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Sample records for patients receiving limb-preserving

  1. Limb Preservation With Isolated Limb Infusion for Locally Advanced Nonmelanoma Cutaneous and Soft-Tissue Malignant Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Turaga, Kiran K.; Beasley, Georgia M.; Kane, John M.; Delman, Keith A.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Letson, G. Douglas; Cheong, David; Tyler, Douglas S.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the efficacy of isolated limb infusion (ILI) in limb preservation for patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas and nonmelanoma cutaneous malignant neoplasms. Background Locally advanced nonmelanoma cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms, including soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, can pose significant treatment challenges. We report our experience, including responses and limb preservation rates, using ILI in cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms. Methods We identified 22 patients with cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms who underwent 26 ILIs with melphalan and actinomycin from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, from 5 institutions. Outcome measures included limb preservation and in-field response rates. Toxicity was measured using the Wieberdink scale and serum creatinine phosphokinase levels. Results The median age was 70 years (range, 19-92 years), and 12 patients (55%) were women. Fourteen patients (64%) had sarcomas, 7 (32%) had Merkel cell carcinoma, and 1 (5%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median length of stay was 5.5 days (interquartile range, 4-8 days). Twenty-five of the 26 ILIs (96%) resulted in Wieberdink grade III or less toxicity, and 1 patient (4%) developed grade IV toxicity. The median serum creatinine phosphokinase level was 127 U/L for upper extremity ILIs and 93 U/L for lower extremity ILIs. Nineteen of 22 patients (86%) underwent successful limb preservation. The 3-month in-field response rate was 79% (21% complete and 58% partial), and the median follow-up was 8.6 months (range, 1-63 months). Five patients underwent resection of disease after an ILI, of whom 80% are disease free at a median of 8.6 months. Conclusions Isolated limb infusion provides an attractive alternative therapy for regional disease control and limb preservation in patients with limb-threatening cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms. Short-term response rates appear encouraging, yet

  2. Limb preservation in the treatment of bone tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sweetnam, Rodney

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of primary malignant tumours of bones by resection and prosthetic replacement is discussed in relation to more conventional treatment by amputation. Removal of the hemipelvis with preservation of the limb is suggested as an alternative for some patients who hitherto might have been regarded as only suitable for hindquarter amputation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:6824295

  3. Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommended Care Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care This is a composite measure based on individual ... Age Group Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care by Age Group uzrc-9bvr Download these data » ...

  4. Leiomyomas in patients receiving Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Leo, L; Lanza, A; Re, A; Tessarolo, M; Bellino, R; Lauricella, A; Wierdis, T

    1994-01-01

    In literature there have been only 8 cases of unavoidable laparotomy due to uterine leiomyomas performed in patients with breast cancer on Tamoxifen (TAM). Our article describes two cases of rapidly growing leiomyomas in patients treated with TAM: one of these underwent abdominal hysterectomy while the second stopped taking TAM and began therapy with Triptorelin. This therapeutical alternative could be a useful choice. PMID:8070124

  5. Anticoagulation: monitoring of patients receiving anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Emily M; Viera, Anthony J

    2014-07-01

    For patients with acute venous thromboembolism treated with warfarin, parenteral anticoagulation should be continued for a minimum of 5 days and until the international normalized ratio (INR) is 2 or greater for at least 24 hours. Early initiation of warfarin therapy is recommended. The goal therapeutic INR range for patients treated with warfarin is most commonly 2 to 3. During maintenance warfarin therapy, validated decision-support tools should be used to guide dosing. For patients with stable INRs, frequency of INR testing can be extended from every 4 weeks to up to 12 weeks. Self-testing and self-management can be safe options for patients receiving warfarin who are motivated and show competence. Patients starting anticoagulation therapy should receive education on treatment goals, adverse effects, and monitoring strategy. Physicians deciding whether to prescribe one of the new oral anticoagulants instead of warfarin should assess for possible drug interactions and for renal and hepatic impairment and should consider the financial cost to the patient. No routine coagulation assay monitoring is required for patients receiving apixaban, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban. Physicians who oversee oral anticoagulation therapy should do so in a systematic and coordinated fashion.

  6. Carboplatin pharmacokinetics in a patient receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fong, Mei Ka; Fetterly, Gerald J; McDougald, Lori J; Iyer, Renuka V

    2014-02-01

    With refinements and advances in hemodialysis techniques, survival for patients with end-stage renal disease has improved significantly. To our knowledge, however, no prospective trials have been performed in patients receiving hemodialysis who are also diagnosed with cancer and are candidates for chemotherapy. We describe a 73-year-old man who was diagnosed with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, metastatic to the bone and lymph nodes, and was undergoing hemodialysis. Although cisplatin is more commonly used in the treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine cancers, it may not be the best option in patients who suffer from renal insufficiency. Carboplatin is a second-generation, nonnephrotoxic platinum analog that can be hemodialyzed, although no formal guidelines are available regarding the dosing for patients receiving hemodialysis. This case describes a patient who was treated with five cycles of combination carboplatin 115 mg/m(2) on day 1 and etoposide 50 mg/m(2) on day 1 and day 3 of a 28-day cycle. Dialysis was performed for 3.5 hours starting 90 minutes after completion of carboplatin on day 1. Pharmacokinetic assessments were performed at 1, 2, 4, and 12 hours after chemotherapy infusion on day 1 of cycle 1. Total carboplatin concentrations in plasma and platinum ultrafiltrate were measured. The plasma concentration of free platinum at the end of the infusion was 31,000 ng/ml, and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 2.9 minute·mg/ml. No significant carboplatin-related toxicities were reported. This case report indicates that carboplatin can be safely administered in patients receiving hemodialysis.

  7. Sleep Issues with Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Kathleen; Rowder, Cheryl; VanNoord, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep among the general population is understudied, unrecognized, and often not assessed This is especially true for patients receiving hemodialysis. This study used a case study design to examine the impact of hemodialysis treatments on the sleep of two patients as measured by actigraphy and self-reported sleep logs. Patient 1 experienced an average sleep efficiency of 82.3% on non-hemodialysis days compared to 75.0% on dialysis days, which resulted in a 7.3 percentage point change and 9.7% better sleep efficiency on non-hemodialysis days. Patient 2 reported sleep efficiency 76.6% on non-hemodialysis days compared to 70.5% dialysis on days, resulting in a 6.1 percentage point change and 8.7% better sleep efficiency on non-hemodialysis days. Actigraphy sleep patterns provided an initial move toward best practice for sleep evaluation in this population.

  8. Sleep Issues with Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tocco, Kathleen; Rowder, Cheryl; VanNoord, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep among the general population is understudied, unrecognized, and often not assessed This is especially true for patients receiving hemodialysis. This study used a case study design to examine the impact of hemodialysis treatments on the sleep of two patients as measured by actigraphy and self-reported sleep logs. Patient 1 experienced an average sleep efficiency of 82.3% on non-hemodialysis days compared to 75.0% on dialysis days, which resulted in a 7.3 percentage point change and 9.7% better sleep efficiency on non-hemodialysis days. Patient 2 reported sleep efficiency 76.6% on non-hemodialysis days compared to 70.5% dialysis on days, resulting in a 6.1 percentage point change and 8.7% better sleep efficiency on non-hemodialysis days. Actigraphy sleep patterns provided an initial move toward best practice for sleep evaluation in this population. PMID:26875228

  9. Listeriosis in patients receiving biologic therapies.

    PubMed

    Bodro, M; Paterson, D L

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of inflammatory diseases has radically changed since the introduction of biologic therapies, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (anti-TNFα). They, therefore, represent a widely used therapeutic modality. Nevertheless, post-marketing studies reveal an increased risk of infection in patients taking these drugs, especially granulomatous infections such as listeriosis. We aimed to evaluate the reported cases of listeriosis in patients treated with biologic treatments. We used the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) from 2004 to 2011. We also perform a literature review of previously reported cases of listeriosis in patients taking biologic therapies. We identified 266 cases of Listeria monocytogenes infection associated with biologic therapies. The majority of patients were receiving infliximab (77.1 %), followed by etanercept (11.7 %), adalimumab (9.8 %), rituximab (4.1 %), abatacept (0.4 %) and golimumab (0.4 %). Indications for the use of biologics were as follows: 47.7 % for rheumatologic diseases, 38 % for inflammatory bowel diseases, 3.4 % for haematological diseases and 10.5 % for other indications. Seventy-three percent of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressant drugs, especially steroids (56 %) and methotrexate (31.6 %). The median time to the onset of infection was 184 days. Mortality rates range from 11.1 % in adalimumab-treated patients to 27.3 % in rituximab-treated patients (p = 0.7). Listeriosis is common in biologics-treated patients, especially related to infliximab use given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive therapies. Infections after treatment with biologics mostly occurred in the first year after initiating treatment. PMID:23568606

  10. Hypocupremia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, F; Inglese, M G; Terno, G; Pupa, A; Sequeira, C; Migliavacca, S

    1983-01-01

    Although hypocupremia is a well-known consequence of long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN), its incidence as well as the duration of TPN necessary to induce it are still unsettled. The purpose of this study is to review the changes in serum copper level in 25 patients receiving TPN for a period longer than 2 wk (mean duration 6 wk) at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan and to evaluate the possible relationship of cupremia with the basic disease. Main indications for TPN included enterocutaneous fistulas (11 patients), cancer cachexia (10 patients), radiation enteropathy (two patients), and severe postoperative stricture following esophagogastric resection (two patients). Mean value of serum copper at the beginning of the study was 143 micrograms/100 ml (normal value 65-165 micrograms/100 ml), and the regression analysis showed a mean fall of 5.64 micrograms/100 ml/wk. Hypocupremia occurred in four patients (three with intestinal fistulas and one with radiation obstructive enteritis) at 5th, 6th, 9th, and 6th wk of TPN, respectively. No patient with cancer cachexia developed hypocupremia. No patient with hypocupremia had clinical evidence of a copper deficiency syndrome. We conclude that 1) hypocupremia does not occur within the first month of TPN; 2) its incidence is about 16% in patients intravenously fed for period longer than 2 wk; 3) it is more frequent in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas, whereas it never occurs in patients with cancer cachexia, and 4) it is not necessarily associated to a clinicometabolic syndrome of copper deficiency. Finally, the "nutritional" meaning of serum copper should be questioned in cancer patients since it could represent a "tumor marker."

  11. [Limb-preserving resection operations in the management of bone tumors of the shoulder region].

    PubMed

    Gáspár, L; Szepesi, K; Mandi, A; Mórocz, I

    1989-01-01

    Authors describe the frequency of bone tumours in the shoulder region and the anatomical characteristics of this region, that are important, regarding tumour surgery. Six cases are reported in whom resection was performed for malignant, semimalignant and benign bone tumours. In their material one primary and two secondary chondrosarcomas, one Ewing's sarcoma, one osteoclastoma and one benign chondroblastoma were found. Follow-up range was 3-7 years. In two patients partial and total scapulectomy was performed, in the later the proximal end of the humerus was resected only, in three of them endoprosthesis was given, and in one case the missing bone was replaced with a fibular graft. The function of the limbs was in every case, even in those in which the replacement of the bone segment was not carried out, adequate. Metastases developed in three patients, two of them were lost, one is alive. The rest of the patients was free of tumour at the follow-up. PMID:2571754

  12. Enhanced mucosal reactions in AIDS patients receiving oropharyngeal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.

    1987-09-01

    The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.

  13. Stress Encountered by Significant Others of Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kay

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to identify and describe perceived stress and coping responses of family and nonfamily significant others of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Significant others were asked to identify stressful events related to treatment factors, relationship factors, and perception of the patient's condition. Coping responses were categorized in…

  14. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump.

  15. Vitamin E measurement in patients receiving intravenous lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Henton, D H; Merritt, R J; Hack, S

    1992-01-01

    Two methods for the determination of plasma vitamin E--high-pressure liquid chromatography and spectrophotofluorometry--were compared on samples from four groups of pediatric patients: children and infants receiving lipid emulsion as part of their parenteral nutrition regimen, neonates receiving parenteral nutrition who were not receiving lipid emulsion at the time of blood sampling, and short admission surgery control subjects. In control subjects and patients not receiving lipid emulsions, both methods yielded similar results for vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol. In contrast, in patients receiving lipid emulsion, the fluorometric method yielded values ranging from 200% to 300% greater than did high-pressure liquid chromatography. The source of the discrepancy is most probably the presence of naturally occurring non-alpha-tocopherol isomers in the lipid products, which add to the fluorescent measurement but are resolved by high-pressure liquid chromatography. This study confirms clinically that fluorescent measurement of vitamin E is no longer the method of choice for monitoring tocopherol status in intensive care nurseries.

  16. Patients With Brain Tumors: Who Receives Postacute Occupational Therapy Services?

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincy; Xiong, Chen; Colantonio, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Data on the utilization of occupational therapy among patients with brain tumors have been limited to those with malignant tumors and small samples of patients outside North America in specialized palliative care settings. We built on this research by examining the characteristics of patients with brain tumors who received postacute occupational therapy services in Ontario, Canada, using health care administrative data. Between fiscal years 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, 3,199 patients with brain tumors received occupational therapy services in the home care setting after hospital discharge; 12.4% had benign brain tumors, 78.2% had malignant brain tumors, and 9.4% had unspecified brain tumors. However, patients with benign brain tumors were older (mean age=63.3 yr), and a higher percentage were female (65.2%). More than 90% of patients received in-home occupational therapy services. Additional research is needed to examine the significance of these differences and to identify factors that influence access to occupational therapy services in the home care setting.

  17. New Horizon in Life: Experiences of Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Mohammadpour, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment quality of diseases can affect the patient's experience. Due to its different complications among cancer patients, the experience of chemotherapy is unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experience among cancer patients who had received chemotherapy. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. In so doing, 12 cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were purposefully selected were interviewed using an in-depth method. After the required data were collected, they were analyzed by Tanner, Allen, Diekelmann method. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated that the experience of chemotherapy appeared as “a new horizon in life” for the patients. Secondary themes of the new horizon in life included rebirth, understanding of life values, dependence, and need. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in addition to taking into providing mental-spiritual support and reducing the complications of the treatment, nurses in chemotherapy wards should pay attention to the experiences of the patients receiving chemotherapy and enhance hope and positive attitude among them. PMID:26573050

  18. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage in a patient receiving anticoagulants

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, R.C.; Johnston, G.S.; Whitley, N.O.

    1986-02-01

    The exact location of hemorrhage complicating anticoagulant therapy is sometimes difficult to establish. We present a case in which imaging with 99mTc-labeled red cells had a significant role in the diagnosis of soft-tissue bleeding in a paraplegic patient receiving long-term anticoagulation.

  19. Reduction in accounts receivable begins before patient admission.

    PubMed

    Francis, J M

    1985-11-01

    In this case study, a 362-bed teaching hospital reduced its accounts receivable from 80 to 59 days. The keys to success were management commitment, clear communication of goals and objectives among hospital departments, attention to the patient's account prior to admission, and emphasis on education for employees who deal with the public. PMID:10274114

  20. [Cognitive plasticity in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cognitive stimulation programs].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning.

  1. [Cognitive plasticity in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cognitive stimulation programs].

    PubMed

    Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning. PMID:18674439

  2. Preoperative percutaneous stone surgery in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andreas J; Bach, T

    2009-10-01

    Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is an essential component in the management of large volume renal calculi. Either in combination with shockwave lithotripsy but especially as monotherapy, PCNL is recommended as the most effective treatment option for patients with staghorn calculi or large volume stone disease. Multiple tracts allow successful management of nearly every stone burden in a single surgical session. Furthermore, patients with anatomic variations (eg, horseshoe kidney) can be treated by PCNL successfully. Overall stone-free rates of above 78% are described. With the rising age of the overall patient population, another problem occurs. Increasing age frequently leads to an increase in comorbidities; for example, patients receiving anticoagulation may need treatment for stones, which can pose a dilemma. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of thrombotic risk, depending on the underlying disease, and to propose a clinical pathway on how to deal with this selected group of patients.

  3. Blood flow in the ears of patients receiving cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hattori, Taku; Sone, Michihiko; Sato, Eisuke; Tominaga, Mitsuo; Sugiura, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    We measured cochlear blood flow (CBF) in 55 patients who received cochlear implants, using a laser-Doppler probe placed over the site of drilling in the cochlear bony wall. The subjects included 29 patients with congenital deafness of unknown cause, 8 with idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, 4 with postmeningitic deafness, 3 with Waardenburg's syndrome, 3 with congenital cytomegalovirus infection, and 8 whose deafness had other causes. There was a wide range of CBF values in patients with congenital deafness of unknown cause. In the patients with idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the CBF was significantly lower in patients more than 40 years old. Intracochlear calcification following meningitis appears to be associated with a reduced CBF.

  4. [Prescribing drugs to patients receiving out-patient care].

    PubMed

    Garjón Parra, F J

    2009-01-01

    Drug prescription has evolved to deal mainly with chronic diseases. Nowadays, repeating prescriptions using computers results in problems if this is not done with adequate control. Steps proposed for appropriate prescription are: defining the problem; specifying the objective; selecting the drug; initiating therapy with appropriate details; giving information; regular evaluation; considering cost; and using tools to reduce errors. Published recommendations for prescription, which have focused on elderly patients, include: avoiding polypharmacy; carrying out a regular medication review; stopping any current drugs that are not indicated and prescribing new drugs that have a clear indication; avoiding drugs that have deleterious effects; using dosages that are suitable for the age and renal function; using simple drug regimes and appropriate administration systems; considering non-pharmacological treatments; limiting the number of practitioners prescribing for each patient; and avoiding treating adverse drug reactions with further drugs. Examples of compliance with those recommendations in the Navarre Health Service, extracted from the prescription information system, are provided. The measures for improving prescription are: education, auditing, collaboration between health professionals and use of electronic tools.

  5. Determinants of survival in patients receiving dialysis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance dialysis is associated with reduced survival when compared with the general population. In Libya, information about outcomes on dialysis is scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of survival in Libyan dialysis patients. This prospective multicenter study included all patients in Libya who had been receiving dialysis for >90 days in June 2009. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected upon enrollment and survival status after 1 year was determined. Two thousand two hundred seventy-three patients in 38 dialysis centers were followed up for 1 year. The majority were receiving hemodialysis (98.8%). Sixty-seven patients were censored due to renal transplantation, and 46 patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, 2159 patients were followed up for 1 year. Four hundred fifty-eight deaths occurred, (crude annual mortality rate of 21.2%). Of these, 31% were due to ischemic heart disease, 16% cerebrovascular accidents, and 16% due to infection. Annual mortality rate was 0% to 70% in different dialysis centers. Best survival was in age group 25 to 34 years. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age at onset of dialysis, physical dependency, diabetes, and predialysis urea as independent determinants of increased mortality. Patients receiving dialysis in Libya have a crude 1-year mortality rate similar to most developed countries, but the mean age of the dialysis population is much lower, and this outcome is thus relatively poor. As in most countries, cardiovascular disease and infection were the most common causes of death. Variation in mortality rates between different centers suggests that survival could be improved by promoting standardization of best practice.

  6. Dental extraction in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Palomino, Paulino; Sánchez-Cobo, Paulino; Rodriguez-Archilla, Alberto; González-Jaranay, Maximino; Moreu, Gerardo; Calvo-Guirado, José-Luis; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Dual anti platelet therapy consists of administering antiplatelet (antiaggregant) drugs (clopidogrel and aspirin) to prevent thrombotic processes, as a preventative measure in patients with acute coronary disease, or in patients subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a protocol for performing dental extraction in patients receiving dual anti platelet therapy. Material and Methods Thirty-two patients undergoing dental extractions were included in the study. The variables evaluated were: collagen-epinephrine fraction, collagen- adenosine diphosphate fraction, surgical surface, post-surgical measures, and adverse effects. Alveolar sutures and gauzes impregnated with an antifibrinolytic agent (tranexamic acid), which the patient pressed in place for 30 minutes, were applied to all patients as post-surgical measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed with Student’s t-test to compare pairs of quantitative variables; simple regression analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Collagen/epinephrine fraction was 264.53±55.624 seconds with a range of 135 to 300 seconds, and collagen/ADP fraction was 119.41±44.216 seconds, both values being higher than normal. As a result of the post-surgical measures taken, no patients presented postoperative bleeding, hematoma or infection. Conclusions Dental extraction was safe for patients receiving dual anti-platelet therapy when using sutures and gauze impregnated with tranexamic acid, which the patient pressed in place for 30 minutes. Key words: Aspirin, clopidogrel, tranexamic acid, dental extraction, platelet function. PMID:26241454

  7. E-cigarette use in patients receiving home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, Yves; Légaré, Martin; Maltais, François

    2015-01-01

    Current smokers who are prescribed home oxygen may not benefit from the therapy. In addition to being an obvious fire hazard, there is some evidence that the physiological mechanisms by which home oxygen is believed to operate are inhibited by smoking. Although their effectiveness is yet to be demonstrated, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often regarded as an aid to smoking cessation. However, several burn accidents in e-cigarette smokers receiving home oxygen therapy have also been reported, leading Health Canada to release a warning of fire risk to oxygen therapy patients from e-cigarettes. It is the authors' position that patients receiving oxygen should definitely not use e-cigarettes. The authors provide suggestions for addressing the delicate issue of home oxygen therapy in current cigarette and⁄or e-cigarette smokers. PMID:25848719

  8. Associations Between Patient Characteristics and the Amount of Arthritis Medication Information Patients Receive.

    PubMed

    Geryk, Lorie Love; Blalock, Susan; DeVellis, Robert F; Morella, Kristen; Carpenter, Delesha Miller

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about factors associated with the receipt of medication information among arthritis patients. This study explores information source receipt and associations between demographic and clinical/patient characteristics and the amount of arthritis medication information patients receive. Adult patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 328) completed an online cross-sectional survey. Patients reported demographic and clinical/patient characteristics and the amount of arthritis medication information received from 15 information sources. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate whether those characteristics were associated with the amount of medication information patients received. Arthritis patients received the most information from health professionals, followed by printed materials, media sources, and interpersonal sources. Greater receipt of information was associated with greater medication adherence, taking more medications, greater medication-taking concerns, more satisfaction with doctor medication-related support, and Black compared to White race. RA patients reported receiving more information compared to OA patients, and differences were found between RA patients and OA patients in characteristics associated with more information receipt. In conclusion, arthritis patients received the most medication information from professional sources, and both positive (e.g., greater satisfaction with doctor support) and negative (e.g., more medication-taking concerns) characteristics were associated with receiving more medication information.

  9. Associations Between Patient Characteristics and the Amount of Arthritis Medication Information Patients Receive.

    PubMed

    Geryk, Lorie Love; Blalock, Susan; DeVellis, Robert F; Morella, Kristen; Carpenter, Delesha Miller

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about factors associated with the receipt of medication information among arthritis patients. This study explores information source receipt and associations between demographic and clinical/patient characteristics and the amount of arthritis medication information patients receive. Adult patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 328) completed an online cross-sectional survey. Patients reported demographic and clinical/patient characteristics and the amount of arthritis medication information received from 15 information sources. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate whether those characteristics were associated with the amount of medication information patients received. Arthritis patients received the most information from health professionals, followed by printed materials, media sources, and interpersonal sources. Greater receipt of information was associated with greater medication adherence, taking more medications, greater medication-taking concerns, more satisfaction with doctor medication-related support, and Black compared to White race. RA patients reported receiving more information compared to OA patients, and differences were found between RA patients and OA patients in characteristics associated with more information receipt. In conclusion, arthritis patients received the most medication information from professional sources, and both positive (e.g., greater satisfaction with doctor support) and negative (e.g., more medication-taking concerns) characteristics were associated with receiving more medication information. PMID:27668523

  10. Benefits and Risks of Fosaprepitant in Patients Receiving Emetogenic Regimens.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Wendy; Kinsley, Karen

    2016-10-01

    Fosaprepitant dimeglumine (Emend IV®) is an IV antiemetic that may be beneficial to patients receiving highly emetogenic regimens. Aprepitant (Emend®) is an oral medication that is administered for three consecutive days, whereas fosaprepitant is a single-dose IV medication that is administered on the day of chemotherapy for 20-30 minutes (depending on the IV access type). Fosaprepitant may be useful, yet it can also present a risk for hypersensitivity reactions and phlebitis. Oncology nurses must be aware of the signs and symptoms of these potential adverse events to properly care for their patients. 
. PMID:27668376

  11. Management of HIV Infection in Patients With Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Torres, Harrys A.; Mulanovich, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with cancer remains unknown, as clinical trials are lacking and published data are insufficient to guide recommendations. When concomitant use of chemotherapy and ART is anticipated, overlap of toxic effects and drug–drug interactions between chemotherapy and ART may alter the optimal choice of ART. Prospective studies are urgently needed to further define the toxic effects of combined chemotherapy and ART in HIV-positive cancer patients. Such studies should aid the development of guidelines for treatment of this population. For now, clinicians should individualize decisions regarding treatment of HIV according to clinical and laboratory findings, cancer treatment plan (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery), liver or renal disease, potential adverse drug effects (eg, rash, gastrointestinal intolerance, bone marrow suppression), and patient preference. This review focuses on what infectious disease specialists need to know to select the most appropriate ART regimens for patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:24642555

  12. Neobladders: clinical management and considerations for patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Stone, A R; deVere White, R

    1990-10-01

    have a tendency toward dehydration because of increased loss of free water through bowel transit. 4. Absorption of chloride, ammonium, and hydrogen ions may cause hyperchloremic acidosis, especially in face of imparied renal function. 5. Because of the potential for drug absorption across reservoir mucosa, patients receiving chemotherapy may require Foley catheterization with irrigation in addition to intravenous hydration. 6. Creatinine clearance is unsuitable for studying the renal function of reservoir patients because urine passes through the intestinal segment where creatinine is absorbed; glomerular filtration is better estimated by nuclear scanning with the reservoir emptied. 7. Most reservoirs will remain colonized with bacteria. 8. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the patient with temporary impairment of immune function during chemotherapy may be necessary. 9. Mucus may entrap bacteria serving as a host defense; its production may diminish with time from construction. All patients should be capable of performing reservoir irrigations to manage mucus obstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2218572

  13. Mortality risk among hemodialysis patients receiving different vitamin D analogs.

    PubMed

    Tentori, F; Hunt, W C; Stidley, C A; Rohrscheib, M R; Bedrick, E J; Meyer, K B; Johnson, H K; Zager, P G

    2006-11-01

    Intravenous vitamin D is standard therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In for-profit dialysis clinics, mortality was higher for patients on calcitriol compared to paricalcitol. Doxercalciferol, a second vitamin D2 analog, is currently available. We assessed mortality associated with each vitamin D analog and with lack of vitamin D therapy in patients who began HD at Dialysis Clinic Inc. (DCI), a not-for-profit dialysis provider. During the 1999-2004 study period we studied 7731 patients (calcitriol: n=3212; paricalcitol: n=2087; doxercalciferol: n=2432). Median follow-up was 37 weeks. Mortality rates (deaths/100 patient-years) were identical in patients on doxercalciferol (15.4, 95% confidence interval (13.6-17.1)) and paricalcitol (15.3 (13.6-16.9)) and higher in patients on calcitriol (19.6 (18.2-21.1)) (P<0.0001). In all models mortality was similar for paricalcitol versus doxercalciferol (hazard ratios=1.0). In unadjusted models, mortality was lower in patients on doxercalciferol (0.80 (0.66, 0.96)) and paricalcitol (0.79 (0.68, 0.92)) versus calcitriol (P<0.05). In adjusted models, this difference was not statistically significant. In all models mortality was higher for patients who did not receive vitamin D versus those who did (1.2 (1.1-1.3)). Mortality in doxercalciferol- and paricalcitol-treated patients was virtually identical. Differences in survival between vitamin D2 and D3 may be smaller than previously reported.

  14. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug interactions in patients receiving statins.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-02-01

    Elderly patients commonly receive statin drugs for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Elderly patients also commonly receive antidepressant drugs, usually selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), for the treatment of depression, anxiety, or other conditions. SSRIs are associated with many pharmacokinetic drug interactions related to the inhibition of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways. There is concern that drugs that inhibit statin metabolism can trigger statin adverse effects, especially myopathy (which can be potentially serious, if rhabdomyolysis occurs). However, a detailed literature review of statin metabolism and of SSRI effects on CYP enzymes suggests that escitalopram, citalopram, and paroxetine are almost certain to be safe with all statins, and rosuvastatin, pitavastatin, and pravastatin are almost certain to be safe with all SSRIs. Even though other SSRI-statin combinations may theoretically be associated with risks, the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction is likely to be below the threshold for clinical significance. Risk, if at all, lies in combining fluvoxamine with atorvastatin, simvastatin, or lovastatin, and even this risk can be minimized by using lower statin doses and monitoring the patient.

  15. Serum hormones in male epileptic patients receiving anticonvulsant medication.

    PubMed

    Isojärvi, J I; Pakarinen, A J; Ylipalosaari, P J; Myllylä, V V

    1990-06-01

    Circulating sex and thyroid hormones, as well as the pituitary function, were assessed in 63 male patients with epilepsy receiving either a single medication of carbamazepine, phenytoin, or valproate or a combination of carbamazepine plus phenytoin or carbamazepine plus valproate. All therapeutic regimens, including carbamazepine and/or phenytoin were associated with low levels of circulating thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and with low values for the free androgen index, and phenytoin and carbamazepine plus phenytoin were associated with high serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin. These hormone parameters were unaffected by valproate monotherapy. It seems probable that accelerated hormone metabolism is responsible for the hormonal changes found in patients treated with carbamazepine and/or phenytoin. However, every drug regimen studied also had depressant and/or stimulatory effects on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The diverse endocrine effects of different antiepileptic drug regimens should be considered when starting antiepileptic drug therapy.

  16. How health information is received by diabetic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Lalazaryan, Anasik; Rahimi, Alireza; Zadeh, Akbar Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of correct information-seeking behavior by the patients can provide health specialists and health information specialists with valuable information in improving health care. This study aimed to investigate the passive receipt and active seeking of health information by diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A survey method was used in this research on 6426 diabetic patients of whom 362 patients were selected by a no percentage stratified random sampling. The Longo information-seeking behavior questionnaire was used to collect data and they were analyzed by SPSS 20 software. Results: The most common information source by diabetic patients was practitioners (3.12). The minimum usage among the information sources were from charity organizations and emergency phone lines with a usage of close to zero. The amount of health information gained passively from each source has the lowest average of 4.18 and usage of this information in making health decision has the highest average score of 5.83. Analysis of the data related to active seeking of information showed that knowledge of available medical information from each source has the lowest average score of 3.95 and ability in using the acquired information for making medical decisions has the highest average score of 5.28. The paired t-test showed that differences between passive information receipt (41.68) and active information seeking (39.20) considered as statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Because diabetic patients are more passive information receivers than active information seekers, the health information must be distributed by passive means to these patients. In addition, information-seeking behavior during different time periods should be investigated; to identify more effective distribution of health information. PMID:26261828

  17. Online social support received by patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Yli-Uotila, Tiina; Rantanen, Anja; Suominen, Tarja

    2014-03-01

    Patient education in the public healthcare system does not necessarily meet the needs of patients with cancer. Because of this, they may turn to the Internet, or they are guided to electronic sources of social support. The purposes of this study were to describe what kind of social support patients with cancer receive from the Internet and its meaning for them. The data were collected using an online survey that consisted of open-ended questions based on a theory of online social support. The data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Online social support consisted of three categories: disease-related information from reliable sources, supportive interaction enhancing positive emotions, and practical tips for daily life with cancer. Three major categories related to the meaning of online social support were identified: peers helping make life easier, empowerment, and inadequate support. The findings can be utilized in tailoring educational interventions for patients with cancer. In the future, the long-lasting effects of online social support need to be examined. PMID:24335490

  18. Prognosis of CKD Patients Receiving Outpatient Nephrology Care in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, Paolo; Zoccali, Carmine; Borrelli, Silvio; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Di Iorio, Biagio; Santoro, Domenico; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Gallo, Ciro; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Prognosis in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients under regular nephrology care is rarely investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively followed from 2003 to death or June 2010 a cohort of 1248 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 and previous nephrology care ≥1 year in 25 Italian outpatient nephrology clinics. Cumulative incidence of ESRD or death before ESRD were estimated using the competing-risk approach. Results Estimated rates (per 100 patient-years) of ESRD and death 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4 to 9.2) and 5.9 (95% CI 5.2 to 6.6), respectively. Risk of ESRD and death increased progressively from stages 3 to 5. ESRD was more frequent than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, whereas the opposite was true in stage 3 CKD. Younger age, lower body mass index, proteinuria, and high phosphate predicted ESRD, whereas older age, diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease, ESRD, proteinuria, high uric acid, and anemia predicted death (P < 0.05 for all). Among modifiable risk factors, proteinuria accounted for the greatest contribution to the model fit for either outcome. Conclusions In patients receiving continuity of care in Italian nephrology clinics, ESRD was a more frequent outcome than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, but the opposite was true in stage 3. Outcomes were predicted by modifiable risk factors specific to CKD. Proteinuria used in conjunction with estimated GFR refined risk stratification. These findings provide information, specific to CKD patients under regular outpatient nephrology care, for risk stratification that complement recent observations in the general population. PMID:21817127

  19. Infection in acute leukemia patients receiving oral nonabsorable antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D M; Schimpff, S C; Fortner, C L; Smyth, A C; Young, V M; Wiernik, P H

    1978-06-01

    During a 20-month period all acute nonlymphocytic patients (87 patient trials) receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy were placed on an oral nonabsorbable antibiotic regimen consisting of gentamicin, vancomycin, and nystatin in addition to an intensive program of infection prevention aimed at reducing exogenously acquired and body-surface potential pathogens. Although side effects of anorexia, diarrhea, and nausea were common, gentamicin-vancomycin-nystatin was ingested 80% of the study time. Microbial growth in gingival and rectal cultures was substantially reduced. The incidence of bacteremias and other serious infections was low. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, other gram-negative bacilli, and Candida species caused few infections along the alimentary canal, whereas infections of the skin (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were not reduced compared with those occurring in former years. A total of the 104 acquired gram-negative bacilli were gentamicin resistant; 5 subsequently caused infection. Thus, despite certain definite drawbacks, the use of oral nonabsorbable antibiotics to suppress alimentary tract microbial flora in combination with other infection prevention techniques in granulocytopenic cancer patients has proven feasible and tolerable and has been associated with a low order of life-threatening infections. PMID:98107

  20. Predictors of Sexual Adjustment in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between sexual adjustment, mastery, age, subjective health, and changes in sexual satisfaction in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A cross-sectional descriptive correlation study was conducted with a convenience sample comprising cancer patients who were visiting two cancer centers in Korea. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires, including the Global Sexual Satisfaction Index and sexual adjustment subscale of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The Mastery Scale was used to assess self-control. The hypothesized model was tested using a path analysis with AMOS 17.0. The path model was used to investigate causal relationships between variables, to obtain maximum-likelihood estimates of model parameters, and to provide goodness-of-fit indices. The proposed path model showed a good fit to the data. Subjective health and age may have an effect, mediated by mastery, on sexual adaption. Participants who reported more decreased sexual satisfaction showed lower levels of sexual adjustment. Mastery was not a mediating factor between changes in sexual satisfaction and sexual adjustment. Our model provides a framework for improving sexual adaption in cancer patients with chemotherapy. Health professionals should recognize and assess prior sexual satisfaction and sexual problems when providing sexual health care during treatment. PMID:26178455

  1. Review of hematological indices of cancer patients receiving combined chemotherapy & radiotherapy or receiving radiotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman

    2016-09-01

    We observed the outcomes of chemotherapy with radiotherapy (CR) or radiotherapy (RT) alone for cancer patients of larynx, breast, blood and brain origins through complete blood count (CBC). Following were more depressed in CR patients: mean corpuscular hemoglobin-MCH & lymphocytes-LYM, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-MCHC, hemoglobin-HB and red blood cells-RBC. In RT patients, following were more depressed: LYM, MCH and MCHC. Overall, in all cancer patients, the lymphocytes were depressed 52%. There existed a significant difference between white blood cells and RBC in both CR and RT patients. A significant moderate negative correlation is found in HB with the dose range 30-78 (Gray) given to the CR cancer patients. More number of CBC parameters affected in patients treated with CR and RT; but in less percentage as compared to patients who treated with RT alone. The cancer patients suffered from anemia along with immune modulations from the treatments. PMID:27423975

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, Hussain; Pooboni, Suneel

    2005-01-01

    Aims Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support system used during severe respiratory or cardiorespiratory failure. The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin during ECMO. Methods A population model was developed using WinNonMix (Version 2.0.1) from a total of 366 plasma observations in 45 patients, including term neonates, older children and adults. The study utilized both rich prospective and sparse retrospective data. Prospective samples were drawn at baseline and then 30, 60,90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 and 420 min postinfusion. Steady state concentrations were obtained retrospectively from an assay database, cross-referencing with the patients’ medical records. Results Data were examined using a two-compartment model with an additive and proportional residual error. Model fit improved substantially when clearance, CL (l kg−1 h−1) was modelled as a nonlinear function of serum creatinine (Cr) µmol l−1. There was a linear relationship between CL and age up to 1000 days: CL (Age < 1000 days) = [2.4 + 0.0018 × Age (days)]/Cr; CL (Age > 1000 days) = 4.3/Cr. Age also influenced central volume (V1) when included in the model as a dichotomous variable: V1 (Age < 4000 days) = 0.45 l kg−1; V1 (Age > 4000 days) = 0.36 l kg−1. Intercompartmental clearance and tissue volume were estimated to be 0.09 l kg−1 h−1 and 0.25 l kg−1, respectively. Model validation in a separate group of 20 patients revealed a bias of −7.7% and a precision of 26.7%. Conclusions The clearance of vancomycin was decreased and its volume of distribution increased in patients receiving ECMO, suggesting altered drug disposition during this treatment. PMID:16120065

  3. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-03-02

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD.

  4. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD. PMID:26990264

  5. Mixed systemic amyloidosis in a patient receiving long term haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, J; Rios-Camacho, C; Valenzuela-Castaño, A; Hernanz-Mediano, W

    1994-01-01

    A 64 year old woman had been receiving haemodialysis for 11 years. She had a history of chronic renal failure, caused by probable chronic pyelonephritis, and dialysis arthropathy. She died of acute pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage. At necropsy, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies showed widespread visceral deposits of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) and AA amyloid. Images PMID:8063944

  6. Comparing Relaxation Programs for Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    In this study, women with breast cancer who have had surgery and are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to one of two different stretching and relaxation programs or to a control group that will receive usual care.

  7. Relief of asthma in two patients receiving danazol for endometriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Pride, S M; Yuen, B H

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes two patients with endometriosis in whom treatment with danazol resulted in a concomitant remission of asthma. Neither patient reported an association of clinical symptoms with phases of their menstrual cycle. Whether the remission was fortuitous or related to suppression of the activity of the endometriotic tissue or to the ability of danazol to increase the serum levels of two protease inhibitors that are deficient in patients with asthma remains to be determined. PMID:6478366

  8. Clinical trial of lutein in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received ...

  9. Faster assessment of patients receiving unnecessary thyroid treatment: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffer, S.S.; Szpunar, W.E.; Meier, D.A.

    1983-02-01

    Forty-five consecutive patients on thyroid hormone treatment without obvious indication were evaluated. Twenty-five of these cases were found to have no evidence of thyroid disease. Biochemical testing was not helpful in making the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the majority of thyroid-treated hypothyroid patients. Normal technetium images were obtained in 25 patients, 22 of which had no thyroid disease. In contrast, abnormal technetium images were obtained in 20 patients, 16 of whom were thought to be hypothyroid, and one of whom developed a goiter within 2 mo after discontinuing levothyroxine. The use of technetium imaging seems useful for the rapid (20 min) evaluation of those patients likely to benefit from discontinuing thyroid medication.

  10. Malignant hyperthermia in a patient receiving nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Waite, P D; Ballard, J B; Yonfa, A

    1985-11-01

    A patient who had malignant hyperthermia that apparently was triggered by nitrous oxide anesthesia even though he was premedicated with dantrolene sodium was successfully managed on a separate occasion using dantrolene without nitrous oxide. PMID:3863903

  11. Treatment Outcome in Patients Receiving Assertive Community Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C. L.; Roosenschoon, B. J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    In an observational study of severely mentally ill patients treated in assertive community treatment (ACT) teams, we investigated how treatment outcome was associated with demographic factors, clinical factors, and motivation for treatment. To determine psychosocial outcome, patients were routinely assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Trends over time were analyzed using a mixed model with repeated measures. The HoNOS total score was modeled as a function of treatment duration and patient-dependent covariates. Data comprised 637 assessments of 139 patients; mean duration of follow-up was 27.4 months (SD = 5.4). Substance abuse, higher age, problems with motivation, and lower educational level were associated with higher HoNOS total scores (i.e., worse outcome). To improve treatment outcome, we recommend better implementation of ACT, and also the implementation of additional programs targeting subgroups which seem to benefit less from ACT. PMID:19847646

  12. Receiving family of a patient in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2012-10-01

    Pierre is currently working in the intensive care unit (ICU). The rules for visitors are strict. Visiting time is short and only two persons are allowed at a time, in the patient's ward. Standards of hygiene have to be respected carefully. This evening Pierre accompanies the husband of a Japanese tourist whose health is in a critical condition. PMID:23092085

  13. Sex Differences in Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Molina, Angeles; Enea, Iolanda; Gadelha, Telma; Tufano, Antonella; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bounameaux, Henri; González, José; Villalta, Jaume; Monreal, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), the outcome during the course of anticoagulant therapy may differ according to the patient’s sex. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad TromboEmbólica) database to compare the rate of VTE recurrences, major bleeding, and mortality due to these events according to sex. As of August 2013, 47,499 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 24,280 (51%) were women. Women were older, more likely presented with pulmonary embolism (PE), and were more likely to have recent immobilization but less likely to have cancer than men. During the course of anticoagulation (mean duration: 253 d), 659 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 576 recurrent PE, 1368 bled, and 4506 died. Compared with men, women had a lower rate of DVT recurrences (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.91), a similar rate of PE recurrences (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.83–1.15), a higher rate of major bleeding (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09–1.35), and higher mortality due to PE (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.04–1.47). On multivariable analysis, any influence of sex on the risk for recurrent DVT (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.75–1.03), major bleeding (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.98–1.24), or fatal PE (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.84–1.22) was no longer statistically significant. In conclusion, women had fewer DVT recurrences and more bleeds than men during the course of anticoagulation. These differences were not due to sex, but very likely to other patient characteristics more common in female patients and differences in treatment choice. PMID:25398066

  14. Practical management of patients with myelofibrosis receiving ruxolitinib.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Claire; Mesa, Ruben; Ross, David; Mead, Adam; Keohane, Clodagh; Gotlib, Jason; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-10-01

    Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, progressive anemia and extramedullary hematopoiesis, primarily manifested as splenomegaly. Patients also experience debilitating constitutional symptoms, including sequelae of splenomegaly, night sweats and fatigue. Ruxolitinib (INC424, INCB18424, Jakafi, Jakavi), a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, was approved in November 2011 by the US FDA for the treatment of intermediate- or high-risk MF, and more recently in Europe and Canada for the treatment of MF-related splenomegaly or symptoms. These approvals were based on data from two randomized Phase III studies: COMFORT-I randomized against placebo, and COMFORT-II randomized against best available therapy. In these studies, ruxolitinib rapidly improved multiple disease manifestations of MF, reducing splenomegaly and improving quality of life of patients and potentially prolonging survival. However, as with other chemotherapies, ruxolitinib therapy is associated with some adverse events, such as anemia and thrombocytopenia. The aims of this article are to provide a brief overview of ruxolitinib therapy, to discuss some common adverse events associated with ruxolitinib therapy and to provide clinical management recommendations to maximize patients' benefit from ruxolitinib.

  15. Peptic ulcer disease and other complications in patients receiving dexamethasone palliation for brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Penzner, R.D.; Lipsett, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 106 patients who received radiation therapy for brain metastasis. Dexamethasone therapy was instituted in 97 patients. Peptic ulcer disease developed in 5 of 89 patients (5.6 percent) who received a dosage of at least 12 mg a day, but did not occur in patients who received a lower dose or in those who did not receive steroids. The interval between institution of dexamethasone therapy and the development of peptic ulcer disease ranged from three to nine weeks. Two patients had perforated ulcers, one of whom required surgical resection. Peptic ulcer disease contributed to the general deterioration and death of three of the five patients. Overall, in 14 of the 89 patients (15.7 percent) a complication of steroid therapy developed in the form of peptic ulcer disease, steroid myopathy or diabetes mellitus (or a combination of these).

  16. Neutralising antibodies in patients with multiple myeloma receiving maintenance therapy with interferon alpha 2b.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J. B.; Barfoot, R.; Iveson, T.; Powles, R. L.; Millar, B. C.

    1994-01-01

    In a study of 29 patients who were receiving or had received interferon alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) as maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma, antibodies were detected in 58% (17/29) of patients measured by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only 7/17 patients who were positive for antibody in the ELISA had neutralising antibody to IFN-alpha 2b, measured by virus growth inhibition. These patients comprised six who were receiving IFN-alpha 2b at the time of assessment and one who had finished treatment. Among patients who were receiving the cytokine, four had progressive disease, one was in complete remission and one in partial remission. Neutralising activity was also detected to natural human leucocyte IFN-alpha in the same patients. Two patients who were positive for neutralising antibody remain in remission and are continuing to receive IFN-alpha 2b. These two patients have since lost their neutralising titre. No neutralising antibody to IFN-alpha 2b or natural human leucocyte IFN-alpha was detected in serum from six normal donors. The data suggest that neutralising antibody formation in patients with multiple myeloma is not responsible for relapse in patients receiving IFN-alpha 2b. The transient nature of neutralising antibody production in patients who remain in remission suggests that this response to IFN-alpha 2b is not associated with memory B cells. PMID:7917911

  17. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods. PMID:27247165

  18. Predicting postoperative vomiting among orthopedic patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia using SVM and LR

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods. PMID:27247165

  19. Risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment: a nationwide retrospective matched-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Wen; Liao, Chien-Chang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Ta-Liang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Shih, Chun-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving and not receiving acupuncture treatment. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting This study was based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database that included information on stroke patients hospitalised between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004. Participants We identified 42 040 patients hospitalised with newly diagnosed stroke who were aged 20 years and above. Primary and secondary outcome measures We compared incident epilepsy during the follow-up period until the end of 2009 in stroke patients who were and were not receiving acupuncture. The adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of epilepsy associated with acupuncture were calculated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. Results Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment (9.8 per 1000 person-years) experienced a reduced incidence of epilepsy compared to those who did not receive acupuncture treatment (11.5 per 1000 person-years), with an HR of 0.74 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.80) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and coexisting medical conditions. Acupuncture treatment was associated with a decreased risk of epilepsy, particularly among stroke patients aged 20–69 years. The log-rank test probability curve indicated that stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a reduced probability of epilepsy compared with individuals who did not receive acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusions Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment had a reduced risk of epilepsy compared with those not receiving acupuncture treatment. However, the protective effects associated with acupuncture treatment require further validation in prospective cohort studies. PMID:27412100

  20. Five-Year Survival Among Stage IIIA Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Two Different Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Bilfinger, Thomas; Keresztes, Roger; Albano, Denise; Nemesure, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Five-year survival rates among stage IIIA lung cancer patients range between 2% and 15%, and there is currently no consensus regarding optimal treatment approaches for these patients. The current investigation evaluated survival outcomes among stage IIIA lung cancer patients receiving 2 different treatment modalities, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection versus chemoradiation alone. Material/Methods This retrospective study is based on 127 patients attending the Lung Cancer Evaluation Center at Stony Brook Cancer Center between 2002 and 2014. Patients were treated either with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection or a regimen of chemoradiation alone. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival outcomes between groups and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate treatment effects on survival, while adjusting for possible confounders. Results Approximately one-fourth (n=33) of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, whereas 94 patients received definitive chemoradiation. Patients in the surgical group were found to be significantly younger than those receiving chemoradiation alone (60.1 vs. 67.9 years, respectively; p=0.001). Five-year survival among patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection was significantly higher than that among patients receiving chemoradiation alone (63% vs. 19%, respectively; p<0.001), whereas the hazard ratio (HR) was 3–4 times greater in the latter group (HR=3.77, 95% confidence interval=1.87, 7.61). Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection can improve survival outcomes for stage IIIA lung cancer patients compared with chemoradiation alone. The results reflect a select surgical group of patients; thus, the data highlight the need to develop new therapies that may result in more patients being viable surgical candidates. PMID:27442604

  1. Safety of parenteral nutrition in patients receiving a ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Corey; Pinney, Sean P; Lin, Hung-Mo; Potenza, Matthew; Weiss, Aaron J; Zaidi, Neeha; Anyanwu, Anelechi; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2014-01-01

    Patients with advanced heart failure and poor nutritional status are predisposed to higher rates of infection, bleeding, and mortality. We have increasingly used perioperative parenteral nutrition (PN) in ventricular assist device (VAD) patients and now report our initial experience. We performed a retrospective review of 43 consecutive patients who received implantable VADs from 2006 to 2009. We compared outcomes for patients receiving PN for >7 days perioperatively vs ≤7 days. In addition, we compared patients who received preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) with those who did not. Fourteen patients received perioperative PN in addition to EN for >7 days compared with 29 patients who received either PN for ≤7 days or EN alone. Univariate analysis showed no differences in infection, bleeding, thrombus, stroke, length of stay, or mortality. Multivariate stepwise regression including EN, preoperative PN, Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulation score, age, gender, and VAD indication showed that only EN was associated with infection. Prolonged use of perioperative PN appears to be safe and well tolerated in patients undergoing VAD implantation. Preoperative EN, while increasing infection risk, seems to have no harmful effect on survival. PMID:24658517

  2. Predictive Factors for Radiation Pneumonitis in Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Receiving Combined-Modality Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Amy M.; Dosoretz, Arie P.; Mauch, Peter M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Fisher, David C.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Silver, Barbara; Ng, Andrea K.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: This study sought to quantify the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients receiving mediastinal radiation therapy (RT) and to identify predictive factors for RP. Methods and Materials: We identified 75 patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with mediastinal RT and 17 patients with relapsed/refractory HL treated with mediastinal RT before or after transplant. Lung dose-volumetric parameters including mean lung dose and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy were calculated. Factors associated with RP were explored by use of the Fisher exact test. Results: RP developed in 7 patients (10%) who received mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1 in 6 cases). A mean lung dose of 13.5 Gy or greater (p = 0.04) and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy of 33.5% or greater (p = 0.009) significantly predicted for RP. RP developed in 6 patients (35%) with relapsed/refractory HL treated with peri-transplant mediastinal RT (Grade 3 in 4 cases). Pre-transplant mediastinal RT, compared with post-transplant mediastinal RT, significantly predicted for Grade 3 RP (57% vs. 0%, p = 0.015). Conclusions: We identified threshold lung metrics predicting for RP in HL patients receiving mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy, with the majority of cases being of mild severity. The risk of RP is significantly higher with peri-transplant mediastinal RT, especially among those who receive pre-transplant RT.

  3. [Perioperative complications of transurethral resection of bladder tumor in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy].

    PubMed

    Wada, Naoki; Okazaki, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Shin; Hashizume, Kazumi; Hori, Junichi; Azumi, Makoto; Kita, Masafumi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2014-11-01

    We examined perioperative complications of transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy. We retrospectively studied 276 patients who underwent TURBT in our institute from January 2007 to March 2013. The study group consisted of 105 patients (38%) who were receiving antithrombotic agents, and the other 171 patients (62%) without antithrombotic agents were assigned to the control group. The period of discontinuation of antithrombotic agents complied with our institutional rule. The most frequently used agent was aspirin (69 patients : 66%), followed by warfarin (25 patients : 24%). Fourteen patients receiving warfarin (56%) needed heparin bridging therapy. There was no significant difference in average operative time (51 minutes versus 54 minutes), or average days to removal of urethral catheter (3.7 days versus 3.3 days) between the study and control groups. Hemorrhagic and ischemic complications were noted in 11 (10.5%) and 2 (1.9%) patients in the study group and 11 (6.4%) and none (0%) of the patients in the control group, respectively, with no significant difference between the 2 groups. However, prevalence of hemorrhagic complications in patients receiving heparin bridging therapy (21.4%) was significantly higher than that in the control group. Ischemic complications in the study group included chest pain suggestive of angina in one patient and acute myocardial infarction leading to death in another patient. We should pay attention to hemorrhagic complications in patients receiving heparin bridging therapy and keep in mind the possibility of lethal ischemic complications after discontinuation of antithrombotic agents. PMID:25511938

  4. 75 FR 20511 - Respecting the Rights of Hospital Patients to Receive Visitors and to Designate Surrogate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... behalf has real consequences. It means that doctors and nurses do not always have the best information about patients' medications and medical histories and that friends and certain family members are unable... ensure that patients can receive compassionate care and equal treatment during their hospital stays....

  5. Perturbation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Acoustic Phonatory Signal in Parkinsonian Patients Receiving Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victoria S.; Zhou, Xiao Ping; Rahn, Douglas A., III; Wang, Emily Q.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen PD patients who received deep brain stimulation (DBS), 10 non-surgical (control) PD patients, and 11 non-pathologic age- and gender-matched subjects performed sustained vowel phonations. The following acoustic measures were obtained on the sustained vowel phonations: correlation dimension (D[subscript 2]), percent jitter, percent shimmer,…

  6. Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy in Acute Stroke: Do Rural Patients Receive Less Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess whether acute stroke patients in rural hospitals receive less occupational therapy and physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. Design. Retrospective case-control study of health data in patients ≤10 days after stroke. Setting. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy services in four rural hospitals and one metropolitan hospital. Participants. Acute stroke patients admitted in one health district. Main Outcome Measures. Frequency and duration of face-to-face and indirect therapy sessions. Results. Rural hospitals admitted 363 patients and metropolitan hospital admitted 378 patients. Mean age was 73 years. Those in rural hospitals received more face-to-face (p > 0.0014) and indirect (p = 0.001) occupational therapy when compared to those in the metropolitan hospital. Face-to-face sessions lasted longer (p = 0.001). Patients admitted to the metropolitan hospital received more face-to-face (p > 0.000) and indirect (p > 0.000) physiotherapy when compared to those admitted to rural hospitals. Face-to-face sessions were shorter (p > 0.000). Almost all were seen within 24 hours of referral. Conclusions. Acute stroke patients in Australian rural hospital may receive more occupational therapy and less physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. The dose of therapy was lower than recommended, and the referral process may unnecessarily delay the time from admission to a patient's first therapy session. PMID:27752389

  7. Incidence of anemia in patients diagnosed with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hairong; Xu, Lanfang; Page, John H; Cannavale, Kim; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Rodriguez, Roberto; Chao, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and characterize the risk of anemia during the course of chemotherapy among patients with five common types of solid tumors. Patients and methods Patients diagnosed with incident cancers of breast, lung, colon/rectum, stomach, and ovary who received chemotherapy were identified from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Plan (2010–2012). All clinical data were collected from the health plan’s electronic medical records. Incidence proportions of patients developing anemia and 95% confidence intervals were calculated overall and by anemia severity and type, as well as by stage at cancer diagnosis, and by chemotherapy regimen and cycle. Results A total of 4,426 patients who received chemotherapy were included. Across cancers, 3,962 (89.5%) patients developed anemia during the course of chemotherapy (normocytic 85%, macrocytic 10%, microcytic 5%; normochromic 47%, hyperchromic 44%, hypochromic 9%). The anemia grades were distributed as follows: 58% were grade 1, 34% grade 2, 8% grade 3, and <1% grade 4. The incidence of grade 2+ anemia ranged from 26.3% in colorectal cancer patients to 59.2% in ovarian cancer patients. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia increased from 29% in stage I to 49% in stage IV. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia varied from 18.2% in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide + docetaxel regimen to 59.7% in patients with ovarian cancer receiving carboplatin + paclitaxel regimen. Conclusion The incidence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin <10 g/dL) remained considerably high in patients with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy. The risk of anemia was greater in patients with distant metastasis. PMID:27186078

  8. Infused Therapy and Survival in Older Patients Diagnosed with Metastatic Breast Cancer who Received Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robert I; Lalla, Deepa; Herbert, Robert J; Doan, Justin F; Brammer, Melissa G; Danese, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data (2000-2006) to describe treatment and survival in women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who received trastuzumab. There were 610 patients with a mean age of 74 years. Overall, 32% received trastuzumab alone and 47% received trastuzumab plus a taxane. In multivariate analysis, trastuzumab plus chemotherapy was associated with a lower adjusted cancer mortality rate (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.39-0.74; p < .001) than trastuzumab alone among patients who received trastuzumab as part of first-line therapy. Adding chemotherapy to first-line trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer is associated with improved cancer survival. PMID:21929325

  9. Immunogenicity Assessment of Lipegfilgrastim in Patients with Breast Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Anton; Roberge, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Lipegfilgrastim is a long-acting, once-per-cycle, glycopegylated recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) used to prevent neutropenia in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. This integrated analysis examined the immunogenicity of lipegfilgrastim and its potential clinical impact in two double-blind randomized studies (phases II and III) of patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Serum samples were analyzed using sequential assays for screening, confirmation, antibody titer, and characterization of antidrug antibodies (ADA). Neutropenia-related efficacy measures were reviewed for each ADA-positive patient. Among 255 patients receiving lipegfilgrastim (154 in phase II, 101 in phase III) and 155 patients receiving pegfilgrastim (54 in phase II, 101 in phase III), the incidence of treatment-emergent ADA was low and similar between the lipegfilgrastim (phase II: 1.3%; phase III: 1.0%) and pegfilgrastim (phase II: 1.9%; phase III: 1.0%) arms. None of the treatment-emergent ADA-positive samples exhibited neutralizing activity against lipegfilgrastim, pegfilgrastim, or glycosylated G-CSF in a cell-based neutralizing antibody assay. No changes were observed in neutropenia-related efficacy measures among ADA-positive patients, and no treatment-related hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis occurred. These results indicate that there is no apparent impact of ADA on lipegfilgrastim efficacy and safety. PMID:27419145

  10. Effects of Natural Sounds on Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation Support.

    PubMed

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic pain management in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support in critical care units is under investigated. Natural sounds may help reduce the potentially harmful effects of anxiety and pain in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pleasant, natural sounds on self-reported pain in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support, using a pragmatic parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a general adult intensive care unit of a high-turnover teaching hospital, in Tehran, Iran. Between October 2011 and June 2012, we recruited 60 patients receiving mechanical ventilation support to the intervention (n = 30) and control arms (n = 30) of a pragmatic parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants in both arms wore headphones for 90 minutes. Those in the intervention arm heard pleasant, natural sounds, whereas those in the control arm heard nothing. Outcome measures included the self-reported visual analog scale for pain at baseline; 30, 60, and 90 minutes into the intervention; and 30 minutes post-intervention. All patients approached agreed to participate. The trial arms were similar at baseline. Pain scores in the intervention arm fell and were significantly lower than in the control arm at each time point (p < .05). Administration of pleasant, natural sounds via headphones is a simple, safe, nonpharmacologic nursing intervention that may be used to allay pain for up to 120 minutes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support.

  11. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kunka, Megan E.; Cady, Elizabeth A.; Woo, Heejung C.; Thompson Bastin, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours), which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient's actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure. PMID:26246919

  12. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  13. Increased risk of deep-vein thrombosis in patients with multiple myeloma receiving thalidomide and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zangari, M; Anaissie, E; Barlogie, B; Badros, A; Desikan, R; Gopal, A V; Morris, C; Toor, A; Siegel, E; Fink, L; Tricot, G

    2001-09-01

    The occurrence of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, who were randomly assigned to receive identical induction chemotherapy with or without thalidomide, are reported in this study. The 2 study arms were comparable with respect to key myeloma prognostic factors and known risk factors for DVT. One hundred patients received induction chemotherapy including 4 cycles of continuous infusion of combinations of dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin, and each patient completed at least one induction cycle. DVT developed in 14 of 50 patients (28%) randomly assigned to receive thalidomide but in only 2 of 50 patients (4%) not given the agent (P =.002). All episodes of DVT occurred during the first 3 cycles of induction. Administration of thalidomide was resumed safely in 75% of patients receiving anticoagulation therapy. Thus, thalidomide given in combination with multiagent chemotherapy and dexamethasone is associated with a significantly increased risk of DVT, which appears to be safely treated with anticoagulation and does not necessarily warrant discontinuation of thalidomide.

