a questionnaire (demographic data, body chart, and questions about pain) and self-reported disability, pain, and psychological variables. Subjects were examined for cervical range of motion and postural control. All of these variables were assessed pre- and postintervention. Participants received eight sessions of therapeutic education patient and therapeutic exercise. The majority of participants showed an improvement in catastrophism (mean change, 11.57±7.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.96–18.17; d=1.60), neck disability (mean change, 5.14±2.27.28; 95% CI, 3.04–7.24; d=1.32), and dizziness disability (mean change, 9.71±6.96; 95% CI, 3.26–16.15; d=1.01). Patients also showed improved range of motion in the right and left side. Therapeutic patient education in combination with therapeutic exercise was an effective treatment. Future research should investigate the efficacy of therapeutic patient education and exercise with larger sample sizes of patients with cervicogenic dizziness. PMID:27419118
Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Marx, Gabriella; Lorkowski, Thorsten; Himmel, Wolfgang
Background: Persons who simulate patients during medical education understand the routines and the underlying script of medical consultations better. We aimed to explore how simulated patients (SPs) integrated this new understanding into their daily life, how this work affected their private life as patients, and what we can learn from these changes for concepts of empowerment. Design, setting, and participants: A qualitative interview study. All SPs of Göttingen medical school who had been working longer than three semesters (n=14) were invited and agreed to take part in an open interview about their daily experience with real doctors. Documentary method was used to identify the main issues. Several cases were chosen according to maximum contrast and analysed by in-depth analysis to provide vivid examples of how simulations may affect the real life of the SPs as patients. Results: Our analysis revealed three main changes in the behaviour of SPs as real patients. They were more attentive, had a better understanding of the circumstances under which doctors work, and acted more self-confidently. From the selected cases it became apparent that working as a SP may lead to a constant and significant decrease of fear of hospitals and medical procedures or, in other cases, may enable the SPs to develop new abilities for giving feedback, questioning procedures, and explanations for real doctors. Conclusion: working as a simulated patient seems to be well-suited to understand own progression of diseases, to increase self-responsibility and to a confident attitude as patient. PMID:27275507
Pathmawathi, Subramanian; Beng, Tan Seng; Li, Lee Mei; Rosli, Roshaslina; Sharwend, Supermanian; Kavitha, Rasaiah R; Christopher, Boey Chiong Meng
Breakthrough pain is a significant contributor to much suffering by patients. The experience of intense pain may interfere with, and affect, daily life functioning and has major consequences on patients' well-being if it is not well managed. The area of breakthrough pain has not been fully understood. This study thus aimed to explore the experiences of breakthrough pain among palliative patients. A qualitative study based on a series of open-ended interviews among 21 palliative patients suffering from pain at an urban tertiary hospital in Malaysia was conducted. Five themes were generated: (i) pain viewed as an unbearable experience causing misery in the lives of patients, (ii) deterioration of body function and no hope of recovery, (iii) receiving of inadequate pain management for pain, (iv) insensitivity of healthcare providers toward patients' pain experience, and (v) pain coping experiences of patients. The findings revealed that nonpharmacologic approaches such as psychosocial support should be introduced to the patients. Proper guidance and information should be given to healthcare providers to improve the quality of patient care. Healthcare providers should adopt a sensitive approach in caring for patients' needs. The aim is to meet the needs of the patients who want to be pain free or to attain adequate relief of their pain for breakthrough pain.
Gotlib Conn, L; Hammond Mobilio, M; Rotstein, O D; Blacker, S
Cancer patient navigators are increasingly present on the oncology health care team. The positive impact of navigation on cancer care is recognised, yet a clear understanding of what the patient navigator does and how he/she executes the role continues to emerge. This study aimed to understand cancer patients' perceptions of, and experiences with patient navigation, exploring how navigation may enhance the patient experience in an urban hospital setting where patients with varying needs are treated. A qualitative study using a constructionist approach was conducted. Fifteen colorectal cancer patients participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Data were analyzed inductively and iteratively. Findings provide insight into two central aspects of cancer navigation: navigation as patient-centred coordination and explanation of clinical care, and navigation as individualised, holistic support. Within these themes, the key benefits of navigation from the patients' perspective were demystifying the system; ensuring comprehension, managing expectations; and, delivering patient-centred care. The navigator provided individualised and extended family support; a holistic approach; and, addressed emotional and psychological needs. These findings provide a means to operationalise and validate an emerging role description and competency framework for the cancer navigator who must identify and adapt to patients' varying needs throughout the cancer care continuum.
Gattoni, F; Avogadro, A; Sacrini, A; Blanc, M; Pozzato, C; Spagnoli, I; Uslenghi, C
Eighty-five patients with hemospermia were examined with blood tests, sperm culture, transrectal US (TRUS) and cystourethroscopy. Blood tests and sperm culture demonstrated bacterial inflammation in 48 patients (56.47%). At cystourethroscopy, the urethra was normal or hyperemic in all patients. TRUS demonstrated 40 cases (47.05%) of periurethral calcifications and also with calcifications in the two glandular lobes. TRUS also demonstrated prostatic inflammation in progress or its outcome in 21 patients (24.70%), ectasia and seminal vesicle inflammation in 10 patients (11.76%), a prostatic tumor in 3 patients (3.52%). No patient had cysts, stones or cancers in the seminal vesicles. In 11 patients (12.94%), no specific cause of hemospermia was detected, even though 4 of these patients (4.70%) had received anticoagulants for former heart ischemia. Benign prostatic hypertrophy was found in 44 patients (51.76%) but we did not consider it a possible cause of hemospermia because of the high frequency of this condition in the male population. To conclude, TRUS could demonstrate the cause of hemospermia in most of our patients, which makes us suggest it as the diagnostic technique of choice in the patients with ejaculatory conditions, after clinical exams and laboratory tests, because it allows to study the prostate, the seminal vesicles and the urethra.
Geyskes, G G; Puylaert, C B; Oei, H Y; Mees, E J
Between April 1978 and April 1981, 70 patients with hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated by percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation. Selection of the patients was based solely on arteriographic criteria. Arteriography after dilatation showed considerable widening of the stenosed area in all patients. In 65 patients the effect of treatment on the blood pressure was assessed during follow up periods of one to four years. In 14 of these patients the hypertension was cured, in 29 it was improved, and in 22 there was no change. Patients with fibromuscular lesions benefited distinctly more than did those with atheromatous stenosis, only one of the 21 patients with fibromuscular lesions showing no change as compared with 21 of the 44 patients with atheromatous lesions. The only serious complication encountered was microcholesterol emboli, which developed in two patients with severe atheromatous lesions of the aorta. In the atheromatous group age and overall renal function had no influence on the blood pressure response. In the subgroup of patients with a unilateral lesion the renal vein renin ratios and asymmetrical curves obtained by renography had only a very limited predictive value. In experienced hands percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation is relatively safe, and this study suggests that it should be attempted in all patients with renal artery stenosis. Only in patients with severe atheromatosis of the aorta should the risk associated with the catheterisation be weighed against the 50% or so chance of benefit from the procedure. PMID:6223685
Ubel, Peter A; Zhang, Cecilia J; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Barnett, Jamison; Hunter, Wynn G
Some experts contend that requiring patients to pay out of pocket for a portion of their care will bring consumer discipline to health care markets. But are physicians prepared to help patients factor out-of-pocket expenses into medical decisions? In this qualitative study of audiorecorded clinical encounters, we identified physician behaviors that stand in the way of helping patients navigate out-of-pocket spending. Some behaviors reflected a failure to fully engage with patients' financial concerns, from never acknowledging such concerns to dismissing them too quickly. Other behaviors reflected a failure to resolve uncertainty about out-of-pocket expenses or reliance on temporary solutions without making long-term plans to reduce spending. Many of these failures resulted from systemic barriers to health care spending conversations, such as a lack of price transparency. For consumer health care markets to work as intended, physicians need to be prepared to help patients navigate out-of-pocket expenses when financial concerns arise during clinical encounters.
Background As health care systems around the world shift toward models that emphasize self-care management, there is increasing pressure for patients to obtain health information online. It is critical that patients are able to identify potential problems with using the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue and that they feel comfortable communicating with their doctor about the health information they acquire from the Internet. Objective Our aim was to examine patient-identified (1) problems with using the Internet to identify and treat a health issue, (2) barriers to communication with a doctor about online health information seeking, and (3) facilitators of communication with a doctor about patient searches for health information on the Internet. Methods For this qualitative exploratory study, semistructured interviews were conducted with a sample of 56 adults age 50 years old and over. General concerns regarding use of the Internet to diagnose and treat a health issue were examined separately for participants based on whether they had ever discussed health information obtained through the Internet with a doctor. Discussions about barriers to and facilitators of communication about patient searches for health information on the Internet with a doctor were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six higher-level general concerns emerged: (1) limitations in own ability, (2) credibility/limitations of online information, (3) anxiety, (4) time consumption, (5) conflict, and (6) non-physical harm. The most prevalent concern raised by participants who communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking related to the credibility or limitations in online information. Participants who had never communicated with a doctor about their online health information seeking most commonly reported concerns about non-physical harm. Four barriers to communication emerged: (1) concerns about embarrassment, (2) concerns that the doctor doesn’t want
Background Improving the management of patients with complex chronic disease is a substantial undertaking with the simultaneous goals of improving patient outcomes and controlling costs. Reducing avoidable hospitalization for such patients is a step toward both objectives. Some of the deterioration experienced in chronic disease patients occurs outside the view of their clinicians, and before the patient becomes overtly symptomatic. Home monitoring has been used for more than 20 years to detect deterioration earlier so that the patients could be treated before they became ill enough to require hospitalization. Patient participation is an important requirement for successful home monitoring. There has been some concern that patients would be unwilling or unable to engage in a program that collected multiple measurements. The Cedars-Sinai Cardiology Center provides a high-touch, intense management program for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). A group of their patients were chosen to join a complex, multidevice home monitoring system to see whether such patients would find value in the additional effort. Objective The objective of our study was to determine whether patients already actively engaged in a high-touch intensive management program for CHF would take on the additional burden of a complex home monitoring effort. Methods A total of 20 patients from the Cedars-Sinai group were enrolled in a monitoring program utilizing 5 different devices. Anonymous surveys were collected from the patients to assess their satisfaction with the program. Results In total, 90% (18/20) completed the program, and 61% (11/20) submitted the survey. Among the 18 patients, overall compliance with the requested measurements was 70%. It was found that 73% (8/11) felt better about their health as a result of the program, whereas another 73% (8/11) believed that the care team now had a better picture of their health. Conclusions Substantial patient compliance and satisfaction
Rexhepi, Hanife; Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie; Cajander, Åsa; Huvila, Isto
Patients' access to their online medical records serves as one of the cornerstones in the efforts to increase patient engagement and improve healthcare outcomes. The aim of this article is to provide in-depth understanding of cancer patients' attitudes and experiences of online medical records, as well as an increased understanding of the complexities of developing and launching e-Health services. The study result confirms that online access can help patients prepare for doctor visits and to understand their medical issues. In contrast to the fears of many physicians, the study shows that online access to medical records did not generate substantial anxiety, concerns or increased phone calls to the hospital.
Stanek, B; Basalka, E; Seitl, K; Fiser, I
In 826 hypertensive patients including 396 with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus safety and efficacy of captopril 50 mg per day was evaluated throughout three months. In all patients blood pressure was significantly reduced. Moreover, in part of the patients with microalbuminuria, these tests turned negative with treatment. In addition, in patients with diabetes fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels as well as HBA1C levels decreased. Only in 6.8% side effects occurred. In all patients quality of life as evaluated by a 10 item rating scale questionnaire improved. Taken together the results of this observational study confirm improvement of blood pressure levels, kidney function and metabolic derangements in diabetic patients treated with the ACE-inhibitor captopril. Effectiveness of these actions of captopril in respect to longterm prognosis in diabetics, however, remains to be established.
Olitsky, Peter K.; Gates, Frederick L.
From the filtered nasopharyngeal washings of patients in the first 36 hours of uncomplicated epidemic influenza and rarely in later stages of the disease, we have cultivated a minute bacilloid body, Bacterium pneumosintes, 0.15 to 0.3 microns in length, of constant cultural characters and capable of indefinite propagation on artificial media. This organism, not of the nature of ordinary bacteria, was also recovered in pure culture from the unfiltered and filtered lung tissue of rabbits and guinea pigs inoculated with unfiltered and filtered nasopharyngeal washings of early influenza cases, both from the first epidemic of 1918–19 and from the second one of 1920. The organism grows only under strictly anaerobic conditions, passes Berkefeld V and N filters, and withstands the action of sterile 50 percent glycerol for a period of months. It has been recovered from cultures contaminated with a variety of ordinary bacteria such as Bacillus pfeifferi, pneumococci, streptococci, and staphylococci, and has been experimentally cultivated in symbiosis with them. Similar cultivation of control materials uniformly failed to yield growths of this organism. The materials tested consisted of the unfiltered and filtered nasopharyngeal washings of persons free from influenza, some of whom were suffering from acute coryza, the lung tissue of normal rabbits and of rabbits with bacterial respiratory infections, and the uninoculated media. The intratracheal injection in rabbits and guinea pigs of mass cultures of this organism has induced effects on the blood and lungs of these animals which are not to be distinguished from those obtained with the nasopharyngeal secretions of patients in the early hours of epidemic influenza. From the pulmonary lesions thus induced the same organism has been recovered in pure culture, and has been found to cause similar lesions on subsequent animal passage. Its pathogenicity is not lost by prolonged artificial cultivation. Our experiments indicate
Efficace, F; Baccarani, M; Rosti, G; Cottone, F; Castagnetti, F; Breccia, M; Alimena, G; Iurlo, A; Rossi, A R; Pardini, S; Gherlinzoni, F; Salvucci, M; Tiribelli, M; Vignetti, M; Mandelli, F
Background: Optimal adherence to imatinib therapy is of paramount importance to maximise treatment effectiveness in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The main objective of this study was to investigate patient-reported personal factors associated with adherence behaviour. Methods: Analysis was conducted on 413 CML patients receiving long-term therapy with imatinib. Adherence behaviour was measured with the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and personal factors investigated included: quality of life, perceived social support, fatigue, symptom burden, psychological wellbeing and desire for additional information. Key socio-demographic and treatment-related factors were also taken into account. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate factors associated with optimal adherence to therapy. Results: In all, 53% of patients reported an optimal adherence behaviour. The final multivariate model retained the following variables as independent predictors of optimal adherence to therapy: desire for more information (ref. no), odds ratio (OR)=0.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.29–0.66; P<0.001), social support (higher score representing greater support), OR=1.29 (95% CI, 1.11–1.49; P<0.001) and concomitant drug burden (ref. no), OR=1.82 (95% CI, 1.18–2.80; P=0.006). Conclusion: This study suggests that a higher level of social support, satisfaction with information received and concomitant drug burden are the main factors associated with greater adherence to long-term imatinib therapy. PMID:22871884
Höijer, U; Hedner, J; Ejnell, H; Grunstein, R; Odelberg, E; Elam, M
We wanted to assess whether benzodiazepines worsen sleep apnoea, since their use in such patients has been controversial. Fourteen male patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea were investigated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluating the influence of nitrazepam (NIT) on apnoea frequency and severity. Each patient was given oral nitrazepam 5 or 10 mg, or corresponding placebo, in a randomized order on three separate nights. Wash-out time was one week. A complete sleep study was undertaken at each study night. Eleven patients completed the study. Although there were individuals with marked variability in apnoea index between the three study nights, there was no significant change in apnoea index or minimum arterial oxygen saturation with any of the two nitrazepam dosages studied. Only 3 out of 11 patients had a higher apnoea index after both nitrazepam doses compared to placebo, and in these patients the increase in sleep-disordered breathing was of marginal clinical significance. Nitrazepam caused a modest increase in total sleep time and a decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. These results demonstrate that nitrazepam does not worsen sleep apnoea in patients with mild to moderate sleep apnoea. The previously reported sleep apnoea promoting effects of benzodiazepines may be restricted to a small subgroup of patients with sleep-disordered breathing.
Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age), and group C (patients over the age of 85). Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p < 0.0001). A significantly larger number of older patients lived alone and needed aids to walk before the injury (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the type of fracture across the three groups (p = 0.13). A higher proportion of the elderly with intracapsular fractures were treated by replacement arthroplasty. Older patients who had internal fixation of intracapsular fractures had a better walking ability at 4 months. The overall deterioration in mobility was greater in older patients (p < 0.0001). Mortality was higher in older patients. Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time. PMID:21261942
Introduction Today, we frequently find patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), a prophylaxis against the occurrence of thromboembolic events. An oral surgeon needs to know how to better manage such patients, in order to avoid hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. Materials and methods A group of 193 patients (119 men aged between 46 and 82 and 74 women aged between 54 and 76) undergoing OAT for more than 5 years were managed with a standardized management protocol and a 2-months follow-up. The aim of the present study was to apply a protocol, which could provide a safe intra- and postoperative management of patients on OAT. Results Among the 193 patients, only 2 had postoperative complications. Conclusions We think that the protocol used in the present study can be used for complete safety in the treatment of this type of patients. PMID:21771331
Zhu, Haining; Colgan, Joanna; Reddy, Madhu; Choe, Eun Kyoung
Patients are tracking and generating an increasingly large volume of personal health data outside the clinic due to an explosion of wearable sensing and mobile health (mHealth) apps. The potential usefulness of these data is enormous as they can provide good measures of everyday behavior and lifestyle. However, how we can fully leverage patient-generated data (PGD) and integrate them in clinical practice is less clear. In this interview study, we aim to understand how patients and clinicians currently share patient-generated data in clinical care practice. From the study, we identified technical, social, and organizational challenges in sharing and fully leveraging patient-generated data in clinical practices. Our findings can provide researchers potential avenues for enablers and barriers in sharing patient-generated data in clinical settings. PMID:28269928
Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick
Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774
Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick
Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome.
