Science.gov

Sample records for patients undergoing anticoagulation

  1. Managing direct oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing dentoalveolar surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Woolcombe, S A; Patel, R K; Obisesan, O; Roberts, L N; Bryant, C; Arya, R

    2017-02-24

    Our objective was to describe our experience of managing a cohort of adult patients prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) undergoing dentoalveolar procedures between November 2012 and May 2016. Prior to conducting a procedure a formal assessment was made of each patient's anticoagulation treatment. A specific plan was then formulated, balancing the risk of bleeding with the risk of thrombosis. Patients received a telephone consultation one week following treatment to assess any post-operative bleeding. Eighty-two patients underwent 111 oral surgical procedures, the majority of which were dental extractions. In the case of 35 (32%) procedures, advice was given to omit the DOAC, either before or after treatment. There was no bleeding following the majority of procedures. Persistent bleeding followed 15 (13.5%) procedures, of which 7 (6.3%) procedures required specific intervention. The majority of patients prescribed DOACs can undergo dentoalveolar procedures safely. Important considerations when planning treatment are: (i) when the patient usually takes their dose of DOAC, (ii) the time the procedure is performed and, (iii) when the DOAC is taken post-procedure. In our experience, if these factors are considered carefully, omission of DOAC doses is unlikely to be required for most patients.

  2. Oral anticoagulation management in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device implantation.

    PubMed

    Black-Maier, Eric; Kim, Sunghee; Steinberg, Benjamin A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Freeman, James V; Kowey, Peter R; Ansell, Jack; Gersh, Bernard J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Hylek, Elaine M; Go, Alan S; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy is associated with increased periprocedural risks after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation. Patterns of anticoagulation management involving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have not been characterized. Anticoagulation strategies and outcomes differ by anticoagulant type in patients undergoing CIED implantation. Using the nationwide Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, we assessed how atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing CIED implantation were cared for and their subsequent outcomes. Outcomes were compared by oral anticoagulant therapy (none, warfarin, or NOAC) as well as by anticoagulation interruption status. Among 9129 AF patients, 416 (5%) underwent CIED implantation during a median follow-up of 30 months (interquartile range, 24-36). Of these, 60 (14%) had implantation on a NOAC. Relative to warfarin therapy, those on a NOAC were younger (70.5 years [range, 65-77.5 years] vs 77 years [range, 70-82 years]), had less valvular heart disease (15.0% vs 31.3%), higher creatinine clearance (67.3 [range, 59.7-99.0] vs 65.8 [range, 50.0-91.6]), were more likely to have persistent AF (26.7% vs 22.9%), and use concomitant aspirin (51.7% vs 35.2%). OAC therapy was commonly interrupted for CIED in 64% (n = 183 of 284) of warfarin patients and 65% (n = 39 of 60) of NOAC patients. Many interrupted patients received intravenous bridging anticoagulation: 33/183 (18%) interrupted warfarin and 4/39 (10%) interrupted NOAC patients. Thirty-day periprocedure bleeding and stroke adverse events were infrequent. Management of anticoagulation among AF patients undergoing CIED implantation is highly variable, with OAC being interrupted in more than half of both warfarin- and NOAC-treated patients. Bleeding and stroke events were infrequent in both warfarin and NOAC-treated patients. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Cardiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treatedmore » by TAE.« less

  4. Use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents is not related to epistaxis in patients undergoing transnasal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshiya; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Yuki, Mika; Ishitobi, Hitomi; Nagaoka, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Nakashima, Sayaka; Shizuku, Toshihiro; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2018-01-01

    Background and study aims  Unsedated transnasal endoscopy (uTNE) has become accepted as a safe and tolerable method for upper gastrointestinal tact examinations. Epistaxis is 1 of the major complications of TNE, though its risk factors have not been elucidated. Generally, patients administered an anticoagulant or antiplatelet drug are considered to have an increased risk of epistaxis during TNE. Here, we investigated risk factors of epistaxis in patients undergoing uTNE, with focus on those who received antithrombotic agents. Patients and methods  We enrolled 6860 patients (average age 55.6 ± 12.97 years; 3405 males, 3455 females) who underwent uTNE and received the same preparations for the procedure. Epistaxis was evaluated using endoscopic images obtained while withdrawing the scope through the nostril. We also noted current use of medications including anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents prior to the endoscopic examination. Results  Epistaxis occurred in 3.6 % of the enrolled patients (245/6860), and that rate was significantly higher in younger patients (average age 49.31 ± 11.8 years for epistaxis group vs. 55.83 ± 13.0 years for no epistaxis group, P  < 0.01) as well as females (4.78 % vs. 2.35 %, P  < 0.01). The odds ratio for occurrence of epistaxis was 2.31 (95 %CI: 1.746 – 3.167) in the younger patients and 2.02 (95 % CI: 1.542 – 2.659) in females. In contrast, there was no significant difference for rate of epistaxis between patients with and without treatment with an antithrombotic agent (3.0 % vs. 3.6 %). Conclusions  The rate of epistaxis was higher in younger and female patients. Importantly, that rate was not significantly increased in patients who were administered an antithrombotic agent. PMID:29344570

  5. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Goto, Koji; Nakai, Kentaro; Shizuta, Satoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Yahata, Mitsuhiko; Ota, Chihiro; Ono, Koh; Makiyama, Takeru; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kadota, Kazushige; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Tamura, Takashi; Takizawa, Akinori; Inada, Tsukasa; Doi, Osamu; Nohara, Ryuji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takeda, Teruki; Kato, Masayuki; Shirotani, Manabu; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Lee, Jong-Dae; Takahashi, Masaaki; Horie, Minoru; Takahashi, Mamoru; Miki, Shinji; Aoyama, Takeshi; Suwa, Satoru; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence, intensity, safety, and efficacy of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in "real-world" patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not yet been fully evaluated. In the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto registry cohort-2, a total of 1,057 patients with AF (8.3%) were identified among 12,716 patients undergoing first PCI. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke was higher in patients with AF than in no-AF patients (12.8% vs 5.8%, p <0.0001). Although most patients with AF had CHADS2 score ≥2 (75.2%), only 506 patients (47.9%) received OAC with warfarin at hospital discharge. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in the OAC group was not different from that in the no-OAC group (13.8% vs 11.8%, p = 0.49). Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was only 52.6% with an international normalized ratio of 1.6 to 2.6, and only 154 of 409 patients (37.7%) with international normalized ratio data had TTR ≥65%. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in patients with TTR ≥65% was markedly lower than that in patients with TTR <65% (6.9% vs 15.1%, p = 0.01). In a 4-month landmark analysis in the OAC group, there was a trend for higher cumulative incidences of stroke and major bleeding in the on-DAPT (n = 286) than in the off-DAPT (n = 173) groups (15.1% vs 6.7%, p = 0.052 and 14.7% vs 8.7%, p = 0.10, respectively). In conclusion, OAC was underused and its intensity was mostly suboptimal in real-world patients with AF undergoing PCI, which lead to inadequate stroke prevention. Long-term DAPT in patients receiving OAC did not reduce stroke incidence. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy and safety of regional citrate anticoagulation in critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Hongying, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is an attractive anticoagulation mode in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) because it restricts the anticoagulatory effect to the extracorporeal circuit. In recent years, several randomized controlled trials have been conducted to investigate its superiority over other anticoagulation modes. Thus, we performed a systematic review of available evidence on the efficacy and safety of RCA. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of RCA was performed. PubMed, Current Contents, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify relevance articles. Data on circuit life span, bleeding events, metabolic derangement, and mortality were abstracted. Mean difference was used for continuous variables, and risk ratio was used for binomial variables. The random effects or fixed effect model was used to combine these data according to heterogeneity. The software Review Manager 5.1 was used for the meta-analysis. Six studies met our inclusion criteria, which involved a total of 658 circuits. In these six studies patients with liver failure or a high risk of bleeding were excluded. The circuit life span in the RCA group was significantly longer than that in the control group, with a mean difference of 23.03 h (95% CI 0.45-45.61 h). RCA was able to reduce the risk of bleeding, with a risk ratio of 0.28 (95% CI 0.15-0.50). Metabolic stability (electrolyte and acid-base stabilities) in performing RCA was comparable to that in other anticoagulation modes, and metabolic derangements (hypernatremia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalcemia) could be easily controlled without significant clinical consequences. Two studies compared mortality rate between RCA and control groups, with one reported similar mortality rate and the other reported superiority of RCA over the control group (hazards ratio 0.7). RCA is effective in maintaining circuit patency and reducing the risk of bleeding, and thus

  7. Triple anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention – real life assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Wrotniak, Leszek; Ostrowska-Kaim, Elżbieta; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Przewłocki, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triple anticoagulation therapy (TT), comprising dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC), is essential in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but it increases the bleeding risk. Aim To assess TT models, in- and out-hospital bleeding and thromboembolic complications, and TT alterations. Material and methods During 12 months, consecutive AF post-PCI patients were scheduled for TT. Alterations in TT and thromboembolic events (death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, in-stent thrombosis, peripheral embolization) were recorded. Major, non-major and minor bleeding episodes were assessed. Results One hundred and thirty-six out of 3171 patients, aged 73.0 ±8.4 years (90 male), were included. Intra-hospitally, thrombotic events occurred in 9 (6.6%), while bleeding events occurred in 71 (52.2%) patients. Access-site hematoma and blood transfusions during in-hospital stay predisposed physicians to heparin administration as part of TT on discharge (p = 0.018 and p = 0.033 respectively). Eventually, DAPT plus warfarin or plus novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) or plus low molecular weight heparin was prescribed in 72 (52.9%), 53 (39%), and 11 (8.1%) patients, respectively. HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were similar between subgroups (p = 0.63 and p = 0.64 respectively). During 10.2 ±4.2 months of follow-up, 11 (8.1%) deaths, and 9 (6.6%) non-fatal thromboembolic events occurred. Bleeding events occurred in 45 (34.6%) patients, including 14 (10.3%) major. TT was the only factor associated with increased risk of major bleeding (18.6% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.008). Early termination of any TT component, which concerned 59 (45.4%) patients, did not increase the risk of thromboembolic events (p = 0.89). Conclusions Our study indicates that TT is associated with high mortality and bleeding rates in a relatively short period of time. Discontinuation of any TT drug did not increase the thromboembolic event

  8. Safety and efficacy of periprocedural anticoagulation with enoxaparin in patients undergoing peripheral endovascular revascularization.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Marianne; Dorr, A; Hafner, F; Gary, T; Froehlich, H; Kvas, E; Deutschmann, H; Pilger, E

    2014-07-01

    Periprocedural anticoagulation is primarily used in endovascular procedures to prevent acute reocclusion of the target vessel, but periprocedural anticoagulation might also have an impact on long-term outcome. Consecutive bleeding events are feared complications. Despite changes in peripheral endovascular revascularizations (EVRs), the periprocedural management has remained unchanged for years. Unfractionated heparin is still the treatment of choice during and immediately after EVR. We performed a prospective, single-center, open-label phase III study comparing 2 different regimes of enoxaparin peri-interventional to peripheral EVR stratified into low- and high-risk groups according to the acute and long-term reocclusion risk due to their vessel morphology. In both groups, 0.5 mg/kg of enoxaparin as a bolus was administered intravenously 10 to 15 minutes before the start of the procedure. In the low-risk group, 40 mg of enoxaparin were administered once daily for 7 days; whereas in the high-risk group, 1 mg/kg of enoxaparin was administered subcutaneously (sc) 2 times a day for 48 hours after the procedure and afterward 40 mg of enoxaparin was administered sc once daily for 5 days. For the analysis of the per protocol population, 44 patients remained in the low-risk group and 140 in the high-risk group. Concerning the primary safety end point, a total of 25 (13.59%) bleeding events occurred until day 30; 5 (11.36%) of them in the low-risk group and 20 (14.29%) in the high-risk group (P = .809 for low vs high risk). None of the bleeding events observed were major according to Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction criteria. Concerning our primary efficacy end point, none of the patients showed an acute reocclusion classified as a significant decrease in ankle-brachial index (ABI) or elevated peak systolic velocity ratio confirmed by duplex sonography until day 30. Concerning the second end point of prevention of chronic reobstruction, at day 180 ABI has decreased in

  9. Impact of Anticoagulation in Elderly Patients With Pulmonary Embolism That Undergo IVC Filter Placement: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Falatko, John M; Dalal, Bhavinkumar; Qu, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Anticoagulation is the primary treatment for pulmonary embolism (PE). Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are an adjunctive intervention to prevent recurrent pulmonary embolism. Long-term outcomes in elderly patients with contraindications to anticoagulation after IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent pulmonary embolism have yet to be assessed. Patients ≥60years of age, that had an IVC filter placed between 1 January, 2008 and 2 February, 2013, with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, were included. Patients that died during index hospitalisation, were discharged to hospice, or had active malignancy were excluded. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Patients were divided depending on whether they were treated with an approved anticoagulant for VTE or had no anticoagulant. Of the 152 patients identified, 55 were not anti-coagulated after IVC filter placement. The incidence of death was 0.4 per 1000 filter days and 0.7 per 1000 filter days in the anti-coagulated and untreated groups respectively (p-value=0.06). After statistical correction for co-morbid conditions, the effect of anticoagulation was not significant (HR 0.82 CI 0.49-1.37, p-value 0.46). Age was a significant confounder that was associated with death. Increased BMI was protective. Indications for IVC filter placement were numerous, but similar between the two groups. Treatment with an approved anticoagulant is recommended after IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent PE, however its effect may be attenuated by advanced age. In elderly patients that have undergone IVC filter placement for prevention of recurrent PE, survival may be more dependent on age and co-morbid conditions than exposure to anticoagulation. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Symptoms of depression and anxiety predict mortality in patients undergoing oral anticoagulation: Results from the thrombEVAL study program.

    PubMed

    Michal, Matthias; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Keller, Karsten; Göbel, Sebastian; Coldewey, Meike; Ullmann, Alexander; Schulz, Andreas; Lamparter, Heidrun; Münzel, Thomas; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in cardiovascular patients. Therefore, we examined whether the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4, measuring symptoms of depression and anxiety) predicts all-cause mortality in outpatients with long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC). The sample comprised n=1384 outpatients from a regular medical care setting receiving long-term OAC with vitamin K antagonists. At baseline, symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed with the PHQ-4 and the past medical history was taken. The outcome was all-cause mortality in the 24 month observation period. The median follow-up time was 13.3 months. N=191 patients from n=1384 died (death rate 13.8%). Each point increase in the PHQ-4 score was associated with a 10% increase in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.05-1.16) after adjustment for age, sex, high school graduation, partnership, smoking, obesity, frailty according to the Barthel Index, Charlson Comorbidity Index and CHA2DS2-VASc score. The depression component (PHQ-2) increased mortality by 22% and anxiety (GAD-2) by 11% respectively. Neither medical history of any mental disorder, nor intake of antidepressants, anxiolytics or hypnotics predicted excess mortality. Elevated symptoms of depression and, to a lesser degree, symptoms of anxiety are independently associated with all-cause mortality in OAC outpatients. The PHQ-4 questionnaire provides valuable prognostic information. These findings emphasize the need for implementing regular screening procedures and the development and evaluation of appropriate psychosocial treatment approaches for OAC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Clopidogrel and Novel Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Real-world Study.

    PubMed

    Kebernik, Julia; Borlich, Martin; Tölg, Ralph; El-Mawardy, Mohamed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Richardt, Gert

    2018-06-01

    For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), proper antithrombotic therapy is equivocal. Current guidelines recommend triple therapy, which carries a high risk of bleeding. Recent large trials suggest that dual therapy (DT) with novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) plus P2Y 12 inhibitor can be an appropriate alternative, but real-world data for this alternative are scarce and the optimal duration of DT has not yet been established. This analysis was performed in a single-center prospective cohort. We investigated 216 PCI patients with indication for anticoagulation due to AF. After PCI patients received DT with reduced doses NOAC plus P2Y 12 inhibitor for 6 months, which was followed by standard dose NOAC monotherapy. Efficacy endpoints were defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST), and stroke. Safety endpoints were bleeding events as defined by Bleeding Academic Consortium (BARC). Baseline characteristics of our study population were described by a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of greater than 4 and a HAS-BLED score of greater than 3. After a mean follow-up of 18.7 months, efficacy events occurred in 12 patients (5.6%). We observed three (1.4%) cardiac deaths, two (0.9%) MIs, six (2.8%) strokes, and one (0.5%) definite ST. After switching from DT to NOAC monotherapy after 6.3 ± 1.7 months, there was no rebound of ischemic events. Bleeding events occurred in 34 patients (15.7%) mainly under DT, while bleeding was less during NOAC monotherapy. In this long-term study of high-risk and real-world AF-patients with PCI, DT with NOAC and P2Y 12 inhibitor (6 months) followed by NOAC monotherapy was safe and effective.

  12. Effect of Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing on Clinical Events and Anticoagulation Control Among Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Anne R.; Lin, Hannah; Woller, Scott C.; Stevens, Scott M.; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Li, Juan; Rodríguez, Tomás; Miller, J. Philip; McMillin, Gwendolyn A.; Pendleton, Robert C.; Jaffer, Amir K.; King, Cristi R.; Whipple, Brandi DeVore; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda; Napoli, Lynnae; Merritt, Kerri; Thompson, Anna M.; Hyun, Gina; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Hollomon, Wesley; Barrack, Robert L.; Nunley, Ryan M.; Moskowitz, Gerard; Dávila-Román, Victor; Eby, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    -guided group vs the clinically guided group were 2 vs 8 for major bleeding (RR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.05-1.15), 56 vs 77 for INR of 4 or greater (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99), 33 vs 38 for venous thromboembolism (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.54-1.34), and there were no deaths. Conclusions and Relevance Among patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty and treated with perioperative warfarin, genotype-guided warfarin dosing, compared with clinically guided dosing, reduced the combined risk of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Further research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of personalized warfarin dosing. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006733 PMID:28973620

  13. Left atrial thrombus and dense spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in patients on continuous direct oral anticoagulant therapy undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: Comparison of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban.

    PubMed

    Wu, Michael; Gabriels, James; Khan, Mohammad; Shaban, Nada; D'Amato, Salvatore; Liu, Christopher F; Markowitz, Steven M; Ip, James E; Thomas, George; Singh, Parmanand; Lerman, Bruce; Patel, Apoor; Cheung, Jim W

    2018-04-01

    Left atrial thrombus (LAT) and dense spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients on continuous direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) therapy before catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) have been described. We sought to compare rates of TEE-detected LAT and dense SEC among patients taking different DOACs. We evaluated 609 consecutive patients from 3 tertiary hospitals (median age 65 years; interquartile range 58-71 years; 436 (72%) men) who were on ≥4 weeks of continuous DOAC therapy (dabigatran, n = 166 [27%]; rivaroxaban, n = 257 [42%]; or apixaban, n = 186 [31%]) undergoing TEE before catheter ablation of AF/AFL. Demographic, clinical, and TEE data were collected for each patient. Despite ≥4 weeks of continuous DOAC therapy, 17 patients (2.8%) had LAT and 15 patients (2.5%) had dense SEC detected by TEE. The rates of LAT were 3.0%, 3.5%, and 1.6% for patients on dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, respectively (P = .482). The rates of dense SEC were 1.2%, 3.5%, and 2.2% for patients on dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, respectively (P = .299). Congestive heart failure (odds ratio 4.4; 95% confidence interval 1.6-12; P = .003) and moderate/severe left atrial enlargement (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.6; P = .026) were independent predictors of LAT. In this study, ∼3% of patients on continuous DOAC therapy had LAT detected before catheter ablation of AF/AFL. Specific DOAC therapy did not significantly affect the rates of LAT detection. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient Education on Oral Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Emily M

    2018-04-20

    Given the potential harm associated with anticoagulant use, patient education is often provided as a standard of care and emphasized across healthcare settings. Effective anticoagulation education involves face-to-face interaction with a trained professional who ensures that the patient understands the risks involved, the precautions that should be taken, and the need for regular monitoring. The teaching should be tailored to each patient, accompanied with written resources and utilize the teach-back method. It can be incorporated in a variety of pharmacy practice settings, including in ambulatory care clinics, hospitals, and community pharmacies.

  15. Quality of life in cancer patients undergoing anticoagulant treatment with LMWH for venous thromboembolism: the QUAVITEC study on behalf of the Groupe Francophone Thrombose et Cancer (GFTC).

    PubMed

    Farge, Dominique; Cajfinger, Francis; Falvo, Nicolas; Berremili, Toufek; Couturaud, Francis; Bensaoula, Okba; Védrine, Lionel; Bensalha, Hocine; Bonnet, Isabelle; Péré-Vergé, Denis; Coudurier, Marie; Li, Veronique; Rafii, Hanadi; Benzidia, Ilham; Connors, Jean M; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu

    2018-06-05

    Clinical guidelines recommend at least 3-months low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment for established venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. However, no study has analyzed the impact of 3-6 months of LMWH therapy on quality-of-life (QoL) in cancer patients. Among 400 cancer patients included at M0, 88.8% received long-term LMWH. Using a random-effects linear regression model with time as covariate, QoL scores in the MOS SF-36 (Global HRQoL, 1.3-fold per month [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.79], p < 0.0001) and EORTC QLQ-C30 (global health status/qol, 2.25-fold per month [95% CI 1.63-2.88]; p < 0.0001) questionnaires significantly improved over the 6-month study period in patients treated with LMWH, while VEINES-QOL scores did not change. In the MOS SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-C30, the following factors were associated with change in QoL: symptomatic VTE, cancer dissemination and histological type. Factors pertaining to reduced mobility were also identified as significant predictors of QoL outcomes, including being bedridden in the MOS SF-36 and ECOG score ≥ 2 in the EORTC QLQ-C30. Presence of acute infection and not undergoing anti-angiogenic therapy were additional factors associated with QoL improvement in the EORTC QLQ-C30. QUAVITEC, a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study, recruited all consecutive eligible adult cancer patients with objectively confirmed VTE between February 2011 and 2012. Patients were asked to answer three QoL questionnaires at anticoagulant treatment initiation (M0) and at 3 (M3) and 6 (M6)-month follow-ups. QUAVITEC is the first study to show that QoL was improved in cancer patients receiving long-term LMWH treatment for established VTE.

  16. [Anticoagulation in polypathological patients with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Bernabeu-Wittel, Máximo; Barón-Franco, Bosco; Murcia-Zaragoza, José; Fuertes Martín, Aurelio; Alemán, Antonio; Ollero-Baturone, Manuel

    2013-02-02

    To determine the use of oral anticoagulants in polypathological patients with atrial fibrillation and its influence on mortality and loss of functionality. Patients with polypathological patient criteria and atrial fibrillation were included in an observational, prospective and multicenter study. Data on demographic, clinical, functional and sociofamilial characteristics, CHADS2 score, levels of hemoglobin, albumin and creatinine, use of oral anticoagulants and survival and functional status at one year were collected. Five hundred and thirty-two (32.6%) of 1,632 polypathological patients had atrial fibrillation. The stroke risk was high in 505 (94.9%), moderate in 24 (4.5%) and low in 3 (0.6%) patients. Oral anticoagulants were used in 61% of patients with CHADS2 score≥2 and in 37.5% with CHADS2 score=1. Oral anticoagulants were less used in older patients, with more functional and cognitive impairment. Heart failure was associated with more use of oral anticoagulants. There was no difference by the presence of hypertension, diabetes, anemia, renal insufficiency or stroke. In multivariate analysis the use of oral anticoagulants was independently associated with lower age, lower cognitive impairment, absence of hepatic disease and with higher stroke risk. The prescription of oral anticoagulants was independently associated with more survival at one year with no influence on functional status. Oral anticoagulants are underused in polypathological patients with atrial fibrillation despite being associated with more survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for the prevention of spontaneous echo-contrast and thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter undergoing cardioversion: A trans-esophageal echocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Gi; Choi, Jong-Il; Kim, Mi-Na; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Oh, Suk-Kyu; Kook, Hyungdon; Park, Hee-Soon; Lee, Kwang No; Baek, Yong-Soo; Roh, Seung-Young; Shim, Jaemin; Park, Seong-Mi; Shim, Wan Joo; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous echo-contrast (SEC) and thrombus observed in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is known as a strong surrogate marker for future risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). The efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared to warfarin to prevent SEC or thrombus in patients with AF or AFL is currently unknown. AF or AFL patients who underwent direct current cardioversion (DCCV) and pre-DCCV TEE evaluation from January 2014 to October 2016 in a single center were analyzed. The prevalence of SEC and thrombus were compared between patients who received NOAC and those who took warfarin. NOAC included direct thrombin inhibitor and factor Xa inhibitors. Among 1,050 patients who were considered for DCCV, 424 patients anticoagulated with warfarin or NOAC underwent TEE prior to DCCV. Eighty patients who were anticoagulated for less than 21 days were excluded. Finally, 344 patients were included for the analysis (180 warfarin users vs. 164 NOAC users). No significant difference in the prevalence of SEC (44.4% vs. 43.9%; p = 0.919), dense SEC (13.9% vs. 15.2%; p = 0.722), or thrombus (2.2% vs. 4.3%; p = 0.281) was observed between the warfarin group and the NOAC group. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between NOAC and risk of SEC (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.796-2.297, p = 0.265) or thrombus (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 0.726-16.039, p = 0.120). In conclusion, effectiveness of NOAC is comparable to warfarin in preventing SEC and thrombus in patients with AF or AFL undergoing DCCV. However, numerical increase in the prevalence of thrombus in NOAC group warrants further evaluation.

  18. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for the prevention of spontaneous echo-contrast and thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter undergoing cardioversion: A trans-esophageal echocardiography study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Gi; Kim, Mi-Na; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Oh, Suk-Kyu; Kook, Hyungdon; Park, Hee-Soon; Lee, Kwang No; Baek, Yong-Soo; Roh, Seung-Young; Shim, Jaemin; Park, Seong-Mi; Shim, Wan Joo; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous echo-contrast (SEC) and thrombus observed in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) is known as a strong surrogate marker for future risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL). The efficacy of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) compared to warfarin to prevent SEC or thrombus in patients with AF or AFL is currently unknown. AF or AFL patients who underwent direct current cardioversion (DCCV) and pre-DCCV TEE evaluation from January 2014 to October 2016 in a single center were analyzed. The prevalence of SEC and thrombus were compared between patients who received NOAC and those who took warfarin. NOAC included direct thrombin inhibitor and factor Xa inhibitors. Among 1,050 patients who were considered for DCCV, 424 patients anticoagulated with warfarin or NOAC underwent TEE prior to DCCV. Eighty patients who were anticoagulated for less than 21 days were excluded. Finally, 344 patients were included for the analysis (180 warfarin users vs. 164 NOAC users). No significant difference in the prevalence of SEC (44.4% vs. 43.9%; p = 0.919), dense SEC (13.9% vs. 15.2%; p = 0.722), or thrombus (2.2% vs. 4.3%; p = 0.281) was observed between the warfarin group and the NOAC group. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between NOAC and risk of SEC (odds ratio [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 0.796–2.297, p = 0.265) or thrombus (OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 0.726–16.039, p = 0.120). In conclusion, effectiveness of NOAC is comparable to warfarin in preventing SEC and thrombus in patients with AF or AFL undergoing DCCV. However, numerical increase in the prevalence of thrombus in NOAC group warrants further evaluation. PMID:29360845

  19. Does periprocedural anticoagulation management of atrial fibrillation affect the prevalence of silent thromboembolic lesion detected by diffusion cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in patients undergoing radiofrequency atrial fibrillation ablation with open irrigated catheters? Results from a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, Luigi; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Toso, Elisabetta; Santangeli, Pasquale; Mohanty, Prasant; Rutledge, Neal; Yan, Xue; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Trivedi, Chintan; Bai, Rong; Price, Justin; Horton, Rodney; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Beheiry, Salwa; Zagrodzky, Jason; Canby, Robert; Leclercq, Jean François; Halimi, Franck; Scaglione, Marco; Cesarani, Federico; Faletti, Riccardo; Sanchez, Javier; Burkhardt, J David; Natale, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Silent cerebral ischemia (SCI) has been reported in 14% of cases after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) with radiofrequency (RF) energy and discontinuation of warfarin before AF ablation procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether periprocedural anticoagulation management affects the incidence of SCI after RF ablation using an open irrigated catheter. Consecutive patients undergoing RF ablation for AF without warfarin discontinuation and receiving heparin bolus before transseptal catheterization (group I, n = 146) were compared with a group of patients who had protocol deviation in terms of maintaining the therapeutic preprocedural international normalized ratio (patients with subtherapeutic INR) and/or failure to receive pretransseptal heparin bolus infusion and/or ≥2 consecutive ACT measurements <300 seconds (noncompliant population, group II, n = 134) and with a group of patients undergoing RF ablation with warfarin discontinuation bridged with low molecular weight heparin (group III, n = 148). All patients underwent preablation and postablation (within 48 hours) diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. SCI was detected in 2% of patients (3/146) in group I, 7% (10/134) in group II, and 14% (21/148) in group III (P <.001). "Therapeutic INR" was strongly associated with a lower prevalence of postprocedural silent cerebral ischemia (SCI). Multivariable analysis demonstrated nonparoxysmal AF (odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.7, P = .005) and noncompliance to protocol (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5-5.1, P <.001] to be significant predictors of ischemic events. Strict adherence to an anticoagulation protocol significantly reduces the prevalence of SCI after catheter ablation of AF with RF energy. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antithrombotic therapy in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation presenting with acute coronary syndromes and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention/stenting.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Benjamin J; Tapp, Luke D; Shantsila, Eduard; Lip, Gregory Yh

    2010-07-01

    The management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary inter vention/stenting cannot be done according to a regimented common protocol, and stroke and bleeding risk stratification schema should be employed to individualize treatment options. A delicate balance is needed between the prevention of thromboembolism, against recurrent cardiac ischemia or stent thrombosis, and bleeding risk. New guidance from a consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, endorsed by the European Heart Rhythm Association and the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions on the management of Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome and/or Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/Stenting has sought to clarify some of the major issues and problems surrounding this practice, and will allow clinicians to make much more informed decisions when faced with treating such patients.

  1. Contact laser prostatectomy in a patient on chronic anticoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Edward J.

    1995-05-01

    The `gold standard' therapy for patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has always been electrocautery TURP. However, in patients with medical problems requiring chronic anticoagulation, this procedure is contraindicated due to the extreme risk of hemorrhage, both during the procedure and the immediate post operative period. With the recent development of contact laser prostatectomy the patient on chronic anticoagulation can safely undergo the procedure. Herein, I present a case of a 60 year old with significant bladder outlet obstruction yielding an AUA symptom score of 18. The patient had a history of multiple episodes of deep venous thrombosis of the left leg with three prior pulmonary emboli. He was maintained on chronic anticoagulation with alternating days of 3.5 mg. and 5.0 mg. of warfarin sodium (coumadin). Preoperative cystoscopy showed a 4 cm prostatic fossa obstructed by tri-lobar hypertrophy, with large kissing lateral lobes and visual obstruction from the verumontanum. The patient underwent a contact laser prostatectomy with the SLT Nd:YAG laser at 50 watts. There was minimal bleeding both during the procedure and in the immediate postoperative period. At three months post-op the AUA symptom score had decreased to 2. This case demonstrated that contact laser prostatectomy can be safely and effectively performed in patients on chronic anticoagulation.

  2. Assessing Bleeding Risk in Patients Taking Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Shoeb, Marwa; Fang, Margaret C.

    2013-01-01

    Anticoagulant medications are commonly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Although highly effective, they are also associated with significant bleeding risks. Numerous individual clinical factors have been linked to an increased risk of hemorrhage, including older age, anemia, and renal disease. To help quantify hemorrhage risk for individual patients, a number of clinical risk prediction tools have been developed. These risk prediction tools differ in how they were derived and how they identify and weight individual risk factors. At present, their ability to effective predict anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage remains modest. Use of risk prediction tools to estimate bleeding in clinical practice is most influential when applied to patients at the lower spectrum of thromboembolic risk, when the risk of hemorrhage will more strongly affect clinical decisions about anticoagulation. Using risk tools may also help counsel and inform patients about their potential risk for hemorrhage while on anticoagulants, and can identify patients who might benefit from more careful management of anticoagulation. PMID:23479259

  3. Effect of Genotype-Guided Warfarin Dosing on Clinical Events and Anticoagulation Control Among Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: The GIFT Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gage, Brian F; Bass, Anne R; Lin, Hannah; Woller, Scott C; Stevens, Scott M; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Li, Juan; Rodríguez, Tomás; Miller, J Philip; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Pendleton, Robert C; Jaffer, Amir K; King, Cristi R; Whipple, Brandi DeVore; Porche-Sorbet, Rhonda; Napoli, Lynnae; Merritt, Kerri; Thompson, Anna M; Hyun, Gina; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Hollomon, Wesley; Barrack, Robert L; Nunley, Ryan M; Moskowitz, Gerard; Dávila-Román, Victor; Eby, Charles S

    2017-09-26

    .05-1.15), 56 vs 77 for INR of 4 or greater (RR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99), 33 vs 38 for venous thromboembolism (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.54-1.34), and there were no deaths. Among patients undergoing elective hip or knee arthroplasty and treated with perioperative warfarin, genotype-guided warfarin dosing, compared with clinically guided dosing, reduced the combined risk of major bleeding, INR of 4 or greater, venous thromboembolism, or death. Further research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of personalized warfarin dosing. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006733.

  4. Survey of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Anticoagulated Patients: Korean Physiatrists' Preference in Controlling Anticoagulation Profile Prior to Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yongjun; Park, Geun-Young; Park, Jihye; Choi, Asayeon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Boulias, Chris; Phadke, Chetan P; Ismail, Farooq; Im, Sun

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate Korean physiatrists' practice of performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and to assess their preference in controlling the bleeding risk before injection. As part of an international collaboration survey study, a questionnaire survey was administered to 100 Korean physiatrists. Physiatrists were asked about their level of experience with botulinum toxin injection, the safe international normalized ratio range in anticoagulated patients undergoing injection, their tendency for injecting into deep muscles, and their experience of bleeding complications. International normalized ratio <2.0 was perceived as an ideal range for performing Botulinum toxin injection by 41% of the respondents. Thirty-six respondents replied that the international normalized ratio should be lowered to sub-therapeutic levels before injection, and 18% of the respondents reported that anticoagulants should be intentionally withheld and discontinued prior to injection. In addition, 20%-30% of the respondents answered that they were uncertain whether they should perform the injection regardless of the international normalized ratio values. About 69% of the respondents replied that they did have any standardized protocols for performing botulinum toxin injection in patients using anticoagulants. Only 1 physiatrist replied that he had encountered a case of compartment syndrome. In accordance with the lack of consensus in performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients, our survey shows a wide range of practices among many Korean physiatrists; they tend to avoid botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and are uncertain about how to approach these patients. The results of this study emphasize the need for formulating a proper international consensus on botulinum toxin injection management in anticoagulated patients.

  5. [Drug compliance of patients on anticoagulant treatment].

    PubMed

    Gadó, Klára; Kocsis, Eszter; Zelkó, Romána; Hankó, Balázs; Kovácsné Balogh, Judit; Forczig, Mónika; Domján, Gyula

    2015-08-09

    Despite several therapeutic possibilities the morbidity and mortality of thromboembolic disorders remain high. Improving drug compliance - i. e. keeping up the doctor's prescriptions - may be an effective tool to reach better results. To improve patients' compliance, the risk factors of non-compliance should be recognized. Among these patients' fear of adverse effects of drugs, their lack of knowledge about their illness and medication, forgetfulness, and other social, economic factors may be the most important. Furthermore, adherence may be worsened when the patient feels that the decision has been made over his/her head. Sustained medical adherence is important because anticoagulation may be a life-long treatment. The new oral anticoagulants make the matter of compliance to be current. These new type of drugs do not need regular laboratory monitoring and, therefore, compliance cannot be strictly followed. There are several studies concerning drug compliance to anticoagulant medications. Improvement of adherence is based on regular patient education after reviewing the factors of non-compliance, which needs teamwork with important roles of doctors, pharmacists, dietetics and nurses. Careful and accurate work of the participants of primary care might be complemented by the activity of anticoagulant clinics.

  6. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  7. Dual antiplatelet therapy versus oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and low-to-moderate thromboembolic risk undergoing coronary stenting: design of the MUSICA-2 randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sambola, Antonia; Montoro, J Bruno; Del Blanco, Bruno García; Llavero, Nadia; Barrabés, José A; Alfonso, Fernando; Bueno, Héctor; Cequier, Angel; Serra, Antonio; Zueco, Javier; Sabaté, Manel; Rodríguez-Leor, Oriol; García-Dorado, David

    2013-10-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the recommended therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because it reduces the risk of stroke and other thromboembolic events. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is required after percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting (PCI-S). In patients with AF requiring PCI-S, the association of DAPT and OAC carries an increased risk of bleeding, whereas OAC therapy or DAPT alone may not protect against the risk of developing new ischemic or thromboembolic events. The MUSICA-2 study will test the hypothesis that DAPT compared with triple therapy (TT) in patients with nonvalvular AF at low-to-moderate risk of stroke (CHADS2 score ≤2) after PCI-S reduces the risk of bleeding and is not inferior to TT for preventing thromboembolic complications. The MUSICA-2 is a multicenter, open-label randomized trial that will compare TT with DAPT in patients with AF and CHADS2 score ≤2 undergoing PCI-S. The primary end point is the incidence of stroke or any systemic embolism or major adverse cardiac events: death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or target vessel revascularization at 1 year of PCI-S. The secondary end point is the combination of any cardiovascular event with major or minor bleeding at 1 year of PCI-S. The calculated sample size is 304 patients. The MUSICA-2 will attempt to determine the most effective and safe treatment in patients with nonvalvular AF and CHADS2 score ≤2 after PCI-S. Restricting TT for AF patients at high risk for stroke may reduce the incidence of bleeding without increasing the risk of thromboembolic complications. © 2013.

  8. Oral Anticoagulation in Patients With Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Arman; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greenberger, Norton J; Giugliano, Robert P

    2018-05-15

    Patients with liver disease are at increased risks of both thrombotic and bleeding complications. Many have atrial fibrillation (AF) or venous thromboembolism (VTE) necessitating oral anticoagulant agents (OACs). Recent evidence has contradicted the assumption that patients with liver disease are "auto-anticoagulated" and thus protected from thrombotic events. Warfarin and non-vitamin K-antagonist OACs have been shown to reduce thrombotic events safely in patients with either AF or VTE. However, patients with liver disease have largely been excluded from trials of OACs. Because all currently approved OACs undergo metabolism in the liver, hepatic dysfunction may cause increased bleeding. Thus, the optimal anticoagulation strategy for patients with AF or VTE who have liver disease remains unclear. This review discusses pharmacokinetic and clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of OACs in patients with liver disease and provides a practical, clinically oriented approach to the management of OAC therapy in this population. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Prandoni, Paolo; Piovella, Chiara; Spiezia, Luca; Valle, Fabio Dalla; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) approaches 40 per cent of all patients after 10 yr of follow up. This risk is higher in patients with permanent risk factors of thrombosis such as active cancer, prolonged immobilization from medical diseases, and antiphospholipid syndrome; in carriers of several thrombophilic abnormalities, including deficiencies of natural anticoagulants; and in patients with unprovoked presentation. Patients with permanent risk factors of thrombosis should receive indefinite anticoagulation, consisting of subtherapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin in cancer patients, and oral anticoagulants in all other conditions. Patients whose VTE is triggered by major surgery or trauma should be offered three months of anticoagulation. Patients with unprovoked VTE, including carriers of thrombophilia, and those whose thrombotic event is associated with minor risk factors (such as hormonal treatment, minor injuries, long travel) should receive at least three months of anticoagulation. The decision as to go on or discontinue anticoagulation after this period should be individually tailored and balanced against the haemorrhagic risk. Post-baseline variables, such as the D-dimer determination and the ultrasound assessment of residual thrombosis can help identify those patients in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued. As a few emerging anti-Xa and anti-IIa compounds seem to induce fewer haemorrhagic complications than conventional anticoagulation, while preserving at least the same effectiveness, these have the potential to open new scenarios for decisions regarding the duration of anticoagulation in patients with VTE. PMID:21808129

  10. Optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Piovella, Chiara; Spiezia, Luca; Dalla Valle, Fabio; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2011-07-01

    The risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) approaches 40 per cent of all patients after 10 yr of follow up. This risk is higher in patients with permanent risk factors of thrombosis such as active cancer, prolonged immobilization from medical diseases, and antiphospholipid syndrome; in carriers of several thrombophilic abnormalities, including deficiencies of natural anticoagulants; and in patients with unprovoked presentation. Patients with permanent risk factors of thrombosis should receive indefinite anticoagulation, consisting of subtherapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin in cancer patients, and oral anticoagulants in all other conditions. Patients whose VTE is triggered by major surgery or trauma should be offered three months of anticoagulation. Patients with unprovoked VTE, including carriers of thrombophilia, and those whose thrombotic event is associated with minor risk factors (such as hormonal treatment, minor injuries, long travel) should receive at least three months of anticoagulation. The decision as to go on or discontinue anticoagulation after this period should be individually tailored and balanced against the haemorrhagic risk. Post-baseline variables, such as the D-dimer determination and the ultrasound assessment of residual thrombosis can help identify those patients in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued. As a few emerging anti-Xa and anti-IIa compounds seem to induce fewer haemorrhagic complications than conventional anticoagulation, while preserving at least the same effectiveness, these have the potential to open new scenarios for decisions regarding the duration of anticoagulation in patients with VTE.

  11. Vena cava filter retrieval in therapeutically anticoagulated patients.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Thomas M; Christmas, A Britton; Taylor, Dennis A; Heniford, B Todd; Sing, Ronald F

    2008-12-01

    Vena cava filters (VCFs) are indicated in patients with active venous thromboembolism and are a contraindication to therapeutic anticoagulation. When patients can be anticoagulated, VCFs can be removed; however, patients often have anticoagulation discontinued during the retrieval procedure, leaving them at risk for pulmonary embolism (PE). The authors evaluated their experience with retrieving VCFs in therapeutically anticoagulated patients. Data from a prospectively collected database of patients with VCFs placed between January 2005 and September 2007 were reviewed. The retrievals in therapeutically anticoagulated patients (international normalized ratio, 2.0-3.4) were performed using a strict protocol, including preretrieval and postretrieval cavograms. All retrievals were performed in the operating room, and patients were discharged home the same day and examined within 7 to 14 days. Descriptive statistics including means and counts were calculated. One hundred thirteen VCF removals occurred during the study period; 62 were attempted on anticoagulated patients (42 male and 20 female patients; mean age, 36.5 years). Thirty-five patients (56%) had VCFs placed for prophylaxis, 22 (35%) had deep venous thromboses or PEs but had contraindications to anticoagulation, and 5 (8%) were on anticoagulation, which was discontinued perioperatively for major surgical operations. The mean time the filters were in place was 153.7 days (range, 22-684 days). No extravasation was seen on postretrieval cavography. Eight of 62 removal attempts in anticoagulated patients were unsuccessful. One patient had a postoperative pneumothorax that was successfully managed without intervention. There were no operative bleeding complications, and no hematomas or contusions were seen at follow-up. The retrieval of VCFs in therapeutically anticoagulated patients can be performed without complication. Given the perioperative risk for PE, anticoagulation should not be discontinued for VCF

  12. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage in a patient receiving anticoagulants

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, R.C.; Johnston, G.S.; Whitley, N.O.

    1986-02-01

    The exact location of hemorrhage complicating anticoagulant therapy is sometimes difficult to establish. We present a case in which imaging with 99mTc-labeled red cells had a significant role in the diagnosis of soft-tissue bleeding in a paraplegic patient receiving long-term anticoagulation.

  13. Practical management of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Richard J; Flaker, Greg C; Saxonhouse, Sherry J; Doherty, John U; Birtcher, Kim K; Cuker, Adam; Davidson, Bruce L; Giugliano, Robert P; Granger, Christopher B; Jaffer, Amir K; Mehta, Bella H; Nutescu, Edith; Williams, Kim A

    2015-04-07

    Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation has become more complex due to the introduction of new anticoagulant agents, the number and kinds of patients requiring therapy, and the interactions of those patients in the matrix of care. The management of anticoagulation has become a "team sport" involving multiple specialties in multiple sites of care. The American College of Cardiology, through the College's Anticoagulation Initiative, convened a roundtable of experts from multiple specialties to discuss topics important to the management of patients requiring anticoagulation and to make expert recommendations on issues such as the initiation and interruption of anticoagulation, quality of anticoagulation care, management of major and minor bleeding, and treatment of special populations. The attendees continued to work toward consensus on these topics, and present the key findings of this roundtable in a state-of- the-art review focusing on the practical aspects of anticoagulation care for the patient with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. INR goal attainment and oral anticoagulation knowledge of patients enrolled in an anticoagulation clinic in a Veterans Affairs medical center.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jennifer W; Pierce, Kristi L; Ryals, Casey A

    2011-03-01

    , assessed with Spearman's rho correlation. INR control was defined by 3 outcome measures: number of INRs within therapeutic range, time in therapeutic range (TTR) calculated using the Rosendaal method, and standard deviation (SD) of INR values. Anticoagulation knowledge was assessed with 2 measures: total AKA score and count of correct answers to a subset of 15 AKA items deemed by the investigators to be relevant to INR control. Of 447 patients enrolled in the anticoagulation clinic, 260 consented to participate in the survey, of whom 185 patients completed the AKA instrument (n=171 [92.4%] by mail) and were successfully matched to patient record system data. 178 (96.2%) respondents were male with a mean (SD) age of 68 (10.1) years. The majority of patients were undergoing anticoagulation treatment for atrial fibrillation (n=113, 61.1%) or deep venous/pulmonary thromboembolism (n=48, 25.9%). The majority of patients had been treated with warfarin for at least 1 year (n=162, 87.6%). Most patients had goal INR ranges of 2.0 to 3.0 (n=166, 89.7%). Of the 185 patients who completed the questionnaire, 137 (74.1%) achieved a passing score. The mean (SD) AKA questionnaire score was 78.1% (12.1%). There were 8 questions that were answered correctly by less than 70% of patients and identified as potential deficiencies in patient education. For the 167 patients who had been on warfarin therapy for at least 6 months and had 10 previous INR values, there was no significant Spearman's rho correlation between total number of correct questionnaire responses and INR control, defined as the count of the 10 previous INR values within goal range (rho =-0.022, P=0.776), TTR (rho=0.015, P=0.848), and SD (rho=0.047, P=0.550). There was also no significant relationship between number of correct INR-relevant responses and INR control by any of the 3 outcome measures (count in range rho=0.033, P=0.676; TTR rho=0.067, P=0.388; and SD rho=-0.029, P=0.708). Although 74.1% of patients on long

  15. Satisfaction with oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Suárez Fernández, Carmen; Castilla-Guerra, Luis; Cantero Hinojosa, Jesus; Suriñach, Josep Maria; Acosta de Bilbao, Fernando; Tamarit, Juan José; Diaz Diaz, José Luis; Hernandez, Jose Luis; Pose, Antonio; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, Manuel; Roquer, Jaume; Gállego, Jaime; Vivancos, José; Mostaza, Jose María

    2018-01-01

    Background Although, by itself, atrial fibrillation is associated with an impairment of quality of life antithrombotic therapy may play a role. Objective To evaluate the satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who attended internal medicine departments in Spain. Methods Patients from two different cross-sectional studies were combined. To measure the satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment, the Anti-Clot-Treatment Scale (ACTS) questionnaire was completed by every patient. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the variables associated with satisfaction of patients receiving oral anticoagulants. Results A total of 1,309 patients (mean age 78.5±8.4 years; 49.3% men; CHA2DS2VASC 4.9±1.5; HAS-BLED 2.0±0.9) were included in the study, of whom 902 (68.9%) were taking vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and 407 (31.1%) direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Overall, satisfaction with oral anticoagulation was high (ACTS Burdens scale 49.69±9.45; ACTS Benefits scale 11.35±2.61). The perceived burdens with anticoagulant treatment were lower in men, as well as in patients with no dependency, normal renal function, who were not polymedicated, or who had moderate bleeding risk. Among patients taking VKA, those subjects with a lower number of International Normalized Ratio (INR) determinations in the last 6 months or with an optimal time in the therapeutic range exhibited a lower perceived burden. Patients taking DOACs (vs VKA) showed a lower perceived burden with anticoagulation. Benefits with anti-coagulation were higher in men, younger patients, those with no dependency, or low bleeding risk. Perceived benefits were higher in patients taking DOACs (vs VKA). Conclusion Satisfaction with oral anticoagulation was high in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, who were attending internal medicine departments daily in Spain. Among patients taking VKA, those subjects with a lower number of INR determinations in the

  16. Rapid bedside coagulometry prior to urgent neurosurgical procedures in anticoagulated patients.

    PubMed

    Beynon, Christopher; Jakobs, Martin; Rizos, Timolaos; Unterberg, Andreas W; Sakowitz, Oliver W

    2014-01-01

    With the increased use of oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists, emergency physicians encounter a growing number of patients requiring a rapid reversal of anticoagulant effects in order to perform urgent surgical procedures. Initiation of these procedures can be delayed because the coagulation status has to be assessed through examination of blood samples in central laboratories (CL). This delay may lead to negative effects, especially in potentially life-threatening conditions such as intracranial haemorrhage. Point-of-care (POC) devices for assessment of international normalized ratio (POC INR) have improved the management of anticoagulation therapy in the outpatient setting. The use of these devices may also have beneficial effects in the treatment of anticoagulated patients requiring urgent neurosurgical procedures. The primary aim of this study was to analyse the potential of POC-guided assessment of INR to reduce time to potentially life-saving neurosurgery in this setting. Feasibility and accuracy as well as the gain of time through the use of this device were analysed. The POC coagulometer CoaguChek XS(®) was used in 17 patients with a history of anticoagulant use and a condition requiring urgent anticoagulant reversal prior to neurosurgical procedures (burr-hole trepanation: n = 8, craniotomy: n = 7, laminectomy: n = 2). No technical difficulties occurred and rapid assessment of INR was achieved in all cases within 2 min. POC INR values correlated well with CL INR assessment with a mean INR deviation of 0.036 ± 0.12. The mean gain of time through the use of the POC INR device compared with CL assessment of INR was 47 ± 6 min (range: 37-61 min). Our initial experiences with a POC INR device in anticoagulated patients undergoing urgent neurosurgical procedures demonstrate that its use may contribute to an improved management of these patients.

  17. Anticoagulation knowledge in patients with atrial fibrillation: An Australian survey.

    PubMed

    Obamiro, Kehinde O; Chalmers, Leanne; Lee, Kenneth; Bereznicki, Bonnie J; Bereznicki, Luke R E

    2018-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly diagnosed arrhythmia in clinical practice, and is associated with a significant medical and economic burden. Anticoagulants reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism by approximately two-thirds compared with no therapy. Knowledge regarding anticoagulant therapy can influence treatment outcomes in patients with AF. To measure the level of anticoagulation knowledge in patients with AF taking oral anticoagulants (OACs), investigate the association between patient-related factors and anticoagulation knowledge, and compare these results in patients taking warfarin and direct-acting oral anticoagulant (DOACs). Participants were recruited for an online survey via Facebook. Survey components included the Anticoagulation Knowledge Tool, the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaires (assessing treatment expectations, convenience and satisfaction), a modified Cancer Information Overload scale and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Treatment groups were compared and predictors of OAC knowledge were identified. Participants taking warfarin had a higher knowledge score compared with those taking DOACs (n = 386, 73% ± 13% vs 66% ± 14%, P<.001). Advancing age, type of OAC, health information overload and ease of OAC use (treatment expectation) were significant predictors of knowledge. Treatment expectation, including the belief that OAC treatment would cause bleeding side effects, varied significantly between participants taking warfarin and DOACs (P = .011). The study identified knowledge gaps in patients taking OACs, and these deficiencies appeared to be greater in participants taking DOACs. Knowledge assessment should be integrated into patient counselling sessions to help identify and resolve knowledge deficits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acute management of bleeding in patients on novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Siegal, Deborah M; Crowther, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants that directly inhibit thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban) are currently available for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after orthopaedic surgery, treatment of acute VTE, and prevention of arterial thromboembolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. These agents offer advantages over VKAs, including rapid onset, shorter half-lives, fewer drug interactions, and lack of need for routine monitoring. However, there are no established agents to reverse their anticoagulant effect. We review the risk of bleeding with the novel oral anticoagulants and the limitations of conventional coagulation assays for measuring anticoagulant effect. We provide an approach to the management of patients with bleeding complications with evidence for various interventions for reversal, where available.

  19. Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Emergency Department Patients Despite Therapeutic Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Michelle Y; Ballard, Dustin W; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S; Reed, Mary E; Bouvet, Sean C; Vinson, David R

    2018-05-01

    Emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) despite therapeutic anticoagulation at the time of diagnosis are uncommonly encountered and present a diagnostic and management challenge. Their characterization and outcomes are poorly described. We sought to describe the prevalence and characteristics of therapeutically anticoagulated patients among a population of patients with acute PE in a community setting and to describe treatment changes and 30-day outcomes. From a large retrospective cohort of adults with acute, objectively-confirmed PE across 21 EDs between 01/2013 and 04/2015, we identified patients who arrived on direct oral or injectable anticoagulants, or warfarin with an initial ED international normalized ratio (INR) value ≥2.0. Patients were excluded from the larger cohort if they had received a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the prior 30 days. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We report discharge anticoagulation regimens and major 30-day adverse outcomes. Among 2,996 PE patients, 36 (1.2%) met study criteria. Mean age was 63 years. Eleven patients (31%) had active cancer and 25 (69%) were high risk on the PE Severity Index (Classes III-V), comparable to the larger cohort (p>0.1). Reasons for pre-arrival anticoagulation were VTE treatment or prevention (n=21), and atrial fibrillation or flutter (n=15). All patients arrived on warfarin and one was also on enoxaparin: 32 had a therapeutic INR (2.0-3.0) and four had a supratherapeutic INR (>3.0). Fifteen patients (42%) had at least one subtherapeutic INR (<2.0) in the 14 days preceding their diagnostic visit. Two patients died during hospitalization. Of the 34 ultimately discharged, 22 underwent a change in anticoagulation drug or dosing, 19 of whom received injectables, either to replace or to supplement warfarin. Four patients also received inferior vena cava filters. Thirty

  20. Acute Pulmonary Embolism in Emergency Department Patients Despite Therapeutic Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Michelle Y.; Ballard, Dustin W.; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S.; Reed, Mary E.; Bouvet, Sean C.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) despite therapeutic anticoagulation at the time of diagnosis are uncommonly encountered and present a diagnostic and management challenge. Their characterization and outcomes are poorly described. We sought to describe the prevalence and characteristics of therapeutically anticoagulated patients among a population of patients with acute PE in a community setting and to describe treatment changes and 30-day outcomes. Methods From a large retrospective cohort of adults with acute, objectively-confirmed PE across 21 EDs between 01/2013 and 04/2015, we identified patients who arrived on direct oral or injectable anticoagulants, or warfarin with an initial ED international normalized ratio (INR) value ≥2.0. Patients were excluded from the larger cohort if they had received a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the prior 30 days. We gathered demographic and clinical variables from electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We report discharge anticoagulation regimens and major 30-day adverse outcomes. Results Among 2,996 PE patients, 36 (1.2%) met study criteria. Mean age was 63 years. Eleven patients (31%) had active cancer and 25 (69%) were high risk on the PE Severity Index (Classes III–V), comparable to the larger cohort (p>0.1). Reasons for pre-arrival anticoagulation were VTE treatment or prevention (n=21), and atrial fibrillation or flutter (n=15). All patients arrived on warfarin and one was also on enoxaparin: 32 had a therapeutic INR (2.0–3.0) and four had a supratherapeutic INR (>3.0). Fifteen patients (42%) had at least one subtherapeutic INR (<2.0) in the 14 days preceding their diagnostic visit. Two patients died during hospitalization. Of the 34 ultimately discharged, 22 underwent a change in anticoagulation drug or dosing, 19 of whom received injectables, either to replace or to supplement warfarin. Four patients also received inferior vena

  1. Combined Aspirin and Anticoagulant Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    So, Charlotte H.; Eckman, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The combined use of aspirin and oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned due to an increased risk of major bleeding with little to no benefit in preventing ischemic events. Objective (1) To better understand patterns and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and identify patients who might reasonably be treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy alone. (2) To perform an updated literature review regarding the use of combined antiplatelet and OAC therapy in patients with AF and stable CAD. Design and Participants Retrospective review. Patients within the University of Cincinnati Health System with a diagnosis of non-valvular AF, excluding those with acute coronary syndrome or revascularization within the last 12 months. Main Measures Numbers and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and sequence of events leading to the initiation of each. Key Results Of 948 patients receiving OAC, 430 (45%) were receiving concomitant OAC and aspirin. Among patients receiving combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, 49% and 42% of patients respectively, had CAD or DM. In a more detailed analysis including chart review of 219 patients receiving combined OAC and aspirin, 27% had a diagnosis of CAD and 14% had a diagnosis of DM prior to the development of AF. These patients were initially treated with aspirin. Warfarin was added when they subsequently developed AF but aspirin wasn’t discontinued. A surprisingly large proportion of patients (22.8%) had no obvious indication for dual therapy. Conclusions Prior myocardial infarction, CAD, vascular disease and DM (among others) increase the likelihood of receiving combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy among patients with AF. A literature review suggests this may lead to increased major bleeding with little benefit in decreasing either AF-related stroke or

  2. Haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a newly anticoagulated patient.

    PubMed

    Kinnear, Ned; Hennessey, Derek Barry; Thomas, Rebecca

    2017-04-12

    A 74-year-old man undergoing rehabilitation after pneumonia developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Five days earlier he had been commenced on apixaban for a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed an acalculous grossly thickened gallbladder, with high attenuation non-echogenic material both within and surrounding the structure. Active contrast extravasation was seen at the neck. On laparotomy, a perforated internally bleeding gallbladder containing a single calculus was found, with significant free blood within the abdomen. After cholecystectomy, the patient recovered slowly in hospital before nursing home placement. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Anticoagulant Preferences and Concerns among Venous Thromboembolism Patients.