  14. An analysis of fosaprepitant-induced venous toxicity in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Alexis D.; Grendahl, Darryl C.; Seisler, Drew K.; Sorgatz, Kristine M.; Anderson, Kari J.; Hilger, Crystal R.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Fosaprepitant is an antiemetic used for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. We recently reported increased infusion site adverse events (ISAE) in a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). In this current study, we evaluated the venous toxicity of fosaprepitant use with non-anthracycline platinum-based antineoplastic regimens. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of the first 81 patients initiated on fosaprepitant among patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, on or after January 1, 2011 at Mayo Clinic Rochester. None of these regimens included an anthracycline. Data collected included baseline demographics, chemotherapy regimen, type of intravenous access and type, and severity of ISAE. Data from these patients were compared to previously collected data from patients who had received AC. Statistical analysis using χ2 and univariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between treatment regimen, fosaprepitant, and risk of ISAE. Results Among these 81 patients, the incidence of ISAE was 7.4 % in the non-anthracycline platinum group. The most commonly reported ISAE were swelling (3 %), extravasation (3 %), and phlebitis (3 %). When stratified by regimen, fosaprepitant was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of ISAE in the anthracycline group (OR 8.1; 95 % CI 2.0–31.9) compared to the platinum group. Conclusions Fosaprepitant antiemetic therapy causes significant ISAE that are appreciably higher than previous reports. Patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy appear to have less significant ISAE than do patients who receive anthracycline-based regimens. PMID:24964876

  15. Risk of drug-eluting stent thrombosis in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sarafoff, Nikolaus; Sibbing, Dirk; Sonntag, Ulrich; Ellert, Julia; Schulz, Stefanie; Byrne, Robert A; Mehilli, Julinda; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2010-09-01

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug that is converted via the hepatic cytochrome P450 system into its active thiol metabolite. Evidence is accumulating that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) inhibit this enzymatic pathway and may therefore attenuate the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. The objective of this study was to investigate whether patients on clopidogrel therapy after drug-eluting stent (DES) placement who also receive a PPI are at higher risk of stent thrombosis (ST). This is a retrospective analysis of patients who received dual antiplatelet treatment including clopidogrel after DES placement. Outcomes were compared according to PPI therapy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of definite ST at 30 days. Secondary endpoints were death, combined death or ST and myocardial infarction (MI). The study population included 3,338 patients and 698 patients (20.9%) received PPIs. Patients receiving a PPI had a higher risk profile at baseline. Multivariate analysis showed that PPI treatment was not independently associated with the occurrence of ST [adjusted HR 1.8 (95% CI: 0.7-4.7), p=0.23] or MI [adjusted HR 1.3 (0.8-2.3), p=0.11]. PPI treatment was significantly associated with death [adjusted HR 2.2 (1.1-4.3), p=0.02] and death or ST [adjusted HR 3.3(1.7-6.7), p=0.02]. Concomitant treatment with a PPI in patients receiving dual antiplatelet treatment after coronary stenting is not an independent predictor of ST. The higher mortality is probably due to confounding as patients on PPIs had a higher risk profile at baseline. PMID:20664905

  16. The Meaning of Parenteral Hydration to Family Caregivers and Patients with Advanced Cancer Receiving Hospice Care

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marlene Z; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Burbach, Beth E.; de Rosa, Allison; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Context In the U.S., patients with advanced cancer who are dehydrated or have decreased oral intake virtually always receive parenteral hydration in acute care facilities but rarely in the hospice setting. Objectives To describe the meaning of hydration for terminally ill cancer patients in home hospice care and for their primary caregivers. Methods Phenomenological interviews were conducted at two time points with 85 patients and 84 caregivers enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial examining the efficacy of parenteral hydration in patients with advanced cancer receiving hospice care in the southern U.S. Transcripts were analyzed hermeneutically by the interdisciplinary research team until consensus on the theme labels was reached. Results Patients and their family caregivers both saw hydration as meaning hope and comfort. Hope was the view that hydration might prolong a life of dignity and enhance quality of life by reducing symptoms such as fatigue and increasing patients’ alertness. Patients and caregivers also described hydration as improving patients’ comfort by reducing pain, enhancing the effectiveness of pain medication, and nourishing the body, mind and spirit. Conclusion These findings differ from traditional hospice beliefs that dehydration enhances patient comfort given that patients and their families in the study viewed fluids as enhancing comfort, dignity and quality of life. Discussion with patients and families about their preferences for hydration may help tailor care plans to meet specific patient needs. PMID:22459230

  17. Fosaprepitant-induced Phlebitis: A Focus on Patients receiving Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leal, A. D.; Kadakia, K. C.; Looker, S.; Hilger, C.; Sorgatz, K.; Anderson, K.; Jacobson, A.; Grendahl, D.; Seisler, D.; Hobday, T.; Loprinzi, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of fosaprepitant-associated infusion site adverse events (ISAEs) among a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. Methods A retrospective review of electronic medical record (EMR) data was performed for all patients who were initiated on AC from January 2011 to April 2012. Data collected included baseline demographics, antiemetic regimen, documentation of ISAEs and type of intravenous (IV) access. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation or percentages) were summarized overall, by type of IV access and initial antiemetic given. Results Among the 148 patients included in this analysis, 98 initially received fosaprepitant and 44 received aprepitant. The incidence of ISAEs associated with fosaprepitant administration was 34.7% (n=34), while the incidence of aprepitant-associated ISAEs was 2.3% (n=1). All ISAEs were associated with peripheral IV access. The most commonly reported ISAEs were: infusion site pain (n=26), erythema (n=22), swelling (n=12), superficial thrombosis (n=8), infusion site hives (n=5) and phlebitis/thrombophlebitis (n=5). Twenty-six patients experienced more than one type of ISAE. Conclusions The incidence and severity of ISAEs associated with fosaprepitant administration among a group of patients receiving AC chemotherapy is significant and appreciably higher than what has been previously reported. PMID:24402411

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Serotonin Toxicity among Veterans Affairs Patients Receiving Linezolid and Vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, N.; Rivera, A.; Tristani, L.; Lazariu, V.; Vandewall, H.; McNutt, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the theoretical risk of serotonin toxicity (ST) with linezolid, “real-world” clinical evaluations of the risk of ST in patients receiving linezolid have been limited to case reports and noncomparator studies. An observational, matched-cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ST among hospitalized patients who received linezolid or vancomycin at the Upstate New York Veterans Affairs Healthcare Network (Veterans Integrated Service Network 2 [VISN-2]). Matching criteria included VISN-2 hospital, hospital ward, prior hospital length of stay, age, and baseline platelet counts. The patients' electronic medical records were evaluated for symptoms consistent with ST and the Hunter serotonin toxicity criteria (HSTC) using an intensive, natural word search algorithm. The study included 251 matched pairs. Demographics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Over half of the study population received at least one concurrent medication with serotonergic activity. Receipt of agents with serotonergic activity was more pronounced in the vancomycin group, and the higher frequency was due to concomitant antihistamine and antiemetic use. Antidepressant use, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), was similar between groups. No patients in either group were found to meet the criteria using the word search algorithm for ST. Fewer linezolid patients than vancomycin patients met the HSTC overall (3.2% versus 8.8%) and when stratified by receipt of a concurrent serotonergic agent (4.3% versus 12.4%). Of the patients meeting the HSTC, most had past or present comorbidities that may have contributed to or overlapped the HSTC. This study of hospitalized patients revealed comparably low frequencies of adverse events potentially related to ST among patients who received linezolid or vancomycin. PMID:24041888

  19. Outcomes in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Patients Who Received an Antiepileptic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Kimberly L.; McDade, Erin J.; Moffett, Brady S.; Wilfong, Angus A.; Cabrera, Antonio G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in cardiac operations over the last few decades, including corrective operations in early life, have dramatically increased the survival of children with congenital heart disease. However, postoperative care has been associated with neurologic complications, with seizures being the most common manifestation. The primary objective of this study is to describe the outcomes in pediatric patients who received an antiepileptic drug (AED) post–cardiac surgery. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was performed in all patients less than 18 years of age who received an AED in the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Texas Children's Hospital from June 2002 until June 2012. Cardiac surgical patients initiated on phenobarbital, phenytoin, and levetiracetam were queried. Patients were excluded if the AED was not initiated on the admission for surgery. Patients who received 1 AED were compared to patients who received 2 AED, and differences in outcomes examined between the 3 AEDs used were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients met the study criteria. Patients were initiated on an AED a median of 4 days following surgery and became seizure free a median of 1 day after initiation, with 65% remaining seizure free after the first dose. Half of all patients required 2 AEDs for seizure control, with a higher proportion of adolescents requiring 2 AEDs (p = 0.04). No differences were found when comparing the collected outcomes between phenobarbital, fosphenytoin, or levetiracetam. CONCLUSION: No adverse events were reported with the AEDs reviewed. Further work is necessary to evaluate long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population and whether outcomes are a result of the AED or of other clinical sequelae.

  20. Modulatory effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on defecation in elderly patients receiving enteral feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Junko; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Shirahata, Akira; Baba, Mieko; Abe, Akie; Ogawa, Koichi; Shimoda, Taeko

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the health management of elderly patients receiving enteral feeding. METHODS: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were performed with long-term inpatients receiving enteral tube feeding at Kitakyushu Hospital Group, Fukuoka, Japan. BB536 was administered as BB536-L and BB536-H powders that contained approximately 2.5 × 1010 and 5 × 1010 cfu of BB536, respectively. In the first trial, 83 patients (age range: 67-101 years) were randomized into 2 groups that received placebo (placebo group) or BB536-H (BB536 group) powders. In the second trial, 123 patients (age range: 65-102 years) were randomized into 3 groups, and each group received placebo (placebo group), BB536-L (BB536-L group), or BB536-H (BB536-H group) powders. Each patient received the study medication for 16 wk after 1 wk of pre-observation. Fecal samples were collected from each patient prior to and after the intervention during Trial 2. Clinical observations included body temperature, occurrence of infection, frequency of defecation, and fecal microbiota. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in the frequency of defecation for either treatment in Trial 1. However, a significant change was noted in the BB536-L group (P = 0.0439) in Trial 2 but not in the placebo or BB536-H groups. Subgroup analyses based on the frequency of defecation for each patient during the pre-observation period for both trials revealed significant increases in bowel movements in patients with a low frequency of defecation and significant decreases in the bowel movements of patients with a high frequency of defecation during the intervention period in the BB536 groups. The combination of Trials 1 and 2 data revealed a modulatory effect of BB536 ingestion on the changes in bowel movements. Significantly increased bowel movements were observed in patients in the low frequency subgroup with significant intergroup differences (P < 0

  1. Observations of vitamin A toxicity in three patients with renal failure receiving parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, E E; Eisenberg, L D; Hack, S; Parton, P; Merritt, R J

    1986-07-01

    Elevated serum retinol concentrations have been previously reported in patients with renal failure, although overt clinical toxicity has been described only rarely. We present three patients with renal failure receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) who developed biochemical and clinical findings of hypervitaminosis A. Improvement followed deletion of vitamin A from the TPN. These cases demonstrate that patients with renal failure may be at risk for symptomatic vitamin A toxicity if given TPN with standard retinol supplementation. Such patients should be carefully observed clinically and biochemically if supplementation is given.

  2. The most common patient complaints that the front office receives and how to manage them.

    PubMed

    Homisak, Lynn; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Every practice has issues with patients, and one of the most common contact points is between the patient and the receptionist. This contact point requires a receptionist capable of managing the patient and turning a negative into a positive. It also requires tact and diplomacy so that the patient is not embarrassed or placed on the defensive. This article will present 10 of the most common complaints that the receptionist is likely to receive and how to effectively manage and diffuse each of the issues. PMID:23167034

  3. Cardiac Arrest in a Heart Transplant Patient Receiving Dexmedetomidine During Cardiac Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lawrence Israel; Miyamoto, Shelley D; Stenquist, Scott; Twite, Mark David

    2016-06-01

    Dexmedetomidine is an α-2 agonist with a sedative and cardiopulmonary profile that makes it an attractive anesthetic in pediatric cardiac patients. Cardiac transplant patients may suffer from acute cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system and, therefore, are at an increased risk of the electrophysiological effect of dexmedetomidine. We present such a patient who had a cardiac arrest while receiving dexmedetomidine during cardiac catheterization. Because acute cellular rejection of the cardiac conduction system is difficult to diagnose, dexmedetomidine should be used with caution in pediatric heart transplant patients. PMID:26721807

  4. Estimation of the Dose of Radiation Received by Patient and Physician During a Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Yoshiaki; Chida, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is considered the standard diagnostic imaging technique to investigate swallowing disorders and dysphagia. Few studies have been reported concerning the dose of radiation a patient receives and the scattering radiation dose received by a physician during VFSS. In this study, we investigated the dose of radiation (entrance skin dose, ESD) estimated to be received by a patient during VFSS using a human phantom (via a skin-dose monitor sensor placed on the neck of the human phantom). We also investigated the effective dose (ED) and dose equivalent (DE) received by a physician (wearing two personal dosimeters) during an actual patient procedure. One dosimeter (whole body) was worn under a lead apron at the chest, and the other (specially placed to measure doses received by the lens of the eye) outside the lead apron on the neck collar to monitor radiation doses in parts of the body not protected by the lead apron. The ESD for the patient was 7.8 mGy in 5 min. We estimated the average patient dose at 12.79 mGy per VFSS procedure. The physician ED and DE during VFSS were 0.9 mSv/year and 2.3 mSv/year, respectively. The dose of radiation received by the physician in this study was lower than regulatory dose limits. However, in accordance with the principle that radiation exposure should be as low as reasonably achievable, every effort should be made (e.g., wearing lead glasses) to reduce exposure doses. PMID:27318941

  5. Methemoglobinemia in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Receiving Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Timothy G.; Carroll, Megan G.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 6-month Final Diagnosis: Methemoglobinemia Symptoms: — Medication: Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Clinical Procedure: Methylene blue administration Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Methemoglobinemia due to the administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim has been documented in a series of case reports. However, all of these reports are on adult patients, and all patients received at least daily administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for the treatment of active or suspected infection. Case Report: Herein we report the development of methemoglobinemia in a pediatric patient receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim three times weekly for the prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Conclusions: The clinician should always consider sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, even when administered for opportunistic infection prophylaxis at reduced doses and intervals, as a possible cause of methemoglobinemia. PMID:27424851

  6. High need patients receiving targeted entitlements: what responsibilities do they have in primary health care?

    PubMed

    Buetow, S

    2005-05-01

    Patient responsibilities in primary health care are controversial and, by comparison, the responsibilities of high need patients are less clear. This paper aims to suggest why high need patients receiving targeted entitlements in primary health care are free to have prima facie special responsibilities; why, given this freedom, these patients morally have special responsibilities; what these responsibilities are, and how publicly funded health systems ought to be able to respond when these remain unmet. It is suggested that the special responsibilities and their place in public policy acquire moral significance as a means to discharge a moral debt, share special knowledge, and produce desirable consequences in regard to personal and collective interests. Special responsibilities magnify ordinary patient responsibilities and require patients not to hesitate regarding attendance for primary health care. Persistent patient disregard of special responsibilities may necessitate limiting the scope of these responsibilities, removing system barriers, or respecifying special rights. PMID:15863693

  7. [Menstrual abnormality in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant endocrine-chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Yasumura, T; Oka, T; Honjo, H; Okada, H

    1988-10-01

    Menstrual status and ovarian function were studied in 24 premenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and tamoxifen or chemotherapy alone. In 13 of 24 patients (54.1%), abnormal menses, including amenorrhea in 12 cases and oligomenorrhea in 1 case, developed during adjuvant therapy. In patients with abnormal menses, serum estradiol was significantly lower, and the levels of gonadotropins were significantly higher than in patients with normal menses. Among 13 patients with abnormal menses, 4 patients treated with cyclophosphamide revealed persistent amenorrhea during the whole period with adjuvant therapy, and the levels of serum estradiol and progesterone were extremely low. Furthermore, in these patients normal menses has not recovered and the levels of serum estradiol and progesterone remained low 4 to 5 months after cessation of cyclophosphamide administration. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy caused depression of ovarian function, and cyclophosphamide induced ovarian failure, resulting in complete amenorrhea.

  8. Essential fatty acid deficiency while a patient receiving fat regimen total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus; Phanachet, Pariya; Roongpisuthipong, Chulaporn; Rajatanavin, Natta

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was diagnosed with lymphoma and underwent Billroth’s II operation because of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Although the patient received fat regimen total parenteral nutrition (TPN), the patient developed typical skin rash of essential fatty acid deficiency after 2 weeks of starting TPN. The diagnosis was confirmed by biochemical and histological analyses. After increasing the lipid infusion, the rash was gradually improved with complete resolution after 19 days. PMID:22707694

  9. Supportive Nursing Care and Satisfaction of Patients Receiving Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Keykha, Roghaieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient satisfaction is the most important criterion in evaluating the quality of care. Besides, its assessment in patients with severe mental disorder treated by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly appropriate. The ECT is accompanied by lower satisfaction and may exacerbate the patients’ condition. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the effect of supportive nursing care on the satisfaction of patients receiving ECT. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the education center of Baharan psychiatric hospital, Zahedan, Iran. Seventy hospitalized patients receiving ECT were randomly divided into two groups of control (n = 35) and intervention (n = 35).The socio-personal and Webster Satisfaction Questionnaire were used as data collection tools. The intervention group received supportive nursing care by nurses trained in informational, emotional, and physical aspects. The control group received only regular nursing care. The levels of satisfaction were measured and compared between groups, before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, and Chi-square, independent and paired t tests, as well as covariance analysis were performed. Results: The results showed similarities in socio-personal characteristics of both groups. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the means of satisfaction in the groups, predominantly for the intervention group. In other words, a significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the means of satisfaction of the intervention (54.71 ± 5.27) and control (36.28 ± 7.00) groups after intervention by controlling the effect of socio-personal variables. Conclusions: Results of the current study confirmed the effect of supportive nursing care on increasing the level of satisfaction in ECT receiving patients, recommending the use of this therapeutic method. PMID:26473077

  10. Predicting outcomes among patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure receiving anticoagulation with warfarin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jeong; Ozonoff, Al; Hylek, Elaine M; Berlowitz, Dan R; Ash, Aelene S; Miller, Donald R; Zhao, Shibei; Reisman, Joel I; Jasuja, Guneet K; Rose, Adam J

    2015-07-01

    Among patients receiving oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (HF) is associated with poor anticoagulation control. However, it is not known which patients with heart failure are at greatest risk of adverse outcomes. We evaluated 62,156 Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients receiving warfarin for AF between 10/1/06-9/30/08 using merged VA-Medicare dataset. We predicted time in therapeutic range (TTR) and rates of adverse events by categorising patients into those with 0, 1, 2, or 3+ of five putative markers of HF severity such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST)> 80 U/l, alkaline phosphatase> 150 U/l, serum sodium< 130 mEq/l, any receipt of metolazone, and any inpatient admission for HF exacerbation. These risk categories predicted TTR: patients without HF (referent) had a mean TTR of 65.0 %, while HF patients with 0, 1, 2, 3 or more markers had mean TTRs of 62.2 %, 57.2 %, 53.5 %, and 50.7 %, respectively (p< 0.001). These categories also discriminated for major haemorrhage well; compared to patients without HF, HF patients with increasing severity had hazard ratios of 1.84, 3.06, 3.52 and 5.14 respectively (p< 0.001). However, although patients with HF had an elevated hazard for bleeding compared to those without HF, these categories did not effectively discriminate risk of ischaemic stroke across HF. In conclusion, we developed a HF severity model using easily available clinical characteristics that performed well to risk-stratify patients with HF who are receiving anticoagulation for AF with regard to major haemorrhage. PMID:25948532

  11. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  12. Cognitive/Attentional Distraction in the Control of Conditioned Nausea in Pediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, William H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…

  13. Spontaneous Resolution of Chronic Subdural Haematoma in a Patient Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ratre, Shailendra; Yadav, Yadram; Choudhary, Sushma; Parihar, Vijay

    2015-08-01

    Significant chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is usually a surgical emergency. Spontaneous resolution of CSDH has rarely been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of spontaneous resolution of CSDH in a patient receiving anticoagulant therapy who had undergone mitral valve replacement surgery. PMID:27604441

  14. Portraits of Caregivers of End-Stage Dementia Patients Receiving Hospice Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Swails, Peggy; Power, James

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how caregivers respond to the end stages of dementia with the assistance from hospice. Data were collected from 27 family caregivers over the course of 10 months, with each caregiver being interviewed up to 4 times during the time that the patient received hospice care. Chart review data were also…

  15. Trend and outcome of Korean patients receiving overseas solid organ transplantation between 1999 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Lee, Suk-Koo; Ha, Jongwon

    2011-01-01

    The disparity between patients awaiting transplantation and available organs forced many patients to go overseas to receive a transplant. Few data concerning overseas transplantation in Korea are available and the Korea Society for Transplantation conducted a survey to evaluate the trend and outcome of overseas transplantation. The survey, conducted on June 2006, included 25 hospitals nationwide that followed up patients after receiving kidney transplant (KT) or liver transplant (LT) overseas. The number of KT increased from 6 in 2001 to 206 in 2005 and for LT from 1 to 261. The information about overseas transplant came mostly from other patients (57%). The mean cost for KT was $21,000 and for LT $47,000. Patients were admitted for 18.5 days for KT and 43.4 days for LT. Graft and patient survival was 96.8% and 96.5% for KT (median follow up 23.1 months). Complication occurred in 42.5% including surgical complication (5.3%), acute rejection (9.7%) and infection (21.5%). Patient survival for LT was 91.8% (median follow up 21.2 months). Complication occurred in 44.7% including 19.4% biliary complication. Overseas KT and LT increased rapidly from 2001 to 2005. Survival of patients and grafts was comparable to domestic organ transplantation, but had a high complication rate. PMID:21218024

  16. Efficacy of prophylactic anti-diarrhoeal treatment in patients receiving Campto for advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Duffour, J; Gourgou, S; Seitz, J F; Senesse, P; Boutet, O; Castera, D; Kramar, A; Ychou, M

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of combined prophylactic and curative anti-diarrhoeal medication in advanced colorectal patients treated by irinotecan. Thirty-four pre-treated eligible patients were evaluated. There were 44% women, the median age was 65 and 38% of the patients had a 0 performance status. The patients received sucralfate(4g/d) and nifuroxazide(600 mg/d) prophylactic treatment on days 0-7. In the case of severe diarrhoea, preventive treatment was replaced by loperamide(12 mg/d) and diosmectite (9 g/d). Grade 3 delayed diarrhoea occurred in 18% of patients (90% CI: [9.5-28.9]) and 4.6% of cycles. No grade 4 delayed diarrhoea was observed. Twenty-nine patients (85%) received the preventive treatment at cycle 1, while 14% (90% CI: [6.2-25.7]) experienced grade 3 delayed diarrhoea in 3.7% of cycles for a median 4.5 days. The objective response rate was 8% (90% CI [1.4-23.1]) among the 25 assessable patients. Preventive combined treatment is effective in reducing the incidence of severe delayed diarrhoea, and it should be proposed to patients treated with mono-therapy Campto(r) and evaluated in poly-chemotherapy protocols. PMID:12552984

  17. Health numeracy: perspectives about using numbers in health management from African American patients receiving dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wright Nunes, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2015-04-01

    Health numeracy is linked to important clinical outcomes. Kidney disease management relies heavily on patient numeracy skills across the continuum of kidney disease care. Little data are available eliciting stakeholder perspectives from patients receiving dialysis about the construct of health numeracy. Using focus groups, we asked patients receiving hemodialysis open-ended questions to identify facilitators and barriers to their understanding, interpretation, and application of numeric information in kidney care. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Twelve patients participated with a mean (standard deviation) age of 56 (12) years. All were African American, 50% were women, and 83% had an annual income <$20,000/year. Although patients felt numbers were critical to every aspect in life, they noted several barriers to understanding, interpreting and applying quantitative information specifically to manage their health. Low patient self-efficacy related to health numeracy and limited patient-provider communication about quantitatively based feedback, were emphasized as key barriers. Through focus groups of key patient stakeholders we identified important modifiable barriers to effective kidney care. Additional research is needed to develop tools that support numeracy-sensitive education and communication interventions in dialysis. PMID:25358522

  18. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.

  19. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service. PMID:27559474

  20. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin in Adult Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J N; Healy, J R; Thoma, B N; Peahota, M M; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, N C; Kraft, W K

    2016-09-01

    The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration-time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log-likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two-compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non-ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher-weight patients. PMID:27639260

  1. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin in Adult Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Healy, JR; Thoma, BN; Peahota, MM; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, NC; Kraft, WK

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration–time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log‐likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two‐compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non‐ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher‐weight patients. PMID:27639260

  2. Improving physical health monitoring for patients with chronic mental health problems who receive antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service. PMID:27559474

  3. Influence of psychological intervention on pain and immune functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinying; Cui, Limin; Wang, Wei; Su, Quanzhi; Li, Xiuzhi; Wu, Junben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influence of psychological intervention on pain, immune system and adrenocortical functions of patients receiving lung cancer surgery. Methods: We selected 124 patients who received surgery for treating stage I or II lung cancer and divided into experimental group and control group. The experimental group received comprehensive psychological intervention while the control group was given conventional nursing intervention. Pain of patients in two groups was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Before and after intervention, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ and free cortisol level in serum were measured. Moreover, QLQ-C30, a life quality measurement scale developed by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was used. Results: Compared to control group, VAS of patients in experimental group remarkably decreased before anesthesia, 6 hour, 12 hour 24 hour and 48 hour after surgery (P<0.05), and moreover, OLQ-C30 score and various factor scores (except physical symptoms) in experimental group were much higher (P<0.05). No statistical significant difference was found in immune index between two groups before intervention (P>0.05). Differences of CD3+ and CD4+ before and after intervention were both statistically significant (P<0.05), so did free cortisol level (P<0.05). Conclusion: Comprehensive psychological intervention can effectively relieve pain, improve immune functions and enhance quality of life for patients suffering from lung cancer surgery. PMID:27022366

  4. Heterotopic ossification is less after THA in patients who receive aspirin compared to coumadin.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Randy M; Della Valle, Alejandro González; Cornell, Charles N

    2010-01-01

    The role of aspirin in the prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been debated. This retrospective comparative study assesses the results of 167 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed between August 1998 and April 2005 on 150 consecutive patients (17 bilaterals) who were 70 years of age and under by a single orthopaedic surgeon. A comparison of the incidence and severity of HO between those patients who received aspirin (325 mg bid) with those who received Coumadin® (wafarin) for pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. Surgery was performed through a posterolateral approach, with an enhanced soft tissue repair. There were 34 patients (35 hips) in the aspirin group and 68 patients (82 hips) in the Coumadin® group. All patients received prophylaxis for 6 weeks postoperatively. HO was classified according to Brooker and colleagues using anterior-posterior (AP) radiographs at last follow-up (range, 1 to 8 years). There were four hips (11.4%) with HO in the aspirin group and 28 (34.2%) in the Coumadin® group (p = 0.012). HO class III and IV was not detected in the aspirin group, but was in seven hips in the Coumadin® group (p = 0.13). Males had an incidence of HO of 40.4% (19 of 47 hips) and females had an incidence of 18.6% (13 of 70 hips) (p = 0.009). Males who received aspirin developed HO in 22.2% (4 of 18 hips), compared to 51.7% (15 of 29 hips) in the Coumadin® group (p = 0.045). No females (0 of 17 hips) who received aspirin developed HO, compared to 24.5% (13 of 53 hips) in females who received Coumadin® (p = 0.024). In this analysis, aspirin thromboprophylaxis decreased the prevalence of HO following elective THA in both females and males. This effect was not seen in patients who received Coumadin® after surgery. PMID:21162704

  5. Plasma levels of vasoactive regulatory peptides in patients receiving regular hemodialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Hegbrant, J; Thysell, H; Ekman, R

    1992-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of 10 vasoactive regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 23 stable patients with chronic renal failure receiving regular hemodialysis treatment (RDT) and compared with those of healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide, beta-endorphin, methionine-enkephalin, motilin, neuropeptide Y, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of calcitonin gene-related peptide was not statistically different from that of the controls. The plasma concentration of gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was lowered in the RDT-patients. The arterial blood pressure correlated with the plasma levels of motilin and neuropeptide Y. We conclude that patients with chronic renal failure receiving RDT have increased concentrations of 8 out of 10 measured vasoactive regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of vasoactive peptides may contribute to the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to impaired renal function.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Patients Receiving Integrated PET/CT-Guided Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Matthew R.; Maheshwari, Mohit; Schultz, Christopher J.; Michel, Michelle A.; Wong, Stuart J.; Campbell, Bruce H.; Massey, Becky L.; Wilson, J. Frank; Wang Dian

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: We previously reported the advantages of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) fused with CT for radiotherapy planning over CT alone in head and neck carcinoma (HNC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and the predictive value of PET for patients receiving PET/CT-guided definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: From December 2002 to August 2006, 42 patients received PET/CT imaging as part of staging and radiotherapy planning. Clinical outcomes including locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis, death, and treatment-related toxicities were collected retrospectively and analyzed for disease-free and overall survival and cumulative incidence of recurrence. Results: Median follow-up from initiation of treatment was 32 months. Overall survival and disease-free survival were 82.8% and 71.0%, respectively, at 2 years, and 74.1% and 66.9% at 3 years. Of the 42 patients, seven recurrences were identified (three LR, one DM, three both LR and DM). Mean time to recurrence was 9.4 months. Cumulative risk of recurrence was 18.7%. The maximum standard uptake volume (SUV) of primary tumor, adenopathy, or both on PET did not correlate with recurrence, with mean values of 12.0 for treatment failures vs. 11.7 for all patients. Toxicities identified in those patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy were also evaluated. Conclusions: A high level of disease control combined with favorable toxicity profiles was achieved in a cohort of HNC patients receiving PET/CT fusion guided radiotherapy plus/minus chemotherapy. Maximum SUV of primary tumor and/or adenopathy was not predictive of risk of disease recurrence.

  7. [Specific variability of teicoplanin protein binding in patients receiving continuous hemodiafiltration-comparison with hypoalbuminemia patients].

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Hiromi; Teramatsu, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Junko; Yanagisawa, Masahiko; Harii, Norikazu; Suzuki, Masahiko; Hanawa, Takehisa; Matsuda, Kenichi; Oguchi, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Variation in protein binding ratio (PBR) of teicoplanin (TEIC) was investigated in continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) patients. TEIC is classified as a high PBR drug (≧90%), and it was reported that the PBR of TEIC decreased with an decrease in the serum albumin level in hypoalbuminemia patients. However, few reports can be found about the variation of PBR of TEIC for CHDF patient. An antibiotic activity is directly determined by the level of unbound antibiotics species (Cfree) in the target site, namely, an increase in the Cfree enhances the risks of TEIC as well as the therapeutic effect against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, both the total concentration (Ctotal) and Cfree of TEIC were determined and the PBRs were compared between a patient with normal albumin level, hypoalbuminemia patients and CHDF patients. Similarly to the previous report, the lowering of PBR of TEIC was demonstrated in the hypoalbuminemia patients. On the other hand, the CHDF patients showed lower value of PBR suggesting some change in the protein binding ability, although showed higher values of serum albumin level in comparison with the hypoalbuminemia patients. It was not necessary to measure the Cfree value for the hypoalbuminemia patient routinely, but the monitoring of Cfree as well as Ctotal for the CHDF patients can be important for the proper TEIC use because of the potential specialty of PBR.

  8. Serum voriconazole level variability in patients with hematological malignancies receiving voriconazole therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Lalit; Seki, Jack T; Kumar, Deepali; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Cole, David EC; Wong, Betty YL; Božović, Andrea; Brandwein, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Voriconazole plasma concentrations have been correlated with oral dosing in healthy subjects, but have been poorly characterized in ill patients with hematological malignancies receiving intensive chemotherapy. METHODS: The relationship between orally administered voriconazole, plasma concentrations and liver toxicity was examined in a cohort of 69 primarily acute leukemia patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. RESULTS: Oral administration of voriconazole was associated with significant interpatient variability, with voriconazole steady-state concentrations ranging from 0 μg/mL to 16.6 μg/mL. Approximately 20% of patients achieved steady-state concentrations <1 μg/mL. When adjusted for weight, patients receiving higher voriconazole doses tended toward higher plasma concentrations; however, there was no significant relationship between the plasma concentration and genotype, age, sex or use of concomitant proton pump inhibitors. Voriconazole concentrations were correlated with higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels at day 6 to 8, and with higher bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase levels at day 14 to 16, but not with other liver enzyme levels. CONCLUSION: In ill patients with acute leukemia and related disorders undergoing treatment with oral voriconazole, there is a poor correlation between the voriconazole dose and plasma concentrations, and many patients achieve levels that are considered to be subtherapeutic. The findings support the routine use of therapeutic drug monitoring in these patients. PMID:25371690

  9. A proposal for management of rheumatic disease patients with hepatitis B virus infection receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Harigai, Masayoshi; Mochida, Satoshi; Mimura, Toshihide; Koike, Takao; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and de novo HBV hepatitis in patients with rheumatic diseases given intensive and long-term immunosuppressive therapy with or without biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is of great concern, especially in regions where the virus is endemic, including Japan. To ascertain a better benefit-risk balance for immunosuppressive therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases, the Japan College of Rheumatology developed this proposal. All patients with rheumatic diseases commencing immunosuppressive therapy should be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); those who are negative for HBsAg should be screened for hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) as well. HBV carriers and serum HBV DNA positive patients with resolved infection should receive nucleoside analog as soon as possible, prior to commencing immunosuppressive therapy. For serum HBV DNA negative patients with resolved infection, careful monthly monitoring using serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and HBV DNA is recommended during and at least 12 months after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy. If serum HBV DNA becomes positive, patients should receive nucleoside analog treatment as soon as possible, while ongoing immunosuppressive therapy should be continued to avoid severe or fulminant hepatitis development. To facilitate proper management of patients with HBV infection, collaboration between rheumatologists and hepatologists is strongly encouraged.

  10. Effective Dose from Stray Radiation for a Patient Receiving Proton Therapy for Liver Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Krishnan, Sunil; Mirkovic, Dragan; Yepes, Pablo; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2009-03-01

    Because of its advantageous depth-dose relationship, proton radiotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for patients with liver cancer. Although the proton dose distribution conforms to the target, healthy tissues throughout the body receive low doses of stray radiation, particularly neutrons that originate in the treatment unit or in the patient. The aim of this study was to calculate the effective dose from stray radiation and estimate the corresponding risk of second cancer fatality for a patient receiving proton beam therapy for liver cancer. Effective dose from stray radiation was calculated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a double-scattering proton therapy treatment unit and a voxelized human phantom. The treatment plan and phantom were based on CT images of an actual adult patient diagnosed with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. For a prescribed dose of 60 Gy to the clinical target volume, the effective dose from stray radiation was 370 mSv; 61% of this dose was from neutrons originating outside of the patient while the remaining 39% was from neutrons originating within the patient. The excess lifetime risk of fatal second cancer corresponding to the total effective dose from stray radiation was 1.2%. The results of this study establish a baseline estimate of the stray radiation dose and corresponding risk for an adult patient undergoing proton radiotherapy for liver cancer and provide new evidence to corroborate the suitability of proton beam therapy for the treatment of liver tumors.

  11. The Effect of Cinacalcet on Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy Events in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The EVOLVE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yumi; Floege, Anna; Chertow, Glenn M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in patients with ESRD is a risk factor for calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA; calciphylaxis). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Adverse event reports collected during the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial were used to determine the frequency of CUA in patients receiving hemodialysis who had moderate to severe sHPT, as well as the effects of cinacalcet versus placebo. CUA events were collected while patients were receiving the study drug. Results Among the 3861 trial patients who received at least one dose of the study drug, 18 patients randomly assigned to placebo and six assigned to cinacalcet developed CUA (unadjusted relative hazard, 0.31; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.13 to 0.79; P=0.014). Corresponding cumulative event rates (95% CI) at year 4 were 0.011% (0.006% to 0.018%) and 0.005% (0.002% to 0.010%). By multivariable analysis, other factors associated with CUA included female sex, higher body mass index, higher diastolic BP, and history of dyslipidemia or parathyroidectomy. Median (10%, 90% percentile) plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations proximal to the report of CUA were 796 (225, 2093) pg/ml and 410 (71, 4957) pg/ml in patients randomly assigned to placebo and cinacalcet, respectively. Active use of vitamin K antagonists was recorded in 11 of 24 patients with CUA, nine randomly assigned to placebo, and two to cinacalcet, in contrast to 5%–7% at any one time point in patients in whom CUA was not reported. Conclusion Cinacalcet appeared to reduce the incidence of CUA in hemodialysis recipients who have moderate to severe sHPT. PMID:25887067

  12. Effectiveness of Cinacalcet in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Not Receiving Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Galicia-Basart, Maria; Alcalde-Rodrigo, Maria; Segarra-Medrano, Alfons; Suñé-Negre, Josep-Maria; Montoro-Ronsano, José-Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cinacalcet could be a therapeutic option although its use is controversial in patients not receiving dialysis. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of cinacalcet in patients with CKD and SHPT without renal replacement treatment (RRT) and without renal transplantation (RT). Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted. Patients were included if they had collected cinacalcet, under off-label use, during 2010 and 2011. Patients selected were followed from the beginning of cinacalcet therapy for one year of treatment. Results A total of 37 patients were included with CKD stage 3 (38%), 4 (51%) and 5 (11%). Baseline mean PTH value was 400.86 ± 168.60 mg/dl. At 12 months, a 67% of patients achieved at least a 30% reduction in their PTH value (p<0.001; CI 49.7–83.6), and the overall mean reduction of PTH values was 38% (p< 0.001; IC -49.1, -27.5). A 28% of the patients achieved KDOQI PTH goals (p = 0.003, CI 12%-50%). At 12 months, mean serum calcium values decreased by 6% and mean serum phosphorus values increased by 13%. A 19% of patients experienced hypocalcemia episodes while an increase of 24% in hyperphosphatemia episodes was observed. A 25% of patients finished cinacalcet before a year of treatment. Main withdrawal reasons were: gastrointestinal and other discomfort (8%), hypocalcaemia (8%), non-compliance (3%), interactions (3%) and excess of efficacy (3%). Conclusions Cinacalcet was effective in patients with CKD and SHPT not receiving dialysis. Electrolytic imbalances could be managed with administration of vitamin D and analogues or phosphate binders. PMID:27588942

  13. Bone Fractures Following External Beam Radiotherapy and Limb-Preservation Surgery for Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Relationship to Irradiated Bone Length, Volume, Tumor Location and Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Parent, Amy L.; Griffin, Anthony M.; Fung, Sharon; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between tumor location, bone dose, and irradiated bone length on the development of radiation-induced fractures for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma (LE-STS) patients treated with limb-sparing surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Of 691 LE-STS patients treated from 1989 to 2005, 31 patients developed radiation-induced fractures. Analysis was limited to 21 fracture patients (24 fractures) who were matched based on tumor size and location, age, beam arrangement, and mean total cumulative RT dose to a random sample of 53 nonfracture patients and compared for fracture risk factors. Mean dose to bone, RT field size (FS), maximum dose to a 2-cc volume of bone, and volume of bone irradiated to >=40 Gy (V40) were compared. Fracture site dose was determined by comparing radiographic images and surgical reports to fracture location on the dose distribution. Results: For fracture patients, mean dose to bone was 45 +- 8 Gy (mean dose at fracture site 59 +- 7 Gy), mean FS was 37 +- 8 cm, maximum dose was 64 +- 7 Gy, and V40 was 76 +- 17%, compared with 37 +- 11 Gy, 32 +- 9 cm, 59 +- 8 Gy, and 64 +- 22% for nonfracture patients. Differences in mean, maximum dose, and V40 were statistically significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, p = 0.01). Leg fractures were more common above the knee joint. Conclusions: The risk of radiation-induced fracture appears to be reduced if V40 <64%. Fracture incidence was lower when the mean dose to bone was <37 Gy or maximum dose anywhere along the length of bone was <59 Gy. There was a trend toward lower mean FS for nonfracture patients.

  14. Coagulation status using thromboelastography in patients receiving warfarin prophylaxis and epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Hepner, David L; Concepcion, Mercedes; Bhavani-Shankar, Kodali

    2002-09-01

    To determine the coagulation status of patients receiving postoperative warfarin and epidural analgesia using thromboelastography (TEG(R)).Prospective, observational, clinical study.Orthopedic postoperative division at a university hospital.52 ASA physical status II and III patients undergoing knee arthroplasty and receiving prophylactic warfarin and epidural analgesia.Patients' preoperative and postoperative coagulation status was determined by TEG(R). Daily TEG(R) parameters were obtained until the epidural catheter was removed. TEG(R) parameters include reaction time (R-time or time until the first significant levels of detectable clot formation), K-time (clot firmness), maximum amplitude (MA-clot strength), alpha angle (clot development), and coagulation index (overall coagulation). In addition, daily international normalized ratios (INRs) were obtained as per our routine practice. On the day of catheter removal reaction time was significantly increased compared with preoperative values (p < 0.0001), but it remained within normal ranges. There was no change in the coagulation index. However, INR was abnormal and significantly increased (INR = 1.48+/-0.3; p < 0.0001), compared with preoperative values, on the day when the epidural catheter was removed. When the epidural catheters are removed, overall coagulation status, as measured by TEG(R), and despite an elevated INR (mean INR <1.5), remained within normal limits in patients receiving low-dose warfarin prophylaxis.

  15. Prognostic clinical factors in pretreated colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib: Implications for clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, Michela; Giampieri, Riccardo; Loupakis, Fotios; Prochilo, Tiziana; Salvatore, Lisa; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Bittoni, Alessandro; Aprile, Giuseppe; Zaniboni, Alberto; Falcone, Alfredo; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the impact on survival of angiogenesis and inflammation-related factors, particularly LDH serum levels, platelet, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), in metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving regorafenib monotherapy. Methods LDH serum levels, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts were collected at the start of regorafenib monotherapy. Cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve analysis. Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis by Cox method. Results A total of 208 patients were eligible for analysis. Among factors who were related with worse overall survival and who maintained their role at the multivariate analysis, high platelet count (Exp(b):1.4963, 95% CI:1.0130–2.2103, p = 0.0439) and high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (Exp(b):1.6963, 95% CI:1.0757–2.6751, p = 0.0237) were those who more deeply were related to worse overall survival. High lymphocyte count (Exp(b):0.4527, 95% CI:0.2801–0.7316, p = 0.0013) was correlated with improved overall survival. Conclusions High neutrophil, high platelet, low lymphocyte count and/or high NLR may represent negative prognostic factors in patients receiving regorafenib monotherapy. It is advisable that these factors are taken into account in the design of subsequent trials in colorectal cancer patients receiving this drug. PMID:26334693

  16. Characteristics of Symptomatic Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) introduced to the market in Japan was dabigatran in March 2011, and three more NOACs, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have since become available. Randomized controlled trials of NOACs have revealed that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) occurs less frequently with NOACs compared with warfarin. However, the absolute incidence of ICH associated with NOACs has increased with greater use of these anticoagulants, and we wanted to explore the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment course of patients with NOACs-associated ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of symptomatic ICH patients receiving NOACs between March 2011 and September 2014. Results ICH occurred in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean ± SD age, 72.8 ± 3.2 years). Mean time to onset was 146.2 ± 111.5 days after starting NOACs. Five patients received rivaroxaban and 1 patient received apixaban. None received dabigatran or edoxaban. Notably, no hematoma expansion was observed within 24 h of onset in the absence of infusion of fresh frozen plasma, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VIIa or hemodialysis. When NOAC therapy was initiated, mean HAS-BLED and PANWARDS scores were 1.5 ± 0.5 and 39.5 ± 7.7, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure was 137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg within 1 month before spontaneous ICH onset. Conclusion Six symptomatic ICHs occurred early in NOAC therapy but hematoma volume was small and did not expand in the absence of infusion of reversal agents or hemodialysis. The occurrence of ICH during NOAC therapy is possible even when there is acceptable mean systolic blood pressure control (137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg) and HAS-BLED score ≤ 2. Even stricter blood pressure lowering and control within the acceptable range may be advisable to prevent ICH during NOAC therapy. PMID:26171862

  17. Effects of Cinacalcet on Fracture Events in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The EVOLVE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Block, Geoffrey A.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Floege, Jürgen; Herzog, Charles A.; London, Gerard M.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Wheeler, David C.; Dehmel, Bastian; Goodman, William G.; Drüeke, Tilman B.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are frequent in patients receiving hemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that cinacalcet would reduce the rate of clinical fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis using data from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial, a placebo-controlled trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism to receive cinacalcet or placebo for ≤64 months. This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the trial whose primary end point was all-cause mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and one of the secondary end points was first clinical fracture event. Clinical fractures were observed in 255 of 1935 (13.2%) patients randomized to placebo and 238 of 1948 (12.2%) patients randomized to cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the relative hazard for fracture (cinacalcet versus placebo) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.07). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and multiple fractures, the relative hazard was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98). Using a prespecified lag-censoring analysis (a measure of actual drug exposure), the relative hazard for fracture was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90). When participants were censored at the time of cointerventions (parathyroidectomy, transplant, or provision of commercial cinacalcet), the relative hazard was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.87). Fracture rates were higher in older compared with younger patients and the effect of cinacalcet appeared more pronounced in older patients. In conclusion, using an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not reduce the rate of clinical fracture. However, when accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, multiple fractures, and/or events prompting discontinuation of study drug, cinacalcet reduced the rate of clinical fracture by 16%–29%. PMID:25505257

  18. Effects of Cinacalcet on Fracture Events in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The EVOLVE Trial.

    PubMed

    Moe, Sharon M; Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M; Parfrey, Patrick S; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Floege, Jürgen; Herzog, Charles A; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Wheeler, David C; Dehmel, Bastian; Goodman, William G; Drüeke, Tilman B

    2015-06-01

    Fractures are frequent in patients receiving hemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that cinacalcet would reduce the rate of clinical fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis using data from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial, a placebo-controlled trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism to receive cinacalcet or placebo for ≤64 months. This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the trial whose primary end point was all-cause mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and one of the secondary end points was first clinical fracture event. Clinical fractures were observed in 255 of 1935 (13.2%) patients randomized to placebo and 238 of 1948 (12.2%) patients randomized to cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the relative hazard for fracture (cinacalcet versus placebo) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.07). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and multiple fractures, the relative hazard was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98). Using a prespecified lag-censoring analysis (a measure of actual drug exposure), the relative hazard for fracture was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90). When participants were censored at the time of cointerventions (parathyroidectomy, transplant, or provision of commercial cinacalcet), the relative hazard was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.87). Fracture rates were higher in older compared with younger patients and the effect of cinacalcet appeared more pronounced in older patients. In conclusion, using an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not reduce the rate of clinical fracture. However, when accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, multiple fractures, and/or events prompting discontinuation of study drug, cinacalcet reduced the rate of clinical fracture by 16%-29%. PMID:25505257

  19. Effects of Cinacalcet on Fracture Events in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The EVOLVE Trial.

    PubMed

    Moe, Sharon M; Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M; Parfrey, Patrick S; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Floege, Jürgen; Herzog, Charles A; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Wheeler, David C; Dehmel, Bastian; Goodman, William G; Drüeke, Tilman B

    2015-06-01

    Fractures are frequent in patients receiving hemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that cinacalcet would reduce the rate of clinical fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis using data from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial, a placebo-controlled trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism to receive cinacalcet or placebo for ≤64 months. This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the trial whose primary end point was all-cause mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and one of the secondary end points was first clinical fracture event. Clinical fractures were observed in 255 of 1935 (13.2%) patients randomized to placebo and 238 of 1948 (12.2%) patients randomized to cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the relative hazard for fracture (cinacalcet versus placebo) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.07). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and multiple fractures, the relative hazard was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98). Using a prespecified lag-censoring analysis (a measure of actual drug exposure), the relative hazard for fracture was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90). When participants were censored at the time of cointerventions (parathyroidectomy, transplant, or provision of commercial cinacalcet), the relative hazard was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.87). Fracture rates were higher in older compared with younger patients and the effect of cinacalcet appeared more pronounced in older patients. In conclusion, using an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not reduce the rate of clinical fracture. However, when accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, multiple fractures, and/or events prompting discontinuation of study drug, cinacalcet reduced the rate of clinical fracture by 16%-29%.

  20. Long-term outcomes of patients receiving a massive transfusion after trauma.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biswadev; Gabbe, Belinda J; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Olaussen, Alexander; Cooper, David J; Cameron, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    Resuscitation of patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock after major trauma has evolved to incorporate multiple strategies to maintain tissue perfusion and oxygenation while managing coagulation disorders. We aimed to study changes across time in long-term outcomes in patients with major trauma. A retrospective observational study in a single major trauma center in Australia was conducted. We included all patients with major trauma and massive blood transfusion within the first 24 h during a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011). The main outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOSE) and work capacity at 6 and 12 months. There were 5,915 patients with major trauma of which 365 (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.6 - 6.8) received a massive transfusion. The proportion of major trauma patients receiving a massive transfusion decreased across time from 8.2% to 4.4% (P < 0.01). There were statistically significant trends toward lower volumes of red blood cell transfusion and higher ratios of fresh-frozen plasma to red blood cells (P < 0.01). Among massively transfused patients, there was no significant change in measured outcomes during the study period, with a persistent 23% mortality in hospital, 52% unfavorable GOSE at 6 months, and 44% unfavorable GOSE at 12 months. Massive transfusion was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes at 6 months after injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.31) but not at 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 - 1.01). A significant reduction in massive transfusion rates was observed. Unfavorable long-term outcomes among patients receiving a massive transfusion after trauma were frequent with a substantial proportion of survivors experiencing poor functional status 1 year after injury.

  1. Aneuploidy in sperm of Hodgkin`s disease patients receiving NOVP chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, W.A.; Cassel, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Induction of genetic damage in germ cells of young patients receiving chemo- or radiotherapy for cancers with probable cure, such as Hodgkin`s disease, is cause for concern. These young patients may someday desire children, and germ cell alterations presenting as numerical chromosomal abnormalities in sperm may place their future offspring at risk. To address this concern, we measured aneuploidy in sperm from eight young Hodgkin`s disease patients: four pre-treatment, four during treatment, and three over a 45 month period following treatment with NOVP (Novantrone, Oncovin, Vinblastine and Prednisone). Patients ranged in stage of disease from IA-IIEB and none had received prior radiation or chemotherapy. Using multi-chromosome sperm FISH with repetitive sequence probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, we found a significant 2-4 fold increase in particular numerical chromosomal abnormalities during treatment which were limited in persistence post-treatment. Additionally, pre-treatment Hodgkin`s disease patients showed elevations in some numerical chromosomal abnormalities when compared to a healthy reference group. In several men, the fraction of aneuploid sperm did not return to healthy reference group levels even after completion of therapy. These results show that elevated sperm aneuploidy occurs in germ cells of young cancer patients during chemotherapy and suggest caution to prevent conceptions during this period. The elevated sperm aneuploidy appears transient, but in some cases never returns to healthy reference group levels.

  2. Predicting which patients actually receive radiation following breast conserving therapy in Canadian populations

    PubMed Central

    Guidolin, Keegan; Lock, Michael; Richard, Lucie; Boldt, Gabriel; Brackstone, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Canadian women with breast cancer may choose breast conserving therapy as their course of treatment, requiring both breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. However, more than 15% of Canadian women fail to receive the appropriate radiation therapy, putting them at increased risk for recurrence. Age, distance from their radiation therapy centre and stage of disease affect patients’ likelihood of receiving prescribed radiation therapy. We propose a nomogram that allows physicians to predict which patients will and will not receive radiation. This nomogram, once validated, could be used to guide decision making when choosing between breast conserving therapy and mastectomy as the treatment course and thereby change the practice of breast cancer management. PMID:27438052

  3. Management of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropic support.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, Maeve; Mott, Sandra; Tong, Elizabeth; Handa, Sonia; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean Anne

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate present practice of maintaining PICC line patency in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropes by comparing one cohort receiving low dose continuous heparin with one receiving no heparin. A case control retrospective chart review compared the two cohorts on duration of patency (measured in days) and need for thrombolytic agents. Median duration of patency for the heparin group was 24 days versus 16 days for the no heparin group (p=0.07). Use of thrombolytic agents was 28% in the heparin group compared to 50% in the no heparin group (p=0.08). Although not statistically significant, findings were clinically significant and supportive of current practice.

  4. A Comparison of Uremic Pruritus in Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Lu, Hui-Min; Chiang, Ju-Fen; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wen, Su-Ying; Chiu, Hsien-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Uremic pruritus is common and bothersome in patients receiving either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD). To date, the preferred dialysis modality regarding the alleviation of uremic pruritus remains controversial. We conducted this cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence, intensity, and characteristics of uremic pruritus between PD and HD patients. Patients receiving maintenance dialysis at a referral medical center in Taiwan were recruited. Dialysis modality, patient demographic, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data were recorded. The intensity of uremic pruritus was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to compare the severity of uremic pruritus between PD and HD patients. Generalized additive models were applied to detect nonlinear effects between pruritus intensity and continuous covariates. A total of 380 patients completed this study, with a mean age of 60.3 years and 49.2% being female. Uremic pruritus was presented in 24 (28.6%) of the 84 PD patients and 113 (38.2%) of the 296 HD patients (P = .12). The VAS score of pruritus intensity was significantly lower among the PD patients than the HD patients (1.32 ± 2.46 vs 2.26 ± 3.30, P = .04). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that PD was an independent predictor for lower VAS scores of pruritus intensity compared with HD (β-value -0.88, 95% confidence interval -1.62 to -0.13). The use of active vitamin D was also an independent predictor for a lower intensity of uremic pruritus, whereas hyperphosphatemia and higher serum levels of triglyceride and aspartate transaminase were significantly associated with higher pruritus intensity. There was a trend toward a less affected body surface area of uremic pruritus in the PD patients than in the HD patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .13).In conclusion, the severity of uremic pruritus was lower among PD

  5. A Comparison of Uremic Pruritus in Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Lu, Hui-Min; Chiang, Ju-Fen; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wen, Su-Ying; Chiu, Hsien-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Uremic pruritus is common and bothersome in patients receiving either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD). To date, the preferred dialysis modality regarding the alleviation of uremic pruritus remains controversial. We conducted this cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence, intensity, and characteristics of uremic pruritus between PD and HD patients. Patients receiving maintenance dialysis at a referral medical center in Taiwan were recruited. Dialysis modality, patient demographic, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data were recorded. The intensity of uremic pruritus was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to compare the severity of uremic pruritus between PD and HD patients. Generalized additive models were applied to detect nonlinear effects between pruritus intensity and continuous covariates. A total of 380 patients completed this study, with a mean age of 60.3 years and 49.2% being female. Uremic pruritus was presented in 24 (28.6%) of the 84 PD patients and 113 (38.2%) of the 296 HD patients (P = .12). The VAS score of pruritus intensity was significantly lower among the PD patients than the HD patients (1.32 ± 2.46 vs 2.26 ± 3.30, P = .04). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that PD was an independent predictor for lower VAS scores of pruritus intensity compared with HD (β-value −0.88, 95% confidence interval −1.62 to −0.13). The use of active vitamin D was also an independent predictor for a lower intensity of uremic pruritus, whereas hyperphosphatemia and higher serum levels of triglyceride and aspartate transaminase were significantly associated with higher pruritus intensity. There was a trend toward a less affected body surface area of uremic pruritus in the PD patients than in the HD patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .13). In conclusion, the severity of uremic pruritus

  6. Medical costs and adherence in patients receiving aqueous versus pressurized aerosol formulations of intranasal corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hankin, Cheryl S; Cox, Linda; Lang, David; Bronstone, Amy; Wang, Zhaohui; Lepore, Mark S; Buck, Philip O

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal corticosteroid (INS) formulations have different sensory attributes that influence patient preferences, and thereby possibly adherence and health outcomes. This study compares health care use and costs and medication adherence in matched cohorts of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) using a chlorofluorocarbon-propelled pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) or aqueous intranasal corticosteroid (A-INS). Florida Medicaid retrospective claims analysis was performed of enrollees aged ≥12 years with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment before their initial AR diagnosis, 1 year for continuous enrollment before their index INS claim, and 18 months of continuous enrollment after their index INS claim during which they received either pMDI or A-INS. pMDI and A-INS patients were matched 1:2 using propensity scores. Nonparametric analyses compared outcomes between matched cohorts at 6, 12, and 18 months of follow-up. A total of 585 patients were matched (pMDI = 195, A-INS = 390). pMDI patients were more adherent to INS, as reflected in their higher median medication possession ratio (53.2% versus 32.7%; p < 0.0001) and fewer median days between fills (73 days versus 111 days; p = 0.0003). Significantly lower median per patient pharmacy fills (34.0 versus 50.5; p < 0.05) and costs ($1282 versus $2178; p < 0.01) were observed among pMDI patients versus A-INS patients 18 months after INS initiation and were maintained when analyses excluded INS fills. Adherence to INS and health care utilization and costs following INS initiation for AR differed by type of formulation received. Our findings suggest patient preferences for INS sensory attributes can drive adherence and affect disease control, and ultimately impact health care costs. PMID:22737709

  7. South American Heart Transplantation Registry of patients receiving everolimus in their immunosuppressive regimens.

    PubMed

    Bortman, G V; Ceruti, B; Ahualli, L; Colque, R; Amuchástegui, M; Sgrosso, J L; Muñoz, J; Vulcano, N; Burgos, C; Diez, F; Rodriguez, M C; Perrone, S V

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of heart transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors prompted the implementation of a South American Transplant Physicians Group to register these patients in a database. Everolimus (EVL) is a signal proliferation inhibition that reduces graft vascular disease when used de novo. Recently, its administration has expanded to subjects with resistant rejection or with side effects due to other immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors and/or steroids), allowing for better regulation of the immunosuppressive regimen. Herein we have shown the data collected from patients receiving EVL in ten South American Heart Transplant Centers. We have concluded that the administration of EVL is a useful adjunctive therapy that allows the reduction or suspension of other immunosuppressive drugs that caused unwanted side effects, without a loss of immunosuppressive efficacy, with manageable side effects, and constituting a valuable therapeutic option. PMID:20172342

  8. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Poenisch, Falk; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Sheu, Tommy; Chang, Joe Y.; Memon, Nada; Mohan, Radhe; Rozner, Marc A.; Dougherty, Anne H.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving

  9. Comparison of survival in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Hayati, Fatemeh; Valavi, Ehsan; Rekabi, Fazlollah; Mousavi, Marzieh Beladi

    2015-03-01

    Although the life expectancy of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has improved in recent years, it is still far below that of the general population. In this retrospective study, we compared the survival of patients with ESRD receiving hemodialysis (HD) versus those on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The study was conducted on patients referred to the HD and PD centers of the Emam Khomini Hospital and the Aboozar Children's Hospital from January 2007 to May 2012 in Ahvaz, Iran. All ESRD patients on maintenance HD or PD for more than two months were included in the study. The survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between HD and PD patients were tested by the log-rank test. Overall, 239 patients, 148 patients on HD (61.92%) and 91 patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) (38.55%) with mean age of 54.1 ± 17 years were enrolled in the study. Regardless of the causes of ESRD and type of renal replacement therapy (RRT), one-, two- and three-year survival of patients was 65%, 51% and 35%, respectively. There was no significant difference between type of RRT in one- (P-value = 0.737), two- (P-value = 0.534) and three- (P-value = 0.867) year survival. There was also no significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients under HD and CAPD in the one-, two- and three-year survival. Although the three-year survival of diabetic patients under CAPD was lower than that of non-diabetic patients (13% vs. 34%), it was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.50). According to the results of the current study, there is no survival advantage of PD during the first years of initiation of dialysis, and the one-, two- and three-year survival of HD and PD patients is also similar.

  10. Effects of remifentanil versus nitrous oxide on postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pain in patients receiving thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Myung Sub; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy. We analyzed the electronic medical records of 992 patients receiving fentanyl-based IV-PCA after thyroidectomy at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2016. We categorized the patients according to anesthetic agents used: group N2O (n = 745) and group remifentanil (n = 247). The propensity score matching method was used to match patients in the 2 groups based on their covariates. Finally, 128 matched subjects were selected from each group. There were no differences between groups for all covariates after propensity score matching. The numeric rating scale for nausea (0.55 ± 0.88 vs 0.27 ± 0.76, P = 0.01) was higher and complete response (88 [68.8%] vs 106 [82.8%], P = 0.001) was lower in group N2O compared with group remifentanil on postoperative day 0. However, the visual analog scale score for pain (3.47 ± 2.02 vs 3.97 ± 1.48, P = 0.025) was higher in group remifentanil than group N2O on postoperative day 0. In patients receiving IV-PCA after thyroidectomy, postoperative nausea was lower but postoperative pain was higher in group remifentanil. PMID:27741140

  11. Quick, non-invasive and quantitative assessment of small fiber neuropathy in patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saad, Mehdi; Psimaras, Dimitri; Tafani, Camille; Sallansonnet-Froment, Magali; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Vilier, Alice; Tigaud, Jean-Marie; Bompaire, Flavie; Lebouteux, Marie; de Greslan, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Bernard; Poirier, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, François-Régis; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Taillia, Hervé; Maisonobe, Thierry; Ricard, Damien

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a common, potentially severe and dose-limiting adverse effect; however, it is poorly investigated at an early stage due to the lack of a simple assessment tool. As sweat glands are innervated by small autonomic C-fibers, sudomotor function testing has been suggested for early screening of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate Sudoscan, a non-invasive and quantitative method to assess sudomotor function, in the detection and follow-up of CIPN. Eighty-eight patients receiving at least two infusions of Oxaliplatin only (45.4%), Paclitaxel only (14.8%), another drug only (28.4%) or two drugs (11.4%) were enrolled in the study. At each chemotherapy infusion the accumulated dose of chemotherapy was calculated and the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc) was carried out. Small fiber neuropathy was assessed using Sudoscan (a 3-min test). The device measures the Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC) of the hands and feet expressed in microSiemens (µS). For patients receiving Oxaliplatin mean hands ESC changed from 73 ± 2 to 63 ± 2 and feet ESC from 77 ± 2 to 66 ± 3 µS (p < 0.001) while TNSc changed from 2.9 ± 0.5 to 4.3 ± 0.4. Similar results were observed in patients receiving Paclitaxel or another neurotoxic chemotherapy. During the follow-up, ESC values of both hands and feet with a corresponding TNSc < 2 were 70 ± 2 and 73 ± 2 µS respectively while they were 59 ± 1.4 and 64 ± 1.5 µS with a corresponding TNSc ≥ 6 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 respectively). This preliminary study suggests that small fiber neuropathy could be screened and followed using Sudoscan in patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:26749101

  12. Radiation exposure to patients receiving routine scoliosis radiography measured at depth in an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Dutkowsky, J.P.; Shearer, D.; Schepps, B.; Orton, C.; Scola, F. )

    1990-07-01

    Concern about the amount of radiation received during scoliosis evaluation and treatment led us to measure radiation exposure in an anthropomorphic phantom to determine the increased risk of breast cancer in young women with scoliosis. Assuming that 22 radiographic examinations were performed over the course of scoliosis treatment, the increased relative risk of breast cancer was determined to be 0.22% in these patients.

  13. Use of Piggyback Electrolytes for Patients Receiving Individually Prescribed versus Premixed Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Rebecca A.; Curtis, Caitlin S.; Leverson, Glen E.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition (PN) is available as individualized prescriptions frequently prepared with an automated compounding device, or as commercially prepared premixed solutions. Our institution exclusively used individualized PN until an amino acid shortage forced a temporary switch to premixed solutions. In general, premixed solutions contain lower electrolyte levels than individualized formulations prescribed for patients with normal organ function. We aimed to quantify supplemental intravenous piggyback (IVPB) electrolyte use in adult patients receiving individualized and premixed PN, and to quantify any effect on difference in the cost of therapy. Methods We compared use of supplemental IVPB electrolytes administered to patients receiving PN during consecutive periods prior to and during the amino acid shortage. Electrolyte IVPBs tabulated were: potassium chloride 10 and 20 mEq, magnesium sulfate 2 g and 4 g, potassium phosphate 7.5 and 15 mmol, sodium phosphate 7.5 and 15 mmol IVPB. Results There was no statistical difference in the number of PN formulations administered per day during each period (14.7 + 3.9 vs. 14.0 + 2.6, individualized vs. premixed, respectively). Total IVPB electrolytes prescribed per day increased significantly from the individualized PN period to the premixed PN period (7.03 + 3.8 vs. 13.8 + 6.8, p<0.0001). The additional IVPB electrolyte supplementation required in patients receiving premixed PN was associated with an additional $11,855.74 cost per 30 days of therapy compared to those who received individualized PN. Conclusion Inpatient use of premixed PN results in a significant increase in IVPB electrolyte supplementation and cost when compared to individualized PN use. PMID:24390715

  14. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhongli; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen; Xiao, Zefen; Tan, Wen; and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  15. Peritonitis with multiple rare environmental bacteria in a patient receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Levitski-Heikkila, Teresa V; Ullian, Michael E

    2005-12-01

    We describe a patient receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis who experienced 2 episodes of peritonitis in successive months caused by unusual bacteria of environmental origin: Agrobacterium radiobacter, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, and Corynebacterium aquaticum. A radiobacter and P oryzihabitans occurred simultaneously in the first episode of peritonitis, and C aquaticum, in the second episode. The patient's vocation necessitated exposure to moist soiled conditions. Both episodes responded promptly to antibiotics commonly used to treat peritonitis. Although these organisms rarely lead to loss of life and commonly are considered to be contaminants, they can cause symptomatic peritonitis and peritoneal dialysis catheter loss. A review of previous case reports is included.