Hosoe, Naoki; Matsukawa, Shigeaki; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Naganuma, Makoto; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Yoshitsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori
Background and study aims: Small intestinal pathology in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been studied in only a small number of retrospective case series. One method for noninvasively surveying small intestinal disorders is video capsule endoscopy (VCE). The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small intestinal abnormalities among asymptomatic maintenance HD outpatients using VCE. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical impact of these abnormalities. Patients and methods: This study consisted of two phases. In phase I, a cross-sectional study, a cohort of patients who received maintenance HD three times weekly at an outpatient hemodialysis clinic were studied using VCE. Phase II was a prospective cohort study with follow up for 1 year after VCE. Results: Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and two were excluded from analysis due to capsule retention in the stomach. The prevalence of small bowel abnormalities in HD patients was 64.8 % (35/54) (95 % confidential interval 52.1 % – 77.6 %). Of 54 patients, 21 (38.9 %) had mucosal lesions, 10 (18.5 %) had vascular lesions, and 4 (7.4 %) had both lesion types. During the 1-year follow-up period, events occurred in four patients. A small bowel-associated event was observed in one patient, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted small intestinal partial resection 3 months after diagnosis by VCE. All patients in whom events were seen had small bowel abnormalities; no events were observed in the VCE-negative group. Conclusions: Although asymptomatic maintenance HD patients had a high prevalence of small bowel abnormalities (64.8 %), they did not have a high incidence of small bowel-associated events during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:27227120
Hernández-Avila, C A; Shoemaker, W J; Ortega-Soto, H A
OBJECTIVE: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder secondary to acute or chronic liver failure. Although the exact causes of HE have not been clarified, enhanced central nervous system inhibition at the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-benzodiazepine receptor complex, mediated by increased levels of endogenous benzodiazepine-receptor ligands (BZRL), has been proposed. Research exploring this hypothesis has yielded contradictory findings. This study evaluated the presence and levels of BZRL in plasma from patients with HE and 3 comparison groups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: Twenty-four patients with HE, 10 patients with liver cirrhosis without encephalopathy (LC), 4 patients with uremic encephalopathy (UE), and 9 healthy subjects. INTERVENTIONS: Radio-receptor assay of plasma samples from patients and controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma levels of BZRL. RESULTS: The patients in the HE group had significantly higher plasma BZRL levels than the patients with UE and the healthy subjects, but not than those with LC, in whom these compounds were also detected in significant concentrations. When patients were classified according to the severity of HE, plasma of BZRL showed a modest correlation with stage of severity (r = 0.37). Interestingly, approximately one-third of the patients with HE did not have detectable levels of BZRL. CONCLUSION: Endogenous BZRL may play a role in the pathogenesis of HE, although neuropsychiatric symptoms in HE are difficult to explain in terms of these compounds alone. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9785700
Mazaheri, Mina; Afshar, Hamid; Nikneshan, Shekoufeh; Adibi, Peyman
Background: Patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) may use specific coping strategies. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare cognitive emotion regulation strategies in FD patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive observational study. The sample consisted of 86 individuals, 43 of whom were patients diagnosed with FD. The patients referred to the psychosomatic disorders clinic, Isfahan, Iran. The comparative sample included 43 healthy controls (without digestive diagnoses) matched with the patients by age and gender. Subjects completed data on demographic factors and cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire. Results: The results indicated that there are significant differences between patients with FD and healthy controls according to using cognitive strategies. Scores of healthy controls in positive reappraisal and acceptance were significantly more than FD patients, and inversely, scores of FD patients in rumination and other-blame were meaningfully more than healthy controls. Conclusion: FD patients apply less adaptive strategies and more maladaptive strategies. It is seemed psychological interventions that focus on reducing maladaptive strategies and increasing adaptive strategies could be effective for FD patients. PMID:28217634
Papastavrou, Evridiki; Andreou, Panayiota; Efstathiou, Georgios
Bedside rationing in nursing care refers to withholding or failure to carry out certain aspects of care because of limited resources such as time, staffing or skill mix. The absence of previous systematic reviews on nursing care rationing leads to a gap of synthesized knowledge on the factors and processes related to rationing and the potential negative consequences on both patients and nurses. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the factors and processes related to nursing care rationing. Selected papers were methodologically assessed based on their design, sampling, measurement and statistical analysis. Seventeen quantitative studies were reviewed, and findings were categorized into four themes: elements of nursing care being rationed, causes of rationing, nurse outcomes and patient outcomes. Results revealed that communication with patients and families, patient ambulation, and mouth care were common elements of rationed care. Nurse-patient workload and communication barriers were reported as potential causes of rationing. Patient-related outcomes included patient falls, nosocomial infections and low patient satisfaction levels. Nurse-related outcomes included low job and occupational satisfaction. In addition, rationing appears to be an important organizational variable linked with patient safety and quality of care. This review increases understanding of what is actually occurring at the point of care delivery so that managers will be able to improve processes that lead to high quality of care and better patient and nurse outcomes.
Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie
Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926
Siproudhis, L; Ropert, A; Lucas, J; Raoul, J L; Heresbach, D; Bretagne, J F; Gosselin, M
A consecutive series of 41 patients with defecatory disorders was prospectively studied by anal manometry and evacuation proctography to determine the relationship between abnormalities and symptoms. The patients (29 female, 12 male, aged 41 +/- 2.3 years) all complained of difficulty in evacuation. All had normal colonoscopy and biochemistry. There was no evidence of megacolon or megarectum, and no symptoms had been previously treated by pelvic floor surgery. All subjects completed detailed questionnaires related to gastrointestinal symptoms with special reference to excessive straining and discomfort, digital manipulations during defecation, a sense of pelvic heaviness and incomplete evacuation. Each patient underwent clinical examination, anal manometry and defecography during a single outpatient visit. Rectocele (16 patients) was significantly associated with vaginal digitation, lower stool frequency, delayed rectal emptying and decreased rectal sensation to distension. Increased anal pressure on straining (14 patients) was also related to a poor rectal emptying in 13 patients. Neither perineal descent (24 patients) nor external rectal prolapse (12 patients) was related to objective obstruction. Nevertheless there was an association with pelvic heaviness and lower anal manometric recordings. Five among 16 patients with rectocele had manometric anismus. Forty percent of patients with intussusception also had a paradoxical sphincter response during defaecation. Furthermore, associated abnormalities were extremely common (34 of 41 patients), accurate interpretation of which was necessary for planning effective therapy.
Cogliandro, Annalisa; La Monaca, Giuseppe; Tambone, Vittoradolfo; Persichetti, Paolo
Background In all branches of medicine, it is the surgeon's responsibility to provide the patient with accurate information before surgery. This is especially important in cosmetic surgery because the surgeon must focus on the aesthetic results desired by the patient. Methods An experimental protocol was developed based on an original questionnaire given to 72 patients. The nature of the responses, the patients' motivation and expectations, the degree of patient awareness regarding the planned operation, and the patients' perceptions of the purpose of the required consent for cosmetic surgery were all analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results Candidates for abdominal wall surgery had significantly more preoperative psychological problems than their counterparts did (P=0.035). A significantly different percentage of patients under 40 years of age compared to those over 40 years of age searched for additional sources of information prior to the operation (P=0.046). Only 30% of patients with a lower educational background stated that the preoperative information had been adequate, whereas 92% of subjects with secondary schooling or a postsecondary degree felt that the information was sufficient (P=0.001). A statistically significant difference was also present between patients according to their educational background regarding expected improvements in their quality of life postoperatively (P=0.008). Conclusions This study suggests that patients require more attention in presurgical consultations and that clear communication should be prioritized to ensure that the surgeon understands the patient's expectations. PMID:25606489
Kaeser, Martha A.; Hawk, Cheryl; Anderson, Michelle
Objective The purpose of this study was to compare demographics and chief complaints of the new patient population at our institution's fee-for-service clinics to the patient population of practicing chiropractors in the United States. We also compared the prevalence of obesity and hypertension to reference standards for the adult population. Methods Patient data were obtained from the electronic health records. All records identified as new patients during October 2013 were included. Variables of interest were clinic site, patient demographics, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), chief complaint, and ICD-9 codes. Descriptive statistics were computed and compared to reference standards from previous reports. Results During October 2013, there were 224 new patients that entered the clinics. The average patient was a 31- to 50-year-old white male. Our clinic patients differed from those seen by US chiropractors in the distribution of all demographic variables. For adult patients, 31.4% were overweight, 29% were obese, and 8% stage 1 or 2 hypertension. Conclusion New patients in the fee-for-service teaching clinics appear to be dissimilar to those of US practicing chiropractors in several important demographics, characteristics, and types of complaints. The new patients had lower levels of overweight, obesity, and hypertension compared to US reference standards. PMID:25162982
Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Anjum, Nadeem; Hu, Dong; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou
Thrombocytopenia is common among surgical critically ill patients. The relationship between the duration of thrombocytopenia and mortality is not well studied. This retrospective 12-month cohort study was designed to evaluate the association between persistent thrombocytopenia and mortality among surgical critically ill patients to determine the risk factors for persistent thrombocytopenia. The study included adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at our institution. Patients with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia were identified from a prospective critical care database. We defined patients with persistent thrombocytopenia as those with thrombocytopenia lasting more than 7 consecutive days. The primary outcome of this study was 28-day mortality and the secondary outcomes were lengths of SICU stay and hospital stay. Fifty-one patients experienced persistent thrombocytopenia and 71 experienced nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Among patients with persistent thrombocytopenia, mortality was significantly higher, and SICU and hospital stays were longer than those with nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Risk factor analysis failed to predict which patients with thrombocytopenia would develop into persistent thrombocytopenia. Persistent thrombocytopenia is a clinically significant disorder and is associated with poorer outcomes. Future studies are needed to further define this process.
Lum, Hillary D.; Jones, Jacqueline; Lahoff, Dana; Allen, Larry A.; Bekelman, David B.; Kutner, Jean S.; Matlock, Daniel D.
Background Patients with heart failure have end-of-life care needs that may benefit from hospice care. The goal of this descriptive study was to understand hospice clinicians’ perspectives on the unique aspects of caring for patients with heart failure to inform approaches to improving end-of-life care. Methods This qualitative study explored experiences, observations and perspectives of hospice clinicians regarding hospice care for patients with heart failure. Thirteen hospice clinicians from a variety of professional disciplines and clinical roles, diverse geographic regions, and varying lengths of time working in hospice participated in semi-structured interviews. Through team-based, iterative qualitative analysis, we identified three major themes. Results Hospice clinicians identified three themes regarding care for patients with heart failure. First, care for patients with heart failure involves clinical complexity and a tailored approach to cardiac medications and advanced cardiac technologies. Second, hospice clinicians describe the difficulty patients with heart failure have in trusting hospice care due to patient optimism, prognostic uncertainty, and reliance on pre-hospice healthcare providers. Third, hospice clinicians described opportunities to improve heart failure-specific hospice care, highlighting the desire for collaboration with referring cardiologists. Conclusions From a hospice clinician perspective, caring for patients with heart failure is unique compared to other hospice populations. This study suggests potential opportunities for hospice clinicians and referring providers who seek to collaborate to improve care for patients with heart failure during the transition to hospice care. PMID:26385036
Rozmovits, Linda; Khu, Kathleen Joy; Osman, Soha; Gentili, Fred; Guha, Abhijit; Bernstein, Mark
Doctor-patient communication in the setting of a life-threatening illness poses considerable challenges. This study aimed to determine the information needs of a subset of neurosurgical patients. Qualitative case study methodology was used. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with ambulatory adult patients who had undergone surgery for a benign brain tumor, arteriovenous malformation, or unruptured aneurysm. Interviews were digitally audio recorded and transcribed, and the data subjected to thematic analysis. Six overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) the amount of information patients want varies; (2) the type of information needed is not limited to information about treatment options and risks; (3) patients engage in independent information seeking for a variety of reasons; (4) patients consider compassion from their surgeon as important; (5) direct communication with the surgeon post-operatively is very important; and (6) patients' information needs are greatest post-operatively. Many patients felt that the amount and quality of information they received was not sufficient, particularly regarding post-operative recovery and long-term life issues, leading many to do their own research. The findings from this study emphasize the need for improved communication with patients so they can participate meaningfully in choices about their treatment, give a truly informed consent, and effectively participate in their own recovery.
Leek, Jeffrey T.; Maier, Ronald V.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Storey, John D.
Background Trauma is the number one killer of individuals 1–44 y of age in the United States. The prognosis and treatment of inflammatory complications in critically injured patients continue to be challenging, with a history of failed clinical trials and poorly understood biology. New approaches are therefore needed to improve our ability to diagnose and treat this clinical condition. Methods and Findings We conducted a large-scale study on 168 blunt-force trauma patients over 28 d, measuring ∼400 clinical variables and longitudinally profiling leukocyte gene expression with ∼800 microarrays. Marshall MOF (multiple organ failure) clinical score trajectories were first utilized to organize the patients into five categories of increasingly poor outcomes. We then developed an analysis framework modeling early within-patient expression changes to produce a robust characterization of the genomic response to trauma. A quarter of the genome shows early expression changes associated with longer-term post-injury complications, captured by at least five dynamic co-expression modules of functionally related genes. In particular, early down-regulation of MHC-class II genes and up-regulation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway were found to strongly associate with longer-term post-injury complications, providing discrimination among patient outcomes from expression changes during the 40–80 h window post-injury. Conclusions The genomic characterization provided here substantially expands the scope by which the molecular response to trauma may be characterized and understood. These results may be instrumental in furthering our understanding of the disease process and identifying potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Additionally, the quantitative approach we have introduced is potentially applicable to future genomics studies of rapidly progressing clinical conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00257231 Please see later in the article for the Editors
Çağan, Eren; Baş, Evrim Kıray; Asker, Hüseyin Selim
Background The emergence of infections related to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) reintroduced the use of colistin, an antibiotic that was previously abandoned due to adverse effects. However, because of its limited use in neonatal intensive care units, there is very little data about the effectiveness and safety of colistin in children and newborns. In this study, which will be the largest case study in the literature, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of colistin in full-term and preterm newborns. Material/Methods The study included patients admitted into 2 level 3 neonatal intensive care units between January 2013 and June 2015. The medical records of patients diagnosed with sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection based on the diagnostic culture results and treated with colistin were analyzed retrospectively. The patients whose infections were not verified were excluded from the study. Results The study included 65 patients (18 term, 47 preterm). The most frequently isolated pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae. Mean colistin treatment time was 15±3.5 days. All patients treated with colistin were being treated with at least 1 other antibiotic. While a complete clinical response was achieved in 51 (72.3%) patients, 14 (21.5%) patients died during treatment. Four (7.7%) patients died during as a result of another infection. Three patients developed renal toxicity, another 3 patients had seizures, and apnea was observed in 3 patients. Conclusions Colistin was found to be effective and safe for treatment of MDR-GNB infections in preterms and infants with very low birth weight. Given the severity of the infection, the adverse effects of colistin were at acceptable levels. PMID:28135233
Ismail, S I; Mazen, I A
Children with disorder of sex development (DSD) may be born with ambiguous genitalia. Decision-making in relation to sex assignment has been perceived as extremely disturbing and difficult to families and health care professionals. This is mainly due to a general paucity of information about the condition and an exaggerated feeling of stigma and shame associated with genital abnormalities. This is the first study in Egypt aimed at studying the psychosexual development and gender outcome of 40 Egyptian patients with 46,XY DSD focusing on the impact of social and religious factors. The patients were subjected to history-taking, pedigree analysis, full clinical examination, and cytogenetic studies. Hormonal, radiological investigations and molecular studies were performed when possible. Accordingly, they were classified into 4 groups: (1) sex chromosome aneuploid DSD (mixed gonadal dysgenesis) and (2) disorders of gonadal development (gonadal dysgenesis); (3) androgen biosynthesis defect (5alpha-reductase deficiency, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency), and (4) defect in androgen action (androgen insensitivity syndrome). The psychosexual development was assessed using adapted structured questionnaire and the Bem sex role inventory for patients below and above 12 years of age, respectively. Thirty-two patients (80%) were initially assigned as females; 3 patients with gonadal dysgenesis, 1 patient with 5alpha-reductase deficiency, and 1 patient with androgen insensitivity were reassigned as male. Male reassignment also was recorded in 5 patients with 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency and one of them showed sex reversal twice. Gender outcome of our patients is elusive; the social component has a significant impact on the gender outcome in our society, even more than religion. We recommend that in the future more and more patients should be analyzed as well. These studies should be designed to emphasize the quality of life of DSD patients.