    PubMed

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Horvath, Keith J; Fullam, Lisa; Moll, Stephan; Rooney, Mary R; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil A

    2018-03-01

     Warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are used for the initial treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and have similar efficacy. Patient concerns and preferences are important considerations when selecting an anticoagulant, yet these are not well studied.  VTE patients ( n  = 519) were surveyed from online sources (clotconnect.org, stoptheclot.org and National Blood Clot Alliance Facebook followers [ n  = 495]) and a haematology clinic in Vermont ( n  = 24).  Patients were 83% females and on average (±standard deviation [SD]) 45.7 ± 13.1 years; 65% self-reported warfarin as their initial VTE treatment and 35% a DOAC. Proportions reporting being extremely concerned about the following outcomes were as follows: recurrent VTE 33%, major bleeding 21%, moderate bleeding 16% and all-cause death 29%. When asked about oral anticoagulant characteristics, patients strongly preferred anticoagulants that are reversible (53%), and for which blood drug levels can be monitored (30%). Lower proportions agreed with statements that regular blood testing is inconvenient (18%), that they are comfortable using the newest drug versus an established drug (15%) and that it is difficult to change their diet to accommodate their anticoagulant (17%). In multivariable-adjusted models, patients tended to have had as their initial treatment, and to currently be taking, the oral anticoagulant option they personally preferred.  Patients held the greatest concern for recurrent VTE and mortality, regardless of which treatment they were prescribed. Potential weaknesses of warfarin (e.g., dietary restrictions, regular monitoring) were generally not considered onerous, while warfarin's advantages (e.g., ability to monitor) were viewed favourably. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  4. Direct anticoagulants and nursing: an approach from patient's safety.

    PubMed

    Romero Ruiz, Adolfo; Romero-Arana, Adolfo; Gómez-Salgado, Juan

    In recent years, a new line of treatment for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, the so-called direct anticoagulants or new anticoagulants has appeared. The proper management and follow-up of these patients is essential to minimize their side effects and ensure patient safety. In this article, a description of these drugs is given, analyzing their characteristics, functioning and interactions together with the most habitual nursing interventions, as well as a reflection on the implications for the practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Jalota, A; Scarabelli, T M; Saravolatz, L; Bakhsh, M U; Agrawal, P; Jalota, R; Chen-Scarabelli, C; Fuster, V; Halperin, J

    2014-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that can potentially result in stroke. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) like warfarin were for many decades the only oral anticoagulants available for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) at high risk of stroke. Recently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACS) have been introduced that act via direct inhibition of thrombin (dabigatran) or activated factor X (edoxaban, rivaroxaban and apixaban). Unlike VKAs, these anticoagulants do not require routine INR monitoring and posses favorable pharmacological properties. NOACs act rapidly, and have a stable and predictable dose-related anticoagulant effect with few clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. Phase III trials comparing these agents to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF demonstrated that they are at least as efficacious and safe as warfarin. Evolution of clinical guidelines to incorporate the new anticoagulants for stroke prevention in non-valvular AF may result in a reduction in the incidence of AF-related strokes. Safe and effective use of these new drugs in clinical practice requires understanding of their distinct pharmacological properties.

  6. The effect anticoagulation status on geriatric fall trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Julia; Baldawi, Mustafa; Heidt, David

    2016-12-01

    This research study aims to identify the effect of anticoagulation status on hospital course, complications, and outcomes among geriatric fall trauma patients. The study design is a retrospective cohort study, looking at fall trauma among patients aged 60 to 80 years from 2009 to 2013 at a university hospital in the United States. The statistical analysis, conducted with SPSS software with a threshold for statistical significance of P < .05, was stratified by anticoagulation status and then further by type of anticoagulation (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, enoxaparin, and dipyridamole). Outcomes variables include mortality, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and complications. The total number of patients included in this study was 1,121. Compared with patients not on anticoagulation, there was a higher LOS among patients on anticoagulation (6.3 ± 6.2 vs 4.9 ± 5.2, P = .001). A higher LOS (7.2 ± 6.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.3, P = .001) and days in the ICU (2.1 ± 5.4 vs 1.1 ± 3.8, P = .010) was observed in patients on warfarin. A higher mortality (7.1% vs 2.8%, P = .013), LOS (6.3 ± 6.2 vs 5.1 ± 5.396, P = .036), and complication rate (49.1 vs 36.7, P = .010) was observed among patients on clopidogrel. In this study, a higher mortality and complication rate were seen among clopidogrel, and a greater LOS and number of days in the ICU were seen in patients on warfarin. These differences are important, as they can serve as a screening tool for triaging the severity of a geriatric trauma patient's condition and complication risk. For patients on clopidogrel, it is essential that these patients are recognized early as high-risk patients who will need to be monitored more closely. For patients on clopidogrel or warfarin, bridging a patient's anticoagulation should be initiated as soon as possible to prevent unnecessary increased LOS. At last, these data also provide support against prescribing patients clopidogrel when other anticoagulation options

  7. Evaluation of bleeding in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Hellenbart, Erika L; Faulkenberg, Kathleen D; Finks, Shannon W

    2017-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are recognized by evidence-based treatment guidelines as the first-line option for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. As use of these anticoagulants has become favored over the past several years, reported bleeding-related adverse drug events with these agents has increased. In randomized clinical trials, all DOACs have a reduced risk for intracranial hemorrhage, while major and other bleeding results have varied among the agents compared to vitamin K antagonists. We have reviewed the bleeding incidence and severity from randomized and real-world data in patients receiving DOACs in an effort to provide the clinician with a critical review of bleeding and offer practical considerations for avoiding adverse events with these anticoagulants. PMID:28860793

  8. Comparative trial of the use of antiplatelet and oral anticoagulant in thrombosis prophylaxis in patients undergoing total cavopulmonary operation with extracardiac conduit: echocardiographic, tomographic, scintigraphic, clinical and laboratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pessotti, Cristiane Felix Ximenes; Jatene, Marcelo Biscegli; Jatene, Ieda Biscegli; Oliveira, Patrícia Marques; Succi, Fabiana Moreira Passos; Moreira, Valeria de Melo; Lopes, Rafael Willain; Pedra, Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of aspirin and warfarin for prophylaxis of thrombosis in patients undergoing total cavopulmonary anastomosis. Evaluate whether coagulation factors (VII, VIII and protein C), clinical data, fenestration or hemodynamic factors, interfere with postoperative thrombosis. A prospective, randomized study of 30 patients, randomized into Group I (Warfarin) and Group II (AAS), underwent total cavopulmonary shunt with extracardiac conduit, between 2008 and 2011, with follow-up by clinical visits to evaluate side effects and adhesion. Performed transesophageal echocardiography in post operatory time, 3, 6,12 and 24 months; angiotomography at 6, 12 and 24 months to evaluate changes in the internal tube wall or thrombi and pulmonary scintigraphy to evaluate possible PTE. Two deaths in group I; 33.3% of patients had thrombus (46.7% in Group II). The previous occurrence of thrombus and low levels of coagulation protein C were the only factors that influenced the time free of thrombus (P=0.035 and 0.047). Angiotomographic evaluation: 35.7% in group II presented material accumulation greater than 2 mm (P=0.082). Scintigraphy: two patients had PTE in group II. Five patients had difficulty to comply with the treatment, 4 in group I with INR ranging from 1 to 6.4. The previous occurrence of thrombus is a risk factor for thrombosis in the postoperative period. Patients using AAS tend to deposit material in the tube wall. The small sample size did not allow to conclude which is the most effective drug in the prevention of thrombosis in this population.

  9. Outcomes of anticoagulation therapy in patients with mental health conditions.

    PubMed

    Paradise, Helen T; Berlowitz, Dan R; Ozonoff, Al; Miller, Donald R; Hylek, Elaine M; Ash, Arlene S; Jasuja, Guneet K; Zhao, Shibei; Reisman, Joel I; Rose, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Patients with mental health conditions (MHCs) experience poor anticoagulation control when using warfarin, but we have limited knowledge of the association between specific mental illness and warfarin treatment outcomes. To examine the relationship between the severity of MHCs and outcomes of anticoagulation therapy. Retrospective cohort analysis. We studied 103,897 patients on warfarin for 6 or more months cared for by the Veterans Health Administration during fiscal years 2007-2008. We identified 28,216 patients with MHCs using ICD-9 codes: anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders. Outcomes included anticoagulation control, as measured by percent time in the therapeutic range (TTR), as well as major hemorrhage. Predictors included different categories of MHC, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, and psychiatric hospitalizations. Patients with bipolar disorder, depression, and other psychotic disorders experienced TTR decreases of 2.63 %, 2.26 %, and 2.92 %, respectively (p < 0.001), after controlling for covariates. Patients with psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia experienced increased hemorrhage after controlling for covariates [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, p = 0.03]. Having any MHC was associated with a slightly increased hazard for hemorrhage (HR 1.19, p < 0.001) after controlling for covariates. Patients with specific MHCs (bipolar disorder, depression, and other psychotic disorders) experienced slightly worse anticoagulation control. Patients with any MHC had a slightly increased hazard for major hemorrhage, but the magnitude of this difference is unlikely to be clinically significant. Overall, our results suggest that appropriately selected patients with MHCs can safely receive therapy with warfarin.

  10. Considerations for long-term anticoagulant therapy in patients with venous thromboembolism in the novel oral anticoagulant era.

    PubMed

    Toth, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have had a venous thromboembolic event are generally advised to receive anticoagulant treatment for 3 months or longer to prevent a recurrent episode. Current guidelines recommend initial heparin and an oral vitamin K antagonist (VKA) for long-term anticoagulation. However, because of the well-described disadvantages of VKAs, including extensive food and drug interactions and the need for regular anticoagulation monitoring, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have become an attractive option in recent years. These agents are given at fixed doses and do not require routine coagulation-time monitoring. The NOACs are discussed in this review with regard to the needs of patients on long-term anticoagulation. Current guidelines from Europe and North America that refer to the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism are included, as well as published randomized Phase III clinical trials of NOACs. PubMed searches were used for sourcing case studies of long-term anticoagulant treatment, and results were filtered for human application and screened for relevance. NOAC-based therapy showed a similar efficacy and safety profile to heparins/VKAs but without the need for regular anticoagulation monitoring or dietary adjustments, and can be taken as a fixed-dose regimen once or twice daily. This represents a significant step forward in facilitating the management of long-term anticoagulation therapy. Furthermore, in the EINSTEIN studies, improved patient satisfaction was documented with the NOAC rivaroxaban, which may result in better adherence to therapy and an overall reduction in the incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism.

  11. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Prescribing Patterns for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Woods, Erin A; Ackman, Margaret L; Graham, Michelle M; Koshman, Sheri L; Boswell, Rosaleen M; Barry, Arden R

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT), defined as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel, and warfarin, for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. The choice of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy in this population is ambiguous and complex, and prescribing patterns are not well documented. To characterize local prescribing patterns for anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A chart review was conducted at a single quaternary cardiology centre. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were identified via medical records, and those who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified using a local clinical patient registry. Adult inpatients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a CHADS2 score (based on congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke) of 1 or higher who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2011 to 2013 were included. Patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement, those with mechanical devices requiring anticoagulation, and those with an allergy to any component of TAT were excluded. Seventy patients were included. The median age was 75 years, and 52 (74%) were men. At discharge, 30 (43%) were receiving TAT and 27 (39%) were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and ASA). No patients received the combination of warfarin and clopidogrel. Among those who received TAT, 90% (19 of 21) who received a bare metal stent had a recommended duration of 1 month, and 75% (6 of 8) who received a drug-eluting stent had a recommended duration of 1 year. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants with 2 antiplatelet drugs were prescribed for 9% (6 of 70) of the patients, and 10% (7 of 70) received ticagrelor and ASA with or without warfarin. Overall, the

  12. Patients' understanding of anticoagulant therapy in a multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Nadar, Sunil; Begum, Nazneen; Kaur, Bhupinder; Sandhu, Sukhpreet; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether knowledge and perceptions of antithrombotic therapy differ between ethnic groups in the UK, we conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of patients attending anticoagulation clinics in three Birmingham teaching hospitals. 180 consecutive patients were recruited—135 white European, 29 Indo-Asian, 16 Afro-Caribbean. The average knowledge score was 5.5 out of 9, with no significant differences between the groups. Indo-Asians were significantly less likely than the other groups to know the name of the anticoagulant they were taking (warfarin) and Afro-Caribbeans to know the condition for which they were being anticoagulated. Few patients of any group were able to specify more than one side-effect of warfarin or the dose they were on. In logistic regression analysis the factors associated with a low score were age >61 years, having been born outside the UK, and the perception of difficulty in comprehension. Nearly half the Indo-Asians felt unable to understand what was said to them in the clinic, and 62% expressed a preference for a doctor of the same ethnic group. Although there were no significant between-group differences, this study points to gaps in the knowledge of patients from ethnic minorities and to deficiencies in the provision of information. In patient education, these groups should receive special attention. PMID:12668704

  13. Comparison between videotape and personalized patient education for anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Stone, S; Holden, A; Knapic, N; Ansell, J

    1989-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of videotape patient education, 22 patients were randomized to receive either videotape or personalized teaching for oral anticoagulant (warfarin) therapy. Both groups scored significantly higher on a questionnaire designed to assess knowledge gained after instruction, with no significant difference between the two groups. Videotape instruction required substantially less nursing time. A second questionnaire assessed patient satisfaction with respect to both methods, which were rated equally effective and worthwhile. Videotape teaching is an effective and well-accepted alternative form of patient education requiring significantly less personnel time.

  14. Multinational development of a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment: the 'Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire' (PACT-Q©)

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Martin H; Marrel, Alexia; Carita, Paulo; Anderson, David; Bousser, Marie-Germaine; Crijns, Harry; Consoli, Silla; Arnould, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Background The side effects and burden of anticoagulant treatments may contribute to poor compliance and consequently to treatment failure. A specific questionnaire is necessary to assess patients' needs and their perceptions of anticoagulant treatment. Methods A conceptual model of expectation and satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment was designed by an advisory board and used to guide patient (n = 31) and clinician (n = 17) interviews in French, US English and Dutch. Patients had either atrial fibrillation (AF), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), or pulmonary embolism (PE). Following interviews, three PACT-Q language versions were developed simultaneously and further pilot-tested by 19 patients. Linguistic validations were performed for additional language versions. Results Initial concepts were developed to cover three areas of interest: 'Treatment', 'Disease and Complications' and 'Information about disease and anticoagulant treatment'. After clinician and patient interviews, concepts were further refined into four domains and 17 concepts; test versions of the PACT-Q were then created simultaneously in three languages, each containing 27 items grouped into four domains: "Treatment Expectations" (7 items), "Convenience" (11 items), "Burden of Disease and Treatment" (2 items) and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" (7 items). No item was deleted or added after pilot testing as patients found the PACT-Q easy to understand and appropriate in length in all languages. The PACT-Q was divided into two parts: the first part to measure the expectations and the second to measure the convenience, burden and treatment satisfaction, for evaluation prior to and after anticoagulant treatment, respectively. Eleven additional language versions were linguistically validated. Conclusion The PACT-Q has been rigorously developed and linguistically validated. It is available in 14 languages for use with thromboembolic patients, including AF, PE and DVT patients. Its validation and

  15. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mischke, Karl; Knackstedt, Christian; Marx, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulation represents the mainstay of therapy for most patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients on oral anticoagulation often require concomitant antiplatelet therapy, mostly because of coronary artery disease. After coronary stent implantation, dual antiplatelet therapy is necessary. However, the combination of oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy increases the bleeding risk. Risk scores such as the CHA2DS2-Vasc score and the HAS-BLED score help to identify both bleeding and stroke risk in individual patients. The guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology provide a rather detailed recommendation for patients on oral anticoagulation after coronary stent implantation. However, robust evidence is lacking for some of the recommendations, and especially for new oral anticoagulants and new antiplatelets few or no data are available. This review addresses some of the critical points of the guidelines and discusses potential advantages of new anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation after stent implantation. PMID:22577538

  16. Odontostomatologic management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy: a retrospective multicentric study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Today, we frequently find patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), a prophylaxis against the occurrence of thromboembolic events. An oral surgeon needs to know how to better manage such patients, in order to avoid hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. Materials and methods A group of 193 patients (119 men aged between 46 and 82 and 74 women aged between 54 and 76) undergoing OAT for more than 5 years were managed with a standardized management protocol and a 2-months follow-up. The aim of the present study was to apply a protocol, which could provide a safe intra- and postoperative management of patients on OAT. Results Among the 193 patients, only 2 had postoperative complications. Conclusions We think that the protocol used in the present study can be used for complete safety in the treatment of this type of patients. PMID:21771331

  17. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation.

  18. Causes of Death in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism Anticoagulated with Direct Oral Anticoagulants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Outes, Antonio; Terleira-Fernández, Ana Isabel; Lecumberri, Ramón; Suárez-Gea, Mª Luisa; Calvo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Vargas-Castrillón, Emilio

    2018-06-01

    Death is more frequent than nonfatal recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding after acute VTE. The analysis of the causes of death is fundamental to explore new strategies to reduce mortality rates in these patients. The authors performed a meta-analysis to analyze mortality and independently adjudicated causes of death in anticoagulated patients due to VTE, and to evaluate potential differences between different anticoagulant schemes. They searched MEDLINE and CENTRAL, from January 1, 2000, to January 31, 2017, and performed additional searches in Web sites of regulatory agencies, clinical trial registers, and conference proceedings. Two investigators independently selected studies and extracted the data. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias in randomized studies. Seven prospective randomized trials in 29,844 patients (22,025 patient-year follow-up) were included, comparing dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban with the standard anticoagulant treatment of VTE. A total of 718 patients died during the follow-up (3.4% per year; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-4.8). The most frequent causes of death were cancer (42%), followed by VTE (20%), infections (13%), hemorrhage (6%), heart disease (4%), and stroke (2%). There were no differences in the overall survival and causes of death according to the anticoagulant type. Concomitant active cancer during the study was significantly associated with death (odds ratio: 15.2; 95% CI: 9.2-25.1). Cancer is the leading cause of death in contemporary VTE trials. Interventions beyond anticoagulation, particularly in patients with active cancer, are needed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Anticoagulated patient's perception of their illness, their beliefs about the anticoagulant therapy prescribed and the relationship with adherence: impact of novel oral anticoagulant therapy - study protocol for The Switching Study: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Vivian; Patel, Jignesh P; Abdou, John K; Vadher, Bipin; Bonner, Lynda; Brown, Alison; Roberts, Lara N; Patel, Raj K; Arya, Roopen

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is prescribed for millions of patients worldwide for the prevention and treatment of both arterial and venous thrombosis. Historically, only vitamin K antagonists have been available for clinicians to prescribe. The anticoagulation landscape is changing. The recent availability of the novel oral anticoagulants overcome many of the disadvantages associated with vitamin K antagonists. However the lack of formal monitoring and clinic follow-up is a concern for clinicians, as medication adherence is being assumed, which is known to decline in patients prescribed medications for chronic conditions. The switching study is a programme of work investigating the association between medication adherence and patient's beliefs about anticoagulation therapy (warfarin and subsequently novel oral anticoagulants), together with beliefs about their illness and anticoagulation related quality of life. The anticoagulation database at King's College Hospital will be interrogated and two groups of patients will be identified; those with a time in therapeutic range on warfarin of ≥75 % and those <50 %. These groups of patients will have their illness perceptions, anticoagulation specific quality of life and beliefs about medications compared. Those patients in the time in therapeutic range <50 % group, will be then be invited to switch to a novel oral anticoagulant, as per local guidance. Those patients, who do switch, will then be followed longitudinally and have their adherence, illness perceptions, anticoagulation specific quality of life and beliefs about medications, re-evaluated on the novel agent. The results from these sub-studies, will inform a clinical pathway to support patients on these novel agents, which will be evaluated in an independent group of patients. The results from the switching study will be used to develop a clinical pathway to support patient's prescribed novel oral anticoagulant therapy long-term.

  20. Preemptive Anticoagulation in Patients With a High Pretest Probability of Pulmonary Embolism: Are Guidelines Followed?

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Laura; Adams, Daniel M; Evans, R Scott; Lloyd, James F; Stevens, Scott M; Woller, Scott C; Bledsoe, Joseph R; Aston, Valerie T; Wilson, Emily L; Elliott, C Gregory

    2018-05-01

    Guidelines suggest anticoagulation of patients with high pretest probability of pulmonary embolism (PE) while awaiting diagnostic test results (preemptive anticoagulation). Data relevant to the practice of preemptive anticoagulation are not available. We reviewed 3,500 consecutive patients who underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) at two EDs. We classified the pretest probability for PE using the revised Geneva Score (RGS) as low (RGS 0-3), intermediate (RGS 4-10), or high (RGS 11-18). We classified patients with a high pretest probability of PE as receiving preemptive anticoagulation if therapeutic anticoagulation was given before CTPA completion. Patients with a high bleeding risk and those receiving treatment for DVT before CTPA were excluded from the preemptive anticoagulation analysis. We compared the time elapsed between ED registration and CTPA completion for patients with a low, intermediate, and high pretest probability for PE. We excluded three of 3,500 patients because CTPA preceded ED registration. Of the remaining 3,497 patients, 167 (4.8%) had a high pretest probability for PE. After excluding 29 patients for high bleeding risk and 21 patients who were treated for DVT prior to CTPA, only two of 117 patients (1.7%) with a high pretest probability for PE received preemptive anticoagulation. Furthermore, 37 of the remaining 115 patients (32%) with a high pretest probability for PE had a preexisting indication for anticoagulation but did not receive preemptive anticoagulation. The time from ED registration to CTPA completion did not differ based on the pretest probability of PE. Physicians rarely use preemptive anticoagulation in patients with a high pretest probability for PE. Clinicians do not expedite CTPA examinations for patients with a high pretest probability for PE. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anticoagulant treatment of medical patients with complex clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, F; Medrano, F J; Santos-Lozano, J M; Rodríguez-Torres, P; Navarro-Puerto, A; Calderón, E J

    2018-06-12

    There is scarce available information on the treatment or prophylaxis with anticoagulant drugs of outpatients with medical diseases and complex clinical conditions. There are no clinical practice guidelines and/or specific recommendations for this patient subgroup, which are frequently treated by internists. Complex clinical conditions are those in which, due to comorbidity, age, vital prognosis or multiple treatment with drugs, a clinical situation arises of disease-disease, disease-drug or drug-drug interactions that is not included within the scenarios that commonly generate the scientific evidence. The objective of this narrative review is collecting and adapting of the clinical guidelines recommendations and systematic reviews to complex clinical conditions, in which the direct application of recommendations based on studies that do not include patients with this complexity and comorbidity could be problematic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  2. Thromboembolism in patients with pericardial valves in the absence of chronic anticoagulation: 12 years' experience.

    PubMed

    García-Bengoechea, J B; González-Juanatey, J R; Rubio, J; Durán, D; Sierra, J

    1991-01-01

    Between January 1977 and January 1989, 465 pericardial bioprostheses were implanted in 424 patients. The mean age of patients was 59.1 years (range 16-81 y.) At the time of surgery, 68% of the patients suffered from chronic atrial fibrillation. Mitral valve replacement was performed in 167 patients, aortic valve replacement in 216, multiple replacement in 40 (36 mitral and aortic, 3 mitral and tricuspid, and 1 mitral, aortic and tricuspid), and 1 pulmonary valve replacement. The different types of pericardial valve used were: Ionescu-Shiley 408, Mitral Medical 23, Bioflo 30, and Hancock 4. Hospital mortality was 10.1% with an attrition rate of 1.8 episodes per 100 patients/year. The 12-year actuarial survival rate was 65.1%. No patient underwent long-term anticoagulant treatment. The first 144 patients undergoing mitral and multiple valve replacements received temporary anticoagulation for the first 8 weeks after surgery. There was no valve thrombosis observed. Altogether 19 thromboembolic events (6 early and 13 late) were clinically documented. One patient died after an embolic event. The linearized rates of thromboembolism were 1.64 episodes per 100 patients/year for mitral and multiple valve replacements and 0.33 episodes per 100 patients/year for aortic valve replacement, with an overall rate of 1.0 episodes per 100 patients/year. Excluding early thromboembolism, the linearized rate was 1.02 episodes per 100 patients/year overall. The actuarial freedom from embolism was 92.4% overall, 88.2% for the mitral and multiple valve replacement group, and 97.6% for the aortic valve replacement group at a maximum follow-up of 12 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Vitamin K for improved anticoagulation control in patients receiving warfarin.

    PubMed

    Mahtani, Kamal R; Heneghan, Carl J; Nunan, David; Roberts, Nia W

    2014-05-15

    Effective use of warfarin involves keeping the international normalised ratio (INR) within a relatively narrow therapeutic range. However, patients respond widely to their dose of warfarin. Overcoagulation can lead to an increased risk of excessive bleeding, while undercoagulation can lead to increased clot formation. There is some evidence that patients with a variable response to warfarin may benefit from a concomitant low dose of vitamin K. To assess the effects of concomitant supplementation of low-dose oral vitamin K for anticoagulation control in patients being initiated on or taking a maintenance dose of warfarin. To identify previous reviews, we searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE via The Cochrane Library, Wiley) (Issue 2, 2011). To identify primary studies, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via The Cochrane Library, Wiley) (Issue 2, 2014), Ovid MEDLINE (R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations database and Ovid MEDLINE (R) (OvidSP) (1946 to 25 February 2014), Embase (OvidSP) (1974 to week 8 of 2014), Science Citation Index Expanded™ & Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (Web of Science™) (1945 to 27 February 2014), and the NHS Economics Evaluations Database (NHS EED) (via The Cochrane Library, Wiley) (Issue 2, 2014). We did not apply any language or date restrictions. We used additional methods to identify grey literature and ongoing studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing the addition of vitamin K versus placebo in patients initiating warfarin or already taking warfarin. Two review authors independently selected and extracted data from included studies. When disagreement arose, a third author helped reached a consensus. We also assessed risk of bias. We identified two studies with a total of 100 participants for inclusion in the review. We found the overall risk of bias to be unclear in a number of domains. Neither study reported the time taken to the first INR in

  4. Effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Seon Ok; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Jae Seung

    2018-05-17

    Malignancy is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Inferior vena cava filters are a viable alternative when anticoagulation is infeasible because of the risk of bleeding. Although the current guidelines recommend that all patients with a vena cava filter be treated with anticoagulation treatment when the risk of bleeding is reduced, studies concerning the role of concomitant anticoagulation after vena cava filter insertion in high-risk patients are scarce. Since many cancer patients suffer from a high risk of hemorrhagic complications, we aimed to determine the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality in patients with a malignant solid tumor. A retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary embolism was performed between January 2010 and May 2016. Patients with a solid tumor and vena cava filter inserted because of pulmonary embolism were included. Using Cox proportional hazards model, the prognostic effect of clinical variables was analyzed. A total of 180 patients were analyzed, with 143 patients receiving and 37 patients not receiving post-filter anticoagulation treatment. Mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. The presence of metastatic cancer and that of pancreatobiliary cancer were significant risk factors for mortality. However, post-filter anticoagulation did not show significant effect on mortality regardless of the stage of cancer. In patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism, the effect of post-filter anticoagulation on mortality may not be critical, especially in patients with a short life expectancy.

  5. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing electrophysiological device surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural

  6. Anticoagulation in Cardiobacterium hominis Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis in a Patient with Hypercoagulability: A Clinical Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mamdani, Natasha; Shah, Jatan; Simms, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Cardiobacterium hominis is an uncommon cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and often presents insidiously. In comparison, prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a rare, but life-threatening condition that commonly occurs due to inadequate anticoagulation. Anticoagulation is relatively contraindicated in patients with endocarditis as it may prove to be lethal due to increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage. However, anticoagulation is required in patients with PVT, or for its prevention. We present a case of a 35-year-old male with a history of hypercoagulability and St. Jude's aortic valve on warfarin, who presented with chest pain andwas found to have a mass on the aorticvalve, with blood cultures revealing C. hominis.The patient was treated with appropriate antibiotics and anticoagulation was continued. No neurological complications were noted during the treatment period. This case demonstrates that carefully weighing the risks and benefits of continuing anticoagulation is essential in preventing poor outcomes.

  7. Triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Gwyn, Jennifer C V; Thomas, Mark R; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2017-07-01

    Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are treated with dual antiplatelet therapy to reduce the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction (MI) and stent thrombosis. Approximately 5-10% of patients undergoing PCI also have atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF have an additional requirement for anticoagulation, as dual antiplatelet therapy alone is insufficient to adequately reduce the risk of stroke in patients with AF. However, it is now well established that combining anticoagulants with dual antiplatelet therapy also causes a significant increase in the risk of bleeding. Hence, there is great interest in discovering the optimal blend of antiplatelet therapy and oral anticoagulation in this situation, aiming to reduce the risk of stent thrombosis, recurrent MI, and stroke, while also minimizing the risk of bleeding. Recent studies have experimented with combining oral anticoagulation with a single antiplatelet agent, rather than combining oral anticoagulation with dual antiplatelet therapy. These studies show that this reduces the risk of bleeding but are underpowered to determine whether this still provides as much cardiovascular benefit. This review summarizes the currently available evidence on this topic and highlights the key questions that remain to be answered including ongoing clinical trials in the field. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Therapeutic strategies after coronary stenting in chronically anticoagulated patients: the MUSICA study.

    PubMed

    Sambola, A; Ferreira-González, I; Angel, J; Alfonso, F; Maristany, J; Rodríguez, O; Bueno, H; López-Minguez, J R; Zueco, J; Fernández-Avilés, F; San Román, A; Prendergast, B; Mainar, V; García-Dorado, D; Tornos, P

    2009-09-01

    To identify the therapeutic regimens used at discharge in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) who undergo stenting percutaneous coronary intervention and stent implantation (PCI-S), and to assess the safety and efficacy associated with different therapeutic regimens according to thromboembolic risk. A prospective multicentre registry. In hospital, after discharge and follow-up by telephone call. 405 patients (328 male/77 female; mean (SD) age 71 (9) years) receiving OAT who underwent PCI-S between November 2003 and June 2006 from nine catheterisation laboratories of tertiary care teaching hospitals in Spain and one in the United Kingdom were included. Three therapeutic regimens were identified at discharge: triple therapy (TT) -- that is, any anticoagulant (AC) plus double antiplatelet therapy (DAT; 278 patients (68.6%); AC and a single antiplatelet (AC+AT; 46 (11.4%)) and DAT only (81 (20%)). At 6 months, patients receiving TT showed the greatest rate of bleeding events. No patients receiving DAT at low thromboembolic risk presented a bleeding event (14.8% receiving TT, 11.8% receiving AC+AT and 0% receiving DAT, p = 0.033) or cardiovascular event (6.7% receiving TT, 0% receiving AC+AT and 0% receiving DAT, p = 0.126). The combination of AC+AT showed the worst rate of adverse events in the whole cohort, especially in patients at moderate-high thromboembolic risk. In patients receiving OAT, TT was the most commonly used regimen after PCI-S. DAT was associated with the lowest rate of bleeding events and a similar efficacy to TT in patients at low thromboembolic risk. TT should probably be restricted to patients at moderate-high thromboembolic risk.

  9. Underuse of Anticoagulation in Older Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and CHADS2 Score ≥ 2: Are We Doing Better Since the Marketing of Direct Oral Anticoagulants?

    PubMed

    Henrard, Séverine; Vandenabeele, Caroline; Marien, Sophie; Boland, Benoit; Dalleur, Olivia

    2017-11-01

    Our objectives were to (1) describe the evolution of the underuse of anticoagulants in older people with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a CHADS 2 score ≥ 2 since direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were introduced to the market and (2) describe factors associated with this underuse. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including geriatric patients admitted during the pre-DOAC (2008-2011) and post-DOAC (2013-2015) periods in an academic hospital in Belgium. Five inclusion criteria were met: age ≥ 75 years, diagnosis of AF, indication for anticoagulation (CHADS 2 score ≥ 2), risk of functional decline (Identification of Seniors At Risk [ISAR] score ≥ 2), and comprehensive geriatric assessment. The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelets at home before admission was recorded. Risks of stroke and bleeding were calculated using CHADS 2 and HEMORR 2 HAGES scores, respectively. Three different logistic regression models were performed to describe the evolution of and factors associated with the underuse of anticoagulants after DOAC marketing. Anticoagulant underuse, present in 209 of 614 (34%) geriatric patients with AF, was lower in patients with a history of stroke (28.5%) or congestive heart failure (26.9%) but higher in those receiving antiplatelets (56.2%) and in older individuals. Anticoagulant underuse decreased significantly from the pre-DOAC (37.3%) to the post-DOAC (29.7%) era, as shown by two analyses using propensity scores. In older patients with AF, anticoagulant underuse was mainly associated with antiplatelet use. Anticoagulant underuse and antiplatelet use have both decreased since DOAC marketing. Underuse of anticoagulants was still a concern for three in ten geriatric patients with AF at high risk of stroke (CHADS 2 score ≥ 2).

  10. Anticoagulation Quality Assessment in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF) and Comparison with Major Trials of Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-22

    Purpose: The benefits of warfarin anticoagulation therapy are strongly correlated with the ability to maintain patients’ INR goal, known as the time...Rosendaal). Differences in TTR calculations could alter perceptions about the effectiveness of warfarin therapy.

  11. Healthcare resources and needs in anticoagulant therapy for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. SAMOA Study.

    PubMed

    Barrios, V; Egocheaga-Cabello, M I; Gállego-Culleré, J; Ignacio-García, E; Manzano-Espinosa, L; Martín-Martínez, A; Mateo-Arranz, J; Polo-García, J; Vargas-Ortega, D

    2017-05-01

    To determine, in the various medical specialties, the healthcare process for anticoagulated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to determine the available and necessary resources and to identify potential areas of improvement in the care of these patients. We performed a cross-sectional survey of primary care and specialised physicians involved in the care of anticoagulated patients. The questionnaires referred to the healthcare process, the indication and prescription of anticoagulant therapy and the barriers and deficiencies present for these patients. A total of 893 physicians participated in the study, 437 of whom worked in primary care and 456 of whom were specialists (mostly cardiologists). Forty-two percent of the family doctors indicated that they assessed and prescribed anticoagulant therapy, and 66% performed the regular follow-up of these patients. In both healthcare settings, the physicians noted the lack of standardised protocols. There was also a lack of quality control in the treatment. The role of primary care in managing anticoagulated patients has grown compared with previous reports. The responses of the participating physicians suggest marked gaps in the standardisation of the healthcare process and several areas for improvement in these patients' follow-up. The promotion of training in direct-acting anticoagulant drugs remains pivotal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Relations of Anticoagulant Therapy with Cognitive Impairment among Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wenke; Liu, Weijun; Li, Bin; Li, Dongfang

    2018-03-02

    Currently, it is considered that atrial fibrillation (AF) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, which is independent of stroke. However, the relationship between anticoagulant drugs and cognitive function in patients with atrial fibrillation is unknown. This study aimed to complete a meta-analysis, and investigate the association between Anticoagulant therapy and cognitive impairment in patients undergoing AF. Two investigators systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase databases and Web of Science for all studies showing associations. Hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted and pooled. 8 studies included 471057 participants; TTR < 25% vs TTR> 75%; (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.12-8.91; P=0.03); TTR 25-50% vs TTR> 75% (HR 2.44, 95% CI 0.95-6.22; P=0.06); TTR 50-75% vs TTR> 75% (HR 1.75, 95% CI 0.90-3.99; P=0.1); OAC vs No OAC (HR 0.71, 95% CI.69-0.74; P<0.00001) NOAC vs warfarin (HR0.51, 95% CI0.37-0.71; P<0.00001). Oral anticoagulants (OAC) significantly reduce the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients with atrial fibrillation. Compared with warfarin, NOAC has an efficiently protective effect on cognition. In the range of INR2-3, with the increase of TTR, the incidence of cognitive impairment is lower.

  13. Oral anticoagulants vs aspirin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: an individual patient meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Walraven, Carl; Hart, Robert G; Singer, Daniel E; Laupacis, Andreas; Connolly, Stuart; Petersen, Palle; Koudstaal, Peter J; Chang, Yuchiao; Hellemons, Beppie

    2002-11-20

    Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) have an increased risk of stroke and other vascular events. To compare the risk of vascular and bleeding events in patients with nonvalvular AF treated with vitamin K -inhibiting oral anticoagulants or acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). Pooled analysis of patient-level data from 6 published, randomized clinical trials. A total of 4052 patients with AF randomly assigned to receive therapeutic doses of oral anticoagulant or aspirin with or without low-dose oral anticoagulants. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, other cardiovascular events, all-cause death, and major bleeding events. Person-year incidence rates were calculated to provide crude comparisons. Relative efficacy was assessed using proportional hazards modeling stratified by study. The variation of the oral anticoagulant's relative effect by pertinent patient factors was explored with interaction terms. All analyses were conducted using the intention-to-treat principle. Patients receiving oral anticoagulant and aspirin were balanced for important prognostic factors. There was no significant heterogeneity between trials in the relative efficacy of oral anticoagulant vs aspirin for any outcome. Patients receiving oral anticoagulant were significantly less likely to experience any stroke (2.4 vs 4.5 events per 100 patient-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.71), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.37-0.63), or cardiovascular events (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.85) but were more likely to experience major bleeding (2.2 vs 1.3 events per 100 patient-years; HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21-2.41). The reduction in ischemic stroke risk was similar in patients with paroxysmal AF (1.5 vs 4.7 events per 100 patient-years; HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.61; P<.001). Treating 1000 patients with AF for 1 year with oral anticoagulant rather than aspirin would prevent 23 ischemic strokes while causing 9 additional major bleeds. Overall all-cause survival did not

  14. Stroke event rates in anticoagulated patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lip, G Y H; Frison, L; Grind, M

    2008-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that stroke and systemic embolic events (SEE) in the stroke prevention using an oral thrombin inhibitor in atrial fibrillation (SPORTIF) III and V trials are different between paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Data analysis from two cohorts of patients enrolled in the prospective SPORTIF III and V clinical trials (n = 7329); 836 subjects (11.4%) with paroxysmal AF [mean age 70.1 years (SD = 9.5)] were compared with 6493 subjects with persistent AF for this ancillary study. The annual event rates for stroke/SEE are 1.73% for persistent AF and 0.93% for paroxysmal AF. In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for stroke risk factors, gender and aspirin usage, the differences remained statistically significant with a higher hazard ratio (HR) for stroke/SEE in persistent AF [vs. paroxysmal AF, HR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.36; P = 0.037]. In 'high risk' patients (with >or=2 stroke risk factors) annual event rates for stroke/SEE were 2.08% for persistent AF and 1.27% for paroxysmal AF (adjusted HR = 1.68, 95% CI 0.91-3.1, P = 0.098). Elderly patients had annual event rates for stroke/SEE of 2.38% for persistent AF and 1.13% for paroxysmal AF (adjusted HR = 2.27, 95% CI 0.92-5.59, P = 0.075). Vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-naive paroxysmal AF patients had a 1.89%/year stroke/SEE rate, compared with 0.61% for previous VKA takers (HR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-1.01, P = 0.052). In this large clinical trial cohort of anticoagulated AF patients, those with paroxysmal AF had stroke rates which were lower than for patients with persistent AF, although both groups had broadly similar stroke risk factors. Subjects with paroxysmal AF at 'high risk' had stroke/SEE rates that were not significantly different to persistent AF subjects.

  15. Intracranial hemorrhage in anticoagulated patients with mild traumatic brain injury: significant differences between direct oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Alessandro; Pecori, Alessio; Bionda, Alessandra Eugenia; Bardini, Michele; Frassi, Francesca; Leoli, Francesco; Lami, Valentina; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Santini, Massimo

    2018-03-08

    Prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) is uncertain. We evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) comparing vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and the safety of a clinical management protocol. In this single-center prospective observational study, we enrolled 220 patients on OAT with MTBI. After a first negative CT scan, asymptomatic patients underwent a close neurological observation; if neurologically stable, they were discharged without a second CT scan and followed up for 1 month. Out of the 220 patients, 206 met the inclusion criteria. 23 of them (11.2%) had a positive first CT scan for ICH. Only 1 (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0-1.4%) died because of ICH; no one required neurosurgical intervention. The observed prevalence rate of immediate ICH resulted statistically higher in VKAs-treated patients compared to those treated with DOACs (15.7 vs. 4.7%, RR 3.34, 95% CI 1.18-9.46, P < 0.05). In the 1-month follow-up, 5 out of the 183 patients with a negative CT scan were lost. Out of the remaining 178 patients, only 3 showed a delayed ICH (1.7%, 95% CI 0.0-3.6%), 1 of them died (0.6%, 95% CI 0.5-1.7%) and the others did not require neurosurgical intervention. DOACs resulted safer than VKAs also in the setting of MTBI. In our observation, the rate of delayed hemorrhage was relatively low. Patients presenting with a negative first CT scan and without neurological deterioration could be safely discharged after a short period of in-ward observation with a low rate of complications and without a second CT scan.

  16. Hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Marsh, E B; Llinas, R H; Hillis, A E; Gottesman, R F

    2013-06-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can occur in patients following acute ischaemic stroke in the form of hemorrhagic transformation, and results in significant long-term morbidity and mortality. Anticoagulation theoretically increases risk. We evaluated stroke patients with an indication for anticoagulation to determine the factors associated with hemorrhagic transformation. Three-hundred and forty-five patients with ICD-9 codes indicating: (i) acute ischaemic stroke; and (ii) an indication for anticoagulation were screened. One-hundred and twenty-three met inclusion criteria. Data were collected retrospectively. Neuroimaging was reviewed for infarct volume and evidence of ICH. Hemorrhages were classified as: hemorrhagic conversion (petechiae) versus intracerebral hematoma (a space occupying lesion); symptomatic versus asymptomatic. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the hypothesized factors associated with intracerebral bleeding. Age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50 per 10-year increment, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.08], infarct volume (OR = 1.10 per 10 ccs, 95% CI 1.06-1.18) and worsening category of renal impairment by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.66) were predictors of hemorrhagic transformation. Ninety- nine out of 123 patients were anticoagulated. Hemorrhage rates of patients on and off anticoagulation did not differ (25.3% vs. 20.8%; P = 0.79); however, all intracerebral hematomas (n = 7) and symptomatic bleeds (n = 8) occurred in the anticoagulated group. The risk of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and an indication for anticoagulation is multifactorial, and most closely associated with an individual's age, infarct volume and eGFR. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  17. Practical recommendations for the choice of anticoagulants in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib.

    PubMed

    Chai, Khai Li; Rowan, Gail; Seymour, John F; Burbury, Kate; Carney, Dennis; Tam, Constantine S

    2017-12-01

    The management of AF represents a major challenge in patients with CLL, especially in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities who are representative of the majority of patients with CLL. This is especially complex in the case of ibrutinib. Many anticoagulants have potential for pharmacological interaction with ibrutinib, and ibrutinib itself has antiplatelet properties. Use of ibrutinib therapy in these patients mandates review and revision of the need for anticoagulation and best anticoagulant to use. Herein, we review the current knowledge of the metabolism of common anticoagulants and how they may interact with ibrutinib.

  18. Acute management of stroke patients taking non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants Addressing Real-world Anticoagulant Management Issues in Stroke (ARAMIS) Registry: Design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Xian, Ying; Hernandez, Adrian F; Harding, Tina; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Suter, Robert E; Khan, Yosef; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-12-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been increasingly used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Yet there is substantial lack of information on how patients on NOACs are currently treated when they have an acute ischemic stroke and the best strategies for treating intracerebral hemorrhage for those on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin or a NOAC. These are critical unmet needs for real world clinical decision making in these emergent patients. The ARAMIS Registry is a multicenter cohort study of acute stroke patients who were taking chronic anticoagulation therapy prior to admission and are admitted with either an acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Built upon the existing infrastructure of American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Get With the Guidelines Stroke, the ARAMIS Registry will enroll a total of approximately 10,000 patients (5000 with acute ischemic stroke who are taking a NOAC and 5000 with anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage who are on warfarin or a NOAC). The primary goals of the ARAMIS Registry are to provide a comprehensive picture of current treatment patterns and outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients on NOACs, as well as anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage in patients on either warfarin or NOACs. Beyond characterizing the index hospitalization, up to 2500 patients (1250 ischemic stroke and 1250 intracerebral hemorrhage) who survive to discharge will be enrolled in an optional follow-up sub-study and interviewed at 3 and 6 months after discharge to assess longitudinal medication use, downstream care, functional status, and patient-reported outcomes. The ARAMIS Registry will document the current state of management of NOAC treated patients with acute ischemic stroke as well as contemporary care and outcome of anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage. These

  19. Physical activity and risk of bleeding in elderly patients taking anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Frey, P M; Méan, M; Limacher, A; Jaeger, K; Beer, H-J; Frauchiger, B; Aschwanden, M; Rodondi, N; Righini, M; Egloff, M; Osterwalder, J; Kucher, N; Angelillo-Scherrer, A; Husmann, M; Banyai, M; Matter, C M; Aujesky, D

    2015-02-01

    Although the possibility of bleeding during anticoagulant treatment may limit patients from taking part in physical activity, the association between physical activity and anticoagulation-related bleeding is uncertain. To determine whether physical activity is associated with bleeding in elderly patients taking anticoagulants. In a prospective multicenter cohort study of 988 patients aged ≥ 65 years receiving anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism, we assessed patients' self-reported physical activity level. The primary outcome was the time to a first major bleeding, defined as fatal bleeding, symptomatic bleeding in a critical site, or bleeding causing a fall in hemoglobin or leading to transfusions. The secondary outcome was the time to a first clinically relevant non-major bleeding. We examined the association between physical activity level and time to a first bleeding by using competing risk regression, accounting for death as a competing event. We adjusted for known bleeding risk factors and anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. During a mean follow-up of 22 months, patients with a low, moderate, and high physical activity level had an incidence of major bleeding of 11.6, 6.3, and 3.1 events per 100 patient-years and an incidence of clinically relevant non-major bleeding of 14.0, 10.3, and 7.7 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. A high physical activity level was significantly associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (adjusted sub-hazard ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.72). There was no association between physical activity and non-major bleeding. A high level of physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of major bleeding in elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. Direct oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in patients with severe blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Feeney, James M; Neulander, Matthew; DiFiori, Monica; Kis, Lilla; Shapiro, David S; Jayaraman, Vijay; Marshall, William T; Montgomery, Stephanie C

    2017-01-01

    We queried our Trauma Quality Improvement Program registry for patients who presented between 6/1/2011 and 9/1/2015 with severe (injury severity score (ISS)>15) blunt traumatic injury during anticoagulant use. Patients were then grouped into those prescribed warfarin and patients prescribed any of the available novel Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC) medications. We excluded severe (AIS≧4) head injuries. There were no differences between DOAC and warfarin groups in terms of age, gender mean ISS, median hospital or intensive care unit lengths of stay, complication proportions, numbers of complications per patient, or the proportion of patients requiring transfusion. Finally, excluding patients who died, the observed proportion of discharge to skilled nursing facility was similar. In our sample of trauma patients, DOAC use was associated with significantly lower mortality (DOAC group 8.3% vs. warfarin group 29.5%, p<0.015). The ratio of units transfused per patient was also lower in the DOAC group (2.8±1.8 units/patient in the DOAC group vs. 6.7±6.4 units per patient in the warfarin group; p=0.001). In conclusion, we report an association with decrease in mortality and a decrease in transfused blood products in severely injured trauma patients with likely minimal or no head injury taking novel DOACs over those anticoagulated with warfarin for outpatient anticoagulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in the INR evaluation of two different thromboplastins in patients with positivity to lupus anticoagulant in ongoing oral anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzi, Paola; Colombo, Anna; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Lodigiani, Corrado; Librè, Luca; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Montanelli, Alessandro; Quaglia, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    A possible interference between lupus anticoagulant (LAC), a well characterized clotting inhibitor, in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) determination during oral anticoagulation (OA) has been reported in the literature. Few data are available about the relationship between this kind of interference and the daily clinical management of oral anticoagulation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of two different thromboplastins-RecombiPlasTin 2G and HepatoComplex-in the determination of INR values of several patients' ongoing OA for a previous thrombotic disorder with and without positivity to LAC, and to evaluate possible interferences in the daily therapeutic approach. We selected 16 patients (13 females and 3 males, mean age 59 ± 16 years) with LAC positivity ongoing OA and 11 control subjects (7 females and 4 males, mean age 58 ± 14.5 years) with similar characteristics (ie, ethnic background and weight) with LAC negativity ongoing OA. 165 assays for INR determination were analyzed from both groups. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 10 software. P values were considered significant if <0.05. Mean values of INR for patients with LAC positivity were 3.79 ± 1.63 when tested with RecombiPlasTin 2G vs 3.18 ± 1.15 when tested with HepatoComplex (P < 0.001, s); while mean values of INR for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with LAC negativity were 3.54 ± 1.39 when tested with RecombiPlasTin 2G vs 3.23 ± 1.14 when tested with HepatoComplex (P < 0.002, s). An INR value > than 4.5 was found in 31/165 samples in 9 subjects, 8 patients with LAC positivity, and 1 control group subject with LAC negativity. There was a great difference in INR values in these subjects if we use the common thromboplastin (ie, RecombiPlasTin 2G) with a INR range varying from 5.14 ± 0.35 vs 3.79 ± 0.38 if we use another thromboplastin (ie, HepatoComplex) (P < 0.001, s). A change in the therapeutic approach for OA is possible in these cases because

  2. Risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding in patients receiving anticoagulation or antiplatelet medications.

    PubMed

    Lin, David; Soetikno, Roy M; McQuaid, Kenneth; Pham, Chi; Doan, Gilbert; Mou, Shanshan; Shergill, Amandeep K; Somsouk, Ma; Rouse, Robert V; Kaltenbach, Tonya

    2018-04-01

    Balancing the risks for thromboembolism and postpolypectomy bleeding in patients requiring anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents is challenging. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding on anticoagulation, including heparin bridge and other antithrombotic therapy. We performed a retrospective cohort and case control study at 2 tertiary-care medical centers from 2004 to 2012. Cases included male patients on antithrombotics with hematochezia after polypectomy. Nonbleeding controls were matched to cases 3 to 1 by antithrombotic type, study site, polypectomy technique, and year of procedure. Our outcomes were the incidence and risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding. There were 59 cases and 174 matched controls. Postpolypectomy bleeding occurred in 14.9% on bridge anticoagulation. This was significantly higher than the overall incidence of bleeding on antithrombotics at 1.19% (95% confidence interval, 0.91%-1.54%) (59/4923). We identified similarly low rates of bleeding in patients taking warfarin (0.66%), clopidogrel (0.84%), and aspirin (0.92%). Patients who bled tended to have larger polyps (13.9 vs 7.3 mm; P < .001) and more polyps ≥2 cm (41% vs 10%; P < .001). Bleeding risk was increased with restarting antithrombotics within 1 week postpolypectomy (odds ratio [OR] 4.50; P < .001), having polyps ≥2 cm (OR 5.94; P < .001), performing right-sided cautery (OR 2.61; P = .004), and having multiple large polyps (OR 2.92; P = .001). Among patients on warfarin, the presence of bridge anticoagulation was an independent risk factor for postpolypectomy bleeding (OR 12.27; P = .0001). We conclude that bridge anticoagulation is associated with a high incidence of postpolypectomy bleeding and is an independent risk factor for hemorrhage compared with patients taking warfarin alone. A higher threshold to use bridge anticoagulation should be considered in patients with an elevated bleeding risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  3. Posttraumatic gastric wall hematoma in a patient under anticoagulant therapy. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mânzat Saplacan, Roberta Maria; Catinean, Adrian; Manole, Simona; Valean, Simona Doina; Chira, Romeo Ioan; Mircea, Petru Adrian

    2011-06-01

    We report the clinical observation of a 58-year old patient who presented with upper abdominal pain and a small ecchymosis located in the umbilical area. Personal history of the patient revealed ischemic heart disease and chronic atrial fibrillation. He was under treatment with oral anticoagulants (coumarins). The clinical data and especially the imaging investigations led to a diagnosis of gastric wall hematoma, possibly occurring post-traumatically in a patient under anticoagulant treatment. A conservative therapeutic approach was adopted and ultrasound surveillance. After 6 months the gastric parietal collection manifested complete resorption, spontaneously. In relation to the case presentation, we also discuss some issues on the frequency, diagnosis and therapeutic attitude in this rare complication of anticoagulant therapy.

  4. Patient education about anticoagulant medication: is narrative evidence or statistical evidence more effective?

    PubMed

    Mazor, Kathleen M; Baril, Joann; Dugan, Elizabeth; Spencer, Frederick; Burgwinkle, Pamela; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2007-12-01

    To determine the relative impact of incorporating narrative evidence, statistical evidence or both into patient education about warfarin, a widely used oral anticoagulant medication. 600 patients receiving anticoagulant therapy were randomly assigned to view one of three versions of a video depicting a physician-patient encounter where anticoagulation treatment was discussed, or usual care (no video). The videos differed in whether the physician used narrative evidence (patient anecdotes), statistical evidence, or both to highlight key information. 317 patients completed both the baseline and post-test questionnaires. Questions assessed knowledge, beliefs and adherence to medication and laboratory monitoring regimens. All three approaches positively effected patients' warfarin-related knowledge, and beliefs in the importance of lab testing; there was also some indication that viewing a video strengthened belief in the benefits of warfarin. There was some indication that narrative evidence had a greater impact than statistical evidence on beliefs about the importance of lab testing and on knowledge. No other evidence of the differential effectiveness of either approach was found. No statistically significant effect was found on intent to adhere, or documented adherence to lab monitoring. Videos depicting a physician-patient dialogue about warfarin were effective in educating patients about anticoagulant medication, and had a positive impact on their beliefs. The use of narrative evidence in the form of patient anecdotes may be more effective than statistical evidence for some patient outcomes. Patients on oral anticoagulant therapy may benefit from periodic educational efforts reinforcing key medication safety information, even after initial education and ongoing monitoring. Incorporating patient anecdotes into physician-patient dialogues or educational materials may increase the effectiveness of the message.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Oral Anticoagulants Versus Aspirin for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Tao; Chen, Ke-Ping; Zhang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness and safety of anticoagulation to antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published through May 31, 2014. Randomized controlled trials comparing anticoagulants (warfarin) and antiplatelet therapy in patients with AF were included. The primary outcomes were the rates of stroke and systemic embolism. Secondary outcomes included the rates of hemorrhage/major bleeding and death. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Nine reports of 8 trials that enrolled 4363 patients (2169 patients received anticoagulation and 2194 antiplatelet therapy) were included. All of the studies compared adjusted-dose warfarin or with aspirin, and the majority of the patients were >70 years of age. Anticoagulants were titrated to an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 4.5, and aspirin was administered at a dosage of 75 to 325 mg/d. Death occurred in 206 participants treated with an anticoagulant and 229 participants treated with antiplatelet therapy. There was no significant difference in the overall stroke rate between the groups (OR = 0.667, 95% CI 0.426–1.045, P = 0.08); however, patients with nonrheumatic AF (NRAF) treated with an anticoagulant had a lower risk of stroke (OR = 0.557, 95% CI 0.411–0.753, P < 0.001). Anticoagulants were associated with a lower risk of embolism (OR = 0.616, 95% CI = 0.392–0.966, P = 0.04), and this finding persisted in patients with NRAF (OR = 0.581, 95% CI 0.359–0.941, P = 0.03). No significant difference in the rate of hemorrhage/major bleeding was noted (OR = 1.497, 95% CI 0.730–3.070, P = 0.27), and this finding persisted on subgroup analysis. Anticoagulants appear to be more effective than aspirin in preventing

  6. Dental Procedures in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and New Oral Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the basic pharmacology of new oral anticoagulants that are used for prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. It presents available evidence, and provides recommendations for the management of patients requiring invasive procedures in dental practice. PMID:26835072

  7. Fondaparinux for intra and perioperative anticoagulation in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia candidates for peripheral vascular surgery: Report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Amatucci, Chiara; Masci, Federica; Palumbo, Piergaspare

    2016-01-01

    Intra and perioperative anticoagulation in patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), candidates for peripheral vascular surgery remains a challenge, as the best alternative to heparin has not yet been established. We evaluated the off-label use of fondaparinux in four patients with HIT, undergoing peripheral vascular surgery procedures. Four patients of whom 3 men of a mean age of 66 years, with proven heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) underwent two axillo-femoral bypasses, one femoro-popliteal bypass and one resection of a splenic artery aneurysm under fondaparinux. No intra or perioperative bleeding or thrombosis of new onset was observed. In the absence of a valid alternative to heparin for intra and perioperative anticoagulation in HIT, several other anticoagulants can be used in an off-label setting. However, no general consensus exist on which should be the one of choice. In this small series fondaparinux appeared to be both safe and effective. These preliminary results seem to justify the off-label use of fondaparinux for intra and perioperative anticoagulation in patients with HIT, candidates for peripheral vascular surgery interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient costs in anticoagulation management: a comparison of primary and secondary care.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, D; Bryan, S; Gee, K; Murray, E; Fitzmaurice, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for anticoagulation management is increasing. This has led to care being provided in non-hospital settings. While clinical studies have similarly demonstrated good clinical care in these settings, it is still unclear as to which alternative is the most efficient. AIM: To determine the costs borne by patients when attending an anticoagulation management clinic in either primary or secondary care and to use this information to consider the cost-effectiveness of anticoagulation management in primary and secondary care, both from the National Health Service and patient perspectives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Observational study comparing two cohorts of patients currently attending anticoagulation management clinics. SETTING: Four primary care clinics in Birmingham and one in Warwickshire, and the haematology clinics at the University of Birmingham Hospitals Trust and the City Hospital NHS Trust. METHOD: The survey of patients attending the clinics was used to ascertain patient costs. This information was then used in conjunction with the findings of a recent randomised controlled trial to establish cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Patient costs were lower in primary care than in secondary care settings; the mean (standard deviation) costs per visit were Pound Sterling6.78 (Pound Sterling5.04) versus Pound Sterling14.58 (Pound Sterling9.08). While a previous cost-effectiveness analysis from a health sector perspective alone found a higher cost for primary care, the adoption of the societal perspective lead to a marked change in the result: a similar total cost per patient in both sectors. CONCLUSION: There are significantly higher costs borne by patients attending secondary care anticoagulation management clinics than similar patients attending primary care clinics. This study also demonstrates that the perspective adopted in an economic evaluation can influence the final result. PMID:11766869

  9. Using Artificial Intelligence to Reduce the Risk of Nonadherence in Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Labovitz, Daniel L; Shafner, Laura; Reyes Gil, Morayma; Virmani, Deepti; Hanina, Adam

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the use of an artificial intelligence platform on mobile devices in measuring and increasing medication adherence in stroke patients on anticoagulation therapy. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants, while reducing the need for monitoring, have also placed pressure on patients to self-manage. Suboptimal adherence goes undetected as routine laboratory tests are not reliable indicators of adherence, placing patients at increased risk of stroke and bleeding. A randomized, parallel-group, 12-week study was conducted in adults (n=28) with recently diagnosed ischemic stroke receiving any anticoagulation. Patients were randomized to daily monitoring by the artificial intelligence platform (intervention) or to no daily monitoring (control). The artificial intelligence application visually identified the patient, the medication, and the confirmed ingestion. Adherence was measured by pill counts and plasma sampling in both groups. For all patients (n=28), mean (SD) age was 57 years (13.2 years) and 53.6% were women. Mean (SD) cumulative adherence based on the artificial intelligence platform was 90.5% (7.5%). Plasma drug concentration levels indicated that adherence was 100% (15 of 15) and 50% (6 of 12) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Patients, some with little experience using a smartphone, successfully used the technology and demonstrated a 50% improvement in adherence based on plasma drug concentration levels. For patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants, absolute improvement increased to 67%. Real-time monitoring has the potential to increase adherence and change behavior, particularly in patients on direct oral anticoagulant therapy. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02599259. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Early Initiation of Anticoagulation with Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients after Transient Ischemic Attack or Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Macha, Kosmas; Volbers, Bastian; Bobinger, Tobias; Kurka, Natalia; Breuer, Lorenz; Huttner, Hagen B; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are increasingly used for secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke. While DOACs are associated with a long-term reduced risk of intracranial hemorrhage compared to vitamin K antagonists, pivotal trials avoided the very early period after stroke and few data exist on early initiation of DOAC therapy post stroke. We retrospectively analyzed data from our prospective database of all consecutive transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation treated with DOACs during hospital stay. As per our institutional treatment algorithm for patients with cardioembolic ischemia DOACs are started immediately in TIA and minor stroke (group 1), within days 3-5 in patients with infarcts affecting one third or less of the middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery, or the posterior cerebral artery territories (group 2) as well as in infratentorial stroke (group 3) and after 1-2 weeks in patients with large infarcts (>⅓MCA territory, group 4). We investigated baseline characteristics, time to initiation of DOAC therapy after symptom onset, and hemorrhagic complications. In 243 included patients, administration of DOAC was initiated 40.5 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 23.0-65.5) after stroke onset in group 1 (n = 41) and after 76.7 hours (IQR 48.0-134.0), 108.4 hours (IQR 67.3-176.4), and 161.8 hours (IQR 153.9-593.8) in groups 2-4 (n = 170, 28, and 4), respectively. Two cases of asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (.8%) and 1 case of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (.4%) were observed, both in group 2. No severe safety issues were observed in early initiation of DOACs for secondary prevention after acute stroke in our in-patient cohort. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High prevalence of iatrogenic hyperthyroidism in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation in an anticoagulation clinic.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sandeep Kumar; Dohrmann, Mary L; Brietzke, Stephen A; Fleming, David A; Flaker, Greg C

    2011-01-01

    In elderly patients with established atrial fibrillation (AF) who are receiving thyroid replacement, regular testing for thyroid function is often not performed, placing the patient at risk for iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. Of 215 patients followed in an anticoagulation clinic, 41 were receiving thyroid replacement and 15 of these were found to have hyperthyroidism. Eight had documented AF coincident with abnormal thyroid function. In addition, only 22 patients on thyroid replacement had an annual TSH. In conclusion, iatrogenic hyperthyroidism may frequently be missed in AF patients because of inadequate monitoring of serum TSH. Thyroid replacement is common in elderly patients with AF followed in an anticoagulation clinic. Laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism occurred in 37%, usually in patients with higher doses of thyroid replacement, and often associated with AF. The frequency of iatrogenic hyperthyroidism may be underestimated in patients with AF since many patients who receive thyroid replacement therapy are not monitored regularly with serum TSH.