  16. Peritonitis with multiple rare environmental bacteria in a patient receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Levitski-Heikkila, Teresa V; Ullian, Michael E

    2005-12-01

    We describe a patient receiving long-term peritoneal dialysis who experienced 2 episodes of peritonitis in successive months caused by unusual bacteria of environmental origin: Agrobacterium radiobacter, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, and Corynebacterium aquaticum. A radiobacter and P oryzihabitans occurred simultaneously in the first episode of peritonitis, and C aquaticum, in the second episode. The patient's vocation necessitated exposure to moist soiled conditions. Both episodes responded promptly to antibiotics commonly used to treat peritonitis. Although these organisms rarely lead to loss of life and commonly are considered to be contaminants, they can cause symptomatic peritonitis and peritoneal dialysis catheter loss. A review of previous case reports is included. PMID:16310563

  17. Outcomes in COPD patients receiving tiotropium or salmeterol plus treatment with inhaled corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Richard; Kesten, Steven; Menjoge, Shailendra; Viel, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Patients with COPD are frequently prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS); however, it is unclear whether the treatment with ICS might modify responses to inhaled bronchodilators. Two 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group studies of tiotropium 18 μg once daily, compared with salmeterol, 50 μg bid, had been conducted in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Efficacy was assessed by spirometry, transition dyspnea index (TDI), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and exacerbations. Data from both studies were combined to form subgroups with regard to concurrent use of ICS. 796 patients receiving ICS were separately analyzed from 390 patients not receiving ICS. Mean age was 64 years, and pre-bronchodilator FEV1 was 1.06 L (ICS group) and 1.13 L (non-ICS group). Both bronchodilators increased morning mean ± SE pre-dose FEV1 compared with placebo (ICS groups: tiotropium 110 ± 20 mL, salmeterol 80 ± 20 mL; non-ICS groups: tiotropium 150 ± 30 mL, salmeterol 110 ± 30 mL; p > 0.05 for tiotropium vs salmeterol). Improvements in TDI and SGRQ and frequency of exacerbations also tended to be more profound for tiotropium. Treatment with tiotropium in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD was superior to salmeterol in lung function, irrespective of concurrent use of ICS. PMID:18044688

  18. Antibodies to nucleoprotein and to hydrazide-altered soluble nucleoprotein in tuberculous patients receiving isoniazid

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Segovia, D.; Fishbein, Eugenia; Betancourt, V. M.

    1969-01-01

    Antibodies to calf thymus nuclei, nucleoprotein, DNA, soluble nucleoprotein and hydrazide (hydrallazine and isoniazid)-altered nucleoprotein were investigated by a standard complement-fixation method in 214 tuberculous patients receiving isoniazid. Findings were compared to those on thirty-seven sera from lupus patients receiving neither steroids nor immunosuppressants and on sixty-six sera from normal controls. The incidence of antibodies to all antigens studied except DNA was significantly higher in isoniazid-treated tuberculous patients than in the normal controls, but lower than in the lupus patients. Unlike lupus there were no detectable DNA antibodies in the tuberculous or in the control sera. Antibodies to nucleoprotein (soluble and insoluble) and particularly to hydrazide-altered nucleoprotein were the most frequently found in the isoniazid-treated tuberculous patients. In general, antinuclear antibodies were more frequent in the isoniazid-treated tuberculous female than in the male; in the adult than in the child. It is suggested that hydrazides may cause in vivo similar alteration of nucleoprotein to that which they cause in vitro. Hydrazide-altered nucleoprotein probably elicits the production of antinuclear antibodies which in turn may activate systemic lupus erythematosus in otherwise predisposed individuals. PMID:5359961

  19. Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors predisposing to auditory toxicity in patients receiving aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Gatell, J M; Ferran, F; Araujo, V; Bonet, M; Soriano, E; Traserra, J; SanMiguel, J G

    1987-01-01

    Risk factors predisposing to auditory toxicity of aminoglycosides were analyzed from records of 187 patients enrolled in three prospective randomized trials comparing the toxicity of netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin. Patients were eligible if they received three or more days of therapy and at least two serial audiograms were available. The overall auditory toxicity rate was 9.6% (18 of 187). Auditory toxicity was detected in 4.4, 10.8, and 23.5% of patients given netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin, respectively (P = 0.05). In the univariate analysis, patients who developed auditory toxicity were significantly older (P = 0.01) and had a significantly higher (P = 0.04) percentage of trough levels of netilmicin or tobramycin above 2 mg/liter or amikacin above 5 mg/liter. In the final logistic regression model, only age was retained as independently influencing the development of auditory toxicity (P less than 0.00001). Conversely, factors that did not add significantly to the prediction of auditory toxicity were aminoglycoside serum levels, total aminoglycoside dose, duration of therapy, sex, peak temperature, presence of bacteremia, shock, liver cirrhosis, dehydration, previous otic pathology or renal failure, and development of renal toxicity. At least in certain populations, age is the most important predisposing factor for the development of auditory toxicity in patients receiving aminoglycosides. PMID:3674849

  20. Dental Awareness among Parents and Oral Health of Paediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bansal, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Anupam; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental care is often overlooked by the parents of children receiving treatment for cancer including chemotherapy who are in a phase of severe immunosuppression. Aim (i) To study dental attitudes of parents of children receiving chemotherapy towards importance of dental care. (ii) To evaluate oral hygiene status and compare it with healthy controls. Materials and Methods A questionnaire assessing the awareness towards dental care was given to the parents of 47 paediatric patients suffering from cancer receiving chemotherapy and to parents of 47 paediatric patients reporting to outpatient Department of Pedodontics at SGT Dental College. Oral examination was also carried out for both the groups and DMFT/dmft, plaque and gingival index were noted. Results Parents had a varying opinion regarding dental health of their child. The caries status of children in the control group was greater than children in the study group. The mean plaque index of children in the control group (1.40) was greater than children in the study group (1.34) which was statistically significant according to Mann-Whitney U test. The gingival health of children in the study group was better than children in the control group which was also not statistically significant. Conclusion This study highlights need for a periodic referral of the child cancer patients to the paediatric dental clinic in hospitals for the timely dental care. PMID:27437369

  1. Cervical Cancer in Ethiopia: Survival of 1,059 Patients Who Received Oncologic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moelle, Ulrike; Begoihn, Matthias; Addissie, Adamu; Trocchi, Pietro; Yonas, Bekuretsion; Hezkiel, Petros; Stang, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Vordermark, Dirk; Gemechu, Tufa; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Wondemagegnehu, Tigeneh; Aynalem, Abreha; Mathewos, Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Almost 500,000 women are newly diagnosed with cervical cancer (CC) every year, the majority from developing countries. There is little information on the survival of these patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate consecutive CC patients presenting over 4 years at the only radiotherapy center in Ethiopia. Methods. All patients with CC from September 2008 to September 2012 who received radiotherapy and/or surgery were included (without brachytherapy). Vital status was obtained through telephone contact or patient cards. Results. Of 2,300 CC patients, 1,059 patients with standardized treatment were included. At the end of the study, 249 patients had died; surviving patients had a median follow-up of 16.5 months; the 10% and 90% percentiles were 3.0 and 32.7 months, respectively. Mean age was 49 years (21–91 years). The majority of patients presented with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb–IIIa (46.7%). Because of progression during the waiting time (median 3.8 months), this proportion declined to 19.3% at the beginning of radiotherapy. The 1- and 2-year overall survival probabilities were 90.4% and 73.6%. If assuming a worst-case scenario (i.e., if all patients not available for follow-up after 6 months had died), the 2-year survival probability would be 45.4%. Conclusion. This study gives a thorough 4-year overview of treated patients with CC in Ethiopia. Given the limited treatment availability, a relatively high proportion of patients survived 2 years. More prevention and early detection at all levels of the health care system are needed. Increasing the capacity for external-beam radiation as well as options for brachytherapy would facilitate treatment with curative intention. PMID:24951611

  2. Bone microarchitecture is more severely affected in patients on hemodialysis than in those receiving peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Solenne; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Boutroy, Stéphanie; Bacchetta, Justine; Sornay-Rendu, Elisabeth; Szulc, Pawel; Arkouche, Walid; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Fouque, Denis; Chapurlat, Roland

    2012-09-01

    We used high-resolution quantitative computed tomography to study the microarchitecture of bone in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. We compared bone characteristics in 56 maintenance hemodialysis (21 women, 14 post-menopausal) and 23 peritoneal dialysis patients (9 women, 6 post-menopausal) to 79 healthy men and women from two cohorts matched for age, body mass index, gender, and menopausal status. All underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the spine and hip to measure areal bone mineral density, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the radius and tibia to measure volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitecture. When compared to their matched healthy controls, patients receiving hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis had a significantly lower areal bone mineral density in the hip. Hemodialysis patients had significantly lower total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density at both sites. Hemodialysis patients had significantly lower trabecular volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the tibia than the peritoneal dialysis patients. Overall, peritoneal dialysis patients were less affected, their cortical thickness at the distal tibia being the only significant difference versus controls. Thus, we found more severe trabecular damage at the weight-bearing tibia in hemodialysis compared to peritoneal dialysis patients, but this latter finding needs confirmation in larger cohorts.

  3. Patient perspectives on care received at community acupuncture clinics: a qualitative thematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community acupuncture is a recent innovation in acupuncture service delivery in the U.S. that aims to improve access to care through low-cost treatments in group-based settings. Patients at community acupuncture clinics represent a broader socioeconomic spectrum and receive more frequent treatments compared to acupuncture users nationwide. As a relatively new model of acupuncture in the U.S., little is known about the experiences of patients at community acupuncture clinics and whether quality of care is compromised through this high-volume model. The aim of this study was to assess patients’ perspectives on the care received through community acupuncture clinics. Methods The investigators conducted qualitative, thematic analysis of written comments from an observational, cross-sectional survey of clients of the Working Class Acupuncture clinics in Portland, Oregon. The survey included an open-ended question for respondents to share comments about their experiences with community acupuncture. Comments were received from 265 community acupuncture patients. Results Qualitative analysis of written comments identified two primary themes that elucidate patients’ perspectives on quality of care: 1) aspects of health care delivery unique to community acupuncture, and 2) patient engagement in health care. Patients identified unique aspects of community acupuncture, including structures that facilitate access, processes that make treatments more comfortable and effective and holistic outcomes including physical improvements, enhanced quality of life, and empowerment. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost were highlighted as aspects of this model that allow patients to access acupuncture. Conclusions Patients’ perspectives on the values and experiences unique to community acupuncture offer insights on the quality of care received in these settings. The group setting, community-based locations, and low cost of this model potentially

  4. Higher Chest Wall Dose Results in Improved Locoregional Outcome in Patients Receiving Postmastectomy Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panoff, Joseph E.; Takita, Cristiane; Hurley, Judith; Reis, Isildinha M.; Zhao, Wei; Rodgers, Steven E.; Gunaseelan, Vijayalakshmi; Wright, Jean L.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Randomized trials demonstrating decreased locoregional recurrence (LRR) and improved overall survival (OS) in women receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) used up to 50 Gy to the chest wall (CW), but in practice, many centers boost the CW dose to {>=}60 Gy, despite lack of data supporting this approach. We evaluated the relationship between CW dose and clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 582 consecutively treated patients who received PMRT between January 1999 and December 2009. We collected data on patient, disease, treatment characteristics, and outcomes of LRR, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Results: Median follow-up from the date of diagnosis was 44.7 months. The cumulative 5-year incidence of LRR as first site of failure was 6.2%. CW dose for 7% (43 patients) was {<=}50.4 Gy (range, 41.4-50.4 Gy) and 93% received >50.4 Gy (range, 52.4-74.4 Gy). A CW dose of >50.4 Gy vs. {<=}50.4 Gy was associated with lower incidence of LRR, a 60-month rate of 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-8.2) vs. 12.7% (95% CI, 4.5-25.3; p = 0.054). Multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for LRR controlling for race, receptor status, and stage was 2.62 (95% CI, 1.02-7.13; p = 0.042). All LRR in the low-dose group occurred in patients receiving 50 to 50.4 Gy. Lower CW dose was associated with worse PFS (multivariate HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.64-4.56; p < 0.001) and OS (multivariate HR, 3.88; 95% CI, 2.16-6.99; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The addition of a CW boost above 50.4 Gy resulted in improved locoregional control and survival in this cohort patients treated with PMRT for stage II-III breast cancer. The addition of a CW boost to standard-dose PMRT is likely to benefit selected high-risk patients. The optimal technique, target volume, and patient selection criteria are unknown. The use of a CW boost should be studied prospectively, as has been done in the setting of breast conservation.

  5. Personalized peptide vaccination for cervical cancer patients who have received prior platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Kouichiro; Tsuda, Naotake; Waki, Kayoko; Matsueda, Satoko; Hata, Yoshiro; Ushijima, Kimio; Itoh, Kyogo; Yamada, Akira; Kamura, Toshiharu

    2015-09-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the immunological efficacy and safety of a personalized peptide vaccine (PPV) for cervical cancer patients who have received platinum-based chemotherapy. A total of 24 patients with standard chemotherapy-resistant cervical cancer, including 18 recurrent cases, were enrolled in this study and received a maximum of 4 peptides based on HLA-A types and IgG levels to the vaccine candidate peptides in pre-vaccination plasma. The parental protein expression of most of the vaccine peptides was confirmed in the cervical cancer tissues. No vaccine-related systemic grade 3 or 4 adverse events were observed in any patients. Due to disease progression, 2 patients failed to complete the first cycle of vaccinations (sixth vaccination). Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) or IgG responses specific for the peptides used for vaccination were augmented in half of cases after the first cycle. The median overall survival was 8.3 months. The clinical responses of the evaluable 18 cases consisted of 1 case with a partial response and 17 cases with disease progression; the remaining 6 cases were not evaluable. Performance status, injection site skin reaction and circulating PD-1(+) CD4(+) T-cells were significantly prognostic of overall survival, and multivariate analysis also indicated that the performance status and circulating PD-1(+) CD4(+) T-cells were prognostic. Because of the safety and immunological efficacy of PPV and the possible prolongation of overall survival, further clinical trials of PPV at a larger scale in advanced or recurrent cervical cancer patients who have received prior platinum-based chemotherapy are recommended.

  6. Challenge for higher colistin dosage in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Friberg, Lena E; Galani, Lambrini; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Katsouda, Emmanouela; Athanassa, Zoe; Paskalis, Harris; Giamarellou, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, reduced daily doses of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) have resulted in suboptimal colistin concentrations. The necessity of a loading dose (LD) at treatment initiation has been proposed. A LD of 9 million IU (MU) [ca. 270 mg of colistin base activity (CBA)] was administrated with a maintenance dose of 4.5 MU (ca. 140 mg CBA) every 12 h (q12h) to eight critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at different time intervals after the LD and the fourth dose, whilst pre-filter and post-filter blood samples were also collected. CMS and colistin concentrations were determined using an LC-MS/MS assay. Median maximum observed concentrations after the LD were 22.1 mg/L for CMS and 1.55 mg/L for colistin, whereas during maintenance dosing the corresponding values were 12.6 mg/L and 1.72 mg/L, respectively. CVVHDF clearance was determined as 2.98 L/h for colistin, equivalent to 62% of total apparent colistin clearance in CVVHDF patients. Both CMS and colistin were cleared by CVVHDF. Application of a LD of 9 MU CMS resulted in more rapid achievement of the target colistin concentration. Following implementation of a predicted pharmacokinetic model on plasma CMS/colistin concentrations, a LD of 12 MU CMS appears more appropriate, whilst a CMS maintenance dosage of at least 6.5-7.5 MU q12h is suggested in patients undergoing CVVHDF. However, further clinical studies are warranted to assess the safety of a LD of 12 MU CMS in patients receiving CVVHDF. PMID:27474468

  7. β-Blocker Dialyzability and Mortality in Older Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Stephanie N.; Fleet, Jamie L.; Roberts, Matthew A.; Hackam, Daniel G.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Suri, Rita S.; Quinn, Robert R.; Ozair, Sundus; Beyea, Michael M.; Kitchlu, Abhijat; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Some β-blockers are efficiently removed from the circulation by hemodialysis (“high dialyzability”) whereas others are not (“low dialyzability”). This characteristic may influence the effectiveness of the β-blockers among patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. To determine whether new use of a high-dialyzability β-blocker compared with a low-dialyzability β-blocker associates with a higher rate of mortality in patients older than age 66 years receiving long-term hemodialysis, we conducted a propensity-matched population-based retrospective cohort study using the linked healthcare databases of Ontario, Canada. The high-dialyzability group (n=3294) included patients initiating atenolol, acebutolol, or metoprolol. The low-dialyzability group (n=3294) included patients initiating bisoprolol or propranolol. Initiation of a high- versus low-dialyzability β-blocker was associated with a higher risk of death in the following 180 days (relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.8; P<0.01). Supporting this finding, we repeated the primary analysis in a cohort of patients not receiving hemodialysis and found no significant association between dialyzability and the risk of death (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.3; P=0.71). β-Blocker exposure was not randomly allocated in this study, so a causal relationship between dialyzability and mortality cannot be determined. However, our findings should raise awareness of this potentially important drug characteristic and prompt further study. PMID:25359874

  8. Risk factors for severe bacterial infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases receiving rituximab.

    PubMed

    Heusele, Marion; Clerson, Pierre; Guery, Benoit; Lambert, Marc; Launay, David; Lefevre, Guillaume; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Maillard, Hélène; Le Gouellec, Noémie; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Hachulla, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The risk of serious bacterial infectious events (SIEs) after an RTX course used in severe and refractory cases of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID) is well known. Risk factors for SIEs merit investigation. For this case-control study, data were collected in a single centre of internal medicine and included all patients who received rituximab (RTX) for SAID between 2005 and 2011 (rheumatoid arthritis was excluded). Sixty-nine patients with SAID received a total of 87 RTX courses. Thirteen SIEs were reported in 12 patients leading to death in 5 patients. Patients with a history of SIE were significantly older (63.6±18.8 vs 48.8±16.7; p=0.0091), suffered most frequently of diabetes mellitus (33.3% vs 5.3%, p=0.015), had a lower CD19 count (1.0±1.2/mm3 vs 3.9±7.2/mm3) and had most frequently a prednisone dose>15 mg/day (91.7% vs 47.7%) at the start of the first RTX course. The SIE rate was 18.7 per 100 patient-years. At the initiation of the RTX course, risk factors for SIEs were lower IgG levels (OR=0.87, 95%CI=0.77-0.99, p=0.03), lower CD19 count (OR=0.85, 95%CI=0.73-1.00) and creatinine clearance≤45 ml/min (OR=7.78, 95%CI=1.36-44.38, p=0.002). Conversely history of pneumococcal vaccination significantly decreased the risk of SIEs (OR=0.11, 95%CI=0.03-0.41, p=0.0009). Concomitant treatment with prednisone at a dose>15 mg/day significantly increased the SIE risk (OR=8.07, 95%CI=1.94-33.59, p=0.0004). SIEs are frequent in SAID treated with RTX, particularly in patients receiving high-dose corticosteroids, in patients with renal insufficiency and in patients with low IgG levels or a low CD19 count. PMID:24487486

  9. Are Patients Receiving Health Promotion Advice in the Chiropractic Teaching Clinic Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Marion Willard; Page, Gregory; Ndetan, Harrison; Martinez, Daniel; Brandon, Patricia; Daniel, Dwain; Walker, Clark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported health issues and levels of engagement, discussion of needed lifestyle changes, and goal setting with the patient’s intern or staff doctor before and after a brief intervention to increase health-promoting activities in the clinic. Methods: Patient surveys were developed and administered to outpatients before and after a brief intervention aimed at increasing staff and intern engagement with patients on health promotion measures. Patients self-reported areas of need and levels of engagement by their doctor or intern. Data were analyzed as pre- and postintervention independent, cross-sectional samples. Frequencies and chi-square assessments were performed. Results: One hundred twenty-eight preintervention surveys and 162 postintervention surveys were collected. Back pain was the most common reason for being seen in the clinic (60% of patients) and most patients were white. More than 10% were smokers in both samples. Many patients reported poor diet, unhealthy weight, sleep issues, stress, or lack of regular physical activity, but 65% of the preintervention group and 72% of the postintervention group said a needed lifestyle change was discussed. Goals were set for 74% of the preintervention group and 84% of the postintervention group (p = .04). Information on lifestyle change was received by 52% of preintervention patients and 62% of postintervention patients and most were satisfied with this information. Goal setting was more common when a lifestyle change was discussed. Written information that was related to physical activity, for example, increased 350% (p < .0001). Conclusion: There are many opportunities for discussing needed lifestyle changes with patients. Patients self-report health behavioral issues related to physical activity, unhealthy weight, diet, stress, and sleep. More can be done in this area by this clinic, but initial assessments of impact from a brief intervention seem to have

  10. Association between risk behaviors and antiretroviral resistance in HIV-infected patients receiving opioid agonist treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tetrault, Jeanette M.; Kozal, Michael J.; Chiarella, Jennifer; Sullivan, Lynn E.; Dinh, An T; Fiellin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance is of concern. Opioid agonist treatment ( i.e., methadone or buprenorphine) is effective and decreases HIV transmission risk behaviors and HIV seroconversion. Despite prevention efforts, injection drug use (IDU) and risky sexual behaviors remain prevalent in patients receiving opioid agonist treatment. The purpose of this study is to determine in HIV-infected patients receiving opioid agonist treatment, the prevalence of HIV transmission risk behaviors, the prevalence of ARV resistance, and the prevalence of ARV resistance among those with risk behaviors. Methods The design was a cross-sectional, study of patients recruited from opioid treatment programs and outpatient practices. We measured demographic, drug treatment, and HIV clinical information (including ARV adherence), self-reported HIV risk behaviors and drug use, urine toxicologies, and genotype testing for ARV resistance (with both standard assays and Ultradeep sequencing). Data analysis included descriptive statistics. Results 59 subjects enrolled. 64% were male, 24% were white, and mean age was 46 years. 53% were receiving methadone and 47% buprenorphine. 80% were on opioid agonist treatment for 12 weeks or more. 14% reported unprotected sex, 7% reported sharing needles or works, and 60% had positive urine toxicology for illicit drug use. 15% had evidence of HIV resistance by standard genotyping, 7% with single class resistance, 3% with double class resistance, and 5% with triple class resistance. Ultradeep sequencing found additional class resistance in 5 subjects. 22% of subjects with evidence of transmission risk behaviors vs. 14% of subjects without risk behaviors had evidence of ARV resistance. Conclusions Improved prevention and treatment efforts may be needed for HIV-infected, opioid dependent individuals receiving opioid agonist treatment to decrease transmission of ARV resistant virus, especially in resource limited settings. PMID:23388678

  11. Retrospective survival in elderly COPD patients receiving pulmonary rehabilitation; a study including maintenance rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine retrospective survival in elderly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients receiving three different pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. Results 193 patients [m / f 92 / 101, mean age 69.2 (standard deviation 8.6)] receiving PR were studied with lifetable and Cox regression analyses. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % pred. was significantly different in the in-patient (n = 72), out-patient (n = 72), and maintenance group (n = 49) [mean 54.5 (21.8), 52.2 (17.7), and 42.9 (15.0), respectively (p = 0.004)]. PR days were 30.3 (20.4), 18.9 (10.4) and 30.0 (20.3), respectively (p < 0.001). Median survival rate was nine years in the in-patient, eight years in the out-patient and seven years in the maintenance group. Hospital stays and days were significantly increased in the maintenance group compared with the other groups (p = 0.003 and 0.010, respectively). The impact of evaluated variables on survival in the three PR groups was significant for age, FEV1 as well as the use of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) (HR 1.06, for five years, p < 0.001, HR 0.98, p = 0.01, and HR 2.18, p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusions The COPD patients in the maintenance group showed a worse survival, but after correction for gender, age and severity of obstruction, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:24708828

  12. Patterns of Care Among Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases at a Large Academic Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, Susannah G.; Alcorn, Sara R.; Hales, Russell K.; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates outcomes and patterns of care among patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for bone metastases at a high-volume academic institution. Methods and Materials: Records of all patients whose final RT course was for bone metastases from April 2007 to July 2012 were identified from electronic medical records. Chart review yielded demographic and clinical data. Rates of complicated versus uncomplicated bone metastases were not analyzed. Results: We identified 339 patients whose final RT course was for bone metastases. Of these, 52.2% were male; median age was 65 years old. The most common primary was non-small-cell lung cancer (29%). Most patients (83%) were prescribed ≤10 fractions; 8% received single-fraction RT. Most patients (52%) had a documented goals of care (GOC) discussion with their radiation oncologist; hospice referral rates were higher when patients had such discussions (66% with vs 50% without GOC discussion, P=.004). Median life expectancy after RT was 96 days. Median survival after RT was shorter based on inpatient as opposed to outpatient status at the time of consultation (35 vs 136 days, respectively, P<.001). Hospice referrals occurred for 56% of patients, with a median interval between completion of RT and hospice referral of 29 days and a median hospice stay of 22 days. Conclusions: These data document excellent adherence to American Society for Radiation Oncolology Choosing Wisely recommendation to avoid routinely using >10 fractions of palliative RT for bone metastasis. Nonetheless, single-fraction RT remains relatively uncommon. Participating in GOC discussions with a radiation oncologist is associated with higher rates of hospice referral. Inpatient status at consultation is associated with short survival.

  13. Potential Risk Factors Associated With Vascular Diseases in Patients Receiving Treatment for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Joonhong; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Jong Min; Oh, Yong-Seog

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the hypertension (HTN) patients undergo appropriate medical treatment, and traditional risk factors are highly controlled. Therefore, potential risk factors of atherosclerotic vascular diseases (AVD) and venous thromboembolisms (VTE) in HTN should be reconsidered. We investigated thrombophilic genetic mutations and existing biomarkers for AVD or VTE in HTN patients receiving treatment. Methods A total of 183 patients were enrolled: AVD with HTN (group A, n=45), VTE with HTN (group B, n=62), and HTN patients without any vascular diseases (group C, n=76). The lipid profile, homocysteine (Hcy) levels, D-dimers, fibrinogen, antithrombin, lupus anticoagulant, and anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) were evaluated. Prothrombin G20210A, Factor V G1691A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C were analyzed. Results All patients revealed wild type prothrombin G20210A and Factor V G1691A polymorphisms. The frequency of MTHFR polymorphisms was 677CT (n=84, 45.9%); 677TT (n=46, 25.1%); 1298AC (n=46, 25.1%); and 1298CC (n=2, 1.1%). The MTHFR 677TT genotype tended to increase the odds ratio (OR) to AVD events in HTN patients (OR 2.648, confidence interval 0.982-7.143, P=0.05). The group A demonstrated significantly higher Hcy levels (P=0.009), fibrinogen (P=0.004), and platelet counts (P=0.04) than group C. Group B had significantly higher levels of D-dimers (P=0.0001), platelet count (P=0.0002), and aCL (P=0.02) frequency than group C. Conclusions The MTHFR 677TT genotype and Hcy level could be potential risk factors associated with development of AVD in HTN patients receiving treatment. D-dimer and aCL might be useful to estimate the occurrence of VTE in them. PMID:26915609

  14. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  15. Femorofemoral bypass allowed limb preservation after late diagnosis of left common iliac artery thrombosis due to blunt trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Huang, Jing-Yong; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acute common iliac artery occlusion which results from blunt abdominal trauma is rare and potentially leads to a late diagnosis. Methods: We report a case of a 58-year-old patient who suffered a late diagnosed acute left common iliac artery occlusion secondary to abdominal trauma. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed to stop intra-abdominal bleeding, while his left limb ischemia was not noticed until 32 h later and femorofemoral bypass was then successfully performed for revascularization. Compartment syndrome was observed postoperatively, and fasciotomy was performed promptly. The wound was temporarily covered with Vaccum Sealing Drainage due to high skin tension. Patient underwent skin-grafting after leg swelling subsided. Results: The follow-up turned out that these managements were valid in the preservation of the limb viability. Conclusions: This case highlights the prudent recognition of the acute lower extremity ischemia in the abdominal trauma and immediate remedy for acute iliac artery occlusion after a late diagnosis. PMID:27489675

  16. Caring for patients receiving therapeutic hypothermia post cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Glen; MacDonald, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest have poor and often devastating neurological outcomes despite advances in resuscitation techniques and services (Bernard et al., 2002; Collins & Samworth, 2008). In an effort to increase survival rates, improve neurological outcomes and reduce mortality for surviving patients, clinical trials have shown that a mild state of therapeutic hypothermia (32 degrees C to 34 degrees C) has been linked to improved patient outcomes post cardiac arrest (Koran, 2008; Lee & Asare, 2010). Many hospitals in Canada currently use therapeutic hypothermia (TH), but the nursing care requires advanced nursing knowledge and skills. In an effort to prepare registered nurses to care for patients receiving TH, a specially designed education program was implemented at the Rouge Valley Health System Hospital (RVHS) in Ontario. Busy nurses need flexibility in the delivery of programs in the clinical setting, and this program was designed to meet that need with a combination of self-paced modules, lectures, discussions and a return demonstration. In this article, the authors discuss the nursing care of post cardiac arrest patients receiving TH, and the design and implementation of the education program.

  17. Delirium in adult patients receiving palliative care: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Román, Sofía; Beltrán Zavala, Cristina; Lara Solares, Argelia; Chiquete, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Delirium in palliative care patients is common and its diagnosis and treatment is a major challenge. Our objective was to perform a literature analysis in two phases on the recent scientific evidence (2007-2012) on the diagnosis and treatment of delirium in adults receiving palliative care. In phase 1 (descriptive studies and narrative reviews) 133 relevant articles were identified: 73 addressed the issue of delirium secondarily, and 60 articles as the main topic. However, only 4 prospective observational studies in which delirium was central were identified. Of 135 articles analysed in phase 2 (clinical trials or descriptive studies on treatment of delirium in palliative care patients), only 3 were about prevention or treatment: 2 retrospective studies and one clinical trial on multicomponent prevention in cancer patients. Much of the recent literature is related to reviews on studies conducted more than a decade ago and on patients different to those receiving palliative care. In conclusion, recent scientific evidence on delirium in palliative care is limited and suboptimal. Prospective studies are urgently needed that focus specifically on this highly vulnerable population.

  18. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome induced by neoplastic meningitis in a patient receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome is characterized by neurological symptoms resulting from cerebral edema, which occurs as a consequence of hemodialysis. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome most often occurs in patients who have just started hemodialysis, during hemodialysis, or soon after hemodialysis; although it may also occur in patients who are under maintenance hemodialysis with pre-existing neurological disease. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman, who had been receiving maintenance hemodialysis for one year, was diagnosed with ovarian cancer by ascites cytological examination. Two years later, she reported severe headache and nausea during hemodialysis and was diagnosed with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome. Although brain images revealed mild hydrocephalus without any mass lesions, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid. These findings indicated that DDS was induced by neoplastic meningitis due to ovarian cancer metastasis. Conclusion Neoplastic meningitis should be considered and excluded in hemodialysis patients with dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and malignancy by cytological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid even if cerebral imaging shows no obvious lesions. This is the first reported case of dialysis disequilibrium syndrome induced by neoplastic meningitis in a patient receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:24238645

  19. Inner conflict in patients receiving oral anticancer agents: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of patients receiving oral anticancer agents. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with a grounded theory approach. Setting A university hospital in Japan. Participants 14 patients with gastric cancer who managed their cancer with oral anticancer agents. Results Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict between rational belief and emotional resistance to taking medication due to confrontation with cancer, doubt regarding efficacy and concerns over potential harm attached to use of the agent. Although they perceived themselves as being adherent to medication, they reported partial non-adherent behaviours. The patients reassessed their lives through the experience of inner conflict and, ultimately, they recognised their role in medication therapy. Conclusions Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict, in which considerable emotional resistance to taking their medication affected their occasional non-adherent behaviours. In patient-centred care, it is imperative that healthcare providers understand patients’ inner conflict and inconsistency between their subjective view and behaviour to support patient adherence. PMID:25872938

  20. ADR related questions received by a telephone medicines information service and ADRs received by a spontaneous ADR reporting system: a comparison regarding patients and drugs.

    PubMed

    Egberts, A C; de Koning, F H; Meyboom, R H; Leufkens, H G

    1997-07-01

    A telephone medicines information service (telephone service) has been available in the Netherlands since 1990. Patients can anonymously and free of charge ask a pharmacist all kinds of questions related to medication use. An analysis of the questions (n=7541) received by this service in 1994 showed that 28% of the questions predominantly related to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A comparison was made between questions concerning ADRs received by the telephone service and suspected ADRs reported to the regionalized ADR reporting system LAREB regarding characteristics of the associated patients and medicines. In both systems approximately two out of three patients were women. LAREB received relatively more reports concerning patients of 60 years and older, whereas the telephone service received relatively more questions from patients aged 20-40 years. For most classes of medicines the observed proportion of encounters at both systems differed from the expected proportion estimated by the number of prescriptions in the same year. Antidepressants in particular were more frequently encountered at both systems than expected. There were clear differences between the telephone service and LAREB regarding the classes of medicines encountered. Reports of suspected ADRs submitted to LAREB more frequently involved antibiotics, antirheumatic products, anti-asthmatics, antihypertensives and topical antifungals, whereas questions concerning ADRs received by the telephone service significantly more frequently concerned drugs acting on the central nervous system (anxiolytics/hypnotics/sedatives, antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs) and corticosteroids. We are setting up further studies to investigate whether telephone services can serve as an additional tool in postmarketing surveillance for identifying potential drug safety issues. PMID:15073778

  1. Association of Physician Certification and Outcomes Among Patients Receiving an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeptha P.; Luebbert, Jeffrey J.; Wang, Yongfei; Rathore, Saif S.; Chen, Jersey; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Hammill, Stephen C.; Lampert, Rachel I.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2009-01-01

    Context Allowing nonelectrophysiologists to perform implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) procedures is controversial. However, it is not known whether outcomes of ICD implantation vary by physician specialty. Objective To determine the association of implanting physician certification with outcomes following ICD implantation. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort study using cases submitted to the ICD Registry performed between January 2006 and June 2007. Patients were grouped by the certification status of the implanting physician into mutually exclusive categories: electrophysiologists, nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, and other specialists. Hierarchical logistic regression models were developed to determine the independent association of physician certification with outcomes. Main Outcome Measures In-hospital procedural complication rates and the proportion of patients meeting criteria for a defibrillator with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) who received that device. Results Of 111 293 ICD implantations included in the analysis, 78 857 (70.9%) were performed by electrophysiologists, 24 399 (21.9%) by nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 1862 (1.7%) by thoracic surgeons, and 6175 (5.5%) by other specialists. Compared with patients whose ICD was implanted by electrophysiologists, patients whose ICD was implanted by either nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists or thoracic surgeons were at increased risk of complications in both unadjusted (electrophysiologists, 3.5% [2743/78 857]; nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 4.0% [970/24 399]; thoracic surgeons, 5.8% [108/1862]; P < .001) and adjusted analyses (relative risk [RR] for nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 1.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.21]; RR for thoracic surgeons, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.15–1.79]). Among 35 841 patients who met criteria for CRT-D, those whose ICD was implanted by physicians other than electrophysiologists were significantly

  2. Patient Preferences for Receiving Education on Venous Thromboembolism Prevention – A Survey of Stakeholder Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Shihab, Hasan M.; Farrow, Norma E.; Shaffer, Dauryne L.; Hobson, Deborah B.; Kulik, Susan V.; Zaruba, Paul D.; Shermock, Kenneth M.; Kraus, Peggy S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Streiff, Michael B.; Haut, Elliott R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and is largely preventable. Strategies to decrease the burden of VTE have focused on improving clinicians’ prescribing of prophylaxis with relatively less emphasis on patient education. Objective To develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. Design, Setting and Participants The objective of this study was to develop a patient-centered approach to education of patients and their families on VTE: including importance, risk factors, and benefit/harm of VTE prophylaxis in hospital settings. We implemented a three-phase, web-based survey (SurveyMonkey) between March 2014 and September 2014 and analyzed survey data using descriptive statistics. Four hundred twenty one members of several national stakeholder organizations and a single local patient and family advisory board were invited to participate via email. We assessed participants’ preferences for VTE education topics and methods of delivery. Participants wanted to learn about VTE symptoms, risk factors, prevention, and complications in a context that emphasized harm. Although participants were willing to learn using a variety of methods, most preferred to receive education in the context of a doctor-patient encounter. The next most common preferences were for video and paper educational materials. Conclusions Patients want to learn about the harm associated with VTE through a variety of methods. Efforts to improve VTE prophylaxis and decrease preventable harm from VTE should target the entire continuum of care and a variety of stakeholders including patients and their families. PMID:27031330

  3. Fatal Events in Cancer Patients Receiving Anticoagulant Therapy for Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Farge, Dominique; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Debourdeau, Philippe; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Rodriguez-Beltrán, Eva Maria; Nieto, Jose Antonio; Peris, Maria Luisa; Zeltser, David; Mazzolai, Lucia; Hij, Adrian; Monreal, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In cancer patients treated for venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), analyzing mortality associated with recurrent VTE or major bleeding is needed to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation. This was a cohort study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) Registry database to compare rates of fatal recurrent PE and fatal bleeding in cancer patients receiving anticoagulation for VTE. As of January 2013, 44,794 patients were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 7911 (18%) had active cancer. During the course of anticoagulant therapy (mean, 181 ± 210 days), 178 cancer patients (4.3%) developed recurrent PE (5.5 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 4.8–6.4), 194 (4.7%) had recurrent DVT (6.2 per 100 patient-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–7.1), and 367 (8.9%) bled (11.3 per 100 patient-years; 95% CI: 10.2–12.5). Of 4125 patients initially presenting with PE, 43 (1.0%) died of recurrent PE and 45 (1.1%) of bleeding; of 3786 patients with DVT, 19 (0.5%) died of PE, and 55 (1.3%) of bleeding. During the first 3 months of anticoagulation, there were 59 (1.4%) fatal PE recurrences and 77 (1.9%) fatal bleeds. Beyond the third month, there were 3 fatal PE recurrences and 23 fatal bleeds. In RIETE cancer patients, the rate of fatal recurrent PE or fatal bleeding was much higher within the first 3 months of anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26266353

  4. Development of a Multicomponent Prediction Model for Acute Esophagitis in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Ruyck, Kim; Sabbe, Nick; Oberije, Cary; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Thas, Olivier; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Phillipe; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; De Neve, Wilfried; Thierens, Hubert

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To construct a model for the prediction of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy by combining clinical data, treatment parameters, and genotyping profile. Patients and Methods: Data were available for 273 lung cancer patients treated with curative chemoradiotherapy. Clinical data included gender, age, World Health Organization performance score, nicotine use, diabetes, chronic disease, tumor type, tumor stage, lymph node stage, tumor location, and medical center. Treatment parameters included chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy technique, tumor dose, mean fractionation size, mean and maximal esophageal dose, and overall treatment time. A total of 332 genetic polymorphisms were considered in 112 candidate genes. The predicting model was achieved by lasso logistic regression for predictor selection, followed by classic logistic regression for unbiased estimation of the coefficients. Performance of the model was expressed as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic and as the false-negative rate in the optimal point on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 110 patients (40%) developed acute esophagitis Grade {>=}2 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0). The final model contained chemotherapy treatment, lymph node stage, mean esophageal dose, gender, overall treatment time, radiotherapy technique, rs2302535 (EGFR), rs16930129 (ENG), rs1131877 (TRAF3), and rs2230528 (ITGB2). The area under the curve was 0.87, and the false-negative rate was 16%. Conclusion: Prediction of acute esophagitis can be improved by combining clinical, treatment, and genetic factors. A multicomponent prediction model for acute esophagitis with a sensitivity of 84% was constructed with two clinical parameters, four treatment parameters, and four genetic polymorphisms.

  5. A Prospective Study of Salivary Gland Function in Lymphoma Patients Receiving Head and Neck Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Neesha A.; Killion, Leah; Hickey, Gail; Silver, Barbara; Martin, Chrystalla; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Mauch, Peter M.; Ng, Andrea K.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the radiation dose-response relationship on salivary dysfunction and quality of life (QOL) over time in patients with lymphoma receiving radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck (H and N). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective study on salivary-gland function in lymphoma patients receiving RT to the H and N. Fifteen patients were enrolled on the study. Dose-volume histograms and mean doses to the salivary glands were generated. Radiation-related toxicities and H and N-specific QOL were assessed before treatment and at prespecified time points posttreatment. Factors predicting a decrement in QOL were explored using Fisher's exact test. Results: During RT, 47% of patients experienced Grade >= 2 acute toxicity of the salivary gland, mucous membrane, or both. QOL scores improved over time, but up to one third of patients continued to have persistent oral symptoms at 2 years. At 6 months, a mean dose to at least one of the parotids of > 31 Gy was significantly associated with persistent dry mouth (100% vs. 17%, p = 0.02) and sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04); a mean dose of > 11 Gy to the minor salivary glands was significantly associated with persistent sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04), although the difference was no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions: Limiting the mean parotid dose to <= 31 Gy and mean minor salivary gland dose to <= 11 Gy in lymphoma patients treated to the H and N may help reduce the risk of subacute xerostomia.

  6. Problems and concerns of patients receiving chronic opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mark D; Von Korff, Michael; Banta-Green, Caleb; Merrill, Joseph O; Saunders, Kathleen

    2010-05-01

    The value of chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients is determined by a balance of poorly understood benefits and harms. Traditionally, this balance has been framed as the potential for improved pain control versus risks of iatrogenic addiction, drug diversion, and aberrant drug-related behaviors. These potential harms are typically defined from the providers' perspective. This paper seeks to clarify difficulties with the long-term use of opioids for CNCP from the patients' perspective. We used the Prescribed Opioids Difficulties Scale (PODS) to assess current problems and concerns attributed to opioid use by 1144 adults receiving COT. Subjects were grouped into low (56.9%), medium (25.6%) and high (17.5%) PODS scorers. Among patients with high PODS scores, 64% were clinically depressed and 78% experienced high levels of pain-related interference with activities, compared to 28% depressed and 60% with high interference with activities among those with low PODS scores. High levels of opioid-related problems and concerns were not explained by differences in pain intensity or persistence. Patients with medium to high PODS scores were often concerned about their ability to control their use of opioid medications, but prior substance abuse diagnoses and receiving excess days supply of opioids were much less common in these patients than depression and pain-related interference with activities. These results suggest two types of potential harm from COT attributed by CNCP patients to opioids: psychosocial problems that are distinct from poor pain control and opioid control concerns that are distinct from opioid misuse or addiction. PMID:20334974

  7. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  8. The Evidence Base for Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    O'Horo, John C; Cawcutt, Kelly A; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Sampathkumar, Priya; Schears, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate evidence for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and other major databases and included any study that reported rates of infection and whether antibiotic prophylaxis was a part of therapy for patients receiving ECMO. We abstracted rates of infection, microbiology of isolates, prophylactic practices, and individual study inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 11 studies identified, rates of infection were fairly uniform regardless of prophylaxis use, and the only two studies that directly compared outcomes with and without prophylaxis found no benefit. The causative infectious organisms were heterogeneous, which gives no clear rationale for any particular prophylactic strategy. Although infections during ECMO are serious complications that must be prevented, there is no good evidence to support routine use of prophylactic antibiotics in most patients. Certain subpopulations, such as those with open chests, may have an indication for prophylaxis, but evidence is poor. Future studies should investigate the role of other approaches to infection prevention, such as chlorhexidine bathing and preferential elective cannulation. PMID:26461238

  9. Increased Long-Term Mortality among Black CABG Patients Receiving Preoperative Inotropic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Griffin, William F.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Davies, Stephen W.; Vann, Iulia; Koutlas, Nathaniel T.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Crane, Patricia B.; Landrine, Hope; Kindell, Linda; Iqbal, Zahra J.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Chitwood, W. Randolph; Kypson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine racial differences in long-term mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), stratified by preoperative use of inotropic agents. Black and white patients who required preoperative inotropic support prior to undergoing CABG procedures between 1992 and 2011 were compared. Mortality probabilities were computed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using a Cox regression model. A total of 15,765 patients underwent CABG, of whom 211 received preoperative inotropic agents within 48 hours of surgery. Long-term mortality differed by race (black versus white) among preoperative inotropic category (inotropes: adjusted HR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.009–2.4; no inotropes: adjusted HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08–1.2; Pinteraction < 0.0001). Our study identified an independent preoperative risk-factor for long-term mortality among blacks receiving CABG. This outcome provides information that may be useful for surgeons, primary care providers, and their patients. PMID:26154656

  10. Approach to fever assessment in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowska, M.K.; Walker-Dilks, C.; Atzema, C.; Morris, A.; Gupta, R.; Halligan, R.; Kouroukis, T.; McCann, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background This guideline was prepared by the Fever Assessment Guideline Development Group, a group organized by the Program in Evidence-Based Care at the request of the Cancer Care Ontario Systemic Treatment Program. The mandate was to develop a standardized approach (in terms of definitions, information, and education) for the assessment of fever in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods The guideline development methods included a search for existing guidelines, literature searches in medline and embase for systematic reviews and primary studies, internal review by content and methodology experts, and external review by targeted experts and intended users. Results The search identified eight guidelines that had partial relevance to the topic of the present guideline and thirty-eight primary studies. The studies were mostly noncomparative prospective or retrospective studies. Few studies directly addressed the topic of fever except as one among many symptoms or adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. The recommendations concerning fever definition are supported mainly by other existing guidelines. No evidence was found that directly pertained to the assessment of fever before a diagnosis of febrile neutropenia was made. However, some studies evaluated approaches to symptom management that included fever among the symptoms. Few studies directly addressed information needs and resources for managing fever in cancer patients. Conclusions Fever in patients with cancer who are receiving systemic therapy is a common and potentially serious symptom that requires prompt assessment, but currently, evidence to inform best practices concerning when, where, and by whom that assessment is done is very limited. PMID:27536179

  11. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced hyperkalaemia in elderly patients receiving spironolactone: nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Yao, Zhan; Hellings, Chelsea; Garg, Amit X; Weir, Matthew A; Juurlink, David N

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with spironolactone. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada, from 1 April 1992 to 1 March 2010. Participants Cases were residents of Ontario aged 66 years or above receiving chronic treatment with spironolactone and admitted to hospital with hyperkalaemia within 14 days of receiving a prescription for either trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. Up to four controls for each case were identified from the same cohort, matched on age, sex, and presence or absence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and required to have received one of the study antibiotics within 14 days before the case’s index date. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for association between admission to hospital with hyperkalaemia and receipt of a study antibiotic in the preceding 14 days, adjusted for conditions and drugs that may influence risk of hyperkalaemia. Results During the 18 year study period, 6903 admissions for hyperkalaemia were identified, 306 of which occurred within 14 days of antibiotic use. Of these, 248 (81%) cases were matched to 783 controls. 10.8% (17 859/165 754) of spironolactone users received at least one prescription for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared with amoxicillin, prescription of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a marked increase in the risk of admission to hospital for hyperkalaemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 21.6). The population attributable fraction was 59.7%, suggesting that approximately 60% of all cases of hyperkalaemia in older patients taking spironolactone and treated with an antibiotic for a urinary tract infection could be avoided if trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not prescribed. Treatment with nitrofurantoin was also associated with an increase in the risk of

  12. Readmissions in Cancer Patients After Receiving Inpatient Palliative Care in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Chun-Ku; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have reported on readmissions among cancer patients receiving inpatient palliative care (IPC). This study investigated readmissions in cancer patients after their first discharge from IPC in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. This study was a secondary data analysis using information from the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. We included subjects ≥20 years old diagnosed with malignant neoplasms who were listed in the registry of catastrophic illness. Patients diagnosed with cancer before January 1, 2002 or who had ever been admitted to an inpatient hospice palliative care unit before the study period were excluded. Readmission was defined as hospital readmission at least once after discharge from first admission to IPC until mortality or the end of the study period. A total of 42,022 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of these patients were male (60.4%). The mean age of cancer diagnosis was 64.0 ± 14.4 years for men and 64.5 ± 14.7 years for women. The mean age at first hospice ward admission was 65.2 ± 14.2 years for men and 65.9 ± 14.9 years for women. During their first admission to IPC, 59.2% patients died, and the median stay of first IPC admission was 8.0 days. Among those discharged alive from their first admission to IPC, 64.9% were readmitted, and 19.4% of these patients were readmitted on the same day of discharge. From first IPC discharge until mortality, 54.8% of patients were readmitted once, 23.9% were readmitted twice, 9.9% were readmitted 3 times, and 11.5% were readmitted 4 or more times. Being male, having a higher insurance premium level, having a longer length of stay during first IPC admission, being admitted to a teaching hospital, or being admitted to a tertiary hospital increased the adjusted hazard ratio for readmission. We found that terminal cancer patients in Taiwan received relatively late referrals for first admission to IPC and

  13. Outcome Disparities Between Medical Personnel and Nonmedical Personnel Patients Receiving Definitive Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Disparities in quality of care have always been a major challenge in health care. Providing information to patients may help to narrow such disparities. However, the relationship between level of patient information and outcomes remains to be explored. More importantly, would better-informed patients have better outcomes through their choice of higher quality providers? We hypothesize that medical professionals may have better outcomes than nonmedical professionals following definitive surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC), and their choice of provider may mediate this relationship. We identified 61,728 patients with CRC receiving definitive surgery between 2005 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical professionals were identified via the registry for medical personnel. Indicators for surgical outcome such as emergency room (ER) visits within 30 days, medical expenses, length of hospital stay (LOS), and 5-year mortality were analyzed by using fixed and random effects multivariate regression models. Compared with nonmedical personnel CRC patients, a greater proportion of medical personnel received definitive surgery from higher volume surgeons (median 390 vs 311 within the study period) and/or in higher volume hospitals (median 1527 vs 1312 within the study period). CRC patients who are medical personnel had a shorter median LOS (12 vs 14 days), lower median medical expenses (112,687 vs 121,332 New Taiwan dollars), a lower ER visit rate within 30 days (11.3% vs 13.0%), and lower 5-year mortality. After adjusting for patient characteristics, medical personnel had a significantly lower hazard of 5-year mortality, and were significantly more likely to have a LOS shorter than 14 days than their nonmedical personnel counterparts. However, after adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, while medical personnel were significantly less likely to have a long LOS, no significant difference was observed in 5-year mortality

  14. Evaluation of normal tissue exposure in patients receiving radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer based on RTOG 0848

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry M.; Mifflin, Rachel; Nookala, Prashanth; Grove, Roger; Ly, Anh M.; Patyal, Baldev; Slater, Jerry D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy. Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is utilized in many cases to improve locoregional control; however, toxicities associated with radiation can be significant given the location of the pancreas. RTOG 0848 seeks to evaluate chemoradiation using either intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) modalities as an adjuvant treatment. The purpose of this study is to quantify the dosimetric changes seen when using IMRT or 3D CRT photon modalities, as well as proton radiotherapy, in patients receiving CRT for cancer of the pancreas treated per RTOG 0848 guidelines. Materials Ten patients with pancreatic head adenocarcinoma treated between 2010 and 2013 were evaluated in this study. All patients were simulated with contrast-enhanced CT imaging. Separate treatment plans using IMRT and 3DCRT as well as proton radiotherapy were created for each patient. All planning volumes were created per RTOG 0848 protocol. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated and analyzed in order to compare plans between the three modalities. The organs at risk (OAR) evaluated in this study are the kidneys, liver, small bowel, and spinal cord. Results There was no difference between the IMRT and 3DCRT plans in dose delivered to the kidneys, liver, or bowel. The proton radiotherapy plans were found to deliver lower mean total kidney doses, mean liver doses, and liver D1/3 compared to the IMRT plans. The proton plans also gave less mean liver dose, liver D1/3, bowel V15, and bowel V50 in comparison to the 3DCRT. Conclusions For patients receiving radiotherapy per ongoing RTOG 0848 for pancreatic cancer, there was no significant difference in normal tissue sparing between IMRT and 3DCRT treatment planning. Therefore, the choice between the two modalities should not be a confounding factor in this study. The proton plans also demonstrated improved OAR sparing compared to both IMRT and 3DCRT treatment

  15. Long-term follow-up of patients receiving boceprevir for treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Howe, Anita Y M; Long, Jianmin; Nickle, David; Barnard, Richard; Thompson, Seth; Howe, John; Alves, Katia; Wahl, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The durability of sustained virologic response (SVR) following boceprevir-based therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has not been reported. Furthermore, in patients receiving protease inhibitor-based therapies, development of resistance can contribute to treatment failure. The aim of the present study was to follow the clinical progression of patients treated with boceprevir after treatment in phase 2/3 clinical trials. This was a 3-year, long-term follow-up analysis of patients enrolled in boceprevir phase 2/3 studies. No treatment was administered during follow-up. Patients with SVR were assessed for durability of viral eradication. Non-SVR patients with on-treatment resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were assessed for longevity of RAVs. A total of 1148 patients (SVR, n=696; virologic failure, n=452) were enrolled in this follow-up analysis. The median duration of follow-up was approximately 3.4 years (range of 0.0-4.1 years). Overall, 3 of 696 patients with SVR had detectable HCV RNA during the follow-up period (relapse rate of 0.4% or 1.3 relapses/1000 person-years). The majority of patients who developed RAVs during the initial treatment study (228/314, 73%) reverted to wild-type (WT) within 3 years (RAVs persisted in 27% of patients). The median time for all RAVs to become undetectable was 1.11 years (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.20 years). V36M, T54A, A156S, I/V170A and V36M+R155K appeared to have a faster rate of return to WT (median times to return to WT of ⩽0.9 years); whereas, T54S, R155K, V55A and T54S+R155K had a slower rate of return to WT (median times to return to WT of approximately 1.1 years). Return to WT appeared slightly faster in patients with G1b RAVs compared to those with G1a RAVs, and in patients with previous non-response or relapse versus breakthrough or incomplete virologic response. SVR was durable in most patients treated with boceprevir. Furthermore, most RAVs present at the time of virologic failure

  16. Evaluation of postextraction bleeding incidence to compare patients receiving and not receiving warfarin therapy: a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka; Asanami, Soichiro; Shirakawa, Masayori; Yamane, Gen-yuki; Ogiuchi, Hideki; Kurashina, Kenji; Miyata, Masaru; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Imai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated incidence and risk factors for postextraction bleeding in patients receiving warfarin and those not receiving anticoagulation therapy. Design Cross-sectional, multicentre, observational study. Setting 26 hospitals where an oral surgeon is available. Participants Data on 2817 teeth (from 496 patients receiving warfarin, 2321 patients not receiving warfarin; mean age (SD): 62.2 (17.6)) extracted between 1 November 2008 and 31 March 2010, were collected. Warfarin-receiving patients were eligible when prothrombin time–international normalised ratio (PT-INR) measured within 7 days prior to the extraction was less than 3.0. Interventions Simple dental extraction was performed, and incidence of postextraction bleeding and comorbidities were recorded. Primary and secondary outcome measures Postextraction bleeding not controlled by basic haemostasis procedure was clinically significant. Results Bleeding events were reported for 35 (7.1%) and 49 (2.1%) teeth, of which 18 (3.6%) and 9 (0.4%) teeth were considered clinically significant, in warfarin and non-warfarin groups, respectively, the difference between which was 3.24% (CI 1.58% to 4.90%). The incidence rates by patients were 2.77% and 0.39%, in warfarin and non-warfarin groups, respectively (incidence difference 2.38%, CI 0.65% to 4/10%). Univariate analyses showed that age (OR 0.197, p=0.001), PT-INR (OR 3.635, p=0.003), mandibular foramen conduction anaesthesia (OR 4.854, p=0.050) and formation of abnormal granulation tissue in extraction socket (OR 2.900, p=0.031) significantly correlate with bleeding incidence. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (OR 0.126, p=0.001), antiplatelet drugs (OR 0.100, p=0.049), PT-INR (OR 7.797, p=0.001) and history of acute inflammation at extraction site (OR 3.722, p=0.037) were significant risk factors for postextraction bleeding. Conclusions Our results suggest that there is slight but significant increase in the incidences of postextraction

  17. Clinical Management and Patient Outcomes Among Children and Adolescents Receiving Telemedicine Consultations for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stacey L.; Marcin, James P.; Nesbitt, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Rural residents report lower likelihood of exercising, and higher rates of obesity, heart disease, and diabetes compared to their urban counterparts. Our goals were to (1) investigate the outcomes of telemedicine consultations for pediatric obesity on changes/additions to diagnoses, diagnostic evaluation or treatment, and (2) determine whether changes in diagnostic and management recommendations made by the consultant were associated with improvements in patient nutrition, activity level, and weight. We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to a University-affiliated Children's Hospital Pediatric Telemedicine Weight Management Clinic for a diagnosis of obesity. Of the 139 children and adolescents who received pediatric weight management consultations during the study period, 99 patients met inclusion criteria. Weight management consultations resulted in changes/additions to diagnoses in 77.8% of patients and changes/additions to diagnostic evaluation in 79.8% of patients. Of patients seen more than once, 80.7% showed improvement in clinical outcomes. Of patients seen more than once, 80.6% improved their diet, 69.4% increased activity levels, 21.0% showed slowing of weight gain or weight maintenance, and 22.6% showed weight reduction. Improvements in clinical outcomes were not associated with changes/additions to diagnoses (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.25–3.98) and were weakly associated with changes/additions to diagnostic evaluations (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 0.58–8.73). However, changes/additions to treatment were associated with improvement in weight status (OR = 9.0; 95% CI = 1.34–76.21). Obesity consultations were associated with changes/additions to diagnoses, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment. Treatment changes were associated with improvement in weight status. Telemedicine weight management consultations have the potential to result in modifications in patient

  18. Association of hypothyroidism with adverse events in patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay K; Vegh, Eszter; Orencole, Mary; Miller, Alexandra; Blendea, Dan; Moore, Stephanie; Lewis, Gregory D; Singh, Jagmeet P; Parks, Kimberly A; Heist, E Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an adverse prognosis in cardiac patients in general and in particular in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of hypothyroidism on patients with HF receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Additionally, the impact of level of control of hypothyroidism on risk of adverse events after CRT implantation was also evaluated. We included consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted from April 2004 to April 2010 at our institution with sufficient follow-up data available for analysis; 511 patients were included (age 68.5±12.4 years, women 20.4%); 84 patients with a clinical history of hypothyroidism, on treatment with thyroid hormone repletion or serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level≥5.00 μU/ml, were included in the hypothyroid group. The patients were followed for up to 3 years after implant for a composite end point of hospitalization for HF, left ventricular assist device placement, or heart transplant and cardiac death; 215 composite end point events were noted in this period. In a multivariate model, hypothyroidism (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.027 to 2.085, p=0.035), female gender (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.428 to 0.963, p=0.032), and creatinine (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.145 to 1.382, p<0.001) were significantly associated with occurrence of the composite end point; 53.6% of patients with hypothyroidism at baseline developed the composite end point compared with 39.8% of those with euthyroidism (p=0.02). In conclusion, hypothyroidism is associated with a worse prognosis after CRT implantation.

  19. Evaluation of in vivo immune complex formation and complement activation in patients receiving intravenous streptokinase.

    PubMed Central

    Freysdottir, J; Ormarsdottir, S; Sigfusson, A

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of several different methods for detecting immune complex formation and complement activation in the circulation were applied to samples from patients receiving intravenous Streptokinase therapy for myocardial infarction. Streptokinase is a foreign antigen and can cause immune reactions. We collected samples from 13 patients, before Streptokinase administration (baseline), at the end of infusion (1 h), 12 h later and on day 7. We measured IgG containing immune complexes (IgG-IC), free C3d and antibodies to Streptokinase by ELISA, and CR1, C3d and C4d on erythrocytes by flow cytometric assay. Antibodies to Streptokinase are common, as all but two of the patients had measurable antibody levels. During Streptokinase treatment there was a drop in antibody levels, most prominent in those patients who had high baseline levels. At the same time increased levels of free C3d and erythrocyte-bound C3d were observed. After 12 h free C3d was usually back to baseline level, but C3d on erythrocytes was still raised. These data indicate the formation of Streptokinase immune complexes in patients with high Streptokinase antibody levels, and show that these complexes are cleared rapidly from the circulation, leaving more persistent signs of complement activation. We conclude that free C3d is a good indicator of ongoing complement activation, whereas C3d on erythrocytes indicates that complement activation has recently taken place. PMID:8222319

  20. Movie making as a cognitive distraction for paediatric patients receiving radiotherapy treatment: qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Shrimpton, Bradley J M; Willis, David J; Tongs, Cáthal D; Rolfo, Aldo G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish the outcomes achieved by using an innovative movie-making programme designed to reduce fear of radiotherapy among paediatric patients. Design Qualitative descriptive evaluation based on semistructured, qualitative interviews with purposeful sampling and thematic analysis. Setting Tertiary Cancer Centre. Participants 20 parents of paediatric patients who had produced a movie of their radiation therapy experience and were in a follow-up phase of cancer management. Results Participants attributed a broad range of outcomes to the movie-making program. These included that the programme had helped reduce anxiety and distress exhibited by paediatric patients and contributed to a willingness to receive treatment. Other outcomes were that the completed movies had been used in school reintegration and for maintaining social connections. Conclusions Allowing children to create a video of their experience of radiotherapy provided a range of benefits to paediatric patients that varied according to their needs. For some patients, movie-making offered a valuable medium for overcoming fear of the unknown as well as increasing understanding of treatment processes. For others, the development of a personalised video offered an important cognitive/attentional distraction through engaging with an age-appropriate activity. Together these outcomes helped children maintain self-control and a positive outlook. PMID:23328308

  1. Prospective audit of adverse reactions occurring in 459 primary antibody-deficient patients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    BRENNAN, V M; SALOMÉ-BENTLEY, N J; CHAPEL, H M

    2003-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used as the standard replacement therapy for patients with primary antibody deficiencies. A previous study of adverse reactions in patients self-infusing at home over 1 year showed an overall reaction rate of 0·7%. A larger prospective study is reported here, involving a greater number of immunology centres and including children and adults who received infusions from medical or nursing staff as well as those self-infusing. Four hundred and fifty-nine patients were entered into this study and 13 508 infusions were given. The study showed that no severe reactions occurred and the reaction rate was low at 0·8%. This figure could have been lower, 0·5%, if predisposing factors responsible for some reactions had been considered before infusion. In conclusion, the study shows the importance of ongoing training for patients and staff to recognize the predisposing factors to prevent avoidable reactions. Because none of these reactions were graded as severe, the present guidance to prescribe self-injectable adrenaline for patients infusing outside hospital should be reviewed. PMID:12869031

  2. Effect of Auricular Acupressure on Uremic Pruritus in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Cui-na; Yao, Wei-guo; Bao, Yi-jie; Shi, Xiao-jing; Yu, Hui; Yin, Pei-hao; Liu, Gui-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Uremic pruritus (UP) is a common symptom in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Objective. To determine the clinical efficacy of auricular acupressure therapy on pruritus in hemodialysis patients and to explore possible underlying mechanisms. Methods. Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis at a referral medical center were recruited and assigned to intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 30) groups. The intervention group underwent auricular acupressure treatment three times a week for six weeks. Auricular acupressure was not applied to patients in the control group. However, tape without Vaccaria seeds was applied to the same six auricular acupoints as the intervention group. Pruritus scores were assessed using VAS scores, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to measure levels of other possible contributory biochemical factors. Results. There was a significant difference in mean VAS scores between the postintervention and control groups during follow-up (3.844 ± 1.687 versus 5.567 ± 2.285, F = 22.32, P < 0.0001). Compared to the control group, serum histamine levels in the postintervention group at the six-week follow-up had decreased significantly (F = 5.01, P = 0.0290). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that auricular acupressure may be a useful treatment in the multidisciplinary management of UP in ESRD patients. PMID:26495017

  3. Perioperative management of patients receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy: a clinician-oriented and practical approach.