Lindberg, Annelie; Löfberg, Robert; Sternby, Berit; Eriksson, Anders; Almer, Sven; Befrits, Ragnar; Fossum, Bjöörn; Karlén, Per; Broström, Olle; Tysk, Curt
Background There is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with chronic diseases, including those with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients may turn to CAM when conventional therapies are inadequate or associated with side effects for symptomatic relief or to regain control over their disease. The objectives were to explore CAM use and perceived effects in IBD patients in comparison with a control group. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter, controlled study was carried out. IBD patients were invited from 12 IBD clinics in Sweden. Controls were selected randomly from a residence registry. A study-specific questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Overall, 48.3% of patients with IBD had used some kind of CAM during the past year compared with 53.5% in controls (P=0.025, adjusted for age, sex, geographic residence, and diet). The most frequently used CAM among IBD patients was massage (21.3%), versus controls (31.4%) (adjusted P=0.0003). The second most used CAM was natural products, 18.7% in IBD patients versus 22.3% of the controls (unadjusted P=0.018). In all, 83.1% of the patients experienced positive effects from CAM and 14.4% experienced negative effects. Conclusion Overall, 48.3% of Swedish IBD patients used some kind of CAM and controls used CAM significantly more. Natural products were used by one-fifth of the patients and even more by controls. This is notable from a patient safety perspective considering the possible risks of interactions with conventional medication. In all, 40% of the patients reported adverse events from conventional medicine. Patients experienced predominantly positive effects from CAM, and so did controls. PMID:27472271
Hiremath, Atheeth; Awan, Omer; Mendelson, David; Siegel, Eliot L
The purpose of this study was to gauge patient perceptions of the RSNA Image Share Project (ISP), a pilot program that provides patients access to their imaging studies online via secure Personal Health Record (PHR) accounts. Two separate Institutional Review Board exempted surveys were distributed to patients depending on whether they decided to enroll or opt out of enrollment in the ISP. For patients that enrolled, a survey gauged baseline computer usage, perceptions of online access to images through the ISP, effect of patient access to images on patient-physician relationships, and interest in alternative use of images. The other survey documented the age and reasons for declining participation for those that opted out of enrolling in the ISP. Out of 564 patients, 470 enrolled in the ISP (83 % participation rate) and 456 of these 470 individuals completed the survey for a survey participation rate of 97 %. Patients who enrolled overwhelmingly perceived access to online images as beneficial and felt it bolstered their patient-physician relationship. Out of 564 patients, 94 declined enrollment in the ISP and all 94 individuals completed the survey for a survey participation rate of 100 %. Patients who declined to participate in the ISP cited unreliable access to Internet and existing availability of non-web-based intra-network images to their physicians. Patients who participated in the ISP found having a measure of control over their images to be beneficial and felt that patient-physician relationships could be negatively affected by challenges related to image accessibility.
Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Shi, Jing
Background The aim of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels in patients with common oral mucosal diseases by comparing these to healthy controls. Material and Methods A total of 368 patients, which consisted of 156 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients, 57 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, 55 burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, 54 atrophic glossitis (AG) patients, 46 xerostomia patients, and 115 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum zinc levels were measured in all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean serum zinc level in the healthy control group was significantly higher than the levels of all other groups (p < 0.001). No individual in the healthy control group had a serum zinc level less than the minimum normal value. However, up to 24.7% (13/54) of patients with AG presented with zinc deficiency, while 21.2% (33/156) of patients with RAS, 16.4% (9/55) of patients with BMS, 15.2% (7/46) of patients with xerostomia, and 14.0% (8/57) of patients with OLP were zinc deficient. Altogether, the zinc deficiency rate was 19.02% (70/368) in the oral mucosal diseases (OMD) group (all patients with OMD). The difference between the OMD and healthy control group was significant (p <0.001). Gender differences in serum zinc levels were also present, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of common oral mucosal diseases. Zinc supplementation may be a useful treatment for oral mucosal diseases, but this requires further investigation; the optimal serum level of zinc, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases, remains to be determined. Key words:Oral mucosal diseases, Zinc deficiency, pathogenesis. PMID:27031065
Context Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are frequently encountered in family medicine, and lead to disability, discomfort, medicalisation, iatrogenesis and economic costs. They cause professionals to feel insecure and frustrated and patients to feel dissatisfied and misunderstood. Doctors seek answers for rather than with the patient. Objectives This study aimed to explore patients' explanations of the medically unexplained physical symptoms that they were experiencing by eliciting their own explanations for their complaints, their associated fears, their expectations of the consultation, changes in their ideas of causality, and the therapeutic approach that they considered would be useful. Methodology A qualitative analysis was under-taken of interviews with 15 patients with MUPS in a family medicine unit, 6 months after diagnosis. Results Experience is crucial in construction of the meaning of symptoms and illness behaviour. Many patients identify psychosocial causes under-lying their suffering. These patients received more medication and fewer requests for diagnostic examinations than they had expected. Normalisation is a common behaviour in the clinical approach. Normalisation without explanation can be effective if an effective therapeutic relationship exists that may dispense with the need for words. Listening is the procedure most valued by patients. Diagnostic tests may denote interest in patients' problems. The clinician's flexibility should allow adaptation to the patient's phases of acceptance of the significance of their physical, emotional and social problems. Conclusion Patients with MUPS have explanations and fears associated with their complaints. The patient comes to the consultation not because of the symptom, but because of what he or she thinks about the symptom. The therapeutic relationship, therapeutic listening, and flexibility should be the basis for approaching patients with MUPS. Patients do not always expect medication
Nunes, José; Ventura, Teresa; Encarnação, Ricardo; Pinto, Patrícia Rosado; Santos, Isabel
Context Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are frequently encountered in family medicine, and lead to disability, discomfort, medicalisation, iatrogenesis and economic costs. They cause professionals to feel insecure and frustrated and patients to feel dissatisfied and misunderstood. Doctors seek answers for rather than with the patient. Objectives This study aimed to explore patients' explanations of the medically unexplained physical symptoms that they were experiencing by eliciting their own explanations for their complaints, their associated fears, their expectations of the consultation, changes in their ideas of causality, and the therapeutic approach that they considered would be useful. Methodology A qualitative analysis was under-taken of interviews with 15 patients with MUPS in a family medicine unit, 6 months after diagnosis. Results Experience is crucial in construction of the meaning of symptoms and illness behaviour. Many patients identify psychosocial causes under-lying their suffering. These patients received more medication and fewer requests for diagnostic examinations than they had expected. Normalisation is a common behaviour in the clinical approach. Normalisation without explanation can be effective if an effective therapeutic relationship exists that may dispense with the need for words. Listening is the procedure most valued by patients. Diagnostic tests may denote interest in patients' problems. The clinician's flexibility should allow adaptation to the patient's phases of acceptance of the significance of their physical, emotional and social problems. Conclusion Patients with MUPS have explanations and fears associated with their complaints. The patient comes to the consultation not because of the symptom, but because of what he or she thinks about the symptom. The therapeutic relationship, therapeutic listening, and flexibility should be the basis for approaching patients with MUPS. Patients do not always expect medication
Zhang, Yun; Li, Chen; Shen, Min; Liu, Bao; Zeng, Xuejun; Shen, Ti
Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a rare but devastating complication of aortic aneurysm (AA). This study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment of patients with AA-associated chronic DIC (AA-DIC) and explored the mechanisms, duration, and therapeutic response of AA-DIC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 235 AA patients admitted at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between September 2009 and January 2015. The patients were classified as those with DIC (AA-DIC) and those without DIC (non-DIC). The AA-DIC group showed a significantly higher proportion of female patients and a significantly longer AA disease course than the non-DIC group did. The AA-DIC patients presented mural thrombi, dissecting aneurysms, a family history of AA, and diabetes significantly more frequently than the non-DIC patients did. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that sex, mural thrombus, aneurysm type, diabetes, and stent surgery are possible independent risk factors for AA-DIC patients. Fifty-two (22.1%) patients presented AA-DIC. Among these patients, 43 had non-typical DIC and 9 had typical DIC; the mortality rate of the latter was 22.2%. The mean age of the patients with typical DIC was significantly higher than of that of patients with non-typical DIC. The non-typical DIC patients also presented abnormal coagulation disorders of varying degrees. Furthermore, heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin improved the clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters in patients with AA and typical DIC. Thus, chronic DIC should be considered in patients with AA.
Nayak, Amit R.; Badar, Shweta R.; Lande, Neha; Kawle, Anuja P.; Kabra, Dinesh P.; Chandak, Nitin H.; Raje, Dhananjay V.; Singh, Lokendra R.; Daginawala, Hatim F.; Kashyap, Rajpal S.
Background Demographic and clinical characteristics are known to influence the outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Purpose This study is aimed at evaluating short- and long-term outcomes in diabetic AIS patients. In addition, the study also evaluates the impact of diabetes on the performance of indigenously reported biomarker, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) and known biomarkers, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial-derived S-100 beta beta protein (S-100ββ). Methods This study was performed on 29 diabetes and 75 non-diabetes AIS patients. Outcome of AIS patients was analyzed by using modified Rankin scale at discharge, then at 12 and 18 months after discharge. Based on the obtained scores, patients were classified as improved group (scales 1-3) and dependent/expired group (scales 3-6). Blood samples were collected during admission and at discharge/expired time. Levels of NSE, S100ββ, and ITIH4 were analyzed in all samples. Results On discharge, frequencies of dependent/expired outcome were 4/29 (14%) and 19/75 (17%) in diabetic and non-diabetic AIS patients. However, follow-up outcome at 12 and 18 months showed higher dependent/expired cases of 43 and 41% among diabetic AIS patients compared to 27 and 21% in non-diabetic patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that diabetes is an independent risk factor for dependent/expired outcome in AIS patients (OR 0.484 (at discharge); 1.307 (at 12 months) and 1.675 (at 18 months)). NSE, S100ββ, and ITIH4 showed a differential expression in both the outcome groups of AIS patients, irrespective of diabetes. Conclusion Diabetes increases the risk of dependent/expired outcome in AIS patients. Also, serum NSE, S100ββ, and ITIH4 are independent biomarkers for prognosis of outcome in AIS patients, irrespective of diabetes. PMID:27780987
Background Chronic cough patients are rendered therapies for gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) and cough-variant asthma (CVA) with varying benefit. Idiopathic or unexplained cough has emerged as an important clinical entity in both primary care and subspecialty clinics. Recent evidence points to a link between chronic cough and untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A prospective observational study was done to evaluate the effect of OSA therapy in patients with chronic cough. Patients enrolled into the study underwent questionnaires to evaluate for GERD, UACS and CVA along with screening questionnaires for OSA and daytime sleepiness. The Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) was done at baseline and during serial visits to evaluate cough intensity and was used as the primary outcome measure of the effect of CPAP therapy on chronic cough. Results Out of 37 patients enrolled into the study, only 28 patients had follow up LCQ scores available and therefore underwent analysis. 22/28 patients were suspected to have OSA based on abnormal STOP-BANG screening questionnaire scores and overnight oximetry abnormalities. Of these 19/28 patients had overnight attended polysomnography with definitive diagnosis of OSA yielding a 68% prevalence of OSA in our chronic cough population. Chronic cough patients treated for OSA tended to be older with a significantly higher BMI than chronic cough patients without OSA. Significant improvement of LCQ scores occurred with CPAP therapy for OSA in chronic cough patients. Conclusion OSA is significantly prevalent in chronic cough patients. Subjects with chronic cough and OSA tend to be older and obese. Treatment of OSA in chronic cough patients yields significant improvement in their health status. PMID:23845135
Shao, Tanglei; Qiu, Weihua; Yang, Weiping
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) shows some anatomical variations that can potentially compromise the safety of thyroid surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to identify the anatomical variations of the RLN in Chinese patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Between January 2007 and December 2013, 2,404 Chinese patients were hospitalized for thyroid surgery with dissecting of the RLN unilaterally or bilaterally. The patients consisted of 510 men and 1,894 women, with a median age of 45.0 years. Overall 3,275 RLNs, including 1,576 left- and 1,699 right-side nerves, were dissected. The anatomical variations were identified in 690 RLNs, including 305 left- and 385 right-side nerves. We identified as many as seven RLN anatomical variations in Chinese patients. These findings indicate that anatomical variations of the RLN are common, and the identification of these anatomical variations of the RLN can help to minimize the risk of post-operative RLN paralysis.
Leitch, Sharon; Wallis, Katharine A; Eggleton, Kyle S; Cunningham, Wayne K; Williamson, Martyn I; Lillis, Steven; McMenamin, Andrew W; Tilyard, Murray W; Reith, David M; Samaranayaka, Ari; Hall, Jason E
Background Knowing where and why harm occurs in general practice will assist patients, doctors, and others in making informed decisions about the risks and benefits of treatment options. Research to date has been unable to verify the safety of primary health care and epidemiological research about patient harms in general practice is now a top priority for advancing health systems safety. Objective We aim to study the incidence, distribution, severity, and preventability of the harms patients experience due to their health care, from the whole-of-health-system lens afforded by electronic general practice patient records. Methods “Harm” is defined as disease, injury, disability, suffering, and death, arising from the health system. The study design is a stratified, 2-level cluster, retrospective records review study. Both general practices and patients will be randomly selected so that the study’s results will apply nationally, after weighting. Stratification by practice size and rurality will allow comparisons between 6 study groups (large, medium-sized, small; urban and rural practices). Records of equal numbers of patients from each study group will be included in the study because there may be systematic differences in patient harms in different types of practices. Eight general practitioner investigators will review 3 years of electronic general practice health records (consultation notes, prescriptions, investigations, referrals, and summaries of hospital care) from 9000 patients registered in 60 general practices. Double-blinded reviews will check the concordance of reviewers’ assessments. Study data will comprise demographic data of all 9000 patients and reviewers’ assessments of whether patients experienced harm arising from health care. Where patient harm is identified, their types, preventability, severity, and outcomes will be coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) 18.0. Results We have recruited practices and
Estlin, E. J.; Lashford, L.; Ablett, S.; Price, L.; Gowing, R.; Gholkar, A.; Kohler, J.; Lewis, I. J.; Morland, B.; Pinkerton, C. R.; Stevens, M. C.; Mott, M.; Stevens, R.; Newell, D. R.; Walker, D.; Dicks-Mireaux, C.; McDowell, H.; Reidenberg, P.; Statkevich, P.; Marco, A.; Batra, V.; Dugan, M.; Pearson, A. D.
A phase I study of temozolomide administered orally once a day, on 5 consecutive days, between 500 and 1200 mg m(-2) per 28-day cycle was performed. Children were stratified according to prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosourea therapy. Sixteen of 20 patients who had not received prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosourea therapy were evaluable. Myelosuppression was dose limiting, with Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurring in one of six patients receiving 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle, and two of four patients treated at 1200 mg m(-2) per cycle. Therefore, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle. The MTD was not defined for children with prior craniospinal irradiation because of poor recruitment. Plasma pharmacokinetic analyses showed temozolomide to be rapidly absorbed and eliminated, with linear increases in peak plasma concentrations and systemic exposure with increasing dose. Responses (CR and PR) were seen in two out of five patients with high-grade astrocytomas, and one patient had stable disease. One of ten patients with diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma achieved a long-term partial response, and a further two patients had stable disease. Therefore, the dose recommended for phase II studies in patients who have not received prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosoureas is 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle. Further evaluation in diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas and other high-grade astrocytomas is warranted. Images Figure 5 p658-b Figure 6 p659-b PMID:9744506
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Smith, Paul D; Huang, Yen-Ming; Mansukhani, Sonal Ghura
Background Recommendations call for the inclusion of both patient and provider input in the redesign of prescription labels. Pharmacist opinions on prescription warning labels are important because they are the health providers who would eventually distribute and explain the revised labels during medication counseling. They may be the first health provider to notice a patient's misunderstanding on how to safely use their prescription medications. Objectives To explore the perspectives of patients and pharmacists on five newly designed PWLs, and examine if there were similarities and differences between patients' and pharmacists' perspectives. Setting Private room in Wisconsin. Methods A descriptive study using semi-structured 60-min face-to-face individual interviews with patients and pharmacists explored patients and pharmacists' feedback on five newly designed PWLs. Patients who were 18 years and older, spoke English, and took a prescription medication and pharmacists who filled prescriptions in an ambulatory setting participated in the study. The patient and pharmacist perspectives on the words (content), picture and color (cosmetic appearance), and placement of warning instructions on the pill bottle (convenience) was based on a label redesign framework. Qualitative content analysis was done. Main outcome measure Patient and pharmacist perspectives on the newly designed PWLs. Results Twenty-one patients and eight pharmacists practicing in an academic medical center outpatient setting (n = 5) or retail pharmacy (n = 3) participated. All patients and pharmacists wanted the PWLs positioned on the front of the pill bottle but not the side of the bottle or warning instructions embedded into the main prescription label. Other similarities included participants preferring: (1) pictures closely depicting the instructions and (2) the use of yellow highlighting on the PWL to draw attention to it. There were differences in patient and pharmacist perspectives
Linna, Miika; Rönkkö, Ilona; Kröger, Virpi
Background Electronic patient portals may enhance effective interaction between the patient and the health care provider. To grasp the full potential of patient portals, health care providers need more knowledge on which patient groups prefer electronic services and how patients should be served through this channel. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how chronically ill patients’ state of health, comorbidities, and previous care are associated with their adoption and use of a patient portal. Methods A total of 222 chronically ill patients, who were offered access to a patient portal with their health records and secure messaging with care professionals, were included in the study. Differences in the characteristics of non-users, viewers, and interactive users of the patient portal were analyzed before access to the portal. Patients’ age, gender, diagnoses, levels of the relevant physiological measurements, health care contacts, and received physiological measurements were collected from the care provider’s electronic health record. In addition, patient-reported health and patient activation were assessed by a survey. Results Despite the broad range of measures used to indicate the patients’ state of health, the portal user groups differed only in their recorded diagnosis for hypertension, which was most common in the non-user group. However, there were significant differences in the amount of care received during the year before access to the portal. The non-user group had more nurse visits and more measurements of relevant physiological outcomes than viewers and interactive users. They also had fewer referrals to specialized care during the year before access to the portal than the two other groups. The viewers and the interactive users differed from each other significantly in the number of nurse calls received, the interactive users having more calls than the viewers. No significant differences in age, gender, or patient activation were
suspected infection ? Study Aims: a) Develop a multivariable predictive model for detection of bacteremia in the burned ICU patient using 12...clinical measures associated with presence of infection (temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, platelet count, insulin resistance, feeding intolerance...independent group of burn ICU patients during periods of documented sepsis and absence of infection ; Hypothesis: A multivariate prediction model will
Shantakumari, Nisha; Eldeeb, Rasha Ali; Mabrouk Ibrahim, Salwa Abdelzaher; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Otoum, Sufian
Introduction Hypertension affects more than a quarter of the global adult population. Studies conducted worldwide suggest an overall small, yet useful, role of omega-3 PUFAs in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients. However there is no substantial data in this regard from population based in Middle East and Asia. Objectives To determine the effects of (omega-3) PUFA supplementation on the blood pressure of hypertensive patient. To identify if male and female hypertensive patients respond differently to PUFA. To identify if response of hypertensive patients to PUFA varies with the duration of hypertension and co-existence of diabetes/dyslipidemia. Materials and methods This observational study was conducted among hypertensive patients visiting OPD of the Gulf Medical College Hospital, Ajman, UAE, during the period Jan–Dec 2012. A total of 100 hypertensive patients on treatment with their antihypertensive medications, 50 of whom were taking n-3 PUFA supplementation, were followed up for a period of 3 months. Comparisons were drawn between the BP recordings at the time of enrollment in the study and their follow up values 3 months after enrollment. Results There was a statistically significant reduction in both the systolic and diastolic blood pressures after 3 months of PUFA therapy. The BP lowering effect of PUFA was more in males. A statistically significant reduction in BP was noted in non-diabetic patients and patients with long standing hypertension. Conclusion Findings of the study suggest that omega-3 PUFA dietary supplements augment the benefits of pharmacotherapy in hypertension. PMID:25173198
Objectives: This study investigated the efficiency of a social work care coordination model for stroke patients. Care coordination addresses patient care and treatment resources across the health care system to reduce risk, improve clinical outcomes, and maximize efficiency. Method: A randomly assigned, pre-post experimental design measured…
Stoian, M; Hozoc, M; Ionescu, T; Lungu, M; Predescu, E; Nastac, E
The study of viral antibodies in 6714 sera demonstrated that the level of antibodies to infectious viruses was the same in cancer patients as in controls. However, the patients with various forms of neoplasia showed a considerable percentage and high antibody levels to viruses with oncogenic potential for animals (adenovirus, SV40, Rous virus) or involved in human carcinogenesis (herpes virus).
Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.
For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…
Describes a study undertaken to ascertain the extent to which arthritis patients could be targeted by arthritis-related programming over a local cable system. Some conceptual and practical issues involved in targeting chronic patient groups for health programming are discussed. (Author/CT)
Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann
The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…
Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick
This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.
Kinsey, Barry A.; And Others
This study examines the appropriateness of the preventive mental health model by comparing a sample of non-opiate drug abusers with a sample of psychiatric patients. Data indicate non-opiate drug abusers and psychiatric patients are similar, although the drug abuse sample shows small, but consistent evidence of greater psychosocial adjustment…
Sasaki, Tsubasa; Kawagoe, Izumi
Since the launch of pure oxycodone injections in May 2012, it has been possible to use oxycodone without opioid rotation. Although an extremely important step showing progress, very few studies regarding the use of pure oxycodone injections have been performed. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of pure oxycodone injections in 31 terminally ill cancer patients receiving home care. The difficulty in oral oxycodone intake was the main reason for changing to pure oxycodone injections. The mean administered period of subcutaneous pure oxycodone was 5.6 ± 6.7 days. One out of 5 patients receiving pure oxycodone injections complained of worsening sleepiness. However, other symptoms improved. In addition, in cases wherein pure oxycodone injection was the initiating opioid, 1 out of 6 patients showed no improvement of respiratory discomfort, while other symptoms improved. It was difficult to evaluate more patients because of the short period for administration. Although 5 patients experienced skin problems, they were successfully managed by changing the injection site. Of these 5 patients, 2 patients had sensitive skin, with a previous history of alcohol rash. In conclusion, our study suggests that pure oxycodone injections are beneficial over oral oxycodone treatment for terminally ill cancer patients. However, further evaluation of skin problems associated with pure oxycodone injections is required by performing larger studies.
Horn, Susan D.; Corrigan, John D.; Bogner, Jennifer; Hammond, Flora M.; Seel, Ronald T.; Smout, Randall J.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Whiteneck, Gale G.
Objective To describe study design, patients, centers, treatments, and outcomes of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) practice-based evidence (PBE) study and to evaluate the generalizability of the findings to the US TBI inpatient rehabilitation population. Design Prospective, longitudinal observational study Setting 10 inpatient rehabilitation centers (9 US, 1 Canada) Participants Patients (n=2130) enrolled between October 2008 and Sept 2011, and admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after an index TBI injury Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Return to acute care during rehabilitation, rehabilitation length of stay, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge, residence at discharge, and 9 months post-discharge rehospitalization, FIM, participation, and subjective wellbeing. Results Level of admission FIM Cognitive score was found to create relatively homogeneous subgroups for subsequent analysis of best treatment combinations. There were significant differences in patient and injury characteristics, treatments, rehabilitation course, and outcomes by admission FIM Cognitive subgroups. TBI-PBE study patients overall were similar to US national TBI inpatient rehabilitation populations. Conclusions This TBI-PBE study succeeded in capturing naturally occurring variation within patients and treatments, offering opportunities to study best treatments for specific patient deficits. Subsequent papers in this issue report differences between patients and treatments and associations with outcomes in greater detail. PMID:26212396
Rokey, R.; Rolak, L.A.; Harati, Y.; Kutka, N.; Verani, M.S.
Coronary artery disease is the cause of death in most patients who have transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Evaluation for this condition is not routinely performed in such patients, and no prospective studies have been reported. We prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with transient ischemic attacks or mild stroke to determine the prevalence and importance of coronary artery disease. All patients were examined by a cardiologist and underwent both exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography. Sixteen patients were suspected to have coronary artery disease on the basis of clinical evaluation. In 15 of these the was confirmed by the nuclear scans. The remaining 34 patients had no clinical evidence of heart disease, yet 14 had abnormal cardiac scans. Twenty of 22 patients with abnormal scans who underwent cardiac catheterization had significant coronary artery disease or a cardiomyopathy. The discovery of heart disease altered clinical management in 13 patients. Overall, 29 of 50 patients had significant coronary artery disease, compared with a 7% prevalence of the condition in other patients of similar age at the same institution.
Maeda, Osamu; Matsuoka, Ayumu; Miyahara, Ryoji; Funasaka, Kohei; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Fukaya, Masahide; Nagino, Masato; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Goto, Hidemi; Ando, Yuichi
AIM To evaluate the feasibility of chemotherapy including fluoropyrimidine, platinum and taxane with modified dosages for unresectable gastric cancer in Japanese patients. METHODS We performed a feasibility study of a modified docetaxel, cisplatin and capecitabine (DCX) regimen for stage IV gastric cancer. In particular, 30 or 40 mg/m2 of docetaxel on day 1, 60 mg/m2 of cisplatin on day 1, and 2000 mg/m2 of capecitabine for 2 wk were administered every three weeks. RESULTS Three patients were treated with modified DCX (mDCX) with 30 mg/m2 docetaxel, and five patients were treated with this regimen with 40 mg/m2 docetaxel. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was observed in six of the eight patients; no patients exhibited febrile neutropenia. Partial response was achieved in four of the eight patients. Three patients underwent gastrectomy, which achieved R0 resection without residual tumors in dissected lymph nodes. In one of these three patients, resected specimens revealed pathological complete response in the primary lesion and in lymph nodes. CONCLUSION mDCX was well tolerated by Japanese patients with stage IV gastric cancer. This regimen might be useful for allowing gastric cancer patients with distant lymph node metastasis to undergo conversion surgery. PMID:28246483
S, Rajasekaran; G, Balamurali; Shetty, Ajoy
Study Design Retrospective case study by clinical and radiological data analysis. Purpose To analyze different types of vertebral anomalies and the incidence of associated intraspinal anomalies in the Indian population. Overview of Literature This is the largest study of congenital scoliosis and associated intraspinal anomalies in Indian population. Incidence of intraspinal anomaly in this series is 47% which is higher than previous literature. Hemivertebra was the most common anomaly as seen in previous studies. Methods A total of 119 patients with congenital scoliosis who underwent surgery between December 2006 and December 2012 were studied. Data was reviewed with medical records, plain radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results Thoracolumbar curve was most common, seen in 43.6% of patients. In addition to scoliotic deformity, kyphosis was seen in 26% of patients. Failure of formation, the most common vertebral anomaly, was seen in 51.2% of patients, failure of segmentation was seen in 19.3% of patients, and there were 29.4% patients having both formation and segmentation anomalies. Hemivertebra was the most common vertebral anomaly seen in 66.3% of patients and for whom 63.2% were in thoracic spine. Intraspinal anomalies were associated with 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis. Tethered cord was the most common intraspinal abnormality and was found in 48.2% patients with intraspinal anomalies. The patients with failure of segmentation and mixed deformities were found to have a significantly higher incidence of intraspinal anomalies (65% and 57%, respectively) than those with failure of formation (34%). Out of 31 patients with kyphotic deformity 29% had intraspinal anomalies, and amongst them tethered cord was the most common anomaly seen in 66% patients. Out of 12 patients with neurocutaneous markers, 83% patients had intraspinal anomaly. Conclusions Intraspinal anomalies were seen in 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis in the
Edmunds, Ian; Avakian, Zorik
The management of anticoagulated patients requiring surgery presents a challenge to hand surgeons. The risk of bleeding related complications needs to be weighed up against the increased risk of thrombotic events if anticoagulants are altered or ceased. There is literature reporting the safety of hand, skin, eye and dental surgery on patients taking anticoagulants, and there is literature highlighting the risks associated with altering regular anticoagulant medication. However, it is common practice to cease or alter patients' anticoagulants peri-operatively for hand surgery. We report a prospective study of 107 patients taking anticoagulants who underwent 121 hand operations from December 2005 to August 2009. There was only one significant complication, that being a haematoma which occurred in a patient taking clopidogrel. We conclude that interruption to therapy with warfarin (provided the INR is not greater than 3.0), clopidogrel or clopidogrel with aspirin is unnecessary for patients undergoing hand surgery.
Currie, Janet; Lin, Wanchuan; Zhang, Wei
We conduct an audit study in which a pair of simulated patients with identical flu-like complaints visits the same physician. Simulated patient A is instructed to ask a question that showcases his/her knowledge of appropriate antibiotic use, whereas patient B is instructed to say nothing beyond describing his/her symptoms. We find that a patient who displays knowledge of appropriate antibiotics use reduces both antibiotic prescription rates and drug expenditures. Such knowledge also increases physicians' information provision about possible side effects, but has a negative impact on the quality of the physician-patient interactions. Our results suggest that antibiotics abuse in China is not driven by patients actively demanding antibiotics, but is largely a supply-side phenomenon.
Cicmil, Nela; Eli, Karin
While individual cases of eating disorder (ED) patients with disabilities have been reported, there has been little synthesis of their experiences of body image and thin idealization. This study reviews 19 published clinical reports of ED patients with sensory, mobility-related, or intellectual disabilities and evaluates the extent to which their experiences align with or challenge current conceptions of body image in ED. ED patients with visual impairment reported a profound disturbance of body image, perceived intersubjectively and through tactile sensations. Reducing dependence in mobility was an important motivation to control body size for ED patients with mobility-related disabilities. ED as a way of coping with and compensating for the psychosocial consequences of disability was a recurrent theme for patients across a range of disabilities. These experiential accounts of ED patients with disabilities broaden current understandings of body image to include touch and kinaesthetic awareness, intersubjective dynamics, and perceptions of normalcy.
Kacar, Seval Dogruk; Soyucok, Ethem; Bagcioglu, Erman; Ozuguz, Pınar; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Asık, Ahmet Hakki; Mayda, Hasan
Aim: We aimed to measure the perceived stigma, especially in patients with alopecia areata (AA) and to compare the results with patients with mental disorder (MD). Materials and Methods: This study included forty patients with AA who were consecutively recruited from dermatology outpatient clinic and 42 patients with MD who were consecutively recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinic. The presence of a MD was assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fourth Edition. All participants were asked to complete the 28 items modified stigmatization questionnaire. Results: Total and all subscale scores of stigmatization questionnaire scale were higher in the group of patients with AA than in the patients with MD. Conclusion: AA is a condition that leads to more self-stigmatization than MD. PMID:27625566
Background Little is known about the role European patient organisations play in the process of deciding on reimbursement for medicines. Therefore we explore the current role of patient organisations in the process of reimbursement for medicines in Western Europe. We focus in particular on collaboration between patient organisations and the pharmaceutical industry in this respect. Methods Sixty-eight patient organisations representing seven medical conditions, from ten Western European countries, were asked to participate in the study. The participating organisations reported their experiences in a web-based questionnaire. Results Twenty-one patient organisations completed the questionnaire (response rate: 31%), of which ten (47.6%) demanded reimbursement for medicines. Organisations demanding reimbursement were larger than those not demanding reimbursement. The main aim of these organisations was to create better accessibility of medicines for patients. Most organisations limited themselves to single actions. Only two engaged in multiple actions. Almost all organisations had general policies on cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry, with autonomy as the key feature. The patient organisations said they were reasonably successful and almost always satisfied with their own role in the reimbursement process. Conclusion Our study has found that the role of European patient organisations in the reimbursement process still seems limited, especially for small patient organisations. PMID:20170557
Ge, H.F.; Liu, X.Q.; Zhu, Y.Q.; Chen, H.Q.; Chen, G.Z.
Invasive pulmonary fungal infection (IPFI) is a potentially fatal complication in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD). The current study aimed to uncover the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with IPFI-CTD. The files of 2186 CTD patients admitted to a single center in northern China between January 2011 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 47 CTD patients with IPFI were enrolled into this study and assigned to the CTD-IPFI group, while 47 uninfected CTD patients were assigned to the control group. Clinical manifestations were recorded, and risk factors of IPFI were calculated by stepwise logistical regression analysis. Forty-seven (2.15%) CTD patients developed IPFI. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients were responsible for the highest proportion (36.17%) of cases with IPFI. Candida albicans (72.3%) accounted for the most common fungal species. CTD-IPFI patients had significantly elevated white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and fasting glucose values compared to controls (P<0.05). Cough, sputum and blood in phlegm were the most common symptoms. Risk factors of IPFI in CTD included maximum prednisone dose ≥30 mg/day within 3 months prior to infection, anti-microbial drug therapy, and interstitial pneumonia. CTD patients who have underlying interstitial pneumonia, prior prednisone or multiple antibiotics, were more likely to develop IPFI. PMID:27683823
Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David
Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%]in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.
Background This retrospective study evaluated the impact of disease progression and of specific sites of metastasis on patient reported outcomes (PROs) that assess symptom burden and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). Methods HER-2 negative mBC patients (n = 102) were enrolled from 7 U.S. community oncology practices. Demographic, disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records and linked to archived Patient Care Monitor (PCM) assessments. The PCM is a self-report measure of symptom burden and HRQoL administered as part of routine care in participating practices. Linear mixed models were used to examine change in PCM scores over time. Results Mean age was 57 years, with 72% of patients Caucasian, and 25% African American. Median time from mBC diagnosis to first disease progression was 8.8 months. Metastasis to bone (60%), lung (28%) and liver (26%) predominated at initial metastatic diagnosis. Results showed that PCM items assessing fatigue, physical pain and trouble sleeping were sensitive to either general effects of disease progression or to effects associated with specific sites of metastasis. Progression of disease was also associated with modest but significant worsening of General Physical Symptoms, Treatment Side Effects, Acute Distress and Impaired Performance index scores. In addition, there were marked detrimental effects of liver metastasis on Treatment Side Effects, and of brain metastasis on Acute Distress. Conclusions Disease progression has a detrimental impact on cancer-related symptoms. Delaying disease progression may have a positive impact on patients' HRQoL. PMID:21689425
Kern, Wolfgang; Bacher, Ulrike; Haferlach, Claudia; Alpermann, Tamara; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten
Diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) relies on well-defined cytomorphologic criteria but is challenging in a significant number of patients. The detection of aberrant antigen expression by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is considered a promising tool to improve MDS diagnostics. We prospectively analyzed 804 unselected patients sent with suspected MDS for correlation of MFC findings with overall survival (OS) in the context of cytomorphologic and cytogenetic findings. Patients with evidence of MDS by MFC had a significantly worse OS as compared to those without (OS at 2 years, 71.2% vs. 89.4%; P<0.001). The number of aberrantly expressed antigens as a continuous variable was significantly associated with OS [P<0.001, hazards ratio (HR): 1.19 per additional aberrantly expressed antigen]. Multivariate analysis proved a diagnosis of MDS by MFC to be independently associated with OS (P=0.050; HR: 1.42). Furthermore, a diagnosis of MDS by MFC was related to inferior survival within all three cytomorphologically defined subgroups, i.e., proven MDS (median OS, 45.4 vs. 52.8 months, P<0.001), suspected MDS (2-year-OS, 75.0% vs. 82.8%; P=0.062), and MDS excluded (2-year-OS, 63.5% vs. 92.8%, P=0.020). Our data clearly demonstrate that, in the assessment of cytopenic patients with suspected MDS, a diagnosis of MDS by MFC is independently associated with OS, which had been shown in previous studies for today's standard diagnostic parameters cytomorphology and cytogenetics. MFC may, therefore, be considered an additional tool in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected MDS.