  12. Colonic endoscopic mucosal resection in patients taking anticoagulants: Is heparin bridging therapy necessary?

    PubMed

    Fujita, Minoru; Murao, Takahisa; Osawa, Motoyasu; Hirai, Shinsuke; Fukushima, Shinya; Yo, Syogen; Nakato, Rui; Ishii, Manabu; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Tamaki, Takahiko; Sakakibara, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko

    2018-05-01

    Heparin bridging therapy (HBT) reportedly increases the risk of post-procedural bleeding, and its safety during endoscopic interventions remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of peri-procedural HBT in patients taking anticoagulants who underwent colonic endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for polyps. Patients who underwent colonic EMR while taking a single anticoagulant agent were enrolled in this study. Anticoagulants were temporarily ceased in all patients either without (the non-HBT group, prospectively enrolled) or with HBT (the HBT group, retrospectively enrolled). The incidences of post-procedural bleeding and anemia exacerbation and their length of hospitalization were evaluated and compared. There were altogether 43 consecutive adult patients (30 men; mean age 72.2 ± 7.4 years) in the non-HBT group and 41 sex- and age-matched adults (32 men; mean age 72.9 ± 8.3 years) in the HBT group. There were no significant differences in the location, number or size of resected polyps between the two groups. The percentage of patients with post-procedural bleeding within 2 weeks after colonic EMR in the non-HBT group was lower than that in the HBT group (2.3% vs 9.8%, P = 0.15), although the frequency of anemia exacerbation was not significantly different between the two groups. The total hospitalization length was shorter in the non-HBT compared with the HBT group (4.5 days vs 6.0 days, P < 0.001). No patient in either group developed embolism during hospitalization. Colonic EMR with the temporary cessation of anticoagulants without HBT may be acceptable and beneficial for patients taking anticoagulants. © 2018 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Best strategies for patient education about anticoagulation with warfarin: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wofford, James L; Wells, Megan D; Singh, Sonal

    2008-01-01

    Background Patient education is an essential component in quality management of the anticoagulated patient. Because it is time consuming for clinicians and overwhelming for patients, education of the anticoagulated patient is often neglected. We surveyed the medical literature in order to identify the best patient education strategies. Methods Study Selection: Two reviewers independently searched the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases (last search March 2007) using the terms "warfarin" or "anticoagulation", and "patient education". The initial search identified 206 citations, A total of 166 citations were excluded because patients were of pediatric age (4), the article was not related to patient education (48), did not contain original data or inadequate program description (141), was focused solely on patient self-testing (1), was a duplicate citation (3), the article was judged otherwise irrelevant (44), or no abstract was available (25). Data Extraction: Clinical setting, study design, group size, content source, time and personnel involved, educational strategy and domains, measures of knowledge retention. Results Data Synthesis: A total of 32 articles were ultimately used for data extraction. Thirteen articles adequately described features of the educational strategy. Five programs used a nurse or pharmacist, 4 used a physician, and 2 studies used other personnel/vehicles (lay educators (1), videotapes (1)). The duration of the educational intervention ranged from 1 to 10 sessions. Patient group size most often averaged 3 to 5 patients but ranged from as low as 1 patient to as much as 11 patients. Although 12 articles offered information about education content, the wording and lack of detail in the description made it too difficult to accurately assign categories of education topics and to compare articles with one another. For the 17 articles that reported measures of patient knowledge, 5 of the 17 sites where the surveys were administered were located in

  14. The Best Anticoagulation Therapy in Multiple-Trauma Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves: Evaluation of Latest Guidelines and Studies.

    PubMed

    Moeinipour, Aliasghar; Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Sheikh Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Ahmadabadi, Ali; Amouzeshi, Ahmad; Hoseinikhah, Hamid

    2015-12-22

    It is common practice for patients with prosthetic cardiac devices, especially heart valve prosthesis, arterial stents, defibrillators, and pacemaker devices, to use anticoagulation treatment. When these patients suffer from multiple trauma after motor vehicle accidents, the best medical management for this challenging position is mandatory. This strategy should include a rapid diagnosis of all possible multiple organ injuries, with special attention to anticoagulation therapy so as to minimize the risk of thromboembolism complication in prosthetic devices. In this review, we describe the best medical management for patients with multiple trauma who use anticoagulants after heart valve replacement. We searched electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar using the following terms: anticoagulant, warfarin, heparin, and multiple trauma. Also, similar studies suggested by the databases were included. Non-English articles were excluded from the review. For patients who use anticoagulation therapy, teamwork between cardiac surgeons, general surgeons, anesthesiologists, and cardiologists is essential. For optimal medical management, multiple consults between members of this team is mandatory for rapid diagnosis of all possible damaged organs, with special attention to the central nervous system, chest, and abdominal traumas. With this strategy, it is important to take note of anticoagulation drugs to minimize the risk of thromboembolism complications in cardiac devices. The best anticoagulant agents for emergency operations in patients with multiple trauma who are using an anticoagulant after heart valve replacement are fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC).

  15. Reduced Anticoagulant Effect of Dabigatran in a Patient Receiving Concomitant Phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Barbara S; Northup, Amanda; Johnson, Dominic; Senfield, Jeffrey

    2016-02-01

    Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, is an oral anticoagulant indicated for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and for the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Dabigatran, as well as the other new anticoagulants-rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban-are substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Although the U.S. labeling for rivaroxaban and apixaban states to avoid concomitant use with phenytoin, a known P-gp inducer, the U.S. labeling for dabigatran and edoxaban are less clear. We describe the first case report, to our knowledge, documenting a drug interaction between phenytoin and dabigatran by using laboratory measurements of dabigatran serum concentrations. A 45-year-old African-American man was admitted to the inpatient cardiology service following defibrillations from his implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The patient was evaluated and received appropriate antitachycardia pacing for atrial tachyarrhythmias for an episode of ventricular tachycardia (VT), and antiarrhythmic therapy with sotalol was initiated to reduce both his AF and VT burden. On review of the patient's medications for potential interactions, it was discovered that the patient was taking both dabigatran and phenytoin. To determine the magnitude of this drug interaction prior to making a change in his anticoagulation regimen, a dabigatran serum concentration was measured. This concentration was undetectable, indicating that phenytoin had a significant influence on dabigatran's metabolism and that this patient was at high risk for stroke. Clinicians should be aware of this interaction between phenytoin and dabigatran as well as with all other new oral anticoagulants. In patients taking phenytoin who require an anticoagulant, only warfarin should be prescribed to minimize the risk of stroke. In addition, the prescribing information for dabigatran should be updated to include other medications that result in a significant

  16. Effect of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood of patients with hypertension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bublis, V. V.; Zabrodina, L. V.; Platonova, A. T.; Meyerova, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    The data which have been obtained on the influence of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood indicate that the wearing of magnetic bracelets results in a decrease in the coagulation activity of the blood and an increase in the activity of the anticoagulation system. These changes must be viewed as favorable for patients with cardiovascular pathology.

  17. Trends in oral anticoagulant choice for acute stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Japan: The SAMURAI‐NVAF Study

    PubMed Central

    Arihiro, Shoji; Todo, Kenichi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kazumi; Furui, Eisuke; Terasaki, Tadashi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Takizawa, Shunya; Okuda, Satoshi; Okada, Yasushi; Kameda, Tomoaki; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Nakashima, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Kazuhiro; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Kario, Kazuomi; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Nagatsuka, K; Minematsu, K; Nakagawara, J; Akiyama, H; Shibazaki, K; Maeda, K; Shibuya, S; Yoshimura, S; Endo, K; Miyagi, T; Osaki, M; Kobayashi, J; Okata, T; Tanaka, E; Sakamoto, Y; Takizawa, H; Takasugi, J; Tokunaga, K; Homma, K; Kinoshita, N; Matsuki, T; Higashida, K; Shiozawa, M; Kanai, H; Uehara, S

    2015-01-01

    Background Large clinical trials are lack of data on non‐vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for acute stroke patients. Aim To evaluate the choice of oral anticoagulants at acute hospital discharge in stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and clarify the underlying characteristics potentially affecting that choice using the multicenter Stroke Acute Management with Urgent Risk‐factor Assessment and Improvement‐NVAF registry (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01581502). Method The study included 1192 acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (527 women, 77·7 ± 9·9 years old) between September 2011 and March 2014, during which three nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant oral anticoagulants were approved for clinical use. Oral anticoagulant choice at hospital discharge (median 23‐day stay) was assessed. Results Warfarin was chosen for 650 patients, dabigatran for 203, rivaroxaban for 238, and apixaban for 25. Over the three 10‐month observation periods, patients taking warfarin gradually decreased to 46·5% and those taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants increased to 48·0%. As compared with warfarin users, patients taking nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants included more men, were younger, more frequently had small infarcts, and had lower scores for poststroke CHADS 2, CHA 2 DS 2‐VASc, and HAS‐BLED, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale, and discharge modified Rankin Scale. Nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were started at a median of four‐days after stroke onset without early intracranial hemorrhage. Patients starting nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants earlier had smaller infarcts and lower scores for the admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale and the discharge modified Rankin Scale than those starting later. Choice of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants was independently associated with 20‐day or

  18. Renal function in atrial fibrillation patients switched from warfarin to a direct oral anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Anum S; Jiang, Qingmei; Gu, Xiaokui; Haymart, Brian; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Almany, Steve; Kozlowski, Jay; Krol, Gregory D; Kaatz, Scott; Froehlich, James B; Barnes, Geoffrey D

    2016-11-01

    All available direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are at least partially eliminated by the kidneys. These agents are increasingly being used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to identify changes in renal function and associated DOAC dosing implications in a multicenter cohort of atrial fibrillation patients switched from warfarin to DOAC treatment. We included all patients in the Michigan Anticoagulation Quality Improvement Initiative cohort who switched from warfarin to a DOAC with atrial fibrillation as their anticoagulant indication between 2009 and 2014, and who had at least two creatinine values. Compliance with FDA-recommended dosing based on renal function was assessed. Of the 189 patients switched from warfarin to a DOAC, 34 (18.0 %) had a baseline creatinine clearance <50 mL/min and 23 (12.2 %) experienced important fluctuations in renal function. Of these 23 patients, 6 (26.1 %) should have impacted the DOAC dosing, but only 1 patient actually received an appropriate dose adjustment. Additionally, 15 (7.9 %) of patients on DOACs had a dose change performed, but only one patient demonstrated a change in renal function to justify the dose adjustment. Most atrial fibrillation patients who switched from warfarin to a DOAC had stable renal function. However, the majority of patients who had a change in renal function did not receive the indicated dose change. As the use of DOACs expands, monitoring of renal function and appropriate dose adjustments are critical.

  19. Prospective pilot trial of PerMIT versus standard anticoagulation service management of patients initiating oral anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Borgman, Mark P; Pendleton, Robert C; McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Reynolds, Kristen K; Vazquez, Sara; Freeman, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Valdes, Roland; Linder, Mark W

    2012-09-01

    We performed a randomised pilot trial of PerMIT, a novel decision support tool for genotype-based warfarin initiation and maintenance dosing, to assess its efficacy for improving warfarin management. We prospectively studied 26 subjects to compare PerMIT-guided management with routine anticoagulation service management. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype results for 13 subjects randomly assigned to the PerMIT arm were recorded within 24 hours of enrolment. To aid in INR interpretation, PerMIT calculates estimated loading and maintenance doses based on a patient's genetic and clinical characteristics and displays calculated S-warfarin plasma concentrations based on planned or administered dosages. In comparison to control subjects, patients in the PerMIT study arm demonstrated a 3.6-day decrease in the time to reach a stabilised INR within the target therapeutic range (4.7 vs. 8.3 days, p = 0.015); a 12.8% increase in time spent within the therapeutic interval over the first 25 days of therapy (64.3% vs. 55.3%, p = 0.180); and a 32.9% decrease in the frequency of warfarin dose adjustments per INR measurement (38.3% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.007). Serial measurements of plasma S-warfarin concentrations were also obtained to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of the pharmacokinetic model during induction therapy. The PerMIT S-warfarin plasma concentration model estimated 62.8% of concentrations within 0.15 mg/l. These pilot data suggest that the PerMIT method and its incorporation of genotype/phenotype information may help practitioners increase the safety, efficacy, and efficiency of warfarin therapeutic management.

  20. Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: dawn of a new era.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Tahmeed; Levin, Vadim; Martinez, Matthew W; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important cause of ischemic stroke and is the underlying cause of > 20% of all strokes, with increasing age being a risk factor. Until recently, warfarin was the only available oral anticoagulant used to decrease this risk in patients with AF. However, there are several disadvantages of warfarin use, such as the requirement for monitoring the international normalized ratio, its wide range of drug-food interactions, and its narrow therapeutic index. Thus, there has been a strong impetus for the development of newer oral anticoagulants with predictable pharmacokinetics that obviate the need for monitoring the international normalized ratio. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) and 2 factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban) for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular AF. There are several other new oral anticoagulant agents on the horizon, including the factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban. This review article discusses the pharmacological properties, clinical trial data, and practical issues associated with the use of these novel oral anticoagulants.

  1. Patients' and physicians' satisfaction with a pharmacist managed anticoagulation program in a family medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Lisa; Young, Stephanie; Twells, Laurie; Dillon, Carla; Hawboldt, John

    2015-06-09

    A pharmacist managed anticoagulation service was initiated in a multi-physician family medicine clinic in December 2006. In order to determine the patient and physician satisfaction with the service, a study was designed to describe the patients' satisfaction with the warfarin education and management they received from the pharmacist, and to describe the physicians' satisfaction with the level of care provided by the pharmacist for patients taking warfarin. A self-administered survey was completed by both eligible patients receiving warfarin and physicians prescribing warfarin between December 2006 and May 2008. The patient survey collected information on patient demographics, satisfaction with warfarin education and daily warfarin management. The physician survey collected data about the satisfaction with patient education and daily anticoagulation management by the pharmacist. Seventy-six of 94 (81%) patients completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent were male with a mean age of 65 years (range 24-90). Ninety-six percent agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist did a good job teaching the importance of warfarin adherence, the necessity of INR testing and the risks of bleeding. Eighty-five percent agreed/strongly agreed the risk of blood clots was well explained, 79% felt the pharmacist did a good job teaching about dietary considerations and 77% agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist explained when to see a doctor. All patients felt the pharmacist gave clear instructions on warfarin dosing and INR testing. Four of nine physicians (44%) completed the survey. All agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist was competent in the care provided, were confident in the care their patients received, would like the pharmacist to continue the service, and would recommend this program to other clinics. Patients and family physicians were satisfied with the pharmacist managed anticoagulation program and recommended continuation of the program. These results support the role of the

  2. Patient preferences and willingness to pay for different options of anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Moia, Marco; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; Carpenedo, Monica; Scalone, Luciana; Monzini, Mara Silvia; Cesana, Giancarlo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-04-01

    New anticoagulant drugs alternative to vitamin K antagonists are currently under clinical evaluation. Patient's preferences should be considered in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Our study aim was to elicit patient preferences, and estimate their willingness to pay for the different treatment options. A Discrete Choice Experiment was administered to patients consecutively attending an anticoagulation clinic, either on stable oral anticoagulant therapy, or during their first visit at the time of starting therapy. Six treatment characteristics were analysed: route and number of medication administrations, frequency of monitoring, risk of some minor bleeding, the amount of attention required for drug/food interactions, requirement for dose adjustment, and out-of-pocket treatment cost. Relationships between patient's preferences and their characteristics were analysed. 255 patients participated (55 % men, with a mean age 64 years; 35.7 % on stable therapy). A statistically significant importance was attributed to all but two characteristics (the amount of attention required for interaction with other drugs/food and for dose adjustment.) Monthly patient willingness to pay was 79 for tablets versus injections; 41 for once-daily versus twice-daily tablets, 25 for drugs without risk of minor bleeding events and 20 for once-monthly versus twice-monthly monitoring. Patients on stable therapy considered more important the amount of attention required for drug/food interactions than did the starters. Younger or working patients considered the reduction of monitoring frequency more important than did the older or not working patients (retired, housewives). This study elicited preferences from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy with a simple and well established method, which allows to obtain information warranted for planning optimal healthcare.

  3. Managing the therapeutic dilemma: patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and urgent need for anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Bertram, M; Bonsanto, M; Hacke, W; Schwab, S

    2000-03-01

    Physicians face a therapeutic dilemma in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke requiring long-term, high-intensity anticoagulants because this treatment increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) 8- to 11-fold. We retrospectively studied 15 patients with ICH which occurred under anticoagulation with phenprocoumon, with an international norrmalized ratio (INR) of 2.5-6.5 on admission. Hemispheric, thalamic, cerebellar, intraventricular, or subarachnoid hemorrhage without aneurysm occurred. Absolute indications for anticoagulation were double, mitral, or aortic valve replacement, combined mitral valve failure with atrial fibrillation and atrial enlargement, internal carotid artery-jugular vein graft, frequently recurring deep vein thrombosis with risk of pulmonary embolism, and severe nontreatable ischemic heart disease. As soon as the diagnosis of ICH was established, INR normalization was attempted in all patients by administration of prothrombin complex, fresh frozen plasma, or vitamin K. After giving phenprocoumon antagonists (and neurosurgical therapy in four patients) heparin administration was started. Nine patients received full-dose intravenous and six low-dose subcutaneous heparin. The following observations were made: (a) All patients with effective, full-dose heparin treatment with a 1.5- to 2-fold elevation in partial thromboplastin time after normalization of the INR were discharged without complication. (b) Three of four of the patients with only incomplete correction of the INR (> 1.35) experienced relevant rebleeding within 3 days (all patients with an INR higher than 1.5), two of whom were on full-dose heparin. (c) Three of seven of the patients with normalized INR and without significant PTT elevation developed severe cerebral embolism. Although our data are based on a retrospective analysis, they support treatment with intravenous heparin (partial thromboplastin time 1.5-2 times baseline value) after normalization of the INR in patients

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Oral Anticoagulants for Ischemic Stroke Prophylaxis Among Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj; Shewale, Anand; Hayes, Corey J; Martin, Bradley C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the cost-effectiveness of oral anticoagulants among atrial fibrillation patients at an increased stroke risk. A Markov model was constructed to project the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted survival (QALYs) of oral anticoagulants using a private payer's perspective. The distribution of stroke risk (CHADS2 score: congestive heart failure, hypertension, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, stroke) and age of the modeled population was derived from a cohort of commercially insured patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation. Probabilities of treatment specific events were derived from published clinical trials. Event and downstream costs were determined from the cost of illness studies. Drug costs were obtained from 2015 National Average Drug Acquisition Cost data. In the base case analysis, warfarin was the least costly ($46 241; 95% CI, 44 499-47 874) and apixaban had the highest QALYs (9.38; 95% CI, 9.24-9.48 QALYs). Apixaban was found to be a cost-effective strategy over warfarin (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio=$25 816) and dominated other anticoagulants. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that apixaban had at least a 61% chance of being the most cost-effective strategy at willingness to pay value of $100 000 per QALY. Among patients with CHADS2 ≥3, dabigatran was the dominant strategy. The model was sensitive to efficacy estimates of apixaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban and the cost of these drugs. All the newer oral anticoagulants compared were more effective than adjusted dosed warfarin. Our model showed that apixaban was the most effective anticoagulant in a general atrial fibrillation population and has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50 000/QALY. For those with higher stroke risk (CHADS2≥3), dabigatran was the most cost-effective treatment option. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The mythology of anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Continuous anticoagulation therapy is used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and other embolic complications. When patients receiving anticoagulation therapy undergo dental surgery, a decision must be made about whether to continue anticoagulation therapy and risk bleeding complications or briefly interrupt anticoagulation therapy and increase the risk of developing embolic complications. Results from decades of studies of thousands of dental patients receiving anticoagulation therapy reveal that bleeding complications requiring more than local measures for hemostasis have been rare and never fatal. However, embolic complications (some of which were fatal and others possibly permanently debilitating) sometimes have occurred in patients whose anticoagulation therapy was interrupted for dental procedures. Although there is now virtually universal consensus among national medical and dental groups and other experts that anticoagulation therapy should not be interrupted for most dental surgery, there are still some arguments made supporting anticoagulation therapy interruption. An analysis of these arguments shows them to be based on a collection of myths and half-truths rather than on logical scientific conclusions. The time has come to stop anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental procedures. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Venous Thromboembolism Requiring Extended Anticoagulation Among HIV-Infected Patients in a Rural, Resource-Constrained Setting in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kanyi, John; Karwa, Rakhi; Pastakia, Sonak Dinesh; Manji, Imran; Manyara, Simon; Saina, Collins

    2017-05-01

    HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), and minimal data are available to describe the need for extended treatment. To evaluate the frequency of and determine predictive risk factors for extended anticoagulation of VTE in HIV-infected patients in rural, western Kenya. A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Anticoagulation Monitoring Service affiliated with Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital and the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare. Data were collected on patients who were HIV-infected and receiving anticoagulation for lower-limb deep vein thrombosis. The need for extended anticoagulation, defined as receiving ≥7 months of warfarin therapy, was established based on patient symptoms or Doppler ultrasound-confirmed diagnosis. Evaluation of the secondary outcomes utilized a univariate analysis to identify risk factors associated with extended anticoagulation. A total of 71 patients were included in the analysis; 27 patients (38%) required extended anticoagulation. The univariate analysis showed a statistically significant association between the need for extended anticoagulation and achieving a therapeutic international normalized ratio within 21 days in both the unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Patients with a history of opportunistic infections required an extended duration of anticoagulation in the adjusted analysis: odds ratio = 3.42; 95% CI = 1.04-11.32; P = 0.04. This study shows that there may be a need for increased duration of anticoagulation in HIV-infected patients, with a need to address the issue of long-term management. Guideline recommendations are needed to address the complexity of treatment issues in this population.

  7. Treatments for Reversing Warfarin Anticoagulation in Patients with Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Structured Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-08

    available soon. Treatments for reversing warfarin anticoagulation in patients with acute intracranial hemorrhage: a structured literature review...DATE 08 JUL 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treatments For Reversing Warfarin ...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES International Journal of Emergency Medicine 2011 14. ABSTRACT The acute management of patients on warfarin

  8. Is Endoscopic Therapy Safe for Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Anticoagulated Patients With Supratherapeutic International Normalized Ratios?

    PubMed

    Shim, Choong Nam; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Jun Chul; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Ha Yan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    The management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) presents a challenge. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the safety of endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients with supratherapeutic INR in terms of rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. One hundred ninety-two anticoagulated patients who underwent endoscopic treatment for UGIB were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the occurrence of rebleeding within 30 days of the initial therapeutic endoscopy: no-rebleeding group (n = 168) and rebleeding group (n = 24). The overall rebleeding rate was 12.5%. Bleeding from gastric cancer and bleeding at the duodenum were significantly related to rebleeding in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis determined that presenting symptoms other than melena (hematemesis, hematochezia, or others) (odds ratio, 3.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-10.76) and bleeding from gastric cancer (odds ratio, 6.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-29.25) were significant factors predictive of rebleeding. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy was not significantly associated with rebleeding in either univariate or multivariate analysis. Significant differences in bleeding-related mortality, additional intervention to control bleeding, length of hospital stay, and transfusion requirements were revealed between the rebleeding and no-rebleeding groups. There were no significant differences in therapeutic outcomes between patients with INR within the therapeutic range and those with supratherapeutic INR. Supratherapeutic INR at the time of endoscopic therapy did not change rebleeding and therapeutic outcomes. Thus, we should consider endoscopic therapy for UGIB in anticoagulated patients, irrespective of INR at the time of endoscopic therapy.

  9. Early Transcatheter Aortic Valve Function With and Without Therapeutic Anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Pranoti G; Kearney, Kathleen; Smith, Bryn; Don, Creighton; Dvir, Danny; Aldea, Gabriel; Reisman, Mark; McCabe, James M

    2017-11-01

    Prosthetic leaflet thrombosis is a growing concern in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Given the uncertainty of best practices for antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies in the post-TAVR period, additional evidence regarding the impact of anticoagulation on prosthetic valve function after TAVR is needed. Patients undergoing native-valve TAVR at a single academic institution between 2012 and 2015 were analyzed based on any anticoagulant use at hospital discharge post TAVR. Changes in prosthetic valve peak velocity and mean gradient were assessed based on transthoracic echocardiograms performed immediately following valve implant and at 4-week follow-up. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to explore the impact of anticoagulation status on early TAVR valve performance. For 403 patients, there were no available data to analyze. Of those, 29.6% were discharged on anticoagulation. Following TAVR, the average mean prosthetic valve gradient was 11.8 ± 5.6 mm Hg and peak velocity was 2.33 ± 0.52 m/s. There were no significant differences between anticoagulated and non-anticoagulated groups in the mean or peak gradients or velocity immediately following implant or at 4 weeks, which remained true following multivariate adjustment (P=.80 for delta mean gradient; P=.91 for delta peak velocity). Our data suggest that the absence of anticoagulation is not associated with short-term degradation in TAVR performance and do not support the routine use of anticoagulation following native-valve TAVR.

  10. Apixaban for periprocedural anticoagulation during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 1691 patients.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Alessandro; Bianchi, Francesca; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Grossi, Stefano; Conte, Maria Rosa; Rametta, Francesco; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Apixaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor recently approved for thromboembolic prophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), is increasingly used in patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF. However, large randomized studies supporting its use in the ablation context are still lacking. We undertook the present meta-analysis to assess the impact of apixaban in terms of thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients undergoing AF ablation as compared to warfarin. MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and references reporting AF ablation and apixaban were screened and studies included if matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. One randomized and five nonrandomized studies were included in the analysis. Patients enrolled were 1691 patients (668 on apixaban and 1023 on warfarin). There was no heterogeneity in all the outcome comparisons. No deaths were reported. We did not observe any difference between apixaban and warfarin with respect to thromboembolic events (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI 0.24-5.16), major bleedings (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI 0.59-4.13), cardiac tamponade (OR 1.69, 95 % CI 0.52-5.54), minor bleedings (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.58-1.59), and the composite endpoint of death, thromboembolic events, and bleedings (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.65-1.64). The rates of death, thromboembolic events, major bleedings including cardiac tamponade, and minor bleedings in patients on apixaban undergoing AF ablation are very low and similar to that seen in patients treated with uninterrupted warfarin. Although primary driven by nonrandomized studies, these results support apixaban as periprocedural anticoagulation during AF ablation procedures.

  11. The perioperative management of patients with left ventricular assist devices undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Barbara, David W; Wetzel, David R; Pulido, Juan N; Pershing, Bryan S; Park, Soon J; Stulak, John M; Zietlow, Scott P; Morris, David S; Boilson, Barry A; Mauermann, William J

    2013-07-01

    To describe the perioperative management of patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) who require general anesthesia while undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS) at a single, large tertiary referral center. Electronic medical records from September 2, 2005, through May 31, 2012, were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the perioperative management and outcomes in LVAD patients undergoing NCS. Patients were included only if they required a general anesthetic and had previously been discharged from the hospital after initial LVAD implantation. Thirty-three patients with LVADs underwent general anesthesia for 67 noncardiac operations. The mean ± SD time from LVAD implantation to NCS was 317 ± 349 days. All but 1 patient had axial flow LVADs. Anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents were present within 7 days before NCS in 49 procedures (73%) and reversed in 32 of 49 (65%). No perioperative thrombotic complications related to anticoagulation or antiplatelet reversal were noted. Red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma, and platelet transfusions were administered during 10, 6, and 4 operations, respectively. The only intraoperative complication was surgical bleeding. Postoperative complications were present in 12 patients after NCS and were mainly composed of bleeding. Three patients died within 30 days of NCS, with the causes of death not attributed to NCS. Patients with LVAD safely underwent NCS in a multidisciplinary setting that included preoperative optimization by cardiologists familiar with LVADs when feasible. Anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents were present preoperatively in most patients with LVADs and were safely reversed when necessary for NCS. The relatively high occurrence of postoperative bleeding is consistent with previous series. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stroke prevention in the elderly atrial fibrillation patient with comorbid conditions: focus on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Turagam, Mohit K; Velagapudi, Poonam; Flaker, Greg C

    2015-01-01

    Stroke prevention in elderly atrial fibrillation patients remains a challenge. There is a high risk of stroke and systemic thromboembolism but also a high risk of bleeding if anticoagulants are prescribed. The elderly have increased chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, polypharmacy, and overall frailty. For all these reasons, anticoagulant use is underutilized in the elderly. In this manuscript, the benefits of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin in the elderly patient population with multiple comorbid conditions are reviewed. PMID:26366064

  13. Safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients on chronic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Baltar, C; Pérez-Fentes, D; Sánchez-García, J F; García-Freire, C

    2018-01-22

    In developed countries, the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing, therefore, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs are a widespread treatment nowadays. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the first-line treatment for large or complex stones (> 2 cm) and remains an alternative for the smaller ones. The objective of this study is to analyze whether PNL surgery is a safe procedure in patients under a treatment discontinuation protocol for anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies. We retrospectively studied 301 patients who underwent PNL in our hospital between 2008 and 2016 and identified 46 patients on chronic antiplatelet or anticoagulation treatment. With respect to PNL outcomes, the stone-free rate was similar (78 vs 74%, p = 0.762) in both groups, without any significant differences in the overall postoperative complications (17 vs 26%, p = 0.203). The incidence of hemorrhagic complications was similar between groups (12 vs 9%, p = 0.492), as demonstrated by the mean drop in hemoglobin (Hb), which was comparable in both cohorts (2.2 ± 1.3 vs 2.0 ± 1.4 p = 0.270) and the blood transfusion rate (14% in group A and 8% in group B, p = 0.205). No thromboembolic events were found within the year after the PNL procedure. PNL is a safe and effective intervention in patients under a treatment discontinuation protocol for anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies. Although our study demonstrates the feasibility of this protocol, new scientific evidence aims to stratify the thromboembolic and bleeding risk of each patient to individualize the perioperative management thereafter.

  14. Are pharmacological properties of anticoagulants reflected in pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policy? Out-patient treatment of venous thromboembolism and utilization of anticoagulants in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, T; Czarnogorski, M; Nizankowski, R; Pilc, A

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) is a major cost driver in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Major representatives of anticoagulants in Europe include: acenocoumarol and warfarin (VKA), enoxaparin, dalteparin, nadroparin, reviparin, parnaparin and bemiparin (LMWH). Aim of this report is to measure and critically assess the utilization of anticoagulants and other resources used in the out-patient treatment of VTE in Poland. To confront the findings with available scientific evidence on pharmacological and clinical properties of anticoagulants. The perspectives of the National Health Fund (NHF) and the patients were adopted, descriptive statistics methods were used. The data were gathered at the NHF and the clinic specialized in treatment of coagulation disorders. Non-pharmacological costs of treatment were for the NHF 1.6 times higher with VKA than with LMWH. Daily cost of pharmacotherapy with LMWH turned out higher than with VKA (234 times for the NHF, 42 times per patient). Within both LMWH and VKA the reimbursement due for the daily doses of a particular medication altered in the manner inversely proportional to the level of patient co-payment. Utilization of long-marketed and cheap VKA was dominated by LMWH, when assessed both through the monetary measures and by the actual volume of sales. Pharmaceutical reimbursement policy favored the more expensive equivalents among VKA and LMWH, whereas in the financial terms the patients were far better off when remaining on a more expensive alternative. The pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policy of the state should be more closely related to the pharmacological properties of anticoagulants.

  15. Dental management of patients receiving anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chaveli-López, Begonya; Gavaldá-Esteve, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adequate hemostasis is crucial for the success of invasive dental treatment, since bleeding problems can give rise to complications associated with important morbidity-mortality. The dental treatment of patients who tend to an increased risk of bleeding due to the use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet drugs raises a challenge in the daily practice of dental professionals. Adequate knowledge of the mechanisms underlying hemostasis, and the optimized management of such patients, are therefore very important issues. Objectives: A study is made of the anticoagulant / antiplatelet drugs currently available on the market, with evaluation of the risks and benefits of suspending such drugs prior to invasive dental treatment. In addition, a review is made of the current management protocols used in these patients. Material and Methods: A literature search was made in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, covering all studies published in the last 5 years in English and Spanish. Studies conducted in humans and with scientific evidence levels 1 and 2 (metaanalyses, systematic reviews, randomized phase 1 and 2 trials, cohort studies and case-control studies) were considered. The keywords used for the search were: tooth extraction, oral surgery, hemostasis, platelet aggregation inhibitors, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, warfarin, acenocoumarol. Results and Conclusions: Many management protocols have been developed, though in all cases a full clinical history is required, together with complementary hemostatic tests to minimize any risks derived from dental treatment. Many authors consider that patient medication indicated for the treatment of background disease should not be altered or suspended unless so indicated by the prescribing physician. Local hemostatic measures have been shown to suffice for controlling possible bleeding problems resulting from dental treatment. Key words:Tooth extraction, oral surgery, hemostasis, platelet

  16. [Consensus statement: Management of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Helms, Thomas Maria; Silber, Sigmund; Schäfer, Andreas; Masuhr, Florian; Palm, Frederick; Darius, Harald; Schrör, Karsten; Bänsch, Dietmar; Bramlage, Peter; Hankowitz, Johannes; Karle, Christoph A; Stargardt, Tom; Weil, Joachim; Geller, Johann Christoph

    2016-09-01

    With the introduction of edoxaban last year in Germany, four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are now available for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. These novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) represent an attractive new option compared to vitamin K antagonists (e.g., warfarin or phenprocoumon) due to simple use and fewer interactions with other drugs or food. Therefore, no INR monitoring and dosage adjustments are required for NOAC. The compelling clinical advantage of NOAC is the dramatic risk reduction of hemorhagic stroke and intracranial bleeding compared to current standard. In addition, total mortality is significantly reduced by 10 %. These effects are demonstrated for all four NOAC (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban). Therefore, current national and international guidelines recommend NOAC as the preferred option or at least as an attractive alternative compared to the former standard of vitamin K antagonists. The economic impact and reimbursement by Statutory Health Insurance (GKV) is of major importance for treatment in an outpatient setting. For apixaban and edoxaban, an additional benefit was granted by the institution of G‑BA and IQWiG in this clinical setting, whereas dabigatran and rivaroxaban were not assessed due to market entrance prior to 2011 before the AMNOG procedure was initiated. The members of this consensus paper recommend NOAC as the preferred option for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who are currently not treated with anticoagulant drugs in spite of clear indication for anticoagulation. For new patients with nonvalvular fibrillation, it should be decided on an individual basis which treatment option is adequate for the patient with their respective comorbidities.

  17. Impact of video technology on efficiency of pharmacist-provided anticoagulation counseling and patient comprehension.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah J; Blair, Elizabeth A; Steeb, David R; Reed, Brent N; Hull, J Heyward; Rodgers, Jo Ellen

    2015-06-01

    Discharge anticoagulation counseling is important for ensuring patient comprehension and optimizing clinical outcomes. As pharmacy resources become increasingly limited, the impact of informational videos on the counseling process becomes more relevant. To evaluate differences in pharmacist time spent counseling and patient comprehension (measured by the Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge [OAK] test) between informational videos and traditional face-to-face (oral) counseling. This prospective, open, parallel-group study at an academic medical center randomized 40 individuals-17 warfarin-naïve ("New Start") and 23 with prior warfarin use ("Restart")-to receive warfarin discharge education by video or face-to-face counseling. "Teach-back" questions were used in both groups. Although overall pharmacist time was reduced in the video counseling group (P < 0.001), an interaction between prior warfarin use and counseling method (P = 0.012) suggests the difference between counseling methods was smaller in New Start participants. Following adjustment, mean total time was reduced 8.71 (95% CI = 5.15-12.26) minutes (adjusted P < 0.001) in Restart participants and 2.31 (-2.19 to 6.81) minutes (adjusted P = 0.472) in New Start participants receiving video counseling. Postcounseling OAK test scores did not differ. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, and years of education were not predictive of total time or OAK test score. Use of informational videos coupled with teach-back questions significantly reduced pharmacist time spent on anticoagulation counseling without compromising short-term patient comprehension, primarily in patients with prior warfarin use. Study results demonstrate that video technology provides an efficient method of anticoagulation counseling while achieving similar comprehension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Speech profile of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Menegueti, Katia Ignacio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Alonso, Nivaldo; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-10-26

    To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy. Patients were divided into two groups: early intervention group (EIG) - 43 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty before 2 years of age and late intervention group (LIG) - 54 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty after 2 years of age. All patients underwent speech-language pathology assessment. The following parameters were assessed: resonance classification, presence of nasal turbulence, presence of weak intraoral air pressure, presence of audible nasal air emission, speech understandability, and compensatory articulation disorder (CAD). At statistical significance level of 5% (p≤0.05), no significant difference was observed between the groups in the following parameters: resonance classification (p=0.067); level of hypernasality (p=0.113), presence of nasal turbulence (p=0.179); presence of weak intraoral air pressure (p=0.152); presence of nasal air emission (p=0.369), and speech understandability (p=0.113). The groups differed with respect to presence of compensatory articulation disorders (p=0.020), with the LIG presenting higher occurrence of altered phonemes. It was possible to assess the general profile and speech characteristics of the study participants. Patients submitted to early primary palatoplasty present better speech profile.

  19. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  20. Advanced age, anticoagulation intensity, and risk for intracranial hemorrhage among patients taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Margaret C; Chang, Yuchiao; Hylek, Elaine M; Rosand, Jonathan; Greenberg, Steven M; Go, Alan S; Singer, Daniel E

    2004-11-16

    The risk for atrial fibrillation-associated stroke increases at low anticoagulation intensities. However, higher intensities increase hemorrhage risk. Optimal use of warfarin for atrial fibrillation requires precise information on the risk for intracranial hemorrhage as a function of patient age and anticoagulation intensity. To examine the relationship of age, anticoagulation intensity, and risk for intracranial hemorrhage. Case-control study. Academic medical center. 170 case-patients who developed intracranial hemorrhage during warfarin therapy and 1020 matched controls who did not; both case-patients and controls were taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation. The authors performed multivariable conditional logistic regression to determine the odds of intracranial hemorrhage with regard to age and international normalized ratio (INR), controlling for comorbid conditions and aspirin use. Case-patients were older than controls (median age, 78 years vs. 75 years; P < 0.001) and had higher median INRs (2.7 vs. 2.3; P < 0.001). The risk for intracranial hemorrhage increased at 85 years of age or older (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.3 to 4.7]; referent age, 70 to 74 years) and at an INR range of 3.5 to 3.9 (adjusted odds ratio, 4.6 [CI, 2.3 to 9.4]; referent INR, 2.0 to 3.0). The risk for intracranial hemorrhage at INRs less than 2.0 did not differ statistically from the risk at INRs of 2.0 to 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3 [CI, 0.8 to 2.2]). Although duration of anticoagulation has been associated with hemorrhage in other studies, the current study could not control for this potential confounder. The risk for intracranial hemorrhage increases at age 85 years. International normalized ratios less than 2.0 were not associated with lower risk for intracranial hemorrhage compared with INRs between 2.0 and 3.0. Therefore, anticoagulation management should focus on maintaining INRs in the 2.0 to 3.0 range, even in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation, rather than

  1. Using Artificial Intelligence to Reduce the Risk of Nonadherence in Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Labovitz, Daniel L.; Shafner, Laura; Gil, Morayma Reyes; Virmani, Deepti; Hanina, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study evaluated the use of an artificial intelligence (AI) platform on mobile devices in measuring and increasing medication adherence in stroke patients on anticoagulation therapy. The introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), while reducing the need for monitoring, have also placed pressure on patients to self-manage. Suboptimal adherence goes undetected as routine laboratory tests are not reliable indicators of adherence, placing patients at increased risk of stroke and bleeding. Methods A randomized, parallel-group, 12-week study was conducted in adults (n = 28) with recently diagnosed ischemic stroke receiving any anticoagulation. Patients were randomized to daily monitoring by the AI Platform (intervention) or to no daily monitoring (control). The AI application visually identified the patient, the medication and confirmed ingestion. Adherence was measured by pill counts and plasma sampling in both groups. Results For all patients (n = 28), mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 57 (13.2) years and 53.6% were female. Mean (SD) cumulative adherence based on the AI Platform was 90.5% (7.5%). Plasma drug concentration levels indicated that adherence was 100% (15 of 15) and 50% (6 of 12) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Conclusions Patients, some with little experience using a smartphone, successfully used the technology and demonstrated a 50% improvement in adherence based on plasma drug concentration levels. For patients receiving DOACs, absolute improvement increased to 67%. Real-time monitoring has the potential to increase adherence and change behavior, particularly in patients on DOAC therapy. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02599259. PMID:28386037

  2. Brain microbleeds, anticoagulation, and hemorrhage risk: Meta-analysis in stroke patients with AF.

    PubMed

    Charidimou, Andreas; Karayiannis, Christopher; Song, Tae-Jin; Orken, Dilek Necioglu; Thijs, Vincent; Lemmens, Robin; Kim, Jinkwon; Goh, Su Mei; Phan, Thanh G; Soufan, Cathy; Chandra, Ronil V; Slater, Lee-Anne; Haji, Shamir; Mok, Vincent; Horstmann, Solveig; Leung, Kam Tat; Kawamura, Yuichiro; Sato, Nobuyuki; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Saito, Tsukasa; Wong, Lawrence K S; Soo, Yannie; Veltkamp, Roland; Flemming, Kelly D; Imaizumi, Toshio; Srikanth, Velandai; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2017-12-05

    To assess the association between cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and future spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk in ischemic stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) taking oral anticoagulants. This was a meta-analysis of cohort studies with >50 patients with recent ischemic stroke and documented AF, brain MRI at baseline, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment, and ≥6 months of follow-up. Authors provided summary-level data on stroke outcomes stratified by CMB status. We estimated pooled annualized ICH and ischemic stroke rates from Poisson regression. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of ICH by CMB presence/absence, ≥5 CMBs, and CMB topography (strictly lobar, mixed, and strictly deep) using random-effects models. We established an international collaboration and pooled data from 8 centers including 1,552 patients. The crude CMB prevalence was 30% and 7% for ≥5 CMBs. Baseline CMB presence (vs no CMB) was associated with ICH during follow-up (OR 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-6.01, p = 0.017). Presence of ≥5 CMB was related to higher future ICH risk (OR 5.50, 95% CI 2.07-14.66, p = 0.001). The pooled annual ICH incidence increased from 0.30% (95% CI 0.04-0.55) among CMB-negative patients to 0.81% (95% CI 0.17-1.45) in CMB-positive patients ( p = 0.01) and 2.48% (95% CI 1.2-6.2) in patients with ≥5 CMBs ( p = 0.001). There was no association between CMBs and recurrent ischemic stroke. The presence of CMB on MRI and the dichotomized cutoff of ≥5 CMBs might identify subgroups of ischemic stroke patients with AF with high ICH risk and after further validation could help in risk stratification, in anticoagulation decisions, and in guiding randomized trials and ongoing large observational studies. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Effects of Marine Fish Oils on the Anticoagulation Status of Patients Receiving Chronic Warfarin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bender; Kraynak; Chiquette; Linn; Clark; Bussey

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blinded, parallel study was to determine the existence and magnitude of effect of various doses of fish oil supplements on International Normalized Ratio (INR) determinations in patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy. Patients from anticoagulation clinics from both the Brady Green Community Health Center and Audie L. Murphy Veterans Administration in San Antonio, Texas were enrolled in the study. The enrolled subjects included 5 males and 11 females, all of whom were receiving chronic warfarin therapy for indications requiring oral anticoagulation. All enrolled patients underwent a 4-week placebo monitoring period in which INRs were determined on a weekly basis. If the INRs were found to be stable, patients were randomized to receive a 4-week treatment period of either placebo capsules (n = 6), 3 grams of fish oil daily (n = 5), or 6 grams of fish oil daily (n = 5). Patients were followed on a twice-weekly basis for INR determinations and adverse reactions. Five patients were discontinued from the study due to noncompliance (2) and unstable INRs (3). There was no statistically significant difference in INRs between the placebo lead-in and treatment period within each group (P = 0.82). There was also no difference in INRs found between groups (P= 0.41). One bruising episode was reported, yet no major bleeding episodes were observed during the study. Fish oil supplementation in doses of 3-6 grams per day does not seem to create a statistically significant effect on the anticoagulation status of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy.

  4. Plasma clot formation and clot lysis to compare effects of different anticoagulation treatments on hemostasis in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Königsbrügge, Oliver; Weigel, Günter; Quehenberger, Peter; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2018-02-07

    The effect of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) on turbidimetric measurements of plasma clot formation and susceptibility to fibrinolysis may facilitate a comparison between different classes of anticoagulants in plasma samples. We obtained 424 citrate plasma samples from 226 atrial fibrillation patients on anticoagulation and 24 samples without anticoagulation serving as controls. As comparators, we measured the international normalized ratio (INR) for phenprocoumon samples (N = 166), anti-Xa for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) samples (N = 42), and DOAC levels with mass spectrometry (dabigatran N = 40, rivaroxaban N = 110, apixaban N = 42). Plasma clot formation and lysis were recorded continuously on a photometer after addition of an activation mix (tissue factor 2 pmol/l and tissue plasminogen activator 333 ng/ml). We used linear regression and ANCOVA for correlation analysis. Clot formation lag phase was prolonged in the presence of anticoagulants in a concentration-dependent manner for DOACs (dabigatran Spearman r = 0.74; rivaroxaban r = 0.78; apixaban r = 0.72, all p < 0.0001), INR dependent for phenprocoumon (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001), anti-Xa level dependent in LMWH samples (r = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Maximum rate of clot formation and peak clot turbidity were reduced in the presence of anticoagulants, but correlated only moderately with the comparator measures of anticoagulation. The clot lysis time was inversely correlated with DOAC concentrations in the presence of recombinant thrombomodulin. A direct ex vivo comparison between the effects of different classes of anticoagulants is possible with turbidimetric measurement of plasma clot formation and lysis. Anticoagulation inhibited clot formation in a plasma concentration manner for DOACs, INR dependent for phenprocoumon, and anti-Xa dependent for LMWH. Susceptibility to fibrinolysis increased with increasing DOAC concentrations.

  5. Stratifying the risks of oral anticoagulation in patients with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Efird, Lydia M; Mishkin, Daniel S; Berlowitz, Dan R; Ash, Arlene S; Hylek, Elaine M; Ozonoff, Al; Reisman, Joel I; Zhao, Shibei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Rose, Adam J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic liver disease presents a relative contraindication to warfarin therapy, but some patients with liver disease nevertheless require long-term anticoagulation. The goal is to identify which patients with liver disease might safely receive warfarin. Among 102 134 patients who received warfarin from the Veterans Affairs from 2007 to 2008, International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes identified 1763 patients with chronic liver disease. Specific diagnoses and laboratory values (albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, and cholesterol) were examined to identify risk of adverse outcomes, while controlling for available bleeding risk factors. Outcomes included percent time in therapeutic range, a measure of anticoagulation control, and major hemorrhagic events, by International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes. Patients with liver disease had lower mean time in therapeutic range (53.5%) when compared with patients without (61.7%; P<0.001) and more hemorrhages (hazard ratio, 2.02; P<0.001). Among patients with liver disease, serum albumin and creatinine levels were the strongest predictors of both outcomes. We created a 4-point score system: patients received 1 point each for albumin (2.5-3.49 g/dL) or creatinine (1.01-1.99 mg/dL), and 2 points each for albumin (<2.5 g/dL) or creatinine (≥2 mg/dL). This score predicted both anticoagulation control and hemorrhage. When compared with patients without liver disease, those with a score of zero had modestly lower time in therapeutic range (56.7%) and no increase in hemorrhages (hazard ratio, 1.16; P=0.59), whereas those with the worst score (4) had poor control (29.4%) and high hazard of hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 8.53; P<0.001). Patients with liver disease receiving warfarin have poorer anticoagulation control and more hemorrhages. A simple 4-point scoring system using albumin and creatinine identifies those at risk for poor outcomes. © 2014 American

  6. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  7. Peginesatide in patients with anemia undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven; Schiller, Brigitte; Locatelli, Francesco; Covic, Adrian C; Provenzano, Robert; Wiecek, Andrzej; Levin, Nathan W; Kaplan, Mark; Macdougall, Iain C; Francisco, Carol; Mayo, Martha R; Polu, Krishna R; Duliege, Anne-Marie; Besarab, Anatole

    2013-01-24

    Peginesatide, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), is a potential therapy for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We conducted two randomized, controlled, open-label studies (EMERALD 1 and EMERALD 2) involving patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular safety was evaluated by analysis of an adjudicated composite safety end point--death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious adverse events of congestive heart failure, unstable angina, or arrhythmia--with the use of pooled data from the two EMERALD studies and two studies involving patients not undergoing dialysis. In the EMERALD studies, 1608 patients received peginesatide once monthly or continued to receive epoetin one to three times a week, with the doses adjusted as necessary to maintain a hemoglobin level between 10.0 and 12.0 g per deciliter for 52 weeks or more. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from the baseline hemoglobin level to the mean level during the evaluation period; noninferiority was established if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was -1.0 g per deciliter or higher in the comparison of peginesatide with epoetin. The aim of evaluating the composite safety end point in the pooled cohort was to exclude a hazard ratio with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA of more than 1.3. In an analysis involving 693 patients from EMERALD 1 and 725 from EMERALD 2, peginesatide was noninferior to epoetin in maintaining hemoglobin levels (mean between-group difference, -0.15 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.30 to -0.01 in EMERALD 1; and 0.10 g per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26 in EMERALD 2). The hazard ratio for the composite safety end point was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.26) with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA in the four pooled studies (2591 patients) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17) in the EMERALD studies. The proportions of patients with adverse and serious

  8. Outcome of Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients Taking Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Taizen; Moroi, Junta; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-01

    Since non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were released for clinical use, many studies have investigated its effectiveness in stroke prevention. In this study, to determine whether or not there is a difference in outcome in secondary stroke prevention between warfarin and NOACs, patients with embolic stroke with newly prescribed anticoagulants were prospectively analyzed. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, who newly started anticoagulant therapy, were consecutively asked to participate in this study. Enrolled patients (76.3 ± 11.0 years old) were classified into warfarin (n = 48), dabigatran (n = 73), rivaroxaban (n = 49), and apixaban (n = 65). The outcome in 1 year was prospectively investigated at outpatient clinic or telephone interview. Recurrence of stroke and death was considered as the critical incidence. The prevalence of risk factors was not different among all medicines. Patients with dabigatran showed significantly younger onset age (P < .001: 72.2 years old) and milder neurologic deficits than patients on other medicines (P < .001). Cumulative incident rates were 7.1%, 15.3%, 19.0%, and 29.7% for dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, and warfarin, respectively. Dabigatran showed relatively better outcome compared with warfarin (P = .069) and rivaroxaban (P = .055). All patients on NOACs presented lower cumulative stroke recurrence compared with warfarin. Even in the situation of secondary stroke prevention, noninferiority of NOACs to warfarin might be demonstrated. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The anticoagulant effect of heparin during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients taking apixaban or rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Brendel, L C; Dobler, F; Hessling, G; Michel, J; Braun, S L; Steinsiek, A L; Groha, P; Eckl, R; Deisenhofer, I; Hyseni, A; Roest, M; Ott, I; Steppich, B

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the anticoagulant effect of heparin during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients taking apixaban and rivaroxaban is challenging, since the activated coagulation time (ACT) does not seem to reflect the true anticoagulant activity of these drugs. We therefore evaluated coagulation properties of apixaban and rivaroxaban during RFA by different coagulation assays to better monitor periprocedural hemostasis. The study included 90 patients (61 ± 12 years) with atrial fibrillation who underwent RFA procedures. Patients received 20 mg rivaroxaban (n = 73) once or 5 mg apixaban (n = 17) twice daily 4 weeks prior to the procedure. During RFA, unfractionated heparin i.v. was given to maintain an ACT of 250-300 s. Blood samples were taken before and 10, 60, and 360 min after heparin administration. Heparin displayed a lower anti-Xa activity in rivaroxaban-treated patients compared to apixaban-treated patients. In contrast, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment F1+2 plasma levels indicated a higher activation of the coagulation cascade in apixaban/heparin than in rivaroxaban/heparin patients. This discordant coagulative state measured in vitro had no clinical impact in terms of bleeding or thromboembolic complications. We found different biochemical responses to rivaroxaban/heparin and apixaban/heparin during RFA. Precaution is necessary when monitoring periprocedural hemostasis in DOAC patients to avoid mismanagement.