    PubMed

    Douketis, James D

    2011-10-01

    The management of patients who are receiving warfarin, aspirin, clopidogrel, or combinations of these drugs and require their interruption because of an elective surgical or other invasive procedure is a common and sometimes challenging clinical problem. For the practicing clinician, there are 2 key issues for perioperative anticoagulant management: 1) having an approach to stratify patients according to their risk for thromboembolism when warfarin or antiplatelet drug therapy is interrupted, and also having an approach to stratify patients according to the risk of bleeding associated with the surgery or procedure; and 2) determining which patients may require bridging anticoagulation and, if required, how to administer bridging, typically with a low-molecular-weight heparin, before and after surgery in a manner that minimizes the risk for bleeding. The overall goal is to minimize patients' risk for thromboembolism and bleeding throughout the perioperative period. The objective of this article is to provide an evidence-based but practical approach relating to these 2 key issues in a manner than can be applied to everyday clinical practice.

  4. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase testing for averting drug toxicity in patients receiving thiopurines: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lilla M; Zur, Richard M; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Carew, Chris; Ito, Shinya; Ungar, Wendy J

    2016-01-01

    Aim Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) testing is used in patients receiving thiopurines to identify enzyme deficiencies and risk for adverse drug reactions. It is uncertain whether genotyping is superior to phenotyping. The objectives were to conduct a systematic review of TPMT-test performance studies. Materials & methods Electronic and grey literature sources were searched for studies reporting test performance compared with a reference standard. Sixty-six eligible studies were appraised for quality. Results Thirty phenotype–genotype and six phenotype–phenotype comparisons were of high quality. The calculated sensitivity and specificity for genotyping to identify a homozygous mutation ranged from 0.0–100.0% and from 97.8–100.0%, respectively. Conclusion Clinical decision-makers require high-quality evidence of clinical validity and clinical utility of TPMT genotyping to ensure appropriate use in patients. PMID:27020704

  5. Pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem in a pediatric patient receiving extracorporeal life support.

    PubMed

    Cies, Jeffrey J; Moore, Wayne S; Dickerman, Mindy J; Small, Christine; Carella, Dominick; Chopra, Arun; Parker, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Meropenem, a broad-spectrum carbapenem, is commonly used for empirical and definitive therapy in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU). Pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing in children, however, are limited to healthy volunteers or patients who are not in the ICU. Adult data demonstrate that pharmacokinetic parameters such as the volume of distribution and clearance can be significantly altered in individuals receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Alterations in the volume of distribution and clearance of antimicrobials in patients with sepsis and septic shock have also been documented, and these patients have demonstrated lower than expected antimicrobial serum concentrations based on standard dosing regimens. Therefore, an understanding of the pharmacokinetic changes in critically ill children receiving ECMO is crucial to determining the most appropriate dose and dosing interval selection for any antimicrobial therapy. In this case report, we describe the pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of meropenem in a pediatric cardiac ICU patient who was receiving concurrent extracorporeal life support. The patient was an 8-month-old male infant who underwent a Glenn procedure and pulmonary artery reconstruction. Postoperatively, he required ECMO with a total run of 21 days. On day 11 of ECMO, a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and blood cultures from days 11 and 12 of ECMO grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with a meropenem minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 μg/ml. On ECMO day 13, meropenem was initiated with a loading dose of 40 mg/kg and infused over 30 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 200 mg/kg/day. A meropenem serum concentration measured 8 hours after the start of the infusion was 46 μg/ml. Repeat levels were measured on days 3 and 9 of meropenem therapy and were 39 and 42 μg/ml, respectively. Repeat blood and respiratory cultures remained negative. This meropenem regimen (40-mg/kg bolus followed by a

  6. Mechanisms of Dexamethasone-Induced Disturbed Sleep and Fatigue in Paediatric Patients Receiving Treatment for ALL

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Kelly; Liu, Wei; Mandrell, Belinda N.; Panetta, John C; Gattuso, Jami S.; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Zupanec, Sue; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jie; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone contributes to high cure rates in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) but significantly and adversely alters sleep and fatigue. Herein we explored three mechanisms (pharmacokinetics, serum albumin, and pharmacogenetics) through which dexamethasone may cause debilitating fatigue and disrupted sleep. Methods We enrolled 100 patients on a 10-day study: 5 days of no dexamethasone (OFF DEX) followed by 5 days of dexamethasone (ON DEX) during continuation chemotherapy. Sleep variables were collected with continuous actigraphy on Days 1 through 5, both OFF DEX and ON DEX. On Days 2 and 5 of each 5-day period, parents and patients 7 years of age and older completed a sleep diary and Fatigue Scale questionnaire. Blood was collected at 0 (pre-dexamethasone), 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after the first oral dexamethasone dose for pharmacokinetic analysis. Serum albumin concentration was retrospectively analyzed in stored samples. Patient DNA was genotyped for 99 polymorphic loci in candidate genes associated with glucocorticoid metabolism. Results Dexamethasone clearance was significantly greater in younger patients than in older ones and in lower risk patients. In multiple regression models, risk group was significantly related to pharmacokinetic parameters. We found that polymorphisms in three genes (AHSG, IL6, POLDIP3) were significantly associated with sleep measures but not fatigue. Conclusion Risk group had the most significant relationship with disrupted sleep in patients while on dexamethasone. Serum albumin levels had neither a direct relationship with sleep or fatigue variables nor an indirect relationship through systemic exposure to dexamethasone. We identified candidate genes that may help explain the adverse events of disrupted sleep in pediatric patients receiving dexamethasone. PMID:20400291

  7. AST-120 Improves Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jung-Hwa; Yu, Mina; Lee, Sihna; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a pivotal phenomenon in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a known uremic toxin that induces ED in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AST-120, an absorbent of IS, improves microvascular or macrovascular ED in HD patients. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective, case-controlled trial. Fourteen patients each were enrolled in respective AST-120 and control groups. The subjects in the AST-120 group were treated with AST-120 (6 g/day) for 6 months. Microvascular function was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry using iontophoresis of acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at baseline and again at 3 and 6 months. Carotid arterial intima-media thickness (cIMT) and flow-mediated vasodilation were measured at baseline and 6 months. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to compare values before and after AST-120 treatment. Results Ach-induced iontophoresis (endothelium-dependent response) was dramatically ameliorated at 3 months and 6 months in the AST-120 group. SNP-induced response showed delayed improvement only at 6 months in the AST-120 group. The IS level was decreased at 3 months in the AST-120 group, but remained stable thereafter. cIMT was significantly reduced after AST-120 treatment. No significant complications in patients taking AST-120 were reported. Conclusion AST-120 ameliorated microvascular ED and cIMT in HD patients. A randomized study including a larger population will be required to establish a definitive role of AST-120 as a preventive medication for CVD in HD patients. PMID:27189289

  8. Quality of life in low-grade glioma patients receiving temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Raymond; Solheim, Karla; Polley, Mei-Yin; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Rabbitt, Jane; Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael; Chang, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) of low-grade glioma (LGG) patients at baseline prior to chemotherapy and through 12 cycles of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Patients with histologically confirmed LGG with only prior surgery were given TMZ for 12 cycles. QOL assessments by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) were obtained at baseline prior to chemotherapy and at 2-month intervals while receiving TMZ. Patients with LGG at baseline prior to chemotherapy had higher reported social well-being scores (mean difference = 5.0; p < 0.01) but had lower reported emotional well-being scores (mean difference = 2.2; p < 0.01) compared to a normal population. Compared to patients with left hemisphere tumors, patients with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores (p = 0.01): 44% could not drive, 26% did not feel independent, and 26% were afraid of having a seizure. Difficulty with work was noted in 24%. Mean change scores at each chemotherapy cycle compared to baseline for all QOL subscales showed either no significant change or were significantly positive (p < 0.01). Patients with LGG on TMZ at baseline prior to chemotherapy reported QOL comparable to a normal population with the exception of social and emotional well-being, and those with right hemisphere tumors reported higher physical well-being scores compared to those with left hemisphere tumors. While remaining on therapy, LGG patients were able to maintain their QOL in all realms. LGG patients’ QOL may be further improved by addressing their emotional well-being and their loss of independence in terms of driving or working. PMID:18713953

  9. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in breast cancer patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Winnie; Chan, Paul K S; Hui, Pun; Ho, Wing M; Lam, Kwok C; Kwan, Wing H; Zhong, Sheng; Johnson, Philip J

    2003-08-01

    condition (P = 0.019). No risk factors associated with the development of HBV reactivation could be identified. Serial monitoring of HBV DNA, in addition to liver function, increases the sensitivity of diagnosing of HBV reactivation, and helps explain some cases that would otherwise be labeled as "cryptogenic hepatitis," for which concomitant HBV DNA measured at the time of hepatitis was undetectable. The present study highlights the importance of monitoring HBsAg-seropositive patients who are receiving chemotherapy for common solid tumors such as breast cancer. PMID:12794717

  10. Nutritional rehabilitation in patients with advanced head and neck cancer receiving radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Daly, J M; Hearne, B; Dunaj, J; LePorte, B; Vikram, B; Strong, E; Green, M; Muggio, F; Groshen, S; DeCosse, J J

    1984-10-01

    maintained mean mid-arm circumference and recovered mean serum albumin levels after radiation therapy in contrast with the orally fed group. Intensive outpatient tube-feeding nutritional support during radiation therapy in patients with advanced inoperable squamous cancer of the oropharynx significantly improved mean weight maintenance, mean caloric and protein intake, and mean serum albumin levels compared with patients who received optimal oral nutrition. Tumor response to radiation therapy, however, was unchanged.

  11. Cancer risk in patients receiving renal replacement therapy: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Huang, Liu; Li, Li; Li, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), including dialysis and kidney transplantation, tend to have an increased risk of cancer; however, studies on the degree of this risk have remained inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to quantify the cancer risk in patients with RRT. Cohort studies assessing overall cancer risk in RRT patients published before May 29, 2015 were included following systematic searches with of PubMed, EMBASE and the reference lists of the studies retrieved. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessment were performed. A total of 18 studies including 22 cohort studies were eventually identified, which comprised a total of 1,528,719 patients. In comparison with the general population, the pooled SIR for patients with dialysis including non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), dialysis excluding NMSC, transplantation including NMSC, transplantation excluding NMSC and RRT were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36–1.45), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.23–1.50), 3.26 (95% CI, 2.29–4.63), 2.08 (95% CI, 1.73–2.50) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.70–2.38), respectively. The cancer risk was particularly high in subgroups of large sample size trials, female patients, younger patients (age at first dialysis, 0–34 years; age at transplantation, 0–20 years), the first year of RRT and non-Asian transplant patients. A significant association was also found between RRT and the majority of organ-specific cancers. However, neither dialysis nor transplantation was associated with breast, body of uterus, colorectal or prostate cancer. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding the association between RRT and overall cancer as well as the majority of site-specific cancer types. However, this heterogeneity had no substantial influence on the pooled SIR for overall cancer in RRT according to the

  12. Dose delivered from Varian's CBCT to patients receiving IMRT for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ning; Guan, Huaiqun; Hammoud, Rabih; Pradhan, Deepak; Nurushev, T.; Li, Shidong; Movsas, Benjamin

    2007-04-01

    With the increased use of cone beam CT (CBCT) for daily patient setup, the accumulated dose from CBCT may be significantly higher than that from simulation CT or portal imaging. The objective of this work is to measure the dose from daily pelvic scans with fixed technical settings and collimations. CBCT scans were acquired in half-fan mode using a half bowtie and x-rays were delivered in pulsed-fluoro mode. The skin doses for seven prostate patients were measured on an IRB-approved protocol. TLD capsules were placed on the patient's skin at the central axis of three beams: AP, left lateral (Lt Lat) and right lateral (Rt Lat). To avoid the ring artefacts centred in the prostate, the treatment couch was dropped 3 cm from the patient's tattoo (central axis). The measured AP skin doses ranged 3-6 cGy for 20-33 cm separation. The larger the patient size the less the AP skin dose. Lateral doses did not change much with patient size. The Lt Lat dose was ~4.0 cGy, which was ~40% higher than the Rt Lat dose of ~2.6 cGy. To verify this dose asymmetry, surface doses on an IMRT QA phantom (oval shaped, 30 cm × 20 cm) were measured at the same three sites using TLD capsules with 3 cm table-drop. The dose asymmetry was due to: (1) kV source rotation which always starts from the patient's Lt Lat and ends at Lt Lat. Gantry rotation gets much slower near the end of rotation but dose rate stays constant and (2) 370° scan rotation (10° scan overlap on the Lt Lat side). In vivo doses were measured inside a Rando pelvic heterogeneous phantom using TLDs. The left hip (femoral head and neck) received the highest doses of ~10-11 cGy while the right hip received ~6-7 cGy. The surface and in vivo doses were also measured for phantoms at the central-axis setup. The difference was less than ~12% to the table-drop setup.

  13. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Hanucharurnkul, S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support.

  14. Pilot study of "miracle fruit" to improve food palatability for patients receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Marlene K; Satiroff, Bernadette A

    2012-10-01

    Taste changes in patients undergoing chemotherapy are common and can be of long duration, are associated with poor nutrition, and can reduce quality of life. A pilot study of the fruit Synsepalum dulcificum-known as "miracle fruit"-as a novel supportive intervention was conducted with eight patients with cancer who were being treated with chemotherapy and reporting taste changes. Miraculin, a naturally occurring protein in miracle fruit, has the unusual ability to transduce a sweet signal in an acidic environment, profoundly changing food taste profiles for a short duration, masking unpleasant tastes, and increasing the palatability of certain foods. This pilot study was designed to determine whether consumption of the Miracle Fruit™ supplement would improve chemotherapy-associated taste changes, thereby improving the taste of food and ultimately leading to better nutrition. Four of the participants were given a two-week supply of the supplement and the other four were given a two-week supply of a placebo. After two weeks, the supplement group received a two-week supply of the placebo and the placebo group received a two-week supply of the supplement. Participants recorded food and drink intake in daily food dairies and rated taste changes with each food as better, worse, or no change. All study participants reported positive taste changes with the supplement. PMID:23022943

  15. Coping strategies and socio-demographic characteristics among Jordanian caregivers of patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alnazly, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD) are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver's sociodemographic characteristics.

  16. Anesthetic management of patients receiving calculus therapy with a third-generation extracorporeal lithotripsy machine.

    PubMed

    Hosking, M P; Morris, S A; Klein, F A; Dobmeyer-Dittrich, C

    1997-10-01

    We reviewed the anesthetic requirements for satisfactory use of a third-generation electromagnetic-source design for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Medical records were reviewed for a period of 9 months on all patients receiving anesthesia care for SWL with and without other urologic procedures. The Modulith SL20 was used on 56 ASA Class I-III patients having 87 SWL treatments. Demographic and anesthetic variables were recorded. Complications documented included dysrhythmias, nausea necessitating treatment, and conversion from sedation to regional or general anesthesia. The majority of procedures (83%) were performed on an outpatient basis. Patients were classified as ASA physical status I (27%), II (63%), or III (10%). Monitored anesthesia care with intravenous sedation was utilized in 93% of cases. Of these cases, 78 involved a combination of intravenous propofol, fentanyl, and midazolam; the remaining 3 involved propofol, alfentanil, and/or midazolam. The mean treatment duration was 36 minutes. Patients were discharged within 1 hour after procedure completion in 77 cases (89%). Nausea necessitating treatment was rare (3%). The mean dose of propofol administered with SWL as the only procedure was 272 +/- 112 mg. When SWL was combined with other urologic procedures, the mean dose of propofol was 334 +/- 121 mg. Continuous intravenous propofol infusion provides excellent procedural conditions for SWL on the Modulith SL120, a third-generation lithotripter.

  17. Selenium metabolites in urine of cancer patients receiving L-selenomethionine at high doses

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehnelt, Doris; Juresa, Dijana; Francesconi, Kevin A. . E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at; Fakih, Marwan; Reid, Mary E.

    2007-04-15

    We investigated, with quantitative HPLC/mass spectrometry, the selenium metabolites in urine from five cancer patients receiving high doses of L-selenomethionine over an extended period (2 x 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 7 days, then 4000 {mu}g Se/day for 21 days) as an adjunct to their normal cancer chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected at day 0 (all 5 patients), and at 2-3 additional collection times ranging from 1 to 33 days. The background selenium concentrations ranged from 12 to 55 {mu}g Se/L and increased to 870 to 4420 {mu}g Se/L for the five patients during the study. All five patients had appreciable levels of selenosugars in their background urine sample, and the concentrations increased dramatically after selenium intake. Trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), on the other hand, was generally present as only a trace metabolite in background urine, and, although the concentration of TMSe increased following selenium exposure, it became a less significant proportion relative to selenosugars. These data refute the currently accepted role of TMSe as the preferred excretion metabolite when selenium exposure is high.

  18. Reducing stray radiation dose to patients receiving passively scattered proton radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Phillip J; Fontenot, Jonas D; Zheng, Yuanshui; Mirkovic, Dragan; Lee, Andrew K; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy exposes healthy tissue to stray radiation emanating from the treatment unit and secondary radiation produced within the patient. These exposures provide no known benefit and may increase a patient's risk of developing a radiogenic second cancer. The aim of this study was to explore strategies to reduce stray radiation dose to a patient receiving a 76 Gy proton beam treatment for cancer of the prostate. The whole-body effective dose from stray radiation, E, was estimated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a passively scattered proton treatment unit and an anthropomorphic phantom. The predicted value of E was 567 mSv, of which 320 mSv was attributed to leakage from the treatment unit; the remainder arose from scattered radiation that originated within the patient. Modest modifications of the treatment unit reduced E by 212 mSv. Surprisingly, E from a modified passive-scattering device was only slightly higher (109 mSv) than from a nozzle with no leakage, e.g., that which may be approached with a spot-scanning technique. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the suitability of passively scattered proton beams for the treatment of prostate cancer, confirm that the effective dose from stray radiation was not excessive, and, importantly, show that it can be substantially reduced by modest enhancements to the treatment unit. PMID:18369278

  19. Relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to ascertain if there is a relationship between social support and the nutritional status of patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer. The data collection instruments used included the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), the Personal Characteristics Form, the abbreviated Health History, the Flow Sheet for Nutritional Data, and the Interview Schedule. For the analysis of data descriptive statistics were utilized to provide a profile of subjects, and correlational statistics were used to ascertain if there were relationships among the indicators of nutritional status and the social support variables. A convenience sample was comprised of 50 cancer patients deemed curable by radiation therapy. Findings included significant decreases in anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests during therapy. Serial assessments of nutritional status, therefore, are recommended for all cancer patients during therapy in order to plan and implement strategies for meeting the self-care requisites for food and water. No statistically significant relationships were found between the social support variables as measured by the NSSQ and the indicators of nutritional status. This suggests that nurses can assist patients by fostering support from actual and potential nutritional confidants.

  20. Metacognitive therapy (MCT+) in patients with psychosis not receiving antipsychotic medication: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Balzan, Ryan P.; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychotherapies for psychosis typically aim to develop an awareness of the implausible content of a delusion or target the underlying cognitive biases (i.e., problematic thinking styles, such as hasty decisions and illusory control) that foster and maintain delusional beliefs. A recently designed individual-based treatment entitled metacognitive therapy (MCT+) combines these two approaches. Emerging evidence suggests individualized MCT+, when used concurrently with antipsychotic medication, may be an effective psychological treatment for reducing delusional symptoms. However, it remains to be tested whether MCT+ can be effective in patients with active delusions who are not currently receiving psychotropic drugs. Method: We present two cases (one patient with schizophrenia and the other with delusional disorder) experiencing active delusions who underwent 4-weeks of intensive MCT+, without concurrent antipsychotic medication (minimum 6-months unmedicated). Baseline and 6-week follow-up data are presented on a variety of measures assessing delusion symptom severity (i.e., PANSS, PSYRATS, SAPS), clinical insight, and cognitive bias propensity. Results: After 4-weeks of MCT+, both patients showed substantial reduction in delusional symptoms, reported improved clinical insight, and were less prone to making illusory correlations. Conclusions: The presented case studies provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility of MCT+ in treating patients not taking, or resistant to, antipsychotic medication. PMID:26217283

  1. Coping strategies and socio-demographic characteristics among Jordanian caregivers of patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alnazly, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD) are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver's sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:26787574

  2. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to determine cut-off points of biomarkers in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Heidi L; Niwas, Santosh; Grizzle, William E; Piyathilake, Chandrika

    The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185(erbB-2) and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively); while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185(erbB-2) membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  3. Spine Radiosurgery: A Dosimetric Analysis in 124 Patients Who Received 18 Gy

    SciTech Connect

    Schipani, Stefano; Wen, Winston; Jin, Jain-Yue; Kim, Jin Koo; Ryu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To define the safely tolerated doses to organs at risk (OARs) adjacent to the target volume (TV) of spine radiosurgery (SRS) with 18-Gy in a single fraction. Methods and Materials: A total of 124 patient cases with 165 spine metastases were reviewed. An 18-Gy single-fraction regimen was prescribed to the 90% isodose line encompassing the TV. A constraint of 10 Gy to 10% of the spinal cord outlined 6 mm above and below the TV was used. Dosimetric data to OARs were analyzed. Results: A total of 124 patients (100%) were followed-up, and median follow-up time was 7 months (1-50 months). Symptoms and local control were achieved in 114 patients (92%). Acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grade 1 oral mucositis occurred in 11 of 11 (100%) patients at risk for oropharyngeal toxicity after cervical spine treatment. There were no RTOG grade 2-4 acute or late complications. Median TV was 43.2 cc (5.3-175.4 cc) and 90% of the TV received median dose of 19 Gy (17-19.8 Gy). Median (range) of spinal cord maximum dose (Dmax), dose to spinal cord 0.35 cc (Dsc0.35), and cord volume receiving 10 Gy (Vsc10) were 13.8 Gy (5.4-21 Gy), 8.9 Gy (2.6-11.4 Gy) and 0.33 cc (0-1.6 cc), respectively. Other OARs were evaluated when in proximity to the TV. Esophagus (n=58), trachea (n=28), oropharynx (n=11), and kidneys (n=34) received median (range) V10 and V15 of 3.1 cc (0-5.8 cc) and 1.2 cc (0-2.9 cc), 2.8 cc (0-4.9 cc), and 0.8 cc (0-2.1 cc), 3.4 cc (0-6.2 cc) and 1.6 cc (0-3.2 cc), 0.3 cc (0-0.8 cc) and 0.08 cc (0-0.1 cc), respectively. Conclusions: Cord Dmax of 14 Gy and D0.35 of 10 Gy are safe dose constraints for 18-Gy single-fraction SRS. Esophagus V10 of 3 cc and V15 of 1 cc, trachea V10 of 3 cc, and V15 of 1 cc, oropharynx V10 of 3.5 cc and V15 of 1.5 cc, kidney V10 of 0.3 cc, and V15 of 0.1 cc are planning guidelines when these OARs are in proximity to the TV.

  4. Liver Fibrosis in HIV Patients Receiving a Modern cART

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Raphael; Schierwagen, Robert; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Liver-related death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is about 10 times higher compared with the general population, and the prevalence of significant liver fibrosis in those with HIV approaches 15%. The present study aimed to assess risk factors for development of hepatic fibrosis in HIV patients receiving a modern combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART). This cross-sectional prospective study included 432 HIV patients, of which 68 (16%) patients were anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive and 23 (5%) were HBsAg positive. Health trajectory including clinical characteristics and liver fibrosis stage assessed by transient elastography were collected at inclusion. Liver stiffness values >7.1 kPa were considered as significant fibrosis, while values >12.5 kPa were defined as severe fibrosis. Logistic regression and Cox regression uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with liver fibrosis. Significant liver fibrosis was detected in 10% of HIV mono-infected, in 37% of HCV co-infected patients, and in 18% of hepatitis B virus co-infected patients. The presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6) and FIB4 score (OR = 2.4) were independently associated with presence of significant fibrosis in the whole cohort. Similarly, diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.4), adiposity (OR = 4.6), and the FIB4 score (OR = 3.3) were independently associated with significant fibrosis in HIV mono-infected patients. Importantly, cumulative cART duration protected, whereas persistent HIV viral replication promoted the development of significant liver fibrosis along the duration of HIV infection. Our findings strongly indicate that besides known risk factors like metabolic disorders, HIV may also have a direct effect on fibrogenesis. Successful cART leading to complete suppression of HIV replication might protect from development of liver fibrosis. PMID:26683921

  5. Clinical Utility of Routine Cardiac Monitoring in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Christine C.; Zelnak, Amelia; Eley, J. William; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; McKibbin, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab targets the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Cardiotoxicity is a potential adverse effect, manifesting as either an asymptomatic decline in left-ventricular ejection fraction or infrequently as largely reversible symptomatic heart failure (HF). Monitoring recommendations differ between product labeling and 2012 guidelines, and the clinical utility of serial cardiac monitoring in patients with metastatic breast cancer remains controversial. Objective The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency of monitoring, incidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic HF, overall effect on treatment, and cost of monitoring for cardiotoxicity. Methods We preformed an institutional review board–approved retrospective chart review of breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2014, at an academic medical center. Results Out of 154 treatments, 72% were adjuvant, and 28% were metastatic. In the adjuvant setting, a mean of 4.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 4–5) echocardiograms (echos) over a mean of 11.5 (IQR = 11–12) months were performed. In the metastatic setting, a mean of 3.1 (IQR = 1–5) echos over a mean of 20.2 (IQR = 9–31) months were performed. Symptomatic HF events occurred in 4 adjuvant (3.6%) and 2 metastatic patients (6.5%); 10 patients (6.5%) had a treatment interruption, with 9 (90%) tolerating restart of trastuzumab. Two patients (1.3%) changed treatment as a result of cardiotoxicity. Using population incidence of HER2-positive breast cancer, $13 million could be saved if monitoring were reduced by 1 echo per patient. Conclusions Given the low incidence of clinically significant HF and cost of monitoring, less frequent monitoring may be justified. PMID:27307412

  6. Obesity and Risk of Biochemical Failure for Patients Receiving Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Spiotto, Michael T.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Obesity has been proposed as an independent risk factor for patients undergoing surgery or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we tested its role as a risk factor for patients receiving salvage RT after prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Rates of subsequent biochemical relapse were examined in 90 patients who underwent salvage RT between 1984 and 2004 for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. The BMI was tested as a continuous and categorical variable (stratified as <25, 25-<30, and {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with time to relapse after salvage RT. Results: There were 40 biochemical failures after salvage RT with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. The BMI was not associated with adverse clinical, pathologic, or treatment factors. On multivariate analysis, obesity was independently significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; p = 0.01), along with RT dose (HR, 0.7; p = 0.003) and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen level (HR, 1.2; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This study is weakly suggestive that obesity may be a risk factor for salvage RT patients. Whether this results from greater biologic aggressiveness or technical inadequacies cannot be answered by this study. Given the very high failure rate observed for severely obese patients, we propose that technical difficulties with RT are at play. This hypothesis is supported by the RT literature and could be prospectively investigated. Techniques that optimize targeting, especially in obese patients, perhaps seem warranted at this time.

  7. Longitudinal Associations of Depressive Symptoms and Pain with Quality of Life in Patients Receiving Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Belayev, Linda Y.; Mor, Maria K.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Arnold, Robert M.; Fine, Michael J.; Weisbord, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), yet their associations with quality of life (QOL) are not fully understood. We sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with QOL. Methods As part of a trial comparing two symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic HD, we assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and pain using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) monthly over 24 months. We assessed health-related QOL (HR-QOL) quarterly using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and global QOL (G-QOL) using a single item survey. We used random effects linear regression to analyze the independent associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5 point increments in symptom scores, with HR-QOL and G-QOL. Results Overall, 286 patients completed 1,417 PHQ-9 and SF-MPQ symptom assessments, 1,361 SF-12 assessments, and 1,416 G-QOL assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β= -1.09; 95% CI: -1.69, -0.50, p<0.001); SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β= -4.52; 95%CI: -5.15, -3.89, p<0.001); and G-QOL scores (β= -0.64; 95%CI: -0.79, -0.49, p<0.001). Pain was independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β= -0.99; 95% CI: -1.30, -0.68, p<0.001) and G-QOL scores (β= -0.12; 95%CI: -0.20, -0.05, p=0.002); but not with SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β= -0.16; 95%CI: -0.050, 0.17, p=0.34). Conclusion In patients receiving chronic HD, depressive symptoms and to a lesser extent pain, are independently associated with reduced HR-QOL and G-QOL. Interventions to alleviate these symptoms could potentially improve patients' HR-QOL and G-QOL. PMID:25403142

  8. Longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and pain with quality of life in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Belayev, Linda Y; Mor, Maria K; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L; Palevsky, Paul M; Arnold, Robert M; Fine, Michael J; Weisbord, Steven D

    2015-04-01

    Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), yet their associations with quality of life (QOL) are not fully understood. We sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with QOL. As part of a trial comparing two symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic HD, we assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and pain using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) monthly over 24 months. We assessed health-related QOL (HR-QOL) quarterly using the Short Form 12 (SF-12) and global QOL (G-QOL) using a single-item survey. We used random effects linear regression to analyze the independent associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5-point increments in symptom scores, with HR-QOL and G-QOL. Overall, 286 patients completed 1417 PHQ-9 and SF-MPQ symptom assessments, 1361 SF-12 assessments, and 1416 G-QOL assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β = -1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.69, -0.50, P < 0.001); SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β = -4.52; 95% CI: -5.15, -3.89, P < 0.001); and G-QOL scores (β = -0.64; 95%CI: -0.79, -0.49, P < 0.001). Pain was independently and inversely associated with SF-12 physical HR-QOL scores (β = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.30, -0.68, P < 0.001) and G-QOL scores (β = -0.12; 95%CI: -0.20, -0.05, P = 0.002); but not with SF-12 mental HR-QOL scores (β = -0.16; 95%CI: -0.050, 0.17, P = 0.34). In patients receiving chronic HD, depressive symptoms and to a lesser extent pain, are independently associated with reduced HR-QOL and G-QOL. Interventions to alleviate these symptoms could potentially improve patients' HR-QOL and G-QOL.

  9. Reduced inhibition of Candida albicans adhesion by saliva from patients receiving oral cancer therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Umazume, M; Ueta, E; Osaki, T

    1995-01-01

    The effect of saliva on the adhesion of Candida albicans to epithelial cells was examined in vitro by using saliva from healthy controls and patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The adhesion of C. albicans to established epithelial tumor cells was reduced by 40% by salivary treatment of the C. albicans or epithelial cells. The inhibitory activity of saliva was almost completely abolished by anti-secretory immunoglobulin A antibody, concanavalin A, and mannose. Compared with saliva from healthy individuals, that from patients who had received chemoradiotherapy for oral carcinoma showed reduced suppression of C. albicans adhesion, which accompanied decreased salivary secretory immunoglobulin A and lactoferrin concentrations. A greater number of C. albicans cells adhered to buccal cells obtained from patients who had received chemoradiotherapy than to those from healthy individuals. Treatment of either epithelial cells or C. albicans with anticancer drugs induced an increase in adherence of epithelial cells and yeast cells. In contrast, concanavalin A- and mannose-pretreated C. albicans exhibited reduced adhesion to epithelial cells. No further decrease of C. albicans adhesion was observed when both epithelial cells and yeast phase C. albicans were treated with mannose. In conclusion, the inhibition of C. albicans adhesion by saliva depends largely on mannose residues on salivary glycoproteins and mannose is one of the binding ligands on both C. albicans and epithelial cells. In addition, anticancer therapy may induce oral C. albicans overgrowth by decreasing salivation and the concentrations of glycoproteins in saliva inhibiting C. albicans adhesion and by increasing the adhesive properties of both C. albicans and oral epithelial cells. PMID:7714204

  10. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L

    2016-09-01

    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcomes among different graft sources. However, the risk and types of infections have not been compared among graft sources. Such information may influence the choice of a particular graft source. We compared the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in 1781 adults with acute leukemia who received alternative donor HCT (UCB, n= 568; MUD, n = 930; MMUD, n = 283) between 2008 and 2011. The incidences of bacterial infection at 1 year were 72%, 59%, and 65% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. Incidences of viral infection at 1 year were 68%, 45%, and 53% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. In multivariable analysis, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were more common after either UCB or MMUD than after MUD (P < .0001). Bacterial and viral but not fungal infections were more common after UCB than MMUD (P = .0009 and <.0001, respectively). The presence of viral infection was not associated with an increased mortality. Overall survival (OS) was comparable among UCB and MMUD patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 90% but was inferior for UCB for patients with KPS < 90%. Bacterial and fungal infections were associated with poorer OS. Future strategies focusing on infection prevention and treatment are indicated to improve HCT outcomes.

  11. Increased globulin and its association with hemorrhagic transformation in patients receiving intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingqi; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yan, Shuo; Jin, Hang; Wang, Shouchun; Yang, Yi

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have identified a diverse set of predisposing factors for the occurrence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), but the independent clinical predictors of HT after intraarterial thrombolysis have not been determined. In this retrospective study, we investigated the characteristics of patients with or without HT who had received intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy, using biochemical analysis, renal function test, routine blood test, blood lipid test, coagulation blood test, liver function test, random blood glucose test, time-window for intra-arterial thrombolysis, recanalization, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and systolic blood pressure before intra-arterial thrombolysis. The mortality rates were similar in the HT and non-HT groups (P = 0.944). In the single-factor analysis, patients with a higher globulin level (P <0.002), prothrombin time activity percentage (PTA; P = 0.026), and NIHSS score (P = 0.002), had a significantly increased risk of developing HT. In the multifactor logistic regression model involving globulin level, PTA, white blood cell count, and NIHSS score, the globulin level (P <0.001; OR, 1.185; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.090-1.288), PTA (P = 0.018; OR, 1.016; 95% CI, 1.003-1.029), white blood cell count (P = 0.025; OR, 1.097; 95% CI, 1.012-1.190) and NIHSS score (P = 0.003; OR, 1.097; 95% CI, 1.031-1.166) were significantly increased in the HT group. The increase in globulin level is an independent risk factor for HT in patients receiving intra-arterial thrombolysis. The possible mechanisms may involve inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and positive acute-phase reactants synthesized by the liver. PMID:24871645

  12. Abnormal T-cell subpopulations in hemophilic patients receiving factor VIII concentrates from voluntary donors.

    PubMed

    Wearne, A; Joshua, D E; Rickard, K A; Kronenberg, H

    1984-04-01

    Recently, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been reported in hemophiliacs in the USA, Canada and Spain, and this has caused considerable concern amongst hemophiliacs regarding the use of factor VIII concentrates. The aim of this study was to determine whether hemophiliacs in Australia have T-lymphocyte subpopulation changes similar to those observed in patients with AIDS. Factor VIII produced in Australia is derived from a totally volunteer blood donor system and none of the hemophiliacs in this study had received commercial blood products. For the hemophiliacs, the T-helper cell to T-suppressor cell ratio was 1.1 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- SD) which was significantly less (p less than 0.001) than that of the normal age and sex-matched controls. There was a significant relative (p less than 0.001) and absolute (p less than 0.05) reduction of the helper cell subsets and a significant relative (p less than 0.001) and absolute (p less than 0.05) increase of the suppressor cell subsets, in the hemophiliacs compared to the normal controls. There appears to be no correlation between the amount of factor VIII therapy received during the last three years and the T-cell subset changes. All patients with Christmas disease had T-cell subsets within the normal range. All patients were negative for the hepatitis B virus antigen, but all were positive for the antibody, indicating that there had been exposure to the hepatitis virus in all cases. Cytomegalovirus titres were uniformly low and immunoglobulin levels were normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with multiple myeloma receiving bortezomib-containing regimens followed by autologous stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Huang, Beihui; Li, Ying; Zheng, Dong; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Junru

    2015-06-01

    To investigate hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) receiving bortezomib-containing regimens, we analyzed 139 patients with MM receiving bortezomib-containing regimens in our hospital. Twenty-seven/139 patients were hepatitis B surface antigen positive (HBsAg+) with nine having DNA levels > 500 IU/mL, including four > 1000 IU/mL. All but five HBsAg+ patients were treated with lamivudine or entecavir before chemotherapy until at least 6 months after chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). HBV reactivation occurred in six HBsAg+ patients and two HBsAg- patients, including six who received ASCT. Overall survival and progression-free survival of HBsAg- patients were significantly longer than for HBsAg+ patients (both p < 0.01). From these results, we confirmed that the incidence of HBV reactivation was notable in patients with MM receiving bortezomib-containing regimens, especially those who underwent ASCT. HBsAg+ patients with MM had a poorer prognosis than HBsAg- patients. Prophylactic treatment should be prescribed to all patients with HBsAg+ MM for a minimum duration of 12 months.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of a new 10% intravenous immunoglobulin in patients receiving replacement therapy for primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Richard L; Church, Joseph A; Peter, Hans H; Sleasman, John W; Melamed, Isaac; Stein, Mark R; Bichler, Johann

    2009-06-28

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used in treating immunodeficiencies and autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. As manufacturing processes and storage can alter IgG molecules, pharmacokinetic assessments are important for new preparations. Thus, we studied pharmacokinetics of IgPro10, a new 10% liquid IVIg product stabilised with l-proline, in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA). Patients received IgPro10 for >or=4 months (median dose of 444mg/kg, at 3- or 4-week intervals). Median total IgG serum concentrations increased from 10.2g/l pre-infusion to 23.2g/l at infusion end. Serum IgG concentrations decreased in a biphasic manner; median terminal half-life was 36.6 days. Median half-lives were 33.2 for IgG(1), 36.3 for IgG(2), 25.9 for IgG(3) and 36.4 days for IgG(4). Specific antibody concentrations (anti-CMV, anti-Hemophilus influenzae type B, anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae) decreased with median half-lives of 22.3-30.5 days. IgPro10 pharmacokinetics were similar in patients with CVID and XLA, although patients with CVID showed higher levels of anti-tetanus and anti-S. pneumoniae antibodies than patients with XLA, suggesting residual specific antibody production. IgPro10 pharmacokinetics fulfilled expectations for and were similar to intact IgG products. Administration of IgPro10 at 3- or 4-week intervals achieved sufficient plasma concentrations of total IgG, IgG subclasses and antibodies specific to important pathogens.

  15. Immunological evaluation of pediatric cancer patients receiving recombinant interleukin-2 in a phase I trial.

    PubMed

    Truitt, R L; Piaskowski, V; Kirchner, P; McOlash, L; Camitta, B M; Casper, J T

    1992-05-01

    Immunological evaluations were performed on 14 pediatric cancer patients who received human recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) as a bolus intravenous infusion every 8 h for 5 consecutive days in a phase I trial. Three-to-four patients were treated at dose levels of 10, 30, 60, and 100 x 10(3) Cetus U/kg. Six of the patients had stage D neuroblastoma; the remainder had other solid tumors or leukemias. Infusion of rIL-2 was associated with a rapid margination of IL-2-responsive cells followed by demargination and heightened proliferative and cytotoxic activity after therapy was completed. The predominant phenotypic change in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was an increase in CD2 expression by CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. Appearance of CD2+ CD56+ cells in the circulation correlated with increased lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activity as defined by the ability to kill NK-resistant Daudi tumor cells in vitro. Sustained LAK activity appeared to be dependent on the bioavailability of rIL-2 in vivo as well as in vitro. After rIL-2 therapy, PBMC that were highly responsive to rIL-2 (activated and "poised" LAK cells) persisted for at least 72 h. In the patients tested, increased lysis of autologous and/or allogeneic, histologically similar tumor cell lines was also observed after therapy. The immunoenhancing effects of rIL-2 occurred even at the lower doses used in this study. However, an objective tumor response was not observed in any of the patients.

  16. Hemoglobin Targets and Blood Transfusions in Hemodialysis Patients without Symptomatic Cardiac Disease Receiving Erythropoietin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert N.; Curtis, Bryan M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Optimal hemoglobin targets for chronic kidney disease patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents remain controversial. The effects of different hemoglobin targets on blood transfusion requirements have not been well characterized, despite their relevance to clinical decision-making. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Five hundred ninety-six incident hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease were randomly assigned to hemoglobin targets of 9.5 to 11.5 g/dl or 13.5 to 14.5 g/dl for 96 wk using epoetin alfa as primary therapy and changes in left ventricular structure as the primary outcome (previously reported). Patients were masked to treatment assignment. Blood transfusion data were prospectively collected at 4-wk intervals. Results: The mean age and prior duration of dialysis therapy of the study population were 50.8 and 0.8 yr, respectively. Previously reported mortality was similar in low and high-target subjects, at 4.7 (95% confidence interval 3.0, 7.3) and 3.1 (1.8, 5.4) per hundred patient years, respectively. Transfusion rates were 0.66 (0.59, 0.74) units of blood per year in low and 0.26 (0.22, 0.32) in high-target subjects (P < 0.0001). Hemoglobin level at transfusion (7.7 [7.5, 7.9]) versus 8.1 [7.6, 8.5] g/dl) were similar with both groups. High hemoglobin target was a significant predictor of time to first transfusion independent of baseline associations (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval = 0.26 − 0.67). Conclusions: In hemodialysis patients with comparatively low mortality risks, normal hemoglobin targets may reduce the need for transfusions. PMID:18922988

  17. Profile of patients receiving medical care at a reference, support, and treatment center for psoriasis patients at a university hospital*

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro Júnior, Túlio Germano Machado; Andrade, Bruno D' Paula; Palitot, Esther Bastos; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; Mascarenhas, Sandra Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 1-3% of the population worldwide. This work seeks to draw a profile of patients with psoriasis, analyzing socioeconomic, anthropometric, and clinical aspects. For this, medical records from 81 individuals who received medical care in a university hospital in 2014 were consulted. It was observed that the patients were mostly dark-skinned black adult men, with a low education level and a low income, who were sedentary, former smokers, obese, with an increase in waist circumference, and who did not consume alcohol. Psoriasis vulgaris predominated, beginning mainly on the scalp, hands, and feet. In addition, many presented some type of associated comorbidity and had relatives with psoriasis.

  18. Establishing an Indicator of Hypokalemia in Patients Receiving Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Masahiro; Tachi, Tomoya; Umeda, Michi; Osawa, Tomohiro; Makino, Teppei; Nagaya, Katsuhiro; Koda, Akihide; Setta, Eriko; Matsui, Koji; Nishina, Takuo; Yamada, Makoto; Goto, Chitoshi; Teramachi, Hitomi

    2016-03-01

    Risk factors for hypokalemia were analyzed in patients who received anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR MoAbs) at Gifu Municipal Hospital between February 2010 and March 2013. Subjects were 51 patients (27 men and 24 women) with the median age (interquartile range) of 66 (63-72) years. The study period started from the initiation of anti-EGFR MoAbs administration and ended 4 weeks after administration was completed. Patients were categorized into the side effect group if both minimum serum potassium (Min S-K) grade and b grade (pre-treatment S-K grade-Min S-K grade) were B1; otherwise, they were placed into the no side effect group. Univariate analysis for factors to prevent the side effect identified the "concomitant use of hyperkalemia-inducing drugs" to be statistically significant (p=0.010). Multivariate analysis was conducted on factors with a p value of <0.25 in the univariate analysis and on "concomitant use of hyperkalemia-inducing drugs," which was likely to clinically affect S-K decrease, although its p value was >0.25. It showed that "concomitant use of hyperkalemia-inducing drugs" was a significant risk-prevention factor (odds ratio: 0.138, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 0.033-0.581, p=0.007). In conclusion, "concomitant use of hyperkalemia-inducing drugs" is a factor associated with preventing hypokalemia accompanying anti-EGFR MoAbs administration.

  19. Misonidazole in patients receiving radical radiotherapy: pharmacokinetic effects of phenytoin tumor response and neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.L.; Biol, F.I.; Patterson, I.C.M.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Henk, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    In 1978, a pilot study began of 29 patients with advanced tumors of the head and neck. The study showed an initial peripheral neuropathy rate of 55%, despite a dose limitation of 12 g/m/sup 2/ of misonidazole. Tumor response at 9 months was most encouraging. We are now able to examine tumor response and persistence of neuropathy in these patients 2 1/2 years after radical radiotherapy. The results are comparable with those obtained with hyperbaric oxygen in a clinical trial at this center during the 1970's. Neuropathy was a serious side effect but the drug phenytoin has been shown to shorten the half-life of misonidazole. We have examined the effect of phenytoin on the pharmacokinetics of misonidazole in 13 patients who received radical radiotherapy for advanced head and neck tumors or oesophageal tumors. Misonidazole was given in multiple doses, i.e. daily or weekly as it would be used in conventional therapy. Phenytoin was given either daily throughout treatment, or it was withdrawn during treatment. There were dramatic changes in the half-life of misonidazole, but the concentration at the time of irradiation was little affected. The significant changes in the half-life of misonidazole and the increased concentration of the metabolite desmethylmisonidazole are discussed.

  20. Skin Abscess due to Serratia marcescens in an Immunocompetent Patient after Receiving a Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Diranzo García, J.; Villodre Jiménez, J.; Zarzuela Sánchez, V.; Castillo Ruiperez, L.; Bru Pomer, A.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of skin infections caused by Serratia marcescens is extremely low and such infections are typically observed in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations of these infections include cellulitis, abscesses, fluctuant nodules, or granulomatous lesions. Infections caused by S. marcescens are very difficult to treat due to their resistance to many antibiotics, which often leads to specific and prolonged treatment. Infections after receiving a tattoo are very rare and are caused by unhygienic conditions or the inexperience of the tattooist. In this paper we present the case of a 32-year-old male with no comorbidity, who presented an abscess caused by S. marcescens in a area that was tattooed one month earlier. The case was resolved with surgery and antimicrobial therapy that was based on the antibiogram. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a S. marcescens skin infection following a tattoo, in the absence of immunosuppression. PMID:26356072

  1. [Endocarditis caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatumin a patient receiving home parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Peralta, Laura I; Mañas Vera, Ma Reyes; García Delgado, Manuel J; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) improves the quality of life of the patients although it has complications. Catheter-related infections and mechanical complications are the most frequent ones. We report the case of endocarditis over catheter in a man suffering from short bowel and receiving HPN. The special features of the case are firstly the catheter was a remaining fragment on the right atrial and secondly the infection was caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an isolated fact regarding this pathology so far. Conventional surgery was applied to take the catheter out. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were isolated from the surgical specimen. The extraction of the infected catheter along with antibiotic therapy led to the complete recovery of the subject. Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum are unusual microorganisms but they are acquiring more relevance. Although there is no agreement about intravascular retained catheter management, the most recommended approach consists on monitoring them and removing the device in case of complications.

  2. Blood flow measurements in the ears of patients receiving cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hattori, Taku; Sone, Michihiko; Sato, Eisuke; Tominaga, Mitsuo

    2002-11-01

    We measured cochlear blood flow in 12 patients who received cochlear implants, using a laser-Doppler probe with an outer diameter of 0.8 mm. The subjects had congenital deafness, idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, Waardenburg's syndrome, narrow internal auditory canal, or sudden deafness. Putting the probe tip to the site of drilling for cochlear implantation, we measured blood flow before, during, and after the cochlear bony wall was opened. The laser-Doppler output was confirmed even after the tip of the probe was inserted into the perilymphatic space in all cases. Our results revealed that blood flow was maintained in all cochleas, although there was a probability of reduction in blood flow volume. We conclude that laser-Doppler flowmetry is both relatively safe and useful for measuring blood flow in the ears during cochlear implantation procedures.

  3. Obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma in patients receiving entecavir for chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaemin; Yoo, Sun Hong; Sohn, Won; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Yong Sun; Won, Jung Ho; Heo, Jin Young; Park, Sang Jong; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to clarify the effect of obesity on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving antiviral treatment. Methods This study applied a retrospective analysis to a historical cohort in Bundang Jesaeng Hospital. In total, 102 CHB patients were treated with entecavir as an initial treatment for CHB and checked for obesity using a body composition analyzer. Hepatic steatosis was measured semiquantitatively using Hamaguchi’s scoring system in ultrasonography. Risk factors for the development of HCC were analyzed, including obesity-related factors (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], visceral fat area [VFA], and hepatic steatosis). Results The median follow-up duration of the patients was 45.2 months (interquartile range: 36.0-58.3 months). The cumulative incidence rates of HCC at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 0%, 5.3%, and 9.0%, respectively. Univariable analysis revealed that the risk factors for HCC development were a platelet count of <120,000 /mm2 (hazard ratio [HR]=5.21, P=0.031), HBeAg negativity (HR=5.61, P=0.039), and liver cirrhosis (HR=10.26, P=0.031). Multivariable analysis showed that the significant risk factor for HCC development was liver cirrhosis (HR=9.07, P=0.042). However, none of the obesity-related risk factors were significantly associated with HCC: BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (HR=0.90, P=0.894), WC ≥90 cm (HR=1.10, P=0.912), WHR ≥0.9 (HR=1.94, P=0.386), VFA ≥100 cm2 (HR=1.69, P=0.495), and hepatic steatosis (HR=0.57, P=0.602). Conclusion HCC development is associated with liver cirrhosis but not obesity-related factors in CHB patients receiving entecavir. PMID:27729627

  4. Cancer Incidence Among US Medicare ESRD Patients Receiving Hemodialysis, 1996-2009

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Anne M.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Edwards, Jessie K.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis have been reported to have increased risk of cancer. However, contemporary cancer burden estimates in this population are sparse and do not account for the high competing risk of death characteristic of dialysis patients. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants US adult patients enrolled in Medicare's ESRD program who received in-center hemodialysis. Factors Demographic/clinical characteristics. Outcomes For overall and site-specific cancers identified using claims-based definitions, we calculated annual incidence rates (1996-2009). We estimated 5-year cumulative incidence since dialysis therapy initiation using competing-risk methods. Results We observed a constant rate of incident cancers for all sites combined, from 3,923 to 3,860 cases per 100,000 person-years (annual percentage change, 0.1; 95% CI, −0.4 to 0.6). Rates for some common site-specific cancers increased (ie, kidney/renal pelvis) and decreased (ie, colon/rectum, lung/bronchus, pancreas, and other sites). Of 482,510 incident hemodialysis patients, cancer was diagnosed in 37,128 within 5 years after dialysis therapy initiation. The 5-year cumulative incidence of any cancer was 9.48% (95% CI, 9.39%-9.57%) and was higher for certain subgroups: older age, males, nonwhites, non-Hispanics, nondiabetes primary ESRD cause, recent dialysis therapy initiation, and history of transplantation evaluation. Among blacks and whites, we observed 35,767 cases compared with 25,194 expected cases if the study population had experienced rates observed in the US general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.42; 95% CI, 1.41-1.43). Risk was most elevated for cancers of the kidney/renal pelvis (SIR, 4.03; 95% CI, 3.88-4.19) and bladder (SIR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.51-1.64). Limitations Claims-based cancer definitions have not been validated in the ESRD population. Information for cancer risk factors was not available in

  5. Polymorphic Variants in Oxidative Stress Genes and Acute Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Elisa Eugenia; Abba, Martín Carlos; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Fernánde, Eduardo; Güerci, Alba Mabel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as an indirect product of radiation therapy (RT). Genetic variation in genes related to ROS metabolism may influence the level of RT-induced adverse effects. We evaluated the potential association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–related response to radiotherapy injury in breast cancer patients undergoing RT. Materials and Methods Eighty patients receiving conventional RT were included. Acute effects were evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scores. DNA was extracted from blood and buccal swab samples. SNPs were genotyped for GSTP1, GSTA1, SOD2, and NOS3 genes by polymerase chain reaction–based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Univariate analysis (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) and principal component analysis were used for correlation of SNPs and factors related to risk of developing ≥ grade 2 acute effects. Results Sixty-five patients (81.2%) showed side effects, 32 (40%) presented moderate to severe acute skin toxicity, and 33 (41.2%) manifested minimal acute skin reactions by the end of treatment. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, nominally significant associations were found among body mass index (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 8.5338 to 1.1274; p=0.022), breast size (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 17.04 to 1.54; p=0.004), and grade ≥ 2 acute radiation skin toxicity. A significant association was also observed between NOS3 G894T polymorphism (OR, 9.8; 95% CI, 211.6 to 0.45; p=0.041) and grade ≥ 2 acute radiation skin toxicity in patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Conclusion The analysis of the factors involved in individual radiosensitivity contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying this trait. PMID:26790968

  6. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients Receiving Bone-Targeted Therapies: An Overview--Part I.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bruce; Drudge-Coates, Lawrence; Ali, Sacha; Pati, Jhumur; Nargund, Vinod; Ali, Enamul; Cheng, Leo; Wells, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Urologic patients receiving bone-targeted therapies are at risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). ONJ has historically been associated with bisphosphonate therapy. More recently, RANK-Ligand inhibitors (denosumab) have also been used to reduce the risk of skeletal-related events in patients who have advanced cancers with bone metastases. More than 65% of men with metastatic prostate cancer and nearly 75% of women with metastatic breast cancer are affected by bone metastases. The literature has described ONJ associated with bisphosphonate therapy as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). However, with evidence also linking the use of RANK-Ligand inhibitors with osteonecrosis of the jaw, we advocate use of the term "anti-bone resorption therapy-related osteonecrosis of the jaw" (ABRT-ONJ). The term "medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw" (MRONJ) is now becoming more widespread. There is not a universally accepted definition of ABRT-ONJ, which may have hindered recognition and reporting of the condition. In Part I of this article, a review of current knowledge around the etiology of ABRT-ONJ and incidence data are provided. In Part II, we provide an audit of ONJ in a nurse consultant-led bone support clinic. In the article, we refer to zoledronic acid because this is the bisphosphonate of choice for use in men with prostate cancer in the United Kingdom. PMID:27501591

  7. Patient experiences of autonomy and coercion while receiving legal leverage in forensic assertive community treatment.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, J Steven; Russ, Ann; Cerulli, Catherine; Weisman, Robert L; Jacobowitz, David; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2014-01-01

    Legal leverage is broadly defined as the use of legal authority to promote treatment adherence. It is widely utilized within mental health courts, drug courts, mandated outpatient treatment programs, and other intervention strategies for individuals with mental illness or chemical dependency who have contact with the criminal justice system. Nonetheless, the ethics of using legal authority to promote treatment adherence remains a hotly debated issue within public and professional circles alike. While critics characterize legal leverage as a coercive form of social control that undermines personal autonomy, advocates contend that it supports autonomy because treatment strategies using legal leverage are designed to promote health and independence. Despite the controversy, there is little evidence regarding the impact of legal leverage on patient autonomy as experienced and expressed by patients themselves. This report presents findings from a qualitative study involving six focus groups with severely mentally ill outpatients who received legal leverage through three forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) programs in Northeastern, Midwestern, and West Coast cities. Findings are discussed in the context of the self-determination theory of human motivation, and practical implications for the use of legal leverage are considered.

  8. Catheter-related candidemia caused by Candida lipolytica in a patient receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Domenico; Romano, Ferdinando; Pontieri, Eugenio; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Caracciolo, Claudia; Bianchini, Stefano; Olioso, Paola; Staniscia, Tommaso; Sferra, Roberta; Boccia, Stefania; Vetuschi, Antonella; Federico, Giovanni; Gaudio, Eugenio; Carruba, Giuseppe

    2002-04-01

    Candida lipolytica was recovered from the blood and the central venous catheter in a patient receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Two C. lipolytica strains from different geographical areas and the ATCC 9773 strain of C. lipolytica were used as controls. C. lipolytica was identified by standard methods. MICs indicated antifungal susceptibilities to amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole for all strains. In vitro testing and scanning electron microscopy showed that C. lipolytica was capable of producing large amounts of viscid slime material in glucose-containing solution, likely responsible for the ability of the yeast to adhere to catheter surfaces. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed an identical profile for all clinical isolates, unrelated to those observed for the control strains. This finding suggested the absence of microevolutionary changes in the population of the infecting strain, despite the length of the sepsis and the potential selective pressure of amphotericin B, which had been administered to the patient for about 20 days. The genomic differences that emerged between the isolates and the control strains were indicative of a certain degree of genetic diversity between C. lipolytica isolates from different geographical areas. PMID:11923360

  9. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer thickness in patients receiving systemic isotretinoin therapy.

    PubMed

    Sekeryapan, Berrak; Dılek, Nursel; Oner, Veysi; Turkyılmaz, Kemal; Aslan, Mehmet Gokhan

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral isotretinoin therapy on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). This prospective study included newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne patients about to receive isotretinoin treatment. Macular average GCL thickness and peripapillary average, temporal, nasal, inferior, and superior quadrant RNFL thickness were measured by OCT before and after isotretinoin treatment. Pre- and post-treatment measurements were compared with paired t test. Fifty-six eyes of 28 patients were included. The mean duration of the treatment was 6.5 ± 1.3 months. The mean average GCL thickness was 90.04 ± 5.87 (80-96) μm at baseline and 90.75 ± 6.34 (81-96) μm after treatment. The mean average RNFL thickness was 93.25 ± 6.06 μm (84-107) before treatment and 93.05 ± 5.54 μm (82-106) after treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between pre- and post-treatment values (all p > 0.05). A 6-month course of systemic isotretinoin therapy seems to have no unfavorable effect on retinal ganglion cells; however, larger studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be conclusive.

  10. Clinical Trial of Lutein in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa Receiving Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Berson, Eliot L.; Rosner, Bernard; Sandberg, Michael A.; Weigel-DiFranco, Carol; Brockhurst, Robert J.; Hayes, K.C.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Johnson, Chris A.; Gaudio, Alexander R.; Willett, Walter C.; Schaefer, Ernst J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. Design Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 non-smoking patients, age 18-60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received lutein 12 mg or a control tablet daily. All were given vitamin A palmitate 15,000 IU/day. Randomization took into account genetic type and baseline serum lutein. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the total point score for the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) 30-2 program; pre-specified secondary outcomes were the total point scores for the 60-4 program and for the 30-2 and 60-4 combined, 30-Hz electroretinogram amplitude, and ETDRS acuity. Results No significant difference in rate of decline was found between the lutein + A and control + A groups over a 4-year interval for the HFA 30-2 program. For the HFA 60-4 program a decrease in mean rate of sensitivity loss was observed in the lutein + A group (p=0.05). Mean decline with the 60-4 program was slower among those with the highest serum lutein or with the highest increase in macular pigment optical density (MPOD) at follow-up (p= 0.01 and p=0.006 respectively). Those with the highest increase in MPOD also had the slowest decline in 30-2 and 60-4 combined field sensitivity (p=0.005). No significant toxic side effects of lutein supplementation were observed. Conclusion Lutein supplementation 12 mg/d slowed loss of midperipheral visual field on average among nonsmoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa taking vitamin A. Application to Clinical Practice Data are presented that support use of lutein 12 mg/day to slow visual field loss among non-smoking adults with retinitis pigmentosa on vitamin A. Trial Registry Randomized Clinical Trial for Retinitis Pigmentosa, NCT00346333, www.ClinicalTrial.gov PMID:20385935

  11. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts. PMID:27602221

  12. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts.

  13. No increased venous thromboembolism risk in Asian breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tom Wei-Wu; Chen, Ho-Min; Lin, Ching-Hung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lai, Mei-Shu; Lu, Yen-Shen

    2014-11-01

    Tamoxifen is an effective endocrine treatment for early breast cancer (EBC) but increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Whether Asian EBC patients (pts) bear the same risk when treated with adjuvant tamoxifen is uncertain. EBC pts diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 were selected from a population database in Taiwan. The pts were followed up from the index date to December 31, 2011 to collect events of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Cumulative incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were used to compare the risk between pts treated with and without tamoxifen. In addition, comorbidities were included in an adjusted model of the risk of DVT and PE. A total of 28,029 EBC pts, including 17,843 (63.8 %) in the tamoxifen group and 10,155 (36.2 %) in the nontamoxifen group, were analyzed. The 7-year cumulative incidence rates for DVT and PE were 2.58 and 0.32 % in the tamoxifen group and 2.51 and 0.32 % in the nontamoxifen group (P = 0.92 for DVT, P = 0. 65 for PE), respectively. The HR for the nonadjusted and adjusted models showed no differences in DVT and PE risks between the tamoxifen and nontamoxifen groups. The uterine cancer risk was significantly increased in the pts receiving tamoxifen (adjusted HR = 2.79, P < 0.001), suggesting tamoxifen compliance. The risks of developing DVT and PE are not increased in Asian EBC pts receiving adjuvant tamoxifen. Ethnicity differences should be considered when discussing optimal endocrine treatments with EBC pts.