Sadeghian, Jaleh; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Rafiei, Hossein
Introduction As a chronic disease, End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) changes the patients’ body and affects their body image negatively. Although the changes in body image are expected in all types of renal replacement therapies, different renal replacement therapy methods could represent different levels of impact on body image. Aim Present study was conducted to examine and compare the level of body-image disturbance between haemodialysis and kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Using convenient sampling, 84 patients (42 patients under haemodialysis and 42 patients with transplant) were invited to participate in the study. A self-designed questionnaire was developed to examine the level of body-image disturbance. Results Out of 42 haemodialysis patients, 64.3%, 19% and 16.7% of patients reported low, moderate and high level of body-image disturbance respectively. The mean score of body-image disturbance was 21.1±18.3(rang=1–71) in haemodialysis patients. Of 42 transplant patients, 69%, 26.2% and 4.8% reported low, moderate and high level of body-image disturbance respectively. The mean score of body-image disturbance was 17.1±13.3 (rang=1–48). According to the results of independent t-test, difference between mean score of body-image disturbance in two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion The findings of the present study showed that both haemodialysis and renal transplant patients experienced some levels of body-image disturbance. This problem was more prevalent among haemodialysis patients as compared to kidney transplant ones. We recommend more studies may be conducted in this regard. PMID:27437264
Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Danial, Khurram
Present study assesses the therapeutic effectiveness of Hijama (blood letting) inpatients of chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis for past several years with almost no urinary output.24 patients from Sindh Government Qatar Hospital Karachi were selected randomly under going dialysis 2-3 times/week for an average of 3 years under supervision of Dr. Khurram Danial, in-charge nephrologist at dialysis Centre Sindh Government Qatar Hospital Karachi after the written consent from patients. Each patient was subjected to Hijama session once a week after dialysis for a period of one year in a nearby hospital Aligarh Shifa with the consent of the ethical committee of the hospital. Serum urea, creatinine, complete blood count and electrolytes were determined prior to Hijama as baseline values and were again recorded on monthly basis for twelve months of Hijama sessions. The patient's feedback regarding quality of life after each Hijama session shows that almost all the patients reported a significant recovery from severe fatigue which they used to face during the interval between the dialysis sessions. There was significant recovery in all patients from anorexia and insomnia with the improvement in quality of life as compared to patients not undergoing Hijama. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were shifted towards normal in almost all patients after Hijama. Serum Creatinine level was declined significantly, while electrolyte and hematological parameters were also improved significantly. The hemoglobin of all patients undergoing Hijama was maintained near normal without any blood transfusion, which was frequently needed in patients not undergoing Hijama sessions. There was insignificant improvement in Urinary output in 2 out of 24 patients. Results of the present study suggest that Hijama may be performed safely in patients of chronic renal failure on dialysis with overall improvement in quality of life, since there was reduction in fatigue, improvement in
Harun, N A; Salek, S
Objective To observe the influences on clinicians when discharging patients, to explore patients' perspectives concerning their discharge or follow-up decision and to identify what patients think is important for clinicians to consider when taking a discharge decision. Design Qualitative study involving observations of consultations and semistructured interviews with outpatients. Setting National Health Service outpatient clinics at a university hospital secondary referral centre. Participants 64 consultations were observed followed by 56 interviews with patients aged over 18 years. Main outcome measure Analysis of patients' perspectives and expectations concerning whether or not they were discharged. Results 25 types of influences were observed to be influencing the discharge decision process. All 31 discharged patients appeared to accept the clinicians' decision; however, 10 (22%) of those patients later expressed disappointment. Patients' discontent was due to perceived clinicians' uncertainty in diagnosis (patients mentioning=2), poor acceptance of the diagnosis (2), disease not ‘cured’ (4), differing perception on medical needs (2), lack of concern for job demands (1), felt uninvolved in the decision-making (4), feeling rushed (3), prolonged open appointment (2), pushed to seek private care due to healthcare budget constraints (2), language barrier (1) and not keen to continue follow-up with general practitioner (2). Patients were happy when there was certainty of the diagnosis (19), clear treatment plan (16), advised on treatment side effects (7), given a contact number if symptoms recurred (4), considering their travelling and job demands (3). Conclusions This study highlights the importance of accurately perceiving patients' perspectives in ensuring the appropriateness of outpatient discharge. There was a disparity between patients' and clinicians' perception on what was an appropriate discharge. This included discrepancies concerning diagnostic
Starting from Freud's classical case studies, the author highlights the tension between the psychoanalytical starting point in the subject's own meaning construction and the claims of the professional expert to objectivity, privileged knowledge and interpretative precedence. Psychoanalytic investigation of subjective phenomena came into existence parallel with Freud's magnificent project to furnish 'a psychology that shall be a natural science'. The privileged knowledge of the specialist was substituted by the explicit intention to listen to the individual's own stories and private explanatory constructions. In order to investigate the territory of the unconscious, Freud had to develop various strategies for uncovering and correcting errors, and for testing clinically anchored hypotheses. However, Freud regularly failed to follow his own intentions. The thesis the author presents here is that departures from the explicit ambition to follow the subject's own meaning construction, and departures from the scientific attitude, easy to trace in Freud's case studies, accompany each other. These departures have had far-reaching consequences for the present status of the psychoanalytic knowledge.
Deatsman, Sara; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rhoton-Vlasak, Alice
Objective Fertility declines as women age. Advancing maternal age increases pregnancy risks such as diabetes or hypertension. Studies suggest women are not aware of the risks of aging on fertility and pregnancy. The study objective was to assess women's knowledge of fertility and reproductive outcomes affected by aging. Methods Prospective IRB approved survey of women (n=94) attending an obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) clinic. Data collected included demographics, pregnancy history, and knowledge of age-related fertility decline and pregnancy risks. Statistical analysis performed using JMP Pro11.0. Results Ages ranged from 18 to 67. One third (30.5%) were aware fertility begins to decline at age 35, however this varied among groups depending on prior history of infertility or requiring fertility treatment. Nulliparous women were more unaware of the health risks of pregnancy over age 35 (1.4% vs 13.6%, P 0.02). African Americans (AA) women were less likely to think obesity (76% Caucasian vs 47.8% AA vs 66.7% other, P < 0.05) and older age (88% Caucasian vs 60.9% AA vs 82.7% other, P 0.02) affected fertility. Conclusion Knowledge regarding fertility and reproduction related to aging was variable and differed by age and race. Difficulty conceiving appears to be associated with higher knowledge levels. Public education will increase awareness of age-related fertility declines. Increased contact during pregnancy is an excellent opportunity to educate women in a nondirective way. PMID:27584600
Herlufsen, P; Olsen, A G; Carlsen, B; Nybaek, H; Karlsmark, T; Laursen, T N; Jemec, G B E
The aim of this article was to investigate the frequency, severity and diversity of peristomal skin disorders among individuals with a permanent stoma in a community population. All individuals with a permanent stoma (n=630) in a Danish community population were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. A total of 202 individuals (101 men; 101 women) agreed to participate. Data were collected through questionnaires and clinical examinations. It was found that peristomal skin disorders were higher for participants with an ileostomy (57%) and urostomy (48%) than in those with a colostomy (35%). Of the diagnoses of skin disorders, 77% could be related to contact with stoma effluent. Only 38% of diagnosed participants agreed that they had a skin disorder and more than 80% did not seek professional health care. The study revealed a high frequency of peristomal skin disorders. Participants frequently failed to perceive that they had a skin irritation and did not seek help. This suggests that more education and perhaps regular, annual follow-up visits at local stoma care clinics are needed.
Slomovitz, Brian M.; Jiang, Yunyun; Yates, Melinda S.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Johnston, Taren; Nowakowski, Maureen; Levenback, Charles; Zhang, Qian; Ring, Kari; Munsell, Mark F.; Gershenson, David M.; Lu, Karen H.; Coleman, Robert L.
Purpose The phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently dysregulated in endometrial cancer (EC). Hormonal manipulation leads to response in some patients with EC, but resistance derived from PI3K pathway activation has been documented. Targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may overcome endocrine resistance. We conducted a two-institution phase II trial of everolimus and letrozole in women with recurrent EC. Patients and Methods Patients were considered incurable, had measurable disease, and were treated with up to two prior cytotoxic regimens. Everolimus was administered orally at 10 mg daily and letrozole was administered orally at 2.5 mg daily. Each cycle consisted of 4 weeks of therapy. Patients were treated until progression, toxicity, or complete response (CR). The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR), which was defined as CR, partial response, or stable disease (≥ 16 weeks) by RECIST 1.0 criteria. Translational studies were performed to correlate biomarkers with response. Results Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (median age, 62 years; range, 24 to 82 years). Thirty-five patients were evaluable for response. The CBR was 40% (14 of 35 patients); the median number of cycles among responders was 15 (range, seven to 29 cycles). The confirmed objective response rate (RR) was 32% (11 of 35 patients; nine CRs and two partial responses; median, 15 cycles; range, eight to 29 cycles). Twenty percent of patients (seven of 35 patients) were taken off treatment after a prolonged CR and at the discretion of the treating clinician. None of the patients discontinued treatment as a result of toxicity. Serous histology was the best predictor of lack of response. Patients with endometrioid histology and CTNNB1 mutations responded well to everolimus and letrozole. Conclusion Everolimus plus letrozole results in a high CBR and RR in patients with recurrent EC. Further development of this combination in recurrent endometrioid EC is under way
Sonoo, Tomohiro; Iwai, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Ryota; Gunshin, Masataka; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu
Along with article-based checklists, structured template recording systems have been reported as useful to create more accurate clinical recording, but their contributions to the improvement of the quality of patient care have been controversial. An emergency department (ED) must manage many patients in a short time. Therefore, such a template might be especially useful, but few ED-based studies have examined such systems.A structured template produced according to widely used head injury guidelines was used by ED residents for head injury patients. The study was conducted by comparing each 6-month period before and after launching the system. The quality of the patient notes and factors recorded in the patient notes to support the head computed tomography (CT) performance were evaluated by medical students blinded to patient information.The subject patients were 188 and 177 in respective periods. The numbers of patient notes categorized as "CT indication cannot be determined" were significantly lower in the postintervention term (18% → 9.0%), which represents the patient note quality improvement. No difference was found in the rates of CT performance or CT skip without clearly recorded CT indication in the patient notes.The structured template functioned as a checklist to support residents in writing more appropriately recorded patient notes in the ED head injury patients. Such a template customized to each clinical condition can facilitate standardized patient management and can improve patient safety in the ED.
Wu, Ching-Ying; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin
The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20-49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996-2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis.
Lu, Chun-Ching; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Wu, Chieh-Hsin
The aim of this study was to investigate osteoporosis risk in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. This study included patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The population-based study included all patients aged 20–49 years who had been diagnosed with AD during 1996–2010. In total, 35,229 age and gender-matched patients without AD in a 1:1 ratio were randomly selected as the non-AD group. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to measure the hazard ratios and the cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. During the follow-up period, 360(1.02%) AD patients and 127(0.36%) non-AD patients developed osteoporosis. The overall incidence of osteoporosis was4.72-fold greater in the AD patients compared to the non-AD patients (1.82 vs. 0.24 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression and use of corticosteroids. The dataset analysis showed that AD was significantly associated with subsequent risk of osteoporosis. PMID:28207767
Schuster, Caroline; Schuller, Anne Marie; Paulos, Carlos; Namer, Izzie; Pull, Charles; Danion, Jean Marie; Foucher, Jack René
Background: Aged patients (>50 years old) with residual schizophrenic symptoms differ from young patients. They represent a subpopulation with a more unfavorable Kraepelinian course and have an increased risk (up to 30%) for dementia of unknown origin. However, our current understanding of age-related brain changes in schizophrenia is derived from studies that included less than 17% of patients who were older than 50 years of age. This study investigated the anatomical distribution of gray matter (GM) brain deficits in aged patients with ongoing schizophrenia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was applied to 3D-T1 magnetic resonance images obtained from 27 aged patients with schizophrenia (mean age of 60 years) and 40 age-matched normal controls. Results: Older patients with schizophrenia showed a bilateral reduction of GM volume in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex, and in a large posterior region centered on the occipito-temporo-parietal junction. Only the latter region showed accelerated GM volume loss with increasing age. None of these results could be accounted for by institutionalization, antipsychotic medication, or cognitive scores. Conclusions: This study replicated most common findings in patients with schizophrenia with regard to thalamic and frontal GM deficits. However, it uncovered an unexpected large region of GM atrophy in the posterior tertiary cortices. The latter observation may be specific to this aged and chronically symptomatic subpopulation, as atrophy in this region is rarely reported in younger patients and is accelerated with age. PMID:21205677
Milne, F J; Hudson, G A; Meyers, A M; Baily, P; Barmeir, E; Dubowitz, B; Reis, P
Ten patients developed fracturing-bone disease (osteomalacia) while on dialysis against water with high levels of aluminium. Eight patients remained on dialysis, using de-ionized or reverse-osmosis water, and 2 received a renal transplant. Clinical improvement as regards bone pain and proximal muscle weakness occurred in 6 months and radiographic evidence of healing of the pseudofractures was seen at approximately 12 months. Associated osteopenia and hyperparathyroidism were found in most patients, but no significant change in either was noted during the study period. The serum parathyroid hormone levels rose significantly in the patients who remained on dialysis. The chest and pelvic deformities typical of healed osteomalacia were seen. This dramatic improvement can only be attributed to the removal of some water-borne element, either by changing the water used in the dialysis or by successful renal transplantation. Aluminium-containing phosphate binders were used throughout the study in the patients on dialysis, and hypophosphataemia was never a feature.
Mosaad, Naglaa Abd Elrahman; Lotfy, Hala Mohamed; Farag, Yomna Mohamed; Mahfouz, Rasha Hossam El-Din; Shahin, Rasha Mohamad Hosny
The aim of the study was to assess the serum levels of Syndecan-1 in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients and to study any possible associations with disease activity, renal activity and organ damage. Serum level of Syndecan-1 was assessed in 60 Egyptian JSLE patients and 30 apparently healthy age and gender matched children using ELISA. SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K), renal SLEDAI-2K, renal activity score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index were assessed for all patients. Serum SDC-1 levels were higher in patients with JSLE than in healthy controls (p<0.001) and were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K (p<0.001), with renal SLEDAI score (p=0.008) and renal activity score (p=0.04). So, Syndecan-1 might be used as a marker for disease activity and renal activity in JSLE patients.
Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef; Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad
Goal: The goal of this study was to measure the percentage of patients who exhibited communication disorders in the Speech and Hearing Clinic (HSC) at the University of Jordan (UJ); percentages were examined by patient age and gender. Method: The profiles of 1,140 patients who presented with communication disorders were studied. Patients attended…
Kronenberg, Florian; Neyer, Ulrich; Knoll, Florian; Lhotta, Karl; Weiss, Günter
Background Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting. Methods In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study) we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (<0.5 mg/dL) and elevated CRP levels (≧0.5 mg/dL) was evaluated by using non-linear P-splines to allow flexible modeling of the association. Results One hundred and ninety-one (81.3%) patients received intravenous iron, 13 (5.5%) patients oral iron, whereas 31 (13.2%) patients were never supplemented with iron throughout the observation period. Eighty-two (35%) patients died during a median follow-up of 34 months, 38 patients due to cardiovascular events and 21 patients from sepsis. Baseline CRP levels were not different between patients with and without iron supplementation. However, baseline serum ferritin levels were lower in patients receiving iron during follow up (median 93 vs 251 ng/mL, p<0.001). Iron supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced all-cause mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.22 (0.08–0.58); p = 0.002] and a reduced cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.31 (0.09–1.04); p = 0.06]. Increasing ferritin concentrations in patients with normal CRP were associated with a decreasing mortality, whereas in patients with elevated CRP values ferritin levels>800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality. Conclusions Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels
Ko, Byuk Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Seo, Dong-Woo; Kim, Won Young; Lee, Jae Ho; Sheikh, Aziz; Bates, David W
Although adrenaline (epinephrine) is a cornerstone of initial anaphylaxis treatment, it is not often used. We sought to assess whether use of adrenaline in hemodynamically stable patients with anaphylaxis could prevent the development of hypotension. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 761 adult patients with anaphylaxis presenting to the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care hospital over a 10-year period. We divided the patients into two groups according to the occurrence of hypotension and compared demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatments and outcomes. Of the 340 patients with anaphylaxis who were normotensive at first presentation, 40 patients experienced hypotension during their ED stay. The ED stay of the hypotension group was significantly longer than that of patients who did not experience hypotension (496 min vs 253 min, P = 0.000). Adrenaline use in hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis patient was independently associated with a lower risk of developing in-hospital occurrence of hypotension: OR, 0.254 [95% CI, 0.091-0.706]. Adrenaline use in hemodynamically stable anaphylaxis patients was associated with a reduced risk of developing in-hospital occurrence of hypotension. Adverse events induced by adrenaline were rare when the intramuscular route was used.