  10. The first pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic under a collaborative practice agreement in Qatar: clinical and patient-oriented outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elewa, H F; AbdelSamad, O; Elmubark, A E; Al-Taweel, H M; Mohamed, A; Kheir, N; Mohamed Ibrahim, M I; Awaisu, A

    2016-08-01

    Optimal outpatient anticoagulation management requires a systematic and coordinated approach. Extensive evidence regarding the benefits of pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services has been reported in the literature. The quality and outcomes associated with pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinics under collaborative practice agreements in the Middle East have rarely been reported. The first pharmacist-managed ambulatory anticoagulation clinic in Qatar was launched at Al-Wakrah Hospital in March 2013. The objectives of this study were to: (i) describe the practice model of the clinic, (ii) evaluate the quality of the clinic [i.e. the time in therapeutic range (TTR)] and the clinical outcomes (i.e. the efficacy and safety), and (iii) determine the patients' satisfaction and overall quality of life (QoL). Clinical outcome data were collected through a retrospective chart review of all patients managed from March 2013 to October 2014 at the pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic. Furthermore, the patient-oriented outcomes data were prospectively collected using the 24-item Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS). Each item was assessed using a 7-point Likert-type scale on which lower scores indicated better QoL and greater satisfaction. The clinical outcome data analyses included 119 patients who were enrolled at the clinic during the 19-month study period. The mean number of international normalized ratio (INR) tests/month was 65 ± 9, the average testing frequency was 2·7 ± 1·6 weeks, and the average %TTR was 76·8 ± 22·9%. There was one major bleeding event (0·67%/year), 12 minor bleeding events (8%/year) and two thromboembolic events (1·35%/year) recorded during the study period. Of the 119 patients, 50 participated in the satisfaction and QoL survey. The median (IQR) total QoL score of these subjects was 63 (48) (minimum-maximum achievable score: 24-168). Seventy-six per cent of the patients indicated 'a lot to very much' in terms of their

  11. Aspirin in the Management of Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    Mascan, Bianca; Marignol, Laure

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin has cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties that may confer a positive effect in preventing and limiting the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer has been shown to have poor treatment outcomes due to therapeutic resistance; therefore, COX2 inhibition caused by aspirin could represent an opportunity to augment current therapies. This is particularly of interest to patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) where inflammation is a common side-effect. This review discusses the evidence for the potential role of aspirin in the management of patients with prostate cancer undergoing RT. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of coagulation and endothelium with concurrent impairment of anticoagulant mechanisms in patients with typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Hanna K; Parry, Chris M; van der Vaart, Thomas W; Kager, Liesbeth M; van den Ende, Stannie J; Maude, Rapeephan R; Wijedoru, Lalith; Ghose, Aniruddha; Hassan, Mohammed U; Hossain, Mohammed A; Dondorp, Arjan M; Baker, Steve; Faiz, M Abul; Meijers, Joost C M; Wiersinga, W Joost

    2018-05-07

    Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi remains a major burden worldwide. Gastrointestinal bleeding can be seen in up to 10 percent of patients and may be fatal. The coagulopathy, which may be the driver of this severe complication in patients with typhoid fever, however is ill defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis in patients with acute typhoid fever. Parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis were measured in 28 hospitalized patients with culture-confirmed or PCR-confirmed typhoid fever and compared to 38 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated activation of the coagulation system, as reflected by elevated in vitro thrombin generation and high plasma levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 in concert with consumption of coagulation factors resulting in a prolonged prothrombin-time and activated-partial-thromboplastin-time. Concurrently, the anticoagulant proteins, protein C and antithrombin, were significantly lower in comparison to healthy controls. Patients also demonstrated evidence of activation and inhibition of fibrinolysis and a marked activation of endothelial cells. The extent of coagulation activation was associated with the course of the disease, repeated testing during convalescence showed a return toward normal values. Activation of coagulation is an important clinical feature of typhoid fever and is associated with severity of disease. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral microbleeds and intracranial haemorrhage risk in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (CROMIS-2): a multicentre observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Duncan; Ambler, Gareth; Shakeshaft, Clare; Brown, Martin M; Charidimou, Andreas; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Lip, Gregory Y H; Cohen, Hannah; Banerjee, Gargi; Houlden, Henry; White, Mark J; Yousry, Tarek A; Harkness, Kirsty; Flossmann, Enrico; Smyth, Nigel; Shaw, Louise J; Warburton, Elizabeth; Muir, Keith W; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Werring, David J

    2018-06-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are a potential neuroimaging biomarker of cerebral small vessel diseases that are prone to intracranial bleeding. We aimed to determine whether presence of cerebral microbleeds can identify patients at high risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage when anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Our observational, multicentre, prospective inception cohort study recruited adults aged 18 years or older from 79 hospitals in the UK and one in the Netherlands with atrial fibrillation and recent acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, treated with a vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulant, and followed up for 24 months using general practitioner and patient postal questionnaires, telephone interviews, hospital visits, and National Health Service digital data on hospital admissions or death. We excluded patients if they could not undergo MRI, had a definite contraindication to anticoagulation, or had previously received therapeutic anticoagulation. The primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage occurring at any time before the final follow-up at 24 months. The log-rank test was used to compare rates of intracranial haemorrhage between those with and without cerebral microbleeds. We developed two prediction models using Cox regression: first, including all predictors associated with intracranial haemorrhage at the 20% level in univariable analysis; and second, including cerebral microbleed presence and HAS-BLED score. We then compared these with the HAS-BLED score alone. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02513316. Between Aug 4, 2011, and July 31, 2015, we recruited 1490 participants of whom follow-up data were available for 1447 (97%), over a mean period of 850 days (SD 373; 3366 patient-years). The symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage rate in patients with cerebral microbleeds was 9·8 per 1000 patient-years (95% CI 4·0-20·3

  14. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion in atrial fibrillation patients with a contraindication to oral anticoagulation: a focused review.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Marin; Sab, Shiv; Reeves, Ryan R; Hsu, Jonathan C

    2017-12-08

    Stroke is the most feared complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although oral anticoagulation with non-vitamin K antagonist and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been established to significantly reduce risk of stroke, real-world use of these agents are often suboptimal due to concerns for adverse events including bleeding from both patients and clinicians. Particularly in patients with previous serious bleeding, oral anticoagulation may be contraindicated. Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO), mechanically targeting the source of most of the thrombi in AF, holds an immense potential as an alternative to OAC in management of stroke prophylaxis. In this focused review, we describe the available evidence of various LAAO devices, detailing data regarding their use in patients with a contraindication for oral anticoagulation. Although some questions of safety and appropriate use of these new devices in patients who cannot tolerate anticoagulation remain, LAAO devices offer a significant step forward in the management of patients with AF, including those patients who may not be able to be prescribed OAC at all. Future studies involving patients fully contraindicated to OAC are warranted in the era of LAAO devices for stroke risk reduction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Use of concomitant variceal embolization and prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulative in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting: A retrospective study of 182 cirrhotic portal hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yingmei; Zheng, Sheng; Yang, Jinhui; Bao, Weimin; Yang, Lihong; Li, Yingchun; Xu, Ying; Yang, Jing; Tong, Yuyun; Gao, Jinhang; Tang, Chengwei

    2017-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) is an effective treatment modality for refractory variceal bleeding and ascites in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension (CPH). Variceal rebleeding and shunt dysfunction are major post-TIPS morbidities. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of use of concomitant variceal embolization and prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulative in patients with CPH undergoing TIPS. Between October 2006 and October 2011, 182 patients with CPH were retrospectively and consecutively hospitalized for elective TIPS with Fluency stenting. Concomitant variceal embolization was given after establishing the shunt. Subcutaneous heparin was given after TIPS and replaced by oral clopidogrel, aspirin, or warfarin for at least 6 months. Main outcome measures included shunt patency rate, recurrence of CPH (rebleeding and/or refractory ascites), hepatic encephalopathy (HE) frequency, and post-TIPS survival. The cumulative primary patency rate was 96%, 94%, 90%, 88%, and 88% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. Shunt stenosis occurred in 16 (9%) patients, gastrointestinal (GI) rebleeding in 32 (17.5%) patients, recurrence of refractory ascites 44 (48%) patients, HE in 42 (23%) patients, and death in 36 (20%) patients during the follow-up period. Use of concomitant variceal embolization and prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulative was associated with a favorable shunt patency and a low risk of GI rebleeding.

  16. Safety of local anaesthesia in dental patients taking oral anticoagulants: is it still controversial?

    PubMed

    Bajkin, Branislav V; Todorovic, Ljubomir M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of local infiltration techniques and the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in dental patients taking oral anticoagulants. A total of 352 patients were given a total of 560 injections of local anaesthetic (119 IANB and 441 others). The study group comprised 279 patients with therapeutic international normalised ratios (INRs), and the control group 73 patients who were taking oral anticoagulants but had subtherapeutic INR on the day of operation. Blood was aspirated 7 times (7.3%) during the IANB in the study group. However, there were no clinical signs of prolonged haemorrhage into the medial pterygoid muscle or pterygomandibular space after 96 IANB, including those from whom blood had been aspirated. Only two minor haematomas developed after multiple infiltrations in the lingual sulci. The results suggest that bleeding as a result of the use of local anaesthesia in patients with therapeutic INR is unlikely, provided that the IANB is done correctly. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anemia Due to Inflammation in an Anti-Coagulated Patient with Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Liberale, Luca; Hussein El-Dib, Nadia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Dallegri, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare disease characterized by vascular malformations mostly involving skin and gastrointestinal tract. This disease is often associated with sideropenic anemia and occult bleeding. We report the case of chronic severe anemia in an old patient under oral anticoagulation treatment for chronic atrial fibrillation. At admission, the patient also presented fever and increased laboratory parameters of systemic inflammation (ferritin 308 mcg/L, C-reactive protein (CRP) 244 mg/L). A small bluish-colored lesion over the left ear lobe was observed. Fecal occult blood test was negative as well as other signs of active bleeding. Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed internal hemorrhoids and multiple teleangiectasias that were treated with argon plasma coagulation. Videocapsule endoscopy demonstrated multiple bluish nodular lesions in the small intestine. Unexpectedly, chronic severe anemia due to systemic inflammation was diagnosed in an old anticoagulated patient with BRNBS. The patient was treated with blood transfusions, hydration, antibiotic treatment, and long-acting octreotide acetate, without stopping warfarin. Fever and inflammation disappeared without any acute gastrointestinal bleeding and improvement of hemoglobin levels at three-month follow up. This is the oldest patient presenting with chronic anemia, in which BRNBS was also diagnosed. Surprisingly, anemia was mainly caused by systemic inflammation instead of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. However, we would recommend investigating this disease also in old subjects with mild signs and symptoms.

  18. Prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation - new anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alexandre Holthausen; Cirenza, Cláudio

    2011-09-01

    The authors present alternatives for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Its detection is based on the use of different methods that record the cardiac electrical activity. The treatment involves intervening in the underlying disorder, antiarrhythmic drugs, stimulation and cardiac defibrillation devices, and, less often, surgery. The technological advances in the last two decades have provided greater efficiency in diagnoses and therapy. Atrial fibrilation patients will benefit from a new set of anticoagulant drugs tested in the past three years. The potential advantages include greater safety and efficacy, as well as convenience for not requiring frequent laboratory controls.

  19. National survey on thromboprophylaxis and anticoagulant or antiplatelet management in neurosurgical and neurocritical patients.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alonso, E; Fábregas, N; Rama-Maceiras, P; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Valero Castell, R; Valencia Sola, L; Iturri Clavero, F

    2015-12-01

    To determine the protocols used by Spanish anaesthesiologists for thromboprophylaxis and anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs management in neurosurgical or neurocritical care patients. An online survey with 22 questions, with one or multiple options, launched by the Neuroscience Subcommittee of the Spanish Anaesthesia Society and available between June and October 2012. Of the 73 hospitals included in the National Hospitals Catalogue, a valid response to the online questionnaire was received by 41 anaesthesiologists from 37 sites (response rate 50.7%). Only one response per site was used. A specific protocol was available in 27% of these centres. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis is used, intraoperatively or postoperatively, in 80%, and pharmacological treatment is used by 75% of respondents. Enoxaparin was the most frequent heparin used in craniotomy patients (78%). Craniotomies were performed maintaining acetylsalicylic acid treatment in patients with coronary stents and double anti-platelet treatment in a half of the centres. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis is used more frequently than the pharmacological approach in neurosurgical or neurocritical populations in Spanish hospitals. Management of patients under previous anticoagulant treatment was highly heterogeneous among hospitals included in this survey. Previous antiplatelet treatment is modified depending on primary or secondary prescription. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-life Use of Anticoagulants in Venous Thromboembolism With a Focus on Patients With Exclusion Criteria for Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Farès; Pesavento, Raffaele; di Micco, Pierpaolo; González-Martínez, José; Quintavalla, Roberto; Peris, Maria-Luisa; Porras, José Antonio; Falvo, Nicolas; Baños, Pilar; Monreal, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the real-life use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and exclusion criteria for randomized trials. From 2013 to 2016, 3,578 of 18,853 patients (19%) had exclusion criteria. Irrespective of which anticoagulant was chosen, they had more VTE recurrences (hazard ratio (HR): 3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.47-3.88), major bleeds (HR: 4.10; 95% CI: 3.38-4.96), and deaths (HR: 9.47; 95% CI: 8.46-10.6) than those without exclusion criteria. During initial therapy, no patient with exclusion criteria on DOACs (n = 115) recurred, but those on rivaroxaban bled less often (adjusted HR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04-0.79) than those on unfractionated heparin (n = 224) and similar to those (n = 3,172) on low-molecular-weight (LMWH) heparin. For long-term therapy, patients on rivaroxaban (n = 151) had nonsignificantly fewer VTE recurrences (adjusted HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.08-1.32) and major bleeds (adjusted HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.15-1.15) than those on LMWH (n = 2,071). The efficacy and safety of DOACs were similar to standard therapy. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  1. Management of Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patrick A; Thompson, Stephanie N; Hanson, Brent; Masinter, David

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of papers have been written regarding postcatheterization femoral pseudoaneurysms. However, literature is lacking on pseudoaneurysmal management in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Thus, we examined if pseudoaneurysms with subsequent CABG can be managed with the same strategies as those not exposed to the intense anticoagulation accompanying CABGs. During a 14-year study period, we retrospectively examined femoral iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (IPSAs) diagnosed postheart catheterization in patients having a subsequent CABG. Patient information was obtained from electronic medical records and included pseudoaneurysm characteristics, treatment, and resolution. Outcomes of interest included the occurrence of IPSA treatment failures and complications. In the 66 patients (mean age, 66 ± 11 years, 46% male) meeting inclusion criteria, mean dose of heparin received during the CABG procedure was 34 000 ± 23 000 units. The IPSA size distribution was the following: 17% of IPSAs measured <1 cm, 55% between 1 and 3 cm, and 21% measured >3 cm. Pseudoaneurysms were managed with compression, duplex-guided thrombin injection, and surgical repair (1%, 27%, and 26% of cases, respectively). Thrombin injection and surgical repair were 100% effective at treating pseudoaneurysms, with 1 patient experiencing a surgical site infection postsurgical repair. Observation-only management was employed in 30 (45%) patients. Nine of 30 patients with no intervention beyond observation had duplex documented resolution/thrombosis during follow-up. One patient initially managed by observation required readmission and surgical repair of an enlarging pseudoaneurysm (6 cm growth) following CABG. Management of pseudoaneurysms in patients prior to CABG should be similar to those patients not undergoing intense anticoagulation. In appropriate cases, small aneurysms can be safely observed, while thrombin injections are effective and safe as well. Thus, routine open

  2. Anticoagulation management in the ambulatory surgical setting.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Diana Hill

    2012-04-01

    Many people receiving maintenance anticoagulation therapy require surgery each year in ambulatory surgery centers. National safety organizations focus attention toward improving anticoagulation management, and the American College of Chest Physicians has established guidelines for appropriate anticoagulation management to balance the risk of thromboembolism when warfarin is discontinued with the risk of bleeding when anticoagulation therapy is maintained. The guidelines recommend that patients at high or moderate risk for thromboembolism should be bridged with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or IV unfractionated heparin with the interruption of warfarin, and low-risk patients may require subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or no bridging with the interruption of warfarin. The guidelines recommend the continuation of warfarin for patients who are undergoing minor dermatologic or dental procedures or cataract removal. The literature reveals, however, that there is not adequate adherence to these recommendations and guidelines. Management of anticoagulation therapy by a nurse practitioner may improve compliance and safety in ambulatory surgery centers. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Practical management of bleeding in patients receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Pollack, Charles V

    2015-11-25

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. In phase III clinical trials and meta-analyses, the NOACs were at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and were associated with a similar or lower incidence of major bleeding, including consistent and significant decreases in intracranial bleeding, although with an increase in gastrointestinal bleeding for some agents compared with VKAs. Subsequent real-world evidence supports these outcomes. Despite this, physicians have concerns about serious bleeding or emergencies because there are no specific reversal agents for the NOACs. However, in clinical trials, patients receiving NOACs generally had similar or better outcomes after these events than those taking VKAs. As with any bleeding, anticoagulant-related bleeding should first be stratified according to severity and location; risk can be minimised by ongoing assessment. Management protocols for NOAC-related bleeding are similar to those for VKAs but should take into account the pharmacological profile of the specific drug. Because of their short half-lives, NOAC-related mild bleeding can often be controlled by temporarily withholding treatment. More severe bleeding requires standard escalating haemodynamic support measures, and non-specific reversal agents can be considered in life-threatening situations, based on limited clinical data. Specific and rapid reversal agents are not currently available for any oral anticoagulant and restoration of coagulation may not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Nevertheless, specific NOAC reversal agents are in development and show promise in healthy volunteers.

  4. Monitoring anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Isert, Mecki; Miesbach, Wolfgang; Schüttfort, Gundolf; Weil, Yvonne; Tirneci, Vanessa; Kasper, Alexander; Weber, Adele; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Herrmann, Eva; Linnemann, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    Because of the possible interference of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) with the phospholipid component of thromboplastin reagents, concerns have been raised about the validity of international normalized ratio (INR) testing to monitor anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To investigate the reliability of the INR, we determined the INR using various prothrombin time (PT) assays and compared the results with those of a chromogenic factor X (CFX) assay. The study cohort consisted of 40 APS patients and 100 APL-negative patients who were on anticoagulant therapy for reasons other than APS. The agreement (i.e. the percentage of patients with a difference ≤0.5 INR units) between the PT-derived INR and CFX-derived INR equivalents was only moderate in both patient groups. The best agreement with CFX-derived INR equivalents was observed for the Thromborel S reagent in APS patients (69.1 %) and for Neoplastin Plus in APL-negative patients (72.0 %). Regarding the results for the point-of-care system CoaguChek XS, an agreement between the INR and the CFX-derived INR equivalent was less frequently observed in the APS patients (55.6 vs. 67.8 %; p = 0.050). When considering all 3058 pairs of INR tests within the international sensitivity index (ISI)-calibrated range of 1.5 to 4.5 s, we did not observe a higher variability of INR values in either the APS patient group or the subgroup of APS patients positive for lupus coagulants compared with the APL-negative controls. In conclusion, monitoring vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy with laboratory INR measurements seems to be suitable for the majority of APS patients.

  5. Effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric history.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ilknur; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Biri, Aydan; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in 204 patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes. Patients with poor obstetric history (pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal death, placental abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss) and having hereditary thrombophilia were included in this study. Poor obstetric outcomes were observed more frequently in patients who had not taken anticogulant therapy compared with treated group. Live birth rate, gestational age at birth and Apgar scores were significantly higher in the treated group when compared with the untreated group. There were no significant differences in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery and admission rates to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) had higher gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, live birth rate and a lower abortion rates when compared with controls; in contrast, no significant difference was observed in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. There were no significant differences between control group and both LMWH only and ASA only groups in terms of gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. Only LMWH group had higher live birth rate as compared with control group. The use of only ASA did not seem to affect the perinatal complication rates and outcomes. In conclusion, anticoagulant therapy with both LMWH and ASA seems to provide better obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes.

  6. Suboptimal Anticoagulant Management in Japanese Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Warfarin for Stroke Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Kaneko, Hirokazu; Mishina, Sari; Wang, Feng; Morita, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, with increasing prevalence in Japan. Although prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) targets for monitoring warfarin therapy in patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF) are well defined, real-world patient characteristics and PT-INR levels remain unknown among Japanese patients with NVAF who initiate and continue warfarin (warfarin maintainers) versus those who switch from warfarin to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; warfarin switchers). Patients with NVAF receiving oral anticoagulants between February 2013 and June 2015 were identified using a nationwide electronic medical record (EMR) database from 69 hospitals in Japan. Demographics and characteristics of patients, PT-INR, time in therapeutic range (TTR), and frequency in range (FIR) of PT-INR between warfarin maintainers and warfarin switchers were assessed. A total of 1705 patients met inclusion criteria and were examined (1501 warfarin maintainers versus 204 warfarin switchers). CHADS 2 , CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were comparable between groups. However, these scores were significantly higher among warfarin switchers at the time of switching than at the time of warfarin initiation. Furthermore, TTR and FIR of PT-INR were lower in warfarin switchers than in maintainers. Nevertheless, TTR and FIR were below 50% (PT-INR, 1.6-2.6) in both patient groups. In this EMR-based clinical study, patients who switched to DOACs had both poor or inadequate PT-INR control and higher risk factors of stroke. Many patients receiving warfarin did not achieve sufficient PT-INR therapeutic range. DOACs could be recommended in Japanese patients with NVAF with inadequate PT-INR control and increased risk of stroke. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindication for anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Grosset-Janin, D; Barth, E; Bertrand, B; Detante, O

    2015-05-01

    Stroke, as the third cause of death in developed countries, is a public health issue. Atrial fibrillation is an important cause of ischemic stroke and its prevention is efficient with oral anticoagulation. However, oral anticoagulation can be contraindicated because of hemorrhagic risk related to these treatments. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion is a new alternative of oral anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation and high risk of cardio-embolic stroke but contraindicated for oral anticoagulation. We describe in this paper the procedure of left atrial appendage occlusion with the Amplatzer cardiac plug device, used in our center in Grenoble university hospital, for the first three patients who have been treated with this device. These three patients (one man and two women) have all atrial fibrillation with neurological complication of this arrhythmia, as ischemic stroke. Oral anticoagulation is indicated to prevent another ischemic stroke. However, they all have a high risk of cerebral bleeding for different reasons (cavernomatosis, history of intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysm of the polygon of Willis). Consequently, they have a high risk of cardio-embolic complication but contraindication for oral anticoagulation. They have been treated by left atrial appendage occlusion with Amplatzer cardiac plug device by percutaneous and trans-septal access. Then, they have been followed by neurologist and cardiologist, with clinical and paraclinical evaluation by echocardiography. Our three first patients have been successfully implanted, without periprocedural complication. No latest adverse event was observed, and particularly no cardiac or neurologic adverse event. The technique of left atrial appendage occlusion is a very interesting and promising technique for ischemic stroke prevention in patient with high risk of cardio-embolic complication because of atrial fibrillation, but high risk of bleeding and contraindication for oral

  8. In vitro efficacy of pro- and anticoagulant strategies in compensated and acutely ill patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Ton; Kleiss, Simone; Patel, Vishal C; Fisher, Caleb; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Bos, Sarah; Singanayagam, Arjuna; Stoy, Sidsel Hyldgaard; Shawcross, Debbie L; Bernal, William

    2018-05-16

    A simultaneous decline in pro- and anticoagulant drivers in patients with liver diseases results in a 'rebalanced' hemostatic system, even in acutely ill patients. Nevertheless, both bleeding and thrombotic events are common. Here, we explored efficacy of pro- and antihemostatic strategies in compensated and acutely ill cirrhotics which may be unpredictable given the profound hemostatic changes. We tested the effects in vitro of the addition of clinically relevant doses of commonly used pro- and antihemostatic strategies in plasma from healthy individuals (n=30) and patients with compensated (n=18) and acutely decompensated cirrhosis (n=18), and acute-on-chronic liver failure (n=10). We used thrombin generation tests and fibrin clot permeability assays to assess potency of various approaches. Fresh frozen plasma and recombinant factor VIIa modestly increased thrombin generation (10-20%). Prothrombin complex concentrate increased thrombin generation 2-fold in controls and 2-4-fold in patients. Clot permeability decreased after addition of fibrinogen concentrate by 51% in controls and by 50-60% in patients. Low molecular weight heparin decreased thrombin generation by 18% in controls and by 23-54% in patients. Similarly, dabigatran decreased thrombin generation by 33% in controls and by 47-100% in patients. In contrast, rivaroxaban decreased thrombin generation by 55% in controls, but only by 11-38% in patients. These in vitro data suggest little prohemostatic effect of fresh frozen plasma and recombinant factor VIIa in acutely ill cirrhotics, whereas prothrombin complex concentrate and fibrinogen concentrate clearly improved hemostasis. Furthermore, our data suggest the requirement for dose-adjustments of commonly used anticoagulants in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient Attitudinal and Behavioral Factors Associated with Warfarin Non-adherence at Outpatient Anticoagulation Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Localio, A. Russell; Platt, Alec B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Christie, Jason D.; Gross, Robert; Parker, Catherine S.; Price, Maureen; Metlay, Joshua P.; Cohen, Abigail; Newcomb, Craig W.; Strom, Brian L.; Kimmel, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Warfarin is an anticoagulant effective in preventing stroke, but it has a narrow therapeutic range requiring optimal adherence to achieve the most favorable effects. Purpose The goal of this study was to examine specific patient factors that might help explain warfarin non-adherence at outpatient anticoagulation clinics. Method In a prospective cohort study of 156 adults, we utilized logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between the five Treatment Prognostics scales from the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD), as well as three additional MBMD scales (Depression, Future Pessimism, and Social Isolation), and daily warfarin non-adherence assessed using electronic medication event monitoring systems caps over a median of 139 days. Results Four of the five Treatment Prognostic scales and greater social isolation were associated with warfarin non-adherence. When controlling for pertinent demographic and medical variables, the Information Discomfort scale remained significantly associated with warfarin non-adherence over time. Conclusion Although several factors were related to warfarin non-adherence, patients reporting a lack of receptivity to details regarding their medical illness seemed most at risk for warfarin non-adherence. This information might aid in the development of interventions to enhance warfarin adherence and perhaps reduce adverse medical events. PMID:19579066

  10. New oral anticoagulants in patients with cancer: current state of evidence.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Partha; Chatterjee, Saurav; Herzog, Eyal; Pekler, Gerald; Mushiyev, Savi; Pastori, Luciano J; Visco, Ferdinand; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-01-01

    Effectiveness of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in patients with cancer is not clearly defined. There remain concerns of doubtful benefit and chances of potential harm with newer agents. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of NOAC in patients with cancer. PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CINAHL databases were searched from January 01, 2001 through February 28, 2013. Randomized controlled trials reporting efficacy and safety data of NOACs (rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban) with control (low-molecular-weight heparin/vitamin K antagonists/placebo) for patients with cancer were included. Primary efficacy outcome was venous thromboembolism (VTE) or VTE-related death, and primary safety outcome was clinically relevant bleeding. We used random-effects models. Six trials randomized 19,832 patients, and 1197 patients had cancer. Risk of VTE or VTE-related death was not significantly different with NOAC versus control [odds ratio (OR), 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-1.65] in patients with cancer. Separate analysis for individual effects showed similar results for rivaroxaban (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.60-1.94) and dabigatran (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.21-3.91). Clinically relevant bleeding was not higher with NOAC compared with control (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.82-2.71); individual effect of rivaroxaban showed similar results. No statistically significant difference of efficacy and safety with NOAC was found between patients with and without cancer. Rivaroxaban might be equally effective and safe as vitamin K antagonist in patients with cancer. Dabigatran is as effective as comparator; however, safety profile of dabigatran is unknown. Randomized trials of new anticoagulants specific to the cancer population are necessary, and NOAC also need to be evaluated against low-molecular-weight heparin.

  11. Safety and effectiveness of Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) in patients on anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Netsch, Christopher; Stoehrer, M; Brüning, M; Gabuev, A; Bach, T; Herrmann, T R W; Gross, A J

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) for patients on oral anticoagulants (OA) with symptomatic benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Fifty-six patients, undergoing ThuVEP at two institutions, were evaluated from May 2009 until June 2011. All patients were at high cardiopulmonary risk and presented with a median American Society of Anesthesiology score of 3 [interquartile range (IQR) 2-3]. Thirty-two patients were on aspirin, 8 were on clopidogrel or clopidogrel and aspirin, and 16 on phenprocoumon at the time of surgery. Patient demographic, perioperative, and follow-up data were analyzed. Median prostate volume was 50 (IQR 34-76) cc, and resected tissue weight was 32 (IQR 20-50) g. The median operative time was 61.5 (IQR 40-100.75) min, and the catheter time 2 (IQR 2-3) days. There were no perioperative thromboembolic events. Five patients (8.9%) required a second-look operation in the immediate postoperative course (hemorrhage n = 4, residual adenoma n = 1) and four (7.1%) blood transfusions. Complications within the first 30 days included urinary tract infections (1.7%), urinary retention (3.6%), and delayed bleeding (7.1%). These complications were managed conservatively. At 12-month follow-up, median QoL [5 (IQR 3.75-5) vs. 1 (IQR 1-2)], IPSS [21.5 (IQR 15.5-23.75) vs. 5 (IQR 3-8)], Qmax [7.7 (IQR 6.3-10) vs. 28.3 (IQR 21.25-39.2) ml/s], and postvoiding residual urine [100 (IQR 46-200) vs. 17.5 (IQR 0-36) ml] improved significantly (p < 0.002). Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate seems to be a safe and efficacious procedure for the treatment of symptomatic BPO in patients at high cardiopulmonary risk on OA.

  12. Educational Level, Anticoagulation Quality, and Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Eveline; Faller, Nicolas; Limacher, Andreas; Méan, Marie; Tritschler, Tobias; Rodondi, Nicolas; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2016-01-01

    Whether the level of education is associated with anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We thus aimed to investigate the association between educational level and anticoagulation quality and clinical outcomes in elderly patients with acute VTE. We studied 817 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE from a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study (09/2009-12/2013). We defined three educational levels: 1) less than high school, 2) high school, and 3) post-secondary degree. The primary outcome was the anticoagulation quality, expressed as the percentage of time spent in the therapeutic INR range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were the time to a first recurrent VTE and major bleeding. We adjusted for potential confounders and periods of anticoagulation. Overall, 56% of patients had less than high school, 25% a high school degree, and 18% a post-secondary degree. The mean percentage of TTR was similar across educational levels (less than high school, 61%; high school, 64%; and post-secondary, 63%; P = 0.36). Within three years of follow-up, patients with less than high school, high school, and a post-secondary degree had a cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE of 14.2%, 12.9%, and 16.4%, and a cumulative incidence of major bleeding of 13.3%, 15.1%, and 15.4%, respectively. After adjustment, educational level was neither associated with anticoagulation quality nor with recurrent VTE or major bleeding. In elderly patients with VTE, we did not find an association between educational level and anticoagulation quality or clinical outcomes.

  13. Coagulation Testing in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Taking Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Purrucker, Jan C; Haas, Kirsten; Rizos, Timolaos; Khan, Shujah; Poli, Sven; Kraft, Peter; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Dziewas, Rainer; Binder, Andreas; Palm, Frederick; Jander, Sebastian; Soda, Hassan; Heuschmann, Peter U; Veltkamp, Roland

    2017-01-01

    In patients who present with acute ischemic stroke while on treatment with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), coagulation testing is necessary to confirm the eligibility for thrombolytic therapy. We evaluated the current use of coagulation testing in routine clinical practice in patients who were on NOAC treatment at the time of acute ischemic stroke. Prospective multicenter observational RASUNOA registry (Registry of Acute Stroke Under New Oral Anticoagulants; February 2012-2015). Results of locally performed nonspecific (international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time) and specific (antifactor Xa tests, hemoclot assay) coagulation tests were documented. The implications of test results for thrombolysis decision-making were explored. In the 290 patients enrolled, nonspecific coagulation tests were performed in ≥95% and specific coagulation tests in 26.9% of patients. Normal values of activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio did not reliably rule out peak drug levels at the time of the diagnostic tests (false-negative rates 11%-44% [95% confidence interval 1%-69%]). Twelve percent of patients apparently failed to take the prescribed NOAC prior to the acute event. Only 5.7% (9/159) of patients in the 4.5-hour time window received thrombolysis, and NOAC treatment was documented as main reason for not administering thrombolysis in 52.7% (79/150) of patients. NOAC treatment currently poses a significant barrier to thrombolysis in ischemic stroke. Because nonspecific coagulation test results within normal range have a high false-negative rate for detection of relevant drug concentrations, rapid drug-specific tests for thrombolysis decision-making should be established. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01850797. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. [Analysis on long-term compliance of anticoagulation treatment and demands of disease management in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hui-juan; Su, Jiang-lian; Lin, Yun; Zeng, Zhe-chun; Wang, Jin-wen

    2010-08-24

    To analyze the long-term compliance of oral anticoagulant therapy and the demands of disease management in patient with atrial fibrillation (AF). Inpatients with AF taking warfarin were collected from Department of Internal Medicine from January 1 to December 31, 2008. Inpatients from departments of surgery, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dermatology and pediatrics and those on a previous warfarin therapy were excluded. The data of patient profiles, medical history and anticoagulant treatment were collected from electronic medical record. And the status of anticoagulant treatment one year later and demands of disease management were inquired by telephone. A total of 268 AF patients received a telephone survey. Among them, 145 patients (54.1%) continued taking warfarin. Gender, age, type of AF, duration of AF and history of ischemic stroke was not significantly associated with the compliance of anticoagulant treatment. The odds ratio was 1.74 (95%CI: 0.67-4.47), 0.87 (95%CI: 0.30-2.53), 1.59 (95%CI: 0.35-1.09), 1.09 (95%CI: 0.61-1.93) and 0.44 (95%CI: 0.12-1.60) respectively. Among patients on warfarin, INR was monitored monthly in 88 patients (60.7%) and 70 patients (48.3%) had an INR value of 2.0-3.0. Among 123 withdrawal patients, 88 patients (71.5%) terminated treatment within 6 month. The common reasons included patient ignorance about long-term anticoagulant treatment (35.0%) and switching to aspirin because of a poor effect (24.4%). About 80% of patients wished to obtain instructions about INR monitoring and adjustment of drug dosage. Among them, 196/268 patients (73.1%) wished for a regular follow-up. And 176/196 patients (89.8%) opted for a telephone follow-up and 150/176 patients (85.2%) wanted to receive monthly instructions. The compliance of anticoagulation treatment and the target-meeting proportion of INR value are relative low. And the common reasons of withdrawal are patient ignorance about long-term anticoagulant treatment and switching to

  15. [Management of new oral anticoagulants in gastrointestinal bleeding and endoscopy].

    PubMed

    del Molino, Fátima; Gonzalez, Isabel; Saperas, Esteve

    2015-10-01

    New oral direct anticoagulants agents are alternatives to warfarin for long-term anticoagulation in a growing number of patients that require long-term anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These new agents with predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles offer a favorable global safety profile, but increased gastrointestinal bleeding compared to the vitamin K antagonists. Many gastroenterologists are unfamiliar and may be wary of these newer drugs, since Clinical experience is limited and no specific antidote is available to reverse their anticoagulant effect. In this article the risk of these new agents and, how to manage these agents in both the presence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and in patients undergoing endoscopic procedures is reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. A prospective randomized open-label crossover trial of regional citrate anticoagulation vs. anticoagulation free liver dialysis by the Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Molecular Adsorbent Recycling System (MARS) is used to treat patients with liver failure. Observational data suggest that citrate anticoagulation during MARS is feasible. Comparative studies on the optimal anticoagulation regimen during MARS are lacking. The aim of the current study was to evaluate two heparin-free anticoagulation regimens. Methods We performed a prospective randomized open-label crossover study of regional citrate anticoagulation against no anticoagulation. Ten patients (age 55 ± 11 years) with liver failure undergoing MARS treatment were included. The primary endpoint was completion of MARS sessions. Secondary endpoints included treatment efficacy and safety. Longevity of MARS treatment was plotted as a Kaplan-Meier estimate. Fisher's exact test was used for contingency table analysis. Results Of a total of 27 6-hour sessions, four sessions had to be terminated prematurely, three due to occlusive clotting of the extracorporeal circuit and one due to uncontrollable bleeding from the vascular access site. All four events occurred in the group without anticoagulation. Between group comparison demonstrated citrate anticoagulation to significantly increase the likelihood of completed MARS treatment (Fisher's exact test, P 0.04). This translates into higher bilirubin reduction ratios when citrate was applied (reduction ratio 0.25 vs. 0.15, P 0.02). Systemic ionized calcium concentrations were significantly reduced during citrate anticoagulation (P < 0.001) but remained within a safe range. We observed no major adverse events. Conclusions Regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure is feasible. Citrate anticoagulation provides superior patency of the extracorporeal circuit. Avoidance of anticoagulation during MARS results in significant loss of treatment efficacy, due to treatment downtime. Additional studies are required to identify the optimal anticoagulation regimen for extracorporeal circulation in patients with

  17. Educational and behavioural interventions for anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Khaing, Phyo H; Lane, Deirdre A

    2017-04-05

    Current guidelines recommend oral anticoagulation therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with one or more risk factors for stroke; however, anticoagulation control (time in therapeutic range (TTR)) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is dependent on many factors. Educational and behavioural interventions may impact patients' ability to maintain their international normalised ratio (INR) control. This is an updated version of the original review first published in 2013. To evaluate the effects of educational and behavioural interventions for oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) on TTR in patients with AF. We updated searches from the previous review by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) in The Cochrane Library (January 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1949 to February week 1 2016), EMBASE Classic + EMBASE Ovid (1980 to Week 7 2016), PsycINFO Ovid (1806 to Week 1 February 2016) and CINAHL Plus with Full Text EBSCO (1937 to 16/02/2016). We applied no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of any educational and behavioural intervention compared with usual care, no intervention, or intervention in combination with other self-management techniques among adults with AF who were eligible for, or currently receiving, OAT. Two of the review authors independently selected studies and extracted data. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We included outcome data on TTR, decision conflict (patient's uncertainty in making health-related decisions), percentage of INRs in the therapeutic range, major bleeding, stroke and thromboembolic events, patient knowledge, patient satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), beliefs about medication, illness perceptions, and anxiety and depression. We pooled data for three outcomes - TTR, anxiety and depression, and decision conflict - and reported mean differences (MD). Where

  18. Utilization of Anticoagulation Therapy in Medicare Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Kate; Broulette, Jonah; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Kwong, Winghan Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines recommend oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) at moderate or high risk for stroke but not at high risk for bleeding; however, studies consistently report suboptimal use of such therapy. This study used Medicare Part D claims data to assess the use of warfarin in the Medicare population. Objectives To compare real-world warfarin utilization with current treatment guideline recommendations, and to assess the effect of warfarin exposure level on patient outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries with nonvalvular AF (NVAF). Methods Patients who were recently diagnosed with NVAF were identified using a random 5% sample of Research Identifiable Files of Medicare beneficiaries in 2006 or 2007. Individuals with moderate-to-high stroke risk per CHADS2 but not at high bleeding risk per ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation) bleeding risk score were evaluated for warfarin use, as identified by the presence of ≥1 warfarin prescription claims within 12 months after the index diagnosis. Warfarin exposure level was assessed by the proportion of days covered during the 12-month follow-up period. The effect of warfarin exposure on ischemic stroke and major bleeding event rates during the 12-month follow-up period were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Data from 14,149 newly diagnosed patients with NVAF (mean age, 79 years; 58.7% female) were analyzed, and of these, 7524 (53.2%) patients were identified as having moderate-to-high stroke risk and not being at high bleeding risk. Of these patients, 3110 (41.3%) did not receive warfarin within 12 months of the index diagnosis. The risk for ischemic stroke was significantly lower in those with warfarin exposure versus no warfarin exposure (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.51; confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.61; P <.001) and in patients with warfarin proportion of days covered ≥80% versus those with proportion of days

  19. [Cataract surgery under topical anesthesia with oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Wirbelauer, C; Weller, A; Häberle, H; Pham, D T

    2004-09-01

    Approximately 14 % of cataract surgery patients receive blood-thinning agents. In a prospective study, the influence of oral anticoagulants on intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhages in patients undergoing cataract surgery in topical anesthesia was investigated. 128 patients presenting for cataract surgery under oral anticoagulation were included. The mean preoperative prothrombin time was 39 +/- 18 %. Most patients (81 %) continued their oral anticoagulation (prothrombin time 34 +/- 13 %). All surgeries were performed in topical anesthesia. In 9 patients (7 %) an ocular hemorrhagic event was observed. These were not sight-threatening and resorbed spontaneously within a few days. Only one patient (0.8 %) had a slight hemorrhage in the anterior chamber. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between patients with or without hemorrhagic complications in the postoperative visual acuity, the intraocular pressure, the prothrombin time or the discontinuation of oral anticoagulants. Cataract surgery in topical anesthesia under oral anticoagulation did not increase the risk of sight-threatening hemorrhages. The continuation of oral anticoagulation seems particularly indicated for ambulatory cataract surgery.

  20. Dabigatran reversal with idarucizumab in a patient undergoing heart transplantation: first European report.

    PubMed

    Tralhão, António; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Jorge; Rebocho, Maria José; Santos, Emília; Martins, Dinis; Neves, José Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor with a favorable effectiveness and safety profile when compared to vitamin K antagonists, both in randomized trials and real world registries of atrial fibrillation patients. Yet, physicians' fear of high bleeding risk scenarios in daily clinical practice still precludes a more widespread use of oral anticoagulation. We hereby report a successful case of dabigatran reversal with the novel monoclonal antibody fragment idarucizumab in a patient undergoing heart transplantation. A 45-year old male patient on dabigatran for atrial fibrillation thromboprophylaxis was enlisted for heart transplantation due to end-stage ischemic heart failure. Upon donor availability and suitability and following the last intake of the drug 12 h previously, activated partial thromboplastin time was measured and found to be elevated. After general anesthesia and before extracorporeal circulation, idarucizumab was administered as two boluses of 2.5 g. Orthotopic heart transplantation ensued under full heparinization and cardiopulmonary bypass. Total chest tube output was 1125 mL after 3 days and 4 units of fresh frozen plasma and one platelet pool were administered in the operating room without further need for blood products. The post-operative period was uneventful. Idarucizumab was associated with an effective hemostasis in the setting of heart transplantation. Dabigatran may be considered as an alternative to vitamin K antagonists in heart transplant candidates with an indication for oral anticoagulation.

  1. Efficacy of protocol-based pharmacotherapy management on anticoagulation with warfarin for patients with cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Katada, Y; Nakagawa, S; Minakata, K; Odaka, M; Taue, H; Sato, Y; Yonezawa, A; Kayano, Y; Yano, I; Nakatsu, T; Sakamoto, K; Uehara, K; Sakaguchi, H; Yamazaki, K; Minatoya, K; Sakata, R; Matsubara, K

    2017-10-01

    Anticoagulation therapy with warfarin requires periodic monitoring of prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and adequate dose adjustments based on the data to minimize the risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events. In our hospital, we have developed protocol-based pharmaceutical care, which we called protocol-based pharmacotherapy management (PBPM), for warfarin therapy. The protocol requires pharmacists to manage timing of blood sampling for measuring PT-INR and warfarin dosage determination based on an algorithm. This study evaluated the efficacy of PBPM in warfarin therapy by comparing to conventional pharmaceutical care. From October 2013 to June 2015, a total of 134 hospitalized patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries received post-operative warfarin therapy. The early series of patients received warfarin therapy as the conventional care (control group, n=77), whereas the latter received warfarin therapy based on the PBPM (PBPM group, n=68). These patients formed the cohort of the present study and were retrospectively analysed. The indications for warfarin included aortic valve replacement (n=56), mitral valve replacement (n=4), mitral valve plasty (n=22) and atrial fibrillation (n=29). There were no differences in patients' characteristics between both groups. The percentage time in therapeutic range in the first 10 days was significantly higher in the PBPM group (47.1%) than that in the control group (34.4%, P<.005). The average time to reach the steady state was significantly (P<.005) shorter in the PBPM group compared to the control group (7.3 vs 8.6 days). Warfarin therapy based on our novel PBPM was clinically safe and resulted in significantly better anticoagulation control compared to conventional care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Villablanca, Pedro A; Al-Bawardy, Rasha; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Maraboto, Carola; Weinreich, Michael; Gupta, Tanush; Briceno, David F; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2017-12-01

    Bivalirudin may be an effective anticoagulation alternative to heparin as anticoagulant agent in percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve interventions (PAVI). We aimed to compare safety and efficacy of bivalirudin versus heparin as the procedural anticoagulant agent in patients undergoing PAVI. We conducted an electronic database search of all published data. The primary efficacy endpoints were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Safety endpoints include major and life-threatening bleed according to VARC and BARC bleeding, blood transfusion, vascular complications, and acute kidney injury. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Three studies (n = 1690 patients) were included, one randomized trial and two observational studies. There was a significant difference favoring bivalirudin over heparin for myocardial infarction (OR 0.41, 95%CI 0.20-0.87). There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality at 30 days (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.62-1.52), cardiovascular mortality (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.52-2.05), stroke (OR 1.23, 95%CI 0.62-2.46), vascular complications (OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.70-1.32), acute kidney injury (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.53-2.00), blood transfusion (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-1.01), major and life-threatening bleed (OR 0.74, 95%CI 0.37-1.49), and BARC bleeding (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.23-1.18). In patient undergoing aortic valve interventions, no difference was seen between the use of bivalirudin and heparin as the procedural anticoagulant agent, except for a significant lower myocardial infarction events when bivalirudin was used. Further large randomized trials are needed to confirm current results. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Systematic evaluation of the methodology of randomized controlled trials of anticoagulation in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Rada, Gabriel; Schünemann, Holger J; Labedi, Nawman; El-Hachem, Pierre; Kairouz, Victor F; Akl, Elie A

    2013-02-14

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that are inappropriately designed or executed may provide biased findings and mislead clinical practice. In view of recent interest in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications in cancer patients we evaluated the characteristics, risk of bias and their time trends in RCTs of anticoagulation in patients with cancer. We conducted a comprehensive search, including a search of four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI the Web of Science, and CENTRAL) up to February 2010. We included RCTs in which the intervention and/or comparison consisted of: vitamin K antagonists, unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), direct thrombin inhibitors or fondaparinux. We performed descriptive analyses and assessed the association between the variables of interest and the year of publication. We included 67 RCTs with 24,071 participants. In twenty one trials (31%) DVT diagnosis was triggered by clinical suspicion; the remaining trials either screened for DVT or were unclear about their approach. 41 (61%), 22 (33%), and 11 (16%) trials respectively reported on major bleeding, minor bleeding, and thrombocytopenia. The percentages of trials satisfying risk of bias criteria were: adequate sequence generation (85%), adequate allocation concealment (61%), participants' blinding (39%), data collectors' blinding (44%), providers' blinding (41%), outcome assessors' blinding (75%), data analysts' blinding (15%), intention to treat analysis (57%), no selective outcome reporting (12%), no stopping early for benefit (97%). The mean follow-up rate was 96%. Adequate allocation concealment and the reporting of intention to treat analysis were the only two quality criteria that improved over time. Many RCTs of anticoagulation in patients with cancer appear to use insufficiently rigorous outcome assessment methods and to have deficiencies in key methodological features. It is not clear whether this reflects a problem in the

  4. Anticoagulation Control in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Attended at Primary Care Centers in Spain: The PAULA Study.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Prieto, Luis; Osorio, Genoveva; Polo, José; Lobos, José María; Vargas, Diego; García, Nicolás

    2015-09-01

    To determine the current status of anticoagulation control in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation treated with vitamin K antagonists in the primary care setting in Spain. The PAULA study was a multicenter cross-sectional/retrospective observational study conducted throughout Spain. The study included patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who had been receiving vitamin K antagonist therapy during the past year and were attended at primary care centers. International normalized ratio (INR) values over the past 12 months were recorded. The degree of anticoagulation control was defined as the time the patient had remained within the therapeutic range and was determined by both the direct method (poor control < 60%) and by the Rosendaal method (poor control < 65%). The study assessed 1524 patients (mean age, 77.4 ± 8.7 years; 48.6% women; 64.2% in permanent atrial fibrillation; CHADS2 mean, 2.3 ± 1.2; CHA2DS2-VASc, 3.9 ± 1.5, and HAS-BLED, 1.6 ± 0.9). The mean number of INR readings recorded per patient was 14.4 ± 3.8. A total of 56.9% of patients had adequate INR control according to the direct method and 60.6% according to the Rosendaal method. The multivariate analysis identified the following predictors for poor INR control: female sex, dietary habits potentially affecting anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists, multidrug therapy, and a history of labile INR. Approximately 40% of patients (43.1% by the direct method and 39.4% by the Rosendaal method) with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were receiving anticoagulation therapy with vitamin K antagonists in primary care in Spain had poor anticoagulation control during the previous 12 months. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Early initiation of new oral anticoagulants in acute stroke and TIA patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Kensaku; Kimura, Kazumi; Aoki, Junya; Saji, Naoki; Sakai, Kenichiro

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early initiation of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are safe. Between March 2011 and September 2012, stroke or TIA patients with NVAF who started NOAC within 2 weeks were enrolled retrospectively. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on T2*-weighted MRI, recurrence of stroke or TIA, systemic embolism and any bleeding complications after initiation of NOAC were evaluated. 41 patients (25 males; mean age 76.2 years) started NOAC; of which, 39 (95%) patients had stroke, and 2 (5%) had TIA. The median (interquartile range) interval from onset to treatment with NOAC was 2 (1-6) days. Symptomatic ICH was not observed. HT on initial T2* and new HT on follow-up T2* were 5 (12%) and 11 (31%), but it was asymptomatic. Of 5 patients who had HT on the initial T2*, enlargement of hemorrhage on follow-up T2* (hemorrhagic infarction (HI) Type 1→HI Type 2) was observed in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. None of the patients had recurrent stroke or TIA, systemic embolism, and any bleeding complications. The NOAC may be safe in acute stroke or TIA patients with NVAF. A large, prospective study is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. iPod™ technology for teaching patients about anticoagulation: a pilot study of mobile computer-assisted patient education.

    PubMed

    Denizard-Thompson, Nancy R; Singh, Sonal; Stevens, Sheila R; Miller, David P; Wofford, James L

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether an educational strategy using a handheld, multimedia computer (iPod™) is practical and sustainable for routine office-based patient educational tasks. With the limited amount of time allotted to the office encounter and the growing number of patient educational tasks, new strategies are needed to improve the efficiency of patient education. Education of patients anticoagulated with warfarin is considered critical to preventing complications. Despite the dangers associated with the use of warfarin, educational practices are variable and often haphazard. During a four-month period, we examined the implementation of a three-part series of iPod™-based patient educational modules delivered to anticoagulated patients at the time of routine INR (International Normalized Ratio) blood tests for outpatients on the anticoagulation registry at an urban community health center. A total of 141 computer module presentations were delivered to 91 patients during the four-month period. In all, 44 patients on the registry had no INR checkups, and thus no opportunity to view the modules, and 32 patients had at least three INR checkups but no modules were documented. Of the 130 patients with at least one INR performed during the study period, 22 (16.9%) patients completed all three modules, 91 (70.0%) patients received at least one module, and nine (7.6%) patients refused to view at least one module. Neither of the two handheld computers was lost or stolen, and no physician time was used in this routine educational activity. Patients reported that the audio and visual quality was very good, (9.0/10); the educational experience of the patient was helpful (7.4/10) compared with the patient's previous warfarin education (6.3/10), and the computer strategy extended the INR visit duration by 1-5 min at most. The computer-assisted patient educational strategy was well received by patients, and uptake of the intervention by the clinic was successful and durable. The i

  7. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  8. Variations in Anticoagulation Practices Following the Maze Procedure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jennifer; Sami, Magdi; Albert, Carole; Varennes, Benoit De

    2015-01-01

    The current real-world anticoagulation practices following left atrial appendectomy in the context of the Maze procedure are unknown. This is a cohort study of all patients who underwent the Maze procedure with amputation of the left atrial appendage from June 2005 to November 2012. Data was prospectively collected at regular intervals with an interview and Holter monitoring. All patients received anticoagulation for 3 months. Those then kept on anticoagulation and those for whom anticoagulation was stopped were compared in terms of death, bleeding and incidence of stroke. In total, there were 113 patients, of whom 66 were treated with anticoagulation (Group A) and 47 were not (Group B). There were no significant baseline differences between the two groups, including the presence of atrial fibrillation (A:19.7%, B:10.6%, p=0.30), CHADS2 score (A:1.41±1.05, B:1.15±1.08, p=0.19), and left atrial size (A:48.3±7.1mm, B:47.6±7.8 mm, p=0.57). There were 275 patient-years of follow-up, with an average of 2.43 years per patient. Only two patients experienced strokes, both in Group A (p=0.27). Of the 5 bleeding events, 4 occurred in the first 3 months while on anticoagulation and the remaining event occurred in Group A at 3 years post-operatively (p=0.10). No standardized approach to anticoagulation after the Maze procedure is apparent in real-world practice in an urban Canadian setting. Patients who undergo the Maze procedure with amputation of the left atrial appendage are at a low risk of stroke, but the optimal anticoagulation strategy requires further investigation.

  9. NOACs replace VKA as preferred oral anticoagulant among new patients: a drug utilization study in 560 pharmacies in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, J M; Hövels, A M; Büller, H R; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K; de Boer, A; Maitland-van der Zee, A H

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, around 400.000 patients in the Netherlands were treated with Vitamin K Antagonists (VKA) for thromboembolic diseases. Since 2011, non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are available. NOACs do not require frequent INR monitoring which benefits patients, but also imposes a risk of reduced therapy adherence. The objective of this study is to describe uptake and patient adherence of NOACs in The Netherlands until October 2016. Prescription data for 247.927 patients across 560 pharmacies were used to describe patient profiles, uptake of NOACs among new naive patients and switch between VKA and NOACs, and calculate therapy adherence as the Proportion of Days Covered (PDC). During the studied period the share of NOACs in oral anticoagulants has grown to 57% of prescriptions to new patients. More than 70% of new NOAC users were new naive patients and around 26% switched from VKA. The overall share of NOACs among starters is largest in the group of patients of 50-80 years. Calculated compliance rate for NOAC patients shows that 88% of all users are adherent with a PDC higher than 80%. NOAC have overtaken VKA as the major treatment prescribed to new oral anticoagulant patients, and the number of starters on VKA is decreasing. Patients are generally adherent to NOACs during the implementation phase, the period that the medication is used. Fear for inadherence by itself does not need to be a reason for not prescribing NOACs instead of VKA.

  10. Current issues in patient adherence and persistence: focus on anticoagulants for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Kneeland, Patrick P; Fang, Margaret C

    2010-01-01

    Warfarin therapy reduces morbidity and mortality related to thromboembolism. Yet adherence to long-term warfarin therapy remains challenging due to the risks of anticoagulant-associated complications and the burden of monitoring. The aim of this paper is to review determinants of adherence and persistence on long-term anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. We evaluate what the current literature reveals about the impact of warfarin on quality of life, examine warfarin trial data for patterns of adherence, and summarize known risk factors for warfarin discontinuation. Studies suggest only modest adverse effects of warfarin on quality of life, but highlight the variability of individual lifestyle experiences of patients on warfarin. Interestingly, clinical trials comparing anticoagulant adherence to alternatives (such as aspirin) show that discontinuation rates on warfarin are not consistently higher than in control arms. Observational studies link a number of risk factors to warfarin non-adherence including younger age, male sex, lower stroke risk, poor cognitive function, poverty, and higher educational attainment. In addition to differentiating the relative impact of warfarin-associated complications (such as bleeding) versus the lifestyle burdens of warfarin monitoring on adherence, future investigation should focus on optimizing patient education and enhancing models of physician–patient shared-decision making around anticoagulation. PMID:20361065

  11. Failure of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis: risk factors in medical-surgical critically ill patients*.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wendy; Meade, Maureen; Lauzier, Francois; Zarychanski, Ryan; Mehta, Sangeeta; Lamontagne, Francois; Dodek, Peter; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Hall, Richard; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Fowler, Robert; Pai, Menaka; Guyatt, Gordon; Crowther, Mark A; Warkentin, Theodore E; Devereaux, P J; Walter, Stephen D; Muscedere, John; Herridge, Margaret; Turgeon, Alexis F; Geerts, William; Finfer, Simon; Jacka, Michael; Berwanger, Otavio; Ostermann, Marlies; Qushmaq, Ismael; Friedrich, Jan O; Cook, Deborah J

    2015-02-01

    To identify risk factors for failure of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients in the ICU. Multivariable regression analysis of thrombosis predictors from a randomized thromboprophylaxis trial. Sixty-seven medical-surgical ICUs in six countries. Three thousand seven hundred forty-six medical-surgical critically ill patients. All patients received anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin at standard doses. Independent predictors for venous thromboembolism, proximal leg deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism developing during critical illness were assessed. A total of 289 patients (7.7%) developed venous thromboembolism. Predictors of thromboprophylaxis failure as measured by development of venous thromboembolism included a personal or family history of venous thromboembolism (hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.03-2.59; p = 0.04) and body mass index (hazard ratio, 1.18 per 10-point increase; 95% CI, 1.04-1.35; p = 0.01). Increasing body mass index was also a predictor for developing proximal leg deep vein thrombosis (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46; p = 0.007), which occurred in 182 patients (4.9%). Pulmonary embolism occurred in 47 patients (1.3%) and was associated with body mass index (hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.02-1.83; p = 0.035) and vasopressor use (hazard ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.01-3.35; p = 0.046). Low-molecular-weight heparin (in comparison to unfractionated heparin) thromboprophylaxis lowered pulmonary embolism risk (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.95; p = 0.034) while statin use in the preceding week lowered the risk of proximal leg deep vein thrombosis (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27-0.77; p = 0.004). Failure of standard thromboprophylaxis using low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin is more likely in ICU patients with elevated body mass index, those with a personal or family history of venous thromboembolism, and those receiving vasopressors. Alternate

  12. Risk scores and geriatric profile: can they really help us in anticoagulation decision making among older patients suffering from atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed

    Maes, Frédéric; Dalleur, Olivia; Henrard, Séverine; Wouters, Dominique; Scavée, Christophe; Spinewine, Anne; Boland, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Anticoagulation for the prevention of cardio-embolism is most frequently indicated but largely underused in frail older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed at identifying characteristics associated with anticoagulation underuse. A cross-sectional study of consecutive geriatric patients aged ≥75 years, with AF and clear anticoagulation indication (CHADS₂ [Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age >75, Diabetes mellitus, and prior Stroke or transient ischemic attack] ≥2) upon hospital admission. All patients benefited from a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Their risks of stroke and bleeding were predicted using CHADS₂ and HEMORR2HAGES (Hepatic or renal disease, Ethanol abuse, Malignancy, Older (age >75 years), Reduced platelet count or function, Rebleed risk, Hypertension (uncontrolled), Anemia, Genetic factors, Excessive fall risk, and Stroke) scores, respectively. Anticoagulation underuse was observed in 384 (50%) of 773 geriatric patients with AF (median age 85 years; female 57%, cognitive disorder 33%, nursing home 20%). No geriatric characteristic was found to be associated with anticoagulation underuse. Conversely, anticoagulation underuse was markedly increased in the patients treated with aspirin (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval]: 5.3 [3.8; 7.5]). Other independent predictors of anticoagulation underuse were ethanol abuse (OR: 4.0 [1.4; 13.3]) and age ≥90 years (OR: 2.0 [1.2; 3.4]). Anticoagulation underuse was not inferior in patients with a lower bleeding risk and/or a higher stroke risk and underuse was surprisingly not inferior either in the AF patients who had previously had a stroke. Half of this geriatric population did not receive any anticoagulation despite a clear indication, regardless of their individual bleeding or stroke risks. Aspirin use is the main characteristic associated with anticoagulation underuse.