  14. Fingolimod first-dose effects in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis concomitantly receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bermel, R A; Hashmonay, R; Meng, X; Randhawa, S; von Rosenstiel, P; Sfikas, N; Kantor, D

    2015-05-01

    Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly administered for depression and anxiety in patients with multiple sclerosis, are associated with QT interval prolongation. Fingolimod (FTY720; Gilenya(®), Novartis Pharma AG) is a first-in-class sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod first-dose administration is associated with a transient, generally asymptomatic, slowing of heart rate, which may also prolong QT interval. This posthoc analysis compared cardiac outcomes in over 3300 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis who were or were not receiving SSRIs during fingolimod treatment initiation, including a subset of patients receiving citalopram or escitalopram. Vital signs were recorded hourly for 6h, and electrocardiograms were obtained pre-dose and 6 h post-dose. Changes in mean hourly heart rate from baseline (pre-dose) to 6 h post-dose were similar among patients not receiving SSRIs (fingolimod 0.5 mg, -7.5 bpm; placebo, 0.0 bpm) and those receiving SSRIs (fingolimod 0.5 mg, -6.6 bpm; placebo, 0.3 bpm). In patients treated with fingolimod 0.5 mg, the mean change in corrected QT interval from baseline to 6 h after treatment initiation was under 10 ms, and few patients had absolute corrected QT intervals of over 450 ms (men) or 470 ms (women), calculated according to Bazett׳s or Fridericia׳s correction methods, irrespective of whether or not they were receiving an SSRI; similar findings were reported in the placebo group. Co-administration of SSRIs and fingolimod was not associated with an increased incidence of any electrocardiogram findings compared with fingolimod therapy alone, and the majority of patients receiving fingolimod (83-86%) were discharged from first-dose monitoring at 6 h irrespective of whether they were also receiving SSRIs. These analyses provide reassurance that concomitant use of SSRIs does not affect cardiac outcomes associated with fingolimod treatment

  15. Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; da Silva, Larissa Pozzebon; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission ( ≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25029651

  16. Utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Blaes, Anne H; Rehman, Aamer; Vock, David M; Luo, Xianghua; Menge, Mark; Yee, Douglas; Missov, Emil; Duprez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Anthracycline chemotherapy remains an integral part of the care for curative intent chemotherapy in breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Better tools need to be identified to predict cardiac complications of anthracycline chemotherapy. Materials and methods We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin T and I, and creatine kinase (CK)-MB in cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy, in order to determine whether baseline levels or changes in these biomarkers may help predict the onset of congestive heart failure. Results Eighteen consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled. The median dose of doxorubicin exposure was 240 mg/m2 (range 240–400 mg/m2). After treatment with doxorubicin, the hscTnT increased to 19.1 pg/mL (P<0.001). CKMB and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels increased to 1.1 ng/mL and 88.3 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.02). When subjects who had a decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography were compared to those who did not have a change in LVEF, there was a suggestion that those subjects with an elevated baseline hscTnT were more likely to have a decline in LVEF (2.7 pg/mL and 0.1 pg/mL, respectively; P=0.07). Spearman correlation demonstrated that patients with higher baseline hscTnT and CKMB tended to have a greater decline in LVEF (Spearman correlation −0.54, 95% confidence interval −0.80 to −0.08 [P=0.02], and −0.49, 95% confidence interval −0.77 to −0.01 [P=0.04], respectively). Conclusion Elevations in baseline hscTnT levels are suggestive of an oncology subgroup at high risk of developing cardiac complications from their chemotherapy. Early detection by oncologists with the use of baseline biomarkers may be clinically important in designing interventions to prevent serious

  17. Practical management of bleeding in patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Pollack, Charles V

    2015-11-25

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. In phase III clinical trials and meta-analyses, the NOACs were at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and were associated with a similar or lower incidence of major bleeding, including consistent and significant decreases in intracranial bleeding, although with an increase in gastrointestinal bleeding for some agents compared with VKAs. Subsequent real-world evidence supports these outcomes. Despite this, physicians have concerns about serious bleeding or emergencies because there are no specific reversal agents for the NOACs. However, in clinical trials, patients receiving NOACs generally had similar or better outcomes after these events than those taking VKAs. As with any bleeding, anticoagulant-related bleeding should first be stratified according to severity and location; risk can be minimised by ongoing assessment. Management protocols for NOAC-related bleeding are similar to those for VKAs but should take into account the pharmacological profile of the specific drug. Because of their short half-lives, NOAC-related mild bleeding can often be controlled by temporarily withholding treatment. More severe bleeding requires standard escalating haemodynamic support measures, and non-specific reversal agents can be considered in life-threatening situations, based on limited clinical data. Specific and rapid reversal agents are not currently available for any oral anticoagulant and restoration of coagulation may not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Nevertheless, specific NOAC reversal agents are in development and show promise in healthy volunteers.

  18. Depressive symptoms among patients receiving varenicline and bupropion for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Arthur S; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Schroeder, Darrell R; Ebbert, Jon O

    2015-05-01

    While the combination therapy of varenicline and sustained release bupropion (bupropion SR) for cigarette smoking cessation can increase smoking abstinence rates, it has also been associated with increases in self-reported depressive symptoms. We conducted an analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory, second edition (BDI-II), data completed by 505 patients from a large randomized clinical trial, evaluating the efficacy of 12 weeks of combination therapy (varenicline+bupropion SR) compared to varenicline alone. At medication treatment week 2 (1 week after target quit date [TQD]), increased depressive symptoms were observed in patients receiving combination therapy (effect estimate=0.61, 95% CI [0.03, 1.19], P=.039) and those with a history of depression (effect estimate=0.82, 95% CI [0.07, 1.57], P=.033). For treatment weeks 2 to 4, smokers with a history of depression on combination therapy had a greater decline in depressive symptoms compared to those on varenicline alone (effect estimate=-1.99, 95% CI [-3.99, 0.00], P=.050). After treatment week 4, no significant effects of treatment or depression history on BDI-II scores were observed. A history of depression did not moderate the efficacy of combination therapy for smoking abstinence. Our study suggests that for combination therapy with varenicline and bupropion SR, an increase in depressive symptoms over the first 2 weeks may be observed; however, the effects on depressive symptoms do not last beyond 4 weeks. We conclude that among smokers without active moderate or severe depression, the decision to use this combination treatment approach should not be based upon a self-reported history of depression.

  19. Prevalence and outcomes of patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention not based on guidelines.

    PubMed

    Levine, Yehoshua C; Tuttle, Mark K; Rosenberg, Michael A; Goldberg, Randal; Matos, Jason; Samuel, Michelle; Kramer, Daniel B; Buxton, Alfred E

    2015-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation outside practice guidelines remains contentious, particularly during the mandated waiting periods in patients with recent cardiac events. We assessed the prevalence and outcomes of non-guideline-based (NGB) ICD implantations in a tertiary academic medical center, with a specific focus on adjudication of arrhythmia events. All patients who underwent initial primary prevention ICD implantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012 were categorized as having received guideline-based (GB) or NGB implants and were retrospectively assessed for first episode of appropriate ICD therapy and total mortality. Of 807 patients, 137 (17.0%) received NGB implants. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, patients with NGB implants had similar times to first appropriate ICD therapy (median time to event 1.94 vs 2.17 years in patients with GB implants, p = 0.20). After multivariable analysis, patients with NGB implants remained at higher risk for death (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.2, p = 0.03) but not appropriate ICD therapy (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.3, p = 0.51). Furthermore, only 1 of 125 patients who underwent implant within the 40-day waiting period after myocardial infarction or 3-month waiting period after revascularization or cardiomyopathy diagnosis received an appropriate therapy within this period. In conclusion, few patients received NGB ICD implants in our academic medical center. Although these patients have similar long-term risk of receiving appropriate ICD therapy compared with patients with GB implants, this risk is very low during the waiting periods mandated by clinical practice guidelines. These results suggest that there is little need to rush into implanting ICDs during these waiting periods. PMID:25840578

  20. Changes in plasma methionine and total homocysteine levels in patients receiving methotrexate infusions.

    PubMed

    Broxson, E H; Stork, L C; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Kolhouse, J F

    1989-11-01

    Methotrexate reduces intracellular pools of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and could result in reduced conversion of homocysteine to methionine by methionine synthetase. This study was designed to investigate the effects of moderate dose to very high dose methotrexate on methionine and total homocysteine as reflections of methotrexate induced intracellular events. Methionine and total homocysteine were measured prior to, during, and following twenty-six 24-h i.v. infusions of 33.6 g/m2 methotrexate (very high dose methotrexate) in 16 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and seven 4-h i.v. infusions of 8 g/m2 methotrexate (high dose methotrexate) in 5 children with osteogenic sarcoma. Amino acids were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Mean methionine levels decreased by 70.0 +/- 3.1% (SE) with very high dose methotrexate and 72.6 +/- 5.9% with high dose methotrexate at 24 and 4.5 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. Mean total homocysteine levels increased by 61.7 +/- 3.1% with very high dose methotrexate and 55.6 +/- 17.5% with high dose methotrexate at 36 and 24 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. No consistent or significant changes were noted in levels of total cysteine, leucine, isoleucine, or valine. Similar changes did not occur in patients receiving prednisone, vincristine, daunomycin, and intrathecal methotrexate as therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. These changes in homocysteine and methionine may reflect biological effects of methotrexate that may predict cytotoxicity of methotrexate.

  1. Extreme bradycardia after first doses of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in patients receiving amiodarone: 2 cases including a rechallenge.

    PubMed

    Renet, Sophie; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Antonini, Teresa; Zhao, Alexandre; Thomas, Laure; Savoure, Arnaud; Samuel, Didier; Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles; Algalarrondo, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir are direct-acting antiviral drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and European Medical Agency warned that bradycardia could occur when amiodarone was administered in combination with sofosbuvir, but no case reports had been published. We report extreme bradycardia within 2 hrs after intake of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir by 2 patients receiving amiodarone. The first patient had a cardiac asystole 30 min after receiving sofosbuvir and daclatasvir. Amiodarone, sofosbuvir, and daclatasvir treatment were stopped; after 10 days, the cardiac evaluation was normal and patient was discharged. The second patient was taking amiodarone and propranolol; 2 hrs after receiving sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, he had an extreme sinus node dysfunction (heart rate of 27beats/min). Amiodarone and propranolol were stopped, but the patient continued receiving sofosbuvir and daclatasvir for 3 days and sinus bradycardia was recorded each day, 2 hrs after intake of these drugs. When he stopped taking the drugs, no bradycardia was observed. Administration of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir on day 13 induced bradycardia 2 hrs after intake. However, no bradycardia occurred following a rechallenge 8 weeks after the patient stopped taking amiodarone. These observations indicate that patients treated with amiodarone should be continuously monitored within the first 48 hrs following the initiation of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir.

  2. Outcome of Sub-Massive Pulmonary Thromboemboli in Patients Who Received Thrombolytic and or Non-Thrombolytic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Hasan Allah; Heidarali, Mona; Faraji, Fusieh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Shojaeifard, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombolytic therapy in patients with sub-massive pulmonary embolism (SMPTE) needs further assessment. Objectives The current study aimed to assess a potential benefit of thrombolytic and non-thrombolytic therapy in patients with SMPTE. Patients and Methods One hundred-nineteen patients were enrolled with SMPTE from 2006 to 2010 in the tertiary care center of Rajaie medical and research center. The patients who had pulmonary thromboemboli (PTE) and received thrombolytic plus heparin therapy and or non-thrombolytic (unfractionated heparin alone) were evaluated for hemodynamic changes (blood pressure, pulse rate, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, right ventricular failure and right ventricle enlargement), before and after 48 hours of treatment. The mortality rate was also assessed. Results Forty-five percent of the patients with SMPTE received thrombolytic therapy (streptokinase) and 55% of SMPTE patients received non-thrombolytic therapy (unfractionated heparin). Pulse rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and tricuspid regurgitation gradient in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy reduced significantly (P = 0.001, P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference before and after treatment regarding systolic blood pressure (P = 0.4), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.5), systolic arterial pressure (SPAP) (P = 0.1), Right ventricular (RV) function (P = 0.1) and RV size (P = 0.1). In patients who received a non-thrombolytic therapy, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding SBP (P = 0. 2), DBP ( P= 0. 4) and PR (P = 0. 1), SPAP (P = 0.6), TRG (P = 0.4), RV function (P = 0.4) and RV size (P = 0.2) before and after treatment. There were no significant differences between the groups according to mortality rate. Conclusions Thrombolytic therapy lead to earlier relief of hemodynamic condition in comparison to non-thrombolytic therapy but no changes were observed in mortality rate.

  3. Out-of-Hospital Mortality among Patients Receiving Methadone for Non-Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wayne A.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Murray, Katherine T.; Cooper, William O.; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Importance Growing methadone use in pain management has raised concerns regarding its safety relative to other long-acting opioids. Methadone may increase risk for both lethal respiratory depression related to accidental overdose and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Objective To compare risk of out-of-hospital death in users of methadone for non-cancer pain to that for comparable users of sustained-release (SR) morphine. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tennessee Medicaid, 1997 through 2009. Participants Cohort included current users of morphine SR or methadone 30–74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness and not in a hospital or nursing home. At cohort entry, 32,742 and 6,014 had filled a prescription for morphine SR or methadone, respectively. The median age was 48 years, 58% were female, and comparable proportions had received cardiovascular, psychotropic, and other musculoskeletal medications. Nearly 90% of patients received the opioid for either back or other musculoskeletal pain. The median daily doses prescribed for morphine SR and methadone were 90mg and 40mg, respectively. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary study endpoint was out-of-hospital mortality, given that opioid-related deaths typically occur outside the hospital. Results There were 477 deaths during 28,699 person years of followup, or 166 deaths per 10,000 person-years. After control for study covariates, current methadone users had a 46% increased risk of death during followup, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.17–1.83, p = .0008), resulting in 72 (27–130) excess deaths per 10,000 person-years. Methadone users of doses ≤20mg/day, the lowest dose quartile, had increased risk (HR =1.59 [1.01–2.51], p = .0461) relative to a comparable dose of morphine SR (<60mg/day). Conclusions and Relevance The increased risk of death observed for users of methadone, even for low doses, supports recommendations that it

  4. Use and Outcomes of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Passman, Rod; Hankey, Graeme J.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hacke, Werner; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and anticoagulation are mainstays of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Objective We aimed to study the use and outcomes of AAD therapy in anticoagulated AF patients. Methods Patients in the ROCKET AF trial (n=14,264) were grouped by AAD use at baseline: amiodarone, other AAD, or no AAD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare stroke, bleeding, and death across groups, as well as across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Results Of 14,264 patients randomized, 1681 (11.8%) were treated with an AAD (1144 [8%] with amiodarone, 537 [3.8%] with other AADs). Amiodarone-treated patients were less-often female (38% vs. 48%), had more persistent AF (64% vs. 40%), and more concomitant heart failure (71% vs. 41%) than patients receiving other AADs. Patients receiving no AAD more closely-resembled amiodarone-treated patients. Time in therapeutic range was significantly lower in warfarin-treated patients receiving amiodarone versus no AAD (50% vs. 58%, p<0.0001). Compared with no AAD, neither amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74–1.31, p=0.9) nor other AADs (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.37–1.17, p=0.15) were associated with increased mortality. Similar results were observed for embolic and bleeding outcomes. Rivaroxaban treatment effects in patients not on an AAD were consistent with the overall trial (primary endpoint adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, pinteraction=0.06; safety endpoint adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.24, pinteraction=0.33). Conclusion Treatment with AADs was not associated with increased morbidity or mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. The influence of amiodarone on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban requires further study. PMID:24833235

  5. Increased Chromogranin A Cell Density in the Large Intestine of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome after Receiving Dietary Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris; Hausken, Trygve; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-01-01

    The large intestine contains five types of endocrine cells that regulate its functions by sensing its luminal contents and releasing specific hormones. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for the gastrointestinal endocrine cells, and it is abnormal in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Most IBS patients relate their symptoms to certain food elements. The present study investigated the effect of dietary guidance on the total endocrine cells of the large intestine as detected by CgA in 13 IBS patients. Thirteen control subjects were also included. Each patient received three sessions of dietary guidance. Colonoscopies were performed on controls and patients (at baseline and at 3–9 months after receiving guidance). Biopsy samples from the colon and rectum were immunostained for CgA and quantified by computerized image analysis. The densities of CgA cells in the total colon (mean ± SEM) among the controls and the IBS patients before and after receiving dietary guidance were 83.3 ± 10.1, 38.6 ± 3.7, and 64.7 ± 4.2 cells/mm2, respectively (P = 0.0004), and were unchanged in the rectum. In conclusion, the increase in CgA cell density after receiving dietary guidance may reflect a change in the densities of the large intestinal endocrine cells causing an improvement in the IBS symptoms. PMID:25918524

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lorazepam to Reduce Liver Motion in Patients Receiving Upper Abdominal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Derek S.; Voncken, Francine E.M.; Tse, Regina V.; Sykes, Jenna; Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Dinniwell, Rob E.; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Brierley, James D.; Cummings, Bernard J.; Brade, Anthony; Dawson, Laura A.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Reduction of respiratory motion is desirable to reduce the volume of normal tissues irradiated, to improve concordance of planned and delivered doses, and to improve image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). We hypothesized that pretreatment lorazepam would lead to a measurable reduction of liver motion. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients receiving upper abdominal IGRT were recruited to a double-blinded randomized controlled crossover trial. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 study arms: arm 1 received lorazepam 2 mg by mouth on day 1, followed by placebo 4 to 8 days later; arm 2 received placebo on day 1, followed by lorazepam 4 to 8 days later. After tablet ingestion and daily radiation therapy, amplitude of liver motion was measured on both study days. The primary outcomes were reduction in craniocaudal (CC) liver motion using 4-dimensional kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the proportion of patients with liver motion ≤5 mm. Secondary endpoints included motion measured with cine magnetic resonance imaging and kV fluoroscopy. Results: Mean relative and absolute reduction in CC amplitude with lorazepam was 21% and 2.5 mm respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.9, P=.001), as assessed with CBCT. Reduction in CC amplitude to ≤5 mm residual liver motion was seen in 13% (95% CI 1%-25%) of patients receiving lorazepam (vs 10% receiving placebo, P=NS); 65% (95% CI 48%-81%) had reduction in residual CC liver motion to ≤10 mm (vs 52% with placebo, P=NS). Patients with large respiratory movement and patients who took lorazepam ≥60 minutes before imaging had greater reductions in liver CC motion. Mean reductions in liver CC amplitude on magnetic resonance imaging and fluoroscopy were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Lorazepam reduces liver motion in the CC direction; however, average magnitude of reduction is small, and most patients have residual motion >5 mm.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  8. Outcome of Primary Tumor in Patients With Synchronous Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Receiving Combination Chemotherapy Without Surgery As Initial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Poultsides, George A.; Servais, Elliot L.; Saltz, Leonard B.; Patil, Sujata; Kemeny, Nancy E.; Guillem, Jose G.; Weiser, Martin; Temple, Larissa K.F.; Wong, W. Douglas; Paty, Phillip B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the frequency of interventions necessary to palliate the intact primary tumor in patients who present with synchronous, stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) and who receive up-front modern combination chemotherapy without prophylactic surgery. Patients and Methods By using a prospective institutional database, we identified 233 consecutive patients from 2000 through 2006 with synchronous metastatic CRC and an unresected primary tumor who received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based, triple-drug chemotherapy (infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin; bolus fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan; or fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan) with or without bevacizumab as their initial treatment. The incidence of subsequent use of surgery, radiotherapy, and/or endoluminal stenting to manage primary tumor complications was recorded. Results Of 233 patients, 217 (93%) never required surgical palliation of their primary tumor. Sixteen patients (7%) required emergent surgery for primary tumor obstruction or perforation, 10 patients (4%) required nonoperative intervention (ie, stent or radiotherapy), and 213 (89%) never required any direct symptomatic management for their intact primary tumor. Of those 213 patients, 47 patients (20%) ultimately underwent elective colon resection at the time of metastasectomy, and eight patients (3%) underwent this resection during laparotomy for hepatic artery infusion pump placement. Use of bevacizumab, location of the primary tumor in the rectum, and metastatic disease burden were not associated with increased intervention rate. Conclusion Most patients with synchronous, stage IV CRC who receive up-front modern combination chemotherapy never require palliative surgery for their intact primary tumor. These data support the use of chemotherapy, without routine prophylactic resection, as the appropriate standard practice for patients with neither obstructed nor hemorrhaging primary

  9. Prognostic factors, long-term survival, and outcome of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Philipp; Staudinger, Thomas; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bojic, Andja; Robak, Oliver; Hermann, Alexander; Laczika, Klaus; Carlström, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Rabitsch, Werner; Bojic, Marija; Knoebl, Paul; Locker, Gottfried J; Obiditsch, Maria; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Schellongowski, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Prognostic factors and outcomes of cancer patients with acute organ failure receiving chemotherapy (CT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are still incompletely described. We therefore retrospectively studied all patients who received CT in any ICU of our institution between October 2006 and November 2013. Fifty-six patients with hematologic (n = 49; 87.5 %) or solid (n = 7; 12.5 %) malignancies, of which 20 (36 %) were diagnosed in the ICU, were analyzed [m/f ratio, 33:23; median age, 47 years (IQR 32 to 62); Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), 3 (2 to 5); Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), 50 (39 to 61)]. The main reasons for admission were acute respiratory failure, acute kidney failure, and septic shock. Mechanical ventilation and vasopressors were employed in 34 patients (61 %) respectively, hemofiltration in 22 (39 %), and extracorporeal life support in 7 (13 %). Twenty-seven patients (48 %) received their first CT in the ICU. Intention of therapy was cure in 46 patients (82 %). Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) developed in 20 patients (36 %). ICU and hospital survival was 75 and 59 %. Hospital survivors were significantly younger; had lower CCI, SAPS II, and TLS risk scores; presented less often with septic shock; were less likely to develop TLS; and received vasopressors, hemofiltration, and thrombocyte transfusions in lower proportions. After discharge, 88 % continued CT and 69 % of 1-year survivors were in complete remission. Probability of 1- and 2-year survival was 41 and 38 %, respectively. Conclusively, administration of CT in selected ICU cancer patients was feasible and associated with considerable long-term survival as well as long-term disease-free survival.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of IV Dexketoprofen, Lornoxicam, and Diclophenac Sodium on Postoperative Analgesia and Tramadol Consumption in Patients Receiving Patient-Controlled Tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçkaya, Refika; Güleç, Ersel; Ünlügenç, Hakkı; Gündüz, Murat; Işık, Geylan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to compare the effects of dexketoprofen, lornoxicam, and diclophenac sodium on postoperative analgesia and tramadol consumption in patients receiving postoperative patient-controlled tramadol after a major abdominal surgery. Methods Eighty patients were randomized to receive one of the four study drugs. Patients in group dexketoprofen (DT) received IV 50 mg dexketoprofen, group lornoxicam (LR) received IV 8 mg lornoxicam, group diclophenac sodium (DS) received 75 mg IV diclophenac sodium and group saline (S) received 0.9% saline in 2 mL syringes, 20 min before the end of anaesthesia. A standardized (1 mg kg−1) dose of tramadol was routinely administered to all patients as the loading dose at the end of surgery. Postoperatively, whenever patients requested, they were allowed to use a tramadol patient-controlled analgesia device giving a bolus dose (0.2 mg kg−1) of tramadol. Pain, discomfort, and sedation scores, cumulative tramadol consumption, supplemental meperidine requirement, and side effects were recorded. Results Visual rating scale and patient discomfort scores were significantly lower in DT, LR and DS groups compared to those in in group S (p<0.001). Cumulative tramadol consumption was significantly lower in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-treated groups at each study period after the second postoperative hour than in group S (p<0.001). Supplemental meperidine requirement was significantly higher in group S at each study period after postoperative 30 min than in NSAID-treated groups (p<0.01). Conclusion After major abdominal surgery, adding IV diclophenac, lornoxicam or dexketoprofen to patient-controlled tramadol resulted in lower pain scores, smaller tramadol consumption, less rescue supplemental analgesic requirement, and fewer side effects compared with the tramadol alone group. PMID:27366491

  11. The pathophysiological mechanism of fluid retention in advanced cancer patients treated with docetaxel, but not receiving corticosteroid comedication

    PubMed Central

    Béhar, A.; Pujade-Lauraine, E.; Maurel, A.; Brun, M. D.; Lagrue, G.; Feuilhade De Chauvin, F.; Oulid-Aissa, D.; Hille, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aims Fluid retention is a phenomenon associated with taxoids. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism of docetaxel-induced fluid retention in advanced cancer patients. Methods Docetaxel was administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, for at least 4–6 consecutive cycles, to patients with advanced breast (n=21) or ovarian (n=3) carcinoma, who had received previous chemotherapy, 21 for advanced disease. Phase II clinical trials have shown that 5 day corticosteroid comedication, starting 1 day before docetaxel infusion, significantly reduces the incidence and severity of fluid retention. This prophylactic corticosteroid regimen is currently recommended for patients receiving docetaxel but was not permitted in this study because of its possible interference with the underlying pathophysiology of the fluid retention. Results Fluid retention occurred in 21 of the 24 patients but was mainly mild to moderate, with only five patients experiencing severe fluid retention. Eighteen patients received symptomatic flavonoid treatment, commonly prescribed after the last cycle. Specific investigations for fluid retention confirmed a relationship between cumulative docetaxel dose and development of fluid retention. Capillary filtration test analysis showed a two-step process for fluid retention generation, with progressive congestion of the interstitial space by proteins and water starting between the second and the fourth cycle, followed by insufficient lymphatic drainage. Conclusions A vascular protector such as micronized diosmine hesperidine with recommended corticosteroid premedication and benzopyrones may be useful in preventing and treating docetaxel-induced fluid retention. PMID:9205828

  12. Intravenous iron supplementation for the treatment of the anemia of moderate to severe chronic renal failure patients not receiving dialysis.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, D S; Iaina, A; Peer, G; Kaplan, E; Levi, B A; Frank, N; Steinbruch, S; Blum, M

    1996-02-01

    Iron deficiency may develop in hemodialysis patients, especially when erythropoietin is given. The role of iron deficiency in the anemia of predialysis chronic renal failure (CRF), however, is much less clear. We have intravenously (IV) administered iron as ferric saccharate in a total dose of 200 mg elemental iron monthly for 5 months to 33 CRF patients who remained anemic despite oral iron supplementation and who had no laboratory signs of iron overload. None was receiving erythropoietin therapy. In 22 of the patients there was an increase in the hematocrit values by the end of the study. These patients were considered responders to intravenous iron (IV Fe) therapy. In 11 patients the iron administration was not associated with improvement of the anemia (nonresponders). Before onset of the IV Fe therapy there were no differences between the responders and nonresponders with regard to degree of anemia, serum ferritin, iron saturation, renal function, or blood pressure. One additional patient was excluded from the study because of a mild reaction during an IV test dose before the study. No worsening of kidney function and no other side effects were noted. In four patients (three responders and one nonresponder) the control of blood pressure necessitated antihypertensive drug therapy adjustment. In conclusion, IV Fe supplementation in two thirds of anemic CRF patients not receiving dialysis resulted in a significant improvement of the anemia, thus avoiding the necessity of erythropoietin or blood administration. This could be achieved by increasing the plasma ferritin levels to 200 to 400 microns/L and/or increasing the iron saturation to 25% to 35%. Intravenous ferric saccharate appears to be a safe and effective method of administering iron for the correction of anemia in CRF patients not receiving dialysis.

  13. 'Dialysis related arthropathy': a survey of 95 patients receiving chronic haemodialysis with special reference to beta 2 microglobulin related amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, N P; van den Berg, R; Disney, A; Alcock, M; Albertyn, L; Green, M; Pascoe, V

    1989-01-01

    Ninety five patients receiving chronic haemodialysis (CHD) were surveyed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic disease and, where possible, its aetiology. At least three distinct rheumatic syndromes were identified--a group of patients with a syndrome consisting of large and medium joint synovial swelling, restricted hips and shoulders, tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and bone cysts due to deposition of beta 2 microglobulin related amyloid (AM beta 2m); a second group with erosive azotaemic osteoarthropathy; and a third group with age related degenerative disease of small, large, and axial joints. The data presented suggest that in patients receiving CHD (a) the prevalence of AM beta 2m deposition and the associated syndrome increases with duration of dialysis, but in patients who have been dialysed for more than 10 years the risk of developing AM beta 2m is related to age; (b) AM beta 2m deposition in subchondral cysts, but not synovium, causes joint destruction; also, AM beta 2m may be more prone to deposition in synovium of joints already damaged by other processes; (c) in the absence of synovial iron deposition synovial AM beta 2m is not associated with an inflammatory infiltrate; (d) hyperparathyroidism and perhaps other factors such as synovial iron deposition are probably more important than AM beta 2m as causes of peripheral joint degeneration and destructive spondyloarthropathy in patients receiving CHD. Images PMID:2658876

  14. Prognostic value of parotid lymph node metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Peng, Hao; Liu, Li-Zhi; Li, Li; Liu, Qing; Ma, Jun

    2015-09-08

    The prognostic value and staging category of parotid lymph node (PLN) metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unknown. We retrospectively reviewed MRI scans and medical records for 1811 NPC patients who received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The diagnosis of PLN metastasis was mainly based on MRI follow-up. Twenty-five positive PLNs in 21/1811 patients were identified; the incidence of PLN metastasis was 1.2%. PLN metastasis was significantly associated with advanced N-category and stage. Ten of the 21 patients received irradiation of the involved PLNs; the PLN recurrence rate was significantly higher for patients who received no irradiation; thus only patients with irradiated PLN were included in prognostic analyses. PLN metastasis was associated with significantly poorer progression-free survival, overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), but not regional or local relapse-free survival, in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, PLN metastasis was also significantly associated with poor DMFS. PLN involvement had a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) for distant failure than N2 disease and similar HR to N3 disease. In conclusion, PLN metastasis is rare in NPC and was associated with similarly poor DMFS as N3 disease. PLN metastasis should be suspected in advanced nodal disease, but diagnosed with care before administering aggressive treatment.

  15. Prognostic value of parotid lymph node metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Peng, Hao; Liu, Li-Zhi; Li, Li; Liu, Qing; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value and staging category of parotid lymph node (PLN) metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unknown. We retrospectively reviewed MRI scans and medical records for 1811 NPC patients who received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The diagnosis of PLN metastasis was mainly based on MRI follow-up. Twenty-five positive PLNs in 21/1811 patients were identified; the incidence of PLN metastasis was 1.2%. PLN metastasis was significantly associated with advanced N-category and stage. Ten of the 21 patients received irradiation of the involved PLNs; the PLN recurrence rate was significantly higher for patients who received no irradiation; thus only patients with irradiated PLN were included in prognostic analyses. PLN metastasis was associated with significantly poorer progression-free survival, overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), but not regional or local relapse-free survival, in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, PLN metastasis was also significantly associated with poor DMFS. PLN involvement had a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) for distant failure than N2 disease and similar HR to N3 disease. In conclusion, PLN metastasis is rare in NPC and was associated with similarly poor DMFS as N3 disease. PLN metastasis should be suspected in advanced nodal disease, but diagnosed with care before administering aggressive treatment. PMID:26345410

  16. The relationship between thyroid dose and diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism in pediatric brain tumor patients receiving craniospinal irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Christine; Macy, Margaret E.; Zeitler, Philip; Backus, Jennifer; Mettler, Pamela; Foreman, Nicholas; Liu, Arthur K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work is to determine if a relationship exists between thyroid dose and incidence of primary hypothyroidism (PH) in children undergoing craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Methods A total of 22 patients received CSI with evaluable thyroid dose information. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy and 21 patients (95%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 42.9 months. Results The incidence of PH in our cohort was 59% at a median time after radiotherapy of 3.5 years (range: 8 months to 7.5 years). Mean thyroid dose appeared to best predict for PH, with a median of 2080 cGy for patients with PH versus 1736 cGy for children without PH (p=0.057). There was no association between the rate of PH and sex, age, CSI dose, minimum thyroid dose and maximum thyroid dose. Conclusions A relationship may exist between the mean thyroid dose and incidence of PH in patients undergoing CSI. Thus, new strategies to protect the thyroid gland may be warranted. PMID:24057590

  17. Improving the service for patients receiving extracorporeal photopheresis using Lean principles.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cherie; Robertson, Leeah; Taylor, Tracie; Taylor, Peter; Button, Paul; Alfred, Arun

    2016-09-01

    The photopheresis unit where the authors work has seen an increased demand both locally and as an outreach service. A Lean assessment of the unit was undertaken to improve processing time and productivity, which in turn would improve the availability of treatment and improve patient care. The assessment indicated that there were excellent nursing standards and patient care; however, patient waiting times and treatment times were prolonged in comparison with other units. The unit reviewed the patient pathway and identified where delays occurred and consequently changed patient scheduling. PMID:27615528

  18. Persistence and adherence in multiple sclerosis patients starting glatiramer acetate treatment: assessment of relationship with care received from multiple disciplines

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Lemmens, Wim A; Hupperts, Raymond; Hoogervorst, Erwin LJ; Schrijver, Hans M; Slettenaar, Astrid; de Schryver, Els L; Boringa, Jan; van Noort, Esther; Donders, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis patients, the persistence of, and adherence to, disease-modifying treatment are often insufficient. The degree of persistence and adherence may relate to the care received from various disciplines. Methods In an observational study of 203 patients treated with glatiramer acetate 20 mg subcutaneous daily, we assess the persistence and adherence in relation to the amount of care received in various disciplines. The frequencies and durations of care per discipline were reported by patients online, as were missed doses and eventual treatment discontinuation. The associations between the care provided by neurologists, nurses, psychologists, pharmacists, and rehabilitative doctors and persistence and adherence were the primary outcomes; the associations between care received from general practitioners, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, social workers, dieticians, home caregivers, informal caregivers, other medical specialists, and other caregivers and persistence and adherence were secondary outcomes. Results It was found that the 12-month persistence rate was 62% and that 85% of the persistent patients were 95% adherent (missed <5% of doses). Patients who discontinued treatment in the fourth quarter (Q) had received less-frequent and shorter psychological care in Q3 than persistent patients (P=0.0018 and P=0.0022). Adherent patients had received more frequent home care and informal care than nonadherent patients (P=0.0074 and P=0.0198), as well as longer home care and informal care (P=0.0074 and P=0.0318). Associations between care in other disciplines and persistence or adherence were not observed. As to the relationship between adherence and persistence, nonadherence in Q2 was related to discontinuation after Q2 (P=0.0001). Conclusion We obtained no evidence that, in multiple sclerosis patients, persistence of and adherence to disease-modifying treatment are associated with the amount of neurological, nursing, pharmaceutical

  19. Predictors of Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients Receiving Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Smith, Grace L.; Milgrom, Sarah; Osborne, Eleanor M.; Reddy, Jay P.; Akhtari, Mani; Reed, Valerie; Arzu, Isidora; Allen, Pamela K.; Wogan, Christine F.; Fanale, Michele A.; Oki, Yasuhiro; Turturro, Francesco; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Fowler, Nathan; Westin, Jason; Nastoupil, Loretta; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Rodriguez, M. Alma [Department of Lymphoma and others

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Few studies to date have evaluated factors associated with the development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), especially in patients treated with contemporary radiation techniques. These patients represent a unique group owing to the often large radiation target volumes within the mediastinum and to the potential to receive several lines of chemotherapy that add to pulmonary toxicity for relapsed or refractory disease. Our objective was to determine the incidence and clinical and dosimetric risk factors associated with RP in lymphoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed clinical charts and radiation records of 150 consecutive patients who received mediastinal IMRT for HL and NHL from 2009 through 2013. Clinical and dosimetric predictors associated with RP according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute toxicity criteria were identified in univariate analysis using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test and logistic multivariate regression. Results: Mediastinal radiation was administered as consolidation therapy in 110 patients with newly diagnosed HL or NHL and in 40 patients with relapsed or refractory disease. The overall incidence of RP (RTOG grades 1-3) was 14% in the entire cohort. Risk of RP was increased for patients who received radiation for relapsed or refractory disease (25%) versus those who received consolidation therapy (10%, P=.019). Several dosimetric parameters predicted RP, including mean lung dose of >13.5 Gy, V{sub 20} of >30%, V{sub 15} of >35%, V{sub 10} of >40%, and V{sub 5} of >55%. The likelihood ratio χ{sup 2} value was highest for V{sub 5} >55% (χ{sup 2} = 19.37). Conclusions: In using IMRT to treat mediastinal lymphoma, all dosimetric parameters predicted RP, although small doses to large volumes of lung had the greatest influence. Patients with relapsed

  20. Comparison of coronary angiography and early oral dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Hicks, R.R.; Myers, G.H.; McCarthy, J.J.; Perry, J.R.; Adams, K.F. )

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated 50 consecutive patients who received thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction using thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in combination with oral dipyridamole to assess the frequency of residual myocardial ischemia. Thallium studies were performed early after myocardial infarction at a mean of 4.6 days. The time from the onset of chest pain to the administration of thrombolytic therapy was 2.6 hours (range 0.5 to 5.5). Q wave myocardial infarction was evident in 46 patients; four patients had a non-Q wave infarction (anterior infarction in 31 patients and inferior infarction in 19 patients). The serum mean peak creatinine kinase was 1503 IU/L (range 127 to 6500). Coronary angiography was performed in all patients at a mean of 3.1 days (range 2 to 10) and revealed the infarct-related vessel to be patent in 36 patients (72%). The ejection fraction was 48% (range 26% to 67%). After dipyridamole administration, 13 patients (26%) developed angina that was easily reversed with the administration of intravenous aminophylline. Systolic blood pressure decreased from 122 to 115 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) and the heart rate increased from 76 to 85 beats/min (p less than 0.05). None of the patients had significant hypotension, arrhythmias, or evidence of infarct extension. Perfusion abnormalities were present on the initial thallium images in 48 patients. Redistribution suggestive of ischemia was present in 36 patients (72%). Ischemia confined to the vascular distribution of the infarct vessel was evident in 22 patients. Seven patients had ischemia in the infarct zone as well as in a remote myocardial segment. Thus 29 patients (58%) had ischemia in the distribution of the infarct vessel. Ischemia in the infarct zone was evident in 19 of 36 patients with open infarct vessels and in 10 of 14 patients with occluded infarct vessels.

  1. Methodology of a randomized clinical trial of symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis: the SMILE study.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Shields, Anne Marie; Mor, Maria K; Sevick, Mary Ann; Homer, Marcia; Peternel, Janet; Porter, Patricia; Rollman, Bruce L; Palevsky, Paul M; Arnold, Robert M; Fine, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Despite the high prevalence of pain, sexual dysfunction, and depression in patients on chronic hemodialysis, these symptoms are often unrecognized and under-treated by renal providers. This report describes the rationale and methodology of the SMILE study (Symptom Management Involving End-Stage Renal Disease), a multi-center, randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing treatment for these symptoms in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. Approximately 250 patients from nine outpatient dialysis units will participate. Over a 2-12 month observational phase, participants complete monthly surveys characterizing their pain, sexual dysfunction, and depression. Following this observational period, subjects are randomized to one of two study arms to receive a 12-month intervention. In one study arm (feedback intervention), patients continue to complete the same three symptom surveys, and the presence and severity of the symptoms reported on these surveys is mailed to the patient's renal provider along with evidence-based algorithms outlining treatment options for these symptoms. Decisions on treatment are left at the discretion of the provider. Patients randomized to the other study arm (management intervention) also continue to complete the same monthly symptom surveys and are evaluated by a symptom management nurse trained in the management of these symptoms. This nurse then discusses the patient's symptoms with the renal provider, provides specific recommendations for treatment, and facilitates the implementation of treatment. The primary endpoints are changes in scores on pain, erectile dysfunction, and depression surveys. This report describes the rationale and methodology of this clinical trial.

  2. POSTERIOR REVERSIBLE ENCEPHALOPATHY SYNDROME IN NEUROBLASTOMA PATIENTS RECEIVING ANTI-GD2 3F8 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Basu, Ellen M.; Roberts, Stephen S.; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) comprises clinical and radiologic findings with rapid onset and potentially dire consequences. Patients experience hypertension, seizures, headache, visual disturbance, and/or altered mentation. Magnetic resonance imaging shows edematous changes in brain (especially parietal and occipital lobes). We report PRES associated with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) immunotherapy which is now standard for high-risk neuroblastoma but has not previously been implicated in PRES. Methods Successive clinical trials using the anti-GD2 MoAb 3F8 for neuroblastoma patients involved multiple cycles of standard-dose 3F8 (SD-3F8) (20 mg/m2/day, x5 days/cycle) or two cycles of high-dose 3F8 (HD-3F8) (80 mg/m2/day, x5 days/cycle) followed by cycles of SD-3F8. Results PRES was diagnosed in 5/215 (2.3%) patients, including 3/160 (1.9%) patients receiving SD-3F8 and 2/55 (3.6%) patients receiving HD-3F8 (p=0.6). All five patients had a rapid return to clinical-radiologic baseline. PRES occurred in 3/26 (11.5%) patients whose prior treatment included external-beam radiotherapy to the brain (2/6 patients status-post total body irradiation plus 1/20 patients status-post craniospinal irradiation) compared to 2/189 (1.1%) patients without prior brain irradiation (p=0.01). Hypertension, which is strongly linked to PRES, reached grade 3 toxicity in 12/215 (5.6%) patients, including the five patients with PRES and seven patients without PRES. Conclusions Patients receiving anti-GD2 MoAb immunotherapy should be closely monitored for, and undergo urgent treatment or evaluation of, symptoms (e.g., hypertension or headaches) that might herald PRES. Prior brain irradiation may be a predisposing factor for PRES with this immunotherapy. PMID:23633099

  3. Changes in small intestinal chromogranin A-immunoreactive cell densities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome after receiving dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Mazzawi, Tarek; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2016-05-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for enteroendocrine cells in the gut, and CgA-immunoreactive cell densities are abnormal in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The majority of patients with IBS report that their symptoms develop after consuming certain foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary guidance on the total enteroendocrine cell densities in the small intestine, as detected by CgA. A total of 14 patients with IBS underwent a gastroscopy with duodenal biopsies and 11 of them also underwent a colonoscopy, with biopsy samples obtained from the ileum. Fourteen control subjects were also included. Each patient received 3 sessions of dietary guidance. Gastroscopies and colonoscopies were performed on both the controls and patients with IBS (at baseline and at 3-9 months after receiving guidance). Biopsy samples obtained from the duodenum and ileum were immunostained for CgA using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method and were quantified using computerized image analysis. The density of CgA-immunoreactive cells in the duodenum (mean ± SEM values) in the control subjects was 235.9 ± 31.9 cells/mm2; in the patients with IBS, the density was 36.9 ± 9.8 and 103.7 ± 16.9 cells/mm2 before and after they received dietary guidance, respectively (P=0.007). The density of CgA-immunoreactive cells in the ileum in the control subjects was 47.4 ± 8.3 cells/mm2; in the patients with IBS, the density was 48.4 ± 8.1 and 17.9 ± 4.4 cells/mm2, before and after they received dietary guidance, respectively (P=0.0006). These data indicate that changes in CgA-immunoreactive cell densities in patients with IBS after receiving dietary guidance may reflect a change in the densities of the small intestinal enteroendocrine cells, which may contribute to an improvement in the IBS symptoms. PMID:26987104

  4. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Melanoma Brain Metastases in Patients Receiving Ipilimumab: Safety Profile and Efficacy of Combined Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kiess, Ana P.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A.; Tabar, Viviane; Huse, Jason T.; Chan, Timothy A.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Beal, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Ipilimumab (Ipi), a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. In this single-institution study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for patients with melanoma brain metastases (BMs) who also received Ipi. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2011, 46 patients with melanoma received Ipi and underwent single-fraction SRS for BMs. A total of 113 BMs (91% intact, 9% postoperative) were treated with a median dose of 21 Gy (range, 15-24 Gy). Ipi was given at 3 mg/kg (54%) or 10 mg/kg (46%) for a median of 4 doses (range, 1-21). Adverse events were recorded with the use of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival, and Cox regression was used to investigate associations. Results: Fifteen patients received SRS during Ipi, 19 received SRS before Ipi, and 12 received SRS after Ipi. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with the timing of SRS/Ipi (P=.035) and melanoma-specific graded prognostic assessment (P=.013). Patients treated with SRS during or before Ipi had better OS and less regional recurrence than did those treated with SRS after Ipi (1-year OS 65% vs 56% vs 40%, P=.008; 1-year regional recurrence 69% vs 64% vs 92%, P=.003). SRS during Ipi also yielded a trend toward less local recurrence than did SRS before or after Ipi (1-year local recurrence 0% vs 13% vs 11%, P=.21). On magnetic resonance imaging, an increase in BM diameter to >150% was seen in 50% of patients treated during or before Ipi but in only 13% of patients treated after Ipi. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were seen in 20% of patients. Conclusion: Overall, the combination of Ipi and SRS appears to be well tolerated. Concurrent delivery of Ipi and SRS is associated with favorable locoregional control and possibly longer survival. It may also cause a temporary increase in tumor size, possibly

  5. Comparison of the clinical outcomes between antiviral-naïve patients treated with entecavir and lamivudine-resistant patients receiving adefovir add-on lamivudine combination treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Soo Kyung; Yang, Hyo Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To analyze the effects of preexisting lamivudine (LAM) resistance and applying antiviral treatment (adefovir [ADV] add-on LAM combination treatment) on long-term treatment outcomes, and comparing the clinical outcomes of antiviral-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients receiving entecavir (ETV) monotherapy. Methods This study enrolled 73 antiviral-naïve patients who received 0.5-mg ETV as an initial therapy and 54 patients who received ADV add-on LAM combination treatment as a rescue therapy from July 2006 to July 2010. Results During 24-month treatments, the decreases in serum log10HBV-DNA values (copies/mL) were significantly greater in the antiviral-naïve patients treated with ETV than the patients receiving ADV add-on LAM combination treatment. The biochemical response rates for alanine aminotransferase normalization at 6 months (ETV) and 12 months (ADV add-on LAM) were 90.4% (66/73) and 77.8% (42/54), respectively (P=0.048). A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the rates of serologic response, viral breakthrough, and emergence of genotypic resistance did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. There were also no significant intergroup differences in the rates of disease progression (PD) and new development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusion The long-term clinical outcomes of antiviral-naïve patients treated with ETV and LAM-resistant patients receiving ADV add-on LAM combination treatment were comparable in terms of the emergence of HCC and disease progression. PMID:27729626

  6. Prothrombotic SERPINC1 gene polymorphism may affect heparin sensitivity among different ethnicities of Chinese patients receiving heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Ma, Hai-Ping; Ti, Ai Lai Ti Ta Lai; Zhang, Yong-Qiang; Zheng, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible correlation between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the antithrombin (gene, SERPINC1, and perioperative sensitivity to heparin in patients receiving heart surgery. The SERPINC1 genotype and allele frequency, coagulation parameters 24 hours before and after surgery, and clinical findings were compared among 3 ethnic groups, Han, Uighur, and Kazakh, patientswho received heart surgery. In Han patients, longer coagulation time as well as higher heparin and protamine dosage was observed. SERPINC1 gene sequencing identified 2 mutations in exon 5, g.981A>G (rs5877) and g.1011A>G (rs5878). The minor allele frequency of allele (A>G) for rs5877 and rs5878 was higher in the Han patients and was significantly different among the ethnic groups (P = .004 and P = .006, respectively). The increased SERPINC1 SNP frequency among Han patients receiving heart surgery might contribute to the differences in their perioperative sensitivity to heparin.

  7. The Study of External Dose Rate and Retained Body Activity of Patients Receiving 131I Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Jiao, Ling; Cui, Songye; Wang, Liang; Tan, Jian; Zhang, Guizhi; He, Yajing; Ruan, Shuzhou; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of this work was to study the external dose rate and retained body activity as functions of time in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients receiving 131I therapy. Seventy patients were stratified into two groups: the ablation group (A) and the follow-up group (FU). The patients’ external dose rate was measured, and simultaneously, their retained body radiation activity was monitored at various time points. The equations of the external dose rate and the retained body activity, described as a function of hours post administration, were fitted. Additionally, the release time for patients was calculated. The reduction in activity in the group receiving a second or subsequent treatment was more rapid than the group receiving only the initial treatment. Most important, an expeditious method was established to indirectly evaluate the retained body activity of patients by measuring the external dose rate with a portable radiation survey meter. By this method, the calculated external dose rate limits are 19.2, 8.85, 5.08 and 2.32 μSv·h−1 at 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m, respectively, according to a patient’s released threshold level of retained body activity <400 MBq. This study is beneficial for radiation safety decision-making. PMID:25337944

  8. Complementary medicine use among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and chemotherapy: methods, sources of information and the need for counselling.

    PubMed

    Pihlak, R; Liivand, R; Trelin, O; Neissar, H; Peterson, I; Kivistik, S; Lilo, K; Jaal, J

    2014-03-01

    Complementary medicine (CM) use is common among cancer patients. However, little is known about CM products that are utilised during radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Out of 62 cancer patients who completed a specialised survey, 35 (56%) consumed some type of CM during active anti-cancer therapy. Cancer patients reported the use of herbal teas (52%), vitamins and other dietary supplements (45%), vegetables and juices (39%), special diets (19%), herbal medicines, including Chinese medicines (19%) and 'immunomodulators' (3%). Most of patients (86%) consumed CM products every day. However, nearly 47% of CM users did not admit this to their oncologists. Majority of CM users (85%) were convinced that supplementary products increase the efficacy of standard anti-cancer therapy and prolong their survival. Information about CM was mainly obtained through internet sources (36%), books and brochures (25%). Although most CM users (82%) trusted the received information, 73% of them admitted that additional information about CM methods would be necessary. Patients would like to receive additional information through a specialised consultation (60%), but also from brochures (44%) and the internet (20%). Adequate counselling of patients is of paramount importance since some CM methods may cause significant side effects and decrease the efficacy of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  9. The value of lactate dehydrogenase serum levels as a prognostic and predictive factor for advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving sorafenib

    PubMed Central

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Sobrero, Alberto; Labianca, Roberto; Ferrari, Daris; Barni, Sandro; Aitini, Enrico; Zaniboni, Alberto; Boni, Corrado; Caprioni, Francesco; Mosconi, Stefania; Fanello, Silvia; Berardi, Rossana; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Cinquini, Michela; Torri, Valter; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Although lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels, indirect markers of angiogenesis, are associated with a worse outcome in several tumours, their prognostic value is not defined in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, high levels are associated even with a lack of efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, contributing to explain negative results in clinical trials. We assessed the role of LDH in advanced pancreatic cancer receiving sorafenib. Seventy-one of 114 patients included in the randomised phase II trial MAPS (chemotherapy plus or not sorafenib) and with available serum LDH levels, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized according to serum LDH levels (LDH ≤vs.> upper normal rate). A significant difference was found in progression free survival (PFS) and in overall survival (OS) between patients with LDH values under or above the cut-off (PFS: 5.2 vs. 2.7 months, p = 0.0287; OS: 10.7 vs. 5.9 months, p = 0.0021). After stratification according to LDH serum levels and sorafenib treatment, patients with low LDH serum levels treated with sorafenib showed an advantage in PFS (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.0012). LDH appears to be a reliable parameter to assess the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer patients, and it may be a predictive parameter to select patients candidate to receive sorafenib. PMID:26397228

  10. The value of lactate dehydrogenase serum levels as a prognostic and predictive factor for advanced pancreatic cancer patients receiving sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Giampieri, Riccardo; Sobrero, Alberto; Labianca, Roberto; Ferrari, Daris; Barni, Sandro; Aitini, Enrico; Zaniboni, Alberto; Boni, Corrado; Caprioni, Francesco; Mosconi, Stefania; Fanello, Silvia; Berardi, Rossana; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Cinquini, Michela; Torri, Valter; Scartozzi, Mario; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-10-27

    Although lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels, indirect markers of angiogenesis, are associated with a worse outcome in several tumours, their prognostic value is not defined in pancreatic cancer. Moreover, high levels are associated even with a lack of efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, contributing to explain negative results in clinical trials. We assessed the role of LDH in advanced pancreatic cancer receiving sorafenib. Seventy-one of 114 patients included in the randomised phase II trial MAPS (chemotherapy plus or not sorafenib) and with available serum LDH levels, were included in this analysis. Patients were categorized according to serum LDH levels (LDH ≤ vs.> upper normal rate). A significant difference was found in progression free survival (PFS) and in overall survival (OS) between patients with LDH values under or above the cut-off (PFS: 5.2 vs. 2.7 months, p = 0.0287; OS: 10.7 vs. 5.9 months, p = 0.0021). After stratification according to LDH serum levels and sorafenib treatment, patients with low LDH serum levels treated with sorafenib showed an advantage in PFS (p = 0.05) and OS (p = 0.0012). LDH appears to be a reliable parameter to assess the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer patients, and it may be a predictive parameter to select patients candidate to receive sorafenib. PMID:26397228

  11. The impact of cancer treatment on the diets and food preferences of patients receiving outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha I; Epstein, Joel B; Ettinger, David; Jatoi, Aminah; McManus, Kathy; Platek, Mary E; Price, Wendy; Stewart, Meghan; Teknos, Theodoros N; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing cancer treatment experience a multitude of symptoms that can influence their ability to complete treatment as well as their quality of life during and after treatment. This cross-sectional study sought to describe the dietary changes experienced by cancer patients and to identify associations between these changes and common treatment symptoms. A convenience sample of 1199 cancer patients aged 18 yr and older undergoing active treatment were recruited from 7 cancer centers to complete a self-administered paper-and-pencil survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence of dietary changes and chi-squared tests were used to examine associations between dietary changes and health outcomes. Approximately 40% of patients reported a decreased appetite since beginning treatment, and 67.2% of patients reported at least 1 chemosensory alteration. Increased taste sensitivities were more common than decreased taste sensitivities, with increased sensitivity to metallic being the most common taste sensitivity (18.6%). Patients also had increased sensitivities to certain smells including cleaning solutions (23.4%), perfume (22.4%), and food cooking (11.4%). Patients reported a wide range of food preferences and aversions. Patients who had less energy or lost weight since beginning treatment were more likely than others to report treatment-related dietary changes.

  12. The impact of cancer treatment on the diets and food preferences of patients receiving outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    Coa, Kisha I; Epstein, Joel B; Ettinger, David; Jatoi, Aminah; McManus, Kathy; Platek, Mary E; Price, Wendy; Stewart, Meghan; Teknos, Theodoros N; Moskowitz, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing cancer treatment experience a multitude of symptoms that can influence their ability to complete treatment as well as their quality of life during and after treatment. This cross-sectional study sought to describe the dietary changes experienced by cancer patients and to identify associations between these changes and common treatment symptoms. A convenience sample of 1199 cancer patients aged 18 yr and older undergoing active treatment were recruited from 7 cancer centers to complete a self-administered paper-and-pencil survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence of dietary changes and chi-squared tests were used to examine associations between dietary changes and health outcomes. Approximately 40% of patients reported a decreased appetite since beginning treatment, and 67.2% of patients reported at least 1 chemosensory alteration. Increased taste sensitivities were more common than decreased taste sensitivities, with increased sensitivity to metallic being the most common taste sensitivity (18.6%). Patients also had increased sensitivities to certain smells including cleaning solutions (23.4%), perfume (22.4%), and food cooking (11.4%). Patients reported a wide range of food preferences and aversions. Patients who had less energy or lost weight since beginning treatment were more likely than others to report treatment-related dietary changes. PMID:25664980

  13. Analysis of Local Control in Patients Receiving IMRT for Resected Pancreatic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Maidment, Bert W.; Herman, Joseph M.; Pandya, Naimish; Goloubeva, Olga; Wolfgang, Chris; Schulick, Richard; Laheru, Daniel; Hanna, Nader; Alexander, Richard; Regine, William F.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly incorporated into therapy for pancreatic cancer. A concern regarding this technique is the potential for geographic miss and decreased local control. We analyzed patterns of first failure among patients treated with IMRT for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients who underwent resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreas cancer are included in this report. IMRT was used for all to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-FU-based in 72% of patients and gemcitabine-based in 28%. Results: At median follow-up of 24 months, 49/71 patients (69%) had failed. The predominant failure pattern was distant metastases in 35/71 patients (49%). The most common site of metastases was the liver. Fourteen patients (19%) developed locoregional failure in the tumor bed alone in 5 patients, regional nodes in 4 patients, and concurrently with metastases in 5 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 months. On univariate analysis, nodal status, margin status, postoperative CA 19-9 level, and weight loss during treatment were predictive for OS. On multivariate analysis, higher postoperative CA19-9 levels predicted for worse OS on a continuous basis (p < 0.01). A trend to worse OS was seen among patients with more weight loss during therapy (p = 0.06). Patients with positive nodes and positive margins also had significantly worse OS (HR for death 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.5; HR for death 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively). Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting was seen in 8% of patients. Late complication of small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (6%) patients. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive report of patterns of failure among patients treated with adjuvant IMRT for pancreas cancer. IMRT was not associated with an increase in local recurrences in our cohort. These data support the use of IMRT in the recently activated EORTC/US Intergroup/RTOG 0848 adjuvant pancreas

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients receiving tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitor therapy: implications for chemoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, James A; Baddley, John W

    2014-10-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an important opportunistic infection that has been increasingly reported in patients with rheumatic disease. Reported incidence among patients taking TNF inhibitors (TNFi) has varied, but has usually been low. Still, disease causes significant mortality among those affected and must be considered in patients with rheumatological disease presenting with dyspnea and cough. Diagnosis can be difficult in the non-HIV population, and our understanding of the epidemiology and natural history after exposure is changing. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is believed to be the most effective agent for treatment and prophylaxis, but is associated with significant adverse effects. Given the low incidence reported in most studies of patients on TNFi, prophylaxis is probably not beneficial for this patient population as a whole. PMID:25182673

  15. Physical activity and diet behaviour in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: associations with quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship between colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and physical activity and dietary habits has been well-established, but less is known about the relationship between these behaviours and quality of life (QOL) post-diagnosis. Moreover, it is unknown whether this relationship is consistent across cancer stage or treatment setting. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess current diet and physical activity behaviour in CRC survivors receiving systemic chemotherapy, and to examine potential associations between these behaviours and quality of life. A secondary purpose was to examine the association between social support, diet, and physical activity behaviour in this population. Methods Using a cross-sectional survey, 67 CRC survivors currently receiving chemotherapy in Calgary, Alberta completed the survey package. Measures included demographic and medical data, physical activity levels, diet behaviour, QOL, and social support. Results In a largely metastatic sample (63%), approximately half were meeting national dietary guidelines (58%), less were meeting national physical activity guidelines (26%), and a small number were meeting both (17%). However, only 12.3% (n = 8) reported completely sedentary behaviour, and 7 of these 8 participants were receiving metastatic treatment. Neither behaviour was significantly associated with QOL or perceived social support. Furthermore, there were no significant QOL differences between those treated with palliative intent or adjuvant therapy. Important group differences emerged between those meeting and not meeting the guidelines, and associations between QOL, age, BMI, and provisions of social support. Conclusion These findings provide insight into lifestyle behaviours of CRC survivors currently receiving systemic chemotherapy, and the differences in perceived QOL as affected by severity of disease and treatment setting. Prospective studies in a larger sample of CRC survivors on chemotherapy are needed to

  16. Long term outcome and side effects in patients receiving low-dose I125 brachytherapy: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Logghe, Pieter; Verlinde, Rolf; Bouttens, Frank; den Broecke, Caroline Van; Deman, Nathalie; Verboven, Koen; Maes, Dirk; Merckx, Luc

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the disease free survival (DFS), disease specific survival (DSS),overall survival (OS) and side effects in patients who received low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy with I125 stranded seeds. Materials and methods: Between july 2003 and august 2012, 274 patients with organ confined prostate cancer were treated with permanent I125 brachytherapy. The median follow-up, age and pretreatment prostate specific antigen (iPSA) was 84 months (12-120), 67 years (50-83) and 7.8 ng/mL (1.14-38), respectively. Median Gleason score was 6 (3-9). 219 patients (80%) had stage cT1c, 42 patients (15.3%) had stage cT2a, 3 (1.1%) had stage cT2b and 3 (1.1%) had stage cT2c. The median D90 was 154.3 Gy (102.7-190.2). Results: DSS was 98.5%.OS was 93.5%. 13 patients (4.7%) developed systemic disease, 7 patients (2.55%) had local progression. In 139 low risk patients, the 5 year biochemical freedom from failure rate (BFFF) was 85% and 9 patients (6.4%) developed clinical progression. In the intermediate risk group, the 5 year BFFF rate was 70% and 5 patients (7.1%) developed clinical progression. Median nPSA in patients with biochemical relapse was 1.58 ng/mL (0.21 – 10.46), median nPSA in patients in remission was 0.51 ng/mL (0.01 – 8.5). Patients attaining a low PSA nadir had a significant higher BFFF (p<0.05). Median D90 in patients with biochemical relapse was 87.2 Gy (51 – 143,1). Patients receiving a high D90 had a significant higher BFFF (p<0.05). Conclusion: In a well selected patient population, LDR brachytherapy offers excellent outcomes. Reaching a low PSA nadir and attaining high D90 values are significant predictors for a higher DFS. PMID:27532118

  17. Cost of managing anemia with and without prophylactic epoetin alfa therapy in breast cancer patients receiving combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Meadowcroft, A M; Gilbert, C J; Maravich-May, D; Hayward, S L

    1998-09-15

    The cost of managing anemia with prophylactic epoetin alfa therapy versus blood transfusions in breast cancer patients receiving combination chemotherapy was studied. A retrospective study of anemia in breast cancer patients treated with four cycles of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin with fluorouracil (CAF) or without fluorouracil (CA) was conducted. For each cycle of chemotherapy, patients were assessed for fatigue, subsequent blood transfusions administered, and potential response to and adverse effects of blood transfusions. Transfusions were given at the prescriber's discretion rather than in accordance with standard guidelines. The lowest hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit of each patient per cycle were reported. Data on these patients, along with data from published studies of prophylactic use of epoetin alfa, were used in a decision analysis of the costs associated with using epoetin alfa versus red blood cell transfusions to manage anemia. The charts of 50 patients were reviewed. In the study group, the percentage of patients with anemia and the frequency of fatigue rose with each chemotherapy cycle. In general, blood transfusions were not used. The cost of using epoetin alfa prophylactically for all four cycles was estimated at $6483 per patient for the literature-based group versus $169 for the study group. The cost of managing anemia in breast cancer patients was substantially lower when blood transfusions were used than when epoetin alfa was given prophylactically throughout four cycles of therapy with CAF or CA; the absence of standard guidelines for transfusion might have exaggerated the difference in costs.

  18. The Clinical Significance of MiR-429 as a Predictive Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving 5-Fluorouracil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Sheng-jian; Cai, Xiao-jun; Li, Shu-jin

    2016-01-01

    Background 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) based treatment is the standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), but the development of chemoresistance is inevitable. Increasing evidence shows that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in malignant transformation. Thus, it is imperative that we find new diagnostic and prognostic marker for chemotherapy in CRC. Material/Methods For clinical parameter analysis, 78 CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues and 45 serum specimens from CRC patients were included in this study. For chemo-response analysis, 116 primary tissues were collected from the patients receiving first-line 5-FU treatment. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect microRNAs expression. Results The expression of miR-429 was significantly increased in both serum and primary tissues from CRC patients, and enhanced miR-429 level was associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. The diagnostic and prognostic values were also confirmed in CRC by using primary tissues. For patients receiving 5-FU-based treatment, miR-429 levels were significantly lower in responding group. The proportions of patients that did not experience response to therapy were higher in primary tumors with high miR-429 expression levels as compared with primary tumors with low miR-429 expression levels. Finally, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that miR-429 is an independent prognostic indicator for chemo-response to 5-FU therapy among CRC patients. Conclusions High level of miR-429 expression was correlated with enhanced malignant potential and poor prognosis of CRC patients. Furthermore, miR-429 could affect the chemo-sensitivity of CRC patients to 5-FU therapy and was associated with poor response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with CRC. PMID:27654003

  19. Risk factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received tranexamic acid: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Montes, Felix R; Pardo, Daniel F; Carreño, Marisol; Arciniegas, Catalina; Dennis, Rodolfo J; Umaña, Juan P

    2012-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic agents are used during cardiac surgery to minimize bleeding and reduce exposure to blood products. Several reports suggest that tranexamic acid (TA) can induce seizure activity in the postoperative period. To examine factors associated with postoperative seizures in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received TA. University-affiliated hospital. Case-control study. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified. During this time, all patients undergoing heart surgery with CPB received TA. Cases were defined as patients who developed seizures that required initiation of anticonvulsive therapy within 48 h of surgery. Exclusion criteria included subjects with preexisting epilepsy and patients in whom the convulsive episode was secondary to a new ischemic lesion on brain imaging. Controls who did not develop seizures were randomly selected from the initial cohort. From an initial cohort of 903 patients, we identified 32 patients with postoperative seizures. Four patients were excluded. Twenty-eight cases and 112 controls were analyzed. Cases were more likely to have a history of renal impairment and higher preoperative creatinine values compared with controls (1.39 ± 1.1 vs. 0.98 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P = 0.02). Significant differences in the intensive care unit, postoperative and total lengths of stay were observed. An association between high preoperative creatinine value and postoperative seizure was identified. TA may be associated with the development of postoperative seizures in patients with renal dysfunction. Doses of TA should be reduced or even avoided in this population. PMID:22234015

  20. Patients Undergoing Substance Abuse Treatment and Receiving Financial Assistance for a Physical Disability Respond Well to Contingency Management Treatment.