The clinical effect of imiquimod stems from cytokine-induced activation of the immune system. A randomized study was conducted to study the efficacy and safety of daily applications of 5% imiquimod cream in female patients with external genital warts and molluscum contagiosum (MC). The clearance rate of lesions was 75% in genital MC patients and 50% in patients with genital warts. Erythema was the commonest adverse reaction seen in 24% patients with the use of 5% imiquimod. Other side effects were excoriation seen in 16% patients, erosions in 10% patients, excoriation in 6% patients and pain was seen in 4% patients. PMID:21938126
clinical diagnosis of portal hypertension is the determination of the different hemodynamic changes and, in particular, the determination of the rate...clinical data induced us to share some of our experience accumulated in studying hemodynamic changes in patients with portal hypertension » Beginning...in 1954 we directed our principal attention to determining the rate of portal blood flow in studying hemodynamic changes in patients with portal
Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Medas, Fabio; Loi, Giulia; Erdas, Enrico; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of unilateral parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or discordant localization studies. We included in our study 72 patients with preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism who had negative or discordant preoperative studies. In 66 patients, studies were discordant while in six were both negative. In 40 (55.6 %) patients initial approach was a bilateral exploration. In 32 cases (44.4 %) initial surgery was a unilateral exploration: in 26 conservative approach was successful, in six mini-invasive surgery failed and a bilateral exploration was necessary due to IOPTH negative test (five cases) or to the impossibility to find a pathological gland during exploration (one case). Intra-operative PTH test showed a sensitivity of 93.2 %, a specificity of 92.3 %, and an accuracy of 93.1 %. Multiple gland disease was found in 8 (11.1 %) patients (two double adenoma and six multiple gland hyperplasia). Mean operative time was lower in unilateral exploration group (87.9 ± 43.8 min). Comparing unilateral surgery in negative or discordant studies with 77 consecutive patients who underwent focused surgery with positive and concordant studies, conversion to bilateral exploration rate was statistically significantly higher in the first group (15.6 %). We believe that unilateral parathyroidectomy can be safely performed also in patients with discordant localization studies with a high cure rate; in these cases, however, the use of intra-operative PTH is absolutely necessary. We suggest the need for referral of these patients to high-volume medical centers for thyroid and parathyroid surgery.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra; Alberto Guido-Arreola, Carlos
The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in patients suffering from liver disease has been poorly studied. Information about risk factors associated with infection in liver disease patients may help in the optimal planning of preventive measures. We sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence and patients with liver diseases, and to determine the characteristics of the patients with Leptospira exposure. We performed a case-control study of 75 patients suffering from liver diseases and 150 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Diagnoses of liver disease included liver cirrhosis, steatosis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and amoebic liver abscess. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 17 (22.7%) of 75 patients and in 15 (10.0%) of 150 control subjects (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.09-4.94; P=0.03). This is the first age- and gender-matched case control study about Leptospira seroprevalence in patients with liver diseases. Results indicate that Leptospira infection is associated with chronic and acute liver diseases. Results warrants for additional studies on the role of Leptospira exposure in chronic liver disease. PMID:27493589
Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Månsson, Nils-Ove; Ringsberg, Karin A; Håkansson, Anders
The objective of this study is to investigate whether vestibular rehabilitation can improve balance, reduce self-perceived handicap because of dizziness and, if possible, reduce falls among dizzy patients in primary healthcare. The study also finds out which of the balance measures and measure of self-perceived handicap, if any, predicted the risk of falls. The design of this study is an intervention study with control group. Fifty-eight patients, 65 years and older, with multisensory dizziness were taken as participants. The intervention group trained vestibular rehabilitation twice a week for 9 weeks. All patients were assessed at baseline and after 3 months, with four different balance measures and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. After 6, 9 and 12 months, a follow-up by telephone was performed and, at 12 months, the patients also filled out a Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups between baseline and 3 months in one static balance measure and in one dynamic measure (P=0.038 and 0.044). In total, 40 falls were reported, 31 were classified as intrinsic falls, 26 of them caused by vertigo and nine falls were classified as extrinsic. No difference was found between the two groups in proportions of patients who fell. Poor ability to stand in tandem stance doubled the risk for falls. Vestibular rehabilitation can improve balance in elderly patients with multisensory dizziness. Vertigo is a common cause of falls in this group of patients and vestibular rehabilitation is a feasible treatment.
Parlatescu, Ioanina; Gheorghe, Carmen; Tovaru, Mihaela; Costache, Mariana; Sardella, Andrea
Objective: In this retrospective study, patients’ medical records were reviewed to investigate the profiles of 633 OLP cases in a group of Romania. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the following clinical data were obtained from the medical charts of patients: gender, age, clinical presentation of OLP, site affected, presence of symptoms, extraoral manifestations of lichen planus, presence of systemic diseases, and history of medications. Results: Most (78.67%) OLP patients were female and the mean age at presentation was 52 years. The white type of the disease (reticular/papular/plaque lesions) was the main form encountered in this sample (48.97%). Among patients with available hepatitis C virus test results, 9.6% were serum-positive. OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (i.e. cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Six patients (0.95%) developed squamous cell carcinoma at a site with confirmed OLP lesions. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, no similar study has been conducted in a Romanian population. The present investigation revealed the predominance of OLP among middle-aged white women and the prevalence of bilateral involvement of the buccal mucosa with reticular white lesions. Anti-HCV circulating antibodies were more common in patients with OLP than in the general population and, notably, OLP was associated with gallbladder disease (cholecystitis, cholelithiasis) in 19% of patients. Key words:Oral lichen planus, oral mucosal diseases, retrospective study. PMID:23229244
McElhiney, Martin; Rabkin, Judith; Van Gorp, Wilfred; Rabkin, Richard
Both mild cognitive impairment and fatigue are common among people with HIV/AIDS. This study examined the efficacy of modafinil for HIV+ patients who sought treatment for fatigue in a placebo-controlled double blind 4-week trial. A battery of standard neuropsychological tests was administered at study entry and Week 4, and change in performance was compared for 59 patients receiving modafinil vs. 44 patients receiving placebo. A significant effect on fatigue was observed. In addition, cognitive performance, as measured by a global change score, improved more in the modafinil than placebo group although the effect was not specific to any cognitive domain. PMID:19937504
Hassanein, Khaled; Yuan, Yufei
Background Patients have been increasingly seeking and using Internet health information to become more active in managing their own health in a partnership with their physicians. This trend has both positive and negative effects on the interactions between patients and their physicians. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact that the increasing use of Internet health information has on the patient-physician relationship and patients’ compliance with their treatment regimens. Objective This study examines the impact of patients’ use of Internet health information on various elements that characterize the interactions between a patient and her/his physician through a theoretical model based on principal-agent theory and the information asymmetry perspective. Methods A survey-based study consisting of 225 participants was used to validate a model through various statistical techniques. A full assessment of the measurement model and structural model was completed in addition to relevant post hoc analyses. Results This research revealed that both patient-physician concordance and perceived information asymmetry have significant effects on patient compliance, with patient-physician concordance exhibiting a considerably stronger relationship. Additionally, both physician quality and Internet health information quality have significant effects on patient-physician concordance, with physician quality exhibiting a much stronger relationship. Finally, only physician quality was found to have a significant impact on perceived information asymmetry, whereas Internet health information quality had no impact on perceived information asymmetry. Conclusions Overall, this study found that physicians can relax regarding their fears concerning patient use of Internet health information because physician quality has the greatest impact on patients and their physician coming to an agreement on their medical situation and recommended treatment regimen as well as
Hanon, Olivier; Chaussade, Edouard; Gueranger, Pierre; Gruson, Elise; Bonan, Sabrina; Gay, Alain
Background For antithrombotic treatments, Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) and patient satisfaction with treatment are essential data for physicians because of the strong relationship between patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment. The impact of rivaroxaban on patient satisfaction and quality of life was not sufficiently documented in phase III studies. There is a need for further data in this field especially in real life conditions. Methods The SAFARI study is composed of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), previously treated with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and switched to rivaroxaban. Patient satisfaction with anticoagulant therapy was measured by the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS), a validated 15-item patient-reported scale including a 12-item ACTS Burdens scale and a 3-item ACTS Benefits scale. Satisfaction of medication was compared between baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months. Results Study population was composed of 405 patients. Mean age was 74.8 (standard deviation = 9.0) years and 63.0% were male. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.4 (1.5) and mean HAS-BLED score was 2.9 (1.0). After 3 months of treatment with rivaroxaban, patient satisfaction improved compared with VKA: mean ACTS burdens scores significantly increased by 8.3 (8.9) points (p<0.0001) and ACTS benefits scale by 0.4 (2.9) (p<0.001). Compared with baseline, the improvement in ACTS burdens and benefits became apparent at 1 month (46.5 vs. 53.6 p<0.001 and 10.4 vs. 10.7, p<0.05 respectively) and persisted at 6 months (46.5 vs. 54.76 p<0.001 and 10.4 vs. 10.8 p = 0.02 respectively). Rivaroxaban persistence was 88.7% at 6 months. Conclusions SAFARI data support a good risk-benefit balance for rivaroxaban, with a good safety profile and encourage PRO design studies. The switch from VKA to rivaroxaban improved patient satisfaction at 1, 3 and 6 months after rivaroxaban initiation among patients with AF, particularly in reducing patient-reported anticoagulation burden. PMID:27935987
Seys, Patrick; Tadmouri, Abir; Senesse, Pierre; Radji, Abderraouf; Rotarski, Maciej; Balian, Axel; Culine, Stéphane; Dufour, Patrick; Chambrier, Cécile
Malnutrition is a bad prognostic factor that reduces the quality of life (QoL) in patients with cancer. The objective was to assess the impact of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) on the QoL of elderly malnourished patients with cancer. This French prospective observational study included patients, aged 70 years or older, with cancer, for whom HPN was prescribed for at least 14 days. The patient, the physician and a family member or home caregiver had to fill in a questionnaire at inclusion and 28 days later. Included patients (n = 221) were mainly suffering from a digestive cancer. After HPN intake, improved weight was noticed in 68% and 14% of patients had reached the target weight. Improved global QoL was reported in 59% of patients. Physicians noticed a significant improvement for the same compounds. These results suggest a benefit of the HPN on the nutritional status and QoL in elderly patients with cancer. Further controlled randomised trials are needed to prove the benefit of HPN in the routine management of these patients.
Pierelli, F; Soldati, G; Zambardi, P; Garrubba, C; Spadaro, M; Tilia, G; Pauri, F; Morocutti, C
One hundred-twenty nine HIV-1 seropositive patients (39 females, 90 males) were studied by means of pattern visual evoked potential (VEP) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) recording. Utilizing the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control the patients were clinically defined and then subdivided into four groups: group A included patients of category II (n:11); group B patients of category III (n:29); group C patients of category IVa and IVc2 (n:55) and group D patients belonging to the other subgroups of category IV (n:34). EP were altered in 26.35% of the entire group with a marked prevalence of BAEP alterations (21.7%) rather than of VEP (4.65%). A considerable amount of BAEP abnormalities (24.13%) were found in patients with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (group B). A significant increase of BAEP mean interpeak latencies were observed in group B, C, D patients when compared with those of the control group. On the whole, EP were altered in 20.65% of the neurologically asymptomatic patients. EP alterations may precede any clinical manifestation and can be found during the earlier phases of HIV-1 infection.
Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.
In patients with chronic diseases, expectations of care are associated with clinical outcomes. Using open-ended interviews, we elicited the expectations of treatment in 93 hypertensive African-American patients. During routine clinic visits, patients were asked, "What are your expectations of the treatment your doctor prescribed for your high blood pressure?" Their responses were explored with the probes: Do you expect to take your blood pressure medications for the rest of your life? Do you expect to take your medications daily regardless of symptoms? Do you expect a cure for your high blood pressure? Using standard qualitative techniques, patients' responses were grouped into a taxonomy of three categories of expectations reflecting patients' role, physicians' role, and medication effects. They expected to take active role in their treatment, especially as it relates to adoption of healthy behaviors. They expected their physicians to educate them about blood pressure treatment, and they expected medications to lower their blood pressure and prevent heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure. Despite such appropriate expectations, a considerable proportion of patients had nonbiomedical expectations of their treatment-38% expected a cure, 38% did not expect to take their medications for life and 23% take medications only with symptoms. The taxonomy of patient expectations outlined in this study may serve as a useful framework for patient education and counseling about hypertension and its management in this patient population. PMID:15101664
Sagaspe, Patricia; Philip, Pierre; Schwartz, Sophie
The aim of this study was to assess with a stop task the inhibitory motor control efficiency--a major component of executive control functions--in patients suffering from sleep disorders. Twenty-two patients with untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) (mean age 46 +/- 9 years; mean apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 30 +/- 20) and 13 patients with psychophysiological insomnia (mean age 47 +/- 12 years) were compared with individually matched healthy controls. Sleep disturbances in the patient populations were clinically and polysomnographically diagnosed. The stop task has a frequent visual 'Go' stimulus to set up a response tendency and a less frequent auditory 'Stop' signal to withhold the planned or prepotent response. The stop signal reaction time (SSRT) reflects the time to internally suppress the ongoing response. SSRT was slower for the apneic patients than for their respective controls (248 +/- 107 versus 171 +/- 115 ms, anova, P < 0.05) but not for the insomniac patients compared with their controls (235 +/- 112 versus 194 +/- 109 ms, NS). Moreover, in apneic patients, slower SSRT was associated with lower nocturnal oxygen saturation (r = -0.477, P < 0.05). By contrast, neither apneics nor insomniacs differed from their matched controls for reaction times on Go trials. To conclude, unlike insomniacs, OSAS patients present an impaired inhibitory motor control, an executive function which is required in many common everyday life situations. Inhibitory motor control relies on the integrity of the inferior prefrontal cortex, which could be affected by nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in apneic patients.
Li, Muyan; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunlei; Huang, Qiaoying; Lei, Danqing; Hu, Yanling
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases. However, its pathogenesis is unclear. We aim to explore the potential relationships between serum macroelements/microelements and PCOS. A total of 1137 women were involved in the current study. PCOS was defined according to ESHRE/ASRM, and complete blood samples were collected. Serum macroelements (calcium and magnesium) and microelements (copper, zinc, and iron) were assayed through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PCOS patients had significantly higher copper concentrations than patients without PCOS (P < 0.001). By contrast, PCOS patients had lower serum calcium levels than patients without PCOS (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the levels of serum zinc, magnesium, and iron between PCOS and non-PCOS patients. PCOS patients with acne had higher magnesium levels than those without acne (P = 0.020), and PCOS patients with hirsutism had lower magnesium levels than those without hirsutism (P = 0.037). High serum copper and low calcium levels may be correlated with PCOS. Magnesium concentrations are correlated with acne and hirsutism in PCOS patients. These results provide clues to explore the mechanism of PCOS and guidance for element treatments in PCOS patients.
Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha
Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621
Kawai, Hiroko; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Arakaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kuniaki; Kawachi, Juro
We never forget how to ride a bicycle, and it is thought that procedural memories are retained for a long time. Recently, it was reported that patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type(DAT) could not only acquire, but also retain, long-lasting procedural memories. Previous group studies had shown procedural memory retention times of only 1 month in DAT patients, while amnesic patients and healthy people could retain such memories for 12 months. The relationship between the ability to retain procedural memory and the stage of the disease is not clear, as to date there has been no longitudinal study of procedural memory retention in DAT patients. Thus, we examined DAT patients' ability to retain long-term procedural memories (after 1, 5 and 20 months), and analyzed the relationship between procedural memory ability and the progress of disease. Motor-type procedural memory was examined using the mirror tracing task and the bi-manual coordinated tracing task. All three of the DAT patients showed improvement in their performance. The time required for the tracing was reduced between trials, and the improvement did not disappear between sessions, or rather, their times further decreased in subsequent sessions. Even the most severe DAT patient (Mini Mental State Examination(MMSE) score of 4) was able to acquire the procedural memory and retain it for at least 3 months. Furthermore, one of the subjects showed retention of the procedural memory at 20 months. Our results suggest that DAT patients can retain procedural memories for extended periods, with no relationship between retention ability and disease progression. It is possible for even severely demented patients to acquire and retain motor-type procedural memories. Cognitive rehabilitation in DAT appears to be effective, and it is possible for DAT patients to learn new things. It may be that DAT patients can ameliorate their quality of life by using retained procedural memory.
Huis in ’t Veld, Rianne M.H.A.; Schönauer, Christian; Kaufmann, Hannes; Hermens, Hermie J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M.R.
Abstract Introduction Over recent years, the popularity of videogames has gone beyond youth and gamers and is slowly entering the field of professional healthcare. Exergames are an attractive alternative to physical therapy. The primary aim of this pilot study was to explore the user experience (usability, satisfaction, level of motivation, and game experience) of the patient with the “PlayMancer” exergame. The secondary aim was to explore the progression of the performed motor skills (walking velocity, overhead reach ability, and cervical range of motion) and the clinical changes (to physical condition, disability, and pain intensity) in a group of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain using an exergame for 4 weeks. Materials and Methods In the European PlayMancer project, an exergame for physical rehabilitation of chronic pain patients was developed. This exergame is controlled by relevant motions of the patient's body captured by a motion suit and several infrared cameras. In three different integrated minigames, the patient can train the following motor skills: Walking velocity, overhead reaching, and neck mobility. Results Ten patients participated in this study and completed the 4 weeks of gaming. Patients rated the usability of the exergames as good (score of 78.5 [standard deviation 9.7; range, 60.0–97.5]) on the System Usability Scale, and the game motivated all patients to perform their exercises. Patients enjoyed playing and were pleased with both the game environment and the game play. Overall, the patients made a progression in the examined motor skills during the minigames over the 4 weeks of gaming. Conclusions The “PlayMancer” exergame is a potential tool for achieving physical rehabilitation because it motivates patients to perform their exercises and as a result increases their motor skills and physical condition. PMID:24761327
Grigorescu, Alexandru C.