  13. Risk scores and geriatric profile: can they really help us in anticoagulation decision making among older patients suffering from atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Frédéric; Dalleur, Olivia; Henrard, Séverine; Wouters, Dominique; Scavée, Christophe; Spinewine, Anne; Boland, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Anticoagulation for the prevention of cardio-embolism is most frequently indicated but largely underused in frail older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed at identifying characteristics associated with anticoagulation underuse. Methods A cross-sectional study of consecutive geriatric patients aged ≥75 years, with AF and clear anticoagulation indication (CHADS2 [Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age >75, Diabetes mellitus, and prior Stroke or transient ischemic attack] ≥2) upon hospital admission. All patients benefited from a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Their risks of stroke and bleeding were predicted using CHADS2 and HEMORR2HAGES (Hepatic or renal disease, Ethanol abuse, Malignancy, Older (age >75 years), Reduced platelet count or function, Rebleed risk, Hypertension (uncontrolled), Anemia, Genetic factors, Excessive fall risk, and Stroke) scores, respectively. Results Anticoagulation underuse was observed in 384 (50%) of 773 geriatric patients with AF (median age 85 years; female 57%, cognitive disorder 33%, nursing home 20%). No geriatric characteristic was found to be associated with anticoagulation underuse. Conversely, anticoagulation underuse was markedly increased in the patients treated with aspirin (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval]: 5.3 [3.8; 7.5]). Other independent predictors of anticoagulation underuse were ethanol abuse (OR: 4.0 [1.4; 13.3]) and age ≥90 years (OR: 2.0 [1.2; 3.4]). Anticoagulation underuse was not inferior in patients with a lower bleeding risk and/or a higher stroke risk and underuse was surprisingly not inferior either in the AF patients who had previously had a stroke. Conclusion Half of this geriatric population did not receive any anticoagulation despite a clear indication, regardless of their individual bleeding or stroke risks. Aspirin use is the main characteristic associated with anticoagulation underuse. PMID:25053883

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors are major determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with the lupus anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Posch, Florian; Gebhart, Johanna; Rand, Jacob H; Koder, Silvia; Quehenberger, Peter; Pengo, Vittorio; Ay, Cihan; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2017-03-10

    Patients with the lupus anticoagulant (LA) are at an increased risk of thrombotic events, which in turn increase the risk of death. Understanding the determinants of thrombotic risk in patients with LA may pave the way towards targeted thromboprophylaxis. In the Vienna Lupus Anticoagulant and Thrombosis Study (LATS), we systematically evaluate risk factors for thrombotic events in patients with LA. We followed 150 patients (mean age: 41.3 years, female gender: n = 122 (81.3%), history of thrombosis or pregnancy complications: n = 111 (74.0%)), who tested repeatedly positive for LA until development of thrombosis, death, or censoring. The primary endpoint was a composite of arterial or venous thrombotic events (TEs). During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range: 12 days-13.6 years) and 1076 person-years, 32 TEs occurred (arterial: n = 16, venous: n = 16; cumulative 10-year TE incidence: 24.3%). A prolonged lupus-sensitive activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT-LA) (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.07--5.02), diabetes (adjusted SHR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.42-13.57), and active smoking (adjusted SHR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.14-5.02) emerged as independent risk factors of both arterial and venous thrombotic risk. A risk model that includes a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, smoking, and diabetes enabled stratification of LA patients into subgroups with a low, intermediate, and high risk of thrombosis (5-year TE risk of 9.7% (n = 77), 30.9% (n = 51), and 56.8% (n = 22). Long-term thrombotic risk in patients with LA is clustered within subjects harboring typical cardiovascular risk factors in addition to a prolonged lupus-sensitive aPTT, whereas patients with none of these risk factors represent a large subgroup with a low risk of thrombosis.

  15. Relation of quality of anticoagulation control with different management systems among patients with atrial fibrillation: Data from FANTASIIA Registry.

    PubMed

    Roldán Rabadán, Inmaculada; Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Anguita-Sánchez, Manuel; Muñiz, Javier; Camacho Siles, José; Quesada, María Angustias; Ruiz Ortiz, Martín; Marín, Francisco; Martínez Sellés, Manuel; Bertomeu, Vicente; Lip, Gregory Y H; Cequier Fillat, Angel; Badimón, Lina

    2018-05-01

    Anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has a multidisciplinary approach although is usually managed by general practitioners (GP) or haematologists. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of anticoagulation control with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in relation to the responsible specialist in a "real-world" AF population. We consecutively enrolled VKA anticoagulated patients included in the FANTASIIA Registry from 2013 to 2015. We analysed demographical, clinical characteristics and the quality of anticoagulation control according to the specialist responsible (ie GPs or haematologists). Data on 1584 patients were included (42.5% females, mean age 74.0 ± 9.4 years): 977 (61.7%) patients were controlled by GPs and 607 (38.3%) by haematologists. Patients managed by GPs had higher previous heart disease (53.2% vs 43.3%, P < .001), heart failure (32.9% vs 26.5%, P < .008) and dilated cardiomyopathy (15.2% vs 8.7%, P < .001) with better renal function (69.3 ± 24.7 vs 63.1 ± 21.4 mL/min, P < .001) compared to patients managed by haematologists. There was no difference between groups in the type of AF, CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc or HAS-BLED scores, but patients with electrical cardioversion were more prevalent in GP group. The overall mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) assessed by Rosendaal method was 61.5 ± 24.9%; 52.6% of patients had TTR<65% and 60% of patients had TTR<70%. TTR was significantly lower in patients controlled by haematologists than by GPs (63 ± 24.4 vs 59.2 ± 25.6, P < .005). About 60% of AF patients anticoagulated with VKAs had poor anticoagulation control (ie TTR<70%), and their management was only slightly better than when it is managed by general practitioners. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  16. Early introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in cardioembolic stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Manuel; Carletti, Monica; Danese, Alessandra; Bovi, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are superior to warfarin in reduction of the intracranial bleeding risk. The aim of the present study was to assess whether early DOAC introduction (1-3 days after onset) in stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (nVAF) may be safe and effective, compared with DOAC introduction after 4-7 days. We conducted a prospective analysis based on data collected from 147 consecutive nVAF patients who started DOAC within 7 days after stroke onset. In all patients, we performed pre-DOAC CT scan 24-36 h after onset and follow-up CT scan at 7 days after DOAC introduction. Outcome measures were post-DOAC intracranial bleeding (new any intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with pre-DOAC infarct without hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or expansion of ICH in patients with pre-DOAC infarct with asymptomatic HT) and post-DOAC recurrent ischemic stroke (any new ischemic infarct) on follow-up CT scan. 97 patients started DOAC after 1-3 days and 50 patients started DOAC after 4-7 days. On pre-DOAC CT scan, 132 patients had an infarct without HT and 15 an infarct with asymptomatic HT. On follow-up CT scan, new any ICH was noted in seven patients (asymptomatic in 6) and asymptomatic expansion of ICH in one patient. We found no association between early DOAC introduction and intracranial bleeding. Large infarct remained the only independent predictor of post-DOAC intracranial bleeding. No patients suffered recurrent ischemic stroke after DOAC introduction. Early DOAC introduction might be safe in carefully selected patients with nVAF who experience small- and medium-sized cardioembolic ischemic strokes. Further investigation will be needed.

  17. Transition of patients from blinded study drug to open-label anticoagulation: the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christian T; Giugliano, Robert P; Braunwald, Eugene; Mercuri, Michele; Curt, Valentin; Betcher, Joshua; Grip, Laura; Cange, Abby L; Crompton, Andrea E; Murphy, Sabina A; Deenadayalu, Naveen; Antman, Elliott M

    2014-08-12

    At the end of 2 previous trials, an excess of stroke and bleeding was observed in patients with AF randomized to a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) who transitioned to a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) trial compared once-daily edoxaban to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with AF. An end-of-trial transition plan was developed to minimize the risks of stroke due to inadequate anticoagulation and bleeding from excessive anticoagulation during this critical period. All patients on the blinded study drug at the trial's conclusion were included in this analysis. In pre-specified analyses, stroke, bleeding, and death that occurred through 30 days after the end-of-trial visit were stratified by randomized treatment allocation and open-label anticoagulant selected post-trial. Of the 13,642 patients taking the blinded study drug at the end of the trial, 9,304 (68.2%) were transitioned to open-label VKA and 4,258 patients (31.2%) to an NOAC. There were 21 strokes evenly distributed across the 3 randomized treatment arms: warfarin 7 (1.90%/year), edoxaban high dose 7 (1.89%/year), edoxaban low dose 7 (1.85%/year). Major bleeding was also similar across the 3 treatment arms: warfarin 11 (2.98%/year), edoxaban high dose 10 (2.69%/year), edoxaban low dose 18 (4.76%/year). In patients transitioned to VKA, 85% of patients had at least 1 INR ≥ 2 by day 14 after the transition and 99% by day 30. The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 transition plan protected patients from an excess of thrombotic and bleeding events and should be helpful in clinical practice when patients are transitioned between oral anticoagulants. (Global Study to Assess the Safety and Effectiveness of Edoxaban [DU-176b] vs Standard Practice of Dosing With Warfarin in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation [EngageAFTIMI48]; NCT00781391). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology

  18. VKORC1 V66M mutation in African Brazilian patients resistant to oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Fernanda A; Annichino Bizzacchi, Joyce M; de Paula, Erich V; Ozelo, Margareth C; Langley, Michael R; Weck, Karen E

    2010-09-01

    Warfarin-based anticoagulant therapy is associated with large variability in dose response. Genetic variability in the VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genes is associated with increased warfarin sensitivity. In addition, rare coding region mutations in VKORC1 have been associated with resistance to warfarin. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variability associated with altered warfarin response is less well characterized in African and mixed-raced populations such as Brazilians. To determine genetic variability associated with altered warfarin response among Brazilian patients, sixty-two adult patients with extreme resistance or sensitivity to warfarin were genotyped for variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1. Of the 51 patients on low doses of warfarin, the VKORC1--1639 (3673) G>A polymorphism associated with warfarin sensitivity was present in 48 (94.1%), including 97% of Caucasians, 82% of African-descent patients, and all 7 (100%) patients of Indian descent. Additionally, 52.9% of warfarin sensitive patients had at least one CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 decreased metabolism allele, 63.6% of Caucasians and 54% of African-descent patients. Of the 11 patients on high doses of warfarin, sequencing of VKORC1 revealed a nonsynonymous V66M mutation in two warfarin resistant patients, both of African-descent. Brazilian patients requiring low doses of warfarin have a high frequency of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 variants associated with warfarin sensitivity. The presence of the rare VKORC1 V66M in two warfarin high dose outlier patients implies that this variant may be more frequent among African Brazilians and has implications for future warfarin studies in other populations of African descent. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of renal function deterioration on adverse events during anticoagulation therapy using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Koji; Aiba, Takeshi; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Hirose, Sayako; Wada, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Okamura, Hideo; Noda, Takashi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kamakura, Shiro; Shimizu, Wataru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Kazunori; Kusano, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Renal function is crucial for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). The incidence of renal function deterioration during anticoagulation therapy and its impact of adverse events are unknown. In 807 consecutive NVAF patients treated with NOAC and with estimated creatinine clearance (eCCr) ≥ 50 ml/min (mean age 68 ± 11 years, mean CHADS2 score = 1.8 ± 1.4, CHA2DS2-VASc score = 2.8 ± 1.8, HAS-BLED score = 1.7 ± 1.1), we analyzed the time course of renal function and clinical outcomes, and compared these with the data of general Japanese inhabitants from the Suita Study (n = 2140). Of the 807 patients, 751 (93 %) maintained eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min (group A) whereas the remaining 56 (7 %) fell into the eCCr < 50 ml/min (group B) during the 382 ± 288 days of follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that advanced age, lower body weight, and congestive heart failure were independent predictors for renal function deterioration in patients with eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min at baseline. Major and/or minor bleedings were more commonly observed in group B than in group A (21 vs. 8 %; P = 0.0004). The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were also significant predictors of renal function deterioration (P < 0.0001). The incidences of renal function deterioration were 1.4, 3.4, 10.5 and 11.7 % in patients with CHADS2 score of 0, 1, 2 and ≥3, respectively. As to CHA2DS2-VASc score, renal function deterioration occurred in 0, 1.7, 9.8 and 15.0 % with a score of 0, 1-2, 3-4 and ≥5, respectively. In the Suita Study of the general population, on the other hand, 122 of 2140 participants with eCCr ≥ 50 ml/min at baseline (5.7 %) fell into the eCCr < 50 ml/min during about 2 years. The incidence of renal function deterioration increased with the CHADS2 score in the general population as well as in our patients. Renal function deterioration was

  20. Do patients fear undergoing general anesthesia for oral surgery?

    PubMed

    Elmore, Jasmine R; Priest, James H; Laskin, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing major surgery have more fear of the general anesthesia than the procedure. This appears to be reversed with oral surgery. Therefore, patients need to be as well informed about this aspect as the surgical operation.

  1. [Update on the control of patients on treatment with vitaminK antagonist oral anticoagulants in Primary Care].

    PubMed

    Fernández López, P; López Ramiro, M I; Merino de Haro, I; Cedeño Manzano, G; Díaz Siles, F J; Hermoso Sabio, A

    In Spain, more than 80% of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receive oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), and 72% of these patients are followed up in the Primary Care (PC) setting. Recent studies have shown that there is insufficient control of patients on OAT. The objective of the present study was to obtain more detailed information on the state of control of patients on treatment with vitaminK antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (OAC), on the diseases for which the therapy was indicated and on concomitant diseases. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study with the participation of patients from a single health area included in an OAT programme throughout 2014. In patients on treatment with OAC, International Normalised Ratio (INR) control was considered insufficient when the percentage time in therapeutic range (TTR) was below 65% during an evaluation period of at least 6months. A total of 368 patients were included in the study, where the most frequent indication for oral anticoagulation was non-valvular AF. A total of 5,128 INR controls were performed, of which 2,359 (46%) were outside the therapeutic range, and 2,769 (54%) were within range. The risk of thromboembolism was very high in 91% of patients on treatment with VKA OAC. The indication for anticoagulation is correct in our population, assuming a low-intermediate risk of haemorrhage in the majority of patients. Measurement of the TTR using the Rosendaal method shows that the control of patients on treatment with VKA OAC is insufficient. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple recurrent ischaemic strokes in a patient with cancer: is there a role for the initiation of anticoagulation therapy for secondary stroke prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle Alexandra; Cheng, Jia Zhen; Then, Ryna Karina

    2017-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with a medical history of cervical and thyroid cancer, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled diabetes and heavy smoking was diagnosed with a new metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. While undergoing palliative chemotherapy, she developed dysarthria and left-sided weakness. Imaging studies showed multiple bilateral ischaemic strokes. On hospital days 2 and 5, she developed worsening neurological symptoms and imaging studies revealed new areas of ischaemia on respective days. Subsequent workup did not revealed a clear aetiology for the multiple ischaemic events and hypercoagulability studies were only significant for a mildly elevated serum D-dimer level. Although guidelines are unclear, full-dose anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin was initiated given her high risk of stroke recurrence. She was discharged to acute rehabilitation but, within a month, she experienced complications of her malignant disease progression and a new pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient died soon after being discharged home with hospice care. PMID:28578306

  3. Oral anticoagulation in elderly patients as secondary prevention of cardioembolic strokes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke incidence increases with age. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke and its incidence also increases with age. However oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) tends to be underused in the elderly population. Methods Elderly patients (> = 80 years) with an ischemic stroke admitted in our department between 1/7/2003 and 31/6/2005 were prospectively evaluated. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, treatment and etiology according to TOAST criteria were recorded. Patients treated with OAT were followed up in order to assess any side effect and stroke recurrence. Mean follow-up was of 19.5 months (7-45) from discharge. Results Sixty four out of a hundred and fifty nine elderly patients (40.25%) were classified as cardioembolic; mean age was 84.5 years (80-97) and 64.6% were women. AF had been previously identified in 60% of them (16.9% were on OAT and 40.6% on antiplatelet therapy). At discharge, 32 patients (49.2%) were on OAT. In the follow-up 4 patients (12.5%) suffered systemic haemorrhages (3 urinary, 1 gastrointestinal bleeding), with no change in their functional status. Mean INR in this group was 5.9 [3-11] and, in 3 of them, OAT was cancelled. No brain haemorrhages were recorded. Ischemic stroke recurred in 4 patients (INR < 1.8 in 3 of them; the other, INR 2.35). Three patients had died at the end of the follow-up, one of them as a consequence of ischemic stroke recurrence. Discussion Twenty eight point eight of stroke patients admitted in the period of study were >80 years. The high proportion of cardioembolic strokes in this age segment contrasts with the general underuse of OAT as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Our study suggests that OAT is a safe strategy when carefully prescribed, even for elderly patients. PMID:20525389

  4. Randomized trial of atrial arrhythmia monitoring to guide anticoagulation in patients with implanted defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization devices.

    PubMed

    Martin, David T; Bersohn, Malcolm M; Waldo, Albert L; Wathen, Mark S; Choucair, Wassim K; Lip, Gregory Y H; Ip, John; Holcomb, Richard; Akar, Joseph G; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2015-07-07

    Atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATs) detected by implanted devices are often atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) associated with stroke. We hypothesized that introduction and termination of anticoagulation based upon AT monitoring would reduce both stroke and bleeding. We randomized 2718 patients with dual-chamber and biventricular defibrillators to start and stop anticoagulation based on remote rhythm monitoring vs. usual office-based follow-up with anticoagulation determined by standard clinical criteria. The primary analysis compared the composite endpoint of stroke, systemic embolism, and major bleeding with the two strategies. The trial was stopped after 2 years median follow-up based on futility of finding a difference in primary endpoints between groups. A total of 945 patients (34.8%) developed AT, 264 meeting study anticoagulation criteria. Adjudicated atrial electrograms confirmed AF in 91%; median time to initiate anticoagulation was 3 vs. 54 days in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Primary events (2.4 vs. 2.3 per 100 patient-years) did not differ between groups (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.75-1.51; P = 0.732). Major bleeding occurred at 1.6 vs. 1.2 per 100 patient-years (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.89-2.17; P = 0.145). In patients with AT, thromboembolism rates were 1.0 vs. 1.6 per 100 patient-years (relative risk -35.3%; 95% CI -70.8 to 35.3%; P = 0.251). Although AT burden was associated with thromboembolism, there was no temporal relationship between AT and stroke. In patients with implanted defibrillators, the strategy of early initiation and interruption of anticoagulation based on remotely detected AT did not prevent thromboembolism and bleeding. IMPACT ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00559988 ( http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00559988?term=NCT00559988&rank=1 ). Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Clinical characteristics and management of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with direct oral anticoagulants according to blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    de la Figuera, M; Cinza, S; Egocheaga, I; Marín, N; Prieto, M A

    2018-02-14

    To determine the clinical characteristics and management of hypertensive patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) according to blood pressure (BP) control. For this purpose, data from two observational, cross-sectional and multicenter studies were combined. In both studies, patients on chronic treatment with anticoagulants and that were on current treatment with DOACs at least for 3 months were included. Adequate BP was defined as a systolic BP<140mmHg and a diastolic BP<90mmHg (<140/85mmHg if diabetes). Overall, 1036 patients were included. Of these, 881 (85%) had hypertension that were finally analyzed. The presence of other risk factors and cardiovascular disease was common. Mean BP was 132.6±14.3/75.2±9.2mmHg and 70.5% of patients achieved BP goals. Those patients with a poor BP control had more frequently diabetes, and a history of prior labile INR. Patients had a high thromboembolic risk, but without significant differences according to BP control. By contrast, more patients with a poor BP control had a higher bleeding risk (HAS-BLED ≥3: 24.0% vs 35.4%; P<0.001). HAS-BLED score was an independent predictor of poor BP control (odds ratio 1.435; 95% confidence interval 1.216-1.693; P<0.001). Satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment was independent of BP control. More than two thirds of our patients with hypertension and AF anticoagulated with DOACs achieve BP targets, what is clearly superior to that reported in the general hypertensive population. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. What NPs need to know about anticoagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Gay, Sarah E; Munaco, Sandra

    2012-10-10

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) refers to pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation is the cornerstone of management for patients with VTE. This review will discuss current anticoagulation guidelines.

  7. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and severe thrombocytopenia in a patient on mandatory anticoagulation: balancing two life threatening conditions: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gamakaranage, Champika; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Samarawickrama, Sincy; Wijayaratne, Dilushi; Jayawardane, Malaka; Karunanayake, Panduka; Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2012-10-26

    Managing a severe dengue infection is a challenge specially when complicated by other comorbidities. We report a patient with dengue haemorrhagic fever and spontaneous bleeding who required mandatory anticoagulation for a prosthetic mitral valve replacement. This is the first case report in published literature describing this therapeutic dilemma. A fifty one year old Sri Lankan woman was diagnosed with dengue haemorrhagic fever with bleeding manifestations. During the critical phase of her illness, the platelet count dropped to 5,000/ɥl. She was also on warfarin 7 mg daily following a prosthetic mitral valve insertion. In managing the patient, the risk of bleeding had to be balanced against the risk of valve thrombosis without anticoagulation. Warfarin was withheld when the platelet count dropped to 100,000/ɥl and restarted when it recovered above 50,000/ɥl. The patient was off anticoagulation for 10 days. We managed this patient with close observation and continuous risk benefit assessments of management decisions. However, experience with one patient cannot be generalized to others. Therefore, it is essential that clinicians share their experiences in managing such difficult patients.

  8. Status of oral anticoagulant treatment in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Spain. REACT-AF Study.

    PubMed

    de Andrés-Nogales, F; Oyagüez, I; Betegón-Nicolás, L; Canal-Fontcuberta, C; Soto-Álvarez, J

    2015-03-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy is complex due to the need for control and the hemorrhagic risk the therapy entails. This study aims to determine the standard clinical practice in the treatment for preventing stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Spain. The Real Evidence of Anti Coagulation Treatment in AF is a European, multicenter, multinational, observational, retrospectively monitored cohort of patients with NVAF. This study included patients recruited in Spain with at least one visit during the period of inclusion (May 2010/April 2012). The study evaluated the following: a) persistence of oral anticoagulant treatment (time to discontinuation); b) persistence rate (% of patients in treatment) at 6, 12 and 24 months and at 5 years; c) therapeutic compliance (medication possession ratio); d) the correlation between the treatment followed and that recommended by the European Society of Cardiology; and the incidence of stroke and hemorrhagic events. The patients treated with oral anticoagulants (n=7,526) had a median time to discontinuation of treatment of 1.99 years and a persistence rate at 5 years of 26% (discontinuation ≥3 months). The compliance (mean MPR) was 0.54±0.36. The incidence of stroke was 0.3/100 person-years, and the incidence of hemorrhagic events was 2.4/100 person-years. Fifty-eight percent of the patients with NVAF (n=12,514) followed the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology. Forty-two percent of the patients with NVAF did not follow the recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology. We detected low persistence and treatment compliance rates for oral anticoagulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Nursing care of the patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caron G; Turkelson, Sandra L

    2006-01-01

    The role of the professional nurse in the perioperative care of the patient undergoing open heart surgery is beneficial for obtaining a positive outcome for the patient. This article focuses on the preoperative and postoperative nursing care of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Risk assessment, preoperative preparation, current operative techniques, application of the nursing process immediately after surgery, and common postoperative complications will be explored.

  10. Dementia correlates with anticoagulation underuse in older patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Ettorre, Evaristo; Chiriac, Iulia Maria

    2017-09-01

    Stroke prevention in older atrial fibrillation (AF) patients remains a challenge. This study aimed to investigate whether a dementia diagnosis is an independent correlate of lower prescription rate of oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) in a sample of older AF patients. Cross-sectional retrospective study. Consecutive older community-dwelling AF patients referred for a comprehensive geriatric assessment, were considered. Evaluation of physical, social and mental health, and administration of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) and Barthel Index were performed. Dementia cases were ascertained by consensus of 2 experienced geriatricians. Dementia severity was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). 316 AF patients (ages 74.7±7.0years, 55.7% women) with high stroke risk (77.5% had a CHA 2 DS 2 VASC score ≥3), low bleeding and falling risk, and no neuropsychiatric/behavioral symptoms, were included. 60.1% were prescribed with OAT. Among patients with dementia (n=86, 27.2%), 22.0% received inadequate antithrombotic prophylaxis (i.e. antiplatelet) and 38.5% no treatment. Proportion of those receiving inadequate or no prophylaxis increased at increasing CDR score. By multiple regression models, either dementia (yes vs no), OR=1.33, 95%CI=1.11-1.46, p<0.001, and dementia severity (CDR>1), OR=2.38, 95%CI=2.19-2.60, p<0.001, were associated with lack of OAT prescription independently of age, paroxysmal AF, and comorbidity burden. Dementia might be associated with underuse of OAT in older AF patients even in the absence of established contraindications. Future studies are needed to assess the real dimension of the problem and clinician's barriers to prescribing OAT in demented patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in patients taking chronic oral anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Rogacka, Renata; Chieffo, Alaide; Michev, Iassen; Airoldi, Flavio; Latib, Azeem; Cosgrave, John; Montorfano, Matteo; Carlino, Mauro; Sangiorgi, Giuseppe M; Castelli, Alfredo; Godino, Cosmo; Magni, Valeria; Aranzulla, Tiziana C; Romagnoli, Enrico; Colombo, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients in whom long-term anticoagulation (AC) with warfarin is recommended. The optimal antithrombotic strategy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients receiving AC is unclear. Consecutive patients who underwent stent implantation and were discharged on triple therapy (defined as the combination of aspirin and thienopyridines and AC) were analyzed. Of the 127 patients with 224 lesions, 86.6% were men, with a mean age of 69.9 +/- 8.8 years. Drug-eluting stents (DES) were positioned in 71 (55.9%), and bare-metal stents (BMS) were positioned in 56 (44.1%) patients. Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the main indication (59.1%) for AC treatment. The mean triple therapy duration was 5.6 +/- 4.6 months, and clinical follow-up was 21.0 +/- 19.8 months. During the triple therapy period, 6 patients (4.7%) developed major bleeding complications; 67% occurred within the first month. No significant differences between DES and BMS were observed in the incidence of major (5.6% vs. 3.6%, respectively, p = 1.0) and minor (1.4% vs. 3.6%, respectively, p = 0.57) bleeding and mortality (5.6% vs. 1.8%, respectively, p = 0.39). A significant difference was observed in favor of DES in target vessel revascularization (14.1% vs. 26.8%, p = 0.041). While receiving triple therapy, major bleeding occurred in 4.7% of patients; one-half of the events were lethal, and most occurred within the first month.

  12. Major bleeding complications in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants: One-year observational study in a Paris Hospital.

    PubMed

    Deville, L; Konan, M; Hij, A; Goldwirt, L; Peyrony, O; Fieux, F; Faure, P; Madelaine, I; Villiers, S; Farge-Bancel, D; Frère, C

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DAOC) are indicated for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given their advantages and friendly use for patient, the prescription of long term DOAC therapy has rapidly increased both as first line treatment while initiating anticoagulation and as a substitute to vitamins K antagonist (VKA) in poorly controlled patients. However, DOAC therapy can also be associated with significant bleeding complications, and in the absence of specific antidote at disposal, treatment of serious hemorrhagic complications under DOAC remains complex. We report and discuss herein five cases of major hemorrhagic complications under DOAC, which were reported to the pharmacological surveillance department over one year at Saint-Louis University Hospital (Paris, France). We further discuss the need for careful assessment of the risk/benefit ratio at time of starting DOAC therapy in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Single center review of clinicopathological characterization in 77 patients with positive lupus anticoagulant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Owaidah, Tarek M; Qurashi, Fat-Hiya M; Al Nounou, Randa M; Al Zahrani, Hazza; Al Mussa, Abdulrahman; Tbakhi, Abdelghani I; Al Daama, Saad; Elkum, Nasser; Roberts, George T

    2003-08-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a thrombophillic disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA). It often occurs in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and may be associated with recurrent abortions and thrombocytopenia and, occasionally, catastrophic thrombotic events. To examine, retrospectively, the clinico-pathological features of patients with APS detected by the presence of the lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients were selected for study on the basis of a positive LAC test on review of the laboratory computer records of the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Following this, a clinical chart review was conducted in order to determine the clinical presentations, treatment and the course of patients identified. The information obtained was entered into an electronic database and subsequently analyzed. Seventy-seven patients were identified and reviewed. Fifty-six (73%) were female and 16 (21%) were children less than 15-years-old. Thirty-two patients (42%) had no clinical events (incidental APS). The syndrome was classified as primary in 40 (52%) patients and secondary in 37 (48%). Out of the 45 (58%) patients who presented with symptoms related to APA 22 (49%) had thrombosis, 24 (53%) had pregnancy failure, and 4 (9%) presented with catastrophic APS. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was elevated and not corrected by mixing with normal plasma in 47 (61%). On the other hand, the prothrombin time (PT) was normal in 66 (90%). There is a significant difference between aPTT and PT as a screening test with P value of < 0.0001. Tests for anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) were positive in 39 patients (70%). Only 13 (17%) patients had thrombocytopenia. All patients who presented with thrombosis were treated with warfarin but only 5 (23%) had received aspirin. Out of the 22 patients presenting with thrombosis, 12 (55%) had one or more recurrent thrombotic events while only 6 (25%) out of the

  14. Impact of non-anticoagulant therapy on patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation: A multicenter, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Daisuke; Hayakawa, Mineji; Ono, Kota; Yamakawa, Kazuma

    2018-03-01

    Anticoagulant therapy for patients with sepsis is not recommended in the latest Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines, and non-anticoagulant therapy is the global standard treatment approach at present. We aimed at elucidating the effect of non-anticoagulant therapy on patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as evidence on this topic has remained inconclusive. Data from 3195 consecutive adult patients admitted to 42 intensive care units for the treatment of severe sepsis were retrospectively analyzed via propensity score analyses with and without multiple imputation. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Among 1784 patients with sepsis-induced DIC, 745 (41.8%) were not treated with anticoagulants. The inverse probability of treatment-weighted (with and without multiple imputation) and quintile-stratified propensity score analyses (without multiple imputation) indicated a significant association between non-anticoagulant therapy and higher in-hospital all-cause mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.59 [1.19-2.12], 1.32 [1.02-1.81], and 1.32 [1.03-1.69], respectively). However, quintile-stratified propensity score analyses with multiple imputation and propensity score matching analysis with and without multiple imputation did not show this association. Survival duration was not significantly different between patients in the propensity score-matched non-anticoagulant therapy group and those in the anticoagulant therapy group (Cox regression analysis with and without multiple imputation: hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.26 [1.00-1.60] and 1.22 [0.93-1.59], respectively). It remains controversial if non-anticoagulant therapy is harmful, equivalent, or beneficial compared with anticoagulant therapy in the treatment of patients with sepsis-induced DIC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of anticoagulation treatments in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients diagnosed in a basic health area.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Alcaraz, Beatriz M; Abellán Huerta, José; Carbayo Herencia, Julio Antonio; Ariza Copado, Consuelo; Hernández Menárguez, Fernando; Abellán Alemán, José

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. To assess the need for anticoagulation is essential for its management. Our objective was to investigate whether the indication of anticoagulation was adequate in patients diagnosed with non-valvular AF, given the CHA2-DS2-VASc scale, measuring the International Normalizad Ratio range (INR) in patients treated with anti-vitamin K drugs. This is an observational and cross sectional study. 232 patients with atrial fibrillation were included. We analyzed demographic, the CHA2-DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED variables, the treatment and INR values for 6 consequentive months. The confrontation of variables was performed using chi-square and Mantel-Haenzel test. The prevalence of AF was 1.05%. The 88.4% had CHA2-DS2-VASc ≥ 2. The 71.1% were taking anticoagulants, of which 58.2% were under antivitamin k. The 46.7% of patients taking antivitamin K, presented inadequate range of INR. There was a greater prescription of antivitamin k in patients with persistent or permanent AF compared to the paroxysmal form (62.8 vs. 37.2% p<.001). The use of drugs that increase bleeding was associated with a worse control of INR after adjustment for the main variables of clinical relevance (odds ratio 2.17 [1.02-4.59], p=.043). The level of anticoagulation with antivitamin K was inadequate in our sample, despite a proper follow up and adherence to treatment. Patients with paroxysmal AF received less antivitamin K than those with persistent/permanent AF. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Degree of Anticoagulation Control in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation in Primary Health Care in Galicia, Spain: ANFAGAL Study.

    PubMed

    Cinza-Sanjurjo, Sergio; Rey-Aldana, Daniel; Gestal-Pereira, Enrique; Calvo-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    To determine the degree of control of patients on anticoagulants in follow-up in primary care in Galicia and investigate whether time in therapeutic range as estimated using the number of acceptable controls is comparable with the estimation using the Rosendaal method. Transversal study that included patients older than 65 years, diagnosed with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, on anticoagulants for at least 1 year. Control was considered good when the time in therapeutic range was greater than 65%, estimated by the Rosendaal method, or 60% estimated by the number of acceptable controls. We enrolled 511 patients (53.0% women; mean [standard deviation] age, 77.8 [0.6] years). Overall, 41.5% of the patients were in therapeutic range at fewer than 60% of the controls and 42.7% spent less than 65% of follow-up in therapeutic range, as estimated with the Rosendaal method. In the group of patients with poor control, we observed more drugs (6.8 [0.4] vs 5.7 [0.3]; P<.0001), greater presence of kidney disease (24.3% vs 17.0%; P=.05), and higher HAS-BLED scores (3.8 [0.1] vs 2.5 [0.1]; P<.0001). The cutoff of 60% for number of acceptable controls had a sensitivity and specificity of 79.4% and 86.7%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.92 (95%CI, 0.87-0.97). More than 40% of patients on anticoagulants do not reach the minimum time in therapeutic range to benefit from anticoagulation. The factors associated with worse control were kidney disease and high risk of cerebral hemorrhage. The 2 methods of estimation are comparable. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of estimated glomerular filtration rate equations for dosing new oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; Andreu-Cayuelas, José M; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban; Gallego, Pilar; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Lip, Gregory Y H; Roldán, Vanessa

    2015-06-01

    New oral anticoagulants require dosing adjustment according to renal function. We aimed to determine discordance in hypothetical recommended dosing of these drugs using different estimated glomerular filtration rate equations in patients with atrial fibrillation. Cross-sectional analysis of 910 patients with atrial fibrillation and an indication for oral anticoagulation. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. For dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban we identified dose discordance when there was disagreement in the recommended dose based on different equations. Among the overall population, relative to Cockcroft-Gault, discordance in dabigatran dosage was 11.4% for Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and 10% for Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, discordance in rivaroxaban dosage was 10% for Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and 8.5% for the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. The lowest discordance was observed for apixaban: 1.4% for Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and 1.5% for the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. In patients with Cockcroft-Gault<60mL/min or elderly patients, discordances in dabigatran and rivaroxaban dosages were higher, ranging from 13.2% to 30.4%. Discordance in apixaban dosage remained<5% in these patients. Discordance in new oral anticoagulation dosages using different equations is frequent, especially among elderly patients with renal impairment. This discordance was higher in dabigatran and rivaroxaban dosages than in apixaban dosages. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical importance of these discordances and the optimal anticoagulant dosages depending on the use of different equations to estimate renal function. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Controversies regarding the new oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bibhu D; Looser, Patrick M; Gokanapudy, Lakshmi R; Handa, Rishi; Mohanty, Sudipta; Choi, Sharon S; Goldman, Martin E; Fuster, Valentin; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2014-06-01

    Increasing use of the new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) - dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban - has prompted considerable discussion in the medical community even as warfarin remains the mainstay of therapy. This article raises 10 controversial issues regarding the use of NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and offers a review of the latest available evidence. We provide a brief overview of the mechanism and dosing of these drugs, as well as a summary of the key clinical trials that have brought them into the spotlight. Comparative considerations relative to warfarin such as NOAC safety, efficacy, bleeding risk, reversibility, drug-transitioning and use in patients well controlled on warfarin are addressed. Use in select populations such as the elderly, those with coronary disease, renal impairment, or on multiple anti-platelet drugs is also discussed. Finally, we consider such specific issues as comparative efficacy, off-label use, cost, rebound and management during events. Ultimately, the rise of the NOACs to mainstream use will depend on further data and clinical experience amongst the medical community. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The platelet count in EDTA-anticoagulated blood from patients with thrombocytopenia may be underestimated when measured in routine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Podda, Gian Marco; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Mezzasoma, Anna Maria; Gresele, Paolo; Carpani, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Spuriously low platelet counts (PCs) can be observed in normal blood samples anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)and, much less frequently, with citrate-tris-pyridossalphosphate (CPT),due to time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination. Accuracy in PC determination is essential as PC is one of the parameters that usually guides treatment for thrombocytopenic patients. PCs of 93 thrombocy to penic patients were measured in EDTA- or CPT-anticoagulated blood samples immediately after sampling (t0) and 90 min (t90) after storage at room temperature. The presence of platelet agglutinates in blood samples was determined by examining blood smears using optical microscopy.PCs decreased at t90 with both anticoagulants. Platelet agglutinates were present at t90 in 27% of EDTA-samples vs. 2% of CPT-samples with decreased PCs (P < 0.001). Based on PCs in EDTA-samples, 15 patients (16%) shifted from a lower bleeding risk at t0 to a higher bleeding risk category at t90 (P 5 0.019), compared to 5 (5%) patients, based on PCs in CPT-samples. Therefore, time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination in EDTA-blood samples may cause underestimation of PCs in thrombocytopenic patients, possibly leading to improper management.

  20. Anticoagulation Bridge Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Recent Updates Providing a Rebalance of Risk and Benefit.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Candice L; Korkis, Bianca; Grande, Domenico; Hanni, Claudia; Morin, Amy; Moser, Lynette R

    2017-06-01

    In 2011 we reviewed clinical updates and controversies surrounding anticoagulation bridge therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Since then, options for oral anticoagulation have expanded with the addition of four direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents available in the United States. Nonetheless, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy continues to be the treatment of choice for patients who are poor candidates for a DOAC and for whom bridge therapy remains a therapeutic dilemma. This literature review identifies evidence and guideline and consensus statements from the last 5 years to provide updated recommendations and insight into bridge therapy for patients using a VKA for AF. Since our last review, at least four major international guidelines have been updated plus a new consensus document addressing bridge therapy was released. Prospective trials and one randomized controlled trial have provided guidance for perioperative bridge therapy. The clinical trial data showed that bridging with heparin is associated with a significant bleeding risk compared with not bridging; furthermore, data suggested that actual perioperative thromboembolic risk may be lower than previously estimated. Notably, patients at high risk for stroke have not been adequately represented. These findings highlight the importance of assessing thrombosis and bleeding risk before making bridging decisions. Thrombosis and bleeding risk tools have emerged to facilitate this assessment and have been incorporated into guideline recommendations. Results from ongoing trials are expected to provide more guidance on safe and effective perioperative management approaches for patients at high risk for stroke. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Endoscopy in patients on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, including direct oral anticoagulants: British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Veitch, Andrew M; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Gershlick, Anthony H; Boustiere, Christian; Baglin, Trevor P; Smith, Lesley-Ann; Radaelli, Franco; Knight, Evelyn; Gralnek, Ian M; Hassan, Cesare; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2016-04-01

    The risk of endoscopy in patients on antithrombotics depends on the risks of procedural haemorrhage vs. thrombosis due to discontinuation of therapy. P2Y12 receptor antagonists (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor): For low-risk endoscopic procedures we recommend continuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists as single or dual antiplatelet therapy (low quality evidence, strong recommendation);For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at low thrombotic risk, we recommend discontinuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists five days before the procedure (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). In patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, we suggest continuing aspirin (low quality evidence, weak recommendation).For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at high thrombotic risk, we recommend continuing aspirin and liaising with a cardiologist about the risk/benefit of discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists (high quality evidence, strong recommendation). Warfarin: The advice for warfarin is fundamentally unchanged from BSG 2008 guidance. Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC): For low-risk endoscopic procedures we suggest omitting the morning dose of DOAC on the day of the procedure (very low quality evidence, weak recommendation). For high-risk endoscopic procedures, we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken ≥ 48 hours before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). For patients on dabigatran with CrCl (or estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) of 30 - 50 mL/min we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken 72 hours before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). In any patient with rapidly deteriorating renal function a haematologist should be consulted (low quality evidence, strong recommendation). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Impact of optimal anticoagulation therapy on chronic venous ulcer healing in thrombophilic patients with post-thrombotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, C A; Olivares-Cruz, S; Laparra-Escareno, H; Sanchez-Castro, S; Tamayo-Garcia, B; Anaya-Ayala, J E

    2016-12-02

    Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is the long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). PTS clinical manifestations include chronic leg pain, oedema, lipodermatosclerosis and ulcers. The objective of this study is to determine in patients with documented history of thrombophilias and DVT whether the number of previous thrombotic events and optimal anticoagulation therapy are associated with the time to venous ulcer healing following the start of compression therapy. Retrospective analysis performed in thrombophilic patients under the age of 50 years old with chronic venous ulcers secondary to DVT at the wound clinic in the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition 'Salvador Zubirán ' in Mexico City. Variables such as the number or episodes of thrombotic events, type of hypercoagulable disorder, optimal anticoagulation therapy with Warfarin monitored by therapeutic International Normalised Ratio (INR) (2-3) and compliance to compression therapy were examined. Patients that underwent superficial or perforator vein interruption or endovascular recanalisation of deep veins were excluded from the study. From a database of 29 patients with chronic venous ulcers followed in our clinic from January 1992 to September 2012, only 13 patients (61% female) met the inclusion criteria. Mean age±standard deviation (SD) was 32±12 years old. Of these, seven (54%) patients with suboptimal INR presented with an average of two previous thrombotic events and the remaining six (46%) patients with optimal INR only one event (p=0.28), the mean time to the clinical manifestation of a venous ulcer after the first episode of DVT was 39 months (range: 12-72) for patients with suboptimal INR and 82 months (range: 12-216) for those with optimal anticoagulation therapy (p=0.11). During the mean follow-up period of 52 months, all patients in optimal anticoagulation healed their ulcer; their mean time for wound healing was 44 months (range: 4-102). In the suboptimal INR group, only

  3. External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Patients on Anticoagulation Therapy: How Significant is the Bleeding Toxicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kevin S.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.ed

    Purpose: To characterize the bleeding toxicity associated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients receiving anticoagulation (AC) therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 568 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy. Of these men, 79 were receiving AC therapy with either warfarin or clopidogrel. All patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Bleeding complications were recorded during treatment and subsequent follow-up visits. Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 4-year actuarial risk of Grade 3 or worse bleeding toxicity was 15.5% for those receivingmore » AC therapy compared with 3.6% among those not receiving AC (p < .0001). On multivariate analysis, AC therapy was the only significant factor associated with Grade 3 or worse bleeding (p < .0001). For patients taking AC therapy, the crude rate of bleeding was 39.2%. Multivariate analysis within the AC group demonstrated that a higher radiotherapy dose (p = .0408), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (p = 0.0136), and previous transurethral resection of the prostate (p = .0001) were associated with Grade 2 or worse bleeding toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy was protective against bleeding, with borderline significance (p = 0.0599). Dose-volume histogram analysis revealed that Grade 3 or worse bleeding was minimized if the percentage of the rectum receiving >=70 Gy was <10% or the rectum receiving >=50 Gy was <50%. Conclusion: Patients taking AC therapy have a substantial risk of bleeding toxicity from external beam radiotherapy. In this setting, dose escalation or intensity-modulated radiotherapy should be used judiciously. With adherence to strict dose-volume histogram criteria and minimizing hotspots, the risk of severe bleeding might be reduced.« less

  4. Inadvertent exaggerated anticoagulation following use of bismuth subsalicylate in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Angela L; Brown, Rex O; Dickerson, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of an inadvertent increase in the international normalized ratio (INR) after the addition of bismuth subsalicylate for the treatment of diarrhea in an enterally fed patient receiving warfarin therapy. A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented to the trauma intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple lower extremity fractures. Warfarin was initiated for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis due to the patient's inability to ambulate. The target INR was 2-3. Continuous intragastric enteral feeding was withheld 1 hour before and 1 hour after intragastric administration of warfarin. Bismuth subsalicylate 30 mL every 4 hours was prescribed for diarrhea. Within 3 days after starting bismuth subsalicylate therapy, the patient's INR increased from 2.56 to 3.54 and minor bleeding was noted from the patient's tracheostomy site. No significant change in warfarin dosage, variability in vitamin K intake, or medications that potentially alter warfarin metabolism were present during the unexpected rise in INR. When the bismuth subsalicylate was discontinued, the patient's INR stabilized into the target range on the same warfarin dose given at the time of the supratherapeutic INR. Salicylate displaces warfarin from plasma protein binding sites and may result in a significant increase in INR secondary to redistribution of warfarin to the free active form. Evaluation of this case report using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale and Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale yielded scores consistent with a probable adverse drug interaction. Bismuth subsalicylate exaggerates warfarin's anticoagulant response and its concurrent use during warfarin therapy should be avoided.

  5. Effect of access to anticoagulation management services on warfarin use in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2005-08-01

    To determine the effect of access to ambulatory anticoagulation management services (AMS) on the rate of warfarin use in patients with atrial fibrillation. Retrospective medical record review. Two ambulatory care clinics in the same managed care system: one with and one without access to pharmacist-managed AMS. One hundred seventy-eight patients with atrial fibrillation diagnosed between June 2000 and June 2001. Warfarin use was assessed overall and by contraindications and risk factors for stroke. Independent predictors of therapy were identified. The overall rate of warfarin use in atrial fibrillation was higher in the clinic with access to AMS than in the clinic without access (77.9% vs 61.7%, p=0.03). In patients with no known contraindications, warfarin use increased by 20.2% with access to AMS versus no access (80.2% vs 60.0%, p=0.023). Patients aged 65 years or older with one or more risk factors for stroke and no contraindications were more likely to receive warfarin in the clinic with access to AMS than in the clinic without access (85.1% vs 53.8%, p=0.001). Access to AMS was an independent predictor of warfarin use (odds ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.56). Female sex was an independent negative predictor of warfarin use (odds ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96). In the managed care setting, use of warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation was higher in the ambulatory care clinic with access to pharmacist-managed AMS than in the clinic without access.

  6. [Anticoagulant therapy in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation - evidence based medicine and clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Bozić, Ivona; Capkun, Vesna; Bozić, Dorotea; Karabuva, Svjetlana; Caljkusić, Kresimir; Trgo, Gorana; Carević, Vedran; Fabijanić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Objective of study was to assess the concordance of the tromboprophylactic treatment in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (pAF) with guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. Prospective cross-sectional study consecutivelly included 674 patients (400 S59%C male) discharged from cardiology department with the diagnosis pAF. The thromboembolic risk (TE) has been established according to CHA2DS2-VASc score, whereas the bleeding risk has been assessed according to HAS-BLED score. 578 (86%) belonged to the group of high, 57 (8%) to the group of moderate, and 39 (6%) patients to the group of low TE risk. 601 (89%) patients received thromboprophylaxis: 310 (46%) warfarin, 258 (38%) acetylsalicylic acid, and 33 (5%) patients clopidogrel. Warfarin has been prescribed to 47% of patients with high, 49% of patients with moderate and to 26% of patients with low TE risk (P=0.03). Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has equally been prescribed to patients of all TE risk groups: low, moderate and high (39% vs. 39% vs.38%/o; P=0.998). ASA (P<0.001) and warfarin (P=0.007) have been used more frequently in the group of patients with high bleeding risk, in which the same incidence of warfarin and ASA administration has been registered (53% vs. 47%; P=0.416). Age > or =75 has been an independent predictor of non-administration (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.4; P=0.003), whereas the history of stroke was for warfarin administration (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.76; P-0.002). In prescribing thromboprophylaxis to patients with pAF, cardiologists do not observe the recommended clinical guidelines. Despite nonexistence of contraindications, a significant number of patients with high TE risk has not been administered warfarin. At the same time, warfarin has been administered to the patients with low TE risk, exposing them unnecessarily to the undesired effect of anticoagulant treatment.

  7. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    PubMed Central

    Akinboboye, Olakunle

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease. PMID:26056467

  8. The future of anticoagulation clinics.

    PubMed

    Macik, B Gail

    2003-01-01

    Anticoagulation therapy is the foundation of treatment for thromboembolic disorders; and coumarin derivatives (warfarin in the United States) are the only orally administered anticoagulant medications currently available. Due to the expense and relative difficulties associated with this route of administration, parenteral drugs are not used routinely for long-term therapy, leaving warfarin as the anticoagulant of choice in the outpatient setting. The management of warfarin is problematic, however, due the nuances of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile and the requirement for frequent monitoring of blood levels. Although management by anticoagulation clinics is considered the gold standard for warfarin therapy, management by an anticoagulation clinic may not be the optimal option from a clinician's view and, in many cases, may not be an option at all. Anticoagulation clinics may impinge on the doctor-patient relationship. Difficulties of communication and reimbursement are not ameliorated by a specialty clinic. Innovations in warfarin management, including patient self-management and computerized dosing programs, are alternatives for improved care that are available with or without input by an anticoagulation service. New oral drugs on the horizon do not require the same intensity of monitoring and do not present the same pharmacodynamic problems associated with warfarin. Warfarin will become obsolete in the foreseeable future. If anticoagulation clinics continue, they must re-define their role as the major part of the workload, warfarin management, disappears. To adapt, clinics must strengthen and enhance their role as coordinators and educators, and less so, managers of anticoagulation therapy.

  9. Discrepancies between Patients' Preferences and Educational Programs on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: A Survey in Community Pharmacies and Hospital Consultations.

    PubMed

    Macquart de Terline, Diane; Hejblum, Gilles; Fernandez, Christine; Cohen, Ariel; Antignac, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications in various clinical situations. Nowadays, education programs for patients treated with anticoagulants constitute an integrated component of their management. However, such programs are usually based on the healthcare providers' perceptions of what patients should know, rather than on patients' preferences. To investigate patients' viewpoints on educational needs and preferred modalities of information delivery. We conducted an observational study based on a self-administered questionnaire. To explore several profiles of patients, the study was designed for enrolling patients in two settings: during outpatient consultations in a cardiology department (Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France) and in community pharmacies throughout France. Of the 371 patients who completed the questionnaire, 187 (50.4%) were recruited during an outpatient consultation and 184 (49.6%) were recruited in community pharmacies. 84.1% of patients were receiving a vitamin K antagonist and 15.6% a direct oral anticoagulant. Patients ranked 16 of 21 (76.2%) questionnaire items on information about their treatment as important or essential; information on adverse effects of treatment was the highest ranked domain (mean score 2.38, 95% CI 2.30-2.46). Pharmacists (1.69, 1.58-1.80), nurses (1.05, 0.95-1.16), and patient associations (0.36, 0.29-0.44), along with group sessions (0.85, 0.75-0.95), the internet (0.77, 0.67-0.88), and delivery of material at the patient's home (1.26, 1.14-1.38), were ranked poorly in terms of delivering educational material. This study revealed substantial discrepancies between patient preferences and current educational programs. These findings should be useful for tailoring future educational programs that are better adapted to patients, with a potential associated enhancement of their effectiveness.

  10. Obesity paradox in patients undergoing coronary intervention: A review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirav; Elsaid, Ossama; Shenoy, Abhishek; Sharma, Abhishek; McFarlane, Samy I

    2017-01-01

    There is strong relationship exist between obesity and cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (CAD). However, better outcomes noted in obese patients undergoing percutaneous cardiovascular interventions for CAD, a phenomenon known as the obesity paradox. In this review, we performed extensive search for obesity paradox in obese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and discussed possible mechanism and disparities in different race and sex. PMID:29081905

  11. An evidence-based approach to managing the anticoagulated patient in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    You start another busy shift with a double row of charts waiting to be seen. Your first patient is an elderly man who fell 1 hour prior to presentation. He did not lose consciousness, but he was dazed for a few minutes. He complains of a mild headache but denies any neck pain. He takes warfarin for valvular heart disease. He looks good and has no focal neurological complaints. His mental status is normal, he has a negative head CT scan, and his INR is 3.9. His family wants to take him home, which would help relieve some of the congestion in the ED, but you wonder what would be best. To observe and repeat imaging? Reverse his anticoagulation? Change his dosing regimen of warfarin? In the next room, you quickly evaluate a 51-year-old obese woman with nonspecific back and abdominal pain that started 24 hours before and has slowly progressed to become intolerable. She denies fever, chills, nausea, or vomiting. She is on the last day of a 5-day course of ciprofloxacin for a UTI. She takes warfarin for a pulmonary embolus that occurred 2 months prior. Her hematocrit is mildly decreased, and her white blood count is normal; however, the INR is 6.8. You wonder if her abdominal pain is related to the UTI, or if it could be somehow related to the prolonged INR. In fact, you wonder why her INR is so prolonged...

  12. New Oral Anticoagulants May Be Particularly Useful for Asian Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Oh Young; Hong, Keun-Sik; Heo, Ji Hoe; Koo, Jaseong; Kwon, Sun U.; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an emerging epidemic in both high-income and low-income countries, mainly because of global population aging. Stroke is a major complication of AF, and AF-related ischemic stroke is more disabling and more fatal than other types of ischemic stroke. However, because of concerns about bleeding complications, particularly intracranial hemorrhage, and the limitations of a narrow therapeutic window, warfarin is underused. Four large phase III randomized controlled trials in patients with non-valvular AF (RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, ARISTOTLE, and ENGAGE-AF-TIMI 48) demonstrated that new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are superior or non-inferior to warfarin as regards their efficacy in preventing ischemic stroke and systemic embolism, and superior to warfarin in terms of intracranial hemorrhage. Among AF patients receiving warfarin, Asians compared to non-Asians are at higher risk of stroke or systemic embolism and are also more prone to develop major bleeding complications, including intracranial hemorrhage. The extra benefit offered by NOACs over warfarin appears to be greater in Asians than in non-Asians. In addition, Asians are less compliant, partly because of the frequent use of herbal remedies. Therefore, NOACs compared to warfarin may be safer and more useful in Asians than in non-Asians, especially in stroke patients. Although the use of NOACs in AF patients is rapidly increasing, guidelines for the insurance reimbursement of NOACs have not been resolved, partly because of insufficient understanding of the benefit of NOACs and partly because of cost concerns. The cost-effectiveness of NOACs has been well demonstrated in the healthcare settings of developed countries, and its magnitude would vary depending on population characteristics as well as treatment cost. Therefore, academic societies and regulatory authorities should work together to formulate a scientific healthcare policy that will effectively reduce the burden of AF-related stroke in

  13. Risk of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, or anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Ángel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Arguedas, Yolanda; García, Santiago; Bujanda, Luis; Calvet, Xavier; Ponce, Julio; Perez-Aísa, Ángeles; Castro, Manuel; Muñoz, Maria; Sostres, Carlos; García-Rodríguez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or low-dose aspirin is associated with increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. There is little evidence on the risk of lower gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs, antiplatelet agents (APAs), or anticoagulants. We aimed to quantify the relative risk (RR) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding associated with use of NSAIDs, APAs, or anticoagulants. We performed a case-control study that used data collected from consecutive patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal bleeding (563 upper, mean age, 63.6 ± 16.7 years and 415 lower, mean age, 70.8 ± 13.8 years), confirmed by endoscopy or other diagnostic procedures. Unhospitalized patients were used as controls (n = 1008) and matched for age, hospital, and month of admission. Drug use was considered current when taken within 7 days or less before hospitalization. RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. Use of anticoagulants, low-dose aspirin, and other drugs (non-aspirin-APA, 82.3% thienopiridines) was associated with upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding; the risk was 2-fold higher for anticoagulants (RR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.9-6.2) than for low-dose aspirin (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3) or other non-aspirin-APA drugs (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.6). NSAID use was also associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and greater for upper (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.0-3.5) than lower gastrointestinal bleeding (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9). Use of proton pump inhibitors was associated with reduced risk of upper, but not lower, gastrointestinal bleeding. Anticoagulants, low-dose aspirin, NSAIDs, and other non-aspirin-APA drugs are associated with increased risk of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Use of anticoagulants appears to be the strongest risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use and Outcomes of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Oral Anticoagulation: Results from the ROCKET AF Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Passman, Rod; Hankey, Graeme J.; Patel, Manesh R.; Becker, Richard C.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hacke, Werner; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Califf, Robert M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) and anticoagulation are mainstays of atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Objective We aimed to study the use and outcomes of AAD therapy in anticoagulated AF patients. Methods Patients in the ROCKET AF trial (n=14,264) were grouped by AAD use at baseline: amiodarone, other AAD, or no AAD. Multivariable adjustment was performed to compare stroke, bleeding, and death across groups, as well as across treatment assignment (rivaroxaban or warfarin). Results Of 14,264 patients randomized, 1681 (11.8%) were treated with an AAD (1144 [8%] with amiodarone, 537 [3.8%] with other AADs). Amiodarone-treated patients were less-often female (38% vs. 48%), had more persistent AF (64% vs. 40%), and more concomitant heart failure (71% vs. 41%) than patients receiving other AADs. Patients receiving no AAD more closely-resembled amiodarone-treated patients. Time in therapeutic range was significantly lower in warfarin-treated patients receiving amiodarone versus no AAD (50% vs. 58%, p<0.0001). Compared with no AAD, neither amiodarone (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.74–1.31, p=0.9) nor other AADs (adjusted HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.37–1.17, p=0.15) were associated with increased mortality. Similar results were observed for embolic and bleeding outcomes. Rivaroxaban treatment effects in patients not on an AAD were consistent with the overall trial (primary endpoint adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–0.98, pinteraction=0.06; safety endpoint adjusted HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90–1.24, pinteraction=0.33). Conclusion Treatment with AADs was not associated with increased morbidity or mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF. The influence of amiodarone on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban requires further study. PMID:24833235

  15. The Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) : Exploring the changes in anticoagulant practice in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, V; Ten Cate, H; Verheugt, F W A

    2016-10-01

    There are over 385,000 cases of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Netherlands, with over 45,000 new cases each year. Among other things, AF patients are at high risk of stroke. Patients are often prescribed oral anticoagulation, such as vitamin K antagonists (VKA), to mitigate these risks. A recently introduced class of oral anticoagulants, non-vitamin K antagonists (NOAC), is quickly gaining currency in global clinical practice. This study provides insight into the changes these new drugs will bring about in Dutch clinical practice.GARFIELD-AF is a large-scale observational AF patient registry initiated in 2009 to track the evolution of global anticoagulation practice, and to study the impact of NOAC therapy in AF in particular. The registry includes a wide array of baseline characteristics and has a particular focus on: (1) bleeding and thromboembolic events; (2) international normalised ratio fluctuations; and (3) therapy compliance and persistence patterns. The results in this paper provide the baseline characteristics of the first cohorts of Dutch participants in this registry and discuss some of the consequences of the changes in anticoagulation practice.Although VKA therapy remains overwhelmingly favoured by Dutch practitioners, NOACs are clearly gaining in popularity. Between 2011 and 2014, NOACs constituted an increasingly large proportion of prescriptions for oral anticoagulants.The insights provided by the GARFIELD-AF registry can be used by healthcare systems to inform better budgetary strategies, by practitioners to better tailor treatment pathways to patients, and finally to promote awareness of the various available treatment options and their associated risks and benefits for patients.