    PubMed

    Burch, Ashley E; Morasco, Benjamin J; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-11-01

    Physical illness and disability are common in individuals with substance use disorders, but little is known about the impact of physical disability status on substance use treatment outcomes. This study examined the main and interactive effects of physical disability payment status on substance use treatment. Participants (N = 1,013) were enrolled in one of six prior randomized clinical trials comparing contingency management (CM) to standard care; 79 (7.8%) participants reported receiving disability payments, CM improved all three primary substance use outcomes: treatment retention, percent negative samples and longest duration of abstinence. There was no significant main effect of physical disability payment status on treatment outcomes; however, a significant treatment condition by physical disability status interaction effect emerged in terms of retention in treatment and duration of abstinence achieved. Patients who were receiving physical disability payments responded particularly well to CM, and their time in treatment and durations of drug and alcohol abstinence increased even more markedly with CM than did that of their counterparts who were not receiving physical disability assistance. These findings suggest an objectively defined cohort of patients receiving substance use treatment who respond particularly well to CM.

  1. [Actual questions about the prevention of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Losonczy, Hajna; Nagy, Ágnes; Tar, Attila

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients have a 2-7 fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism compared with the general population and, since 1990, this is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the current knowledge on venous thromboembolism and cancer. Notably, the risk of venous thromboembolism varies depending on the type and stage of cancer. For instance, pancreatic and brain cancer patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism than breast and prostate cancer patients. Moreover, patients with metastatic disease have a higher risk than those with localized tumors. Tumor-derived procoagulant factors, cytokines and growth factors may directly and indirectly enhance venous thromboembolism. Chemotherapy produces ~6,5 fold increase in venous thromboembolism incidence in cancer patients compared to the general population. Prevention of this complication is challenging. The authors review the development of guidelines concerning venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalized and also in ambulatory cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Current guidelines recommend the use of low-molecular-weight heparin. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may allow the development of new therapies to safely prevent venous thromboembolism in cancer patients. PMID:27120721

  2. Clinical application of transient elastography in patients with chronic viral hepatitis receiving antiviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hyung; Kim, Mi Na; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Seung Up

    2015-04-01

    Accurate evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) is crucial, as liver fibrosis is important in determining the prognosis of liver diseases. Currently, liver biopsy (LB) is considered the gold standard for staging liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. However, utilization of LB in clinical practice is often limited because of its invasive nature, sampling error and interobserver variability. Recently, transient elastography (TE) was introduced as a noninvasive, highly reproducible technique for assessing the degree of liver fibrosis. After extensive studies, TE is now regarded as a reliable surrogate marker for grading the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with CLD. In the past few years, the role of TE in monitoring liver stiffness and determining prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or chronic hepatitis C (CHC) who are undergoing antiviral treatment has been investigated. In patients with CHB, liver stiffness values decrease with antiviral treatment. TE can also be used to predict the incidence of liver-related events during antiviral treatment. In patients with CHC, TE can be used to monitor potential regression of liver fibrosis after antiviral treatment and may predict the treatment outcome of CHC. In addition, TE is an adjunct tool for distinguishing inactive hepatitis B virus carriers from patients with chronic active hepatitis. This review article discusses the important findings from recent studies focusing on the clinical application of TE in patients with chronic viral hepatitis who are undergoing antiviral treatments. PMID:24976523

  3. Sensitivity value of hematological markers in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shan; Miao, Chuan-Wang; Wang, Zhong-Tang; Peng, Li; Li, Baosheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Hematological markers of the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) including the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and the combination of NLR with PLR (CNP) are associated with prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, their value in predicting the sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy in patients with ESCC is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these markers can be used as sensitivity predictors for chemoradiotherapy in patients with ESCC. Patients and methods A total of 114 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC were retrospectively evaluated. They were treated with curative intent by primary radiotherapy only or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. These patients were grouped for further analysis according to the optimum cutoff values of NLR, PLR, and CNP. A univariate analysis was conducted to compare the ability of each of the hematological markers of SIR and clinicopathological characteristics. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify whether the markers were associated with the sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy. The relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and hematological markers was assessed. Results NLR, CNP, T stage, M stage, and clinical stage were significantly associated with the sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy. In multivariate analysis, CNP and clinical stage were the independent risk factors predicting a poorer sensitivity. Conclusion This study validated novel, easy-to-use hematological markers and found that CNP, an SIR score, is an independent hematological marker of poor sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy in patients with ESCC. This may help guide the planning of follow-up regimens. PMID:27789959

  4. Preferential effectiveness of cyclosporin in patients receiving kidney transplants after glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Cats, S; Terasaki, P I; Perdue, S; Mickey, M R

    1985-03-01

    Glomerulonephritis patients transplanted with cadaver kidneys had a significantly higher one-year graft survival when immunosuppressed with cyclosporin rather than standard therapy (80% versus 59%, p less than 10(-5]. For nephrosclerosis patients the corresponding rates were 70% and 59% (p greater than 0.05); and in those with antecedent diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney, and pyelonephritis the differences were negligible. In glomerulonephritis patients, but not in the other groups, cyclosporin was additive to the effect of transfusions and of HLA-A, B and HLA-Dr matching. PMID:2857855

  5. Effects of patient-directed music intervention on anxiety and sedative exposure in critically ill patients receiving mechanical-ventilatory support: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chlan, Linda L.; Weinert, Craig R.; Heiderscheit, Annie; Tracy, Mary Fran; Skaar, Debra J.; Guttormson, Jill L.; Savik, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Context Alternatives to sedative medications are needed to reduce anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Music is an integrative therapy without adverse effects that may alleviate the anxiety associated with ventilatory support. Objective To test whether patient-directed, self-initiated music listening can reduce anxiety and sedative exposure during ventilatory support in critically ill patients as compared with 2 control conditions. Design, Setting, and Patients Randomized, controlled trial that enrolled 373 ICU patients from the Minneapolis-St. Paul area receiving acute mechanical-ventilatory support for respiratory failure between September 2006 and March 2011. Patients were Caucasian (86%), female (52%), with mean age 59 (SD 14), APACHE III 63 (SD 21.6), on protocol 5.7 (SD 6.4) days. Intervention Patients (1) self-initiated music listening (patient-directed music; PDM) with preferred selections tailored by a music therapist whenever desired while receiving ventilatory support, (2) self-initiated use of noise-abating headphones (HP), or (3) received usual ICU care (UC). Main Outcome Measures Daily assessments of anxiety (100-mm visual analog scale) and two aggregate measure of sedative exposure (sedation intensity and sedation frequency). Results Mixed-models analysis showed that PDM patients had decreased levels of anxiety compared with the UC group of −19.5 (p=.003). By the fifth study day anxiety was reduced by 36.5% in PDM patients. The interaction between treatment and time showed PDM significantly reduced both measures of sedative exposure. PDM reduced sedation intensity by −.18 (−.36, −.004) points per day and frequency by −.21 (−.37, −.05) points per day compared to UC (p = .05, .01 respectively). PDM reduced sedation frequency by −.18 (−.36, −.004) points per day compared to HP (p = .04). By the fifth study day, PDM patients received two fewer sedative doses (reduction of 38%) and had a reduction of 36% in sedation intensity

  6. Time course and significance of acute hyperamylasemia in patients receiving fractionated therapeutic radiation to the parotid gland region

    SciTech Connect

    Borok, T.L.; Cooper, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    To improve our understanding of hyperamylasemia secondary to parotid gland irradiation, serial serum amylase levels were measured from 12 consecutive patients who received incidental parotid irradiation during radiotherapy of their head and neck tumors. Rapid transient increases in enzyme activity, limited to the first days of radiotherapy, were consistently found. Awareness of the frequency and nature of this response may avoid unnecessary investigation and concern for abdominal pathology in this clinical setting.

  7. An Easy Tool to Predict Survival in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, Paulien G.; Graeff, Alexander de; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Bollen, Laurens; Dijkstra, Sander P.; Steen-Banasik, Elzbieta M. van der; Vulpen, Marco van; Leer, Jan Willem H.; Marijnen, Corrie A.; Linden, Yvette M. van der

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases have a widely varying survival. A reliable estimation of survival is needed for appropriate treatment strategies. Our goal was to assess the value of simple prognostic factors, namely, patient and tumor characteristics, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and patient-reported scores of pain and quality of life, to predict survival in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: In the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study, 1157 patients were treated with radiation therapy for painful bone metastases. At randomization, physicians determined the KPS; patients rated general health on a visual analogue scale (VAS-gh), valuation of life on a verbal rating scale (VRS-vl) and pain intensity. To assess the predictive value of the variables, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses and C-statistics for discriminative value. Of the final model, calibration was assessed. External validation was performed on a dataset of 934 patients who were treated with radiation therapy for vertebral metastases. Results: Patients had mainly breast (39%), prostate (23%), or lung cancer (25%). After a maximum of 142 weeks' follow-up, 74% of patients had died. The best predictive model included sex, primary tumor, visceral metastases, KPS, VAS-gh, and VRS-vl (C-statistic = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.70-0.74). A reduced model, with only KPS and primary tumor, showed comparable discriminative capacity (C-statistic = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69-0.72). External validation showed a C-statistic of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.70-0.73). Calibration of the derivation and the validation dataset showed underestimation of survival. Conclusion: In predicting survival in patients with painful bone metastases, KPS combined with primary tumor was comparable to a more complex model. Considering the amount of variables in complex models and the additional burden on patients, the simple model is preferred for daily use. In addition, a risk table for survival is provided.

  8. Improved long-term antiretroviral treatment outcomes amongst patients receiving community-based adherence support in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Mothibi, Eula; Shaikh, Najma; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2016-11-01

    Retaining high levels of patients in care who are virally suppressed over long treatment periods has been an important challenge for antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa, the region having the highest HIV burden globally. Clinic-linked community-based adherence support (CBAS) programmes provide home-based adherence and psychosocial support for ART patients. However, there is little evidence of their longer-term impact. This study assessed the effectiveness of CBAS after eight years of ART. CBAS workers are lay healthcare personnel providing regular adherence and psychosocial support for ART patients and their households through home visits addressing household challenges affecting adherence. A multicentre cohort study using routinely collected data was undertaken at six public ART sites in a high HIV-prevalence South African district. Patient retention, loss to follow-up (LTFU), viral suppression and CD4 cell restoration were compared between patients with and without CBAS, using competing-risks regression, linear mixed models and log-binomial regression. 3861 patients were included, of whom 1616 (41.9%) received CBAS. Over 14,792 patient-years of observation, the cumulative incidence of LTFU was 37.3% and 46.2% amongst patients with and without CBAS, respectively, following 8 years of ART; adjusted subhazard ratio (CBAS vs. no CBAS) = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.66-0.84; P < .0001). Amongst patients on ART for 6.5-8 years, proportions not achieving viral suppression were 11.4% and 19.4% in patients with and without CBAS, respectively; adjusted risk ratio = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.26-0.86; P = .015). Annual CD4 cell increases from baseline were 62.8 cells/µL/year and 51.5 cells/µL/year amongst patients with and without CBAS, respectively, after 6.5 years or more (P = .034). After adjustment, annual CD4 cell recovery was 15.1 cells/µL/year (95% CI: 2.7-27.6) greater in CBAS patients (P = .017). ART patients who received CBAS had

  9. Fatigue in patients receiving maintenance dialysis: a review of definitions, measures, and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jhamb, Manisha; Weisbord, Steven D; Steel, Jennifer L; Unruh, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating symptom or side effect experienced by many patients on long-term dialysis therapy. Fatigue has a considerable effect on patient health-related quality of life and is viewed as being more important than survival by some patients. Renal providers face many challenges when attempting to reduce fatigue in dialysis patients. The lack of a reliable, valid, and sensitive fatigue scale complicates the accurate identification of this symptom. Symptoms of daytime sleepiness and depression overlap with fatigue, making it difficult to target specific therapies. Moreover, many chronic health conditions common in the long-term dialysis population may lead to the development of fatigue and contribute to the day-to-day and diurnal variation in fatigue in patients. Key to improving the assessment and treatment of fatigue is improving our understanding of potential mediators, as well as potential therapies. Cytokines have emerged as an important mediator of fatigue and have been studied extensively in patients with cancer-related fatigue. In addition, although erythropoietin-stimulating agents have been shown to mitigate fatigue, the recent controversy regarding erythropoietin-stimulating agent dosing in patients with chronic kidney disease suggests that erythropoietin-stimulating agent therapy may not serve as the sole therapy to improve fatigue in this population. In conclusion, fatigue is an important and often underrecognized symptom in the dialysis population. Possible interventions for minimizing fatigue in patients on long-term dialysis therapy should aim at improving health care provider awareness, developing improved methods of measurement, understanding the pathogenesis better, and managing known contributing factors.

  10. Hyperprolactinemia in a patient with a pituitary adenoma receiving antipsychotic drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Richard W; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Baynes, Kevin C R; Kahn, David A

    2012-03-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common consequence of treatment with an antipsychotic medication. It can result in hypogonadism due to the inhibitory effect of elevated prolactin levels on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. We present a case of hypogonadism secondary to hyperprolactinemia in a patient taking antipsychotic medication, with radiological evidence of a pituitary microadenoma. The relevance and investigation of hyperprolactinemia in patients being treated with antipsychotic medications are discussed.

  11. The effects of education on anxiety levels in patients receiving chemotherapy for the first time: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients receiving their first chemotherapy treatment. Improper prevention and management of anxiety can lead to poor psychosocial outcomes, dissatisfaction with care, and decreased adherence to treatment. A review of the literature was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of patient education at decreasing anxiety. Consistencies were found throughout the literature regarding patient education for this population. Information regarding side effects of treatment, side-effect management strategies, and orientation to the infusion center are the most important topics of education that reduce anxiety. In addition, education performed by nurses before the first chemotherapy infusion in a quiet environment is most effective. Integration of effective patient education programs improves holistic care by increasing emphasis on psychosocial aspects of oncology.

  12. Switching from nitrate therapy to ranolazine in patients with coronary artery disease receiving phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Udeoji, Dioma U; Schwarz, Ernst R

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) frequently coexist. The introduction of phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors has revolutionized medical management of organic ED; however, in patients with angina pectoris, a common symptom of CAD, coadministration of PDE-5 inhibitors and nitrates has been implicated in CAD-related deaths following sexual activity. The mechanism of action of PDE-5 inhibitors results in a potential cumulative drop in blood pressure (BP); thus, these agents are contraindicated in patients receiving nitrates. Beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists are considered the mainstays of antianginal therapy, but may not be tolerated by all patients. Ranolazine is an antianginal agent that produces minimal reductions in heart rate and BP. Here we report three cases of men with CAD, chronic angina, and concomitant ED. We describe our treatment approach in these patients, using ranolazine as a potential substitute to nitrate therapy. PMID:25452706

  13. A new system for continuous and remote monitoring of patients receiving home mechanical ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, L.

    2016-09-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is the treatment of patients with respiratory failure or insufficiency by means of a mechanical ventilator at a patient's home. In order to allow remote patient monitoring, several tele-monitoring systems have been introduced in the last few years. However, most of them usually do not allow real-time services, as they have their own proprietary communication protocol implemented and some ventilation parameters are not always measured. Moreover, they monitor only some breaths during the whole day, despite the fact that a patient's respiratory state may change continuously during the day. In order to reduce the above drawbacks, this work reports the development of a novel remote monitoring system for long-term, home-based ventilation therapy; the proposed system allows for continuous monitoring of the main physical quantities involved during home-care ventilation (e.g., differential pressure, volume, and air flow rate) and is developed in order to allow observations of different remote therapy units located in different places of a city, region, or country. The developed remote patient monitoring system is able to detect various clinical events (e.g., events of tube disconnection and sleep apnea events) and has been successfully tested by means of experimental tests carried out with pulmonary ventilators typically used to support sick patients.

  14. HLA Immunogenotype Determines Persistent Human Papillomavirus Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Meys, Rhonda; Purdie, Karin J; de Koning, Maurits N C; Quint, Koen D; Little, Ann-Margaret; Baker, Finnuala; Francis, Nick; Asboe, David; Hawkins, David; Marsh, Steven G E; Harwood, Catherine A; Gotch, Frances M; Bunker, Christopher B

    2016-06-01

    A proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop persistent, stigmatizing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cutaneous and genital warts and anogenital (pre)cancer. This is the first study to investigate immunogenetic variations that might account for HPV susceptibility and the largest to date to categorize the HPV types associated with cutaneous warts in HIV-positive patients. The HLA class I and II allele distribution was analyzed in 49 antiretroviral (ART)-treated HIV-positive patients with persistent warts, 42 noninfected controls, and 46 HIV-positive controls. The allele HLA-B*44 was more frequently identified in HIV-positive patients with warts (P = .004); a susceptible haplotype (HLA-B*44, HLA-C*05; P = .001) and protective genes (HLA-DQB1*06; P = .03) may also contribute. Cutaneous wart biopsy specimens from HIV-positive patients harbored common wart types HPV27/57, the unusual wart type HPV7, and an excess of Betapapillomavirus types (P = .002), compared with wart specimens from noninfected controls. These findings suggest that HLA testing might assist in stratifying those patients in whom vaccination should be recommended. PMID:26908737

  15. A revised risk analysis of stress ulcers in burn patients receiving ulcer prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Hwan; Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Jae Jun; Cho, Young Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most of the literature about Curling’s ulcer was published from 1960 through 1980. Therefore, an updated study of Curling’s ulcer is needed. We analyzed the risk factors affecting ulcer incidence in burn patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of burn patients who were admitted to two burn centers. We collected information about the general characteristics of patients, burn area size, abbreviated burn severity index, whether surgery was performed, endoscopy results, and the total body surface area (TBSA). We performed a multivariate regression analysis predicting development of Curling’s ulcer. Results In total, 135 patients (mean age, 49.5±13.5 years) underwent endoscopy. Endoscopy revealed ulcer in 51 patients: 36 (70.6%) with gastric ulcers, 9 (17.6%) with duodenal ulcers, and 6 (11.8%) with both ulcer types. Burn area, burn depth, epigastric pain, melena, intensive care unit admission, burn area >20% of TBSA, and undergoing surgery for the burn were significantly different between the ulcer and non-ulcer groups. Multivariate analysis showed two independent factors significantly associated with ulcer: epigastric pain (odds ratio [OR]: 4.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74 to 11.90), major burn (TBSA > 20%)(OR: 4.31 ,95% CI: 1.34 to 13.85). Conclusion For burn patients, presence of epigastric pain and major burn with TBSA > 20% showed significant association with ulcer development. PMID:27752605

  16. [Clinical benefit of HCV core antigen assay in patients receiving interferon and ribavirin combination therapy].

    PubMed

    Higashimoto, Makiko; Takahashi, Masahiko; Jokyu, Ritsuko; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2006-02-01

    A highly sensitive second generation HCV core antigen assay has recently been developed. We compared viral disappearance and kinetics data between commercially available core antigen assays, Lumipulse Ortho HCV Ag, and a quantitative HCV RNA PCR assay, Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor Test, Version 2 to estimate the predictive benefit of sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR in 59 patients treated with interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We found a good correlation between HCV core Ag and HCV RNA level regardless of genotype. Although the sensitivity of the core antigen assay was lower than PCR, the dynamic range was broader than that of the PCR assay, so that we did not need to dilute the samples in 59 patients. We detected serial decline of core Ag levels in 24 hrs, 7 days and 14 days after interferon combination therapy. The decline of core antigen levels was significant in SVR patients compared to non-SVR as well as in genotype 2a, 2b patients compared to 1b. Core antigen-negative on day 1 could predict all 10 SVR patients (PPV = 100%), whereas RNA-negative could predict 22 SVR out of 25 on day 14 (PPV = 88.0%). None of the patients who had detectable serum core antigen on day 14 became SVR(NPV = 100%), although NPV was 91.2% on RNA negativity. An easy, simple, low cost new HCV core antigen detecting system seems to be useful for assessing and monitoring IFN treatment for HCV.

  17. Donor KIR B Genotype Improves Progression Free Survival of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Patients Receiving Unrelated Donor Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Wang, Tao; Marsh, Steven G.E.; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Haagenson, Michael D; Spellman, Stephen R.; Ladner, Martha; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Parham, Peter; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Cooley, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotypes associate with relapse protection and survival after allotransplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia. We examined the possibility of a similar effect in a cohort of 614 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients receiving unrelated donor (URD) T-cell replete marrow or peripheral blood grafts. Sixty four percent (n=396) of donor-recipient pairs were 10/10 allele HLA-matched; 26% were 9/10 allele matched. Seventy percent of donors had KIR B/x genotype; the others had KIR A/A genotype. NHL patients receiving 10/10 HLA-matched URD grafts with KIR B/x donors experienced significantly lower relapse at 5 years (26%; CI 21–32% vs. 37%; CI 27–46%, p=0.05) compared with KIR A/A donors, resulting in improved 5 year progression-free survival (PFS) (35%; CI 26–44% vs. 22%; CI 11–35%; p=0.007). In multivariate analysis, use of KIR B/x donors associated with significantly reduced relapse risk (RR 0.63, p=0.02) and improved PFS (RR 0.71, p=0.008). The relapse protection afforded by KIR B/x donors was not observed in HLA-mismatched transplants, and was not specific to any particular KIR-B gene. Selecting 10/10 HLA-matched and KIR B/x donors should benefit patients with NHL receiving URD allogeneic transplantation. PMID:27220262

  18. Matched Pair Analysis of Race or Ethnicity in Outcomes of Head and Neck Cancer Patients Receiving Similar Multidisciplinary Care

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Leon M.; Li, Guojun; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Pytynia, Kristen B.; Zafereo, Mark E.; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether population-level racial or ethnic disparities in mortality from squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) also occur in the setting of standardized multidisciplinary-team directed care. Therefore, we conducted a matched-pair study that controlled for several potentially confounding prognostic variables to assess whether a difference in survival exists for African-American or Hispanic-American compared with non-Hispanic white American SCCHN patients receiving similar care. Matched pairs were 81 African-American case and 81 non-Hispanic white control patients and 100 Hispanic-American cases and 100 matched non-Hispanic white controls selected from 1833 patients of a prospective epidemiologic study of incident SCCHN within a single, large multidisciplinary cancer center. Matching variables included age (± 10 years), sex, smoking status (never versus ever), site, tumor stage (T1–2 versus T3–4), nodal status (negative versus positive), and treatment. Cases and controls were not significantly different in proportions of comorbidity score, alcohol use, subsite distribution, overall stage, or tumor grade. Matched-pair and log-rank analyses showed no significant differences between cases and controls in recurrence-free, disease-specific, or overall survival. Site-specific analyses suggested that more-aggressive oropharyngeal cancers occurred more frequently in minority than non-Hispanic white patients. We conclude that minority and non-Hispanic white SCCHN patients receiving similar multidisciplinary-team directed care at a tertiary cancer center have similar survival results overall. These results encourage reducing health disparities in SCCHN through public-health efforts to improve access to multidisciplinary oncologic care (and to preventive measures) and through individual clinician efforts to make the best multidisciplinary cancer treatment choices available for their minority patients. The subgroup finding suggests a biologically

  19. A Comprehensive Study on the Etiology of Patients Receiving Cochlear Implantation With Special Emphasis on Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Maiko; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cochlear implantation is the most important treatment currently available for profound sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of hearing loss in patients with cochlear implantation, and to compare outcomes. Methods: Japanese hearing loss patients who received cochlear implants (CIs) or electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) in Shinshu University hospital (n = 173, prelingual onset: 92, postlingual onset: 81) participated in this study. Invader assay followed by the targeted exon-sequencing of 63 deafness genes using Massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) was applied. For prelingual patients, additional imaging examination, cCMV screening, and pediatric examination were performed for precise diagnosis. Results: Genetic screening successfully identified the causative mutation in 60% of patients with prelingual onset hearing loss and in 36% of those with postlingual hearing loss. Differences in the kinds of genes identified were observed between the two groups. Although there were marked variations in the outcome of cochlear implantation, patients with specific deafness gene mutations showed relatively good results. Conclusion: The present study showed genetic etiology is a major cause of hearing loss in CI/EAS patients. Patients possessing mutations in a number of deafness genes known to be expressed within inner ear have achieved satisfactory auditory performance, suggesting that the identification of the genetic background facilitates the prediction of post-CI performance. MPS is a powerful tool for the identification of causative deafness genes in patients receiving cochlear implantation. Therefore, determination of the involved region inside/outside of the cochlea by identification of the responsible gene is essential. PMID:26756145

  20. Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil facilitates oral feeding in pediatric patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kobayashi, Kaori; Niisato-Nezu, Junko; Tanaka, Souichiro; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Ebihara, Takae; Ebihara, Satoru; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Onuma, Akira

    2008-04-01

    Patients with severe neurological disorders often require enteral nutrition (EN). Since long-term EN can cause multiple complications, reinstating the oral intake of food is beneficial. Olfactory stimulation using black pepper oil (BPO), a strong appetite stimulant, was reported to facilitate swallowing in older people. Therefore, the effects of olfactory stimulation with BPO were investigated in pediatric patients receiving long-term EN due to neurological disorders. The effects of scenting with BPO for 1 min immediately before every meal were evaluated in ten patients: 4 boys and 6 girls, aged 19-97 months (51 +/- 26 months). The neurological disorders included periventricular leukomalacia (3 patients), hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (3), Costello syndrome (1), Russell-Silver syndrome (1), Miller-Dieker syndrome (1), and cerebral palsy of unknown etiology (1). In eight of these patients, BPO intervention was continued for 3 months. Five of these eight patients showed increases in the amount of oral intake with desirable effects including facilitated swallowing movement, although complete elimination of the need for EN was not achieved. In the other three patients, BPO intervention was not effective; severe cerebral tissue loss, profound malformation or intractable seizures seemed to reduce the efficacy of BPO. In two cases, BPO intervention was discontinued due to cough or because the odor of BPO was unbearable to the family. In conclusion, olfactory stimulation with BPO facilitated oral intake in a subset of patients on long-term EN. BPO stimulation may be useful for facilitating oral intake when used in combination with conventional methods.

  1. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 μg/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 μg/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  2. [Nosocomial infection in patients receiving a solid organ transplant or haematopoietic stem cell transplant].

    PubMed

    Moreno Camacho, Asunción; Ruiz Camps, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are the most common infections in solid organ transplant recipients. These infections occur mainly in the first month after transplantation and are hospital-acquired. Nosocomial infections cause significant morbidity and are the most common cause of mortality in this early period of transplantation. These infections are caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, mainly Gram-negative enterobacteria, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, and staphylococci. The patients at risk of developing nosocomial bacterial infections are those previously colonized with MDR bacteria while on the transplant waiting list. Intravascular catheters, the urinary tract, the lungs, and surgical wounds are the most frequent sources of infection. Preventive measures are the same as those applied in non-immunocompromised, hospitalized patients except in patients at high risk for developing fungal infection. These patients need antifungal therapy during their hospitalization, and for preventing some bacterial infections in the early transplant period, patients need vaccinations on the waiting list according to the current recommendations. Although morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases have decreased during the last few years in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, they are still one of the most important complications in this population. Furthermore, as occurs in the general population, the incidence of nosocomial infections has increased during the different phases of transplantation. It is difficult to establish general preventive measures in these patients, as there are many risk factors conditioning these infections. Firstly, they undergo multiple antibiotic treatments and interventions; secondly, there is a wide variability in the degree of neutropenia and immunosuppression among patients, and finally they combine hospital and home stay during the transplant process. However, some simple measures could be

  3. Intraoperative Ephedrine Allergy in a Patient Who Received Chemotherapy and Perioperative Hypersensitivity Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hakimoğlu, Sedat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Işıl; Karcıoğlu, Murat; Kurt, Raziye; Dikey, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    Anaesthesia represents a specific set-up in respect to pharmacology, and during this time, early hypersensitivity reactions or anaphylaxis may occur in patients who are exposed to a great number of foreign substances. Intravenous ephedrine (5 mg) was applied to a 37-year-old patient due to the development of intraoperative hypotension in a total abdominal hysterectomy operation. After application, hyperaemia was seen in the track of the intravenous catheter of that extremity. Approximately 15 minutes later, urticarial plaques were observed extensively in the abdomen and in both extremities. Methylprednisolone (100 mg+100 mg) and pheniramine (45.5 mg) were given with an increasing infusion rate of intravenous crystalloid. The patient was extubated without any problem and removed to the recovery unit for observation. After the total disappearance of lesions at postoperative 60 minutes and because of the stability of vital signs, the patient was removed to the service. In the follow-up of surgery, no complication developed, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 2. PMID:27366482

  4. Minimizing bleeding risk in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention

    PubMed Central

    Habert, Jeffrey Steven

    2016-01-01

    Many primary care physicians are wary about using direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Factors such as comorbidities, concomitant medications, and alcohol misuse increase concerns over bleeding risk, especially in elderly and frail patients with AF. This article discusses strategies to minimize the risk of major bleeding events in patients with AF who may benefit from oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention. The potential benefits of the DOACs compared with vitamin K antagonists, in terms of a lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage, are discussed, together with the identification of reversible risk factors for bleeding and correct dose selection of the DOACs based on a patient’s characteristics and concomitant medications. Current bleeding management strategies, including the new reversal agents for the DOACs and the prevention of bleeding during preoperative anticoagulation treatment, in addition to health care resource use associated with anticoagulation treatment and bleeding, are also discussed. Implementing a structured approach at an individual patient level will minimize the overall risk of bleeding and should increase physician confidence in using the DOACs for stroke prevention in their patients with nonvalvular AF. PMID:27785089

  5. Older patients with breast cancer: is there bias in the treatment they receive?

    PubMed Central

    van de Water, Willemien

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide and as breast cancer incidence increases with increasing age, over 40% of new cases are diagnosed in women older than 65 years of age. However, older patients are not treated to the same extent as younger patients and increasing age at diagnosis predicts deviation from guidelines for all treatment modalities. Evidence-based medicine in older patients is lacking as they are usually excluded from clinical trials often because of existing comorbidities and limited life expectancy. Accordingly, there is a higher competing risk of death from other causes than breast cancer compared with younger patients and this may have led to the false interpretation that prognosis of breast cancer in older patients is relatively good. However, every treatment modality should be evaluated during treatment decision making. Multimodal therapy should not be routinely withheld as data show that disease-specific mortality increases with age, probably due to undertreatment. Prognostic markers, fitness and comorbidities rather than chronological age should determine optimal, individualized therapy. It is recommended that treatment decisions should be discussed in a multidisciplinary setting, ideally in combination with any form of geriatric assessment, to improve breast cancer outcome in the older population. PMID:23118807

  6. Prognostic significance of plasma interleukin-6/-8 in pancreatic cancer patients receiving chemoimmunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsukinaga, Shintaro; Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Ito, Zensho; Kanai, Tomoya; Saito, Keisuke; Takami, Shinichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Odahara, Shunichi; Uchiyama, Kan; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Masato; Sugiyama, Haruo; Sumiyama, Kazuki; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and -8 with Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1)-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) treated with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with three types of major histocompatibility complex class I and II-restricted WT1 peptides combined with chemotherapy. METHODS: During the entire treatment period, plasma levels of IL-6 and -8 were analyzed by ELISA. The induction of WT1-specific immune responses was assessed using the WT1 peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) test. RESULTS: Three of 7 patients displayed strong WT1-DTH reactions throughout long-term vaccination with significantly decreased levels of IL-6/-8 after vaccinations compared with the levels prior to treatment. Moreover, overall survival (OS) was significantly longer in PDA patients with low plasma IL-6 levels (< 2 pg/mL) after 5 vaccinations than in patients with high plasma IL-6 levels (≥ 2 pg/mL) (P = 0.025). After disease progression, WT1-DTH reactions decreased severely and were ultimately negative at the terminal stage of cancer. The decreased levels of IL-6/-8 observed throughout long-term vaccination were associated with WT1-specific DTH reactions and long-term OS. CONCLUSION: Prolonged low levels of plasma IL-6/-8 in PDA patients may be a prognostic marker for the clinical outcomes of chemoimmunotherapy. PMID:26494971

  7. Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.E.; Ignacio, L.; Houghton, A.

    1995-10-15

    Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed to identify which patients are at risk for cytopenia and require close monitoring. Low CBC levels during radiation therapy are likely to be the result of other medical problems that cancer patients face. Regional irradiation with small field sizes (<40% of total body marrow) typically used in clinical radiotherapy is unlikely to be the cause of marrow depression significant enough to warrant medical intervention. Blood levels taken during the first week of treatment (Week 1) can be used to determine risks of developing critical nadirs. Localized breast and prostate cancer patients are unlikely to require routine CBCs if initial levels are normal. Routine CBC levels on all radiation oncology patients without other reasons for hematopoietic depression requires reevaluation, as millions of dollars are spent on unnecessary testing. If weekly CBC blood levels are avoided in localized breast and prostate cancer patients, this alone could potentially results in a savings of as much as $40 million a year nationally. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Knowledge and attitude assessment of Iranian multiple sclerosis patients receiving interferon beta

    PubMed Central

    Abolfazli, Roya; Elyasi, Azam; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Amir-Shahkarami, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients permanently confronted with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing a new questionnaire in MS management, through evaluation of patients’ perspectives and knowledge regarding treatment will help to identify the sources of tension, and to build a therapeutic alliance. We purposed to describe MS patients’ understanding of their treatments. Methods: About 425 completed and returned questionnaire were assessed of a total of 500 recruited MS patients. The knowledge of correct using interferon-beta (IFN-β) and attitude toward medical care were assessed using self-reported questionnaires consisted of 25 items with validity of multidisciplinary panel and pre-testing on 20 patients. Results: Knowledge about IFN-β therapy was very low; however, attitude was at a high level. Female patients, self-injection ability, higher educational level, normal functional status, delay from the start of diagnostic workup to definite diagnosis, and being younger were related to a higher level of knowledge. Attitude was associated with functional status, family history of disease and the summary of knowledge variable. Conclusion: Developing educational interventions are needed for MS patients regarding to their low levels of knowledge. PMID:25422736

  9. Exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving physical therapy: a cohort-nested randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical exercise training aims at reducing disease-specific impairments and improving quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD exacerbations in particular negatively impact COPD progression. Physical therapy intervention seems indicated to influence exacerbations and their consequences. However, information on the effect of physical therapy on exacerbation occurrence is scarce. This study aims to investigate the potential of a protocol-directed physical therapy programme as a means to prevent or postpone exacerbations, to shorten the duration or to decrease the severity of exacerbations in patients with COPD who have recently experienced an exacerbation. Besides, this study focuses on the effect of protocol-directed physical therapy on health status and quality of life and on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility in patients with COPD who have recently experienced an exacerbation. Methods/Design A prospective cohort of 300 COPD patients in all GOLD stages will be constructed. Patients will receive usual multidisciplinary COPD care including guideline-directed physical therapy. Patients in this cohort who have GOLD stage 2 to 4 (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 and FEV1 < 80% of predicted), who receive reimbursement by health insurance companies for physical therapy (post-bronchodilator Tiffeneau-index < 0.6) and who experience a COPD exacerbation will be asked within 56 days to participate in a cohort-nested prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT). In this RCT, the intervention group will receive a strict physical therapy programme for patients with COPD. This protocol-directed physical therapy (pdPT) will be compared to a control group that will receive sham-treatment, meaning no or very low-intensity exercise training (ST). An economic evaluation will be embedded in the RCT. Anthropometric measurements, comorbidities, smoking, functional exercise capacity, peripheral muscle strength

  10. Quality of Life and Psychological State in Chinese Breast Cancer Patients Who Received BRCA1/2 Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiajia; Guan, Jiaqin; Yang, Xiaochen; Wu, Jiong; Liu, Guangyu; Di, Genhong; Chen, Canming; Hou, Yifeng; Han, Qixia; Shen, Zhenzhou; Shao, Zhimin; Hu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to understand the quality of life (QOL) and psychological state (PS) of Chinese breast cancer patients who received BRCA1/2 genetic testing; to examine the psychological changes between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers; and to further explore the psychological experience of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Methods This study was combined with quantitative and qualitative designs. First, we performed a quantitative investigation using FACT-B (Chinese version) and Irritability, Depression and Anxiety scale (IDA) to assess the QOL and PS in breast cancer patients who received BRCA1/2 genetic testing. Then semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews among 13 mutation carriers were conducted in hospital. Results Results from the quantitative study showed QOL scores were relatively high and the IDA scores were relatively low among the patients, and there was no significant difference in the QOL or IDA scores between non-carriers and carriers. Based on the qualitative analysis, four main themes emerged: (1) Finding the reason for having breast cancer; (2) Negative emotions; (3) Behavioral changes; (4) Lack of information. Conclusions The present study showed that QOL and PS are good among the breast cancer patients who received genetic testing. Genetic testing itself does not cause long psychosocial effects. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may have certain negative emotions at the first stage they knew the testing results and may initiate behavioral and lifestyle changes. The patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation desire knowledge with regard to genetic aspects in mainland China. Professional information and advice can be provided to relieve the patients’ negative emotions when they were informed of gene defect. PMID:27428375

  11. A Tool for Music Preference Assessment in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilatory Support

    PubMed Central

    CHLAN, LINDA; HEIDERSCHEIT, ANNIE

    2010-01-01

    Music is an ideal intervention to reduce anxiety and promote relaxation in critically ill patients. This article reviews the research studies on music-listening interventions to manage distressful symptoms in this population, and describes the development and implementation of the Music Assessment Tool (MAT) to assist professionals in ascertaining patients’ music preferences in the challenging, dynamic clinical environment of the intensive care unit (ICU). The MAT is easy to use with these patients who experience profound communication challenges due to fatigue and inability to speak because of endotracheal tube placement. The music therapist and ICU nursing staff are encouraged to work collaboratively to implement music in a personalized manner to ensure the greatest benefit for mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:24489432

  12. Legislation and informed consent brochures for dental patients receiving amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Cochran, Amy A; Cross, Catherine L; Wack, Courtney A; Long, William B; Newkirk, Anthony T

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, Norway banned the use of mercury for amalgam restorations. Four states in the United States have developed Informed Consent Brochures for amalgam restorations that must be given to their dental patients. The authors describe a patient who had a large cavity in his left lower molar tooth no.18 that had to be removed by an oral surgeon. When the patient went to the oral surgeon, the surgeon told the patient that he would replace the carious tooth with a gold implant. He was not given an Informed Consent Brochure regarding dental restorative materials. The oral surgeon extracted the carious tooth, replacing the tooth with a supposed gold crown implant. On his yearly dental examination, his dentist took an x-ray of his dental implant and explained that the x-ray could not distinguish whether the implant contained either gold or mercury. Consequently, the dentist referred him to a dental clinic in which the dental implant could be removed without mercury contamination of the patient's neurologic system during the extraction of the implant from the root canal. During the removal of the dental restoration, the dentist found build up expanding into the root canal that had a black color. The crown and underlying tooth were sent to ALT BioScience for analysis. Elemental analysis of the crown and underlying tooth confirmed the presence of mercury in the restoration. The patient should have been given an Informed Consent Brochure by the dentist that described the dental restoration that was used in the dental implant.

  13. Long-term outcome in patients receiving permanent pacemaker implantation for atrioventricular block

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jo-Nan; Chao, Tze-Fan; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Kong, Chi-Woon; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A permanent pacemaker (PPM) with dual chamber pacing (DDD) offers atrioventricular synchronization for patients with atrioventricular block (AVB). Single lead atrial synchronous ventricular pacing mode (VDD) is an alternative, but there are concerns about its efficacy and risk of atrial undersensing. Whether VDD can be a good alternative in patients with AVB remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the long-term risk of mortality of VDD with DDD pacing. A total of 207 patients undergoing PPM implantations for AVB with VDD mode were enrolled from 2000 to 2013. Another 828 age- and sex-matched patients undergoing DDD implantations during the same period of time were selected as the control group in a 1 to 4 ratio. The study endpoint was mortality. A total of 1035 patients (64.3% male) were followed up for 46.5 ± 43.2 months. The mean ages were 75.0 years for VDD, and 74.9 years for DDD. The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no significant difference in long-term survival between the VDD and DDD groups (log-rank P = 0.313). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, the VDD and DDD groups had a similar long-term prognosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.875 (P = 0.445). Further analyses for the risk of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular deaths also showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. The long-term prognosis of VDD mode is comparable to that of DDD mode. Single lead VDD can be considered as an alternative choice in patients with AVB without sinus nodal dysfunction. PMID:27583889

  14. [Experience with the use of palonosetron (onicit) in patients with solid tumors receiving cytostatic therapy].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, L Yu; Mitashok, I S; Storozhakova, A E; Kalabanova, E A; Svetitskaya, Ya V; Kabanov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among adverse effects of chemotherapy that significantly worsen quality of life of patients. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been used in recent decades to prevent and arrest these complications. Palonosetron is the most modern drug in this group. Palonosetron application during highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy showed its high effectiveness for nausea and vomiting prevention.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of lipodystrophy in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Eichler, K; Bickel, T M; Klauke, S; Eisen, J; Vogl, T J; Zangos, S

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated retrospectively an automated method for the separate detection of subcutaneous and visceral fat in the abdominal region by magnetic resonance studies in HIV-positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. The patients were divided into four different groups: lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, mixed and the control group. The use of software for the automated detection of abdominal compartment visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was compared to manual evaluation methods (fuzzy C-mean). The results of ROC analysis showed that the parameters, particularly the VAT, are better than the VAT/TAT and at identifying patients with the symptoms of abdominal fat accumulation. A sensitivity of 80.3% and a specificity of 79.5% resulted from a threshold VAT value of >87 cm(2). Moreover, the manual evaluation method was shown to provide greater values for VAT and the VAT/TAT ratio than those given by the automated method. In the present study, a rapid MRI protocol for the detection and assessment of the course of lipodystrophy was presented and tested on a group of patients with signs of HALS, as well as on an antiretroviral naïve control group.

  16. Should patients with laryngeal small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    PubMed

    Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Devaney, Kenneth O; Rodrigo, Juan P; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Strojan, Primož; Mendenhall, William M; Eisbruch, Avraham; Smee, Robert; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-10-01

    While small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCNCs) most often arise in the lung, extrapulmonary SCNCs arise in a variety of locations-including the head and neck region. In particular, laryngeal SCNCs-while rare tumors-are nevertheless recognized as distinct lesions. The rarity of laryngeal SCNC gives rise to two distinct difficulties: first (particularly with small biopsy specimens), laryngeal SCNC can be difficult to diagnose by routine light microscopy; second, limited experience with these tumors can make the crafting of a treatment plan for individual patients difficult. As regards the first problem, pathologic diagnosis is greatly enhanced by the application of immunohistochemistry. The second problem-crafting a successful treatment strategy-presents a much larger difficulty. It is tempting to extrapolate from experience with the (more common) pulmonary SCNC in search of a strategy applicable to laryngeal SCNC; such an extrapolation, however, may not be uniformly successful. In particular, while a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy appears to be as valuable in the treatment of extrapulmonary as it is in the treatment of pulmonary SCNC, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI)-which has enjoyed some success in the treatment of some patients with pulmonary SCNC-does not appear to have similar utility in patients with laryngeal SCNC. Accordingly, the use of PCI does not appear to have a role to play at this point in time in the treatment of patients with laryngeal SCNC.

  17. Altered T cell phenotypes associated with clinical relapse of multiple sclerosis patients receiving fingolimod therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Chihiro; Kondo, Takayuki; Ochi, Hirofumi; Okada, Yoichiro; Hashi, Yuichiro; Adachi, Tetsuya; Shin-Ya, Masaharu; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Fingolimod, a highly effective disease-modifying drug for MS, retains CCR7+ central memory T cells in which autoaggressive T cells putatively exist, in secondary lymphoid organs, although relapse may still occur in some patients. Here, we analyzed the T cell phenotypes of fingolimod-treated, fingolimod-untreated patients, and healthy subjects. The frequency of CD56+ T cells and granzyme B-, perforin-, and Fas ligand-positive T cells significantly increased during fingolimod treatment. Each T cell subpopulation further increased during relapse. Interestingly, T cells from fingolimod-treated patients exhibited interferon-γ biased production, and more myelin basic protein-reactive cells was noted in CD56+ than in CD56− T cells. It is likely that the altered T cell phenotypes play a role in MS relapse in fingolimod-treated patients. Further clinical studies are necessary to investigate whether altered T cell phenotypes are a biomarker for relapse under fingolimod therapy. PMID:27752051

  18. A Comparison of Patients with Intellectual Disability Receiving Specialised and General Services in Ontario's Psychiatric Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Y.; Bradley, E.; Durbin, J.; Koegl, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Over the years, the closure of institutions has meant that individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) must access mainstream (i.e. general) mental health services. However, concern that general services may not adequately meet the needs of patients with ID and mental illness has led to the development and implementation of more…

  19. Venous cannulation and topical ethyl chloride in patients receiving nitrous oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, C.; Rouhfar, L.; Beirne, O. R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl chloride spray on the anxiety and pain associated with placing an intravenous catheter in patients sedated with nitrous oxide. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for dental surgery with a combination of intravenous and nitrous oxide sedation were randomly assigned to have ethyl chloride spray or a placebo, water spray, applied before cannulation of a vein. Anxiety and pain were reported using a 10.0-cm visual analog scale before nitrous oxide administration, after nitrous oxide sedation, following application of the spray, and following venous cannulation. The first 2 assessments measured overall levels of patient anxiety and pain and confirmed that nitrous oxide sedation reduced anxiety without changing already low levels of pain. The second 2 assessments of anxiety and pain measured the reaction toward the spray and cannulation. The application of ethyl chloride spray produced significantly more anxiety and pain than did the placebo. The results of this study demonstrate that ethyl chloride spray does not significantly reduce the anxiety and pain associated with venous cannulation in patients sedated with nitrous oxide. PMID:11692346

  20. Perioperative management of patients receiving new oral anticoagulants: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Samama, Charles Marc; Ranucci, Marco; Dietrich, Wulf; Levy, Jerrold H

    2014-09-01

    New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly replacing standard anticoagulants. These new drugs have been recently introduced in clinical practice, and specific knowledge regarding preoperative interruption, anticoagulation assessment, and reversal therapies is needed. In this article, 3 main areas related to perioperative NOACs management are discussed: (1) physicians' knowledge, (2) current practices, and (3) perspectives to improve management of patients treated with NOACs.

  1. Should patients with laryngeal small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    PubMed

    Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Devaney, Kenneth O; Rodrigo, Juan P; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Strojan, Primož; Mendenhall, William M; Eisbruch, Avraham; Smee, Robert; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-10-01

    While small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCNCs) most often arise in the lung, extrapulmonary SCNCs arise in a variety of locations-including the head and neck region. In particular, laryngeal SCNCs-while rare tumors-are nevertheless recognized as distinct lesions. The rarity of laryngeal SCNC gives rise to two distinct difficulties: first (particularly with small biopsy specimens), laryngeal SCNC can be difficult to diagnose by routine light microscopy; second, limited experience with these tumors can make the crafting of a treatment plan for individual patients difficult. As regards the first problem, pathologic diagnosis is greatly enhanced by the application of immunohistochemistry. The second problem-crafting a successful treatment strategy-presents a much larger difficulty. It is tempting to extrapolate from experience with the (more common) pulmonary SCNC in search of a strategy applicable to laryngeal SCNC; such an extrapolation, however, may not be uniformly successful. In particular, while a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy appears to be as valuable in the treatment of extrapulmonary as it is in the treatment of pulmonary SCNC, prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI)-which has enjoyed some success in the treatment of some patients with pulmonary SCNC-does not appear to have similar utility in patients with laryngeal SCNC. Accordingly, the use of PCI does not appear to have a role to play at this point in time in the treatment of patients with laryngeal SCNC. PMID:26530293

  2. Ethical Aspects of Geriatric Patients' Rights to Refuse Treatment and to Receive Limited Medical Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edmund G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two of the most formidable bioethical challenges over the next decades which relate to disabilities and aging: elders' exercise of autonomy and the just allocation of resources to older patients. Offers suggestions for developing principles for the treatment of elders. (Author/ABL)

  3. Angiogenic Factors and Risks of Technique Failure and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Masaru; Samejima, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Yukiji; Morimoto, Katsuhiko; Tagawa, Miho; Onoue, Kenji; Okayama, Satoshi; Kawata, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Rika; Akai, Yasuhiro; Okura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family that acts as a pleiotropic cytokine capable of stimulating angiogenesis and accelerating atherogenesis. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) antagonizes PlGF action. Higher levels of PlGF and sFlt-1 have been associated with cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease, yet little is known about their relationship with adverse outcomes in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PlGF and sFlt-1 with technique survival and cardiovascular events. Methods We measured serum levels of PlGF and plasma levels of sFlt-1 in 40 PD patients at Nara Medical University. Results PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were significantly correlated with the dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (r = 0.342, p = 0.04 and r = 0.554, p < 0.001) although PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were not correlated with total creatinine clearance and total Kt/V. Additionally, both PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with high transport membranes compared to those without (p = 0.039 and p < 0.001, respectively). Patients with PlGF levels above the median had lower technique survival and higher incidence of cardiovascular events than patients with levels below the median, with hazard ratios of 11.9 and 7.7, respectively, in univariate Cox regression analysis. However, sFlt-1 levels were not associated with technique survival or cardiovascular events (p = 0.11 and p = 0.10, respectively). Conclusion Elevated PlGF and sFlt-1 are significantly associated with high transport membrane status. PlGF may be a useful predictor of technique survival and cardiovascular events in PD patients. PMID:27275161

  4. Epigastric Distress Caused by Esophageal Candidiasis in 2 Patients Who Received Sorafenib Plus Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Weng, Meng-Tzu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lu, Yueh-Feng; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sorafenib followed by fractionated radiotherapy (RT) has been shown to decrease the phagocytic and candidacidal activities of antifungal agents due to radiosensitization. Moreover, sorafenib has been shown to suppress the immune system, thereby increasing the risk for candida colonization and infection. In this study, we present the 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients suffered from epigastric distress caused by esophageal candidiasis who received sorafenib plus RT. Two patients who had received sorafenib and RT for HCC with bone metastasis presented with hiccups, gastric ulcer, epigastric distress, anorexia, heart burn, and fatigue. Empiric antiemetic agents, antacids, and pain killers were ineffective at relieving symptoms. Panendoscopy revealed diffuse white lesions in the esophagus. Candida esophagitis was suspected. Results of periodic acid-Schiff staining were diagnostic of candidiasis. Oral fluconazole (150 mg) twice daily and proton-pump inhibitors were prescribed. At 2-weak follow-up, esophagitis had resolved and both patients were free of gastrointestinal symptoms. Physicians should be aware that sorafenib combined with RT may induce an immunosuppressive state in patients with HCC, thereby increasing their risk of developing esophagitis due to candida species. PMID:26986168

  5. Epigastric Distress Caused by Esophageal Candidiasis in 2 Patients Who Received Sorafenib Plus Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Weng, Meng-Tzu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lu, Yueh-Feng; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Sorafenib followed by fractionated radiotherapy (RT) has been shown to decrease the phagocytic and candidacidal activities of antifungal agents due to radiosensitization. Moreover, sorafenib has been shown to suppress the immune system, thereby increasing the risk for candida colonization and infection. In this study, we present the 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients suffered from epigastric distress caused by esophageal candidiasis who received sorafenib plus RT. Two patients who had received sorafenib and RT for HCC with bone metastasis presented with hiccups, gastric ulcer, epigastric distress, anorexia, heart burn, and fatigue. Empiric antiemetic agents, antacids, and pain killers were ineffective at relieving symptoms. Panendoscopy revealed diffuse white lesions in the esophagus. Candida esophagitis was suspected. Results of periodic acid-Schiff staining were diagnostic of candidiasis. Oral fluconazole (150 mg) twice daily and proton-pump inhibitors were prescribed. At 2-weak follow-up, esophagitis had resolved and both patients were free of gastrointestinal symptoms. Physicians should be aware that sorafenib combined with RT may induce an immunosuppressive state in patients with HCC, thereby increasing their risk of developing esophagitis due to candida species.

  6. Epigastric Distress Caused by Esophageal Candidiasis in 2 Patients Who Received Sorafenib Plus Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Weng, Meng-Tzu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lu, Yueh-Feng; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Sorafenib followed by fractionated radiotherapy (RT) has been shown to decrease the phagocytic and candidacidal activities of antifungal agents due to radiosensitization. Moreover, sorafenib has been shown to suppress the immune system, thereby increasing the risk for candida colonization and infection. In this study, we present the 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients suffered from epigastric distress caused by esophageal candidiasis who received sorafenib plus RT. Two patients who had received sorafenib and RT for HCC with bone metastasis presented with hiccups, gastric ulcer, epigastric distress, anorexia, heart burn, and fatigue. Empiric antiemetic agents, antacids, and pain killers were ineffective at relieving symptoms. Panendoscopy revealed diffuse white lesions in the esophagus. Candida esophagitis was suspected. Results of periodic acid-Schiff staining were diagnostic of candidiasis. Oral fluconazole (150 mg) twice daily and proton-pump inhibitors were prescribed. At 2-weak follow-up, esophagitis had resolved and both patients were free of gastrointestinal symptoms. Physicians should be aware that sorafenib combined with RT may induce an immunosuppressive state in patients with HCC, thereby increasing their risk of developing esophagitis due to candida species. PMID:26986168

  7. Membranous Glomerulopathy in an Adult Patient with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Receiving Intravenous Gammaglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Endo, LM; Giannobile, JV; Dobbs, AK; Foote, JB; Szymanska, E; Warnock, DG; Cook, WJ; Conley, ME; Schroeder, HW

    2013-01-01

    Background Immune complex deposition in the subepithelial zone of glomerular capillaries can lead to membranous glomerulopathy. Objective To present the case of a 23-year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) who developed idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy while receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Methods We performed an immunological workup, genetic testing, and a renal biopsy. Results XLA was confirmed with less than 0.02% CD19+ cells in the blood after sequence analysis revealed a nonfunctional BTK gene. He presented with microhematuria, which persisted for 3 years and spanned treatment with 5 different preparations of intravenous gammaglobulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed membranous glomerulopathy. Conclusion Although endogenous serum immunoglobulin (Ig) production is severely impaired in XLA, rare B lymphocytes that have managed to mature can produce functional IgG antibodies. The pathogenic immune complexes could reflect IVIG reacting with polymorphic autoantigens, an endogenous IgG-producing clone reacting with a common idiotype present in the IVIG, or both. PMID:21905506

  8. Bullous pemphigoid. Occurrence in a patient with mycosis fungoides receiving PUVA and topical nitrogen mustard therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.W.; Ali, M.; Murray, J.C.; Hazra, T.A.

    1985-04-01

    A 57-year-old woman with mycosis fungoides developed blisters within cutaneous plaques while receiving PUVA therapy and topical nitrogen mustard. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies showed the findings of bullous pemphigoid. Her bullous disease was controlled after cessation of these therapies and institution of prednisone and methotrexate. During the 5 months following completion of a course of electron-beam therapy, she has been free of the cutaneous manifestations of both diseases. Previous instances of PUVA-related pemphigoid have occurred in psoriatics. The role of ultraviolet light in the induction of pemphigoid is discussed, particularly with regard to its possible interaction with the altered skin of psoriasis or mycosis fungoides. Some of the rare cases of bullous mycosis fungoides might actually have represented ultraviolet-unmasked bullous pemphigoid.

  9. Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Radio-Chemotherapy: A Novel Clinical-Pathologic Score Correlates With Global Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Berardi, Rossana; Mantello, Giovanna; Scartozzi, Mario; Del Prete, Stefano; Luppi, Gabriele; Martinelli, Roberto; Fumagalli, Marco; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Marmorale, Cristina; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the importance of downstaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Methods and Materials: The study included all consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) in different Italian centers from June 1996 to December 2003. A novel score was used, calculated as the sum of numbers obtained by giving a negative or positive point, respectively, to each degree of increase or decrease in clinical to pathologic T and N status. Results: A total of 317 patients were eligible for analysis. Neoadjuvant treatments performed were as follows: radiotherapy alone in 75 of 317 patients (23.7%), radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in 242 of 317 patients (76.3%). Worse disease-free survival was observed in patients with a lower score (Score 1 = -3 to +3 vs. Score 2 = +4 to +7; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a novel score, calculated from preoperative and pathologic tumor and lymph node status, could represent an important parameter to predict outcome in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The score could be useful to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

  10. The impact of facility relocation on patients' perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of received forensic psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Eirini; Degl' Innocenti, Alessio; Kullgren, Anette; Wijk, Helle

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, large groups of forensic psychiatric patients have been relocated into new medium- and maximum-security forensic psychiatric facilities in Sweden, where a psychosocial care approach is embedded. From this perspective and on the assumption that physical structures affect the therapeutic environment, a prospective longitudinal study was designed to investigate the impact of the facility relocation of three forensic psychiatric hospitals on patients' perceptions of ward atmosphere and quality of received forensic psychiatric care. Participants were patients over 18 years of age sentenced to compulsory forensic psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained by validated questionnaires. Overall, 58 patients (78%) answered the questionnaires at baseline with a total of 25 patients (34%) completing follow-up 1 at six months and 11 patients (15%) completing follow-up 2, one year after relocation. Approximately two-thirds of the participants at all time-points were men and their age range varied from 18 to 69. The results of this study showed that poor physical environment features can have a severe impact on care quality and can reduce the possibilities for person-centered care. Furthermore, the study provides evidence that the patients' perceptions of person-centered care in forensic psychiatric clinics are highly susceptible to factors in the physical and psychosocial environment. Future work will explore the staff's perception of ward atmosphere and the possibilities to adapt a person-centered approach in forensic psychiatric care after facility relocation.

  11. Fatigue in Patients Receiving Maintenance Dialysis: A Review of Definitions, Measures, and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jhamb, Manisha; Weisbord, Steven D; Steel, Jennifer L.; Unruh, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a debilitating symptom or side effect experienced by many patients on long-term dialysis. Fatigue has a considerable effect on patients’ health-related quality of life and is viewed as being more important than survival by some patients. There are many challenges renal providers face when attempting to reduce fatigue in dialysis patients. The lack of a reliable, valid, and sensitive fatigue scale complicates the accurate identification of this symptom. Symptoms of daytime sleepiness and depression overlap with fatigue, making it difficult to target specific therapies. Moreover, many chronic health conditions common in the long-term dialysis population may lead to the development of fatigue and contribute to the day-to-day and diurnal variation of fatigue in patients. Key to improving the assessment and treatment of fatigue is improving our understanding of potential mediators, as well as potential therapies. Cytokines have emerged as an important mediator of fatigue and have been studied extensively in cancer related fatigue. In addition, although erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) have been shown to mitigate fatigue, the recent controversy regarding ESA dosing in chronic kidney disease (CKD) suggests that ESA therapy may not serve as the sole therapy to improve fatigue in this population. In conclusion, fatigue is an important and often under-recognized symptom in the dialysis population. Possible interventions for minimizing fatigue in patients on long-term dialysis should be aimed at improving health care provider awareness, developing improved methods of measurement, better understanding of the pathogenesis, as well as management of known contributing factors. PMID:18572290

  12. Timing of Radiotherapy and Outcome in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Per; Cole, Bernard F.; Colleoni, Marco; Roncadin, Mario; Chua, Boon H.; Murray, Elizabeth; Price, Karen N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Goldhirsch, Aron; Gruber, Guenther

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between the interval from breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to radiotherapy (RT) and the clinical outcome among patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy. Patients and Methods: Patient information was obtained from three International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. The analysis was restricted to 964 patients treated with BCS and adjuvant endocrine therapy. The patients were divided into two groups according to the median number of days between BCS and RT and into four groups according to the quartile of time between BCS and RT. The endpoints were the interval to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Proportional hazards regression analysis was used to perform comparisons after adjustment for baseline factors. Results: The median interval between BCS and RT was 77 days. RT timing was significantly associated with age, menopausal status, and estrogen receptor status. After adjustment for these factors, no significant effect of a RT delay {<=}20 weeks was found. The adjusted hazard ratio for RT within 77 days vs. after 77 days was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-1.87) for the interval to local recurrence, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.82-1.34) for disease-free survival, and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.77-1.49) for overall survival. For the interval to local recurrence the adjusted hazard ratio for {<=}48, 49-77, and 78-112 days was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.34-2.37), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.33-2.25), and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.33-2.41), respectively, relative to {>=}113 days. Conclusion: A RT delay of {<=}20 weeks was significantly associated with baseline factors such as age, menopausal status, and estrogen-receptor status. After adjustment for these factors, the timing of RT was not significantly associated with the interval to local recurrence, disease-free survival, or overall survival.

  13. Coefficient of glucose variation is independently associated with mortality in critically ill patients receiving intravenous insulin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both patient- and context-specific factors may explain the conflicting evidence regarding glucose control in critically ill patients. Blood glucose variability appears to correlate with mortality, but this variability may be an indicator of disease severity, rather than an independent predictor of mortality. We assessed blood glucose coefficient of variation as an independent predictor of mortality in the critically ill. Methods We used eProtocol-Insulin, an electronic protocol for managing intravenous insulin with explicit rules, high clinician compliance, and reproducibility. We studied critically ill patients from eight hospitals, excluding patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and patients supported with eProtocol-insulin for < 24 hours or with < 10 glucose measurements. Our primary clinical outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. We performed multivariable logistic regression, with covariates of age, gender, glucose coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean), Charlson comorbidity score, acute physiology score, presence of diabetes, and occurrence of hypoglycemia < 60 mg/dL. Results We studied 6101 critically ill adults. Coefficient of variation was independently associated with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 1.23 for every 10% increase, P < 0.001), even after adjustment for hypoglycemia, age, disease severity, and comorbidities. The association was higher in non-diabetics (OR = 1.37, P < 0.001) than in diabetics (OR 1.15, P = 0.001). Conclusions Blood glucose variability is associated with mortality and is independent of hypoglycemia, disease severity, and comorbidities. Future studies should evaluate blood glucose variability. PMID:24886864

  14. Racial variation in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among breast cancer patients receiving oncotype DX testing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan C; Weinberger, Morris; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Dinan, Michaela A; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Carey, Lisa A; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown whether racial differences exist in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among women with similar oncotype DX (ODX) risk scores. We examined whether adjuvant chemotherapy initiation varied by race. Data come from the Phase III, Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a longitudinal, population-based study of North Carolina women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2008 and 2014. We used modified Poisson regression and report adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to estimate the association between race and adjuvant chemotherapy initiation across ODX risk groups among women who received the test (n = 541). Among women who underwent ODX testing, 54.2, 37.5, and 8.3% of women had tumors classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. We observed no racial variation in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation. Increasing ODX risk score (aRR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.22, 1.58) and being married (aRR = 2.92, 95%CI = 1.12, 7.60) were independently associated with an increased likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy in the low-risk group. Among women in the intermediate-risk group, ODX risk score (aRR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.11, 1.20), younger age (aRR = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.35, 2.81), larger tumor size (aRR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.22, 2.35), and higher income were independently associated with increased likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation. No racial differences were found in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among women receiving ODX testing. As treatment decision-making becomes increasingly targeted with the use of genetic technologies, these results provide evidence that test results may drive treatment in a similar way across racial subgroups.