Objectives First objective was better understanding of the indications of chemotherapy in elderly with advanced cancer, tolerability and toxicity of chemotherapy in this age group. The second objective was to define current practice in chemotherapy for elderly people with advanced cancer for a selected group of patients treated in Institute of Oncology Bucharest (IOB). Materials and Methods The study makes a clinical analysis of medical records of 27 patients from the archive of Institute of Oncology Bucharest treated by the same doctor. Patients were selected according to: age ≥ 65 years, ECOG performance status 0–1, normal blood counts and blood biochemistry, histological confirmation of the diagnosis of cancer, patients should received at least 3 cycles of chemotherapy. We extract characteristics of the patients to see if they were a homogeneous group of patients and to compare them with data from the literature. Overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan Meyer curve. Results 295 patients more then 65 years were treated in our site in 2 years 2011, 2012. 93 patients received chemotherapy and only 27 patients were enrolled in this study following inclusion criteria. Common sites of cancer were lung and breast. The most used cytostatics for lung cancer was gemcitabine and carboplatine and cyclophosphamide, metotrexat and 5 fluorouracil for breast cancer. Toxicity was mild with the prevalence of hematologic toxicity. Overall survival without taking into account the type of cancer was 27.7 month. Conclusions For selected patients, chemotherapy was well tolerated and appears to prolong survival regardless of the location of cancer. The relatively small number of elderly patients who received chemotherapy is probably due to lack of compliance to treatment, the increased number of co-morbidities and evaluation of performance status only by the ECOG index known not to be good enough to establish the indication of chemotherapy. PMID:27847881
Kriz, Jan; Reinartz, Gabriele; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Kuhnert, Georg; Haverkamp, Heinz; Haverkamp, Uwe; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Herfarth, Klaus; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Hegerfeld, Kira; Baues, Christian; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor
Purpose: To determine, in the setting of advanced-stage of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), whether relapses occur in the irradiated planning target volume and whether the definition of local radiation therapy (RT) used by the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) is adequate, because there is no harmonization of field and volume definitions among the large cooperative groups in the treatment of advanced-stage HL. Methods and Materials: All patients with residual disease of ≥2.5 cm after multiagent chemotherapy (CTX) were evaluated using additional positron emission tomography (PET), and those with a PET-positive result were irradiated with 30 Gy to the site of residual disease. We re-evaluated all sites of disease before and after CTX, as well as the PET-positive residual tumor that was treated in all relapsed patients. Documentation of radiation therapy (RT), treatment planning procedures, and portal images were carefully analyzed and compared with the centrally recommended RT prescription. The irradiated sites were compared with sites of relapse using follow-up computed tomography scans. Results: A total of 2126 patients were enrolled, and 225 patients (11%) received RT. Radiation therapy documents of 152 irradiated patients (68%) were analyzed, with 28 irradiated patients (11%) relapsing subsequently. Eleven patients (39%) had an in-field relapse, 7 patients (25%) relapsed outside the irradiated volume, and an additional 10 patients (36%) showed mixed in- and out-field relapses. Of 123 patients, 20 (16%) with adequately performed RT relapsed, compared with 7 of 29 patients (24%) with inadequate RT. Conclusions: The frequency and pattern of relapses suggest that local RT to PET-positive residual disease is sufficient for patients in advanced-stage HL. Insufficient safety margins of local RT may contribute to in-field relapses.
Guarini, Alessandra; Biagini, Silvia; Capaldi, Antonella; Carretto, Daniela; Angelis, Anna De; Iudice, Salvatore; Martino, Giuseppina; Marziali, Barbara; Mattiola, Roberta; Ongarelli, Cristina; Onidi, Francesca Maria; Prinzio, Manuela; Puthiavettil, Reetha; Sardi, Romina; Schiavoni, Elisa; Sinatora, Rita; Zullo, Angelo
Background The satisfaction perceived by patients with chronic diseases affects clinical outcomes and healthcare costs. Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develop a more severe form requiring biologic therapy. We assessed the quality of care perceived by IBD patients in dedicated centers. Methods This prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study enrolled consecutive IBD patients who underwent biologic therapy in the participating centers. The nurses directly involved in the management of these patients explained the rationale of the survey, provided a specific questionnaire (CACHE), and collected data. The CACHE included 31 items structured in 6 domains: staff care, clinician care, center facilities, patient information, accessibility, and patient support. Patients’ satisfaction score for each domain ranged from 0 to 100%. Results Sixteen different Italian centers participated and a total of 450 patients were enrolled (283 with Crohn’s disease and 167 with ulcerative colitis). The overall score was 82.2±19.6, satisfaction with the clinicians care scoring the highest (87.6±3.2) and the information provided to the patient scoring the lowest (70.7±7.9). More specifically, it emerged that 5.2-19.5% of patients were unsatisfied with: 1) the communication between the IBD medical team and primary care physicians; 2) information received about the disease or patients’ associations; and 3) the accessibility of the center. Conclusion Although our data revealed an acceptably high rate of global satisfaction among IBD patients receiving biologic therapy, more effort should be made to improve patient information and communication between IBD teams, other specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:28042244
Bardgett, Michelle; Lally, Joanne; Malviya, Ajay; Deehan, David
Objective An increasing number of patients in the working population are undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for end-stage osteoarthritis. The timing and success of return to work is becoming increasingly important for this group of patients with social and economic implications for patients, employers and society. There is limited understanding of the patient variables that determine the ability to return to work. Our objective was (from the patient's perspective) to gain an insight into the factors influencing return to work following knee replacement. Setting and participants This qualitative study was undertaken in a secondary-care setting in a large teaching hospital in the north of England. Semistructured interviews were carried out with 10 patients regarding their experiences of returning to work following TKR. Outcomes Interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative thematic approach to identify the factors influencing return to work from the patient's perspective. Results Three themes were identified that influenced the process of return to work, from the patient's perspective. These were delays in surgical intervention, limited and often inconsistent advice from healthcare professionals regarding return to work, and finally the absence of rehabilitation to optimise patient's recovery and facilitate return to work. Conclusions There is currently no consistent process to optimise return to work for patients of working age after TKR. The impact of delayed surgical intervention, limited advice regarding return to work, and a lack of work-focused rehabilitation, all contribute to potential delays in successful return to work. There is a need to change the focus of healthcare provision for this cohort of patients, and provide a tailored healthcare intervention to optimise patient outcomes. PMID:26832426
Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Tschulena, Ulrich; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Weisshaar, Elke
Chronic itch is a common symptom in haemodialysis (HD) patients, which is often underestimated. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with chronic itch in HD patients. A total of 860 HD patients from a randomly selected cluster-sample of patients attending dialysis units in Germany were included. The patients' mean?±?SD age was 67.2?±?13.5 years, 57.2% were male. The point prevalence of chronic itch was 25.2% (95% CI 22.4-28.1), 12-month prevalence was 27.2% (95% CI 24.1-30.3) and lifetime prevalence was 35.2% (95% CI 31.9-38.3). Chronic itch was significantly less prevalent in patients with secondary glomerulonephritis as primary renal disease. A history of dry skin, eczema, and age 70 years were significantly associated with chronic itch. General health status and quality of life were significantly more impaired in subjects with chronic itch. This is the first representative cross-sectional study using a precise definition of chronic itch and using different prevalence estimates of chronic itch in HD patients. It demonstrates that chronic itch is a long-lasting burden significantly impairing patients' health.
Castilla-Puentes, Ruby C; Secin, Ricardo; Grau, Arturo; Galeno, Roxanna; Feijo de Mello, Marcelo; Pena, Nuri; Sanchez-Russi, Carlos A
This multicenter study estimated the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among emergency department patients in Latin America. To identify patients with MDD, we used a combination of DSM IV- criteria interview and a questionnaire screen including the center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. We analyzed data from consecutive adult patients from hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico and described the demographic and health status differences between MDD and non-MDD patients. Prevalence of MDD ranges from 23.0 to 35.0%. The estimates are based on a total of 1,835 patients aged 18 years and over, with response rates of 83.0%. Compared to non-MDD patients, MDD patients were more likely to be middle-aged, female, smokers, of lower socioeconomic status, and to report a diagnosis of asthma or arthritis/rheumatism. Multivariate analysis identified a lower level of education, smoking, and self-reported anxiety, chronic fatigue, and back problems to be independently associated with MDD. Our data suggest that the prevalence of MDD is elevated among emergency department patients in Latin American countries. The integration of depression screening into routine emergency care merits serious consideration, especially if such screening can be linked to psychiatric treatment.
Baek, J H; Kim, J G; Jeon, S B; Chae, Y S; Kim, D H; Sohn, S K; Lee, K B; Choi, Y J; Shin, H J; Chung, J S; Cho, G J; Jung, H Y; Yu, W
The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination regimen of capecitabine plus irinotecan in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Patients with previously untreated metastatic or recurrent, measurable gastric cancer received oral capecitabine 1000 mg m−2 twice daily from day 1 to 14 and intravenous irinotecan 100 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8, based on a 3-week cycle. Forty-one patients were enrolled in the current study, among whom 38 were assessable for efficacy and 40 assessable for toxicity. Three complete responses and 16 partial responses were confirmed, giving an overall response rate of 46.3%. At a median follow-up of 269 days, the median time to progression and overall survival were 5.1 and 8.6 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in four patients and grade 3 febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients. Grade 3 diarrhoea and grade 2 hand–foot syndrome occurred in six patients and eight patients, respectively. The combination of capecitabine and irinotecan was found to be well tolerated and effective in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Accordingly, this regimen can be regarded as one of first-line treatment options for advanced gastric cancer. PMID:16641916
Font, Carme; Carmona-Bayonas, Alberto; Plasencia, Juana M; Calvo-Temprano, David; Sánchez, Marcelo; Jiménez-Fonseca, Paula; Beato, Carmen; Biosca, Mercè; Vicente, Vicente; Otero, Remedios
Pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Having cancer is an independent risk factor for death in the general series of patients with PE and is included as a variable in the prognostic scales of acute symptomatic PE. This fact limits the discriminatory power of these general scales for patients with cancer and has prompted the development of specific prognostic tools: POMPE-C and a scale derived from the RIETE registry. Whether the increased risk of death by PE in patients with cancer is due to complications related to the neoplasm or to a greater severity of the thromboembolic episode in this population has not been well studied. Moreover, the introduction of computed multidetector tomography in recent years has led to a growing diagnosis of incidental PE, which currently represents up to half of pulmonary embolisms in patients with cancer. The EPIPHANY study attempts to further the understanding of the characteristics of pulmonary embolisms in patients with cancer by including incidental and symptomatic events. Its primary objectives are a) to understand the clinical and epidemiological patterns of pulmonary embolism associated with cancer and b) to develop and validate a specific prognosis model for PE in this population. The registry includes variables of interest to oncology (cancer type and extent, oncospecific treatments, patient's functional condition, cancer progression), radiological variables (thrombotic burden, signs of ventricular overload and other findings), location of treatment (hospital or outpatient), acute complications and causes of death in patients with PE associated with cancer.
AZIZAM, Nor Azmaniza; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadija
Background: There is growing interest in research on patient satisfaction with healthcare provider (HCP) communication as a measure of healthcare quality and HCPs’ communication competency. This study aimed to determine the levels of patient satisfaction with healthcare provider-patient communication (HCP-PC) and its associated factors at the outpatient clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample in July 2012 using self-administered questionnaires for the data collection. Both overall and domain-specific satisfaction were measured, with the three domains being exchanging information (EI), socio-emotional behaviour (SB), and communication style (CS). Results: The findings show that 92.8% of the 283 respondents were satisfied with overall HCP-PC, 89.5% with EI, 91.3% with SB, and 72.2% with CS. Satisfaction was statistically higher among Malays for CS and higher among those with low education and poor health for EI, SB and CS. EI and overall communication satisfaction were also higher among patients who reported short wait times, and patients who were in gender concordance with their HCPs showed higher SB satisfaction. Conclusion: Basic and continuous communication skills training and patient activation programs should be established to increase patient satisfaction. Health information technology use should be actively promoted to allow for structured and standardised information exchange between HCPs and patients. PMID:26715897
Lee, Chun-Feng; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lin, Hui-Tzu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wang, Tang-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Hung
This study determined whether there is an increased risk of tinnitus in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We used information from health insurance claims obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance (TNHI). Patients aged 20 years and older who were newly diagnosed with TMJ disorder served as the study cohort. The demographic factors and comorbidities that may be associated with tinnitus were also identified, including age, sex, and comorbidities of hearing loss, noise effects on the inner ear, and degenerative and vascular ear disorders. A higher proportion of TMJ disorder patients suffered from hearing loss (5.30 vs. 2.11 %), and degenerative and vascular ear disorders (0.20 vs. 0.08 %) compared with the control patients. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of tinnitus in the TMJ disorder cohort was 2.73-fold higher than that in the control patients, with an adjusted HR of 2.62 (95 % CI = 2.29-3.00). The comorbidity-specific TMJ disorder cohort to the control patients' adjusted HR of tinnitus was higher for patients without comorbidity (adjusted HR = 2.75, 95 % CI = 2.39-3.17). We also observed a 3.22-fold significantly higher relative risk of developing tinnitus within the 3-year follow-up period (95 % CI = 2.67-3.89). Patients with TMJ disorder might be at increased risk of tinnitus.
Campagna, Sara; Antonielli D'Oulx, Maria Delfina; Paradiso, Rosetta; Perretta, Laura; Re Viglietti, Silvia; Berchialla, Paola; Dimonte, Valerio
Background. Because of economic reasons, day surgery rates have steadily increased in many countries and the trend is to perform around 70% of all surgical procedures as day surgery. Literature shows that postoperative pain treatment remains unfulfilled in several fields such as orthopedic and general surgery patients. In Italy, the day surgery program is not yet under governmental authority and is managed regionally by local practices. Aim. To investigate the trends in pain intensity and its relation to type of surgeries and pain therapy protocols, in postoperative patients, discharged from three different Ambulatory Surgeries located in North West Italy (Piedmont region). Method. The present study enrolled 276 patients who undergone different surgical procedures in ambulatory regimen. Patients recorded postoperative pain score twice a day, compliance with prescribed drugs, and pain related reasons for contacting the hospital. Monitoring lasted for 7 days. Results. At discharge, 72% of patients were under weak opioids, 12% interrupted the treatment due to side effects, 17% of patients required extra drugs, and 15% contacted the hospital reporting pain problems. About 50% of patients experienced moderate pain during the first day after surgery. Results from our study show that most of the patients experienced avoidable pain after discharge.
Booth, Christopher M; Clemons, Mark; Dranitsaris, George; Joy, Anil; Young, Scott; Callaghan, Walter; Trudeau, Maureen; Petrella, Teresa
Despite advances in the prevention and treatment of emesis, nausea and vomiting are still considered by patients to be among the most severe and feared adverse effects of chemotherapy for breast cancer. There is, however, a paucity of prospective data documenting the prevalence and severity of emesis in patients with breast cancer in the era of modern antiemetics. This prospective multicenter study evaluated chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with breast cancer. Patients were given a daily diary to record the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting during the first 5 days following chemotherapy. Data were collected until either the cessation of chemotherapy or the administration of a maximum of 6 cycles of treatment. Data are available from 143 patients who received a total of 766 cycles of chemotherapy. Prevalence rates of any nausea or any vomiting were, respectively, 37% and 13% at 24 hours and 70% and 15% during days 2-5. Severe emesis was reported by fewer than 10% of patients. Risk factors associated with CINV included age younger than 40 years, nausea expectation, not eating before treatment, and low alcohol use. The prevalence of severe CINV for breast cancer was relatively low compared with the prevalence reported in the literature. As a result of the observational design of this study, the results may better reflect the "true" prevalence of nausea and vomiting than do estimates from previously reported randomized controlled trials. Several patient characteristics that predict which patients are at increased risk of developing severe symptoms were identified.
Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Christodoulou, Christos; Sgontzou, Themis; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, George; Liordou, Fotini; Zakopoulou, Nikoletta; Zouridaki, Eftychia
Chronic leg ulcers are a public health problem that can have a significant impact on the patient's physical, socioeconomic and psychological status. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients suffering from leg ulcers. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), respectively. The mean DLQI score was 13·38 ± 2·59, suggesting a serious effect on the quality of life of patients. Those with leg ulcers had statistically significant higher scores according to the HADS-total scale (P = 0·031) and HADS-anxiety subscale (P = 0·015) compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (P = 0·029). Female patients presented with a higher score of anxiety (P = 0·027) and social isolation (P = 0·048), and worse quality of life (P = 0·018) than male patients. A severe quality of life impairment was documented, reflecting a significant psychosocial impact on patients with leg ulcers.
Kashiwa, Koichi; Nishimura, Takashi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Tamai, Hisayoshi; Baba, Atsushi; Ono, Minoru; Takamoto, Shinichi; Kyo, Shunei
Clinical introduction of implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) is expected to encourage VAD therapy for severe heart failure patients in Japan. Since even minor device malfunctions can lead to serious outcomes in these patients, it is very important to collect and analyze data on device malfunctions occurring during their use at home. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze such data from 9 patients with implanted VADs (EVAHEART™, 4 patients; Jarvik2000, 3 patients; Duraheart™, 2 patients) living at home, within the framework of a clinical trial carried out at our hospital. During the home stay period of 449 ± 253 days (range 12-801 days, total 4044 days), the total number of device malfunctions was 31 (0.31 events/patient/year). Those with EVAHEART™ were Cool-seal system-related (9 events) and battery-related (6 events) malfunctions. Those with Jarvik2000 were battery-related (7 events), alarm (1 event) and uncertain cause (1 event) malfunctions. Those with Duraheart™ were battery-related (3 events), alarm (3 events) and other component (1 event) malfunctions. Although the incidence was not very high and none of these device malfunctions led to cessation of blood pump operation in this study, it is necessary to establish a communication system for properly obtaining detailed information in the event of serious device malfunctions. Furthermore, establishment of a home-living-patient support system covering extensive areas is urgently needed, since this can facilitate rapid action to deal with serious device malfunctions.