  16. Weight changes in euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-12-01

    Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both

  17. Weight Changes in Euthyroid Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-01-01

    Background Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Results Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Conclusion Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism

  18. Gastritis in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables. One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications. Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP. There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results. PMID:28422853

  19. Management of Periprocedural Anticoagulation: A Survey of Contemporary Practice.

    PubMed

    Flaker, Greg C; Theriot, Paul; Binder, Lea G; Dobesh, Paul P; Cuker, Adam; Doherty, John U

    2016-07-12

    Interruption of oral anticoagulation (AC) for surgery or an invasive procedure is a complicated process. Practice guidelines provide only general recommendations, and care of such patients occurs across multiple specialties. The availability of direct oral anticoagulants further complicates decision making and guidance here is limited. To evaluate current practice patterns in the United States for bridging AC, a survey was developed by the American College of Cardiology Anticoagulation Work Group. The goal of the survey was to assess how general and subspecialty cardiologists, internists, gastroenterologists, and orthopedic surgeons currently manage patients who receive AC and undergo surgery or an invasive procedure. The survey was completed by 945 physicians involved in the periprocedural management of AC. The results provide a template for educational and research projects geared toward the development of clinical pathways and point-of-care tools to improve this area of health care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of self-funding on patient experience of oral anticoagulation self-monitoring: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, Alice; Heneghan, Carl; Sutton, Stephen; Fitzmaurice, David; Ward, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact self-funding has on patient experience of oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring. Design Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Setting England. Participants Interviewees were participants of the Cohort Study of Anticoagulation Self-Monitoring (CASM). Cohort members were recruited as they bought a monitor from the major manufacturer in the UK. A purposive sample was invited to be interviewed on completion of the 12-month cohort follow-up. Data Patient narratives on their experiences of self-monitoring their oral anticoagulation therapy in non-trial conditions. Results 26 interviews were completed. Interviewees viewed purchasing the monitoring device as a long-term commitment balancing the limitations of clinic-based monitoring against the cost. They were unable to try out the monitor prior to purchase and therefore had to be confident in their own ability to use it. The variable provision of self-monitoring equipment caused resentment, and interviewees were uncomfortable negotiating with healthcare professionals. High test strip usage while learning how to use the monitor caused anxiety that was exacerbated by worries about their cost. However, self-funding did mean that interviewees felt a sense of ownership and were determined to persevere to overcome problems. Conclusions Self-funding has negative implications in terms of equity of access; however, the money invested acts as a barrier to discontinuation. If oral anticoagulation therapy self-monitoring devices and consumables were provided free of charge in routine care, the training and support available in England may need to be reviewed to prevent discontinuation rates rising to those observed in clinical trials. PMID:28011812

  1. Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Long-Term Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant Treatment.

    PubMed

    Tornyos, Adrienn; Kehl, Dániel; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Komócsi, András

    2016-01-01

    The relative cardiovascular (CV) safety of oral anticoagulants continues to be debated, and in particular concerns for risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have been raised. We analyzed the risk of MI in patients treated long term with oral anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists [VKA], direct thrombin inhibitors or activated X factor antagonist) for atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism using a network meta-analysis (NMA). Randomized, phase 3 trials comparing novel anticoagulants to VKA were searched. Information on study design and clinical outcomes was extracted. The primary end-point of the analysis was the occurrence of MI or acute coronary syndrome. A Bayesian multiple treatment analysis was performed using fixed-effect and random-effects modeling. Twelve trials including 100,524 randomized patients were analyzed. The odds for MI in NMA were worse with dabigatran when compared to VKA, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban (OR: 0.66 CI: 0.49-0.87; OR: 0.56 CI: 0.38-0.82, OR: 0.59 CI 0.40-0.88, and OR: 0.71 CI: 0.50-1.0, respectively).The posterior probability of being the first best choice of treatment was 53.5% for rivaroxaban, 33.8% for apixaban, 9.5% for ximelagatran, 2.0% for edoxaban, 1.2% for VKA, and 0.007% for dabigatran. There is a considerable heterogeneity regarding CV safety among oral anticoagulants. Differences in risk of MI may influence the choice of treatment. Multiple treatment NMA found 29%-44% higher odds of MI with dabigatran supporting the concerns regarding its CV safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Pastromas, Georgios, E-mail: geopastromas@gmail.com; Spiliopoulos, Stavros, E-mail: stavspiliop@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical significance of platelet responsiveness in patients receiving clopidogrel after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients receiving antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 75 mg after infrainguinal angioplasty or stenting and who presented to our department during routine follow-up. Clopidogrel responsiveness was tested using the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay. Patients with residual platelet reactivity units (PRU) {>=} 235 were considered as nonresponders (NR group NR), whereas patients with PRU < 235 were considered as normal (responders [group R]). Primary end points were incidence of resistance to clopidogrel and target limb reintervention (TLR)-freemore » survival, whereas secondary end points included limb salvage rates and the identification of any independent predictors influencing clinical outcomes. Results: In total, 113 consecutive patients (mean age 69 {+-} 8 years) with 139 limbs were enrolled. After clopidogrel responsiveness analysis, 61 patients (53.9 %) with 73 limbs (52.5 %) were assigned to group R and 52 patients (46.1 %) with 66 limbs (47.5 %) to group NR. Mean follow-up interval was 27.7 {+-} 22.9 months (range 3-95). Diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia, and renal disease were associated with clopidogrel resistance (Fisher's exact test; p < 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, TLR-free survival was significantly superior in group R compared with group NR (20.7 vs. 1.9 %, respectively, at 7-year follow-up; p = 0.001), whereas resistance to clopidogrel was identified as the only independent predictor of decreased TLR-free survival (hazard rate 0.536, 95 % confidence interval 0.31-0.90; p = 0.01). Cumulative TLR rate was significantly increased in group NR compared with group R (71.2 % [52 of 73] vs. 31.8 % [21 of 66], respectively; p < 0.001). Limb salvage was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance was related with

  3. Medical Crowdfunding for Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Durand, Wesley M; Johnson, Joseph R; Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H

    2018-01-01

    Crowdfunding for medical expenses is growing in popularity. Through several websites, patients create public campaign profiles to which donors can contribute. Research on medical crowdfunding is limited, and there have been no studies of crowdfunding in orthopedics. Active medical crowdfunding campaigns for orthopedic trauma, total joint arthroplasty, and spine surgery were queried from a crowdfunding website. The characteristics and outcomes of crowdfunding campaigns were abstracted and analyzed. For this study, 444 campaigns were analyzed, raising a total of $1,443,528. Among the campaigns that received a donation, mean amount raised was $4414 (SE, $611). Multivariate analysis showed that campaigns with unspecified location (odds ratio, 0.26; P=.0008 vs West) and those for total joint arthroplasty (odds ratio, 0.35; P=.0003 vs trauma) had significantly lower odds of receipt of any donation. Description length was associated with higher odds of donation receipt (odds ratio, 1.13 per +100 characters; P<.0001). Among campaigns that received any donation, those with Southern location (-65.5%, P<.0001), international location (-68.5%, P=.0028), and unspecified location (-63.5%, P=.0039) raised lower amounts compared with campaigns in the West. Goal amount was associated with higher amount raised (+3.2% per +$1000, P<.0001). Resources obtained through crowdfunding may be disproportionately available to patients with specific diagnoses, those from specific regions, those who are able to craft a lengthy descriptive narrative, and those with access to robust digital social networks. Clinicians are likely to see a greater proportion of patients turning to crowdfunding as it grows in popularity. Patients may ask physicians for information about crowdfunding or request testimonials to support campaigns. Surgeons should consider their response to such requests individually. These findings shed light on the dynamics of medical crowdfunding and support robust personal and

  4. Discontinuation risk comparison among 'real-world' newly anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients: Apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Pan, Xianying; Kamble, Shital; Kawabata, Hugh; Mardekian, Jack; Masseria, Cristina; Phatak, Hemant

    2018-01-01

    Discontinuation of oral anticoagulants may expose non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients to an increased risk of stroke. This study describes the real-world discontinuation rates and compared the risk of drug discontinuation among NVAF patients initiating apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban. This retrospective cohort study evaluated newly-anticoagulated NVAF patients in the MarketScan® data population from 01/01/2012 through 12/31/2014. Discontinuation was defined as a lack of subsequent prescription of the index drug within 30 days after the last supply day of the last prescription. A Cox model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of discontinuation, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. Among 45,361 eligible NVAF patients, 15,461 (34.1%) initiated warfarin; 7,438 (16.4%) apixaban; 4,661 (10.3%) dabigatran; and 17,801 (39.2%) initiated rivaroxaban treatment. Compared to warfarin, patients who initiated dabigatran (adjusted HR [aHR]: 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-0.87, P<0.001), rivaroxaban (aHR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.68-0.73, P<0.001), or apixaban (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.55-0.60, P<0.001) were 16%, 30%, and 43% less likely to discontinue treatment, respectively. When compared to apixaban, patients who initiated dabigatran (aHR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.38-1.54, P<0.001) or rivaroxaban (aHR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.17-1.28, P<0.001) were more likely to discontinue treatment. Among newly-anticoagulated NVAF patients in the real-world setting, initiation on rivaroxaban, dabigatran, or apixaban was associated with a significantly lower risk of discontinuation compared to warfarin. When compared to apixaban, patients who initiated treatment with warfarin, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban were more likely to discontinue treatment.

  5. The obese patient undergoing nonbariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bluth, Thomas; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the reader with recent findings on the pathophysiology of comorbidities in the obese, as well as evidence-based treatment options to deal with perioperative respiratory challenges. Our understanding of obesity-associated asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome is still expanding. Routine screening for obstructive sleep apnea using the STOP-Bang score might identify high-risk patients that benefit from perioperative continuous positive airway pressure and close postoperative monitoring. Measures to most effectively support respiratory function during induction of and emergence from anesthesia include optimal patient positioning and use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Appropriate mechanical ventilation settings are under investigation, so that only the use of protective low tidal volumes could be currently recommended. A multimodal approach consisting of adjuvants, as well as regional anesthesia/analgesia techniques reduces the need for systemic opioids and related respiratory complications. Anesthesia of obese patients for nonbariatric surgical procedures requires knowledge of typical comorbidities and their respective treatment options. Apart from cardiovascular diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome, awareness of any pulmonary dysfunction is of paramount. A multimodal analgesia approach may be useful to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications.

  6. Retrospective evaluation of a method to predict fresh-frozen plasma dosage in anticoagulated patients.

    PubMed

    Frazee, Lawrence A; Bourguet, Claire C; Gutierrez, Wilson; Elder-Arrington, Jacinta; Elackattu, Alphi E P; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is commonly used for urgent reversal of warfarin; however, dosage recommendations are difficult to find. If validated, a proposed method that uses a nonlinear relationship between international normalized ratio (INR) and clotting factor activity (CFa) would be useful. This study retrospectively evaluated a proposed equation with adult medical inpatients who received FFP for warfarin reversal. For each patient the equation was used to predict the dose of FFP required to achieve the observed change in INR, which was then compared to the actual dose. The equation was considered successful if the predicted dose was within +/-20% of the actual dose. Subgroup analyses included subjects who received concomitant vitamin K; subjects with supratherapeutic INRs (>3); and subjects with significantly elevated INRs (>5). Of the 209 patients screened, 91 met criteria for inclusion in the study. Use of the equation to calculate the predicted dose of FFP was successful in 11 patients (12.1%) with use of actual body weight for prediction and in 23 patients (25.3%) with use of ideal body weight (P = 0.02). The equation performed similarly in all subgroups analyzed. The mean predicted FFP dose was significantly greater than the actual dose in all patients when actual body weight was used (925.2 mL vs. 620.6 mL; P < 0.001). Least-squares regression modeling of repeat INR (converted to CFa) produced a model that accounted for 57% of the variance in repeat INR. The value predicted from the model was closer to the actual CFa than was the value predicted from the published equation in every comparison, but it was statistically different only when actual body weight was used. This study revealed that a published equation for calculation of FFP dose to reverse oral anticoagulation resulted in doses that were significantly higher than the actual dose. Use of ideal body weight improved accuracy but was still not successful for the majority of

  7. Evaluation of Mediators Associated with the Inflammatory Response in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, Nice; Cicchetti, Alessandro; Palorini, Federica; Magnani, Tiziana; Zuco, Valentina; Pennati, Marzia; Campi, Elisa; Allavena, Paola; Pesce, Samantha; Villa, Sergio; Avuzzi, Barbara; Morlino, Sara; Visentin, Maria Emanuela; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    A recent “hot topic” in prostate cancer radiotherapy is the observed association between acute/late rectal toxicity and the presence of abdominal surgery before radiotherapy. The exact mechanism is unclear. Our working hypothesis was that a previous surgery may influence plasma level of inflammatory molecules and this might result in enhanced radiosensitivity. We here present results on the feasibility of monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules during radiotherapy. Plasma levels of a panel of soluble mediators associated with the inflammatory response were measured in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. We measured 3 cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF alpha), 2 chemokines (CCL2 and CXCL8), and the long pentraxin PTX3. 20 patients were enrolled in this feasibility evaluation. All patients were treated with IMRT at 78 Gy. 3/20 patients reported grade 2 acute rectal toxicity, while 4/20 were scored as grade 2 late toxicity. CCL2 was the most interesting marker showing significant increase during and after radiotherapy. CCL2 levels at radiotherapy end could be modelled using linear regression including basal CCL2, age, surgery, hypertension, and use of anticoagulants. The 4 patients with late toxicity had CCL2 values at radiotherapy end above the median value. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64979094. PMID:29682101

  8. Evaluation of Mediators Associated with the Inflammatory Response in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Nice; Cicchetti, Alessandro; Palorini, Federica; Magnani, Tiziana; Zuco, Valentina; Pennati, Marzia; Campi, Elisa; Allavena, Paola; Pesce, Samantha; Villa, Sergio; Avuzzi, Barbara; Morlino, Sara; Visentin, Maria Emanuela; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    A recent "hot topic" in prostate cancer radiotherapy is the observed association between acute/late rectal toxicity and the presence of abdominal surgery before radiotherapy. The exact mechanism is unclear. Our working hypothesis was that a previous surgery may influence plasma level of inflammatory molecules and this might result in enhanced radiosensitivity. We here present results on the feasibility of monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules during radiotherapy. Plasma levels of a panel of soluble mediators associated with the inflammatory response were measured in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. We measured 3 cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF alpha), 2 chemokines (CCL2 and CXCL8), and the long pentraxin PTX3. 20 patients were enrolled in this feasibility evaluation. All patients were treated with IMRT at 78 Gy. 3/20 patients reported grade 2 acute rectal toxicity, while 4/20 were scored as grade 2 late toxicity. CCL2 was the most interesting marker showing significant increase during and after radiotherapy. CCL2 levels at radiotherapy end could be modelled using linear regression including basal CCL2, age, surgery, hypertension, and use of anticoagulants. The 4 patients with late toxicity had CCL2 values at radiotherapy end above the median value. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64979094.

  9. [Complications in patients undergoing pulmonary oncological surgery].

    PubMed

    Mitás, L; Horváth, T; Sobotka, M; Garajová, B; Hanke, I; Kala, Z; Penka, I; Ivicic, J; Vomela, J

    2010-02-01

    A survey evaluating incidence and risk factors of complications in persons underwent complete open lung resection because of primary or secondary lung malignancy. Retrospective study of 189 open surgery procedures in 128 males and 61 females, mean age males 61 years (range 21-78), females 64 years (range 33-80) during a five-years period (2003-2007). Data processing and analysis were performed with the statistical software system Statistica and compared by parametres odds ratio a chi2 test. Complications were divided into five groups. First group was defined as complications in perioperative period and was composed of three events 1.5%: endotracheal tube dysfunction (i.e. 0.5%), heavy cardiac arrhytmia 0.5% and serious haemorrhage, that occurred immediately after operation 0.5%. Second group includes complications within period of 7 days after surgery: prolonged air leak (PAL > 7 days) 7.4%, bronchopneumonia 6.9%, cardiac arrhythmia 6.9%, postoperative delirium 4.2%, atelectasis 2.6%, wound infection 1.1%, bleeding 1.1% and chylothorax 0.5%. Third group contains events between 8th and 30th postoperative days: thoracic empyema 2.1%, dysphonia 2.1%, painfull shoulder 1.1%, alimentary tract infection 0.5% and bronchial closure insufficiency 0.5%. Fourth group contains patients with severe complications, that led to death during 30 days after operation: ischemic stroke 0.5% and pulmonary embolism 0.5%. Patients without any complication formed the fifth group of 60.5%. Main risk factors for complications in postoperative period after lung resection due to primary or secondary lung malignancy in our group of patients are COPD, corticotherapy, time of operation over 3 hours, BMI over 25, left side tumor localization and bronchoplastic procedure. For cardiac arrhytmia seems to be risk factor pneumonectomy and previous neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

  10. Periodontal evaluation in patients undergoing maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Carmen, M; Marcella, P; Giuseppe, C; Roberto, A

    2000-09-01

    Maxillary transverse diameter expansion is a treatment various authors have claimed is related to the development of gingival recession on the teeth of the upper arch. The aim of the present study was to compare such an incidence in two different groups of patients: those treated with surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion and orthopedic expansion, respectively. Both treatments achieved the goal of expanding the transverse dimension (5.3 and 4.4 mm, respectively), but a significant difference was shown by the chi 2 test for the incidence of gingival recession of premolar/molar upper teeth, more than double for the latter than for the former. Therefore, surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion seems to be an orthodontically effective procedure, safer than the orthopedic treatment regarding the possible development of mucogingival problems.

  11. Early Recurrence and Cerebral Bleeding in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation: Effect of Anticoagulation and Its Timing: The RAF Study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Falocci, Nicola; Caso, Valeria; Becattini, Cecilia; Marcheselli, Simona; Rueckert, Christina; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Sohn, Sung-Il; Tassinari, Tiziana; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Michel, Patrik; Cordier, Maria; Vanacker, Peter; Remillard, Suzette; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Orlandi, Giovanni; Chiti, Alberto; Gialdini, Gino; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Masotti, Luca; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Martini, Giuseppe; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrissoula; Corea, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo; Ageno, Walter; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Pieroni, Alessio; Toni, Danilo; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Bubba, Valentina; Silvestri, Ilenia; Lees, Kennedy R

    2015-08-01

    The best time for administering anticoagulation therapy in acute cardioembolic stroke remains unclear. This prospective cohort study of patients with acute stroke and atrial fibrillation, evaluated (1) the risk of recurrent ischemic event and severe bleeding; (2) the risk factors for recurrence and bleeding; and (3) the risks of recurrence and bleeding associated with anticoagulant therapy and its starting time after the acute stroke. The primary outcome of this multicenter study was the composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack, symptomatic systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding and major extracranial bleeding within 90 days from acute stroke. Of the 1029 patients enrolled, 123 had 128 events (12.6%): 77 (7.6%) ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism, 37 (3.6%) symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and 14 (1.4%) major extracranial bleeding. At 90 days, 50% of the patients were either deceased or disabled (modified Rankin score ≥3), and 10.9% were deceased. High CHA2DS2-VASc score, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large ischemic lesion and type of anticoagulant were predictive factors for primary study outcome. At adjusted Cox regression analysis, initiating anticoagulants 4 to 14 days from stroke onset was associated with a significant reduction in primary study outcome, compared with initiating treatment before 4 or after 14 days: hazard ratio 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.30-0.93). About 7% of the patients treated with oral anticoagulants alone had an outcome event compared with 16.8% and 12.3% of the patients treated with low molecular weight heparins alone or followed by oral anticoagulants, respectively (P=0.003). Acute stroke in atrial fibrillation patients is associated with high rates of ischemic recurrence and major bleeding at 90 days. This study has observed that high CHA2DS2-VASc score, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large ischemic lesions, and type of anticoagulant administered

  12. Trial Protocol: A randomised controlled trial of extended anticoagulation treatment versus routine anticoagulation treatment for the prevention of recurrent VTE and post thrombotic syndrome in patients being treated for a first episode of unprovoked VTE (The ExACT Study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism comprising pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis is a common condition with an incidence of approximately 1 per 1,000 per annum causing both mortality and serious morbidity. The principal aim of treatment of a venous thromboembolism with heparin and warfarin is to prevent extension or recurrence of clot. However, the recurrence rate following a deep vein thrombosis remains approximately 10% per annum following treatment cessation irrespective of the duration of anticoagulation therapy. Patients with raised D-dimer levels after discontinuing oral anticoagulation treatment have also been shown to be at high risk of recurrence. Post thrombotic syndrome is a complication of a deep vein thrombosis which can lead to chronic venous insufficiency and ulceration. It has a cumulative incidence after 2 years of around 25% and it has been suggested that extended oral anticoagulation should be investigated as a possible preventative measure. Methods/design Patients with a first idiopathic venous thromboembolism will be recruited through anticoagulation clinics and randomly allocated to either continuing or discontinuing warfarin treatment for a further 2 years and followed up on a six monthly basis. At each visit D-dimer levels will be measured using a Roche Cobas h 232 POC device. In addition a venous sample will be taken for laboratory D-dimer analysis at the end of the study. Patients will be examined for signs and symptoms of PTS using the Villalta scale and complete VEINES and EQ5D quality of life questionnaires. Discussion The primary aim of the study is to investigate whether extending oral anticoagulation treatment (prior to discontinuing treatment) beyond 3–6 months for patients with a first unprovoked proximal deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism prevents recurrence. The study will also determine the role of extending anticoagulation for patients with elevated D-dimer levels prior to discontinuing treatment and

  13. [Evaluation of the quality control of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation in a Primary Health Care Area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Habashneh Sánchez, S; Abad Díaz, I; Tinajero Valle, C P; Cortés Palmero, A; Lobón Agúndez, M C; Muñoz Fernández, C

    2016-01-01

    To calculate the time in therapeutic range (TTR), as well as the scores on the CHADS2 scale in anticoagulated patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, attending the Primary Care Health Centre of Aravaca. Basic health area of Aravaca (Madrid). Retrospective observational study. The Community of Madrid provides a list of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and on anticoagulant therapy in the centre. Excluding those with less than 8 INRs, who began treatment after January 2011, interrupted by inter-current treatment or had cancer or coagulopathy. The study period is from 1 January 2012 to 1 January 2013. The TTR (fraction of INRs in range) was the primary endpoint. The score was also calculated on the CHADS2 scale. A value of 56.28% TTR (59.5-53.1) was obtained from a sample of 963 INRs. Just over half (52%) of patients had a TTR<60%. There were 65 patients with a mean age of 80±7.5 years. The distribution of risk factors for the CHADS2 scale was: Heart failure 18.5%; hypertension 80%; diabetes 29.2%, and embolic events 18.5%. The results of our sample TTR is suboptimal (<60%), which implies an increased risk for embolic episodes and increased likelihood of bleeding. We need to incorporate into our clinical practice an objective measure of the quality of anticoagulation in order to identify poorly controlled patients and introduce corrective measures. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of pre-injury direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin in geriatric G-60 trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Barletta, J F; Hall, S; Sucher, J F; Dzandu, J K; Haley, M; Mangram, A J

    2017-08-01

    Pre-injury oral anticoagulants are associated with worse outcomes in geriatric (G-60) trauma patients, but there are limited data comparing warfarin with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). We sought to compare outcomes in G-60 trauma patients taking pre-injury DOACs vs. warfarin. All trauma patients, age ≥60 who were admitted to the hospital and taking an oral anticoagulant pre-injury were retrospectively identified. Patients were excluded if their reason for admission was a suicide attempt or penetrating extremity injury. Outcome measures included blood transfusions, hospital LOS, and mortality. A second analysis was performed, whereby patients were matched using ISS and age. There were 3,941 patients identified; 331 had documentation of anticoagulant use, pre-injury (warfarin, n = 237; DOAC, n = 94). Demographics were similar, but ISS [9 (4-13) vs. 8 (4-9), p = .027], initial INR [2.2 (1.8-2.9) vs. 1.2 (1.1-1.5), p < .001], and the use of pharmacologic reversal agents (48 vs. 14%, p < .001) were higher in the warfarin group. There was no difference in the use of blood transfusions (24 vs. 17%, p = .164) or mortality (5.9 vs. 4.3%, p = .789) between warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively. However, LOS was longer in the warfarin group [5 (3-7.5) vs. 4 (2-6.3) days, p = .02]. Matched analysis showed no difference in blood transfusions (23 vs. 17%, p = .276), mortality (2.1 vs. 4.3%, p = .682) or LOS [5 (3-7) vs. 4 (2-6.3) days, p = .158] between warfarin and DOAC groups, respectively. Pre-injury DOACs are not associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to warfarin in G-60 trauma patients. Higher use of pharmacologic reversal agents with warfarin may be related to differences in mechanism of action and effect on INR.

  15. Progressively Worsening Premature Coronary Artery Disease: Adding Anticoagulation Stabilizes-Reverses Clinical Symptomatic Disease Progression in Thrombophilic-Atherothrombotic Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Matan; Jetty, Vybhav; Mahida, Christopher; Wang, Ping; Prince, Marloe; Goldenberg, Naila; Glueck, Charles J

    2017-11-01

    In 35 patients with 116 severe premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (median age: 48 years), 14 having worsening CVD despite maximal intervention, we evaluated thrombophilia and speculated that anticoagulation might arrest-reverse progressive thrombophilic-atherothrombotic CVD. Thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in the 35 patients was compared to 110 patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) without CVD and to 110 healthy normal controls. Efficacy-safety of anticoagulation was prospectively assessed in 14 of the 35 patients whose CVD worsened over 2 years despite maximal medical-surgical intervention. At entry on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy, median low-density lipoprotein was 88 mg/dL. Measures of thrombophilia-hypofibrinolysis in the 35 cases differed from 110 VTE controls only for the lupus anticoagulant, present in 6 (21%) of 28 cases versus 4 (4%) of 91 VTE controls ( P = .01), and for high anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLAs) immunoglobulin G, 5 (14%) of 35 cases versus 4 of 108 VTE controls (4%), P = .04. The 14 patients who were anticoagulated differed from 110 VTE controls only for the lupus anticoagulant, 38% versus 4%, P = .001, and for high lipoprotein (a), 46% versus 17%, P = .028, respectively. The 14 patients with atherothrombosis having inexorably worsening CAD despite maximal medical-surgical therapy were anticoagulated for 6.5 years (median), with clinical CVD progression arrested in 12 (86%), and all 12 became asymptomatic. In the 35 patients with premature CVD, thrombophilia was pervasive, comparable to or more severe than in VTE controls without CVD. When CVD progressively worsens despite maximal intervention, thrombophilia and atherosclerosis (atherothrombosis) are commonly concurrent, and the downhill course of CVD may be arrested-stabilized by anticoagulation.

  16. [Management of Patients on Antithrombotic Agents Undergoing Endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Byung Wook

    2018-05-25

    Antithrombotic agents are used increasingly in Asia. The management of patients on antithrombotics undergoing elective or emergency endoscopy has become an increasing clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. Current practice guidelines have been developed by societies from western countries. On the other hand, these guidelines cannot meet the specific needs of the Asian Pacific region, raising the need for separate guidelines in Asia. This review compares the recommendations of previous guidelines with the most recently published Asian guidelines regarding the management of patients on antithrombotic agents undergoing elective and emergency endoscopy.

  17. Restarting Anticoagulant Treatment After Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and the Impact on Recurrent Stroke, Mortality, and Bleeding: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Skjøth, Flemming; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-08-11

    Intracranial hemorrhage is the most feared complication of oral anticoagulant treatment. The optimal treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation who survive an intracranial hemorrhage remains unknown. We hypothesized that restarting oral anticoagulant treatment was associated with a lower risk of stroke and mortality in comparison with not restarting. Linkage of 3 Danish nationwide registries in the period between 1997 and 2013 identified patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulant treatment with incident intracranial hemorrhage. Patients were stratified by treatment regimens (no treatment, oral anticoagulant treatment, or antiplatelet therapy) after the intracranial hemorrhage. Event rates were assessed 6 weeks after hospital discharge and compared with Cox proportional hazard models. In 1752 patients (1 year of follow-up), the rate of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and all-cause mortality (per 100 person-years) for patients treated with oral anticoagulants was 13.6, in comparison with 27.3 for nontreated patients and 25.7 for patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. The rate of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and all-cause mortality (per 100 person-years) for recurrent intracranial hemorrhage, the rate of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism, and all-cause mortality (per 100 person-years) patients treated with oral anticoagulants was 8.0, in comparison with 8.6 for nontreated patients and 5.3 for patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. The adjusted hazard ratio of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and all-cause mortality was 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.78) in patients on oral anticoagulant treatment in comparison with no treatment. For ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and for all-cause mortality, hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.03) and 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.82), respectively. Oral anticoagulant treatment was associated with a significant reduction in ischemic stroke/all-cause mortality

  18. Direct oral anticoagulants: An update.

    PubMed

    Franco Moreno, Ana Isabel; Martín Díaz, Rosa María; García Navarro, María José

    2017-12-30

    Vitamin K antagonists were the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Over the past few years, direct oral anticoagulants have emerged, including one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran etexilate) and three factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban). In randomised controlled trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants with traditional vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants all showed a favourable benefit-risk balance in their safety and efficacy profile, in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. In 2008, dabigatran was the first direct oral anticoagulant approved by the European Medicine Agency. Subsequently, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban were also authorised. This article reviews the evidence related to the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Anticoagulation in the aged patient with atrial fibrillation: What are prescribing cardiologists, geriatricians and general practitioners?].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P; Vogel, T; Lang, P-O

    2015-08-01

    To assess prescribing of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF) in the elderly, both a quantitative point of view (rate of anticoagulation) and qualitative (type of anticoagulation). Determinants of prescribing and non-prescribing were also analysed. Prospective survey of practice, based on one clinical case and questionnaire conducted in 60 practitioners (20 cardiologists [C], 20 geriatricians [G] and 20 general practitioners [GP]). In reading the clinical case, 88.3% of physicians would have initiated a treatment; three types of treatments would have been chosen: AVK (68.3%), ODA (20.0%) and platelet antiaggregant (11.7%). Criteria taken into account to initiate anticoagulation varied according to the specialty. Cardiologists considered more the age criteria (C: 95.0%, G: 75.0%, MG: 60.0%; P<0.05), diabetes (C: 90.0%, G: 60.0%, MG: 55.0%; P<0.05), hypertension (C: 85.0%, G: 55.0%, MG: 60.0%; P<0.05) and female gender (C: 80.0%, G: 35.0%, MG: 25.0%; P<0.05). The quality of renal function was however a more secondary criteria (C: 15.0%, G: 5.0%, MG: 0.0%; P<0.05). General practitioners considered most frequently the presence of underlying heart disease (C: 35.0%, G: 5.0%, MG: 45.0%; P<0.05) as well as usual cardiovascular risk factors (overweight, dyslipidaemia; P<0.05). Risk of bleeding, however, was observed by 76.7% of physicians in the clinical situation presented (C: 70.0%, G: 75.0%, MG: 85.0%; P<0.05). This survey confirms that the FA remains under anticoagulated in the elderly and the barriers to the prescription of oral anticoagulation are often without rational basis. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Adherence to Rivaroxaban Compared with Other Oral Anticoagulant Agents Among Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    McHorney, Colleen A; Ashton, Veronica; Laliberté, François; Germain, Guillaume; Wynant, Willy; Crivera, Concetta; Schein, Jeffrey R; Lefebvre, Patrick; Peterson, Eric D

    2017-09-01

    Adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) agents is important for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) to prevent potentially severe adverse events. To compare real-world adherence rates and time to discontinuation for rivaroxaban versus other OACs (apixaban, dabigatran, and warfarin) among patients with NVAF using claims-based data. Health care claims from the IMS Health Real-World Data Adjudicated Claims database (July 2012-June 2015) were analyzed. Adherence rate was defined as the percentage of patients with proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥ 0.80 and ≥ 0.90. Discontinuation was defined as a gap of more than 30 days between the end of a dispensing days of supply and the start date of the next fill, if any. Patients were included if they had ≥ 2 dispensings of rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, or warfarin at least 180 days apart (the first was considered the index date), had > 60 days of supply, had ≥ 6 months of pre-index eligibility, had ≥ 1 atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis pre-index or at index date, and had no valvular involvement. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate adherence to OAC therapy, while a Cox model was used to compare time to discontinuation; both models adjusted for baseline confounders. A total of 13,645 rivaroxaban, 6,304 apixaban, 3,360 dabigatran, and 13,366 warfarin patients were identified. A significantly higher proportion of rivaroxaban users (80.1%) was adherent to therapy (PDC ≥ 0.80 at 6 months) versus apixaban (75.8%), dabigatran (69.2%), and warfarin users (64.5%). After adjustment, the proportion of patients adherent to therapy remained significantly higher for rivaroxaban users versus apixaban (absolute difference [AD] = 5.8%), dabigatran (AD = 9.5%), and warfarin users (AD = 13.6%; all P < 0.001). More pronounced differences were found with a PDC ≥0.90. In addition, rivaroxaban users were significantly less likely to discontinue therapy compared with other OACs after adjustments (all P

  1. [Quality of care and safety indicators in anticoagulated patients with non-valvular auricular fibrillation and deep venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Ignacio, E; Mira, J J; Campos, F J; López de Sá, E; Lorenzo, A; Caballero, F

    To identify and prioritise indicators to assess the quality of care and safety of patients with non-valvular auricular fibrillation (NVAF) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) treated with anticoagulants. Using the consensus conference technique, a group of professionals and clinical experts, the determining factors of the NVAF and DVT care process were identified, in order to define the quality and safety criteria. A proposal was made for indicators of quality and safety that were prioritised, taking into account a series of pre-established attributes. The selected indicators were classified into indicators of context, safety, action, and outcomes of the intervention in the patient. A set of 114 health care and safety quality indicators were identified, of which 35 were prioritised: 15 for NVAF and 20 for DVT. About half (49%) of the indicators (40% for NVAF and 55% for DVT) applied to patient safety, and 26% (33% for NVAF and 20% for DVT) to the outcomes of interventions in the patient. The present work presents a set of agreed indicators by a group of expert professionals that can contribute to the improvement of the quality of care of patients with NVAF and DVT treated with anticoagulants. Copyright © 2018 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. General Anaesthesia Protocols for Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aravind; Lal, Chandar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. PMID:28417028

  3. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    Morote, J; Ropero, J; Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is the leading cause of death in patients with prostate cancer (PC), metabolic syndrome (MS) being related to it. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in patients with CP undergoing androgen suppression (AS). We performed a retrospective study of cases and controls that included 159 patients. The study group was made up of 53 patients with PC undergoing SA for a period exceeding 12 months. The control group was formed by 53 patients with PC at the time of diagnosis and 53 patients with negative prostate biopsy. All patients were evaluated for presence of MS according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Prevalence of MS in patients without PC was 32.1% and in those with non-treated PC 35.8%, P = .324. In patients with PC undergoing AS, prevalence of MS was 50.9%, P < .001. When AS duration was less than 36 months, prevalence of MS was 44.0% and when greater than 36 months 57.1%, P < .001. Waist circumference and hyperglycemia were the two MS components that significantly increased. AS and its duration were independent predictors factors for the development of MS. Continuous AS therapy increases the prevalence of MS and especially waist circumference and hyperglycemia. Development of MS increases according to AS duration. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Combined anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lane, D A; Raichand, S; Moore, D; Connock, M; Fry-Smith, A; Fitzmaurice, D A

    2013-07-01

    Previous research suggests uncertainty whether or not there is any additional benefit in adding antiplatelet therapy (APT) to anticoagulation therapy (ACT) in patients with high-risk atrial fibrillation (AF) in terms of reduction in vascular events, including stroke. The existing guidelines acknowledge an increased risk of bleeding associated with such a strategy; however, there is no consensus on the treatment pathway. To determine, by undertaking a systematic review, if the addition of APT to ACT is beneficial compared with ACT alone in patients with AF who are considered to be at high risk of thromboembolic events (TEs). Data sources included bibliographic databases {the Cochrane Library [Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)], MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network Portfolio, Current Controlled Trials (CCT) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP)}, reference lists from identified systematic reviews and relevant studies, and contact with clinical experts. Searches were from inception to September 2010 and did not use language restrictions or study design filters. Studies of any design were included to evaluate clinical effectiveness, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised comparisons, cohort studies, case series or registries, longitudinal studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and conference abstracts published after 2008. Inclusion criteria consisted of a population with AF, at high-risk of TEs, aged ≥ 18 years, on combined ACT and APT compared with others on ACT alone or ACT plus placebo. Inclusion decisions, assessment of study quality and data extraction were undertaken using methods to minimise bias. Fifty-three publications were included, reporting five RCTs (11 publications), 18 non-randomised comparisons (24 publications) and 18

  5. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771

  6. Examining the "July effect" on patients undergoing pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Bashjawish, Bassel; Patel, Shreya; Kılıç, Suat; Hsueh, Wayne D; Liu, James K; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2018-06-15

    Our aim in this study was to assess the impact of the turnover of residents in July on patients undergoing pituitary surgery. This work was a retrospective cohort study of cases from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patients who underwent pituitary surgery from 2005 to 2012 were selected in the NIS. Patients undergoing surgery in July and in non-July months were compared to determine differences in demographics, comorbidities, and complications. Of the 12,939 patients, 1098 (8.5%) underwent pituitary surgery in July. Patients receiving surgery in July had similar demographics and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality comorbidity values compared with patients receiving surgery in other months. There were no significant differences in mortality, cerebral edema, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, iatrogenic pituitary complications, iatrogenic cerebrovascular accidents, urinary tract infections, pulmonary edema, pulmonary complications, or acute cardiac complications. There were no differences in the rate of postoperative fistulas, hematomas, perforations, or infections. The use of meningeal suturing, pedicled or free-flap reconstruction, and skin reconstruction was more frequent in July. Finally, hospitalization costs in July were similar to costs in other months. The turnover of new residents in July showed no change in complication rates for patients undergoing pituitary surgery. Patient care in July is similar to care during other months, demonstrating that hospitals are adequately supervising surgical residents during this transition. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  7. Technology-assisted self-testing and management of oral anticoagulation therapy: a qualitative patient-focused study.

    PubMed

    Kuljis, Jasna; Money, Arthur G; Perry, Mark; Barnett, Julie; Young, Terry

    2017-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy requires regular blood testing to ensure therapeutic levels are maintained and excessive bleeding/clotting is avoided. Technology-assisted self-testing and management is seen as one of the key areas in which quality of care can be improved whilst reducing costs. Nevertheless, levels of patient engagement in self-testing and management remain low. To date, little research emphasis has been placed on understanding the patients' perspectives for low engagement. The typical approach adopted by healthcare providers is to provide patient education programmes, with the expectation that individual patients will change their behaviour and adopt new self-care strategies. However, if levels of patient engagement are to be increased, healthcare providers must also develop a better understanding of how their clinical service provision is perceived by patients and make adaptations. To explore patient views, needs and expectations of an anticoagulation service and the self-testing and management services provided. Interviews were conducted with 17 patients who currently engage in international normalised ratio (INR) self-testing and management. Thematic coding and analysis were carried out on the interview transcripts. Four high-level themes emerged from interviews: (i) role of clinic, (ii) motivations for self-testing, (iii) managing INR and (iv) trust. The clinic was seen as adding value in terms of specifying testing frequency, dosage profiles and calibrating equipment. Prompt communication from clinic to patient was also valued, although more personalised/real-time communication would help avoid feelings of isolation. Patients felt more in control as self-tester/managers and often took decisions about treatment adjustments themselves. However, some also manipulated their own test results to avoid 'unnecessary' interventions. More personalised/real-time communication, pragmatic and collaborative patient-clinician partnerships and recognition of

  8. [Effectiveness of Paradontax toothpaste in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Silin, A V; Satygo, E A; Reutskaya, K V

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of toothpaste Parodontax in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The results showed that fixed orthodontic appliances deteriorated oral hygiene, increased the viscosity of saliva and reduced mineralizing capacity of saliva (MCS). Use of Parodontax toothpaste based on sodium bicarbonate improved OHI-S, reduced the viscosity of saliva, increased MCS and normalized oral microbiota.

  9. Management of sickle cell disease in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Todd C; Carter, Michael V; Patel, Rina K; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Lin, Sophie Z; Magruder, Jonathan Trent; Grimm, Joshua C; Cameron, Duke E; Baumgartner, William A; Mandal, Kaushik

    2017-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting inherited hemoglobinopathy that poses inherent risk for surgical complications following cardiac operations. In this review, we discuss preoperative considerations, intraoperative decision-making, and postoperative strategies to optimize the care of a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing cardiac surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cardiac arrest due to left circumflex coronary artery embolism as a complication of subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation in a patient with mitral and aortic mechanical valve prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Protasiewicz, Marcin; Gajek, Jacek; Mysiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old female patient after replacement of aortic and mitral valve with mechanical prostheses and implantation of a pacemaker hospitalized in our clinic due to acute coronary syndrome complicated with cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. The electrocardiogram performed on admission showed signs of myocardial infarction with concomitant ventricular pacing. After successful resuscitation the coronary angiography was performed, which showed occlusion of the left circumflex artery (LCx) by thrombus. On the basis of intravascular ultrasound imaging the presence of vulnerable plaque, parietal thrombus and dissection of LCx were excluded. It suggested that occlusion of the LCx resulted from its embolism by left-sided heart thrombus due to subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation. In this case suboptimal anticoagulation was partially iatrogenic. Two weeks before the patient had been given vitamin K intravenously due to indeterminable international normalized ratio (INR) level, which caused transient resistance to oral anticoagulants. This case report illustrates tragic difficulties in the treatment with vitamin K antagonists, which concern as many as 2/3 of anticoagulated patients. These troubles contributed to the search for new, more efficient and safer anticoagulants. There are two classes of new oral anticoagulant drugs, which do not require monitoring of coagulation: direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban). In spite of their proven efficacy in the prevention of ischaemic stroke related to atrial fibrillation and prevention or treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the use of new oral anticoagulants for the treatment of patients with mechanical valve prostheses needs further research. PMID:24570697

  11. Cardiac arrest due to left circumflex coronary artery embolism as a complication of subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation in a patient with mitral and aortic mechanical valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Protasiewicz, Marcin; Rojek, Aleksandra; Gajek, Jacek; Mysiak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old female patient after replacement of aortic and mitral valve with mechanical prostheses and implantation of a pacemaker hospitalized in our clinic due to acute coronary syndrome complicated with cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. The electrocardiogram performed on admission showed signs of myocardial infarction with concomitant ventricular pacing. After successful resuscitation the coronary angiography was performed, which showed occlusion of the left circumflex artery (LCx) by thrombus. On the basis of intravascular ultrasound imaging the presence of vulnerable plaque, parietal thrombus and dissection of LCx were excluded. It suggested that occlusion of the LCx resulted from its embolism by left-sided heart thrombus due to subtherapeutic oral anticoagulation. In this case suboptimal anticoagulation was partially iatrogenic. Two weeks before the patient had been given vitamin K intravenously due to indeterminable international normalized ratio (INR) level, which caused transient resistance to oral anticoagulants. This case report illustrates tragic difficulties in the treatment with vitamin K antagonists, which concern as many as 2/3 of anticoagulated patients. These troubles contributed to the search for new, more efficient and safer anticoagulants. There are two classes of new oral anticoagulant drugs, which do not require monitoring of coagulation: direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban). In spite of their proven efficacy in the prevention of ischaemic stroke related to atrial fibrillation and prevention or treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the use of new oral anticoagulants for the treatment of patients with mechanical valve prostheses needs further research.

  12. Sex and Gender Differences in Thromboprophylactic Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After the Introduction of Non-Vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Loikas, Desirée; Forslund, Tomas; Wettermark, Björn; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Hjemdahl, Paul; von Euler, Mia

    2017-10-15

    To examine sex differences in thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation before and after the introduction of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants, we performed a cross-sectional registry study based on anonymized individual-level patient data of all individuals with a diagnosis of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code I48) in the region of Stockholm, Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants), in 2011 and 2015, respectively. Thromboprophylaxis improved considerably during the period. During 2007 to 2011, 23,198 men and 18,504 women had an atrial fibrillation diagnosis. In 2011, more men than women (53% men vs 48% women) received oral anticoagulants (almost exclusively warfarin) and more women received aspirin only (35% women vs 30% men), whereas there was no sex difference for no thromboprophylaxis (17%). During 2011 to 2015, 27,237 men and 20,461 women had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Compared with the earlier time period, a higher proportion used oral anticoagulants (71% women vs 70% men), but fewer women ≥80 years received anticoagulants (67% women vs 72% men), more women received aspirin (15% women vs 13% men), and fewer women had no thromboprophylaxis (15% women vs 17% men). Patients with co-morbidities potentially complicating oral anticoagulant use used more oral anticoagulant in 2015 compared with 2011. The sex differences observed in 2011 with fewer women using oral anticoagulants had disappeared in 2015 except in women 80 years and older and in patients with complicated co-morbidity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of anticoagulation in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation in the primary prevention of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, S; McGuire, A

    1998-09-01

    A number of clinical trials have shown the value of anticoagulating patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation to prevent ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of anticoagulation in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation with particular reference to the very elderly (aged >75 years) who have a higher incidence of bleeding events while undergoing anticoagulation. We calculated the incremental costs per life-year gained for 4 base cases using efficacy data from the Boston Area Anticoagulation Trial for Atrial Fibrillation, the meta-analysis of the 5 nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation trials, cost data from a district general hospital, and review of the literature. The cost per life-year gained free from stroke over 10 years ranged from -pound sterling 400.45 (ie, a resource saving achieved for each life-year gained free from stroke) to pound sterling 13,221.29. The results were most sensitive to alteration in the frequency of anticoagulation monitoring. For medical and economic reasons, anticoagulation treatment in the prevention of ischemic stroke is justified. Although older patients are more at risk of adverse events, anticoagulation is more cost-effective in this group.

  14. Use of novel oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism and its considerations in Asian patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral anticoagulation followed by warfarin has been conventionally used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, there are numerous troublesome characteristics of warfarin that prompted the development of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for the treatment of VTE. Asians are reported to be at an increased risk of bleeding with warfarin, and while the reported incidence of VTE in Asians is lower than in Caucasians, the annual rate of VTE in Asia is rising along with the need for better oral anticoagulant options. Recently, several Phase III clinical trials with NOACs for the treatment and prevention of VTE recurrence have been published. For the treatment of VTE, the four NOACs – dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban – each showed comparable efficacy outcomes while resulting in better safety outcomes when compared with conventional treatment. In these trials, Asian patients had comparable efficacy and safety outcomes as other races, except in the edoxaban trial, in which the Asian subgroup had better safety profiles than other races, although further confirmation is necessary. For secondary prevention, dabigatran was compared with conventional treatment and showed similar efficacy and safety outcomes. When NOACs were compared with placebo for secondary prevention of VTE, they showed superior efficacy and increased bleeding except for apixaban, which showed comparable major bleeding and composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding rates as placebo. No significant differences in the outcomes based on race were observed in the Asian subgroups for secondary prevention. Therefore, NOACs can be used with similar efficacy and at least similar or superior safety compared with conventional treatment in the treatment of VTE, and at no increased risk in Asian patients. PMID:25328399

  15. Local anesthesia with ropivacaine for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Yin; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Wang, Shang-Yu; Tsai, Chun-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pain relief after infusion of ropivacaine at port sites at the end of surgery. METHODS: From October 2006 to September 2007, 72 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were randomized into two groups of 36 patients. One group received ropivacaine infusion at the port sites at the end of LC and the other received normal saline. A visual analog scale was used to assess postoperative pain when the patient awakened in the operating room, 6 and 24 h after surgery, and before discharge. The amount of analgesics use was also recorded. The demographics, laboratory data, hospital stay, and perioperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two groups preoperatively in terms of demographic and laboratory data. After surgery, similar operation time, blood loss, and no postoperative morbidity and mortality were observed in the two groups. However, a significantly lower pain score was observed in the patients undergoing LC with local anesthesia infusion at 1 h after LC and at discharge. Regarding analgesic use, the amount of meperidine used 1 h after LC and the total used during admission were lower in patients undergoing LC with local anesthesia infusion. This group also had a shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Local anesthesia with ropivacaine at the port site in LC patients significantly decreased postoperative pain immediately. This explains the lower meperidine use and earlier discharge for these patients. PMID:19452582

  16. Echocardiographic Risk Factors for Stroke and Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulated With Apixaban or Warfarin.

    PubMed

    Vinereanu, Dragos; Lopes, Renato D; Mulder, Hillary; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; de Barros E Silva, Pedro G M; Atar, Dan; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2017-12-01

    Few data exist on the long-term outcomes of patients with spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus, and complex aortic plaque (CAP), in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation. We explored the relationship between these 3 echocardiographic findings and clinical outcomes, and the comparative efficacy and safety of apixaban and warfarin for each finding. Patients from the ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) with SEC, LA/LAA thrombus, or CAP diagnosed by either transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography were compared with patients with none of these findings on transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 1251 patients were included: 217 had SEC, 127 had LA/LAA thrombus, 241 had CAP, and 746 had none. The rates of stroke/systemic embolism were not significantly different among patients with and without these echocardiographic findings (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.60 for SEC; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-6.86 for LA/LAA thrombus; hazard ratio, 2.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6.85 for CAP). Rates of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death were also not different between patients with and without these findings. For patients with either SEC or CAP, there was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin. For patients with LA/LAA thrombus, there was also no significant interaction, with the exception of all-cause death and any bleeding where there was a greater benefit of apixaban compared with warfarin among patients with no LA/LAA thrombus. In anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke, echocardiographic findings do not seem to add to the risk of thromboembolic events. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Anesthetic Considerations in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Sanaie, Sarvin; Nazari, Mehdi; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2017-01-01

    Context This article discusses the anesthetic considerations in patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of surgery. Evidence Acquisition This review includes studies involving obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Searches have been conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review using the terms obese, obesity, bariatric, anesthesia, perioperative, preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and their combinations. Results Obesity is a major worldwide health problem associated with many comorbidities. Bariatric surgery has been proposed as the best alternative treatment for extreme obese patients when all other therapeutic options have failed. Conclusions Anesthetists must completely assess the patients before the surgery to identify anesthesia- related potential risk factors and prepare for management during the surgery. PMID:29430407

  18. The effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ro, You-Ja; Ha, Hyae-Chung; Kim, Chun-Gill; Yeom, Hye-A

    2002-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. The participants were 29 adult patients living in Seoul, Korea. Thirteen patients were assigned to the experimental group and received the aromatherapy massage on the arm 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Pruritus score, skin pH, stratum corneum hydration, and pruritus-related biochemical markers were measured before and after the treatment. The results showed that pruritus score was significantly decreased after aromatherapy. Skin pH showed no significant changes in either group while stratum corneum hydration increased significantly in the experimental group after aromatherapy. The results support the use aromatherapy as a useful and effective method of managing pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  19. Meta-analysis of CHADS2 versus CHA2DS2-VASc for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation patients independent of anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Gen; Xiong, Qin-Mei; Hong, Kui

    2015-02-01

    Two validated scoring systems for predicting embolic risk, CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc, contribute to optimizing antithrombotic prescription practices in patients who have atrial fibrillation. However, data about anticoagulated patients are sparse. We compared CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc, in terms of their predictive risk evaluation, in patients with atrial fibrillation who were and were not taking anticoagulants. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase databases for studies of the comparative diagnostic performance of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc. We identified 12 cohort studies for meta-analysis. With regard to the occurrence of cardiovascular events individually, patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores ≥2 have a greater risk of stroke (risk ratio [RR]=5.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-6.88; P <0.00001) and thromboembolism (RR=5.96; 95% CI, 5.50-6.45; P <0.00001) (P diff=0.34) than do patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores <2, independent of anticoagulation therapy (RR=5.76; 95% CI, 5.23-6.35; P <0.00001 in anticoagulated patients; and RR=6.12; 95% CI, 5.40-6.93; P <0.00001 in patients not taking anticoagulants; P diff=0.45). The pooled RR estimates indicate an approximate 6-fold increase in the risk of endpoint events in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc scores ≥2 (RR=5.90; 95% CI, 5.46-6.37; P <0.0001). These results clearly indicate the discriminative capacity of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for stroke, thromboembolic events, or both, independent of optimal anticoagulation. The CHA2DS2-VASc score enables the identification of patients who are at genuinely high risk and can direct the selection of appropriate therapeutic approaches.

  20. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes onmore » liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted.« less

  1. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  2. Sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - a review.

    PubMed

    Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna Ewa; Sokolowski, Jacek; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    Sinusitis is a common morbidity in general population, however little is known about its occurrence in severely immunocompromised patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature concerning sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An electronic database search was performed with the objective of identifying all original trials examining sinusitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The search was limited to English-language publications. Twenty five studies, published between 1985 and 2015 were identified, none of them being a randomized clinical trial. They reported on 31-955 patients, discussing different issues i.e. value of pretransplant sinonasal evaluation and its impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality, treatment, risk factors analysis. Results from analyzed studies yielded inconsistent results. Nevertheless, some recommendations for good practice could be made. First, it seems advisable to screen all patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with Computed Tomography (CT) prior to procedure. Second, patients with symptoms of sinusitis should be treated before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), preferably with conservative medical approach. Third, patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be monitored closely for sinusitis, especially in the early period after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Adherence to recommendations of the Therapeutic Positioning Report about treatment with oral anticoagulants in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. The ESPARTA study.

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, Carmen; Mostaza, Jose María; Castilla Guerra, Luis; Cantero Hinojosa, Jesus; Suriñach, Josep Maria; Acosta de Bilbao, Fernando; Tamarit, Juan José; Diaz Diaz, José Luis; Hernandez, Jose Luis; Cazorla, Daniel; Ràfols, Carles

    2017-10-06

    To evaluate the adherence to the recommendations in clinical practice performed by the Therapeutic Positioning Report (TPR) of the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Sanitary Products about the treatment with oral anticoagulants in patients aged≥75 years old with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) treated in Internal Medicine departments in Spain. Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study in which 837 patients aged≥75 years old with NVAF, with stable treatment with oral anticoagulants at least 3 months before inclusion, and that had started treatment with oral anticoagulants before the inclusion period were included. Mean age was 83.0±5.0 years old, mean CHADS 2 score 3.2±1.2, mean CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score 5.0±1.4, and mean HAS-BLED score 2.1±0.9. A percentage of 70.8 of patients were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and the rest of patients with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). A percentage of 65.6 of patients treated with VKA did not follow the recommendations made by the TPR compared with 43.0% of patients treated with DOACs (P<.0001). In the case of VKA, the main reason for being considered as not appropriate according to the TPR was having poor control of anticoagulation and not switching to DOACs, whereas in the case of DOACs, it was not receiving the adequate dose according to the TPR. In a high proportion of anticoagulated elderly patients with NVAF in Spain, the recommendations performed by the TPR are not followed, particularly with VKA, since patients are not switched to DOACs despite time in therapeutic range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Anticoagulation and peripartum management].

    PubMed

    Philippe, A; Ruivard, M; Auclair, C; Accoceberry, M; Bonnin, M; Pouly, J-L; Lémery, D; Philippe, P; Gallot, D

    2015-03-01

    To compare peripartum management of anticoagulated patients concerning locoregional analgesia, post-partum hemorrhage and thrombotic events according to planified interruption or not of antithrombotic therapy. We conducted a single tertiary care center retrospective study of all deliveries associated with antithrombotic therapy from January 2005 to September 2011. We identified 120 cases with prophylactic (71%) or curative (29%) anticoagulation. Two thrombotic events occurred. In case of curative therapy, the use of locoregional analgesia was lower (P<0.0001) and post-partum hemorrhage occurred more frequently (P=0.07) compared to prophylactic therapy. According to planified interruption or not of antithrombotic therapy, we observed a more prolonged duration of therapeutic interruption before delivery (55.6h±63.3 vs 26.4 h±11.6, P<0.0001), higher use of locoregional analgesia (83% vs 71%, P=0.02) but no difference concerning cesarean rate (35% vs 39%, P=0.8) or post-partum hemorrhage (13% vs 14%, P=0.9). In case of curative anticoagulation, plannified interruption favours the use of perimedullar analgesia after 24hour delay. In case of preventive anticoagulation, plannified interruption appears unnecessary as the 12hour delay is easier to reach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients anticoagulated with dabigatran compared with warfarin: a retrospective, comparative case review.