  15. Rates of, and risk factors for, severe infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases receiving biological agents off-label

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this observational study was to analyze the rates, characteristics and associated risk factors of severe infections in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) who were treated off-label with biological agents in daily practice. Methods The BIOGEAS registry is an ongoing Spanish prospective cohort study investigating the long-term safety and efficacy of the off-label use of biological agents in adult patients with severe, refractory SAD. Severe infections were defined according to previous studies as those that required intravenous treatment or that led to hospitalization or death. Patients contributed person-years of follow-up for the period in which they were treated with biological agents. Results A total of 344 patients with SAD treated with biological agents off-label were included in the Registry until July 2010. The first biological therapies included rituximab in 264 (77%) patients, infliximab in 37 (11%), etanercept in 21 (6%), adalimumab in 19 (5%), and 'other' agents in 3 (1%). Forty-five severe infections occurred in 37 patients after a mean follow-up of 26.76 months. These infections resulted in four deaths. The crude rate of severe infections was 90.9 events/1000 person-years (112.5 for rituximab, 76.9 for infliximab, 66.9 for adalimumab and 30.5 for etanercept respectively). In patients treated with more than two courses of rituximab, the crude rate of severe infection was 226.4 events/1000 person-years. A pathogen was identified in 24 (53%) severe infections. The most common sites of severe infection were the lower respiratory tract (39%), bacteremia/sepsis (20%) and the urinary tract (16%). There were no significant differences relating to gender, SAD, agent, other previous therapies, number of previous immunosuppressive agents received or other therapies administered concomitantly. Cox regression analysis showed that age (P = 0.015) was independently associated with an increased risk of severe infection

  16. Relationship Between Pelvic Organ-at-Risk Dose and Clinical Target Volume in Postprostatectomy Patients Receiving Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Cui Jing; Purdy, James A.; Valicenti, Richard K.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate dose-volume consequences of inclusion of the seminal vesicle (SV) bed in the clinical target volume (CTV) for the rectum and bladder using biological response indices in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: We studied 10 consecutive patients who underwent prostatectomy for prostate cancer and subsequently received adjuvant or salvage RT to the prostate fossa. The CTV to planning target volume (PTV) expansion was 7 mm, except posterior expansion, which was 5 mm. Two IMRT plans were generated for each patient, including either the prostate fossa alone or the prostate fossa with the SV bed, but identical in all other aspects. Prescription dose was 68.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions prescribed to {>=}95% PTV. Results: With inclusion of the SV bed in the treatment volume, PTV increased and correlated with PTV-bladder and PTV-rectum volume overlap (Spearman {rho} 0.91 and 0.86, respectively; p < 0.05). As a result, the dose delivered to the bladder and rectum was higher (p < 0.05): mean bladder dose increased from 11.3 {+-} 3.5 Gy to 21.2 {+-} 6.6 Gy, whereas mean rectal dose increased from 25.8 {+-} 5.5 Gy to 32.3 {+-} 5.5 Gy. Bladder and rectal equivalent uniform dose correlated with mean bladder and rectal dose. Inclusion of the SV bed in the treatment volume increased rectal normal tissue complication probability from 2.4% to 4.8% (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Inclusion of the SV bed in the CTV in postprostatectomy patients receiving IMRT increases bladder and rectal dose, as well as rectal normal tissue complication probability. The magnitude of PTV-bladder and PTV-rectal volume overlap and subsequent bladder and rectum dose increase will be higher if larger PTV expansion margins are used.

  17. Retrospective evaluation of biopsychosocial determinants and treatment response in patients receiving devil's claw extract (doloteffin).

    PubMed

    Thanner, J; Kohlmann, Th; Künzel, O; Chrubasik, S

    2009-05-01

    In a retrospective evaluation of patients taking part for 2 months in a postmarketing surveillance study on the effectiveness and safety of Harpagophytum procumbens, associations were found to known explanators of pain, disability and depression. Therefore, treatment non-responders might best be referred to a multimodal pain relief program that deals with fear avoidance beliefs, enhances experiences that decrease perceptions linking disability and pain and forces the patients to rethink the way they deal with the problem. However, during treatment with the aqueous Harpagophytum extract, this decision might reasonably be postponed to the end of month 4, since it has been shown that the maximum pain relief occurs after 3-4 months. PMID:19107732

  18. Bleeding Risk, Management and Outcome in Patients Receiving Non-VKA Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs).

    PubMed

    Werth, Sebastian; Breslin, Tomás; NiAinle, Fionnuala; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Modern direct-acting anticoagulants are rapidly replacing vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in the management of millions of patients worldwide who require anticoagulation. These drugs include agents that inhibit activated factor X (FXa) (such as apixaban and rivaroxaban) or thrombin (such as dabigatran), and are collectively known today as non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Since bleeding is the most common and most dangerous side effect of long-term anticoagulation, and because NOACs have very different mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics compared with VKA, physicians are naturally concerned about the lack of experience regarding frequency, management and outcome of NOAC-associated bleeding in daily care. This review appraises trial and registry (or "real-world") data pertaining to bleeding complications in patients taking NOACs and VKA and provides practical recommendations for the management of acute bleeding situations. PMID:25940651

  19. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in patients receiving haemodialysis following alteration of skin antisepsis procedures.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B J; Gardiner, T; Perry, G J; Tong, S Y C

    2016-02-01

    This study examined all cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in the haemodialysis cohort at the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia over a seven-year period. Midway through this period, antisepsis for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) and central venous catheters (CVC) changed from 0.5% chlorhexidine solution to 2% chlorhexidine solution. Rates of SAB episodes were calculated using registry data. Trends in SAB over time were analysed using an interrupted regression analysis. Following the change to 2% chlorhexidine, average SAB rates decreased by 68%, and it is estimated that 0.111 cases of SAB/patient-year were prevented. CVC-related SAB rates remained low throughout. These results support the use of 2% chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis for patients with AVF. PMID:26778135

  20. Monitoring genotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: application of the PIG-A assay.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ukai, Akiko; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Sugano, Ayako; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-09-15

    The recently introduced Pig-a in vivo gene mutation assay measures endogeneous mutations of Pig-a (human, PIG-A), an X-linked gene that is conserved across species from rodents to humans. Flow cytometric analysis enables the enumeration of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor-deficient erythrocytes, resulting from a mutation in Pig-a/PIG-A, in only a few microliters of peripheral blood. Pig-a/PIG-A mutations appear to function in a neutral manner, allowing evaluation of the accumulated genotoxic effects of repeated exposures. To date, most Pig-a studies have been conducted in rodents; only a few reports regarding human applications of the PIG-A assay have been published. We have conducted a PIG-A assay in the context of human genotoxicity monitoring. Peripheral blood was collected from healthy human donors and chemotherapy-treated cancer patients at Yamagata University Hospital. To investigate the PIG-A mutant frequency (MF) induced by chemotherapy, red blood cells were analyzed via flow cytometry following staining with allophycocyanin-conjugated anti-CD235ab (erythrocyte specific) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-CD59 antibodies (GPI-anchored protein specific). Reticulocyte frequencies (%RET) were also analyzed using a phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-CD71 antibody to monitor bone marrow suppression and reticulocytosis. Two of 27 patients exhibited a significantly elevated frequency of PIG-A mutants. Although we observed either a reduced or an increased %RET in all patients, no association was observed between this factor and the PIG-A MF. Unfortunately, we could not analyze blood samples collected before treatment during therapeutic processes. Additionally, the sampling time point for some patients was too short to express the PIG-A mutant phenotypes. Therefore, the possibility of natively high PIG-A MFs prior to treatment must be considered. The human PIG-A assay shows promise as a human genotoxicity monitoring method. PMID:27637482

  1. Assessment of Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer and Lymphoma Patients Receiving Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Cognitive impairments in cancer patients represent an important clinical problem. Studies to date estimating prevalence of difficulties in memory, executive function, and attention deficits have been limited by small sample sizes and many have lacked healthy control groups. More information is needed on promising biomarkers and allelic variants that may help to determine the etiology of impairment, identify those most vulnerable to impairment, and develop interventions for these difficulties. |

  2. Dental management of patients receiving anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chaveli-López, Begonya; Gavaldá-Esteve, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adequate hemostasis is crucial for the success of invasive dental treatment, since bleeding problems can give rise to complications associated with important morbidity-mortality. The dental treatment of patients who tend to an increased risk of bleeding due to the use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drugs raises a challenge in the daily practice of dental professionals. Adequate knowledge of the mechanisms underlying hemostasis, and the optimized management of such patients, are therefore very important issues. Objectives: A study is made of the anticoagulant / antiplatelet drugs currently available on the market, with evaluation of the risks and benefits of suspending such drugs prior to invasive dental treatment. In addition, a review is made of the current management protocols used in these patients. Material and Methods: A literature search was made in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, covering all studies published in the last 5 years in English and Spanish. Studies conducted in humans and with scientific evidence levels 1 and 2 (metaanalyses, systematic reviews, randomized phase 1 and 2 trials, cohort studies and case-control studies) were considered. The keywords used for the search were: tooth extraction, oral surgery, hemostasis, platelet aggregation inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, warfarin, acenocoumarol. Results and Conclusions: Many management protocols have been developed, though in all cases a full clinical history is required, together with complementary hemostatic tests to minimize any risks derived from dental treatment. Many authors consider that patient medication indicated for the treatment of background disease should not be altered or suspended unless so indicated by the prescribing physician. Local hemostatic measures have been shown to suffice for controlling possible bleeding problems resulting from dental treatment. Key words:Tooth extraction, oral surgery, hemostasis, platelet

  3. A Proposal for Early Dosing Regimens in Heart Transplant Patients Receiving Thymoglobulin and Calcineurin Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Barten, Markus J; Schulz, Uwe; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Berchtold-Herz, Michael; Boeken, Udo; Garbade, Jens; Hirt, Stephan; Richter, Manfred; Ruhpawar, Arjang; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Schönrath, Felix; Schramm, Rene; Schweiger, Martin; Wilhelm, Markus; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the dose or duration of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in different types of heart transplant patients, or the timing and intensity of initial calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy in rATG-treated individuals. Based on limited data and personal experience, the authors propose an approach to rATG dosing and initial CNI administration. Usually rATG is initiated immediately after exclusion of primary graft failure, although intraoperative initiation may be appropriate in specific cases. A total rATG dose of 4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg is advisable, tailored within that range according to immunologic risk and adjusted according to immune monitoring. Lower doses (eg, 3.0 mg/kg) of rATG can be used in patients at low immunological risk, or 1.5 to 2.5 mg/kg for patients with infection on mechanical circulatory support. The timing of CNI introduction is dictated by renal recovery, varying between day 3 and day 0 after heart transplantation, and the initial target exposure is influenced by immunological risk and presence of infection. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin and CNI dosing should not overlap except in high-risk cases. There is a clear need for more studies to define the optimal dosing regimens for rATG and early CNI exposure according to risk profile in heart transplantation. PMID:27500271

  4. A Proposal for Early Dosing Regimens in Heart Transplant Patients Receiving Thymoglobulin and Calcineurin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Barten, Markus J.; Schulz, Uwe; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Berchtold-Herz, Michael; Boeken, Udo; Garbade, Jens; Hirt, Stephan; Richter, Manfred; Ruhpawar, Arjang; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Schönrath, Felix; Schramm, Rene; Schweiger, Martin; Wilhelm, Markus; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the dose or duration of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in different types of heart transplant patients, or the timing and intensity of initial calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy in rATG-treated individuals. Based on limited data and personal experience, the authors propose an approach to rATG dosing and initial CNI administration. Usually rATG is initiated immediately after exclusion of primary graft failure, although intraoperative initiation may be appropriate in specific cases. A total rATG dose of 4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg is advisable, tailored within that range according to immunologic risk and adjusted according to immune monitoring. Lower doses (eg, 3.0 mg/kg) of rATG can be used in patients at low immunological risk, or 1.5 to 2.5 mg/kg for patients with infection on mechanical circulatory support. The timing of CNI introduction is dictated by renal recovery, varying between day 3 and day 0 after heart transplantation, and the initial target exposure is influenced by immunological risk and presence of infection. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin and CNI dosing should not overlap except in high-risk cases. There is a clear need for more studies to define the optimal dosing regimens for rATG and early CNI exposure according to risk profile in heart transplantation. PMID:27500271

  5. Establishment and Validation of SSCLIP Scoring System to Estimate Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Who Received Curative Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sha; Huang, Gui-Qian; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Liu, Wen-Yue; You, Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Che, Han-Yang; Chen, Guo-Liang; Fang, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, Meng-Tao; Chen, Yong-Ping; Braddock, Martin; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no prognostic model that is reliable and practical for patients who have received curative liver resection (CLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to establish and validate a Surgery-Specific Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (SSCLIP) scoring system for those patients. Methods 668 eligible patients who underwent CLR for HCC from five separate tertiary hospitals were selected. The SSCLIP was constructed from a training cohort by adding independent predictors that were identified by Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to the original Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP). The prognostic performance of the SSCLIP at 12 and 36-months was compared with data from existing models. The patient survival distributions at different risk levels of the SSCLIP were also assessed. Results Four independent predictors were added to construct the SSCLIP, including age (HR = 1.075, 95%CI: 1.019–1.135, P = 0.009), albumin (HR = 0.804, 95%CI: 0.681–0.950, P = 0.011), prothrombin time activity (HR = 0.856, 95%CI: 0.751–0.975, P = 0.020) and microvascular invasion (HR = 19.852, 95%CI: 2.203–178.917, P = 0.008). In both training and validation cohorts, 12-month and 36-month prognostic performance of the SSCLIP were significantly better than those of the original CLIP, model of end-stage liver disease-based CLIP, Okuda and Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (all P < 0.05). The stratification of risk levels of the SSCLIP showed an enhanced ability to differentiate patients with different outcomes. Conclusions A novel SSCLIP to predict survival of HCC patients who received CLR based on objective parameters may provide a refined, useful prognosis algorithm. PMID:26057656

  6. Association of SCARB1 Gene Polymorphisms with Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Receiving Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Liu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor type B class I(SR-BI) is a receptor for high-density lipoproteins(HDL) and one of entry factors for hepatitis C virus(HCV). We examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of the SCARB1 gene, which encodes SR-BI, with virologic responses to pegylated interferon-based treatment in Asian chronic hepatitis C(CHC) patients. Human genomic and clinical data were collected from 156 consecutive Taiwanese HCV genotype 1 or 2 patients who received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy and 153 non-HCV healthy subjects. Three SNPs(rs10846744, rs5888, and rs3782287) of the SCARB1 gene that have been linked to humans diseases were investigated. rs10846744 rather than rs5888 or rs3782287 was associated with serum HCV RNA level and sustained virologic response(SVR) to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy in CHC patients(GG vs. non-GG genotype, Adjusted Odds Ratio, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.11-0.95, P = 0.039). Among patients with IL28B rs8099917 non-TT genotypes, those with rs10846744 non-GG genotype had a higher SVR rate than those with GG genotypes. In addition, patients with GG genotype had a higher fasting blood glucose level than those with CC genotype. In conclusion, SCARB1 gene polymorphisms may serve as a potential predictor of treatment responses in CHC patients receiving interferon-based therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02714712). PMID:27561198

  7. Association of SCARB1 Gene Polymorphisms with Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Receiving Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Liu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor type B class I(SR-BI) is a receptor for high-density lipoproteins(HDL) and one of entry factors for hepatitis C virus(HCV). We examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) of the SCARB1 gene, which encodes SR-BI, with virologic responses to pegylated interferon-based treatment in Asian chronic hepatitis C(CHC) patients. Human genomic and clinical data were collected from 156 consecutive Taiwanese HCV genotype 1 or 2 patients who received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy and 153 non-HCV healthy subjects. Three SNPs(rs10846744, rs5888, and rs3782287) of the SCARB1 gene that have been linked to humans diseases were investigated. rs10846744 rather than rs5888 or rs3782287 was associated with serum HCV RNA level and sustained virologic response(SVR) to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy in CHC patients(GG vs. non-GG genotype, Adjusted Odds Ratio, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.11–0.95, P = 0.039). Among patients with IL28B rs8099917 non-TT genotypes, those with rs10846744 non-GG genotype had a higher SVR rate than those with GG genotypes. In addition, patients with GG genotype had a higher fasting blood glucose level than those with CC genotype. In conclusion, SCARB1 gene polymorphisms may serve as a potential predictor of treatment responses in CHC patients receiving interferon-based therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02714712). PMID:27561198

  8. Preventive effect of zoledronic acid on aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss for postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant letrozole

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengliang; Wang, Fuchao; Dou, Honglei; Zhang, Longqiang; Li, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety between zoledronic acid combined with calcium and calcium alone to prevent aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss for postmenopausal breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant letrozole. Methods One hundred twenty patients were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Patients in group A (n=60) received modified radical mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery + four cycles of AC followed by T regimen (optional) + radiotherapy (optional) + letrozole 2.5 mg daily + calcium 500 mg twice daily + vitamin D 400 international units daily +4 mg of zoledronic acid every 6 months, while patients in group B (n=60) were not given zoledronic acid and the rest of the treatments of group B were the same as group A. All the patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the intrapatient percentage change in lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline to month 12. Secondary endpoints included the percentage change in total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, the incidence of osteoporosis, the incidence of a clinically meaningful 5% decline in BMD at 1 year, change of serum N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) concentrations. Results Patients in group A had a statistically significant higher average change and average percent change in LS, FN, and TH than group B. Group A had a statistically significant lower incidence of a clinically meaningful loss of bone density at the LS, FN, or TH than Group B. The incidence of osteoporosis in group A was significantly lower than group B. The decreases in NTX and BSAP concentrations from baseline to month 12 in patients of group A were significant; in contrast, patients in group B were found to have increases in NTX and BSAP concentrations from baseline. The most common adverse reactions in patients are flu-like symptoms (38%), bone pain (28%), and joint pain (20%). Conclusion AI-associated bone loss

  9. Ondansetron: a pharmacoeconomic and quality-of-life evaluation of its antiemetic activity in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Plosker, G L; Milne, R J

    1992-10-01

    Ondansetron is more effective than high-dose metoclopramide in the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting due to highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and, unlike metoclopramide, is rarely associated with extrapyramidal effects. Pharmacoeconomic analyses have demonstrated that, in specified clinical settings, ondansetron (8mg 4-hourly for 3 doses or 8mg followed by 1 mg/h for 24 hours) is equally cost-effective as high-dose metoclopramide (3 mg/kg followed by 0.5 mg/kg/h for 8 hours) in the prophylaxis of emesis in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, at an acquisition cost 4- or 5-fold higher than that of the metoclopramide regimen. Furthermore, the combination of dexamethasone plus ondansetron has been shown to be more effective than ondansetron monotherapy in controlling emesis. In patients receiving high-dose ( greater than 50 mg/m2) cisplatin-based chemotherapy, antiemetic therapy with ondansetron (8mg intravenously as a single dose) plus dexamethasone (16mg total intravenous dose) was shown to be more cost-effective than the combination of high-dose metoclopramide (11 mg/kg total intravenous dose), dexamethasone (8mg intravenously as a single dose) plus lorazepam (1 to 1.5mg intravenously as a single dose). In a limited number of studies, quality-of-life scores, as assessed using the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist or the Functional Living Index--Emesis instrument, were significantly higher with ondansetron than with other antiemetic agents, including metoclopramide. Together, these results suggest that ondansetron, as an alternative to antiemetic regimens including high-dose metoclopramide, is appropriate cost-effective therapy for the prevention of acute nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Ondansetron is effective in controlling acute emesis associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, and its use in this clinical setting may best be reserved for patients who have not responded well to previous antiemetic

  10. Selective costimulation modulation using abatacept in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis while receiving etanercept: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Weinblatt, Michael; Schiff, Michael; Goldman, Allan; Kremer, Joel; Luggen, Michael; Li, Tracy; Chen, Dalei; Becker, Jean‐Claude

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of abatacept in combination with etanercept in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis during a 1‐year, randomised, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind phase, followed by an open‐label, long‐term extension (LTE). Methods Patients continued etanercept (25 mg twice weekly) and were randomised to receive abatacept 2 mg/kg (n = 85) or placebo (n = 36). As the effective dose of abatacept was established as 10 mg/kg in a separate trial, all patients received abatacept 10 mg/kg and etanercept during the LTE. Results A total of 121 patients were randomised; 80 completed double‐blind treatment and entered the LTE. During double‐blind treatment, the difference in the percentage of patients achieving the primary end point (modified American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at 6 months) was not significant between groups (48.2% v 30.6%; p = 0.072). At 1 year, no notable changes in modified ACR responses were observed. Subsequent to the dosing change, similar modified ACR responses were seen during the LTE. Significant improvements in quality of life were observed with abatacept and etanercept versus placebo and etanercept in five of the eight short‐form 36 subscales at 1 year. More abatacept and etanercept‐treated patients experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) at 1 year than patients receiving placebo and etanercept (16.5% v 2.8%), with 3.5% v 0% experiencing serious infections. Conclusion The combination of abatacept (at a dose of 2 mg/kg during the double‐blind phase and 10 mg/kg during the LTE) and etanercept was associated with an increase in SAEs, including serious infections, with limited clinical effect. On the basis of the limited efficacy findings and safety concerns, abatacept in combination with etanercept should not be used for rheumatoid arthritis treatment. PMID:16935912

  11. Influence of different anesthetic and analgesic methods on early cognitive function of elderly patients receiving non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Shuijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss over influence of two different anesthetic and analgesic methods on early cognitive function of elderly patients who received non-cardiac surgery. Methods: Two hundred and six elderly patients who underwent non-cardiac surgery were selected as research subjects. They were randomly divided into observation group (103 cases) and control group (103 cases). Patients in observation group were given combined spinal and epidural anesthesia and epidural analgesia, while patients in control group adopted general anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. Neurological function test was carried out one day before surgery and on the 7th day after surgery. Moreover, changes of postoperative pain degree, neuropsychological function and cognitive function were observed and compared. Results: On the 7th day after surgery, incidence of cognition impairment in observation group and control group was 48.50% (50/103 cases) and 44.70% (46/103 cases), and difference between groups had no statistical significance. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Score of observation group was much lower than control group in the 12th, 24th and 48th h after surgery (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis suggested that, short education years and general surgery were independent risk factors for early cognition impairment. Conclusion: About 46.60% elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery developed cognition impairment, but influence of different anesthetic and analgesic methods on incidence of postoperative cognition impairment of elderly patients had no significant difference. PMID:27182242

  12. Heterogeneity and clinical significance of ESR1 mutations in ER-positive metastatic breast cancer patients receiving fulvestrant.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, Jill M; Gendreau, Steven; Walter, Kimberly; Qiu, Jiaheng; Wilson, Timothy R; Savage, Heidi; Aimi, Junko; Derynck, Mika K; Chen, Meng; Chan, Iris T; Amler, Lukas C; Hampton, Garret M; Johnston, Stephen; Krop, Ian; Schmid, Peter; Lackner, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ESR1 have been associated with resistance to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in patients with ER+ metastatic breast cancer. Little is known of the impact of these mutations in patients receiving selective oestrogen receptor degrader (SERD) therapy. In this study, hotspot mutations in ESR1 and PIK3CA from ctDNA were assayed in clinical trial samples from ER+ metastatic breast cancer patients randomized either to the SERD fulvestrant or fulvestrant plus a pan-PI3K inhibitor. ESR1 mutations are present in 37% of baseline samples and are enriched in patients with luminal A and PIK3CA-mutated tumours. ESR1 mutations are often polyclonal and longitudinal analysis shows distinct clones exhibiting divergent behaviour over time. ESR1 mutation allele frequency does not show a consistent pattern of increases during fulvestrant treatment, and progression-free survival is not different in patients with ESR1 mutations compared with wild-type patients. ESR1 mutations are not associated with clinical resistance to fulvestrant in this study. PMID:27174596

  13. Heterogeneity and clinical significance of ESR1 mutations in ER-positive metastatic breast cancer patients receiving fulvestrant

    PubMed Central

    Spoerke, Jill M.; Gendreau, Steven; Walter, Kimberly; Qiu, Jiaheng; Wilson, Timothy R.; Savage, Heidi; Aimi, Junko; Derynck, Mika K.; Chen, Meng; Chan, Iris T.; Amler, Lukas C.; Hampton, Garret M.; Johnston, Stephen; Krop, Ian; Schmid, Peter; Lackner, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ESR1 have been associated with resistance to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in patients with ER+ metastatic breast cancer. Little is known of the impact of these mutations in patients receiving selective oestrogen receptor degrader (SERD) therapy. In this study, hotspot mutations in ESR1 and PIK3CA from ctDNA were assayed in clinical trial samples from ER+ metastatic breast cancer patients randomized either to the SERD fulvestrant or fulvestrant plus a pan-PI3K inhibitor. ESR1 mutations are present in 37% of baseline samples and are enriched in patients with luminal A and PIK3CA-mutated tumours. ESR1 mutations are often polyclonal and longitudinal analysis shows distinct clones exhibiting divergent behaviour over time. ESR1 mutation allele frequency does not show a consistent pattern of increases during fulvestrant treatment, and progression-free survival is not different in patients with ESR1 mutations compared with wild-type patients. ESR1 mutations are not associated with clinical resistance to fulvestrant in this study. PMID:27174596

  14. Dermatologic adverse events in pediatric patients receiving targeted anticancer therapies: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pratilas, Christine A.; Sibaud, Vincent; Boralevi, Franck; Lacouture, Mario E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The dermatologic adverse events (AEs) of various molecularly targeted therapies are well-described in adult cancer patients. Little has been reported on the incidence and clinical presentation of such AEs in pediatric patients with cancer. To address this gap, we analyzed the dermatologic AEs reported across clinical trials of targeted anticancer therapies in pediatric patients. METHODS We conducted an electronic literature search (PubMed, American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings’ abstracts, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCI’s Pediatric Oncology Branch webpage) to identify clinical trials involving targeted anticancer therapies that reported dermatologic AEs in their safety data. Studies were limited to the pediatric population, monotherapy trials (oncology), and English language publications. RESULTS Pooled data from 19 clinical studies investigating 11 targeted anticancer agents (alemtuzumab, rituximab, imatinib, dasatinib, erlotinib, vandetanib, sorafenib, cabozantinib, pazopanib, everolimus, and temsirolimus) were analyzed. The most frequently encountered dermatologic AEs were rash (127/660; 19%), xerosis (18/100; 18%), mucositis (68/402; 17%) and pruritus (12/169; 7%). Other AEs included pigmentary abnormalities of the skin/hair (13%), hair disorders (trichomegaly, hypertrichosis, alopecia and madarosis; 14%), urticaria (7%), palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia (7%), erythema, acne, purpura, skin fissures, other ‘unknown skin changes’, exanthem, infection, flushing, telangiectasia, and photosensitivity. CONCLUSION This study describes the dermatologic manifestations of targeted anticancer therapy-related AEs in the pediatric population. Since these AEs are often associated with significant morbidity, it is imperative that pediatric oncologists be familiar with their recognition and management, to avoid unnecessary dose modifications and/or termination, and to prevent impairments in patients’ quality of life. PMID:25683226

  15. Health care costs for prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy: treatment and adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Krahn, M.D.; Bremner, K.E.; Luo, J.; Alibhai, S.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Serious adverse events have been associated with androgen deprivation therapy (adt) for prostate cancer (pca), but few studies address the costs of those events. Methods All pca patients (ICD-9-CM 185) in Ontario who started 90 days or more of adt or had orchiectomy at the age of 66 or older during 1995–2005 (n = 26,809) were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and drug and hospital data. Diagnosis dates of adverse events—myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, stroke, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, any diabetes, and fracture or osteoporosis—before and after adt initiation were determined from administrative data. We excluded patients with the same diagnosis before and after adt, and we allocated each patient’s time from adt initiation to death or December 31, 2007, into health states: adt (no adverse event), adt-ae (specified single adverse event), Multiple (>1 event), and Final (≤180 days before death). We used methods for Canadian health administrative data to estimate annual total health care costs during each state, and we examined monthly trends. Results Approximately 50% of 21,811 patients with no pre-adt adverse event developed 1 or more events after adt. The costliest adverse event state was stroke ($26,432/year). Multiple was the most frequent (n = 2,336) and the second most costly health state ($24,374/year). Costs were highest in the first month after diagnosis (from $1,714 for diabetes to $14,068 for myocardial infarction). Costs declined within 18 months, ranging from $784 per 30 days (diabetes) to $1,852 per 30 days (stroke). Adverse events increased the costs of adt by 100% to 265%. Conclusions The economic burden of adverse events is relevant to programs and policies from clinic to government, and that burden merits consideration in the risks and benefits of adt. PMID:24940106

  16. Clinical observations of early and late normal tissue injury in patients receiving fast neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ornitz, R.D.; Bradley, E.W.; Mossman, K.L.; Fender, F.M.; Schell, M.C.; Rogers, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    This communication describes early and late normal tissue effects in 177 patients treated totally or in part by 15 MeV neutrons from the Naval Research Laboratory Cyclotron in Washington, D.C. between October 1973 and December 1976. Late normal tissue reactions were found to be greater than would be expected from careful observation of the early clinical responses to neutron treatment. Neutron prescriptions must be written based on the late effect tolerance level experience which is being accumulated at several neutron therapy facilities.

  17. Emergence of cfr-harbouring coagulase-negative staphylococci among patients receiving linezolid therapy in two hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Jing; Chen, Yan; Yang, Qing; Qu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Li-Lin; Wang, Hai-Ping; Yu, Yun-Song

    2013-06-01

    This study reports on the emergence of cfr-harbouring coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) among patients who received linezolid therapy in two hospitals in Hangzhou, China. The mechanisms of resistance and transmission were analysed for these resistant isolates. Eight Staphylococcus capitis isolates, one Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate and one Staphylococcus hominis isolate, obtained from patients who had received linezolid therapy in two hospitals in Hangzhou, China, were confirmed as linezolid resistant, with MICs ranging from 8 to >256 mg l(-1). The linezolid usage data of the ten patients before isolation of the linezolid-resistant CoNS were collected. PFGE analysis showed that the eight S. capitis isolates from the two hospitals belonged to the same clone. Nine of the linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates carried the cfr gene, which was located on plasmids of a similar size. A 5.3 kb fragment containing the cfr gene, revealing 99 % identity to the sequence of the cfr-harbouring plasmid pSS-01 reported previously, was determined by PCR mapping for all cfr-positive isolates, and the cfr gene was flanked by two copies of IS256-like elements. Thus, these results document the emergence of linezolid-resistant CoNS isolates carrying the cfr gene in Hangzhou, China. Effective nosocomial infection control strategies and the judicious use of antibiotics will be required to prevent further spread of this resistance mechanism.

  18. Early and Intensive Dietary Counseling in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving (Chemo)Radiotherapy-A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Nicole; Isenring, Elisabeth; Gough, Karla; Wheeler, Greg; Wirth, Andrew; Campbell, Belinda A; Krishnasamy, Meinir

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients undergoing (chemo)radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer. This pilot study tested the feasibility and acceptability of delivering an intensive nutrition intervention for lung cancer patients receiving RT. Twenty-four patients with lung cancer were randomized to receive the intervention which employed a care pathway to guide intensive dietary counseling from pretreatment until 6-wk posttreatment or usual care. Nutritional, fatigue, and functional outcomes were assessed using valid and reliable questionnaires before randomization, at the start and end of RT and 1- and 3-mo post-RT. Consent rate was 57% with an overall attrition of 37%. Subject compliance with the completion of study questionnaires was 100%. A clinically important mean difference indicated greater overall satisfaction with nutritional care in the intervention group (5.00, interquartile range [IQR] 4.50-5.00; 4.00, IQR 4.00-4.00). Clinically important differences favoring the intervention were observed for weight (3.0 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.8, 6.8), fat-free mass (0.6 kg; 95% CI -2.1, 3.3), physical well-being (2.1; 95% CI -2.3, 6.5), and functional well-being (5.1; 95% CI 1.6, 8.6), but all 95% CIs were wide and most included zero. Recruitment feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated, which suggest larger trials using an intensive nutrition intervention would be achievable. PMID:27348253

  19. A Convenient Method for Measuring Blood Ascorbate Concentrations in Patients Receiving High-Dose Intravenous Ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Sullivan, Garrett G; Schrick, Elizabeth; Choi, In-Young; He, Zhuoya; Lierman, JoAnn; Lee, Phil; Drisko, Jeanne A; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Objective A simple method of using fingerstick blood glucose monitors (FSBG) to estimate blood ascorbate values after high-dose intravenous (IV) ascorbate infusion is evaluated as a substitution for HPLC measurement. Methods In 33 participants, readings from FSBG were taken before and after IV ascorbate infusions at various time points, with the post-infusion FSBG readings subtracted by the baseline glucose readings. The results of the subtractions (AAFSBG) were correlated with ascorbate concentrations detected by HPLC (AAHPLC). Results A linear regression was found between ascorbate concentrations detected by the fingersitck method (AAFSBG) and by HPLC (AAHPLC). The linear correlations were identical in healthy subjects, diabetic subjects and cancer patients. ANOVA analysis obtained an AAFSBG/AAHPLC ratio of 0.90, with 90% confidence interval of (0.69, 1.20). The corrections of AAFSBG improved similarity to AAHPLC, but did not significantly differ from the un-corrected values. Conclusion The FSBG method can be used as an approximate estimation of high blood ascorbate concentration after IV ascorbate (>50 mg/dL, or 2.8 mM) without correction. However this measurement is not accurate in detecting lower or baseline blood ascorbate. It is also important to highlight that in regard to glucose monitoring, FSBG readings will be erroneously elevated following intravenous ascorbate use and insulin should not be administered to patients based on these readings. PMID:23885992

  20. Readmissions in Cancer Patients After Receiving Inpatient Palliative Care in Taiwan: A 9-Year Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Chun-Ku; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have reported on readmissions among cancer patients receiving inpatient palliative care (IPC). This study investigated readmissions in cancer patients after their first discharge from IPC in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010.This study was a secondary data analysis using information from the National Health Insurance Database in Taiwan from 2002 to 2010. We included subjects ≥20 years old diagnosed with malignant neoplasms who were listed in the registry of catastrophic illness. Patients diagnosed with cancer before January 1, 2002 or who had ever been admitted to an inpatient hospice palliative care unit before the study period were excluded. Readmission was defined as hospital readmission at least once after discharge from first admission to IPC until mortality or the end of the study period.A total of 42,022 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified. The majority of these patients were male (60.4%). The mean age of cancer diagnosis was 64.0 ± 14.4 years for men and 64.5 ± 14.7 years for women. The mean age at first hospice ward admission was 65.2 ± 14.2 years for men and 65.9 ± 14.9 years for women. During their first admission to IPC, 59.2% patients died, and the median stay of first IPC admission was 8.0 days. Among those discharged alive from their first admission to IPC, 64.9% were readmitted, and 19.4% of these patients were readmitted on the same day of discharge. From first IPC discharge until mortality, 54.8% of patients were readmitted once, 23.9% were readmitted twice, 9.9% were readmitted 3 times, and 11.5% were readmitted 4 or more times. Being male, having a higher insurance premium level, having a longer length of stay during first IPC admission, being admitted to a teaching hospital, or being admitted to a tertiary hospital increased the adjusted hazard ratio for readmission.We found that terminal cancer patients in Taiwan received relatively late referrals for first admission to IPC and experienced a high

  1. Normoxia vs. Hyperoxia: Impact of Oxygen Tension Strategies on Outcomes for Patients Receiving Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Routine Cardiac Surgical Repair

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. Mark; Holt, David W.; Edwards, Jeff T.; Burnett, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: Oxygen pressure field theory (OPFT) was originally described in the early 1900s by Danish physiologist, Dr. August Krogh. This revolutionary theory described microcirculation of blood gases at the capillary level using a theoretical cylindrical tissue model commonly referred to as the Krogh cylinder. In recent years, the principles and benefits of OPFT in long-term extracorporeal circulatory support (ECMO) have been realized. Cardiac clinicians have successfully mastered OPFT fundamentals and incorporated them into their clinical practice. These clinicians have experienced significantly improved survival rates as a result of OPFT strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if a hyperoxic strategy can lead to equally beneficial outcomes for short-term support as measured by total ventilator time and total length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) patient at a private institution. Patients receiving traditional blood gas management while on CPB (group B, n = 17) were retrospectively compared with hyperoxic patients (group A, n = 19). Hyperoxic/OPFT management was defined as paO2 values of 300–350 mmHg and average VSAT > 75%. Traditional blood gas management was defined as paO2 values of 150–250 mmHg and average VSAT < 75%. No significant differences between treatment groups were found for patient weight, CPB/AXC times, BSA, pre/post Hgb, pre/post-platelet (PLT) counts, pre/post-creatinine levels, pre/post-BUN, UF volumes, or CPB urine output. Additionally, no significant statistical differences were found between treatment groups for total time in ICU (T-ICU) or total time on ventilator (TOV). Hyperoxic management strategies provided no conclusive evidence of outcome improvement for patients receiving CPB for routine cardiac surgical repair. Additional studies into the impact of hyperoxia in short-term extracorporeal circulatory support are needed. PMID:17089511

  2. The Cumulative Cisplatin Dose Affects the Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Receiving Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Guo, Rui; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Li-Zhi; Tian, Li; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of the cumulative cisplatin dose (CCD) remains controversial for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving only concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). We retrospectively reviewed 549 consecutive patients with non-metastatic, histologically-proven NPC treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at Sun Yat-sen university cancer center. Patient survival between different CCD groups were compared. The cut-off value of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA (pre-DNA) and CCD based on disease-free survival (DFS) were 1460 copies/ml (AUC, 0.691; sensitivity, 0.717; specificity, 0.635) and 240 mg/m2 (AUC, 0.506; sensitivity, 0.526; specificity, 0.538), respectively. Of the entire cohort, 92/549 (16.8%) patients received a CCD ≥ 240 mg/m2 and 457 (83.2%) patients, <240 mg/m2. For CCD ≥ 240 mg/m2 vs. < 240 mg/m2, the estimated 4-year DFS, overall survival (OS), locoregional-free survival (LRFFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 89.1% vs. 81.3% (P = 0.097), 92.4% vs. 90.0% (P = 0.369), 95.6% vs. 91.2% (P = 0.156), and 91.3% vs. 88.4% (P = 0.375), respectively. For the whole cohort, multivariate analysis identified the CCD was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR, 0.515; 95% CI, 0.267–0.995; P = 0.048). However, CCD (≥240 mg/m2) had no prognostic value in subgroup analysis with stratification by the cut-off value of pre-DNA (P > 0.05 for all rates). PMID:27071833

  3. Injury-Related Consequences of Alcohol Misuse among Injured Patients Who Received SBI for Alcohol: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Gerald; Field, Craig; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening and brief alcohol intervention has demonstrated efficacy in improving drinking and other risk behaviors for some patient populations. However, it is not clear that brief interventions are helpful to all injured patients who drink at risk levels. This paper identifies latent classes of intervention recipients based on injury-related consequences and risks of alcohol misuse and then determines which profiles experienced the greatest improvements in drinking. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted using data from injured patients (N=737) who reported heavy drinking and received a brief alcohol intervention in a Level-1 trauma center. Latent class analysis was used to determine patient profiles, and seven indicators commonly associated with alcohol-related injury from the Short Inventory of Problems+6 were used to determine the latent class measurement model. Covariates were regressed onto the model to assess factors related to class membership, and drinking outcomes were analyzed to examine improvements in drinking. Results Five classes emerged from the data. The classes that reported the greatest improvements in drinking following discharge were those characterized by multiple alcohol-related risks and those characterized by a history of alcohol-related accidents and injuries. Attributing the current injury to drinking was a significant predictor of class membership among those classes that reported higher levels of improvement. Conclusions This study provides tentative evidence that subclasses exist among heavy drinking injured patients who received a brief intervention in a Level-1 trauma center, and some subclasses experience greater drinking improvements than others. Further research is required to substantiate the findings of this secondary analysis. PMID:24821352

  4. Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving sustained low-efficiency diafiltration.

    PubMed

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Robertson, Thomas A; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-02-01

    Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent in critically ill patients. It is predominantly (60-80%) excreted unchanged in urine. Sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) is increasingly being utilised in critically ill patients because of its practical advantages over continuous renal replacement therapy. To date, the effect of SLED-f on fluconazole pharmacokinetics and dosing has not been studied. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving SLED-f and to compare this with other forms of renal replacement therapy. Serial blood samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit during SLED-f and from an arterial catheter before and after SLED-f from three patients during one session. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. Median clearance (CL) and 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) were 2.1L/h and 152 mg·h/L, respectively, whilst receiving SLED-f. Moreover, 72% of fluconazole was cleared by a single SLED-f session (6h) compared with previous reports of 33-38% clearance by a 4-h intermittent haemodialysis session. CL and AUC0-24 were comparable with previous observations in a pre-dilution mode of continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration. The observed rebound concentration of fluconazole post SLED-f was <2%. Although a definitive dosing recommendation is not possible due to the small patient number, it is clear that doses >200mg daily are likely to be required to achieve the PK/PD target for common pathogens because of significant fluconazole clearance by SLED-f.

  5. Time to treatment benefit for adult patients with Fabry disease receiving agalsidase β: data from the Fabry Registry

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alberto; Abiose, Ademola; Bichet, Daniel G; Cabrera, Gustavo; Charrow, Joel; Germain, Dominique P; Hopkin, Robert J; Jovanovic, Ana; Linhart, Aleš; Maruti, Sonia S; Mauer, Michael; Oliveira, João P; Patel, Manesh R; Politei, Juan; Waldek, Stephen; Wanner, Christoph; Yoo, Han-Wook; Warnock, David G

    2016-01-01

    Background Agalsidase β is a form of enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease, a genetic disorder characterised by low α-galactosidase A activity, accumulation of glycosphingolipids and life-threatening cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular events. In clinical trials, agalsidase β cleared glycolipid deposits from endothelial cells within 6 months; clearance from other cell types required sustained treatment. We hypothesised that there might be a ‘lag time’ to clinical benefit after initiating agalsidase β treatment, and analysed the incidence of severe clinical events over time in patients receiving agalsidase β. Methods The incidence of severe clinical events (renal failure, cardiac events, stroke, death) was studied in 1044 adult patients (641 men, 403 women) enrolled in the Fabry Registry who received agalsidase β (average dose 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for up to 5 years. Results The incidence of all severe clinical events was 111 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 84 to 145) during the first 6 months. After 6 months, the incidence decreased and remained stable within the range of 40–58 events per 1000 patient-years. The largest decrease in incidence rates was among male patients and those aged ≥40 years when agalsidase β was initiated. Conclusions Contrary to the expected increased incidence of severe clinical events with time, adult patients with Fabry disease had decreased incidence of severe clinical events after 6 months treatment with agalsidase β 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Trial registration number NCT00196742. PMID:26993266

  6. Is physical activity possible and beneficial for patients with hepatitis C receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy?

    PubMed

    Payen, J-L; Pillard, F; Mascarell, V; Rivière, D; Couzigou, P; Kharlov, N

    2009-01-01

    the study protocol. All participated in the three types of proposed physical activity with no problem. The score of the general perception item of the SF36 questionnaire increased from 63 on day 0 to 71 at one month (p=0.07). In conclusion, patients with hepatitis C receiving pegylated interferon plus ribavirin may safely participate in a program of suitably supervised physical exercise. Taking part in physical exercise leads to clear changes in the way patients perceive their bodies and its capacities. Participating in sports activities could improve self-confidence and lead to far-reaching changes in the way patients perceive their disease and the constraints of treatment.

  7. Attendance, weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lisa; O'Shea, Marie-Claire; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation and weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. A prospective observational study was conducted between January and September 2011 involving three private practice dietitians who provided services at 11 medical centres in south-east Queensland. All patients with T2D who were referred by their general practitioner (GP) to one of the dietitians as part of their team care arrangements were asked to participate. Participants' attendance at consultations was recorded for the study duration. The dietitian collected weight and waist circumference measures at each consultation. In all, 129 participants (mean age 58.9 ± 15.7 years; mean body mass index 32.2 ± 5.6 kgm⁻²) were included in the study. The most frequent number of consultations allocated to a dietitian was two. Small, but significant reductions in bodyweight (1.9 ± 2.9 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and waist circumference (2.0 ± 4.8 cm; P ≤ 0.05) were observed from the initial to final consultation. Participants who attended more than two consultations lost significantly more weight than those who attended two consultations only (3.7 ± 4.2 vs 1.1 ± 1.6 kg, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). Almost one-third of participants (n=38; 29%) did not complete the allocated number of consultations available through their referral. Modest weight and waist circumference reductions are achievable for patients with T2D receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. The clinical significance of these reductions requires further investigation. Patients who attend more consultations with a dietitian may experience further improvements in weight and waist circumference outcomes. However, many patients do not complete the number of consultations allocated. Further research is required to explore the determinants of attendance at consultations in order to maximise potential improvements in

  8. Attendance, weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Lisa; O'Shea, Marie-Claire; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation and weight and waist circumference outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. A prospective observational study was conducted between January and September 2011 involving three private practice dietitians who provided services at 11 medical centres in south-east Queensland. All patients with T2D who were referred by their general practitioner (GP) to one of the dietitians as part of their team care arrangements were asked to participate. Participants' attendance at consultations was recorded for the study duration. The dietitian collected weight and waist circumference measures at each consultation. In all, 129 participants (mean age 58.9 ± 15.7 years; mean body mass index 32.2 ± 5.6 kgm⁻²) were included in the study. The most frequent number of consultations allocated to a dietitian was two. Small, but significant reductions in bodyweight (1.9 ± 2.9 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and waist circumference (2.0 ± 4.8 cm; P ≤ 0.05) were observed from the initial to final consultation. Participants who attended more than two consultations lost significantly more weight than those who attended two consultations only (3.7 ± 4.2 vs 1.1 ± 1.6 kg, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). Almost one-third of participants (n=38; 29%) did not complete the allocated number of consultations available through their referral. Modest weight and waist circumference reductions are achievable for patients with T2D receiving Medicare-subsidised dietetic services. The clinical significance of these reductions requires further investigation. Patients who attend more consultations with a dietitian may experience further improvements in weight and waist circumference outcomes. However, many patients do not complete the number of consultations allocated. Further research is required to explore the determinants of attendance at consultations in order to maximise potential improvements in

  9. Development of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS): A potential risk factor in cancer patients receiving anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Qureshi, Muhammad Saeed; Ahmad, Riaz; Manan, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalaemia, as well as hypocalcaemia due to the breakdown of tumor cells undergoing cancer therapy (chemo/radio). Therefore it is of interest to evaluate oxidative stress using selective biological markers [Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT)] in TLS. We report the marked differences (statistically significant with control) observed among a selected set of biomarkers of oxidative stress (MDA = 8.66±1.37; SOD = 0.15±0.11; GSH = 2.25±.77; CAT = 0.76±.57) in TLS patients in addition to other conventional biomarkers. Moreover, correlation was investigated among the parameters of oxidative stress and other circulating biomarkers of TLS. Data suggest the use of SOD, MDA, and GSH as potential diagnostic biomarker for TLS with other biomarkers. PMID:25512688

  10. Risk stratification, perioperative and periprocedural management of the patient receiving anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Adriana D; Noto, Christopher J; Halaszynski, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    As a result of the aging US population and the subsequent increase in the prevalence of coronary disease and atrial fibrillation, therapeutic use of anticoagulants has increased. Perioperative and periprocedural management of anticoagulated patients has become routine for anesthesiologists, who frequently mediate communication between the prescribing physician and the surgeon and assess the risks of both thromboembolic complications and hemorrhage. Data from randomized clinical trials on perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy are lacking. Therefore, clinical judgment is typically needed regarding decisions to continue, discontinue, bridge, or resume anticoagulation and regarding the time points when these events should occur in the perioperative period. In this review, we will discuss the most commonly used anticoagulants used in outpatient settings and discuss their management in the perioperative period. Special considerations for regional anesthesia and interventional pain procedures will also be reviewed. PMID:27687455

  11. Pseudotumoral amyloidosis of beta 2-microglobulin origin in the buttock of a patient receiving long term haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alonso, J; Rios-Camacho, C; Valenzuela-Castaño, A; Rocha-Castilla, J L

    1993-01-01

    A 52 year old man who had been receiving haemodialysis for 13 years, with a history of renal tuberculosis, right ischial tuberculous osteomyelitis, and dialysis arthropathy, developed a soft tissue tumour in his left buttock. Histological analysis, immunohistological staining, and electron microscopic examination of the surgically removed tumour showed massive deposits of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) amyloid. This case shows the expanding clinical spectrum of this type of amyloidosis, and it is suggested that amyloid infiltration should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gluteal tumours in these patients. Images PMID:8408708

  12. Characteristics of youth in the U.S. receiving services from a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH).

    PubMed

    McCarter, Susan; Jones, King; Rager, Kristin M

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, this study identifies the characteristics of those youth served and not served by a medical home. Although Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) are being piloted with Medicaid clients, these national data indicate that adolescents are least likely to receive services from a medical home as are youth of color, those with family income levels between 0-99% of the Federal poverty level, and those currently uninsured. These populations, as well as children with special health care needs and youth in the child welfare system, however, may be those most likely to benefit from a PCMH. PMID:21919639

  13. [Effect of increasing protein ingestion on the nitrogen balance of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, A; Verbeek, M J; Schreurs, V V; Akkermans, L M; Vos, A

    1993-01-01

    The amount of protein recommended to minimise N loss in critically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) varies in the literature. Therefore, we studied the effect of increased protein intake on the N balance, administering TPN with either 1.2 g protein/kg/day (low N diet) or 1.8 g protein/kg/day (high N diet). Fifteen mechanically ventilated critically ill patients were studied in a surgical intensive care unit. After at least two days of standard TPN, patients were randomly assigned to either the low or the high N diet. Ten patients were studied on the low N diet and 11 on the high N diet; 6 patients were studied on both diets. Nonprotein energy was supplied according to estimated energy requirements. For five consecutive days, the N balance was measured daily. Total urinary nitrogen (TUN) was analysed using the Kjeldahl method. There was no difference in N balance between the groups. On the low N diet, N balance was -0.113 +/- 0.088 and on the high N diet -0.113 +/- 0.109 g N/kg/day. In patients studied twice, N balance was -0.087 +/- 0.054 and -0.050 +/- 0.060 g N/kd/day respectively. Results of a previous pilot study showed that in 20 similar patients the N balance became 80% less negative (from -5.7 +/- 5.1 to -1.1 +/- 8.2 g N/day) when protein intake was increased from 0.9 to 1.5 g/kg/day. Since these results are consistent with other studies, we conclude that the optimal range of protein supply in this type of critically ill patients is approximately 1.1-1.5 g protein/kg/day.

  14. Quality of life among patients receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda: a multi-centred study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QOL) is a core outcome of palliative care, yet in African settings there is a lack of evidence on patients' levels of QOL. We aimed to describe QOL among patients with incurable, progressive disease receiving palliative care in South Africa and Uganda, to compare QOL in cancer and HIV, to determine how domains of QOL correlate with overall QOL, and compare levels of QOL in this population with those in other studies using the same tool. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Missoula Vitas Quality of Life Index (MVQOLI), a 26-item QOL questionnaire with five subscales (Function, Symptom, Interpersonal, Well being, Transcendent) covering physical, social, psychological and spiritual domains and one global QOL item. One item in each subscale assesses the subjective importance of the domain on a score from 1 (least important) to 5 (most important), used to weight the contribution of the subscale towards the Total QOL score. The tool was translated into 6 languages and administered to consecutively recruited patients at four facilities in South Africa and one in Uganda. Results 285 patients were recruited, with a mean age of 40.1; 197 (69.1%) were female. Patients' primary diagnoses were HIV (80.7%), cancer (17.9%) and other conditions (1.4%). The mean global QOL score was 2.81 (possible range 0 (worst) to 5 (best)); mean Total score 17.32 (possible range 0 to 30). Patients scored most poorly on Function (mean 0.21), followed by Well being (2.59), Symptoms (5.38), Transcendent (5.50), Interpersonal (9.53) (possible range for subscale scores -30 to 30). Most important to patients were: close relationships (mean 4.13), feeling at peace (4.12), sense of meaning in life (4.10), being active (3.84), physical comfort (2.58). Cancer patients were predominantly recruited at three of the sites; hence comparison with HIV-infected patients was restricted to these sites. HIV+ patients (n = 115) scored significantly worse than cancer

  15. Communication Between Breast Cancer Patients Who Received Inconclusive Genetic Test Results and Their Daughters and Sisters Years After Testing.

    PubMed

    Baars, Jessica E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Riel, Els; Kars, Marijke C; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2016-06-01

    Inconclusive genetic test results including screening recommendations for the breast cancer patients and their first-degree relatives are the most common outcomes of BRCA 1/2 testing. Patients themselves should communicate these results to their relatives. Our aim was to explore communication of breast cancer genetic counseling results with daughters and sisters over a long period of time. Breast cancer patients, who had received an inconclusive DNA test result 7-14 years earlier, completed a self-report questionnaire. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted and analysed thematically. Of the 93 respondents, 85 (91 %) considered themselves responsible for communicating genetic test results to relatives. In-depth interviews (n = 14) showed, that counselees wanted 'to hand over' their responsibilities to communicate the test results and screening recommendations to their sisters. Although most patients had informed their daughters and sisters about the genetic test results, usually little is spoken about genetic test results and screening recommendations once the duty of informing is completed. We recommend that, similar to the procedure for BRCA1/2-mutation carriers, a separate letter for first-degree relatives of patients with an inconclusive test result should be provided. In this way information about risks and screening recommendations can be verified by family members years after genetic testing has been completed.

  16. The relationship between depression, anxiety and medication adherence among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nel, Adriaan; Kagee, Ashraf

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, a small but growing body of literature on the associations between common mental disorders and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has emerged. The present study builds on the growing body of research by investigating associations between symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and adherence to ART. We studied a convenience sample of 101 South African ART users to determine the severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety and their association with self-reported adherence to ART. Based on the standardised cut-off scores recorded using the Beck Depression Inventory - Second Edition (BDI II), 40.4% of participants demonstrated moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Moreover, results from the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) indicated that 28.7% of the study participants demonstrated moderate to severe symptoms of anxiety. Biserial correlations and logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between symptoms of depression and adherence. The results indicate that patients reporting non-perfect adherence were approximately three times more likely (OR=2.73; CI=1.09-6.82) to have moderate to severe symptoms of depression than those reporting perfect adherence. The present findings are in keeping with those of previous studies, suggesting that depression may act as a barrier to ART adherence.

  17. Prognostic value of peritumoral heat-shock factor-1 in patients receiving resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J-B; Guo, K; Sun, H-C; Zhu, X-D; Zhang, B; Lin, Z-H; Zhang, B-H; Liu, Y-K; Ren, Z-G; Fan, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cross-talk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and abnormal metabolic signals in peritumoral microenvironment modifies our knowledge of hepatocarcinogenesis. As an indispensable modulator of various stresses, the clinical significance of heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF1) in HCC microenvironment has never been defined. Methods: Hepatocellular carcinoma and matched peritumoral liver tissues (n=332) were semiquantitatively analysed for HSF1 expression, followed by correlation with clinicopathological parameters (patient outcomes). Moreover, the effects of HSF1 deficiency in L02 on monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT4) and HCC cells' colonisation and proliferation were investigated. Results: High expression of HSF1 in peritumoral tissue but not in HCC tissue was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR), especially early recurrence (ER), which was further reconfirmed in validation cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that prognostic performance of peritumoral HSF1 was independent of other clinicopathological factors (hazard ratio for OS=2.60, P=0.002, for TTR=2.52, P<0.001). Notably, downregulation of HSF1 in L02 decreased MCT4 expression significantly. The supernatant from L02-shRNA-HSF1 in hypoxia, NOT normoxia condition, inhibited HCC cell colonisation and proliferation. Moreover, the combination of peritumoral HSF1 and MCT4 was the best predictor for ER and OS. Conclusion: High peritumoral HSF1 expression can serve as a sensitive ‘readout' for high-risk HCC ER, and could be a potential metabolic intervention target following curative resection. PMID:24002609

  18. Work productivity among treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection receiving telaprevir combination treatment.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, J; Vera-Llonch, M; Donepudi, M; Suthoff, E; Younossi, Z; Goss, T F

    2015-01-01

    Work productivity is impacted in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and has been linked to treatment. In two Phase 3 trials, ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE, treatment-naïve genotype 1 chronic HCV-infected patients received 12-week telaprevir (T) with 24 (T12PR24)- or 48 (T12PR48)-week peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin. The objective of this analysis was to examine the impact of chronic HCV infection and its treatment with combination therapy on work productivity. The 5-item, self-reported work productivity questionnaire (WPQ) was administered in Phase 3 trials to assess unemployment status, days unable to work due to HCV/treatment, reduced hours worked and impact on productivity in prior 4 weeks. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were employed in analyses of pooled trial data. About 1147 patients were included; 22% (n = 255) were unemployed at baseline, with 8% being unemployed due to health reasons. At week 12, there were no differences by treatment regimen in the number of days unable to work. At week 48, improvements were observed earlier among patients receiving the shorter duration of T combination treatment. Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in days unable to work was -0.48 (-0.85, -0.11) days for T12PR24, 1.43 (0.63, 2.24) days for T12PR48 and 1.24 (0.18, 2.30) days for PR48 with placebo. Predictors of days unable to work were identified and include demographic characteristics, pretreatment and on-treatment levels of fatigue, as well regional variation. In post hoc analyses of the ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE trials, work productivity decreased during the initial 12 weeks regardless of treatment group. PMID:24528927

  19. Functional polymorphisms of circadian negative feedback regulation genes are associated with clinical outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma patients receiving radical resection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Ma, Fei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Yibing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongxin; Zhu, Yong; Bi, Jianwei; Zhang, Yiguan

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that circadian negative feedback loop genes play an important role in the development and progression of many cancers. However, the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and the clinical outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgical resection have not been studied so far. Thirteen functional SNPs in circadian genes were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX genotyping system in a cohort of 489 Chinese HCC patients who received radical resection. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curve were used for the prognosis analysis. Cumulative effect analysis and survival tree analysis were used for the multiple SNPs analysis. Four individual SNPs, including rs3027178 in PER1, rs228669 and rs2640908 in PER3 and rs3809236 in CRY1, were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) of HCC patients, and three SNPs, including rs3027178 in PER1, rs228729 in PER3 and rs3809236 in CRY1, were significantly associated with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Moreover, we observed a cumulative effect of significant SNPs on OS and RFS (P for trend < 0.001 for both). Survival tree analysis indicated that wild genotype of rs228729 in PER3 was the primary risk factor contributing to HCC patients' RFS. Our study suggests that the polymorphisms in circadian negative feedback loop genes may serve as independent prognostic biomarkers in predicting clinical outcomes for HCC patients who received radical resection. Further studies with different ethnicities are needed to validate our findings and generalize its clinical utility. PMID:25344870

  20. Occult gastrointestinal bleeding in high-risk intensive care unit patients receiving antacid prophylaxis: frequency and significance.

    PubMed

    Derrida, S; Nury, B; Slama, R; Marois, F; Moreau, R; Soupison, T; Sicot, C

    1989-02-01

    Gastroccult reagent was used every 4 h to detect blood in gastric juice in 41 ICU patients at risk of GI bleeding (GB) and receiving antacid prophylaxis (gastric pH greater than 3.5). Of the present patients, 27% (11/41) had at least one episode of occult GB (three consecutive positive determinations; a total of 14 episodes). Endoscopy identified acute gastroduodenal mucosal lesions (stress ulcers) as the most frequent lesion in this group (eight patients). Sepsis was the most frequent underlying condition associated with occult GB due to stress ulcer. Hematemesis occurred in 36% (4/11) of patients with occult GB and was due to stress ulcer in three patients and to benign gastric tumor in one. No overt GB occurred in the absence of previous occult GB. We conclude that: a) risk of GB persists in critically ill ICU patients in spite of antacid prophylaxis (gastric pH greater than 3.5); b) high-risk patients can be identified through periodic testing for the presence of blood in gastric juice using the reagent; c) when occult GB occurs, treatment should be based on the endoscopy results. In the absence of acute gastroduodenal mucosal lesions, antacid prophylaxis should not be modified, and specific treatment of the identified lesion(s) should be initiated. In the presence of stress lesions, antacid prophylaxis should be reinforced if the pH of the gastric content is less than 3.5 and a septic complication should be actively sought if the pH is greater than 3.5. PMID:2783669

  1. Impact of Age and Sex on QT Prolongation in Patients Receiving Psychotropics

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess older age and female sex, 2 of the major risk factors for potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death in patients prescribed psychotropics, within the context of electrocardiographic evidence of time between start of Q wave and end of T wave (QT) interval prolongation, which is an indicator of an increased risk for potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Method: The literature on the relation between age, sex, and QT interval with respect to psychotropic drugs was reviewed. Results: The QT interval must be corrected (QTc) for heart rate. Because slower heart rates prolong and faster heart rates shorten the QT interval, people with faster heart rates may have a prolonged QT interval that is not apparent until the correction is performed. QTc values for apparently healthy post-pubertal people are less than 450 ms for males and less than 470 ms for females. The longer QT intervals in women may account for their increased risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias on psychotropics. QTc increases with increasing age. Assessment of QTc in older people is especially important to identify people with a longer QTc who are more likely to attain a serious QT level with drugs that prolong QTc. The age-related increase in QTc is more evident in men than women, suggesting that male sex does not afford protection against potentially fatal arrhythmias at older age. Conclusion: The association of increasing age and female sex with greater QT intervals indicates the need to have an increased awareness of the QTc prior to use of these psychotropics and to evaluate the QTc after initiation of therapy. PMID:26174524

  2. Rectal Motion in Patients Receiving Preoperative Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Rectum

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, James D.; Dawson, Laura A.; Sampson, Elliott; Bayley, Andrew; Scott, Sandra; Moseley, Joanne L.; Craig, Timothy; Cummings, Bernard; Dinniwell, Robert; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Rebecca; Brock, Kristy K.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the movement of rectum, mesorectum, and rectal primary during a course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer had a planning CT scan with rectal contrast before commencement of preoperative chemoradiation. The scan was repeated during Weeks 1, 3, and 5 of chemoradiation. The rectal primary (gross tumor volume), rectum, mesorectum, and bladder were contoured on all four scans. An in-house biomechanical model-based deformable image registration technique, Morfeus, was used to measure the three-dimensional spatial change in these structures after bony alignment. The required planning target volume margin for this spatial change, after bone alignment, was also calculated. Results: Rectal contrast was found to introduce a systematic error in the position of all organs compared with the noncontrast state. The largest change in structures during radiotherapy was in the anterior and posterior directions for the mesorectum and rectum and in the superior and inferior directions for the gross tumor volume. The planning target volume margins required for internal movement for the mesorectum based on the three scans acquired during treatment are 4 mm right, 5 mm left, 7 mm anterior, and 6 mm posterior. For the rectum, values were 8 mm right, 8 mm left, 8 mm anterior, and 9 mm posterior. The greatest movement of the rectum occurred in the upper third. Conclusions: Contrast is no longer used in CT simulation. Assuming bony alignment, a nonuniform margin of 8 mm anteriorly, 9 mm posteriorly, and 8 mm left and right is recommended.