Fakhr-Movahedi, Ali; Rahnavard, Zahra; Salsali, Mahvash; Negarandeh, Reza
Introduction: Recognition the nurses’ communicative roles can influence quality of patient’s care. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore nurse’s role in nurse-patient relations. Methods: This study was a qualitative research in which collected data was analyzed by content analysis method. The participants were 23 nurses, patients and their families in medical and surgical wards of a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and observation. Results: Data analysis was led to the emergence of a main conceptual category: The patient's need-based communication. This category was derived from two categories: 1) Identifying the patient’s needs; and 2) Communicative behavior in the face of the patient’s needs. "Identifying the patient’s needs" was related to "type of the patient’s problem", "patients’ inquiring about their health status" and "monitoring the patient’s health status". "Communicative behavior in the face of the patient’s needs" was composed of four subcategories: "caring attention", "informal education of the patient", "inducing calmness to the patient", and "obtaining the trust of the patient". Conclusion: The nurse’s role in relationship with patients is designed according to patients’ needs. Therefore, if the patients’ needs in clinical settings are defined and clarified appropriately, the nurse-patient relations will be enhanced and thereby the quality of care will be improved. PMID:28032071
Tan, Lawrence; Hu, Wendy; Brooker, Ron
Background Camera phones have become ubiquitous in the digital age. Patients are beginning to bring images recorded on their mobile phones to share with their GP during medical consultations. Aim To explore GP perceptions about the effect of patient-initiated camera phone images on the consultation. Design and setting An interview study of GPs based in rural and urban locations in Australia. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with nine GPs about their experiences with patient-initiated camera phone images. Results GPs described how patient-initiated camera phone photos and videos contributed to the diagnostic process, management and continuity of care. These images gave GPs in the study additional insight into the patient’s world. Potential harm resulting from inappropriate use of camera phones by patients was also identified. Conclusion Patient-initiated camera phone images can empower patients by illustrating their narratives, thus contributing to improved communication in general practice. Potential harm could result from inappropriate use of these images. GPs shown images on patients’ camera phones should make the most of this opportunity for improved understanding of the patient’s world. There are however, potential medicolegal implications such as informed consent, protection of patient and doctor privacy, and the risk of misdiagnosis. PMID:24771843
Petty, George W.; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Chu, Chu-Pin; Sicks, JoRean D.; Whisnant, Jack P.
Patent foramen ovale was detected in 37 patients (32%). Mean age was similar in those with (60 years) and those without (64 years) PFO. Patent foramen ovale was more frequent among men (39%) than women (20%, P=.03). Patients with PFO had a lower frequency of atrial fibrillation, diabetes me!litus, hypertension, and peripheral vascular disease compared with those without PFO. There was no difference in frequency of the following characteristics in patients with PFO compared with those without PFO: pulmonary embolus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral embolism, prior cerebral infarction, nosocomial cerebral infarction, Valsalva maneuver at the time of cerebral infarction, recent surgery, or hemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction. Patent foramen ovale was found in 22 (40%) of 55 patients with infarcts of uncertain cause and in 15 (25%) of 61 with infarcts of known cause (cardioembolic, 21%; large vessel atherostenosis, 25%; lacune, 40%) (P=.08). When the analysis was restricted to patients who underwent Valsalva maneuver, PFO with right to left or bidirectional shunt was found in 19 (50%) of 38 patients with infarcts of uncertain cause and in 6 (20%) of 30 with infarcts of known cause (P=.Ol). Conclusion: Although PFO was over-represented in patients with infarcts of uncertain cause in our and other studies, it has a high frequency among patients with cerebral infarction of all types. The relation between PFO and stroke requires further study.
Fioravanti, Giulia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ianni, Sirio; Montanelli, Luca; Rotella, Francesco; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Emotion dysregulation has been found to be associated with specific eating attitudes and behavior in Eating Disorder (ED) patients. The present study evaluated whether emotional eating profile of ED patients changes over time and the possible effects of a psychotherapeutic intervention on the emotional eating dimension. One hundred and two ED patients (28 with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type [AN-R], 35 with Anorexia Nervosa binge/purging subtype [AN-B/P] and 39 with Bulimia Nervosa [BN]) were evaluated at baseline, at the end of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, at 3 and 6 year follow-up. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders, the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) and several self-reported questionnaires for eating specific and general psychopathology were applied. A control group of 86 healthy subjects was also studied, in order to compare psychopathological variables at baseline. A significant EES total score reduction was observed among AN-B/P and BN patients, whereas no significant change was found in the AN-R group. Mixed Models analyses showed that a significant effect on EES total score variation was found for cocaine or amphetamine abuse (b = .25; p < .01). Patients who assumed these substances reported no significant EES reduction across time, unlike other patients. The present results suggest that ED patients with a history of cocaine or amphetamine abuse represent a sub-population of patients with lasting dysfunctional mood modulatory mechanisms.
Antonielli D'Oulx, Maria Delfina; Paradiso, Rosetta; Perretta, Laura; Dimonte, Valerio
Background. Because of economic reasons, day surgery rates have steadily increased in many countries and the trend is to perform around 70% of all surgical procedures as day surgery. Literature shows that postoperative pain treatment remains unfulfilled in several fields such as orthopedic and general surgery patients. In Italy, the day surgery program is not yet under governmental authority and is managed regionally by local practices. Aim. To investigate the trends in pain intensity and its relation to type of surgeries and pain therapy protocols, in postoperative patients, discharged from three different Ambulatory Surgeries located in North West Italy (Piedmont region). Method. The present study enrolled 276 patients who undergone different surgical procedures in ambulatory regimen. Patients recorded postoperative pain score twice a day, compliance with prescribed drugs, and pain related reasons for contacting the hospital. Monitoring lasted for 7 days. Results. At discharge, 72% of patients were under weak opioids, 12% interrupted the treatment due to side effects, 17% of patients required extra drugs, and 15% contacted the hospital reporting pain problems. About 50% of patients experienced moderate pain during the first day after surgery. Results from our study show that most of the patients experienced avoidable pain after discharge. PMID:28115878
Moosazadeh, M; Nezammahalleh, A; Movahednia, M; Movahednia, N; Khanjani, N; Afshari, M
Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of death worldwide. This study aimed to determine predictive factors for death in patients with tuberculosis to set priorities for public heath interventions to reduce mortality in these patients. This nested case-control study was carried out in Mazandaran province of Islamic Republic of Iran among tuberculosis patients who were treated during 2002-2009. Each deceased patient was individually matched with a control patient according to sex, age, area of involvement and time of follow-up. Potential risk factors for death were evaluated using multivariate conditional logistic regression models. From 2206 patients 376 cases and 376 matched controls were selected. Only positive serology for HIV (OR = 19.1), history of kidney disease (OR = 6.81) and use of immunosuppressant drugs (OR = 3.96) significantly increased the risk of death in tuberculosis patients. These potentially modifiable risk factors could be taken into account in preventive interventions for tuberculosis patients in our country.
Xiang, Siyun; Yao, Ying; Wan, Yunan; Liang, Wangqun; Meng, Ruiwei; Jin, Qiman; Wu, Nannan; Xu, Fangyi; Ying, Chenjiang; Zuo, Xuezhi
Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric: 45/16) and 11 healthy subjects in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2014. The dialysate and urine of patients and urine of healthy subjects were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and arsenic (As) in dialysate and urine were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Various clinical variables were obtained from automatic biochemical analyzer. Daily Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo excretions in nonanuric patients were higher than healthy subjects, while arsenic excretion in anuric patients was lower. A strong and positive correlation was observed between Se and Mo excretion in both dialysate (β = 0.869, p < 0.010) and urine (β = 0.968, p < 0.010). Furthermore, the clinical variables associated with Se excretion were found to be correlated with Mo excretion. Our findings indicated that nonanuric CAPD patients may suffer from deficiency of some essential TEs, while anuric patients are at risk of arsenic accumulation. A close association between Se and Mo excretion was also found. PMID:27999390
Acalovschi, Monica; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Nicoara, Cezar D
An increased prevalence of gallstones was demonstrated in patients with liver cirhosis, higher in the advanced stages of the disease. Some studies have found impaired emptying of the gallbladder in cirrhotic patients. Our aim here was to investigate gallbladder emptying in cirrhotic patients with and without gallstones to find out whether emptying is further impaired in the presence of gallstones. The study group comprised 24 patients with liver cirrhosis and gallstones, 8 in each Child class. The controls were represented by 18 cirrhotic patients without gallstones, 6 in each Child class. Fasting gallbladder volume was calculated by ultrasound using the ellipsoid formula. Gallbladder emptying was evaluated for 90 min after ingestion of a solid-liquid meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal), by assessing minimal residual volume, gallbladder ejection fraction, and area under emptying curve at 15-min intervals. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed Students' t test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. In controls, gallbladder fasting and residual volumes increased with the severity of cirrhosis, but gallbladder emptying did not change significantly. In cirrhotics with gallstones, gallbladder emptying decreased in Child C compared with Child A class patients and, also, compared to Child C controls. The number or size of gallstones, as well as the thickness of the gallbladder wall, did not correlate with gallbladder emptying parameters. Gallbladder contractility is impaired in patients with liver cirrhosis and gallstones. Hypomotility is proportional to the severity of liver disease. Gallbladder hypomotility might contribute to the increased gallstone formation in patients with advanced cirrhosis.
Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul
Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.
Naber, F B; Häge, R; Mortelmans, J
The long-term (2 year) safety and efficacy of barnidipine was assessed in an open-label, dose-titration, multicentre study of 236 patients aged > or = 75 years with a sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 95 mmHg. All eligible patients started treatment with barnidipine 10 mg once daily. After at least 4 weeks treatment, the dose of barnidipine was titrated upwards to 20 mg daily in patients who did not achieve normalisation of blood pressure (sitting DBP < 90 mmHg). After at least another 4 weeks of treatment an ACE inhibitor or diuretic was added if necessary. Barnidipine monotherapy was the final treatment in 74% of patients in the ITT population (50% barnidipine 10 mg, 24% barnidipine 20 mg). The overall response rate was 84.1% at endpoint. Overall mean sitting DBP decreased by 18.4 mmHg from 102.1 mmHg at baseline to 83.7 mmHg at endpoint. Although a total of 82.2% of patients reported at least one adverse event, only 37.4% of patients experienced an adverse event that was possibly or probably related to the study medication. Many patients experienced adverse events associated with co-existing diseases common in older people. It can be concluded that barnidipine as monotherapy or in combination with ACE inhibitors or diuretics is safe and effective in older patients with essential hypertension.
Lin, Chao-Shun; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chung, Chi-Li; Hung, Chih-Jen; Chen, Ta-Liang
Background The association between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and postoperative outcomes remains unknown. This study investigated outcomes following non-chest surgeries in patients with previous pulmonary TB. Methods Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we analyzed 6911 patients (aged ≥ 20 years) with preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary TB and 6911 propensity score-matched controls receiving non-chest surgeries in 2008–2010. Postoperative outcomes were compared between patients with or without pulmonary TB by calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the multivariate logistic regressions. Results Surgical patients with pulmonary TB had a significantly higher postoperative complication rates than controls, including septicemia, pneumonia, acute renal failure, deep wound infection, overall complications, and 30-day postoperative mortality (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.07–1.86). The ORs of patients with low-income status were as high as 2.27 (95% CI 1.03–5.03). Preoperative use of TB drugs and TB-related medical expenditure also associated with higher postoperative mortality among surgical patients with pulmonary TB. Conclusions Surgical patients with pulmonary TB have significantly increased risks of postoperative complications and mortality after non-chest surgeries. This study suggests the need to improve postoperative care for surgical patients with pulmonary TB. PMID:26172153
Liu, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Liang; Xiao, Xin-Ru; Li, Da; Jia, Wang; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting
Background: Various surgical approaches for the removal of sellar region lesions have previously been described. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and safety of the frontolateral approach (FLA) to remove sellar region lesions. Methods: We presented a retrospective study of 79 patients with sellar region lesions who were admitted and operated by the FLA approach from August 2011 to August 2015 in Department of Neurosurgery of Beijing Tian Tan Hospital. We classified FLA into three types, compared the FLA types to the areas of lesion invasion, and analyzed operation bleeding volume, gross total resection (GTR) rate, visual outcome, and mortality. Results: Seventy-nine patients were followed up from 2.9 to 50.3 months with a mean follow-up of 20.5 months. There were 42 cases of meningiomas, 25 cases of craniopharyngiomas, and 12 cases of pituitary adenomas. The mean follow-up Karnofsky Performance Scale was 90.4. GTR was achieved in 75 patients (94.9%). Two patients (2.5%) had tumor recurrence. No patients died perioperatively or during short-term follow-up. Three patients (3.8%) with craniopharyngioma died 10, 12, and 23 months, respectively, after surgery. The operative bleeding volume of this study was no more than that of the other approaches in the sellar region (P = 0.783). In this study, 35 patients (44.3%) had visual improvement after surgery, 38 patients (48.1%) remained unchanged, and three patients’ visual outcome (3.8%) worsened. Conclusions: FLA was an effective approach in the treatment of sellar region lesions with good preservation of visual function. FLA classification enabled tailored craniotomies for each patient according to the anatomic site of tumor invasion. This study found that FLA had similar outcomes to other surgical approaches of sellar region lesions. PMID:27364792
Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi
Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068
Renard, E; Alliot-Licht, B; Gross, O; Roger-Leroi, V; Marchand, C
Ever since 2006, Nantes University dental educators have started organising lectures led by the mother of a young patient suffering from ectodermic dysplasia (patient-educator) to help second-year students to better understand how important it is for their future dental work to better understand basic sciences. In this study, we have analysed this training experience on students' motivation. For this purpose, students were asked to complete questionnaires 10 days after the patient-educator's lecture (early assessment; n = 193) and 4 years later, during the last year of their dental studies (delayed assessment; n = 47). Moreover, 3 years after the first lecture, we analysed the ability of students to diagnose a mother carrying the ectodermic dysplasia genetic disorder, using a case-based learning exercise with a patient showing dental features similar to those exposed by the patient-educator (measure of knowledge; n = 42). Ten days after the lecture, the early assessment shows that all the students were interested in the lecture and 59% of the students declared being motivated to find out more about genetics whilst 54% declared the same thing about embryology courses. Moreover, 4 years later, 67% of the students remembered the patient-educator's lecture a little or very well. Three years after the course, 83% of the students diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia whilst studying the case-based example that listed typical dental phenotypes. In conclusion, this study shows that this original educational approach enhances dental students' motivation in learning basic sciences and that patient-educators could offer many benefits for students and patients.
Shende, V S; Sharma, R D; Pawar, S M; Waghmare, S N
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy seen in uremic patients. The study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of CTS in uremic patients and to identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic test. Study was conducted on 80 subjects of age 30-60 years. End-stage kidney disease patients were recruited for the clinical evaluation, motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), sensory NCS, F wave study and median-versus-ulnar comparison studies (palm-to-wrist mixed comparison study, digit 4 sensory latencies study and lumbrical-interossei comparison study). Among three different diagnostic modalities, frequency of CTS was found to be 17.5% with clinical evaluation, 15% with routine NCS studies and 25% with median-versus-ulnar comparison studies. Among the median-versus-ulnar comparison studies, lumbrical-interossei comparison study was found to be most sensitive (90%). The comparative tests for CTS are more sensitive compared to routine NCS and clinical examination. Among the comparative tests, lumbrical-interossei comparison study is the most sensitive. Early diagnosis of CTS may help patients of uremia to seek proper treatment at an appropriate time.
Shende, V. S.; Sharma, R. D.; Pawar, S. M.; Waghmare, S. N.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy seen in uremic patients. The study was undertaken to estimate the frequency of CTS in uremic patients and to identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic test. Study was conducted on 80 subjects of age 30–60 years. End-stage kidney disease patients were recruited for the clinical evaluation, motor nerve conduction studies (NCS), sensory NCS, F wave study and median-versus-ulnar comparison studies (palm-to-wrist mixed comparison study, digit 4 sensory latencies study and lumbrical-interossei comparison study). Among three different diagnostic modalities, frequency of CTS was found to be 17.5% with clinical evaluation, 15% with routine NCS studies and 25% with median-versus-ulnar comparison studies. Among the median-versus-ulnar comparison studies, lumbrical-interossei comparison study was found to be most sensitive (90%). The comparative tests for CTS are more sensitive compared to routine NCS and clinical examination. Among the comparative tests, lumbrical-interossei comparison study is the most sensitive. Early diagnosis of CTS may help patients of uremia to seek proper treatment at an appropriate time. PMID:26199474
Li, Qing; Peng, Yu; Wang, Lin-Ang; Wei, Xi; Li, Meng-Xia; Qing, Yi; Xia, Wei; Cheng, Ming; Zi, Dan; Li, Chun-Xue; Wang, Dong
Rectal cancer, defined as a cancerous lesion of the colon distal to the rectosigmoid junction, is the fourth most common cancer cause of death globally. There were 474 patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgery between October 2007 and May 2013 enrolled in our center. Patients were respectively categorized by neoadjuvant therapy. This study aimed to explore the predictive factors that affected the Progression-free survival and overall survival of the patients with rectal cancer. Clinical characteristics of patients were compared with the groups and potential prognostic factors were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. In our study, neoadjuvant therapy increased the anus-retained rate (64.4 vs 53.4 % P = 0.016) and remission rate in the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group (62.6 vs 34.8 %; P = 0.000). The neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy, more operative duration, anus retained and micturition damaged are positive prognostic factors of PFS to patients. Poor differentiation, the tumor of ulcer, invasive, and pT4 stage, contributed the poor factors for PFS of patients (P < 0.05). Additionally, the patients with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy underwent the better prognosis of OS. Adjuvant chemotherapy cannot increase PFS of the patients who accepted neoadjuvant therapy after surgery get pCR, but can improve OS. The anus-retained and neoadjuvant radiotherapy, duration of surgery in rectal cancer have the positive correlation. Micturition damaged and neoadjuvant ra