    PubMed

    Manatsathit, Wuttiporn; Al-Hamid, Hussein; Leelasinjaroen, Pornchai; Hashmi, Usman; McCullough, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Dabigatran etexilate, was found to be effective for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Given its predictable pharmacodynamics, laboratory monitoring is not required. Moreover, the risks of overall bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and life-threatening hemorrhage from dabigatran were found to be lower than warfarin. However, a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by dabigatran from the randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy (RE-LY) trial has raised the concern regarding clinical outcomes of patients with GI bleeding caused by dabigatran compared with warfarin. We retrospectively studied patients who were hospitalized for GI bleeding from dabigatran compared with warfarin with therapeutic anticoagulation monitoring during 2009 to 2012. Initial laboratory findings at presentation, number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBCs), acute kidney injury, clinical outcomes (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia), length of stay, and death were compared. Thirteen patients taking dabigatran and 26 patients who were on warfarin with therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) were hospitalized during the study period. Demographic data and baseline parameters between the two groups were not significantly different except for concurrent aspirin use (84.6% vs. 50%, P=0.036). Fifty-four percent of patients taking dabigatran did not have activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) level performed at presentation (7/13). The patients with GI bleeding from warfarin received significantly more PRBC transfusions compared with the dabigatran group (1.92±2.2 vs. 0.69±1.1 units, P=0.024). After controlling for initial hemoglobin and history of chronic kidney disease by using multivariate analysis, the patients in the warfarin group were likely to receive more PRBC. Hypotension at presentation was more common in GI bleeding caused by warfarin than dabigatran but the P value was insignificant (30.8% vs. 7.7%, P=0

  6. Impact of CHA2DS2VASc Score on Candidacy for Anticoagulation in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Multi-payer Analysis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aarti A; Nelson, Winnie W; Schein, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the effect of using CHA 2 DS 2 VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [doubled], type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [doubled], vascular disease [prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, or aortic plaque], age 65-75 years, sex category [female]) rather than CHADS 2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke) to determine candidacy for anticoagulant prophylaxis in insured patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Six administrative claims databases that included medical and pharmacy claims for patients aged ≥18 years with a new or existing diagnosis of AF and patient outcomes assessed for 1 year after diagnosis were analyzed. Retrospective health plan data analyses were performed using a software tool (Anticoagulant Quality Improvement Analyzer). Study measures included stroke risk (identified by CHADS 2 and CHA 2 DS 2 VASc scores), bleeding risk (identified by the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation score), and anticoagulant use. A total of 115,906 patients with AF (range of mean ages among the 6 databases, 56-79 years) met the inclusion criteria. All ranges reported represent the minimum and maximum values among the 6 databases. Using the CHA 2 DS 2 VASc compared with the CHADS 2 index to assess stroke risk resulted in a 23% to 32% increase in patients considered potential candidates for anticoagulant prophylaxis. This translated to a 38% to 114% increase in the number of ostensibly undertreated patients. Among patients with high stroke and low bleeding risk, 18% to 28% more patients were considered potential candidates for anticoagulation treatment using CHA 2 DS 2 VASc compared with CHADS 2 , or a 57% to 151% increase in the number of undertreated patients. Use of the CHA 2 DS 2 VASc score to determine the risk of stroke increased the number of AF patients for

  7. Major Bleeding Risk During Anticoagulation with Warfarin, Dabigatran, Apixaban, or Rivaroxaban in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Adeboyeje, Gboyega; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Barron, John J; White, Jeff; Rosenberg, Alan; Abarca, Jacob; Crawford, Geoffrey; Redberg, Rita

    2017-09-01

    The use of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has increased steadily following marketing approval; however, their relative safety in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients in real-world clinical practice remains unclear. To compare the risk of major bleeding during anticoagulation therapy between warfarin and NOACs. This retrospective cohort study analyzed administrative claims data on new NVAF users of warfarin, dabigatran, apixaban, or rivaroxaban in routine clinical care from November 2010 to February 2015 in a commercially insured population in the United States. The primary outcome was time to first major bleeding event requiring hospitalization. Patients were followed until discontinuation or switch of anticoagulants, health plan disenrollment, death, or end of study. All patient characteristics were balanced after propensity score inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weighting. Event rates by type of anticoagulant exposure were compared using IPT-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. The study cohort comprised 44,057 patients who used warfarin (n = 23,431), dabigatran (n = 8,539), apixaban (n = 3,689), and rivaroxaban (n = 8,398). Overall mean (SD) age was 70 (12) years, and 41% of the patients were women. A total of 2,337 major bleeding events occurred during 36,636.2 person-years of follow-up. The unadjusted rate of major bleeding with warfarin was 6.0 per 100 person-years versus 2.8 with dabigatran, 3.3 with apixban, and 5.0 with rivaroxaban. Relative to warfarin, major bleeding risk was lower with dabigatran (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.60-0.76) and apixaban (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.41-0.67). Compared with rivaroxaban, major bleeding risk was also lower with dabigatran (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.58-0.78) and apixaban (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.40-0.68). Major bleeding risk was similar for rivaroxaban and warfarin. Relative to apixaban, dabigatran was associated with a significantly higher risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding (HR = 1.43, 95% CI

  8. Evaluation of the predictive performance of bleeding risk scores in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Beshir, S A; Aziz, Z; Yap, L B; Chee, K H; Lo, Y L

    2018-04-01

    Bleeding risk scores (BRSs) aid in the assessment of oral anticoagulant-related bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Ideally, the applicability of a BRS needs to be assessed, prior to its routine use in a population other than the original derivation cohort. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of 6 established BRSs to predict major or clinically relevant bleeding (CRB) events associated with the use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) among Malaysian patients. The pharmacy supply database and the medical records of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) receiving warfarin, dabigatran or rivaroxaban at two tertiary hospitals were reviewed. Patients who experienced an OAC-associated major or CRB event within 12 months of follow-up, or who have received OAC therapy for at least 1 year, were identified. The BRSs were fitted separately into patient data. The discrimination and the calibration of these BRSs as well as the factors associated with bleeding events were then assessed. A total of 1017 patients with at least 1-year follow-up period, or those who developed a bleeding event within 1 year of OAC use, were recruited. Of which, 23 patients experienced a first major bleeding event, whereas 76 patients, a first CRB event. Multivariate logistic regression results show that age of 75 or older, prior bleeding and male gender are associated with major bleeding events. On the other hand, prior gastrointestinal bleeding, a haematocrit value of less than 30% and renal impairment are independent predictors of CRB events. All the BRSs show a satisfactory calibration for major and CRB events. Among these BRSs, only HEMORR 2 HAGES (C-statistic = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60-0.82, P < .001) and ATRIA score (C-statistic = 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.82, P < .001) show acceptable discrimination performance for major bleeding events. All the 6 BRSs, however, lack acceptable predictive performance for CRB events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first

  9. Liver Cirrhosis in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Would Oral Anticoagulation Have a Net Clinical Benefit for Stroke Prevention?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ling; Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chung, Fa-Po; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lip, Gregory Y H; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2017-06-23

    Patients with liver cirrhosis have been excluded from randomized clinical trials of oral anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that patients with liver cirrhosis would have a positive net clinical benefit for oral anticoagulation when used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Among 289 559 atrial fibrillation patients aged ≥20 years, there were 10 336 with liver cirrhosis, and 9056 of them having a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥2 were divided into 3 groups, that is, no treatment, antiplatelet therapy, and warfarin. Patients with liver cirrhosis had a higher risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio=1.10, P =0.046) and intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio=1.20, P =0.043) compared with those without. Among patients with liver cirrhosis, patients taking antiplatelet therapy had a similar risk of ischemic stroke (hazard ratio=1.02, 95%CI=0.88-1.18) compared to those without antithrombotic therapies, but the risk was significantly lowered among warfarin users (hazard ratio=0.76, 95%CI=0.58-0.99). For intracranial hemorrhage, there were no significant differences between those untreated and those taking antiplatelet therapy or warfarin. The use of warfarin was associated with a positive net clinical benefit compared with being untreated or receiving only antiplatelet therapy. For atrial fibrillation patients with liver cirrhosis in the current analysis of an observational study, warfarin use was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke and a positive net clinical benefit compared with nontreatment, and thus, thromboprophylaxis should be considered for such patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Perioperative management of vitamin K antagonists in patients with low thromboembolic risk undergoing elective surgery: A prospective experience.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Ana Florencia; Cornavaca, María Teresita; Revigliono, José Ignacio; Contreras, Alejandro; Albertini, Ricardo; Tabares, Aldo Hugo

    2017-10-11

    To quantify thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with low thromboembolic risk, who were chronically receiving vitamin K antagonists and undergoing elective surgery. A descriptive, prospective, single-center study was conducted between December 2010 and July 2014. Patients aged over 18 years old, chronically anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists and admitted for elective surgery were included in the study. We excluded patients with a creatinine clearance<30ml/min, a body weight>120kg, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, pregnant women, carriers of an epidural catheter for analgesia, patients who underwent unscheduled surgery and high thromboembolic risk-patients. Vitamin K antagonists were discontinued 5 days prior to the procedure without administering anticoagulant enoxaparin. The NIR was measured 24h before the procedure. A single dose of 3mg of vitamin K was administered in cases of a NIR>1.5. Vitamin K antagonists was resumed according to the surgical bleeding risk. Events were registered between 5 days prior to the procedure until 30 days after it. A total of 75 procedures were included in the study. Fifty-six patients (74.7%) received vitamin K antagonists for atrial fibrillation, 15 suffered from venous thromboembolism (20%) and 4 had mechanical heart valves (5.3%). Twenty-six patients (34.5%) underwent high-bleeding risk surgeries and 49 (65.5%) underwent low risk procedures. No thromboembolic event was recorded. Four bleeding events (5.3%) were reported, 3 of which were considered major bleeding events (2 fatal). Suspending vitamin K antagonists with no bridging therapy performed in patients with a low thromboembolic risk does not expose such patients to a significant risk of embolic events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety of Endovascular Intervention for Stroke on Therapeutic Anticoagulation: Multicenter Cohort Study and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Donna; Jonczak, Karin; Shah, Qaisar; Yaghi, Shadi; Marshall, Randolph S; Ahmad, Haroon; McKinney, James; Torres, Jose; Ishida, Koto; Cucchiara, Brett

    2017-05-01

    Intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is contraindicated in therapeutically anti-coagulated patients. Such patients may be considered for endovascular intervention. However, there are limited data on its safety. We performed a multicenter retrospective study of patients undergoing endovascular intervention for acute ischemic stroke while on therapeutic anticoagulation. We compared the observed rate of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke defined symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) with risk-adjusted historical control rates of sICH after IV tPA using weighted averages of the hemorrhage after thrombolysis (HAT) and Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS) prediction scores. We also performed a metaanalysis of studies assessing risk of sICH with endovascular intervention in patients on anticoagulation. Of 94 cases, mean age was 73 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 19. Anticoagulation consisted of warfarin (n = 51), dabigatran (n = 6), rivaroxaban (n = 13), apixaban (n = 1), IV heparin (n = 19), low molecular weight heparin (n = 3), and combined warfarin and IV heparin (n = 3). sICH was seen in 7 patients (7%, 95% confidence interval 4-15), all on warfarin. Predicted sICH rates for the cohort based on HAT and MSS scoring were 12% and 7%, respectively. Meta-analysis of 6 studies showed no significant difference in sICH between patients undergoing endovascular intervention on anticoagulation and comparator groups. Endovascular intervention in subjects on therapeutic anticoagulation appears reasonably safe, with a sICH rate similar to patients not on anticoagulation receiving IV tPA. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Atrial Fibrillation Patients Treated With Long-Term Warfarin Anticoagulation Have Higher Rates of All Dementia Types Compared With Patients Receiving Long-Term Warfarin for Other Indications.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T Jared; May, Heidi T; Bair, Tami L; Crandall, Brian G; Cutler, Michael J; Day, John D; Jacobs, Victoria; Mallender, Charles; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Stevens, Scott M; Weiss, J Peter; Woller, Scott C

    2016-07-11

    The mechanisms behind the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are unknown. We previously found a significantly increased risk of dementia in AF patients taking warfarin with a low percentage of time in therapeutic range. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which AF itself increases dementia risk, in addition to long-term anticoagulation exposure. A total of 10 537 patients anticoagulated with warfarin (target INR 2-3), managed by the Clinical Pharmacist Anticoagulation Service with no history of dementia were included. Warfarin indication was for AF (n=4460), thromboembolism (n=5868), and mechanical heart valve(s) (n=209). Patients in the latter 2 categories were included only if they had no prior history of AF. The primary outcome was dementia. Patients with AF were older and had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and stroke. AF patients experienced higher rates of total dementia (5.8% versus 1.6%, P<0.0001), Alzheimer disease (2.8% versus 0.9%, P<0.0001), and vascular dementia (1.0% versus 0.2%, P<0.0001). A propensity analysis of 6030 patients was performed to account for baseline demographics differences. Long-term risk of dementia remained significant in AF patients compared with matched non-AF patients (total dementia: hazard ratio [HR]=2.42 [1.85-3.18], P<0.0001; Alzheimer: HR=2.04 [1.40-2.98], P<0.0001; senile: HR=2.46 [1.58-3.86], P<0.0001). Low percent therapeutic range compared with a higher percent therapeutic range was associated with dementia risk in both AF (26-50% versus >75%: HR=2.51, P=0.005) and non-AF groups (≤25% versus >75%: HR=3.92, P<0.0001). The presence of AF significantly increases risk of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, compared with matched patients receiving warfarin anticoagulation for other reasons. Quality of anticoagulation management remains an important risk factor for dementia in all patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  13. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery. Since it has been proven that piracetam is cerebroprotective in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, we investigated the effects of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery were randomized to the piracetam or placebo group in a double-blind study. Patients received 12 g of piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on day 3, postoperatively. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after the surgery, we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 67 years were enrolled into the study. The mean duration of CPB was 110 minutes. Preoperative clinical parameters and overall cognitive functions were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (piracetam: preoperative 0.19 ± 0.97 vs. postoperative -0.97 ± 1.38, p <0.0005 and placebo: preoperative -0.14 ± 0.98 vs. postoperative -1.35 ± 1.23, p <0.0005). Patients taking piracetam did not perform better than those taking placebo, and both groups had the same decline of overall cognitive function (p = 0.955). Piracetam had no cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Unlike the patients who underwent coronary surgery, piracetam did not reduce the early postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in heart valve patients.

  14. Role of genetic testing in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Youn; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Rivas Rios, Jose R; Kureti, Megha; Cavallari, Larisa H; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2018-02-01

    Variability in individual response profiles to antiplatelet therapy, in particular clopidogrel, is a well-established phenomenon. Genetic variations of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme, a key determinant in clopidogrel metabolism, have been associated with clopidogrel response profiles. Moreover, the presence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events among clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), prompting studies evaluating the use of genetic tests to identify patients who may be potential candidates for alternative platelet P2Y 12 receptor inhibiting therapies (prasugrel or ticagrelor). Areas covered: The present manuscript provides an overview of genetic factors associated with response profiles to platelet P2Y 12 receptor inhibitors and their clinical implications, as well as the most recent developments and future considerations on the role of genetic testing in patients undergoing PCI. Expert commentary: The availability of more user-friendly genetic tests has contributed towards the development of many ongoing clinical trials and personalized medicine programs for patients undergoing PCI. Results of pilot investigations have shown promising results, which however need to be confirmed in larger-scale studies to support the routine use of genetic testing as a strategy to personalize antiplatelet therapy and improve clinical outcomes.

  15. Role of Genetic Testing in Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jae Youn; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Rios, Jose R. Rivas; Kureti, Megha; Cavallari, Larisa H.; Angiolillo, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Variability in individual response profiles to antiplatelet therapy, in particular clopidogrel, is a well-established phenomenon. Genetic variations of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme, a key determinant in clopidogrel metabolism, have been associated with clopidogrel response profiles. Moreover, the presence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events among clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), prompting studies evaluating the use of genetic tests to identify patients who may be potential candidates for alternative platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibiting therapies (prasugrel or ticagrelor). Areas covered The present manuscript provides an overview of genetic factors associated with response profiles to platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors and their clinical implications, as well as the most recent developments and future considerations on the role of genetic testing in patients undergoing PCI. Expert Commentary The availability of more user-friendly genetic tests has contributed towards the development of many ongoing clinical trials and personalized medicine programs for patients undergoing PCI. Results of pilot investigations have shown promising results, which however need to be confirmed in larger-scale studies to support the routine use of genetic testing as a strategy to personalize antiplatelet therapy and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:28689434

  16. Patients with glycogen storage diseases undergoing anesthesia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Gurrieri, Carmelina; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby N; Warner, Mary E

    2017-10-06

    Glycogen storage diseases are rare genetic disorders of glycogen synthesis, degradation, or metabolism regulation. When these patients are subjected to anesthesia, perioperative complications can develop, including hypoglycemia, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, acute renal failure, and postoperative fatigue. The objective of this study was to describe the perioperative course of a cohort of patients with glycogen storage diseases. This is a retrospective review of patients with glycogen storage diseases undergoing anesthetic care at our institution from January 1, 1990, through June 30, 2015 to assess perioperative management and outcomes. We identified 30 patients with a glycogen storage disease who underwent 41 procedures under anesthesia management. Intraoperative lactic acidosis developed during 4 major surgeries (3 liver transplants, 1 myectomy), and in all cases resolved within 24 postoperative hours. Lactated Ringer solution was used frequently. Preoperative and intraoperative hypoglycemia was noted in some patients with glycogen storage disease type I, all of which responded to administration of dextrose-containing solutions. No serious postoperative complications occurred. Patients with glycogen storage disease, despite substantial comorbid conditions, tolerates the anesthetic management without major complications. Several patients who experienced self-limited metabolic acidosis were undergoing major surgical procedures, during which acidosis could be anticipated. Close monitoring and management of blood glucose levels of patients with glycogen storage disease type I is prudent.

  17. The prevalence of oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation in Portugal: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Daniel; Barra, Márcio; David, Cláudio; Costa, João; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Pinto, Fausto J

    2014-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is an effective treatment in the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this review was to estimate the prevalence of OAC therapy in patients with AF in Portugal. MEDLINE, the Index of Portuguese Medical Journals and SIBUL (the Bibliographic Catalog of the Integrated Library System of the University of Lisbon) were searched for Portuguese observational studies reporting the proportion of anticoagulated patients with AF. The pooled estimated prevalence of anticoagulated patients and respective 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined by means of a meta-analysis. Seven studies were included for analysis, of which four were conducted in a hospital environment and three in the general community. These studies enrolled a total of 891 patients with AF. The pooled estimated prevalence of anticoagulated patients was 40% (95% CI: 32-48%). The prevalence of OAC in Portuguese AF patients is low. There is a need to promote change in OAC prescribing habits for AF patients in Portugal, in accordance with international guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Dyspnea predicts mortality among patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Rine; Gransar, Heidi; Rozanski, Alan; Rana, Jamal S; Cheng, Victor Y; Thomson, Louise E J; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Dey, Damini; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2016-02-01

    The prognostic implications of dyspnea and typical angina in patients referred for coronary CT angiography have not been examined. We examined features associated with incident mortality risk among individuals undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) presenting with dyspnea, typical angina, and neither of these symptoms. 1147 consecutive individuals without known CAD (mean 61 years, 61.6 %men) undergoing CCTA comprised the study population 132 with dyspnea, 218 with typical angina, and 797 without dyspnea or typical angina (reference group). Mortality risk in relation to dyspnea or typical angina was evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models compared to reference. In addition, the prognosis associated with dyspnea or typical angina was assessed among age matched subgroups. Patients with dyspnea had a greater prevalence of C70 % stenosis (p\\0.001) and coronary segments with plaque (p = 0.02) compared to the other two groups. During a follow-up of 3.1 years, 52 individuals died. By multivariable Cox models, compared to patients in reference group, dyspnea patients experienced higher mortality (HR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.0–4.0, p = 0.049) while typical angina patients did not (HR 1.1, 95 % CI 0.6–2.3, p = 0.76). In the matched group, the patients with dyspnea (HR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.1–4.3, p = 0.03) still had significantly reduced survival compared to the other two groups, while those with typical angina did not (HR 1.2, 95 % CI 0.6–2.6,p = 0.62). Dyspnea is associated with increased mortality ate compared to patients with typical angina and those with neither of these symptoms among patients undergoing CCTA.

  19. Endovascular Embolization of Intracranial Infectious Aneurysms in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery Using n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Cheng-Ching, Esteban; John, Seby; Bain, Mark; Toth, Gabor; Masaryk, Thomas; Hui, Ferdinand; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam

    2017-03-01

    Mycotic aneurysms are a serious complication of infective endocarditis with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients undergoing open heart surgery for valve repair or replacement are exposed to anticoagulants, increasing the risk of aneurysm bleeding. These patients may require endovascular or surgical aneurysm treatment prior to heart surgery, but data on this approach are scarce. Retrospective review of consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms treated endovascularly with Trufill n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) at the Cleveland Clinic between January 2013 and December 2015. Nine patients underwent endovascular treatment of mycotic aneurysms with n-BCA (mean age of 39 years). On imaging, 4 patients had intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 had multiple embolic infarcts, and the rest had no imaging findings. Twelve mycotic aneurysms were detected (3 patients with 2 aneurysms). Seven aneurysms were in the M4 middle cerebral artery segment, 4 in the posterior cerebral artery distribution, and 1 in the callosomarginal branch. n-BCA was diluted in ethiodized oil (1:1 to 1:2). Embolization was achieved in a single rapid injection with immediate microcatheter removal. Complete aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases without complications. All patients underwent open heart surgery and endovascular embolization within a short interval, 2 with both procedures on the same day. There were no new hemorrhages after aneurysm embolization. Endovascular embolization of infectious intracranial aneurysms with liquid embolics can be performed successfully in critically ill patients requiring immediate open heart surgery and anticoagulation. Early embolization prior to and within a short interval from open heart surgery is feasible.

  20. Safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in patients undergoing peripheral arterial procedures.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Anjan; Wang, S Keisin; Czosnowski, Lauren; Mokraoui, Nassim; Gupta, Alok; Fajardo, Andres; Dalsing, Michael; Motaganahalli, Raghu

    2017-10-01

    Rivaroxaban is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved oral anticoagulant for venous thromboembolic disease; however, there is no information regarding the safety and its efficacy to support its use in patients after open or endovascular arterial interventions. We report the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban vs warfarin in patients undergoing peripheral arterial interventions. This single-institution retrospective study analyzed all sequential patients from December 2012 to August 2014 (21 months) who were prescribed rivaroxaban or warfarin after a peripheral arterial procedure. Our study population was then compared using American College of Chest Physicians guidelines with patients then stratified as low, medium, or high risk for bleeding complications. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t-test and χ 2 test to compare demographics, readmissions because of bleeding, and the need for secondary interventions. Logistic regression models were used for analysis of variables associated with bleeding complications and secondary interventions. The Fisher exact test was used for power analysis. There were 44 patients in the rivaroxaban group and 50 patients in the warfarin group. Differences between demographics and risk factors for bleeding between groups or reintervention rate were not statistically significant (P = .297). However, subgroup evaluation of the safety profile suggests that patients who were aged ≤65 years and on warfarin had an overall higher incidence of major bleeding (P = .020). Patients who were aged >65 years, undergoing open operation, had a significant risk for reintervention (P = .047) when they received rivaroxaban. Real-world experience using rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients after peripheral arterial procedures suggests a comparable safety and efficacy profile. Subgroup analysis of those requiring an open operation demonstrated a decreased bleeding risk when rivaroxaban was used (in those aged <65

  1. Multiple recurrent ischaemic strokes in a patient with cancer: is there a role for the initiation of anticoagulation therapy for secondary stroke prevention?

    PubMed

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle Alexandra; Cheng, Jia Zhen; Then, Ryna Karina

    2017-06-03

    A 52-year-old woman with a medical history of cervical and thyroid cancer, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled diabetes and heavy smoking was diagnosed with a new metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. While undergoing palliative chemotherapy, she developed dysarthria and left-sided weakness. Imaging studies showed multiple bilateral ischaemic strokes. On hospital days 2 and 5, she developed worsening neurological symptoms and imaging studies revealed new areas of ischaemia on respective days. Subsequent workup did not revealed a clear aetiology for the multiple ischaemic events and hypercoagulability studies were only significant for a mildly elevated serum D-dimer level. Although guidelines are unclear, full-dose anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin was initiated given her high risk of stroke recurrence. She was discharged to acute rehabilitation but, within a month, she experienced complications of her malignant disease progression and a new pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient died soon after being discharged home with hospice care. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L. To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose ( B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug ( B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval ( B = -2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15-20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10-14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15-20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  3. Inadequate anticoagulation by Vitamin K Antagonists is associated with Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Daniele; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Saliola, Mirella; Carnevale, Roberto; Vicario, Tommasa; Del Ben, Maria; Cangemi, Roberto; Barillà, Francesco; Lip, Gregory Y H; Violi, Francesco

    2015-12-15

    Time in therapeutic range (TTR) reflects the quality of anticoagulation and is inversely correlated with ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Few data on the relationship between TTR and myocardial infarction (MI) are available. We investigated the association between TTR and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) in a cohort of anticoagulated AF patients. We calculated TTR for 627 AF patients on vitamin K antagonists, who were followed for a median of 30.8 months (1755 patients/year). The primary outcome was a combined endpoint of MACE including fatal/nonfatal MI and cardiovascular death. Mean age was 73.3 (±8.2) years, and 40.2% were women. During follow-up, we recorded 67 events: 19 stroke/TIA (1.1%/year) and 48 MACE (2.9%/year): 24 MI and 24 cardiovascular deaths. The cohort was categorized according to tertiles of TTR values: TTR 13-58%, 59-74%, and 75-100%. There was a significant increased rate of MACE across tertiles of TTR (Log-Rank test: p<0.001). On Cox proportion hazard analysis, the 2nd vs. 1st tertile of TTR (p=0.002, hazard ratio [HR] 0.347, confidence interval [CI] 95% 0.177-0.680), 3rd vs. 1st tertile of TTR (p<0.001, HR 0.164, CI 95% 0.067-0.402), age (p<0.001, HR 1.094, CI 95% 1.042-1.148), history of stroke/TIA (p=0.015, HR 2.294, CI 95% 1.172-4.490) and smoking (p=0.003, HR 3.450, CI 95% 1.532-7.769) predicted MACE. TTR was an independent predictor of MACE in our cohort of AF patients. Our findings suggest that a good anticoagulation control is necessary to reduce not only the risk of stroke but also that of MACE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing EMG examinations

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Mauro; Aretini, Alessandro; Greco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing the procedure. In one year, 1,586 consecutive patients (mean age 56 years; 58.8% women) were admitted to two EMG labs to undergo EMG for the first time. The patients found to be “informed” about the how an EMG examination is performed and about the purpose of EMG numbered 448 (28.2%), while those found to be “informed” only about the manner of its execution or only about its purpose numbered 161 (10.2%) and 151 (9.5%), respectively. The remaining 826 (52.1%) patients had either no information, or the information they had was very poor or incorrect (this was particularly true if they had been consulting websites). Being “informed” was associated with level of education (high), type of referring physician (specialist) and with an appropriate referral diagnosis specified in the EMG request. The quality of patient information on EMG was found to be very poor and could be improved. Physicians referring patients for EMG examinations, especially general practitioners, should assume primary responsibility for patient education and counseling in this field. PMID:25473740

  5. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R J; Thomson, I R; Cannon, J E; Friesen, R M; Meatherall, R C

    1986-03-01

    The authors determined the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl 100 micrograms X kg-1 iv in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery. The mean (+/- SD) age of the ten patients was 67.2 +/- 8.7 yr; their mean weight was 78.5 +/- 13.7 kg. Seven patients had aortic aneurysm repair, and the other three patients had aortobifemoral grafts. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined from samples drawn at increasing intervals over a 24-h period. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fit to the concentration versus time data. Total drug clearance was 9.8 +/- 1.8 ml X min-1 X kg-1. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) was 5.4 +/- 1.9 X 1 kg-1. Elimination half-time was 8.7 +/- 2.5 h. There were no significant correlations between these pharmacokinetic parameters and patient's age, duration of aortic cross-clamping, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, or volume of iv fluids given intraoperatively. In healthy volunteers or patients undergoing general surgery, other investigators report mean elimination half-times for fentanyl ranging from 1.7 to 4.4 h. The prolonged elimination half-time in patients having abdominal aortic surgery has important clinical implications. In particular, recovery from large doses will take much longer than would have been anticipated from previously published fentanyl pharmacokinetic data.

  6. Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert H; Murray, Jayson N; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S

    2017-07-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, in collaboration with the American Dental Association, has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications of patients with orthopaedic implants presenting for dental procedures, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The 64 patient scenarios and 1 treatment were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

  7. Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 2

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Aisenberg, James; Ansell, Jack; Atar, Dan; Breithardt, Günter; Eikelboom, John; Ezekowitz, Michael D.; Granger, Christopher B.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Kirchhof, Paulus; Lane, Deirdre A.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Veltkamp, Roland; Lip, Gregory Y.H.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of oral anticoagulant (OAC) for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be influenced by individual clinical features or by patterns of risk factors and comorbidities. We reviewed analyses of subgroups of patients from trials of vitamin K antagonists vs. non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention in AF with the aim to identify patient groups who might benefit from a particular OAC more than from another. In addition, we discuss the timing of initiation of anticoagulation. In the second of a two-part review, we discuss the use of NOAC for stroke prevention in the following subgroups of patients with AF: (vii) secondary stroke prevention in patients after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA), (viii) patients with acute stroke requiring thrombolysis or thrombectomy, (ix) those initiating or restarting OAC treatment after stroke or TIA, (x) those with renal impairment on dialysis, (xi) the elderly, (xii) those at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, and (xiii) those with hypertension. In addition, we discuss adherence and compliance. Finally, we present a summary of treatment suggestions. In specific subgroups of patients with AF, evidence supports the use of particular NOACs and/or particular doses of anticoagulant. The appropriate choice of treatment for these subgroups will help to promote optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:26848150

  8. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Christian T; Giugliano, Robert P; Braunwald, Eugene; Hoffman, Elaine B; Deenadayalu, Naveen; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Camm, A John; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Lewis, Basil S; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Yamashita, Takeshi; Antman, Elliott M

    2014-03-15

    Four new oral anticoagulants compare favourably with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation; however, the balance between efficacy and safety in subgroups needs better definition. We aimed to assess the relative benefit of new oral anticoagulants in key subgroups, and the effects on important secondary outcomes. We searched Medline from Jan 1, 2009, to Nov 19, 2013, limiting searches to phase 3, randomised trials of patients with atrial fibrillation who were randomised to receive new oral anticoagulants or warfarin, and trials in which both efficacy and safety outcomes were reported. We did a prespecified meta-analysis of all 71,683 participants included in the RE-LY, ROCKET AF, ARISTOTLE, and ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trials. The main outcomes were stroke and systemic embolic events, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, major bleeding, intracranial haemorrhage, and gastrointestinal bleeding. We calculated relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for each outcome. We did subgroup analyses to assess whether differences in patient and trial characteristics affected outcomes. We used a random-effects model to compare pooled outcomes and tested for heterogeneity. 42,411 participants received a new oral anticoagulant and 29,272 participants received warfarin. New oral anticoagulants significantly reduced stroke or systemic embolic events by 19% compared with warfarin (RR 0·81, 95% CI 0·73-0·91; p<0·0001), mainly driven by a reduction in haemorrhagic stroke (0·49, 0·38-0·64; p<0·0001). New oral anticoagulants also significantly reduced all-cause mortality (0·90, 0·85-0·95; p=0·0003) and intracranial haemorrhage (0·48, 0·39-0·59; p<0·0001), but increased gastrointestinal bleeding (1·25, 1·01-1·55; p=0·04). We noted no heterogeneity for stroke or systemic embolic events in important subgroups, but there was a greater relative reduction in major bleeding with new oral anticoagulants when the

  9. The HRQoL of Chinese patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Dan; Petrini, Marcia A

    2010-03-01

    With the transition from infectious disease and acute illness to chronic disease and degenerative illness as leading causes of death, health-related quality of life has become an important aspect in assessing the burden of chronic disease. The quality of life of haemodialysis patients has been studied extensively; however, very limited research using exploratory descriptive design has been carried out in this area in China. The aim of this study was to explore health-related quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis in China. This study used the qualitative research design approach. A semi-structured, in-depth interview was conducted with 16 haemodialysis patients in two hospitals using Colaizzi's phenomenological method to transcribe and analyse the data. The results of this study showed that dialysis patients show improvement in physical competence, but they also experienced emotional instability and psychological distress, financial burdens, inadequate disease knowledge and less social support which influenced their quality of life. To optimise the patients undergoing dialysis health-related quality of life, support of psycho-social-economical aspects should be enhanced. Health care providers should give haemodialysis patients thorough health education, individualised psychological and emotional intervention and adequate social support to optimise health-related quality of life.

  10. Outcomes in adult pectus excavatum patients undergoing Nuss repair

    PubMed Central

    Ewais, MennatAllah M; Chaparala, Shivani; Uhl, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Pectus excavatum (PEx) is one of the most common congenital chest wall deformities. Depending on the severity, presentation of PEx may range from minor cosmetic issues to disabling cardiopulmonary symptoms. The effect of PEx on adult patients has not been extensively studied. Symptoms may not occur until the patient ages, and they may worsen over the years. More recent publications have implied that PEx may have significant cardiopulmonary implications and repair is of medical benefit. Adults presenting for PEx repair can undergo a successful repair with a minimally invasive “Nuss” approach. Resolution of symptoms, improved quality of life, and satisfying results are reported. PMID:29430201

  11. Predictors of pain control in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lechtzin, N; Rubin, H R; Jenckes, M; White, P; Zhou, L M; Thompson, D A; Diette, G B

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FOB) experience pain and to identify patient factors and process of care factors that are associated with pain. We conducted a prospective cohort study on 481 patients undergoing FOB. Overall control of pain during FOB was the primary outcome. The mean age of the patients was 48 yr, 50% were male, and 32% required supplemental oxygen prior to FOB. Pain control was excellent in 36% of patients, but 10% considered it to be fair or poor. Patient factors associated with excellent pain control were excellent health (versus poor health, OR = 6.25 [95% CI, 2.28-16.67]), more education (college education versus high school education, OR = 1.72 [95% CI, 1.05-2.86]), and not having asthma (OR = 2.86 [95% CI, 1.09-7.14]). Process of care factors associated with excellent pain control were not being bothered by scope insertion (versus bothered, OR = 3.65 [95% CI, 1.99-6.98]), no memory of FOB (versus some memory, OR = 2.33 [95% CI, 1.24-4.44]), and higher ratings of information about the procedure (per 1-point increase on a 12-point scale, OR = 1.57 [95% CI, 1.41-1.78]). This is the first large-scale, prospective study to evaluate patient and process of care factors that influence pain control during FOB. It demonstrated that there are patient characteristics and process of care factors that need to be considered when evaluating pain during bronchoscopy. Improved preparation of patients with lower education, inferior health status, and asthma may lead to decreased pain during FOB. Bronchoscopists may be able to reduce pain during FOB by identifying methods to decrease pain on scope insertion, by improving the information provided to patients, and by achieving greater levels of amnesia during FOB.

  12. Development of Quality Indicators to Assess Oral Anticoagulant Management in Community Pharmacies for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Mylène; Guénette, Line; Brouillette, Denis; Côté, Stéphane; Huot, Roger; Landry, Jérôme; Martineau, Josée; Perreault, Sylvie; White-Guay, Brian; Williamson, David; Martin, Élisabeth; Gagnon, Marie-Mireille; Lalonde, Lyne

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated the quality of oral anticoagulant management by community pharmacists. There is no complete set of quality indicators available for this purpose. To develop a set of specific quality indicators to assess oral anticoagulant management by community pharmacists for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Quality indicators were developed in 3 phases. In phase 1, potential quality indicators were generated based on clinical guidelines and a literature review. In phase 2, a modified RAND appropriateness method involving 2 rounds was implemented with 9 experts, who judged the appropriateness of quality indicators generated in phase 1 based on the extent to which they were accurate, based on evidence, relevant, representative of best practices, and measurable in community pharmacies. Phase 3 consisted of a feasibility assessment in 5 community pharmacies on 2 patients each. The final set included 38 quality indicators grouped into 6 categories: documentation (n = 29), risk assessment (n = 3), clinical control (n = 1), clinical follow-up (n = 15), choice of therapy (n = 11), and interaction management (n = 8). The quality indicators referred to process of care (n = 34), clinical outcomes (n = 2), or structure of care (n = 2). There were 24 quality indicators related to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and 17 were related to direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). To assess quality indicators, a questionnaire was developed for completion by community pharmacists for each patient, which included 17 questions about VKA patients and 12 questions about DOAC patients. A first set of quality indicators is now available to assess the quality of oral anticoagulant management by community pharmacists for patients with AF. This research was supported by the Réseau Québécois de recherche sur le médicament (RQRM); the Blueprint for Pharmacy in collaboration with Pfizer Canada; and the Cercle du Doyen of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal. The study

  13. [Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in carrier patients undergoing joint arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Barbero Allende, José M; Romanyk Cabrera, Juan; Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Vallés Purroy, Alfonso; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Agudo López, Rosa; Gete García, Luis; López Álvarez, Joaquín

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication with serious repercussions and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether decolonization of S.aureus carriers helps to reduce the incidence of PJI by S.aureus. An S.aureus screening test was performed on nasal carriers in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty between January and December 2011. Patients with a positive test were treated with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine soap 5 days. The incidence of PJI was compared with patients undergoing the same surgery between January and December 2010. A total of 393 joint replacements were performed in 391 patients from the control group, with 416 joint replacements being performed in the intervention group. Colonization study was performed in 382 patients (91.8%), of which 102 were positive (26.7%) and treated. There was 2 PJI due S.aureus compared with 9 in the control group (0.5% vs 2.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 2.3, P=.04). In our study, the detection of colonization and eradication of S.aureus carriers achieved a significant decrease in PJI due to S.aureus compared to a historical group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Effectiveness and Safety of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Asian Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eue-Keun; Han, Kyung-Do; Lee, So-Ryoung; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Oh, Seil; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-11-01

    There are limited real-world data comparing the effectiveness and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin in Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety between NOACs and warfarin users in the Korean atrial fibrillation population, with particular focus on high-risk patients. Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we analyzed the risk of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) events, and all-cause death in NOAC users (n=11 611 total, n=5681 taking rivaroxaban, n=3741 taking dabigatran, and n=2189 taking apixaban) compared with propensity score-matched warfarin users (n=23 222) among patients with high-risk atrial fibrillation (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score ≥2) between 2014 and 2015. NOAC treatment was associated with similar risk of ischemic stroke and lower risk of ICH and all-cause mortality compared with warfarin. All 3 NOACs were associated with a similar risk of ischemic stroke and a lower risk of ICH compared with warfarin. Dabigatran and apixaban were associated with a lower risk of total mortality and the composite net clinical outcome (ischemic stroke, ICH, and all-cause death) compared with warfarin, whereas this was nonsignificant for rivaroxaban. Among previously oral anticoagulant-naive patients (n=23 262), dabigatran and apixaban were superior to warfarin for ICH prevention, whereas rivaroxaban and warfarin were associated with similar risk of ICH. In real-world practice among a high-risk Asian atrial fibrillation population, all 3 NOACs demonstrated similar risk of ischemic stroke and lower risk of ICH compared with warfarin. All-cause mortality was significantly lower only with dabigatran and apixaban. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Goodman, William G; Herzog, Charles A; Kubo, Yumi; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mix, T Christian H; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Wheeler, David C; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-12-27

    Disorders of mineral metabolism, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, are thought to contribute to extraskeletal (including vascular) calcification among patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been hypothesized that treatment with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet might reduce the risk of death or nonfatal cardiovascular events in such patients. In this clinical trial, we randomly assigned 3883 patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (median level of intact parathyroid hormone, 693 pg per milliliter [10th to 90th percentile, 363 to 1694]) who were undergoing hemodialysis to receive either cinacalcet or placebo. All patients were eligible to receive conventional therapy, including phosphate binders, vitamin D sterols, or both. The patients were followed for up to 64 months. The primary composite end point was the time until death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or a peripheral vascular event. The primary analysis was performed on the basis of the intention-to-treat principle. The median duration of study-drug exposure was 21.2 months in the cinacalcet group, versus 17.5 months in the placebo group. The primary composite end point was reached in 938 of 1948 patients (48.2%) in the cinacalcet group and 952 of 1935 patients (49.2%) in the placebo group (relative hazard in the cinacalcet group vs. the placebo group, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.02; P=0.11). Hypocalcemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were significantly more frequent in patients receiving cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not significantly reduce the risk of death or major cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing dialysis. (Funded by Amgen; EVOLVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345839.).

  16. Clostridium difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Silvestre, Jason; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective database analysis. To investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery. C. difficile colitis is reportedly increasing in hospitalized patients and can have a negative impact on patient outcomes. No data exist on estimates of C. difficile infection rates and its consequences on patient outcomes and health care resources among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined from 2002 to 2011. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, procedural codes for lumbar spine surgery for degenerative diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined and multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery is 0.11%. At baseline, patients infected with C. difficile were significantly older (65.4 yr vs. 58.9 yr, P<0.0001) and more likely to have diabetes with chronic complications, neurological complications, congestive heart failure, pulmonary disorders, coagulopathy, and renal failure. Lumbar fusion (P=0.0001) and lumbar fusion revision (P=0.0003) were associated with increased odds of postoperative infection. Small hospital size was associated with decreased odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; P<0.001), whereas urban hospitals were associated with increased odds (OR, 2.14; P<0.14) of acquiring infection. Uninsured (OR, 1.62; P<0.0001) and patients with Medicaid (OR, 1.33; P<0.0001) were associated with higher odds of acquiring postoperative infection. C. difficile increased hospital length of stay by 8 days (P<0.0001), hospital charges by 2-fold (P<0.0001), and inpatient mortality to 4% from 0.11% (P<0.0001). C. difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery carries a 36.4-fold increase in mortality and costs

  17. Liquid discharges from patients undergoing 131I treatments.

    PubMed

    Barquero, R; Basurto, F; Nuñez, C; Esteban, R

    2008-10-01

    This work discusses the production and management of liquid radioactive wastes as excretas from patients undergoing therapy procedures with 131I radiopharmaceuticals in Spain. The activity in the sewage has been estimated with and without waste radioactive decay tanks. Two common therapy procedures have been considered, the thyroid cancer (4.14 GBq administered per treatment), and the hyperthyroidism (414 MBq administered per treatment). The calculations were based on measurements of external exposure around the 244 hyperthyroidism patients and 23 thyroid cancer patients. The estimated direct activity discharged to the sewage for two thyroid carcinomas and three hyperthyroidisms was 14.57 GBq and 1.27 GBq, respectively, per week; the annual doses received by the most exposed individual (sewage worker) were 164 microSv and 13 microSv, respectively. General equations to calculate the activity as a function of the number of patient treated each week were also obtained.

  18. A Successful Anticoagulation Protocol for the First HeartMate® II Implantation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Offer; Bracey, Arthur W.; Smart, Frank W.; Delgado, Reynolds M.; Shah, Nyma; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2005-01-01

    Bleeding and thrombus formation are common problems with life-threatening implications in patients receiving a left ventricular assist device. We describe the anticoagulation protocol for the 1st patient in the United States to undergo successful implantation of the HeartMate® II left ventricular assist system. PMID:16392229

  19. Anatomopathological causes of death in patients with advanced cancer: association with the use of anticoagulation and antibiotics at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Pautex, Sophie; Vayne-Bossert, Petra; Jamme, Sharon; Herrmann, François; Vilarino, Raquel; Weber, Catherine; Burkhardt, Karim

    2013-06-01

    Anatomopathological studies that described the immediate causes of death of patients with advanced cancer were first published approximately 20 years ago. Our objective was to analyze if causes of death changed with a wider use of broad spectrum antibiotics and prophylactic anticoagulation. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with an advanced cancer hospitalized in the Division of Palliative Medicine at the University Hospital Geneva from 2004 to 2010 who had an autopsy. Two hundred forty patients were included (130 men, mean age: 74±13). Main causes of death discovered at the autopsy were pulmonary infection (n=131; 55%), advanced cancer (n=39; 16%), pulmonary infection together with pulmonary embolism (PE) (n=27; 12%), PE alone (n=22; 9%), cardiac complications (n=19; 5%) and others (n=2; 1%). In a logistic regression model, with adjusting for age, gender, main diagnosis, comorbidities, blood count, corticosteroids, and antibiotics, there were no independent factors associated with pulmonary infection at autopsy. In a similar model, with adjusting for age, gender, main diagnosis, comorbidities, and anticoagulation, the only independent factor associated with PE at autopsy was the history of thrombo-embolic disease and therapeutic anticoagulation. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate that causes of death did not change with the modification of our practice. The high rate of pulmonary infection and embolism in this population, including in patients who received broad spectrum and prophylactic anticoagulation should encourage us to pursue other prospective studies to actually demonstrate the benefit of these treatments in this population.

  20. Satisfaction, quality of life and perception of patients regarding burdens and benefits of vitamin K antagonists compared with direct oral anticoagulants in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Contreras Muruaga, Ma Del Mar; Vivancos, José; Reig, Gemma; González, Ayoze; Cardona, Pere; Ramírez-Moreno, José Mª; Martí, Joan; Suárez Fernández, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    To compare the satisfaction of patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) with that of patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and to determine the impact on quality of life of both treatments in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Cross-sectional multicenter study in which outpatients with NVAF completed the ACTS (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale), SAT-Q (Satisfaction Questionnaire) and EQ-5D-3L (EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire, 3 level version) questionnaires. The study population comprised 1337 patients, of whom 587 were taking DOACs and 750 VKAs. Compared with VKAs, DOACs were more commonly prescribed in patients with a history of stroke and in patients with a higher thromboembolic risk. The study scores were as follows: SAT-Q: 63.8 ± 17.8; EQ-5D-3L total score: 75.6 ± 20.9; visual analog scale: 63.1 ± 20.6; ACTS Burdens: 51.8 ± 8.4 and ACTS Benefits: 11.9 ± 2.4. The ACTS Burdens score and ACTS Benefits score were higher with DOACs than with VKAs (54.83 ± 6.11 vs 49.50 ± 9.15; p < 0.001 and 12.36 ± 2.34 vs 11.48 ± 2.46; p < 0.001 respectively). NVAF patients treated with oral anticoagulants had many comorbidities and a high thromboembolic risk. Satisfaction and quality of life with oral anticoagulants were high, although they were both better with DOACs than with VKAs.

  1. A single center retrospective cohort study comparing low-molecular-weight heparins to direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer - A real world experience.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Megan K; Wiczer, Tracy E; Erdeljac, H Paige; Van Deusen, Kelsey R; Porter, Kyle; Philips, Gary; Wang, Tzu-Fei

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Low-molecular-weight heparins are the standard treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants are a new option for thrombosis treatment; however, data supporting the use of direct oral anticoagulants for cancer-associated thrombosis are limited. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the rate of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis and major bleeding within 6 months of starting either low-molecular-weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulant for treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis. Secondary objectives were to determine the rates of clinically relevant-non-major bleeding and all-cause mortality. Patients/methods This is a retrospective cohort study including adults with cancer-associated thrombosis treated with low-molecular-weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulant between 2010 and 2016 at the Ohio State University. Medical records were reviewed for 6 months after initiation of anticoagulation or until the occurrence of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis, major bleeding, cessation of anticoagulation of interest, or death, whichever occurred first. Results Four hundred and eighty patients were included (290 low-molecular-weight heparin and 190 direct oral anticoagulant). Patients treated with direct oral anticoagulant were found to carry "lower risk" features including cancer with lower VTE risk and lower rate of metastatic disease. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was no significant difference in the rate of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis (7.2% low-molecular-weight heparin vs 6.3% direct oral anticoagulant, p = 0.71) or major bleeding (7.6% low-molecular-weight heparin vs 2.6% direct oral anticoagulant, p = 0.08). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that in a select population of cancer patients with VTE, direct oral anticoagulant use can be as effective and safe compared to the standard therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin.

  2. Secondary prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism after initial oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lindsay; Yeoh, Su Ern; Ramli, Ahmad

    2017-12-15

    Currently, little evidence is available on the length and type of anticoagulation used for extended treatment for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with unprovoked VTE who have completed initial oral anticoagulation therapy. To compare the efficacy and safety of available oral therapeutic options (aspirin, warfarin, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)) for extended thromboprophylaxis in adults with a first unprovoked VTE, to prevent VTE recurrence after completion of an acceptable initial oral anticoagulant treatment period, as defined in individual studies. For this review, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist (CIS) searched the Specialised Register (March 2017) as well as the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2). We also searched trials registries (March 2017) and reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomised controlled trials in which patients with a first, symptomatic, objectively confirmed, unprovoked VTE, who had been initially treated with anticoagulants, were randomised to extended prophylaxis (vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), antiplatelet agents, or DOACs) versus no prophylaxis or placebo. We also included trials that compared one type of extended prophylaxis versus another type of extended prophylaxis. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed quality, and extracted data. We resolved disagreements by discussion. Six studies with a combined total of 3436 participants met the inclusion criteria. Five studies compared extended prophylaxis versus placebo: three compared warfarin versus placebo, and two compared aspirin versus placebo. One study compared one type of extended prophylaxis (rivaroxaban) versus another type of extended prophylaxis (aspirin). For extended prophylaxis versus placebo, we downgraded the quality of the evidence for recurrent VTE and all-cause mortality to moderate owing to concerns arising from risks of selection and performance bias

  3. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  4. Safety and potential anticoagulant effects of nebulised heparin in burns patients with inhalational injury at Singapore General Hospital Burns Centre.

    PubMed

    Yip, Lian Yee; Lim, Yen Fang; Chan, Hong Ngee

    2011-11-01

    Nebulised heparin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and salbutamol were shown to decrease reintubation rates, incidence of atelectasis and mortality in paediatric patients and reduce lung injury scores in adult burns patients with inhalational lung injury (ILI). Nebulised heparin, NAC and salbutamol treatment protocol was introduced in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burns Centre in 2006. However, safety data on the use of nebulised heparin and NAC for burns patients with ILI is not well established. In this study, we investigated the safety and potential anticoagulant effects of nebulised heparin in burns patients with ILI. A retrospective study with historical control was conducted. The treatment group consisted of 52 mechanically ventilated adult patients, with a diagnosis of ILI as confirmed by bronchoscopy, admitted to burn intensive care unit (BICU) from the year 2006 to 2009. The group was treated with nebulised heparin, NAC and salbutamol. The control group consists of 11 mechanically ventilated BICU ILI patients treated from year 2001 to 2005 before protocol initiation. Blood coagulation indices (prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and platelet count) were monitored and bleeding incidences were assessed. Blood coagulation indices did not suggest an increase risk of bleeding with nebulised heparin. The APTT, PT and platelet count followed a similar trend for both groups over 7 days. No clinically significant increase in bleeding risk was found to be associated with nebulised heparin. Nebulised heparin was not found to potentiate the risk of bleeding in burns patients with ILI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass burgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Kirilova, Kremena; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the cerebroprotective effect of piracetam on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients scheduled for elective, primary and isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomised either to piracetam or placebo group. The study was performed in a double blind fashion. Patients received either 12 g piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total number of 120 patients were enrolled into the study. Preoperative overall cognitive function were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed a deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (placebo-pre: -0.06+/-0.99 vs placebo-post: -1.38+/-1.11; p<0.0005 and piracetam-pre: 0.06+/-1.02 vs piracetam-post: -0.65+/-0.93; p<0.0005). However, the piracetam patients performed significantly better compared to the placebo patients after the operation and had a less decline of overall cognitive function (p<0.0005). Piracetam has a cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. It reduces an early postoperative substantial decline of neuropsychological abilities.

  6. Quality of Life in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Vlachou, Eugenia; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2017-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, it is expected that 60% of all cases of cancer will be detected in elderly patients in the next two decades. Cancer treatment for older persons is complicated by a number of factors, thus negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate quality of life in elderly cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study was descriptive and non-experimental. It was conducted in one large hospital in a major city of Northern Greece. The sample was convenience comprising 53 elderly cancer patients undergoing cycle 3 chemotherapy. The data was collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale and included questions related to demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of participants were men (n = 27, 50.9%) who were married (n = 32, 79.5%). Their mean age was 70.07 ± 3.60. Almost half of the sample (n = 30, 56.6%) had colon cancer. There was a statistical significant difference between men and women pertaining to physical wellbeing (p = 0.004) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). When comparing each subscale with the patients' marital status it was found that there was a statistical difference with respect to social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029), functional wellbeing (p = 0.09) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). Moreover, the type of cancer affected overall quality of life (p < 0.001) and social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029). These findings call attention to quality of life and its related factors in elderly cancer patients. It is highly recommended to envisage measures for improving quality of life in this group of cancer patients.

  7. Tranexamic Acid in Patients Undergoing Coronary-Artery Surgery.

    PubMed

    Myles, Paul S; Smith, Julian A; Forbes, Andrew; Silbert, Brendan; Jayarajah, Mohandas; Painter, Thomas; Cooper, D James; Marasco, Silvana; McNeil, John; Bussières, Jean S; McGuinness, Shay; Byrne, Kelly; Chan, Matthew T V; Landoni, Giovanni; Wallace, Sophie

    2017-01-12

    Tranexamic acid reduces the risk of bleeding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but it is unclear whether this leads to improved outcomes. Furthermore, there are concerns that tranexamic acid may have prothrombotic and proconvulsant effects. In a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned patients who were scheduled to undergo coronary-artery surgery and were at risk for perioperative complications to receive aspirin or placebo and tranexamic acid or placebo. The results of the tranexamic acid comparison are reported here. The primary outcome was a composite of death and thrombotic complications (nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, renal failure, or bowel infarction) within 30 days after surgery. Of the 4662 patients who were enrolled and provided consent, 4631 underwent surgery and had available outcomes data; 2311 were assigned to the tranexamic acid group and 2320 to the placebo group. A primary outcome event occurred in 386 patients (16.7%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 420 patients (18.1%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.05; P=0.22). The total number of units of blood products that were transfused during hospitalization was 4331 in the tranexamic acid group and 7994 in the placebo group (P<0.001). Major hemorrhage or cardiac tamponade leading to reoperation occurred in 1.4% of the patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 2.8% of the patients in the placebo group (P=0.001), and seizures occurred in 0.7% and 0.1%, respectively (P=0.002 by Fisher's exact test). Among patients undergoing coronary-artery surgery, tranexamic acid was associated with a lower risk of bleeding than was placebo, without a higher risk of death or thrombotic complications within 30 days after surgery. Tranexamic acid was associated with a higher risk of postoperative seizures. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; ATACAS Australia New Zealand

  8. Patient Factors But Not the Use of Novel Anticoagulants or Warfarin Are Associated With Internal Jugular Vein Access-Site Hematoma After Right Heart Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Dasa, Osama; Shafiq, Qaiser; Ruzieh, Mohammed; Alhazmi, Luai; Al-Dabbas, Maen; Ammari, Zaid; Khouri, Samer; Moukarbel, George

    2017-12-01

    Right heart catheterization (RHC) is routinely performed to assess hemodynamics. Generally, anticoagulants are held prior to the procedure. At our center, anticoagulants are continued and ultrasound guidance is always used for internal jugular vein access. A micropuncture access kit is used to place a 5 or 6 Fr sheath using the modified Seldinger technique. Manual compression is applied for 10-15 min and the patient is observed for at least 2 hours after the procedure. In a retrospective analysis, we investigated the risk of bleeding complications associated with RHC via the internal jugular vein in patients with and without full anticoagulation. Our catheterization laboratory database was searched for adult patients who underwent RHC by a single operator between January 2012 and December 2015. A total of 571 patients were included in the analysis. Baseline characteristics, labs, relevant invasive hemodynamics, co-morbid conditions, and incidence of access-site hematoma are presented. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed using IBM SPSS v. 23.0 software. Statistically significant associations with access-site hematoma were observed with body mass index (P=.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.1), right atrial pressure (P=.03; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9), and dialysis dependence (P<.01; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). There was no association of access-site hematoma with the use of anticoagulants (P>.99). The incidence of internal jugular vein access-site hematoma is small when using careful access techniques for RHC even with the continued use of novel oral anticoagulants and warfarin. Patient characteristics and co-morbid conditions are related to bleeding complications.