  3. Resolution of bone marrow fibrosis in a patient receiving JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor treatment with ruxolitinib

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Bridget S.; Radia, Deepti; Woodley, Claire; Farhi, Sarah El; Keohane, Clodagh; Harrison, Claire N.

    2013-01-01

    Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, is currently the only pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis. Approval was based on findings from two phase 3 trials comparing ruxolitinib with placebo (COMFORT-I) and with best available therapy (COMFORT-II) for the treatment of primary or secondary myelofibrosis. In those pivotal trials, ruxolitinib rapidly improved splenomegaly, disease-related symptoms, and quality of life and prolonged survival compared with both placebo and conventional treatments. However, for reasons that are currently unclear, there were only modest histomorphological changes in the bone marrow, and only a subset of patients had significant reductions in JAK2 V617F clonal burden. Here we describe a patient with post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis who received ruxolitinib at our institution (Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom) as part of the COMFORT-II study. While on treatment, the patient had dramatic improvements in splenomegaly and symptoms shortly after starting ruxolitinib. With longer treatment, the patient had marked reductions in JAK2 V617F allele burden, and fibrosis of the bone marrow resolved after approximately 3 years of ruxolitinib treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed case report of resolution of fibrosis with a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00934544. PMID:24056820

  4. Parecoxib prevents complications in hepatocellular carcinoma patients receiving hepatic transarterial chemoembolization: a prospective score-matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Cong; Xu, Li; Chen, Min-Shan; Zhang, Yao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization(TACE) is the palliative treatment of choice for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The 242 patients prospectively enrolled in this study were diagnosed with HCC and received TACE at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between October 2014 and March 2015. Patients were divided into study and control groups based on whether parecoxib sodium was administered postoperatively. Postoperative pain, body temperature, vomiting, changes in liver function, physical activity level, length of hospital stay, and tumor control were evaluated. Compared to the control group after propensity score matching, the study group presented less severe postoperative fever. The daily maximum temperatures in the study and control groups were 37.39 vs. 37.82°C on postoperative day 1 (P < 0.001), 37.10 vs. 37.51°C on day 2 (P < 0.001), and 36.90 vs. 37.41°C on day 3 (P < 0.001). The study group also exhibited greater physical activity (P < 0.05) and had shorter hospital stays (7.21 days vs. 7.92 days, P = 0.041). There were no differences in pain scores. Thus administration of parecoxib sodium to HCC patients after TACE effectively relieved fever, promoted postoperative recovery, and shortened the hospital stay. PMID:27056892

  5. Assessment of quality of life in epilepsy patients receiving anti-epileptic drugs in a tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pimpalkhute, Sonali A.; Bajait, Chaitali S.; Dakhale, Ganesh N.; Sontakke, Smita D.; Jaiswal, Kavita M.; Kinge, Parag

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Health-related quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome in epilepsy treatment. Very few studies have been carried out on the quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE-31) in India. The present study aimed to determine the level of health-related QOLIE-31 in patients of epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Respondents were adults aged at least 18-year-old with a diagnosis of epilepsy. QOLIE-31 was used for collecting data on health-related QOL. The unpaired t-test or one-way analysis of variance was used to compare means of QOL scores between groups. Results: Totally, 60 patients of epilepsy were included in the study. The mean (standard deviation) total score of QOLIE-31 was 64.61. A score of cognitive and medication effect were significantly better in carbamazepine group as compared to valproate group. Conclusions: Patients on monotherapy had a better QOL as compared to patients receiving polytherapy. PMID:26600647

  6. Evaluation of Anemia Management by Algorithms in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Who Are Not Receiving Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jenelle; Leung, Marianna; Beaulieu, Monica; Levin, Adeera; Burnett, Shelley; Zienkiewicz, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anemia commonly develops in patients with chronic kidney disease and is strongly associated with adverse clinical outcomes. There are currently no published studies evaluating the efficacy of a nurse-driven anemia-management protocol for patients with chronic kidney disease who are not receiving dialysis. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an anemia-management protocol in terms of achieving hemoglobin and transferrin saturation levels within the target range, as well as associated utilization of medications, relative to individualized dosing of medications by nephrologists. Methods: An algorithm for nurse-driven management of anemia was introduced in April 2009 at a kidney function clinic in a large urban centre. The charts of patients with chronic kidney disease who were not undergoing dialysis were reviewed before (July to December 2007) and after (July to December 2009) implementation of the protocol. Patients’ data for hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, and doses of iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were collected for each of the 6-month study periods. Results: In total, 390 patients were treated for anemia before and 434 patients after introduction of the protocol. The anemia-management protocol was non-inferior to individualized dosing for maintenance of hemoglobin levels within the target range of 110–120 g/L: percentage of measured levels within target range 33.3% (485/1456) before versus 34.2% (504/1472) after (absolute difference 0.9 percentage points, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.5 to 4.4). The criteria for non-inferiority were not met for maintenance of transferrin saturation within the target range of 22%–50%: percentage of levels within target range 58.8% (374/636) before versus 56.9% (403/708) after (absolute difference 1.9 percentage points, 95% CI −3.4 to 7.2). There were no statistically significant differences in mean doses of epoetin alfa, darbepoetin, or iron before and after introduction of the protocol

  7. Association of LEPR and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms with Weight Gain in Epilepsy Patients Receiving Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xueding; Zhou, Yafang; Ni, Guanzhong; Su, Qibiao; Chen, Ziyi; Chen, Zhuojia; Li, Jiali; Chen, Xinmeng; Hou, Xiangyu; Xie, Wen; Xin, Shuang; Zhou, Liemin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Weight gain is the most frequent adverse effect of valproic acid (VPA) treatment, resulting in poor compliance and many endocrine disturbances. Similarities in the weight change of monozygotic twins receiving VPA strongly suggests that genetic factors are involved in this effect. However, few studies have been conducted to identify the relevant genetic polymorphisms. Additionally, the causal relationship between the VPA concentration and weight gain has been controversial. Thus, we investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several appetite stimulation and energy homeostasis genes and the steady state plasma concentrations (Css) of VPA on the occurrence of weight gain in patients. Methods: A total of 212 epilepsy patients receiving VPA were enrolled. Nineteen SNPs in 11 genes were detected using the Sequenom MassArray iPlex platform, and VPA Css was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: After 6 months of treatment, 20.28% of patients were found to gain a significant amount of weight (weight gained ≥7%). Three SNPs in the leptin receptor (LEPR), ankyrin repeat kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1), and α catalytic subunit of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) showed significant associations with VPA-induced weight gain (p < 0.001, p = 0.017 and p = 0.020, respectively). After Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, the genotypic association of LEPR rs1137101, the allelic association of LEPR rs1137101, and ANKK1 rs1800497 with weight gain remained significant. However, the VPA Css in patents who gained weight were not significantly different from those who did not gain weight (p = 0.121). Conclusions: LEPR and ANKK1 genetic polymorphisms may have value in predicting VPA-induced weight gain. PMID:25740917

  8. Associations of Depressive Symptoms and Pain with Dialysis Adherence, Health Resource Utilization, and Mortality in Patients Receiving Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Maria K.; Sevick, Mary Ann; Shields, Anne Marie; Rollman, Bruce L.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Arnold, Robert M.; Green, Jamie A.; Fine, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Depressive symptoms and pain are common in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, yet their effect on dialysis adherence, health resource utilization, and mortality is not fully understood. This study sought to characterize the longitudinal associations of these symptoms with dialysis adherence, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and mortality. Design, setting, participants, & measurements As part of a trial comparing symptom management strategies in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, this study prospectively assessed depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9, and pain using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, monthly between 2009 and 2011. This study used negative binomial, Poisson, and proportional hazards regression to analyze the longitudinal associations of depressive symptoms and pain, scaled based on 5-point increments in symptom scores, with missed and abbreviated hemodialysis treatments, ED visits, hospitalizations, and mortality, respectively. Results Among 286 patients, moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were identified on 788 of 4452 (18%) assessments and pain was reported on 3537 of 4459 (79%) assessments. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with missed (incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.10 to 1.33) and abbreviated (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.14) hemodialysis treatments, ED visits (IRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.37), hospitalizations (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.30), and mortality (IRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.77). Pain was independently associated with abbreviated hemodialysis treatments (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06) and hospitalizations (IRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.10). Severe pain was independently associated with abbreviated hemodialysis treatments (IRR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), ED visits (IRR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.94), and hospitalizations (IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.45), but not mortality (hazard ratio, 1

  9. Factors Associated with Prevalent Tuberculosis Among Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iroezindu, MO; Ofondu, EO; Mbata, GC; van Wyk, B; Hausler, HP; DH, Au; Lynen, L; Hopewell, PC

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) causes significant morbidity/mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Africa. Reducing TB burden in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a public health priority. Aim: We determined the factors associated with prevalent TB among patients receiving HAART. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients who had received HAART for ≥12 weeks in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Patients whose TB diagnosis predated HAART were excluded from the study. Pre-HAART data were collected from the clinic records, whereas post-HAART data were obtained through medical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Standard TB screening/diagnostic algorithms as applicable in Nigeria were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with prevalent TB. Results: about 65.8% (222/339) were women. The mean age was 41.1 (10.0) years and 23.6% (73/339) had past history of TB. The prevalence of active TB was 7.7% (26/339). Among these patients, 42.3% (11/26) had pulmonary TB, 34.6% (9/26) had disseminated TB, whereas 23.1% (6/26) had only extra-pulmonary disease. Only 45% (9/20) of patients with pulmonary involvement had positive sputum smear. Factors independently associated with prevalent TB were lower social class (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 31.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1417.3), HAART non-adherence (aOR125.5; 95% CI: 9.6–1636.3), baseline CD4 <200cells/μl (aOR31.0; 95%CI: 1.6–590.6), previous TB (aOR13.8; 95% CI: 2.0–94.1), and current hemoglobin <10 g/dl (aOR10.3; 95% CI: 1.1–99.2). Conclusion: Factors associated with prevalent TB were a lower social class, HAART non-adherence, severe immunosuppression before HAART initiation, previous TB, and anemia post-HAART. TB case finding should be intensified in these high-risk groups. PMID:27213096

  10. Prognostic value of ERCC1 and ERCC2 gene polymorphisms in patients with gastric cancer receiving platinum-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Juanmei; Luo, Min; Cui, Jiandong; Zhou, Shaozhang

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study to analyze whether ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs13181 and rs1799793 gene polymorphisms could serve as potential biomarkers for the prognosis of gastric cancer. A total of 228 patients with pathologically proven gastric cancer and receiving platinum-based chemotherapy were recruited from our hospital between October 2009 and October 2011. The ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs13181 and rs1799793 polymorphisms were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that patients carrying the CA and AA genotypes of ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism showed a poorer response to chemotherapy compared to the CC genotype (CA vs. CC: OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.06-0.98, P = 0.04; AA vs. CC: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.06-0.98, P = 0.01). Moreover, the CA+AA genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism showed a significantly poorer response to chemotherapy (CA+AA vs. CC: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.90). Patients with the AA genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism had a longer overall survival time when compared with the CC genotype (34.91 months vs. 51.19 months, log-rank P = 0.003). The AA genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism in gastric cancer patients was correlated with a higher risk of death from varying causes by the Cox proportional hazards model, compared to the CC genotype (HR = 6.19, 95% CI = 1.42-30.60). In conclusion, the ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism was found to influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival of gastric cancer patients. PMID:26823845

  11. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. PMID:27107672

  12. Prognostic Significance of Central Pulse Pressure for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Repeated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De; Lin, Chung-Sheng; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a life-threatening medical emergency which needs urgent medical attention. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common and necessary for patients with CAD, but it has not completely evaluated in cases with repeated PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the risk factors and prognosis in patients with CAD requiring repeated PCI. This is a prospective observational study. A total of 1126 patients with CAD requiring PCI took part in this study. Clinical parameters including baseline characteristics, hemodynamic data, location of vascular lesions, SYNTAX score, left ventricular ejection fraction, central pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic systolic pressure (CSP), risk factors, and invasive strategies were analyzed to identify the risk factors for patients requiring repeated PCI. We further analyzed the prognosis, including risk for myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and all-cause mortality, in patients with repeated PCI. Among patients with PCI, 276 received repeated PCI. Patients in the repeated PCI group had a higher CPP (66.7 vs 62.5 mm Hg; P = 0.006), CSP (139.9 vs 135.9 mm Hg; P = 0.017), and male preponderance (P = 0.012). Drugs including diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), and aspirin were all used more frequently in the repeated PCI group (all P < 0.05). Freedom from MI was lower in the repeated PCI group than in the single PCI group (P < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that CPP, CSP, number of diseased vessels, male sex, usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI were all predictors for requiring repeated PCI (all P < 0.05). In addition, CPP was a predictor for MI attack, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality in the repeated PCI group (P = 0.010, P = 0.041, P = 0.004, respectively). Elevated CPP, CSP, male sex, multiple diseased vessels, and the usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI

  13. Prognostic Significance of Central Pulse Pressure for Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Receiving Repeated Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De; Lin, Chung-Sheng; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a life-threatening medical emergency which needs urgent medical attention. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common and necessary for patients with CAD, but it has not completely evaluated in cases with repeated PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the risk factors and prognosis in patients with CAD requiring repeated PCI. This is a prospective observational study. A total of 1126 patients with CAD requiring PCI took part in this study. Clinical parameters including baseline characteristics, hemodynamic data, location of vascular lesions, SYNTAX score, left ventricular ejection fraction, central pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic systolic pressure (CSP), risk factors, and invasive strategies were analyzed to identify the risk factors for patients requiring repeated PCI. We further analyzed the prognosis, including risk for myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and all-cause mortality, in patients with repeated PCI. Among patients with PCI, 276 received repeated PCI. Patients in the repeated PCI group had a higher CPP (66.7 vs 62.5 mm Hg; P = 0.006), CSP (139.9 vs 135.9 mm Hg; P = 0.017), and male preponderance (P = 0.012). Drugs including diuretics, beta-blockers (BBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), and aspirin were all used more frequently in the repeated PCI group (all P < 0.05). Freedom from MI was lower in the repeated PCI group than in the single PCI group (P < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that CPP, CSP, number of diseased vessels, male sex, usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI were all predictors for requiring repeated PCI (all P < 0.05). In addition, CPP was a predictor for MI attack, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality in the repeated PCI group (P = 0.010, P = 0.041, P = 0.004, respectively). Elevated CPP, CSP, male sex, multiple diseased vessels, and the usage of diuretics, BBs, ACEIs, and MI were

  14. Evaluation of quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: impact of patient education before treatment initiation

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Ulku; Arpacı, Afey; Demir, Satı; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, Şuayib

    2014-01-01

    Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300

  15. Effect of low-dose (single-dose) magnesium sulfate on postoperative analgesia in hysterectomy patients receiving balanced general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Arman; Haryalchi, Katayoun; Mansour Ghanaie, Mandana; Habibi Arejan, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Aparallel, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was designed to assess the efficacy of single low dose of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) pain relief under balanced general anesthesia. Subject and Methods. Forty women undergoing TAH surgery were assigned to two magnesium sulfate (N = 20) and normal saline (N = 20) groups randomly. The magnesium group received magnesium sulfate 50 mg·kg(-1) in 100 mL of normal saline solution i.v as single-dose, just 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia whereas patients in control group received 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time. The same balanced general anesthesia was induced for two groups. Pethidine consumption was recorded over 24 hours precisely as postoperative analgesic. Pain score was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the surgeries. Results. Postoperative pain score was lower in magnesium group at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the operations significantly (P < 0.05). Pethidine requirement was significantly lower in magnesium group throughout 24 hours after the surgeries (P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Single dose of magnesium sulfate during balanced general anesthesia could be considered as effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TAH.

  16. Phenytoin toxicity in a patient receiving concomitant use of phenytoin and S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mimatsu, Kenji; Oida, Takatsugu; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kida, Kazutoshi; Fukino, Nobutada; Kuboi, Youichi; Kano, Hisao; Amano, Sadao

    2011-06-01

    A 61-year-old man had been receiving phenytoin(225mg/day)and valproate(600mg/day)for several years as the treatment for seizures. He was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer,and S-1 plus cisplatin treatment was administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy because bulky lymph node metastases were found at the time of the initial diagnosis. He complained of weakness of the lower extremities,light -headedness,and trembling of the upper extremities 2 months after the start of concomitant treatment with S-1 plus cisplatin. The serum phenytoin concentration increased to 21. 2mg/mL. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any intracranial lesion such as brain metastasis. Therefore, we diagnosed phenytoin toxicity due to concomitant use of S-1 and phenytoin,and the dose of phenytoin was then decreased to 150 mg. Although the weakness of the lower extremities improved,light -headedness remained. Phenytoin and valproate treatments were stopped,and he was able to walk 7 days after the termination of therapy. It is important to predict the timing of phenytoin toxicity due to S-1,and therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed in patients receiving S-1 plus cisplatin and phenytoin. PMID:21677496

  17. Oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients receiving intravenous iron therapy and the role of N-acetylcysteine in preventing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Swarnalatha, G; Ram, R; Neela, Prasad; Naidu, M U R; Dakshina Murty, K V

    2010-09-01

    To determine the contribution of injectable iron administered to hemodialysis (HD) patients in causing oxidative stress and the beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in reducing it, we studied in a prospective, double blinded, randomized controlled, cross over trial 14 adult HD patients who were randomized into two groups; one group received NAC in a dose of 600 mgs twice daily for 10 days prior to intravenous iron therapy and the other group received placebo. Both the groups were subjected to intravenous iron therapy, 100 mg of iron sucrose in 100 mL of normal saline given over a period of one hour. Blood samples for the markers of oxidative stress were taken before and after iron therapy. After the allowance of a week of wash out period for the effect of N-acetylcysteine we crossed over the patients to the opposite regimen. We measured the lipid peroxidation marker, malondiaaldehyde (MDA), to evaluate the oxidative stress and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) for the antioxidant level in addition to the highly sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP). Non-invasive assessment of endothelial dysfunction was measured by digital plethysmography before and after intravenous iron therapy. There was an increase of MDA (21.97 + 3.65% vs 7.06 + 3.65%) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (HsCRP) (11.19 + 24.63% vs 13.19 + 7.7%) after iron administration both in the placebo and the NAC groups. NAC reduced the baseline acute systemic generation of oxidative stress when compared to placebo, which was statistically significant with MDA (12.76 + 4.4% vs 9.37 + 4.40%: P = 0.032) but not with HsCRP though there was a declining trend (2.85 + 22.75 % vs 8.93 + 5.19%: P = 0.112). Pre-treatment with NAC reduced the endothelial dysfunction when compared to placebo, but it was not statistically significant, except for reflection index (RI). We conclude that in our HD patients NAC reduced the oxidative stress before and after the administration of intravenous iron therapy in

  18. Course and Predictors of Cognitive Function in Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Controlled Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Brian D.; Jim, Heather S.L.; Booth-Jones, Margaret; Small, Brent J.; Sutton, Steven K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Park, Jong Y.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Fishman, Mayer N.; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer may be at risk for cognitive impairment; however, evidence is mixed in the existing literature. Our study examined the impact of ADT on impaired cognitive performance and explored potential demographic and genetic predictors of impaired performance. Patients and Methods Patients with prostate cancer were assessed before or within 21 days of starting ADT (n = 58) and 6 and 12 months later. Age- and education-matched patients with prostate cancer treated with prostatectomy only (n = 84) and men without prostate cancer (n = 88) were assessed at similar intervals. Participants provided baseline blood samples for genotyping. Mean-level cognitive performance was compared using mixed models; cognitive impairment was compared using generalized estimating equations. Results ADT recipients demonstrated higher rates of impaired cognitive performance over time relative to all controls (P = .01). Groups did not differ at baseline (P > .05); however, ADT recipients were more likely to demonstrate impaired performance within 6 and 12 months (P for both comparisons < .05). Baseline age, cognitive reserve, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and hot flash interference did not moderate the impact of ADT on impaired cognitive performance (P for all comparisons ≥ .09). In exploratory genetic analyses, GNB3 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1047776 was associated with increased rates of impaired performance over time in the ADT group (P < .001). Conclusion Men treated with ADT were more likely to demonstrate impaired cognitive performance within 6 months after starting ADT relative to matched controls and to continue to do so within 12 months after starting ADT. If confirmed, findings may have implications for patient education regarding the risks and benefits of ADT. PMID:25964245

  19. Incremental Benefit of a Home Visit Following Discharge for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions Receiving Transitional Care

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Carlos; Kasper, Elizabeth W.; Williams, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transitional care management is effective at reducing hospital readmissions among patients with multiple chronic conditions, but evidence is lacking on the relative benefit of the home visit as a component of transitional care. The sample included non-dual Medicaid recipients with multiple chronic conditions enrolled in Community Care of North Carolina (CCNC), with a hospital discharge between July 2010 and December 2012. Using claims data and care management records, this study retrospectively examined whether home visits reduced the odds of 30-day readmission compared to less intensive transitional care support, using multivariate logistic regression to control for demographic and clinical characteristics. Additionally, the researchers examined group differences within clinical risk strata on inpatient admissions and total cost of care in the 6 months following hospital discharge. Of 35,174 discharges receiving transitional care from a CCNC care manager, 21% (N = 7468) included a home visit. In multivariate analysis, home visits significantly reduced the odds of readmission within 30 days (odds ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.57). At the 6-month follow-up, home visits were associated with fewer inpatient admissions within 4 of 6 clinical risk strata, and lower total costs of care for highest risk patients (average per member per month cost difference $970; P < 0.01). For complex chronic patients, home visits reduced the likelihood of a 30-day readmission by almost half compared to less intensive forms of nurse-led transitional care support. Higher risk patients experienced the greatest benefit in terms of number of inpatient admissions and total cost of care in the 6 months following discharge. (Population Health Management 2016;19:163–170) PMID:26431255

  20. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 02: Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, J; Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N; David, M; Faria, S; Souhami, L; Cury, F; Duclos, M; El Naqa, I

    2014-08-15

    Inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability has recently been shown to have a genetic component. This genetic component may play a key role in explaining the fluctuating rates of radiation-induced toxicities (RITs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have thus far yielded inconsistent results in delineating RITs while copy number variations (CNVs) have not yet been investigated for such purposes. We explore a radiogenomic modeling approach to investigate the association of CNVs and SNPs, along with clinical and dosimetric variables, in radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in prostate cancer patients treated with curative hypofractionated irradiation. A cohort of 62 prostate cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) between 2002 to 2010 were retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs5489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Late toxicity rates for RB grade 2 and 3 and grade 3 alone were 29.0% and 12.9%, respectively. ED toxicity was found to be 62.9%. Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) and resampling by cross-validation. Binary variables were evaluated using Chi-squared contingency table analysis and multivariate models by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ{sup 2}=14.6, p<0.001 and ED: χ{sup 2}=4.88, p=0.0272) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ{sup 2}=0.278, p=0.599 and ED: χ{sup 2}=0.112, p=0.732). Radiogenomic modeling yielded significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (AUC=0.665) and ED (AUC=0.754). These results indicate that CNVs may be potential predictive biomarkers of both late ED and RB.

  1. Regression of Some High-risk Features of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in Patients Receiving Intensive Statin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vavvas, Demetrios G.; Daniels, Anthony B.; Kapsala, Zoi G.; Goldfarb, Jeremy W.; Ganotakis, Emmanuel; Loewenstein, John I.; Young, Lucy H.; Gragoudas, Evangelos S.; Eliott, Dean; Kim, Ivana K.; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K.; Miller, Joan W.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains the leading cause of blindness in developed countries, and affects more than 150 million worldwide. Despite effective anti-angiogenic therapies for the less prevalent neovascular form of AMD, treatments are lacking for the more prevalent dry form. Similarities in risk factors and pathogenesis between AMD and atherosclerosis have led investigators to study the effects of statins on AMD incidence and progression with mixed results. A limitation of these studies has been the heterogeneity of AMD disease and the lack of standardization in statin dosage. Objective We were interested in studying the effects of high-dose statins, similar to those showing regression of atherosclerotic plaques, in AMD. Design Pilot multicenter open-label prospective clinical study of 26 patients with diagnosis of AMD and the presence of many large, soft drusenoid deposits. Patients received 80 mg of atorvastatin daily and were monitored at baseline and every 3 months with complete ophthalmologic exam, best corrected visual acuity (VA), fundus photographs, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and blood work (AST, ALT, CPK, total cholesterol, TSH, creatinine, as well as a pregnancy test for premenopausal women). Results Twenty-three subjects completed a minimum follow-up of 12 months. High-dose atorvastatin resulted in regression of drusen deposits associated with vision gain (+ 3.3 letters, p = 0.06) in 10 patients. No subjects progressed to advanced neovascular AMD. Conclusions High-dose statins may result in resolution of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) and improvement in VA, without atrophy or neovascularization in a high-risk subgroup of AMD patients. Confirmation from larger studies is warranted. PMID:27077128

  2. Effects of Gingko biloba supplementation in Alzheimer's disease patients receiving cholinesterase inhibitors: data from the ICTUS study.

    PubMed

    Canevelli, Marco; Adali, Nawal; Kelaiditi, Eirini; Cantet, Christelle; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Cesari, Matteo

    2014-05-15

    Ginkgo biloba (Gb) is currently the most investigated and adopted herbal remedy for cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of dementia still remains controversial. Specifically, the added effects of Gb in subjects already receiving "conventional" anti-dementia treatments have been to date very scarcely investigated. We evaluated whether the use of Gb is associated with additional cognitive and functional benefit in AD patients already in treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs). Data are from mild to moderate AD patients under ChEI treatment recruited in the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment USe (ICTUS) study. Mixed model analyses were performed to measure six-monthly modifications in the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) subscale score, and the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale over a follow-up of 1 year according to the additional Gb supplementation. A total of 828 subjects were considered for the present analyses. Significantly different modifications at the MMSE score over the 12-month follow-up were reported between patients on combined therapy compared to those only taking ChEIs. On the contrary, the modification of the ADAS-Cog score between the two groups did not show statistically significant differences, although similar trends were noticed. No significant modifications of the two adopted outcome measures were observed at the mid-term 6-month evaluation. The modifications over time of the ADL score did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups of interest. Our findings suggest that Gb may provide some added cognitive benefits in AD patients already under ChEIs treatment. The clinical meaningfulness of such effects remains to be confirmed and clarified.

  3. Spontaneous calf hematoma in a patient with diabetic nephropathy receiving maintenance hemodialysis: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Ling, Fengxia; Tan, Lihua; Li, Huabing; Hu, Chun; Luo, Ying; Tang, Dang; Liu, Fuyou; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Sun, Lin

    2015-10-01

    We report the outcome of a 52-year-old patient with diabetic nephropathy and receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as an anticoagulant for 2 years. He presented right lower limb pain accompanied with difficulty in walking for 2 months, and had no history of bleeding tendency or trauma. Physical examination revealed marked swelling and tenderness on his right lower limb. By ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnoses, the calf hematoma was diagnosed and identified with venous thrombosis. Following treatment with heparin-free HD, the swelling regressed and pain subsided, and a follow-up MRI showed complete dissolution of hematoma. However, similar symptoms recurred in the right upper limb after 2 months without any predisposition, he was just placed on HD with LMWH, and symptoms regressed following the aforementioned therapy. This suggests that HD patients, especially with diabetic nephropathy having extremity hematoma, should be watched for the development of spontaneous hemorrhage that can be differentially diagnosed by imaging tests, such as MRI, and can be effectively treated with heparin-free HD.

  4. Sensitive ultrasonic detection of dystrophic skeletal muscle in patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy using an entropy-based signal receiver.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael S; Marsh, Jon N; Wallace, Kirk D; Donahue, Tamara A; Connolly, Anne M; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-08-01

    The dystrophinopathies comprise a group of X-linked genetic diseases that feature dystrophin deficiency. Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy are characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal, smooth, and/or cardiac muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most severe dystrophinopathy, with an incidence of 1:3500 male births. Despite understanding the structural and genetic basis for DMD, the pathogenesis and clinical basis for more severe involvement in specific skeletal muscle groups and the heart are poorly understood. Current techniques, such as strength testing for monitoring progress of disease and therapy in DMD patients, are imprecise and physically demanding for test subjects. Ultrasound is well-suited to detect changes in structure and organization in muscle tissue in a manner that makes low demands on the patient. Therefore, we investigated the use of ultrasound to quantitatively phenotype the remodeling process in patients with DMD. Beam-formed radio-frequency (RF) data were acquired from the skeletal muscles of nine DMD and five normal subjects imaged with a clinical imaging system (HDI5000 w/7 MHz probe applied above left biceps muscle). From these data, images were reconstructed using B-mode (log of analytic signal magnitude) and information-theoretic receivers (H(f)-receiver). H(f) images obtained from dystrophic muscle contained extensive "mottled" regions (i.e., areas with heterogeneous image contrast) that were not readily apparent from the B-Mode images. The 2-D autocorrelation of DMD H(f) images have broader peaks than those of normal subjects, which is indicative of larger scatterer sizes, consistent with pathologic changes of fibers, edema and fatty infiltration. Comparison of the relative peak widths (full width measured at 60% maximum) of the autocorrelation of the DMD and normal H(f) images shows a quantitative difference between the two groups (p < 0.005, student two-tailed paired t-test). Consequently, these

  5. Protons Offer Reduced Normal-Tissue Exposure for Patients Receiving Postoperative Radiotherapy for Resected Pancreatic Head Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Romaine C.; Huh, Soon N.; Prado, Karl L.; Yi, Byong Y.; Sharma, Navesh K.; Ho, Meng W.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Li, Zuofeng; Regine, William F.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential role for adjuvant proton-based radiotherapy (PT) for resected pancreatic head cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 2008 and November 2008, 8 consecutive patients with resected pancreatic head cancers underwent optimized intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning. IMRT plans used between 10 and 18 fields and delivered 45 Gy to the initial planning target volume (PTV) and a 5.4 Gy boost to a reduced PTV. PTVs were defined according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 radiotherapy guidelines. Ninety-five percent of PTVs received 100% of the target dose and 100% of the PTVs received 95% of the target dose. Normal tissue constraints were as follows: right kidney V18 Gy to <70%; left kidney V18 Gy to <30%; small bowel/stomach V20 Gy to <50%, V45 Gy to <15%, V50 Gy to <10%, and V54 Gy to <5%; liver V30 Gy to <60%; and spinal cord maximum to 46 Gy. Optimized two- to three-field three-dimensional conformal proton plans were retrospectively generated on the same patients. The team generating the proton plans was blinded to the dose distributions achieved by the IMRT plans. The IMRT and proton plans were then compared. A Wilcoxon paired t-test was performed to compare various dosimetric points between the two plans for each patient. Results: All proton plans met all normal tissue constraints and were isoeffective with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of PTV coverage. The proton plans offered significantly reduced normal-tissue exposure over the IMRT plans with respect to the following: median small bowel V20 Gy, 15.4% with protons versus 47.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0156); median gastric V20 Gy, 2.3% with protons versus 20.0% with IMRT (p = 0.0313); and median right kidney V18 Gy, 27.3% with protons versus 50.5% with IMRT (p = 0.0156). Conclusions: By reducing small bowel and stomach exposure, protons have the potential to reduce the acute and late toxicities of postoperative chemoradiation in this setting.

  6. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, CEA ratio, and treatment outcome of rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiation and surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods Between 2000 and 2009, 138 patients with advanced rectal cancer receiving CRT before surgery at our hospital were retrospectively classified into 3 groups: pre-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group L; n = 87); pre-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml and post-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group H-L; n = 32); and both pre- and post-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml (group H-H; n = 19). CEA ratio (defined as post-CRT CEA divided by pre-CRT CEA), post-CRT CEA level and other factors were reviewed for prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR). Results Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was better in groups L (69.0%) and H-L (74.5%) than in group H-H (44.9%) (p = 0.024). Pathologic complete response was observed in 19.5%, 21.9% and 5.3% of groups L, H-L and H-H respectively (p = 0.281). Multivariate analysis showed that ypN stage and pCR were independent prognostic factors for DFS and that post-CRT CEA level was independently predictive of pCR. As a whole, post-CRT CEA <2.61 ng/ml predicted pCR (sensitivity 76.0%; specificity 58.4%). For those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml, post-CRT CEA and CEA ratio both predicted pCR (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 76.7%). Conclusions In patients with pre-CRT serum CEA ≥6 ng/ml, those with “normalized” CEA levels after CRT may have similar DFS to those with “normal” (<6 ng/ml) pre-CRT values. Post-CRT CEA level is a predictor for pCR, especially in those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml. PMID:23452434

  7. Estimating the economic burden of cardiovascular events in patients receiving lipid-modifying therapy in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Mark D; Gleeson, Michelle; Kutikova, Lucie; Griffiths, Robert I; Azough, Ali; Khunti, Kamlesh; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Ray, Kausik K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the costs to the UK National Health Service of cardiovascular (CV) events among individuals receiving lipid-modifying therapy. Design Retrospective cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink records from 2006 to 2012 to identify individuals with their first and second CV-related hospitalisations (first event and second event cohorts). Within-person differences were used to estimate CV-related outcomes. Setting Patients in the UK who had their first CV event between January 2006 and March 2012. Participants Patients ≥18 years who had a CV event and received at least 2 lipid-modifying therapy prescriptions within 180 days beforehand. Primary and secondary outcome measures Direct medical costs (2014 £) were estimated in 3 periods: baseline (pre-event), acute (6 months afterwards) and long-term (subsequent 30 months). Primary outcomes included incremental costs, resource usage and total costs per period. Results There were 24 093 patients in the first event cohort of whom 5274 were included in the second event cohort. The mean incremental acute CV event costs for the first event and second event cohorts were: coronary artery bypass graft/percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (CABG/PTCA) £5635 and £5823, myocardial infarction £4275 and £4301, ischaemic stroke £3512 and £4572, heart failure £2444 and £3461, unstable angina £2179 and £2489 and transient ischaemic attack £1537 and £1814. The mean incremental long-term costs were: heart failure £848 and £2829, myocardial infarction £922 and £1385, ischaemic stroke £973 and £682, transient ischaemic attack £705 and £1692, unstable angina £328 and £677, and CABG/PTCA £−368 and £599. Hospitalisation accounted for 95% of acute and 61% of long-term incremental costs. Higher comorbidity was associated with higher long-term costs. Conclusions Revascularisation and myocardial infarction were associated with the highest incremental costs following

  8. Bivalirudin versus unfractionated heparin: a meta-analysis of patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed; Gorog, Diana A; Prasad, Abhiram; Srinivasan, Manivannan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with generally high thrombus burden and non-ST segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS), with lower thrombus burden. In the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ACS, bivalirudin appears superior to unfractionated heparin (UFH), driven by reduced major bleeding. Recent trials suggest that the benefit of bivalirudin may be reduced with use of transradial access and evolution in antiplatelet therapy. Moreover, a differential role of bivalirudin in ACS cohorts is unknown. Methods A meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing bivalirudin and UFH in patients with ACS receiving PCI, with separate analyses in STEMI and NSTE-ACS groups. Overall estimates of treatment effect were calculated with random-effects model. Results In 5 trials of STEMI (10 358 patients), bivalirudin increased the risk of acute stent thrombosis (ST) (OR 3.62; CI 1.95 to 6.74; p<0.0001) compared with UFH. Bivalirudin reduced the risk of major bleeding only when compared with UFH plus planned glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) (OR 0.49; CI 0.36 to 0.67; p<0.00001). In 14 NSTE-ACS trials (25 238 patients), there was no difference between bivalirudin and UFH in death, myocardial infarction or ST. However, bivalirudin reduced the risk of major bleeding compared with UFH plus planned GPI (OR 0.52; CI 0.43 to 0.62; p<0.00001), or UFH plus provisional GPI (OR 0.68; CI 0.46 to 1.01; p=0.05). The reduction in major bleeding with bivalirudin was not related to vascular access site. Conclusions Bivalirudin increases the risk of acute ST in STEMI, but may confer an advantage over UFH in NSTE-ACS while undergoing PCI, reducing major bleeding without an increase in ST. PMID:26448869

  9. Effects of exercise dose and type on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Yasui, Yutaka; Reid, Robert D; Jespersen, Diana; Cook, Diane; Proulx, Carolyn; Trinh, Linda; Dolan, Lianne B; Wooding, Evyanne; Forbes, Cynthia C; McKenzie, Donald C

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effects of different doses and types of exercise on sleep quality in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A multicenter trial in Canada randomized 301 breast cancer patients between 2008 and 2011 to thrice weekly, supervised exercise during chemotherapy consisting of either a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise (STAN; n = 96), a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise (HIGH; n = 101), or a combined dose of 50-60 min of aerobic and resistance exercise (COMB; n = 104). The secondary sleep outcomes in the trial were assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) at baseline, twice during chemotherapy, and postchemotherapy. We analyzed the global PSQI and the component scores. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated that the HIGH group was statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.90; 95 % CI -0.05 to -1.76; p = 0.039) as well as subjective sleep quality (p = 0.028) and sleep latency (p = 0.049). The COMB group was borderline statistically superior to the STAN group for global sleep quality (mean group difference = -0.76; 95 % CI +0.11 to -1.62; p = 0.085) as well as sleep duration (p = 0.051); and statistically superior for sleep efficiency (p = 0.040), and percentage of poor sleepers (p = 0.045). Compared to a standard volume of aerobic exercise, higher volumes of both aerobic and combined exercise improved some aspects of sleep quality during breast cancer chemotherapy. Exercise may be an attractive option to manage sleep dysfunction in cancer patients during chemotherapy.

  10. Prognostic factors in non-small cell lung cancer patients who received neoadjuvant therapy and curative resection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chen-Ping; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and more and more treatment modalities have been introduced in order to improve patients’ survival. For patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), survival prognosis is poor and multimodality neoadjuvant therapies are given to improve patients’ survival. However, the possibility of occult metastases may lead to discrepancy between clinical and pathologic staging and underestimation of the disease severity. This discrepancy could be the reason for poor survival prediction reported by previous studies which conducted their analysis from the point of view of clinical stage. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between clinico-pathologic factors and survival from the pathologic point of view and to try to identify survival prognostic factors. Methods From January 2005 to June 2011, 88 patients received neoadjuvant therapy because of initial locally advanced disease, followed by anatomic resection and mediastinal lymph node (LN) dissection. All their clinico-pathologic data were collected from a retrospective review of the medical records and subjected to further analysis. Results We found that total metastatic LN ratio (P=0.01) and tumor size (P=0.02) were predictive factors for disease free survival (DFS). We used these two prognostic factors to stratify all patients into four groups. Group 4 (tumor size ≤5, total metastatic LN ratio ≤0.065) had the best DFS curve, while the DFS curve progressively deteriorated across group 3 (tumor size ≤5, total metastatic LN ratio >0.065), group 2 (tumor size >5, total metastatic LN ratio ≤0.065) and group 1 (tumor size >5, total metastatic LN ratio >0.065). However, no definitive prognostic factor could be identified in this study. Conclusions In conclusion, tumor size greater than 5 cm and total metastatic LN ratio greater than 0.065 could predict the DFS of patients with advanced NSCLC after multimodality

  11. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Steven M.; Schippers, Mandy; Maher, Carol A.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patients' preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 221 of 296 eligible) accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”). Results. Most (n = 155, 70%) desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10), followed by email and telephone (both 5/10), text messaging (1/10), and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10). Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p < 0.001), telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p < 0.001), and email (coefficient = 2.059, p = 0.02). Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p < 0.001), texting (coefficient = −0.096, p < 0.001), and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls. PMID:26491667

  12. Does isoniazid chemoprophylaxis increase the frequency of hepatotoxicity in patients receiving anti-TNF-α agent with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug?

    PubMed Central

    Cansu, Döndü Üsküdar; Güncan, Sabri; Bilge, N. Şule Yaşar; Kaşifoğlu, Timuçin; Korkmaz, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of isoniazid (INH)-related hepatotoxicity in patients with rheumatologic diseases receiving tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonists along with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). Material and Methods We have retrospectively evaluated 87 patients receiving anti-TNFα agents who were followed up between June 2005 and February 2010 at our rheumatology department. Sixty-one of 87 patients have received INH prophylaxis for 9 months for latent tuberculosis infection. Results A total of 61 (70.1%) of 87 patients used INH prophylaxis (Group I), while the remaining 26 (29.9%) (Group II) had not; 53 patients had used any DMARD in Group I, while 21 patients had used in Group II. No significant differences were found among Group I and II with respect to clinical features. When two groups were compared, in Group I, elevations of liver enzymes were detected in five patients (8.1%) who had normal baseline values. Among these patients, hepatotoxicity developed in two patients. Hepatotoxicity developed one patient in Group II (p=0.85). Conclusion INH chemoprophylaxis was well tolerated in patients using anti-TNF-α agent and a DMARD. It seems not to be a strong risk factor for hepatotoxicity. However, comorbidities and other drugs used may be additional factors in the elevation of transaminases.

  13. Utilization of bone densitometry for prediction and administration of bisphosphonates to prevent osteoporosis in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases receiving antiandrogen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Abby; Khan, Muhammad A; Gujja, Swetha; Govindarajan, Rangaswmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer subjects with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are recommended to have baseline and serial bone densitometry and receive bisphosphonates. The purpose of this community population study was to assess the utilization of bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Methods A cohort study of men aged 65 years or older with non-metastatic incident diagnoses of prostate cancer was obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare claims between 2004 and 2008. Claims were used to assess prescribed treatment of ADT, bone densitometry, and bisphosphonates. Results A total of 30,846 incident prostate cancer cases receiving ADT and aged 65 years or older had no bone metastases; 87.3% (n=26,935) on ADT did not receive either bone densitometry or bisphosphonate therapy. Three percent (n=931) of the cases on ADT received bisphosphonate therapy without ever receiving bone densitometry, 8.8% (n=2,702) of the cases on ADT received bone densitometry without receiving intravenous bisphosphonates, while nearly 1% (0.90%, n=278) of the cases on ADT received both bone densitometry and bisphosphonates. Analysis showed treatment differed by patient characteristics. Conclusion Contrary to the recommendations, bone densitometry and bisphosphonate therapy are underutilized in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:25565887

  14. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  15. Switching Lopinavir/Ritonavir to Atazanavir/Ritonavir vs Adding Atorvastatin in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy With Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wangpatharawanit, Phanthaboon; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2016-09-15

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens with hypercholesterolemia. Reduction of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein was significantly greater in patients who were randomized to the addition of atorvastatin compared with those who were switched from lopinavir/ritonavir to atazanavir/ritonavir. PMID:27402817

  16. Performance of a Nomogram Predicting Disease-Specific Survival After an R0 Resection for Gastric Cancer in Patients Receiving Postoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, Johan L.; Coit, Daniel G.; Baser, Raymond E.; Gönen, Mithat; Goodman, Karyn A.; Brennan, Murray F.; Jansen, Edwin P.M.; Boot, Henk; Velde, Cornelis J.H. van de; Cats, Annemieke; Verheij, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The internationally validated Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) gastric carcinoma nomogram was based on patients who underwent curative (R0) gastrectomy, without any other therapy. The purpose of the current study was to assess the performance of this gastric cancer nomogram in patients who received chemoradiation therapy after an R0 resection for gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: In a combined dataset of 76 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), and 63 patients from MSKCC, who received postoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) after an R0 gastrectomy, the nomogram was validated by means of the concordance index (CI) and a calibration plot. Results: The concordance index for the nomogram was 0.64, which was lower than the CI of the nomogram for patients who received no adjuvant therapy (0.80). In the calibration plot, observed survival was approximately 20% higher than the nomogram-predicted survival for patients receiving postoperative CRT. Conclusions: The MSKCC gastric carcinoma nomogram significantly underpredicted survival for patients in the current study, suggesting an impact of postoperative CRT on survival in patients who underwent an R0 resection for gastric cancer, which has been demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. This analysis stresses the need for updating nomograms with the incorporation of multimodal strategies.

  17. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes for Patients From Multiple Institutions Receiving Conventional or Hypofractionated Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Diot, Quentin; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Senan, Suresh; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Lawrence, Michael V.; Miften, Moyed; Palma, David A.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess changes in computed tomography (CT)–defined normal lung tissue density after conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The pre-RT and post-RT CT scans from 118 and 111 patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT, respectively, at 3 institutions were registered to each other and to the 3-dimensional dose distribution to quantify dose-dependent changes in normal lung tissue density. Dose-response curves (DRC) for groups of patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT were generated for each institution, and the frequency of density changes >80 Hounsfield Units (HU) was modeled depending on the fractionation type using a Probit model for different follow-up times. Results: For the pooled data from all institutions, there were significant differences in the DRC between the conventional and hypofractionated groups; the respective doses resulting in 50% complication risk (TD{sub 50}) were 62 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 57-67) versus 36 Gy (CI 33-39) at <6 months, 48 Gy (CI 46-51) versus 31 Gy (CI 28-33) at 6-12 months, and 47 Gy (CI 45-49) versus 35 Gy (32-37) at >12 months. The corresponding m values (slope of the DRC) were 0.52 (CI 0.46-0.59) versus 0.31 (CI 0.28-0.34) at <6 months, 0.46 (CI 0.42-0.51) versus 0.30 (CI 0.26-0.34) at 6-12 months, and 0.45 (CI 0.42-0.50) versus 0.31 (CI 0.27-0.35) at >12 months (P<.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Compared with conventional fractionation, hypofractionation has a lower TD{sub 50} and m value, both suggesting an increased degree of normal tissue density sensitivity with hypofractionation.

  18. Primary Effusion Lymphoma in an Elderly HIV-Negative Patient with Hemodialysis: Importance of Evaluation for Pleural Effusion in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Isegawa, Takuya; Shimabukuro, Akira; Yonaha, Tomoki; Yonaha, Hiroyasu

    2014-05-01

    Pleural effusion is a ubiquitous complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Common etiologies of pleural effusion in this patient group are heart failure, volume overload, parapneumonic effusion, tuberculotic pleuritis, and uremic pleuritis. Although thoracentesis is a useful diagnostic method of pleural effusion, empirical reduction of the dry weight is often attempted without thoracentesis because pleural effusion is commonly caused by volume overload and responds to the dry-weight reduction. However, this empiricism has a risk of overlooking or delaying the diagnosis of potentially fatal etiologies that need specific treatments. We report an 86-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative male on HD with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting with characteristic lymphomatous effusions in the absence of solid tumor masses, which is in association with human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection in immunocompromised individuals. The patient presented with left-sided pleural effusion. This is the first case report of PEL developing in a patient receiving HD. Thoracentesis and cytological analysis of the effusion was key to the diagnosis. We also review the literature regarding pleural effusion in HD patients. Further, we examine Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus/HHV8-negative effusion-based lymphoma, a newly proposed distinct lymphoma that clinically and cytomorphologically resembles PEL, because it can be cured without chemotherapy. This report may arouse clinicians' attention regarding the importance of evaluation for pleural effusion in HD patients, especially when the effusion or symptoms associated with pleural effusion are refractory to volume control. PMID:24987405

  19. DPD and UGT1A1 deficiency in colorectal cancer patients receiving triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Mazzali, Cristina; Iacovelli, Roberto; Maggi, Claudia; Gariboldi, Manuela; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Mennitto, Roberta; Bossi, Ilaria; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Aims Triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan is a standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPYD and UGT1A1 influence fluoropyrimdines and irinotecan adverse events (AEs). Low frequency DPYD variants (c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T) are validated but more frequent ones (c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G and c.1896 T > C) are not. rs895819 T > C polymorphism in hsa-mir-27a is associated with reduced DPD activity. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of a pharmacogenetic panel for patients receiving triplet combinations. Methods Germline DNA was available from 64 CRC patients enrolled between 2008 and 2013 in two phase II trials of capecitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. SNPs were determined by Real-Time PCR. We evaluated the functional variants in DPYD (rare: c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T; most common: c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C), hsa-mir-27a (rs895819) and UGT1A1 (*28) genes to assess their association with grade 3–4 AEs. Results None of the patients carried rare DPYD variants. We found DPYD c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C in heterozygosity in 19%, 5% and 8%, respectively, homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a in 9% and homozygous UGT1A1*28 in 8%. Grade 3–4 AEs were observed in 36% patients and were associated with DPYD c.496A > G (odds ratio (OR) 4.93, 95% CI 1.29, 18.87; P = 0.021) and homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a (OR 11.11, 95% CI 1.21, 102.09; P = 0.020). Carriers of DPYD c.1896 T > C and homozygous UGT1A1*28 showed an OR of 8.42 (95% CI 0.88, 80.56; P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent value for DPYD c.496A > G and c.1896 T > C. Conclusions Concomitant assessment of DPYD variants and the UGT1A1*28 allele is a promising strategy needing further validation for dose personalization. PMID:25782327

  20. Opioid-induced constipation reversal in response to placebo in a patient with a history of IBS receiving methadone maintenance therapy.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-11-13

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of the major side effects in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Quite often, constipation becomes a factor significantly affecting therapeutic options and choices. Currently used approaches are symptomatic and in many cases ineffective. At the same time, it is well known that the gastrointestinal system is a subject for psychosomatic influences. In this case report, we describe an unexpected outcome of placebo administration in a patient suffering from OIC since her participation in MMT. The patient participated in a triple-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of naloxone for treatment of OIC. As part of the study crossover design, the patient received 1 week of placebo followed by 1 week of naloxone, and had significant improvement in her bowel functioning when receiving placebo, then returned to baseline during the second week of the study.

  1. Anti Mullerian Hormone: Ovarian response indicator in young patients receiving Long GnRH Agonist Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Zehra; Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Rehman, Rehana; Alam, Faiza; Arif, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anti Mullerian hormone (AMH) is gaining place as ovarian marker, chiefly in infertility assistance. We explored its correlation with oocytes retrieval after long GnRH agonist protocol for stimulation, in younger and older infertile population. Methods: This retrospective analysis compiled data of 166 females, receiving ICSI treatment from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum FSH, LH, Estadiol, AMH and antral follicle count were assessed. Outcomes were measured as good (5 to 19 oocytes) and bad responders. Results: Higher discriminatory power of AMH (AUROC; 0.771; p < 0.05) was seen in comparison to FSH (0.692; p < 0.05) and AFC (0.690; p < 0.01). AMH reported strongest association with oocyte retrieved (odds ratio of 15.06). Subgroup analysis reported 68.6 % risk of bad response with AMH levels of less than 1.37ng/ml. This association was observed more significant in young infertile patients <35 year of age (r=0.245; p=0.012) versus older population >35 year (r=0.169; p>0.05). Conclusion: Our study reaffirms that serum AMH correlates well with oocytes retrieved, particularly in females younger than 35 years. We suggest incorporation of AMH in baseline assessment of infertile females, who are falsely advised to postpone interventions based on their age and normal FSH levels. PMID:27648045

  2. HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Susan M.; Mahlase, Gethwana; MacDonald, Susan; Christie, Sarah; Cornman, Deborah H.; Fisher, William A.; Greener, Ross; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Pillay, Sandy; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive women and men receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Across 16 clinics, 1,890 HIV+ patients on ART completed a risk-focused audio computer-assisted self-interview upon enrolling in a prevention-with-positives intervention trial. Results demonstrated that 62 % of HIV-positive patients’ recent unprotected sexual acts involved HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners. For HIV-positive women, multivariable correlates of unprotected sex with HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners were indicative of poor HIV prevention-related information and of sexual partnership-associated behavioral skills barriers. For HIV-positive men, multivariable correlates represented motivational barriers, characterized by negative condom attitudes and the experience of depressive symptomatology, as well as possible underlying information deficits. Findings suggest that interventions addressing gender-specific and culturally-relevant information, motivation, and behavioral skills barriers could help reduce HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive South Africans. PMID:24158486

  3. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  4. Anti Mullerian Hormone: Ovarian response indicator in young patients receiving Long GnRH Agonist Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Zehra; Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Rehman, Rehana; Alam, Faiza; Arif, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anti Mullerian hormone (AMH) is gaining place as ovarian marker, chiefly in infertility assistance. We explored its correlation with oocytes retrieval after long GnRH agonist protocol for stimulation, in younger and older infertile population. Methods: This retrospective analysis compiled data of 166 females, receiving ICSI treatment from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum FSH, LH, Estadiol, AMH and antral follicle count were assessed. Outcomes were measured as good (5 to 19 oocytes) and bad responders. Results: Higher discriminatory power of AMH (AUROC; 0.771; p < 0.05) was seen in comparison to FSH (0.692; p < 0.05) and AFC (0.690; p < 0.01). AMH reported strongest association with oocyte retrieved (odds ratio of 15.06). Subgroup analysis reported 68.6 % risk of bad response with AMH levels of less than 1.37ng/ml. This association was observed more significant in young infertile patients <35 year of age (r=0.245; p=0.012) versus older population >35 year (r=0.169; p>0.05). Conclusion: Our study reaffirms that serum AMH correlates well with oocytes retrieved, particularly in females younger than 35 years. We suggest incorporation of AMH in baseline assessment of infertile females, who are falsely advised to postpone interventions based on their age and normal FSH levels.

  5. What are the hemodynamic and respiratory effects of passive limb exercise for mechanically ventilated patients receiving low-dose vasopressor/inotropic support?

    PubMed

    Genc, Arzu; Koca, Ugur; Gunerli, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Passive limb exercises (PLEs) are used widely in the management of unconscious patients and an early start is recommended. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of PLEs on hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients receiving low-dose vasopressor/inotropic support. The charts of 120 mechanically ventilated patients who underwent PLEs were evaluated retrospectively between January 2000 and July 2002. Patients were grouped on the basis of administration of vasopressor/inotropic support. Thirty-eight patients did not get vasopressor/inotropic support (group 1) and 82 patients received low-dose vasopressor/inotropic support (dopamine <10 μg/kg/min, noradrenaline/adrenaline <0.1; group 2). Central venous pressure, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded before and immediately after PLEs. After PLEs in group 1 patients, central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure values increased significantly, and in group 2 patients, central venous pressure increased significantly (P < .05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the rate of change of hemodynamic or respiratory parameters between the 2 groups after the PLEs (P > .05). This retrospective study confirmed that PLEs result in similar hemodynamic and respiratory changes in critically ill patients who received low-dose vasopressor/inotropic support versus those who do not.

  6. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Receiving Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancers: A Double-Blinded Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.-C. Que, Jenny; Lin, Ki-L.; Leung, Henry Wing-Cheung; Lu, C.-L.; Chang, C.-H.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of zinc supplementation on the survival of patients after receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: Patients were randomly divided into two groups; experimental and control. Patients in the experimental group received a predetermined dose of a zinc supplement, and the control group, a placebo. The 50 patients in each group could be considered homogenous with respect to medical histories, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. Results: Patients in both groups appeared to have similar results for 3-year overall, disease-free, and metastases-free survival rates (p = 0.19, p = 0.54, and p = 0.35, respectively). However, patients in the experimental group had better 3-year local-free survival (LFS), although the difference was only marginal (p = 0.092). Another difference was that patients in the experimental group with Stages III-IV disease had a much better 3-year LFS rate when they received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (p = 0.003). Conclusions: One impact seen was that zinc supplementation improved LFS at 3 years after beginning treatment for patients with Stages III-IV disease. It is imperative that these patients be followed up for a longer period to draw a definite conclusion.

  7. Different rectal toxicity tolerance with and without simultaneous conventionally-fractionated pelvic lymph node treatment in patients receiving hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate added morbidity associated with the addition of pelvic elective nodal irradiation (ENI) to hypofractionated radiotherapy to the prostate. Methods and materials Two-hundred twelve patients, treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy to the prostate between 2004 and 2011, met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. All patients received 70 Gy to the prostate delivered over 28 fractions and 103 (49%) received ENI consisting of 50.4 Gy to the pelvic lymphatics delivered simultaneously in 1.8 Gy fractions. The mean dose-volume histograms were compared between the two subgroups defined by use of ENI, and various dose-volume parameters were analyzed for effect on late lower gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity. Results Acute grade 2 lower GI toxicity occurred in 38 (37%) patients receiving ENI versus 19 (17%) in those who did not (p = 0.001). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of grade ≥ 2 lower GI toxicity at 3 years was 15.3% for patients receiving ENI versus 5.3% for those who did not (p = 0.026). Each rectal isodose volume was increased for patients receiving ENI up to 50 Gy (p ≤ 0.021 for each 5 Gy increment). Across all patients, the absolute V70 of the rectum was the only predictor of late GI toxicity. When subgroups, defined by the use of ENI, were analyzed separately, rectal V70 was only predictive of late GI toxicity for patients who received ENI. For patients receiving ENI, V70 > 3 cc was associated with an increased risk of late GI events. Conclusions Elective nodal irradiation increases the rates of acute and late GI toxicity when delivered simultaneously with hypofractioanted prostate radiotherapy. The use of ENI appears to sensitize the rectum to hot spots, therefore we recommend added caution to minimize the volume of rectum receiving 100% of the prescription dose in these patients. PMID:24893842

  8. Relation between clopidogrel active metabolite levels and different platelet aggregation methods in patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Johnston, Marilyn; Hirsh, Jack; Pare, Guillaume; Li, Chunjian; Mehta, Shamir; Teo, Koon K; Sloane, Debi; Yi, Qilong; Zhu, Jun; Eikelboom, John W

    2012-11-01

    Clopidogrel is a prodrug that undergoes bioconversion via cytochrome P450 system to form an active metabolite (AM) that binds to the platelet ADP receptor. The antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel is commonly assessed by measuring the aggregatory response to 5 μM ADP by light transmission aggregation (LTA) or multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) or by the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein platelet reactivity index (VASP-PRI). To determine which of these three tests of platelet ADP receptor pathway inhibition most closely correlates with clopidogrel AM levels. We analyzed blood samples from 82 patients with coronary artery disease who were randomized to receive double-dose or standard dose clopidogrel for 2 weeks. We measured peak clopidogrel AM levels, platelet aggregation in response to ADP and VASP-PRI on days 1, and repeated all the measures on days 7 and 14. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the correlation between clopidogrel AM and LTA, MEA and VASP-PRI. Bland-Altman plots were used to explore the agreement between tests of the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel. Clopidogrel AM on day 1 correlated most closely with VASP-PRI (r = -0.5767) and demonstrated weaker correlations with LTA (r = -0.4656) and MEA (r = -0.3384) (all p < 0.01). Intra-class correlation (ICC) between VASP-PRI and LTA was 0.6446; VASP-PRI and MEA was 0.4720; and LTA and MEA was 0.4693. Similar results were obtained on days 7 and 14. Commonly used pharmacodynamic measures of clopidogrel response are only moderately correlated with clopidogrel AM levels and may not be suitable to measure the adequacy of clopidogrel therapy. PMID:22797934

  9. Emergence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with resistance to multiple dideoxynucleosides in patients receiving therapy with dideoxynucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Shirasaka, T; Kavlick, M F; Ueno, T; Gao, W Y; Kojima, E; Alcaide, M L; Chokekijchai, S; Roy, B M; Arnold, E; Yarchoan, R

    1995-01-01

    A set of mutations [Ala-62-->Val(A62V), V75I, F77L, F116Y, and Q151M] in the polymerase domain of reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) confers on the virus a reduced sensitivity to multiple antiretroviral dideoxynucleosides and has been seen in HIV-1 variants isolated from patients receiving combination chemotherapy with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) or 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI). The IC50 values of AZT, ddC, ddI, 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine, and 2',3'-didehydro-3'-deoxythymidine against an infectious clone constructed to include the five mutations were significantly higher than those of a wild-type infectious clone. The K1 value for AZT 5'-triphosphate determined for the virus-associated RT from a posttherapy strain was 35-fold higher than that of RT from a pretherapy strain. Detailed analysis of HIV-1 strains isolated at various times during therapy showed that the Q151M mutation developed first in vivo, at the time when the viremia level suddenly increased, followed by the F116Y and F77L mutations. All five mutations ultimately developed, and the viremia level rose even further. Analyses based on the three-dimensional structure of HIV-1 RT suggest that the positions where at least several of the five mutations occur are located in close proximity to the proposed dNTP-binding site of RT and the first nucleotide position of the single-stranded template. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7534421

  10. The prevalence of problem opioid use in patients receiving chronic opioid therapy: computer-assisted review of electronic health record clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Roy E; Carrell, David S; Cronkite, David; Saunders, Kathleen; Gross, David E; Masters, Elizabeth; Donevan, Sean; Hylan, Timothy R; Von Kroff, Michael

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of problem opioid use, we used natural language processing (NLP) techniques to identify clinical notes containing text indicating problem opioid use from over 8 million electronic health records (EHRs) of 22,142 adult patients receiving chronic opioid therapy (COT) within Group Health clinics from 2006 to 2012. Computer-assisted manual review of NLP-identified clinical notes was then used to identify patients with problem opioid use (overuse, misuse, or abuse) according to the study criteria. These methods identified 9.4% of patients receiving COT as having problem opioid use documented during the study period. An additional 4.1% of COT patients had an International Classification of Disease, version 9 (ICD-9) diagnosis without NLP-identified problem opioid use. Agreement between the NLP methods and ICD-9 coding was moderate (kappa = 0.61). Over one-third of the NLP-positive patients did not have an ICD-9 diagnostic code for opioid abuse or dependence. We used structured EHR data to identify 14 risk indicators for problem opioid use. Forty-seven percent of the COT patients had 3 or more risk indicators. The prevalence of problem opioid use was 9.6% among patients with 3 to 4 risk indicators, 26.6% among those with 5 to 6 risk indicators, and 55.04% among those with 7 or more risk indicators. Higher rates of problem opioid use were observed among young COT patients, patients who sustained opioid use for more than 4 quarters, and patients who received higher opioid doses. Methods used in this study provide a promising approach to efficiently identify clinically recognized problem opioid use documented in EHRs of large patient populations. Computer-assisted manual review of EHR clinical notes found a rate of problem opioid use of 9.4% among 22,142 COT patients over 7 years.

  11. [Retrospective study of the implementation of the qualitative PCR technique in biological samples for monitoring toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Nigro, Mónica G; Figueroa, Carlos; Ledesma, Bibiana A

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment. PMID:24721270

  12. [Retrospective study of the implementation of the qualitative PCR technique in biological samples for monitoring toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Nigro, Mónica G; Figueroa, Carlos; Ledesma, Bibiana A

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment.

  13. Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Paratz, Jennifer D; Cohen, Jeremy; Banks, Merrilyn; Dulhunty, Joel; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes. Methods/design Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of

  14. Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, Ruqaiya M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Cohen, Jeremy; Banks, Merrilyn; Dulhunty, Joel; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes. Methods/design Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of organ

  15. Effect of healthcare insurance policy on the quality of life of chronic hepatitis C patients receiving interferon α-2a plus ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Lin, Chao-Shuang; Gan, Wei-Qiang; Zheng, Yu-Bao; Wu, Zhe-Bin; Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Gao, Zhi-Liang

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pegylated interferon α-2a plus ribavirin therapy on the quality of life (QOL) of chronic hepatitis C patient