  9. Aspirin Compared to Low Intensity Anticoagulation in Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Fernando J.; Gonzalez, Joaquín P.; Gándara, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its lack of efficacy, aspirin is commonly used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Since prior studies have suggested a benefit of low-intensity anticoagulation over aspirin in the prevention of vascular events, the aim of this systematic review was to compare the outcomes of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with low-intensity anticoagulation with Vitamin K antagonists or aspirin. Methods We conducted a systematic review searching Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1946 to October 14th, 2015. Randomized controlled trials were included if they reported the outcomes of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with a low-intensity anticoagulation compared to patients treated with aspirin. The primary outcome was a combination of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism. The random-effects model odds ratio was used as the outcome measure. Results Our initial search identified 6309relevant articles of which three satisfied our inclusion criteria and were included. Compared to low-intensity anticoagulation, aspirin alone did not reduce the incidence of ischemic stroke or systemic embolism OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.57–1.56), major bleeding OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.42–2.62) or vascular death OR 1.04 (95% CI 0.61–1.75). The use of aspirin was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.12–2.48). Conclusion In patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, aspirin provides no benefits over low-intensity anticoagulation. Furthermore, the use of aspirin appears to be associated with an increased risk in all-cause mortality. Our study provides more evidence against the use aspirin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. PMID:26561858

  10. Effects of baseline and early acquired thrombocytopaenia on long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with bivalirudin.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ziad A; Qureshi, Yasir H; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Poludasu, Shyam; Roye, Swathi; Krishnan, Prakash; Zalewski, Adrian; Shah, Zainab Z; Bhatti, Navdeep; Kalapatapu, Kumar; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2016-04-08

    Bivalirudin use as a procedural anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with a lower incidence of thrombocytopaenia compared to other antithrombotic agents. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of baseline thrombocytopaenia and early changes in platelet counts among patients undergoing PCI with exclusive use of bivalirudin. We evaluated 7,505 patients who underwent PCI over a period of eight years. Patients who received unfractionated heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors were specifically excluded. Eight hundred and fifty-eight (11.4%) patients had baseline thrombocytopaenia and 451 (6.0%) developed acquired thrombocytopaenia. After adjustment for potential covariates, moderate to severe acquired thrombocytopaenia was the strongest independent predictor (HR 4.34, 95% CI: 2.13-8.84; p<0.001) of in-hospital net adverse clinical events, which included major adverse cardiac events and major bleeding complications. Age, male gender, baseline platelet count and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion were independent predictors of in-hospital acquired thrombocytopaenia. After a mean follow-up of 2.6±1.7 years, moderate to severe baseline thrombocytopaenia (HR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.79-3.29; p<0.001), moderate to severe acquired thrombocytopaenia (HR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.13-4.97; p=0.02) and severe changes in platelet count (>67 k) were significant predictors of mortality. In patients undergoing PCI with bivalirudin, moderate to severe baseline and acquired thrombocytopaenia along with severe changes in platelet count are associated with higher long-term mortality.

  11. Post-recurrence chemotherapy for mesothelioma patients undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Kuribayash, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    Additional chemotherapy is often not feasible in patients with recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), due to deteriorated cardiopulmonary reserve. We thus examined the feasibility and efficacy of additional chemotherapy in patients with recurrent MPM after EPP. A retrospective review was conducted of 59 consecutive patients who underwent bi-/tri-modal treatment with induction chemotherapy, EPP, and radiation therapy from July 2004 to August 2013 at Hyogo College of Medicine (Nishinomiya, Japan). Of 59 patients, 39 (male/female = 31/8, right/left = 15/24, pathological stage I/II/III/IV = 1/7/23/3, bi-/tri-modality = 27/12) relapsed at a median age of 62 (range 37-71) years. The median time to recurrence after EPP was 11.6 months. Of the 39 relapsed patients, 12 received best supportive care alone, six started but discontinued chemotherapy, and the remaining 21 (53%) completed more than three cycles of intravenous chemotherapy. The median survival time after EPP was significantly longer in 21 patients who received additional chemotherapy than in 18 patients who did not (39.2 vs. 12.2 months, P = 0.009). Additional systemic chemotherapy was successfully administered in more than 50% of relapsed patients after bi-/tri-modal treatment, which included EPP, and resulted in a longer survival in comparison with best supportive care alone.

  12. Clinical Outcomes and History of Fall in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Oral Anticoagulation: Insights From the ARISTOTLE Trial.

    PubMed

    Rao, Meena P; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Hylek, Elaine M; Hanna, Michael; Wallentin, Lars; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Granger, Christopher B

    2018-03-01

    We assessed outcomes among anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling, and whether the benefits of apixaban vs warfarin are consistent in this population. Of the 18,201 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) study, 16,491 had information about history of falling-753 with history of falling and 15,738 without history of falling. The primary efficacy outcome was stroke or systemic embolism; the primary safety outcome was major bleeding. When compared with patients without a history of falling, patients with a history of falling were older, more likely to be female and to have dementia, cerebrovascular disease, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis, fractures, and higher CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, prior Stroke or TIA or thromboembolism, Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category female) and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal and liver function, Stroke, Bleeding, Labile international normalized ratio, Elderly, Drugs or alcohol) scores. Patients with a history of falling had higher rates of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.84; P = .020), including intracranial bleeding (adjusted HR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.43; P = .044) and death (adjusted HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.36-2.14; P < .0001), but similar rates of stroke or systemic embolism and hemorrhagic stroke. There was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban compared with warfarin on any outcome, regardless of history of falling. Among those with a history of falling, subdural bleeding occurred in 5 of 367 patients treated with warfarin and 0 of 386 treated with apixaban. Patients with atrial fibrillation and a history of falling receiving anticoagulation have a higher risk of major bleeding, including intracranial, and death. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared

  13. Incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  15. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1-5) and 6 to 20 (area 6-20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  16. Direct oral anticoagulants for extended thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients: meta-analysis and risk/benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Al Yami, Majed S; Kurdi, Sawsan; Abraham, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Standard-duration (7-10 days) thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin, low dose unfractionated heparin, or fondaparinux in hospitalized medically ill patients is associated with ~50% reduction in venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. However, these patients remain at high risk for VTE post-discharge. The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) apixaban, rivaroxaban and betrixaban have been evaluated for extended-duration (30-42 days) thromboprophylaxis in this population. We review the efficacy and safety results from the 3 pivotal trials of extended-duration DOAC thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients. We performed a meta-analysis of these pivotal trials focusing on 6 VTE (efficacy) and three bleeding outcomes (safety). These results were integrated into a quantitative risk/benefit assessment. The trials evaluating extended-duration DOAC thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients failed to establish clear efficacy and/or safety signals for each agent. Our meta-analysis shows that, as a class, DOACs have selective and partial extended-duration prophylactic activity in preventing VTE events. However, this is associated with a marked increase in the risk of various bleeding events. The risk/benefit analyses fail to show a consistent net clinical benefit of extended-duration DOAC prophylaxis in medically ill patients. At this time, the evidence of safe and effective extended-duration thromboprophylaxis with DOACs in this population is inconclusive.

  17. Direct oral anticoagulant use in patients with thrombophilia, antiphospholipid syndrome or venous thrombosis of unusual sites: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Laurent; Benhamou, Ygal; Béjot, Yannick; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Cheggour, Saida; Aleil, Boris; Lellouche, Nicolas; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; Delluc, Aurélien

    2018-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are indicated in the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the use of DOACs in unusual VTE, including cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and splanchnic venous thrombosis (SVT), and in patients with biological thrombophilia including minor thrombophilia (Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A), major innate thrombophilia (protein C and S deficiency, and antithrombin) and major acquired thrombophilia (antiphospholipid syndrome [APS]), remains controversial due to the paucity of available data. There are some reports of DOACs use in the initial treatment or long-term maintenance of patients with either CVT or SVT, but their efficacy remains unclear. The efficacy of DOACs may be suitable in patients with biological minor or major thrombophilia. The use of DOACs for the long-term maintenance of patients with APS is more contentious. Randomized clinical trials, which are currently underway, should offer definitive insight into the efficacy and safety profiles of DOACs in these patient populations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Warfarin Patients With Anemia Show Trend of Out-of-Range International Normalized Ratio Frequency With Point-of-Care Testing in an Anticoagulation Clinic.

    PubMed

    DeRemer, Christina E; McMichael, Bliss; Young, Henry N

    2018-01-01

    Many factors influence international normalized ratio (INR); however, few studies have examined the impact of anemia in warfarin patients. The primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship between in-clinic anemia and the control of INR within an anticoagulation clinic. A retrospective chart review was performed on a random sample of patients seen in an academic medical center pharmacy-managed anticoagulation clinic. Hemochron® Signature Elite machine was utilized to monitor point-of-care (POC) INR. In-clinic anemia was defined as hematocrit <32%. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA MP a webbased platform ( https://www.stata.com/statamp/ ). Of the 300 patients analyzed, 45 (15%) patients had in-clinic anemia. Patients with in-clinic anemia were more likely to be younger ( P < .05), female ( P < .05), and have a diagnosis of sickle cell disease or anemia ( P < .05). In the unadjusted logistic regression model, patients with in-clinic anemia were less likely to have an in-range INR ( OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.27-0.98). The adjusted regression model did not show significance. Study results suggest that in-clinic anemia may be more prevalent among younger, female patients prescribed warfarin, and patients diagnosed with in-clinic anemia may be a risk factor for out-of-range INR. Pharmacists practicing in anticoagulation clinics can incorporate this information into patient care practice in efforts to maintain optimal management.

  19. Direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin for preventing stroke and systemic embolic events among atrial fibrillation patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kimachi, Miho; Furukawa, Toshi A; Kimachi, Kimihiko; Goto, Yoshihito; Fukuma, Shingo; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2017-11-06

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), which is more prevalent among CKD patients than the general population. AF causes stroke or systemic embolism, leading to increased mortality. The conventional antithrombotic prophylaxis agent warfarin is often prescribed for the prevention of stroke, but risk of bleeding necessitates regular therapeutic monitoring. Recently developed direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are expected to be useful as alternatives to warfarin. To assess the efficacy and safety of DOAC including apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban versus warfarin among AF patients with CKD. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register (up to 1 August 2017) through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Specialised Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which directly compared the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (direct thrombin inhibitors or factor Xa inhibitors) with dose-adjusted warfarin for preventing stroke and systemic embolic events in non-valvular AF patients with CKD, defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) or eGFR between 15 and 60 mL/min (CKD stage G3 and G4). Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed quality, and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between anticoagulant therapy and all strokes and systemic embolic events as the primary efficacy outcome and major bleeding events as the primary safety outcome. Confidence in the evidence was assessing using GRADE. Our review included 12,545 AF participants with CKD from five studies. All participants were randomised to either DOAC (apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban

  20. Controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lígia de Albuquerque; Silva, Pedro Leme; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-06-01

    The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes. Expert commentary: Before determining the ideal intraoperative ventilation strategy, it is important to analyze the pathophysiology and comorbidities of each obese patient. Protective ventilation with low tidal volume, driving pressure, energy, and mechanical power should be employed during surgery; however, further studies are required to clarify the most effective ventilation strategies, such as the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure and whether recruitment maneuvers minimize lung injury. In this context, an ongoing trial of intraoperative ventilation in obese patients (PROBESE) should help determine the mechanical ventilation strategy that best improves clinical outcome in patients with body mass index≥35kg/m 2 .

  1. Clinical events after interruption of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation: An analysis from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Ruff, Christian T; Nordio, Francesco; Deenadayalu, Naveen; Shi, Minggao; Lanz, Hans; Rutman, Howard; Mercuri, Michele F; Antman, Elliott M; Braunwald, Eugene; Giugliano, Robert P

    2018-04-15

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who interrupt anticoagulation are at high risk of thromboembolism and death. Patients enrolled in the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 trial (randomized comparison of edoxaban vs. warfarin) who interrupted study anticoagulant for >3 days were identified. Clinical events (ischemic stroke/systemic embolism, major cardiac and cerebrovascular events [MACCE]) were analyzed from day 4 after interruption until day 34 or study drug resumption. During 2.8 years median follow-up, 13,311 (63%) patients interrupted study drug for >3 days. After excluding those who received open-label anticoagulation during the at-risk window, the population for analysis included 9148 patients. The rates of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and MACCE post interruption were substantially greater than in patients who never interrupted (15.42 vs. 0.26 and 60.82 vs. 0.36 per 100 patient-years, respectively, p adj  < .001). Patients who interrupted study drug for an adverse event (44.1% of the cohort), compared to those who interrupted for other reasons, had an increased risk of MACCE (HR adj 2.75; 95% CI 2.02-3.74, p < .0001), but similar rates of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism. Rates of clinical events after interruption of warfarin and edoxaban were similar. Interruption of study drug was frequent in patients with AF and was associated with a substantial risk of major cardiac and cerebrovascular events over the ensuing 30 days. This risk was particularly high in patients who interrupted as a result of an adverse event; these patients deserve close monitoring and resumption of anticoagulation as soon as it is safe to do so. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Infected Bile Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, Shannon L.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Patel, Aalpen

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Patients may not achieve a clinical benefit after percutaneous cholecystostomy due to the inherent difficulty in identifying patients who truly have infected gallbladders. We attempted to identify imaging and biochemical parameters which would help to predict which patients have infected gallbladders. Methods. A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy for clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis in whom bile culture results were available. Multiple imaging and biochemical variables were examined alone and in combination as predictors of infected bile, using logistic regression. Results. Of the 52 patients, 25 (48%) had infected bile. Organisms cultured included Enterococcus,more » Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Citrobacter and Candida. No biochemical parameters were significantly predictive of infected bile; white blood cell count >15,000 was weakly associated with greater odds of infected bile (odds ratio 2.0, p = NS). The presence of gallstones, sludge, gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid by ultrasound or CT were not predictive of infected bile, alone or in combination, although a trend was observed among patients with CT findings of acute cholecystitis toward a higher 30-day mortality. Radionuclide scans were performed in 31% of patients; all were positive and 66% of these patients had infected bile. Since no patient who underwent a radionuclide scan had a negative study, this variable could not be entered into the regression model due to collinearity. Conclusion. No single CT or ultrasound imaging variable was predictive of infected bile, and only a weak association of white blood cell count with infected bile was seen. No other biochemical parameters had any association with infected bile. The ability of radionuclide scanning to predict infected bile was higher than that of ultrasound or CT. This study illustrates the continued challenge to identify bacterial

  3. Measuring patient trust in telemedicine services: Development of a survey instrument and its validation for an anticoagulation web-service.

    PubMed

    Velsen, Lex van; Tabak, Monique; Hermens, Hermie

    2017-01-01

    For many eServices, end-user trust is a crucial prerequisite for use. For the telemedicine context however, knowledge about the coming about and measurement of end-user trust is scarce. To develop and validate the PAtient Trust Assessment Tool (PATAT): a survey instrument to quantitatively assess patient trust in a telemedicine service. Informed by focus groups, we developed a survey that includes measurement scales for the following factors: trust in the care organization, care professional, treatment, and technology, as well as a scale that assesses a holistic view on trust in the telemedicine service. The survey was completed by 795 patients that use a telemedicine application to manage their anticoagulation treatment. Data were analyzed by means of Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The measurement model yielded good to excellent quality measures, after the removal of one item. The causal model resulted in high explained variance (R 2 =0.68). Trust in healthcare professionals and the treatment had a small effect on overall trust, while trust in the technology displayed a large effect. Trust in the care organization did not result in a significant effect on overall trust. The PATAT is a valid means to assess patient trust in a telemedicine service and can be used to benchmark such a service or to elicit redesign input. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the anticoagulant potential of polysaccharide-rich fractions extracted from macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Adrien, Amandine; Dufour, Delphine; Baudouin, Stanislas; Maugard, Thierry; Bridiau, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticoagulant activity of sulphated polysaccharide-containing extracts of six french edible marine macroalgae. Aqueous extracts of brown (Himanthalia elongata, Laminaria digitata, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus), green (Ulva lactuca) and red (Chondrus crispus) macroalgae were prepared and their biochemical properties were determined, including major biomolecules, sulphate and ash contents. The anticoagulant activity of each extract was investigated using different scales from the specific antithrombin-dependent pathway (anti-Xa and anti-IIa) to the intrinsic and/or common (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, APTT), extrinsic (Prothrombin Time, PT) or common (Thrombin Time, TT) anticoagulant pathways, and compared with those of commercial anticoagulants, heparin and Lovenox®. Laminaria digitata, Fucus vesiculosus and Chondrus crispus extracts showed a significant APTT anticoagulant capacity, only 5-fold lower than that of Lovenox®, which is a pure low molecular weight heparin used as an anticoagulant agent to prevent pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing surgery.

  5. Management and Outcomes of Bleeding Events in Patients in the Emergency Department Taking Warfarin or a Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam J; Quinn, Adam; Dasgupta, Neil; Thode, Henry C

    2017-01-01

    Most comparisons of bleeding patients who are taking warfarin or a non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) have been limited to admitted patients and major bleeding events in well-controlled, clinical trial settings. We describe the clinical characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in patients who are taking warfarin or a NOAC who presented to the emergency department (ED) with any bleeding event. We conducted a structured, retrospective, observational study of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis warfarin- or NOAC-treated patients presenting with any bleeding event to a large, academic ED between January 2012 and March 2015. We used descriptive statistics to summarize baseline characteristics, treatments, and outcomes and performed subgroup analyses based on the type of anticoagulant and site of bleeding. The electronic search yielded 95 cases of patients taking a NOAC (i.e., dabigatran [33], rivaroxaban [32], or abixaban [30]) and 342 patients taking warfarin. Reversal agents were rarely used in all anticoagulant groups. Case fatality rates were similar among warfarin- and NOAC-treated patients for gastrointestinal bleeding (7% vs. 7%) and intracranial hemorrhage (18% vs. 4%), respectively. After adjustment for other factors, only intracranial hemorrhage (odds ratio 4.4; 95% confidence interval 1.4-13.3) was associated with mortality. Despite the rare use of reversal strategies, mortality was low and outcomes were comparable among patients with bleeding events presenting to the ED while taking a NOAC compared with warfarin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fitting the right non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant to the right patient with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: an evidence-based choice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Guang; Pastori, Daniele; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent arrhythmia and is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and systemic embolism (SE). Stroke prevention is a key element for the overall management of AF patients. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, are at least as effective as warfarin in reducing IS/SE with a lower rate of major bleeding. Various analyses from the large Phase III randomized trials demonstrated different efficacy and safety of NOACs in specific subgroups of patients. The randomized trials are supplemented by effectiveness and safety data from real-world observational cohorts following the availability of these drugs for use in everyday clinical practice. Given the clinical heterogeneity of AF patients, the available data from trials and real-world studies allow us to fit the right NOAC to the particular patient's characteristics, with the aim of optimizing outcomes for the individual patient. This review article aims to provide a summary of the evidence on the performance of NOACs in AF patients with specific clinical characteristics. Evidence-based suggestions are presented to provide a simple and viable strategy for clinicians for the choice of a particular NOAC. KEY MESSAGE Given the different performance of the new-oral anticoagulants in patients with the different clinical situation, evidence-based choice of fitting the right new-oral anticoagulants to the patients is provided in this review article.

  7. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  8. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  9. Can patients with schizophrenia undergo renal transplantation with success?

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Saoussen

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a 41-year-old man suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. The patient has been consulting in our psychiatric hospital since he was 29 years old. Eight years later, he developed kidney failure and required peritoneal dialysis. After more than two years, the nephrology team indicated a renal transplantation and his brother suggested giving his kidney. There were no obstacles for transplantation in the immune and histological compatibilities; the psychiatric staff decided to check the patient's compliance with medication. The patient was compliant to all his medications and to the salt-free diet after the transplant operation. Few weeks later, he developed steroid-induced diabetes. Through the last two years, he had psychotic exacerbations with major anxiety and fear of losing the transplant. These relapses were managed by increasing doses of antipsychotics without need for hospitalization. At the present time, three years after transplantation, the nephrologists are decreasing the immunosuppressive agents and the steroids. The renal function is optimum and the diabetes is stabilized. This case exemplifies the potential for schizophrenic patients to undergo renal transplantation and to comply with follow-up medical care through a close cooperation between the patient's family, the psychiatric staff and the nephrology team.

  10. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    Blood clots - lupus anticoagulants; DVT - anticoagulants ... Most often, lupus anticoagulants and aPL are found in people with diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus anticoagulants and ...

  11. Factors affecting bleeding risk during anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: observations from the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, John P; Flaker, Gregory; Waldo, Albert L; Corley, Scott D; Greene, H Leon; Safford, Robert E; Rosenfeld, Lynda E; Mitrani, Gladys; Nemeth, Margit

    2005-04-01

    Stroke and systemic thromboembolism are serious problems for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but their incidence can be substantially reduced by appropriate anticoagulation. Bleeding is the major complication of anticoagulant treatment, and the relative risks for bleeding vs stroke must be considered when starting anticoagulation. The AFFIRM trial included patients with AF and at least one risk factor for stroke, randomly assigning them to either a rate-control or rhythm-control strategy. All patients were initially treated with warfarin. The incidence of protocol-defined major and minor bleeding was documented during follow-up. Variables associated with bleeding were determined using a Cox proportional hazards model, using baseline and time-dependent covariates. The 4060 patients in the AFFIRM trial were followed for an average of 3.5 years. Major bleeding occurred in 260 patients, an annual incidence of approximately 2% per year, with no significant difference between the rate-control and rhythm-control groups. Increased age, heart failure, hepatic or renal disease, diabetes, first AF episode, warfarin use, and aspirin use were significantly associated with major bleeding. Minor bleeding was common in both treatment arms, with 738 patients reporting this problem in one or more visits. Bleeding is a significant problem that complicates management of patients with AF. Risk factors for bleeding can be identified, and knowledge of these risk factors can be used to plan therapy.

  12. Emotional state and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Toshiko; Murata, Hinako; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sakata, Yu; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Aso, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in emotional state and the relationship between emotional state and demographic/clinical factors and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery. Using the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), 90 patients (benign disease: 32, malignancy: 58) were examined on three occasions: before surgery, before discharge, and 3 months after discharge. They were also examined using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) on one occasion before discharge. The scores for the subscales depression, anger, and confusion were the highest after discharge while those for anxiety were the highest before surgery. The average scores of the POMS subscales for all subjects were within the normal range. With regard to the relationship between these emotional states and other factors, multiple regressions showed that the principal determinants of anxiety before surgery were religious belief, psychological symptoms during hospitalization and emotion-oriented (E) coping style; further, it was found that depression after discharge could be explained by chemotherapy, duration of hospitalization, and E coping style. The principal determinants of anger after discharge and vigor before surgery were length of education and E coping style, and severity of disease, chemotherapy, E coping style and task-oriented coping style, respectively. Those of post-discharge fatigue and confusion were length of education, psychological symptoms, and E coping style. In summary it is suggested that the following should be taken into account in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery: anxiety before surgery, depression, anger, and confusion after surgery, including coping styles.

  13. Clinical outcomes of patients with hypothyroidism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Sara, Jaskanwal D.S.; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Gharib, Hossein; Bell, Malcolm R.; Gulati, Rajiv; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results Two thousand four hundred and thirty patients who underwent PCI were included. Subjects were divided into two groups: hypothyroidism ( n = 686) defined either as a history of hypothyroidism or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥5.0 mU/mL, and euthyroidism ( n = 1744) defined as no history of hypothyroidism and/or 0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL. Patients with hypothyroidism were further categorized as untreated ( n = 193), or those taking thyroid replacement therapy (TRT) with adequate replacement (0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL, n = 175) or inadequate replacement (TSH ≥ 5.0 mU/mL, n = 318). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Median follow-up was 3.0 years (interquartile range, 0.5–7.0). After adjustment for covariates, the risk of MACCE and its constituent parts was higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared with those with euthyroidism (MACCE: HR: 1.28, P = 0.0001; myocardial infarction (MI): HR: 1.25, P = 0.037; heart failure: HR: 1.46, P = 0.004; revascularization: HR: 1.26, P = 0.0008; stroke: HR: 1.62, P = 0.04). Compared with untreated patients or those with inadequate replacement, adequately treated hypothyroid patients had a lower risk of MACCE (HR: 0.69, P = 0.005; HR: 0.78, P = 0.045), cardiac death (HR: 0.43, P = 0.008), MI (HR: 0.50, P = 0.0004; HR: 0.60, P = 0.02), and heart failure (HR: 0.50, P = 0.02; HR: 0.52, P = 0.017). Conclusion Hypothyroidism is associated with a higher incidence of MACCE compared with euthyroidism in patients undergoing PCI. Maintaining adequate control on TRT is beneficial in preventing MACCE. PMID:26757789

  14. Clinical outcomes of patients with hypothyroidism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Sara, Jaskanwal D S; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Gharib, Hossein; Bell, Malcolm R; Gulati, Rajiv; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2016-07-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two thousand four hundred and thirty patients who underwent PCI were included. Subjects were divided into two groups: hypothyroidism (n = 686) defined either as a history of hypothyroidism or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥5.0 mU/mL, and euthyroidism (n = 1744) defined as no history of hypothyroidism and/or 0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL. Patients with hypothyroidism were further categorized as untreated (n = 193), or those taking thyroid replacement therapy (TRT) with adequate replacement (0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL, n = 175) or inadequate replacement (TSH ≥ 5.0 mU/mL, n = 318). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Median follow-up was 3.0 years (interquartile range, 0.5-7.0). After adjustment for covariates, the risk of MACCE and its constituent parts was higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared with those with euthyroidism (MACCE: HR: 1.28, P = 0.0001; myocardial infarction (MI): HR: 1.25, P = 0.037; heart failure: HR: 1.46, P = 0.004; revascularization: HR: 1.26, P = 0.0008; stroke: HR: 1.62, P = 0.04). Compared with untreated patients or those with inadequate replacement, adequately treated hypothyroid patients had a lower risk of MACCE (HR: 0.69, P = 0.005; HR: 0.78, P = 0.045), cardiac death (HR: 0.43, P = 0.008), MI (HR: 0.50, P = 0.0004; HR: 0.60, P = 0.02), and heart failure (HR: 0.50, P = 0.02; HR: 0.52, P = 0.017). Hypothyroidism is associated with a higher incidence of MACCE compared with euthyroidism in patients undergoing PCI. Maintaining adequate control on TRT is beneficial in preventing MACCE. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Characteristics and prognosis of patients admitted to a hospital emergency department for traumatic brain injury and with anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuguero, Oriol; Guzman, Marianela; Castañ, Teresa; Forné, Carles; Galindo, Gisela; Pujol, Jesus

    2018-06-10

    To determine mortality and complications of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment in a hospital emergency department. Study of hospital cohorts of the 243 patients who attended with pure TBI to the emergency service of the Arnau de Vilanova University Hospital in Lleida between June 1, 2015 and June 1, 2016. Sociodemographic, clinical and other variables related to clinical management were collected. Presence of complications and in-hospital mortality were registered at 24hours, at 48hours and one week after TBI. Overall, 50.2% of patients were men, with median age of 80.8years, and without CT-scan findings at admission in 62.3% of cases. A total of 14 patients died (5.8%). Overall mortality was associated with comorbidity, with knowledge loss and with fluctuation of the Glasgow comma scale in the acute process. Patients treated with anticoagulants (39.5%) or antiplatelet agents (33.3%) were older, with higher degree of dependency and more comorbidity, but did not present more complications. Without reaching statistical significance, higher mortality was observed during the first week in anticoagulated patients (7.3% vs 4.8%, P=.585) or with antiplatelet treatment (8.6% vs 4.3%, P=.241) with respect to those not treated. No worse results have been observed in number of complications in patients with TBI treated with anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment, so clinical management seems appropriate. The higher mortality could be explained by the greater complexity of these patients. It would be necessary to carry out more studies, preferably prospective with follow-up after discharge, in order to establish causal mechanisms between clinical management and mortality or associated complications to TBI. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the efficacy of a novel tailored vitamin K dosing regimen in lowering the International Normalised Ratio in over-anticoagulated patients: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kampouraki, Emmanouela; Avery, Peter J; Wynne, Hilary; Biss, Tina; Hanley, John; Talks, Kate; Kamali, Farhad

    2017-09-01

    Current guidelines advocate using fixed-doses of oral vitamin K to reverse excessive anticoagulation in warfarinised patients who are either asymptomatic or have minor bleeds. Over-anticoagulated patients present with a wide range of International Normalised Ratio (INR) values and response to fixed doses of vitamin K varies. Consequently a significant proportion of patients remain outside their target INR after vitamin K administration, making them prone to either haemorrhage or thromboembolism. We compared the performance of a novel tailored vitamin K dosing regimen to that of a fixed-dose regimen with the primary measure being the proportion of over-anticoagulated patients returning to their target INR within 24 h. One hundred and eighty-one patients with an index INR > 6·0 (asymptomatic or with minor bleeding) were randomly allocated to receive oral administration of either a tailored dose (based upon index INR and body surface area) or a fixed-dose (1 or 2 mg) of vitamin K. A greater proportion of patients treated with the tailored dose returned to within target INR range compared to the fixed-dose regimen (68·9% vs. 52·8%; P = 0·026), whilst a smaller proportion of patients remained above target INR range (12·2% vs. 34·0%; P < 0·001). Individualised vitamin K dosing is more accurate than fixed-dose regimen in lowering INR to within target range in excessively anticoagulated patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of effectiveness and safety of treatment with apixaban vs. other oral anticoagulants among elderly nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients.

    PubMed

    Deitelzweig, Steven; Luo, Xuemei; Gupta, Kiran; Trocio, Jeffrey; Mardekian, Jack; Curtice, Tammy; Lingohr-Smith, Melissa; Menges, Brandy; Lin, Jay

    2017-10-01

    To compare the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (S/SE) and major bleeding (MB) of elderly (≥65 years of age) nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients initiating apixaban vs. rivaroxaban, dabigatran, or warfarin. NVAF patients with Medicare Advantage coverage in the US initiating oral anticoagulants (OACs, index event) were identified from the Humana database (1 January 2013-30 September 2015) and grouped into cohorts depending on OAC initiated. Propensity score matching (PSM), 1:1, was conducted among patients treated with apixaban vs. each other OAC, separately. Rates of S/SE and MB were evaluated in the follow-up. Cox regressions were used to compare the risk of S/SE and MB between apixaban and each of the other OACs during the follow-up. The matched pairs of apixaban vs. rivaroxaban (n = 13,620), apixaban vs. dabigatran (n = 4654), and apixaban vs. warfarin (n = 14,214) were well balanced for key patient characteristics. Adjusted risks for S/SE (hazard ratio [HR] vs. rivaroxaban: 0.72, p = .003; vs. warfarin: 0.65, p < .001) and MB (HR vs. rivaroxaban: 0.49, p < .001; vs. warfarin: 0.53, p < .001) were significantly lower during the follow-up for patients treated with apixaban vs. rivaroxaban and warfarin. Adjusted risks for S/SE (HR: 0.78, p = .27) and MB (HR: 0.82, p = .23) of NVAF patients treated with apixaban vs. dabigatran trended to be lower, but did not reach statistical significance. In the real-world setting after controlling for differences in patient characteristics, apixaban is associated with significantly lower risk of S/SE and MB than rivaroxaban and warfarin, and a trend towards better outcomes vs. dabigatran among elderly NVAF patients in the US.

  18. Relation of psychological distress to the international normalized ratio in patients with venous thromboembolism with and without oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Von Känel, R; Vökt, F; Biasiutti, F Demarmels; Stauber, S; Wuillemin, W A; Lukas, P S

    2012-08-01

    Psychological distress might affect the international normalized ratio (INR), but effects might vary depending on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. To investigate the association of psychological distress with INR and clotting factors of the extrinsic pathway in patients with and without OAC therapy. We studied 190 patients with a previous venous thromboembolism (VTE); 148 had discontinued OAC therapy and 42 had ongoing OAC therapy. To assess psychological distress, all patients completed validated questionnaires to measure symptoms of depression, anxiety, worrying, anger and hostility. INR, fibrinogen, factor (F)II:C, FV:C, FVII:C and FX:C were measured as part of outpatient thrombophilia work-up. In VTE patients without OAC therapy, the odds of a reduced INR (< 1.00) were significantly increased from 1.5 to 1.8 times for an increase of 1 standard deviation (SD) in symptoms of depression, anxiety, worrying and anger, respectively, after adjusting for gender, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, hematocrit and C-reactive protein. Worrying, anger and hostility also showed significant direct associations with FVII:C. In patients with OAC therapy, INR was unrelated to a negative affect; however, lower FVII:C related to anxiety and worrying as well as lower FX:C related to anger and hostility were observed in patients with OAC therapy compared with those without OAC therapy. Psychological distress was associated with a reduced INR in VTE patients without OAC therapy. The direction of the association between psychological distress and activity in some clotting factors of the extrinsic coagulation pathway might differ depending on whether VTE patients are under OAC therapy or not. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Reduced anticoagulation variability in patients on warfarin monitored with Fiix-prothrombin time associates with reduced thromboembolism: The Fiix-trial.

    PubMed

    Oskarsdóttir, Alma Rut; Gudmundsdottir, Brynja R; Indridason, Olafur S; Lund, Sigrun H; Arnar, David O; Bjornsson, Einar S; Magnusson, Magnus K; Jensdottir, Hulda M; Vidarsson, Brynjar; Francis, Charles W; Onundarson, Pall T

    2017-05-01

    Fiix-prothrombin time (Fiix-PT) differs from traditional PT in being affected by reduced factor (F) II or FX only. In the randomized controlled Fiix-trial, patients on warfarin monitored with Fiix-PT (Fiix-warfarin patients) had fewer thromboembolisms (TE), similar major bleeding (MB) and more stable anticoagulation than patients monitored with PT (PT-warfarin patients). In the current Fiix-trial report we analyzed how reduced anticoagulation variability during Fiix-PT monitoring was reflected in patients with TE or bleeding. Data from 1143 randomized patients was used. We analyzed the groups for anticoagulation intensity (time within target range; TTR), international normalized ratio (INR) variability (variance growth rate B 1 ; VGR) and dose adjustment frequency. We assessed how these parameters associated with clinically relevant vascular events (CRVE), ie TE or MB or clinically relevant non-MB. TTR was highest in Fiix-warfarin patients without CRVE (median 82%;IQR 72-91) and lowest in PT-warfarin patients with TE (62%;56-81). VGR was lowest in Fiix-warfarin patients without CRVE (median VGR B 1 0.17; 95% CI 0.08-0.38) and with TE (0.20;0.07-0.26) and highest in PT-warfarin patients with TE (0.50;0.27-0.90) or MB (0.59;0.07-1.36). The mean annual dose adjustment frequency was lowest in Fiix-warfarin patients with TE (mean 5.4;95% CI 3.9-7.3) and without CRVE (mean 6.0; 5.8-6.2) and highest in PT-warfarin patients with TE (14.2;12.2-16.3). Frequent dose changes predicted MB in both study arms. Compared to patients monitored with PT, high anticoagulation stability in Fiix-warfarin patients coincided with their low TE rate. Those with bleeding had high variability irrespective of monitoring method. Thus, although further improvements are needed to reduce bleeding, stabilization of anticoagulation by Fiix-PT monitoring associates with reduced TE.

  20. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-05-25

    Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate with placebo among patients with a

  1. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LIFE QUALITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963

  2. Cardiovascular Impact in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: Clinical Management Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Francis, Gary S.; Tang, W.H. Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. PMID:28108129

  3. Determinants of compliance behaviours among patients undergoing hemodialysis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yoke Mun; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hii, Sing Ziunn

    2012-01-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This was a cross-sectional study which employed purposive sampling design. A total of 188 respondents were recruited from 14 dialysis centres in Malaysia between 2008-2011. Self-reported compliance behaviours and biochemical measurements were used as evaluation tools. Compliance rates of dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis were 27.7%, 24.5%, 66.5% and 91.0%, respectively. Younger, male, working patients and those with longer duration on hemodialysis were found more likely to be non-compliant. Lacks of adequate knowledge, inadequate self-efficacy skills, forgetfulness and financial constraints were the major perceived barriers towards better compliance to fluid, dietary, medication and dialysis, respectively. Healthcare professionals should recognise the factors hindering compliance from the patients' perspective while assisting them with appropriate skills in making necessary changes possible.

  4. Cardiovascular impact in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: Clinical management considerations.

    PubMed

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Francis, Gary S; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Undiagnosed hereditary angioedema in a patient undergoing emergency caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yukihiko; Kamei, Masataka; Jyujou, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Chinami; Katsuragi, Shinji; Onishi, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of localized edema. Surgical procedures, trauma, and infections have been considered as potential triggers of HAE. Although HAE is a rare genetic disorder, approximately 50-60% of all HAE patients are involved with at least one occurrence of upper airway obstruction. The airway trouble is the most life-threating complication in HAE patients because HAE-related edema does not respond to typical treatment, such as administration of epinephrine, antihistamines, or glucocorticoids. Indeed, mortality rates of laryngeal attack are estimated around 25% to 40%. Here we describe a case of undiagnosed HAE patient undergoing emergency caesarean section under neuraxial blockade. A 31-year-old woman showed multiple regions at her lip margin during surgery and rapidly developed lip swelling after admission to the ward. Neither respiratory nor hemodynamic instability was found during and after surgery. Immediately, in order to assess whether HAE caused these dermatological manifestations, we measured values of both complement component 4 (C4) and functional activity of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh), a protein of the complement system. These laboratory data showed low levels, which were compatible with HAE definition. After commencement of C1-inhibitor replacement therapy, her lip swelling and erythema gradually disappeared without adverse drug reactions. The patient was finally discharged from our institution 10 days after surgery.

  6. The role of oral anticoagulants in epistaxis.

    PubMed

    Buchberger, A M S; Baumann, A; Johnson, F; Peters, N; Piontek, G; Storck, K; Pickhard, A

    2018-06-23

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify the impact of oral anticoagulants on epistaxis with the focus on new oral anticoagulants. The study was conducted at the Department  for Ear- Nose- and Throat (ENT), Head and Neck Surgery, Technical University Munich, Germany. All patients presenting in 2014 with the diagnosis of epistaxis to a specialized ENT accident and emergency department were identified and analyzed in clinical data and medication. 600 adult cases, with a median age of 66.6 years were identified with active bleeding. 66.8% of all cases were anticoagulated. Classic oral anticoagulants (COAC) were three times more common in patients than new-generation oral anticoagulants (NOAC). Recurrent bleeding was significantly associated with oral anticoagulants (OAC) (p = 0.014) and bleeding location was most often anterior (p = 0.006). In contrast, severe cases, which required surgery or embolization were significantly more likely in non-anticoagulated middle-aged patients with posterior bleedings (p < 0.05). In our epistaxis cohort, OAC were highly overrepresented (40%) when compared to the general German population (1%) but COAC as well as NOAC played only a minor role in severe courses of epistaxis. Oral anticoagulation, especially with new-generation drugs, is not associated with more complicated and severe courses of epistaxis, but rather with recurrent bleeding. One should keep this information in mind when triaging the patient in the emergency room and when planning further procedures.

  7. Managing bleeding and emergency reversal of newer oral anticoagulants: a review for primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Peacock, W Frank

    2014-10-01

    The therapeutic landscape for anticoagulation management is undergoing a shift from the use of traditional anticlotting agents such as heparins and warfarin as the only options to the growing adoption of newer target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) with novel mechanisms of action. Dabigatran, the first TSOAC approved for use in the United States, is a direct competitive inhibitor of thrombin. It has predictable kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 12 to 17 hours in healthy volunteers. Apixaban and rivaroxaban are selective inhibitors of factor Xa, and also display first-order kinetics. In younger healthy individuals, apixaban has an apparent half-life of approximately 12 hours, whereas rivaroxaban has an elimination half-life of 5 to 9 hours. Understanding the pharmacologic properties of these newer drugs can lead to better insights regarding their respective safety and efficacy profiles and their application in clinical practice. Laboratory assessments have been developed to measure the anticoagulant efficacy of these newer agents. However, the results of these tests can be highly variable, and are therefore not always useful for monitoring the anticoagulation effects of these agents. In addition, several strategies have been documented for the potential reversal of the anticoagulant effects of these drugs, from the temporary discontinuation of an agent before elective surgery to suggested emergency procedures in the case of major bleeding events. New, specific reversal agents for dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban are currently being developed, and dabigatran has received fast-track designation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Until comprehensive clinical guidelines are developed, institutions involved in emergency care should establish their own procedures for the management of patients undergoing anticoagulation who require emergency treatment. These protocols should include appropriate laboratory testing to assess anticoagulant activity

  8. Budget impact analysis of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients: the MonaldiVert Economic Study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Vincenzo; Rago, Anna; Papa, Andrea A; Bianchi, Valter; Tavoletta, Vincenzo; DE Vivo, Stefano; Cavallaro, Ciro; Nigro, Gerardo; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Rivaroxaban is the first novel oral anticoagulant to receive regulatory approval for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients who require cardioversion. The MonaldiVert real life experience showed positive benefit-risk profile of short term rivaroxaban administration for transesophageal echocardiogram guided cardioversion in patients who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation. Aim of our study was to perform a budget impact analysis of MonaldiVert anticoagulation strategy for direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients and to compare the following costs borne by the Regional Healthcare System (RHS) with those for a hypothetical cohort of identical patients underwent from the beginning to early rivaroxaban treatment before direct current cardioversion. The mean costs per each NVAF patient treated with VKA strategy and rivaroxaban rescue strategy were € 134.53 and € 189.83, respectively. Considering a hypothetical scenario in which all study population would be treated from the beginning with rivaroxaban (rivaroxaban early strategy), the mean cost per patient would have been € 81.11. The total cost borne by the RHS, including the cost of the cardioversion procedure, for the two therapeutic strategies carried out at Monaldi Hospital (VKA strategy and Rivaroxaban rescue strategy) was € 88,458.53. The total cost would be borne by the RHS for rivaroxaban early strategy, if applied to all study population, would have been € 69,989.15 with a saving of € 18,469.38 compared to the actually applied strategy. Rivaroxaban rescue strategy for transesophageal echocardiography guided direct current cardioversion in NVAF patients, who had not achieved adequate pre-procedural VKA anticoagulation, is an effective and safe strategy, which allows to not delay the procedure, reducing times and wastage of cardioversion slots, without substantial costs increase.

  9. Heat and moisture exchange devices for patients undergoing total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Icuspit, Pearl; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Garg, Shweta; Johnson, Theresa; Deschler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing total laryngectomy face the challenge of an altered anatomy with the resultant changes in quality of life and significant requirements for post-operative care. Increased production of secretions and sputum, the need for ongoing suctioning, and the formation of stomal crusting require meticulous post-operative care. The use of Heat and Moisture Exchange (HME) devices has been shown to decrease the effect of these factors. This article describes the nature of these devices and their use. The literature is reviewed regarding the long term benefits and new data are presented suggesting an immediate post-operative benefit as well. Finally, costs and other considerations for successful use of HME devices are presented.

  10. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of bleeding complications in patients receiving target-specific oral anticoagulants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Crowther, Mark; Isayama, Tetsuya; Lim, Wendy

    2014-10-09

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard of care for treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) have been developed and found to be at least noninferior to VKAs with regard to efficacy, but the risk of bleeding with TSOACs remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase-3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the bleeding side effects of TSOACs compared with VKAs in patients with venous thromboembolism or atrial fibrillation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; conference abstracts; and www.clinicaltrials.gov with no language restriction. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment. Twelve RCTs involving 102 607 patients were retrieved. TSOACs significantly reduced the risk of overall major bleeding (relative risk [RR] 0.72, P < .01), fatal bleeding (RR 0.53, P < .01), intracranial bleeding (RR 0.43, P < .01), clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (RR 0.78, P < .01), and total bleeding (RR 0.76, P < .01). There was no significant difference in major gastrointestinal bleeding between TSOACs and VKAs (RR 0.94, P = .62). When compared with VKAs, TSOACs are associated with less major bleeding, fatal bleeding, intracranial bleeding, clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, and total bleeding. Additionally, TSOACs do not increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kent, David M; Dahabreh, Issa J; Ruthazer, Robin; Furlan, Anthony J; Weimar, Christian; Serena, Joaquín; Meier, Bernhard; Mattle, Heinrich P; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Schuchlenz, Herwig; Homma, Shunichi; Lutz, Jennifer S; Thaler, David E

    2015-09-14

    The preferred antithrombotic strategy for secondary prevention in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) is unknown. We pooled multiple observational studies and used propensity score-based methods to estimate the comparative effectiveness of oral anticoagulation (OAC) compared with antiplatelet therapy (APT). Individual participant data from 12 databases of medically treated patients with CS and PFO were analysed with Cox regression models, to estimate database-specific hazard ratios (HRs) comparing OAC with APT, for both the primary composite outcome [recurrent stroke, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), or death] and stroke alone. Propensity scores were applied via inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding. We synthesized database-specific HRs using random-effects meta-analysis models. This analysis included 2385 (OAC = 804 and APT = 1581) patients with 227 composite endpoints (stroke/TIA/death). The difference between OAC and APT was not statistically significant for the primary composite outcome [adjusted HR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.12] or for the secondary outcome of stroke alone (adjusted HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.44-1.27). Results were consistent in analyses applying alternative weighting schemes, with the exception that OAC had a statistically significant beneficial effect on the composite outcome in analyses standardized to the patient population who actually received APT (adjusted HR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). Subgroup analyses did not detect statistically significant heterogeneity of treatment effects across clinically important patient groups. We did not find a statistically significant difference comparing OAC with APT; our results justify randomized trials comparing different antithrombotic approaches in these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Munemasa; Masuda, Yu; Nakashima, Yoshiteru; Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei; Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kido, Shoji; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2015-08-01

    Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1-120 HU (V120) and 1-5 HU (V5), and the relative value of V5 per V120 expressed as %V5. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V5 and %V5values were significantly larger (p≤0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V5 values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V5 value did not significantly decrease (p=0.07), but V120 value significantly increased (p<0.001) after treatment. However, in patients with IPCs the change rate in %V5 [(subsequent-initial)/initial %V5] showed a better correlation with that in V5 (r=0.94, p<0.001) rate than that in V120 (r=0.19, p=0.19) after treatment. Increased whole lung perfusion (V120) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V5) affect the improvement in the %V5 values after treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  15. Left Atrial Anatomy in Patients Undergoing Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Krum, David; Hare, John; Gilbert, Carol; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Mori, Naoyo; Sra, Jasbir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Left atrial anatomy is highly variable, asymmetric, irregular and three-dimensionally unique. This variability can affect the outcome of atrial ablation. A catalog of anatomic varieties may aid patient selection and ablation approach and provide better tools for left atrial ablation. Methods: We analyzed computed tomography scans from 514 patients undergoing left atrial ablation. Images were processed on Advantage Windows with CardEP™ software (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Measurements of pulmonary vein (PV) ostial size along the long and short axes were made using double oblique cuts, and area of the ostia was calculated. Results: Patients with 2 left (LPV) and 2 right PVs (RPV) (62.6%), 2 LPVs and 3 RPVs (17.3%) and 1 LPV and 2 RPVs (14.2%) made up the three most common variants. In the 2-LPV/2-RPV anatomy, the ostial size and area of the RPVs were larger than their corresponding LPVs (p<0.001), and the ostial size and area of the superior PVs were larger than their corresponding inferior PVs (p<0.001). In the 2-LPV/3-RPV anatomy, the total area of the RPVs was larger than the total area of the LPVs (p<0.001). In the 1-LPV/2-RPV anatomy, the ostial size of the left common PV was larger than either right PV (p<0.007). However, the total area of the RPVs was larger than the area of the left common PV (p<0.002). The left common PV was also larger than any of the left veins in any of the other anatomies. The total PV area between the three most common anatomies was not significantly different. Conclusions: More than 37% of patients have a left atrial anatomy other than 2 left and 2 right PVs. This data may help in designing approaches for left atrial ablation, tailoring the procedure to individual patients and improving ablation tools.

  16. Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Nguyen, Heajung; Shlofmitz, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the angiographic and clinical outcomes of orbital atherectomy to treat severely calcified coronary lesions in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetics have increased risk for death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention. Severely calcified coronary lesions are associated with increased cardiac events. Orbital atherectomy facilitates stent delivery and optimizes stent expansion by modifying severely calcified plaque. Outcomes in diabetic patients who undergo orbital atherectomy have not been reported. Our retrospective multicenter registry included 458 consecutive real-world patients with severely calcified coronary arteries who underwent orbital atherectomy. The primary safety endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. Diabetics represented 42.1% (193/458) of the entire cohort. The primary endpoint was similar in diabetics and non-diabetics (1.0% vs. 3.0%%, P = 0.20), as were 30-day rates of death (0.5% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.41), myocardial infarction (0.5% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.40), target vessel revascularization (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and stroke (0% vs. 0.4%, P > 0.9). Angiographic complications and stent thrombosis rate were low and did not differ between the 2 groups. Diabetics represented a sizeable portion of patients who underwent orbital atherectomy. Diabetics who had severely calcified coronary arteries and underwent orbital atherectomy had low event rates that were similar to non-diabetics. Orbital atherectomy appears to be a viable treatment strategy for diabetic patients. Randomized trials with longer-term follow-up are needed to determine the ideal treatment strategy for diabetics. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Access disparities to Magnet hospitals for patients undergoing neurosurgical operations

    PubMed Central

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon

    2017-01-01

    Background Centers of excellence focusing on quality improvement have demonstrated superior outcomes for a variety of surgical interventions. We investigated the presence of access disparities to hospitals recognized by the Magnet Recognition Program of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) for patients undergoing neurosurgical operations. Methods We performed a cohort study of all neurosurgery patients who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database from 2009–2013. We examined the association of African-American race and lack of insurance with Magnet status hospitalization for neurosurgical procedures. A mixed effects propensity adjusted multivariable regression analysis was used to control for confounding. Results During the study period, 190,535 neurosurgical patients met the inclusion criteria. Using a multivariable logistic regression, we demonstrate that African-Americans had lower admission rates to Magnet institutions (OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58–0.67). This persisted in a mixed effects logistic regression model (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.70–0.83) to adjust for clustering at the patient county level, and a propensity score adjusted logistic regression model (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69–0.82). Additionally, lack of insurance was associated with lower admission rates to Magnet institutions (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68–0.73), in a multivariable logistic regression model. This persisted in a mixed effects logistic regression model (OR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.69–0.74), and a propensity score adjusted logistic regression model (OR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.69–0.75). Conclusions Using a comprehensive all-payer cohort of neurosurgery patients in New York State we identified an association of African-American race and lack of insurance with lower rates of admission to Magnet hospitals. PMID:28684152

  18. Penile Improvement Protocol in Postoperative Management of Patients Undergoing Metoidioplasty.

    PubMed

    Cohanzad, Shahryar

    2016-12-01

    To introduce a postoperative protocol to optimize the final size of the penis in patients undergoing metoidioplasty. Fourteen patients with the mean age of 29.3 years (8-40 ± 11.7), ten female transsexuals (46 xx karyotype) and four with 5-alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome (5ARDS) who had undergone extensive metoidioplasty entered a penile improvement protocol (PIP) between 2007 and 2015 at a specialized clinic in a general hospital in Tehran, Iran. Subjects were thoroughly instructed, rehearsed on the protocol and closely followed for 24 weeks. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. We adapted a popular device, the so-called penile traction device, to accommodate the size of the neo-penis. All patients achieved an increase in their penile length with a mean of 28.42 mm (21-47 ± 6.86). Two subjects developed penile bruises and edema during the protocol implementation. No significant procedural complications were detected in the remaining 12 participants. PIP can be an effective step in increasing the size of the neo-penis in patients who have undergone metoidioplasty. We suggest this procedure to be seriously considered in postoperative management of well-informed and motivated patients to improve the final penile length and function in this population. Larger studies are needed to further validate this protocol. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. The risk of venous thromboembolism with aspirin compared to anticoagulants after hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chu, Janet N; Maselli, Judith; Auerbach, Andrew D; Fang, Margaret C

    2017-07-01

    Recent guidelines include aspirin as an option to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in selected patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery. However, the efficacy of aspirin after arthroplasty has not been well-defined, particularly in more contemporary patient populations. We compared rates of post-operative VTE between patients who received aspirin-only versus anticoagulants after hip or knee arthroplasty, using data from a large US-based administrative database. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 231,780 adults who underwent total knee arthroplasty and 110,621 who underwent total hip arthroplasty in 2009-2012 and who received pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis (aspirin or anticoagulant) within the first 7days after surgery. We compared the risk of post-operative VTE between patients receiving aspirin-only vs. anticoagulants, controlling for clinical and hospital characteristics using multivariable logistic regression with propensity score adjustment. Aspirin-only prophylaxis was administered to 7.5% of patients after knee arthroplasty and 8.0% after hip arthroplasty. Post-operative VTE was diagnosed in 2217 (0.96%) patients after knee arthroplasty and 454 (0.41%) after hip arthroplasty. Compared to anticoagulants, aspirin was not associated with a higher risk for post-operative VTE either after knee arthroplasty (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR] 0.34 [0.24-0.48]) or hip arthroplasty (OR 0.82 [0.45-1.51]). Aspirin was uncommonly administered as the sole prophylactic agent after hip or knee arthroplasty in this study. However, patients who received aspirin-only had similar rates of post-operative VTE compared to patients who received anticoagulants. Further research should focus on distinguishing which patients benefit more from anticoagulants versus aspirin after arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does IV contrast extravasation on CT in anticoagulant-related rectus sheath and iliopsoas hematoma predict hematoma expansion and patient outcomes?

    PubMed

    Landecy, Marie; Paquette, Brice; Revel, Lucie; Behr, Julien; Badet, Nicolas; Delabrousse, Eric

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate if IV contrast extravasation on CT in anticoagulant-related rectus sheath and iliopsoas hematoma predict hematoma expansion and patient outcomes. All patients presented with anticoagulation-related spontaneous IP hematoma or RS hematoma and who underwent contrast-enhanced CT exploration, with injection of a contrast material, from January 2012 to January 2015 in our institution were included in this study. Considering the retrospective nature of our study, our institutional review board judged our study to be exempted from ethical approval and no patient consent was required. Computed tomography (CT) images were retrospectively analyzed blindly of the evolution and treatment of hematomas. The type of muscle involved; the presence of contrast extravasation after contrast injection; the volume of the hematoma, as well as, clinical and biological results (hemoglobin value g/dL); and for each patient, the type of anticoagulation used, patient's treatment and outcomes were noted. The analyses were conducted using R 3.1.0. All statistical tests were 2-sided, and probability values <0.05 were regarded as significant. Sixty-eight patients were reviewed. Among 68 patients, 44 (65%) patients presented spontaneous IP hematoma and 24/68 (35%) a RS hematoma. There were 37 men (54%) and 31 (46%) women, ranging from 39 to 93 years with a median age of 75 years. Hemodynamic instability was statistically associated with IP hematomas and large volume of hematoma (p < 0.001). Only 15 patients had follow-up CT, 10 without and with IV contrast, 2 with IV contrast only, and 3 without contrast. Follow-up CT was performed from J0 to J8. Detection of contrast extravasation did not appear related to hemodynamically instability (p = 0.35), to a neurological deficit (p = 1), or to the increase in the volume of the hematoma on follow-up CT (p = 0.81). The different types of anticoagulant were not related to muscular type more than the other

  1. Text messaging improves preoperative exercise in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lemanu, Daniel P; Singh, Primal P; Shao, Robert Y; Pollock, Terina T; MacCormick, Andrew D; Arroll, Bruce; Hill, Andrew G

    2018-06-25

    To investigate whether a text message intervention improves adherence to preoperative exercise advice prior to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). A single-blinded parallel design 1:1 ratio randomized controlled trial was performed in patients undergoing LSG as a single-stage bariatric procedure for morbid obesity. The intervention group received preoperative daily text messages. The primary outcome was adherence to preoperative exercise advice as assessed by the number of participants partaking in ≥450 metabolic equivalent minutes (METmin -1 ) exercise activity per week preoperatively. Eighty-eight patients were included in the analysis with 44 allocated to each arm. Adherence and exercise activity increased significantly from baseline in the exposure group (EG) but not in the control group (CG). Adherence was significantly higher in the EG at the end of the intervention period compared to the CG. Despite increased exercise activity, there was no improvement in 6-min walk test or surgical recovery. A daily text message intervention improved adherence to preoperative exercise advice, but this did not correlate with improved surgical recovery. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. [Influencing factors of reproduction status of patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy].

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-hui; Zhang, Song-ying; Li, Bai-jia; Wei, Wei; Huang, Dong; Lin, Xiao-na; Lou, Hong-ying

    2013-09-17

    To explore the influencing factors of reproduction status in women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). A total of 278 LM patients were recruited.We retrospectively reviewed the reproduction status of 87 pregnant cases after LM. The correlations of their pregnancy outcomes and such clinical profiles as age, operative techniques, biological characteristics of fibroids (number, type, size and location) were analyzed.No uterine rupture occurred during the gestation period. None of them switched to open surgery due to laparoscopic difficulties. However, one patient had a laparoscopic suture for secondary bleeding of uterine incision. At 3 months post-operation, sonography showed no heterogeneous echo, effusion and hematoma in uterine incision.Incision through uterine cavity occurred intraoperatively in 8 cases, but no intrauterine adhesion was found on hysteroscopy 3 months later. And 87 women became pregnant and the postoperative fertilization time was from 2 months to 5 years. Age influenced the postoperative pregnancy rate.Other factors such as location, number and size of fibroid had no impact on fertility. For achieving a high conception rate and guaranteeing the safety of pregnant women, a clinician should select reasonable surgical approaches, perform accurate anatomical restoration, apply strict hemostasis and choose a right time of conception.

  3. A randomized trial comparing INR monitoring devices in patients with anticoagulation self-management: evaluation of a novel error-grid approach.

    PubMed

    Hemkens, Lars G; Hilden, Kristian M; Hartschen, Stephan; Kaiser, Thomas; Didjurgeit, Ulrike; Hansen, Roland; Bender, Ralf; Sawicki, Peter T

    2008-08-01

    In addition to the metrological quality of international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring devices used in patients' self-management of long-term anticoagulation, the effectiveness of self-monitoring with such devices has to be evaluated under real-life conditions with a focus on clinical implications. An approach to evaluate the clinical significance of inaccuracies is the error-grid analysis as already established in self-monitoring of blood glucose. Two anticoagulation monitors were compared in a real-life setting and a novel error-grid instrument for oral anticoagulation has been evaluated. In a randomized crossover study 16 patients performed self-management of anticoagulation using the INRatio and the CoaguChek S system. Main outcome measures were clinically relevant INR differences according to established criteria and to the error-grid approach. A lower rate of clinically relevant disagreements according to Anderson's criteria was found with CoaguChek S than with INRatio without statistical significance (10.77% vs. 12.90%; P = 0.787). Using the error-grid we found principally consistent results: More measurement pairs with discrepancies of no or low clinical relevance were found with CoaguChek S, whereas with INRatio we found more differences with a moderate clinical relevance. A high rate of patients' satisfaction with both of the point of care devices was found with only marginal differences. A principal appropriateness of the investigated point-of-care devices to adequately monitor the INR is shown. The error-grid is useful for comparing monitoring methods with a focus on clinical relevance under real-life conditions beyond assessing the pure metrological quality, but we emphasize that additional trials using this instrument with larger patient populations are needed to detect differences in clinically relevant disagreements.

  4. Classification and discrimination of pediatric patients undergoing open heart surgery with and without methylprednisolone treatment by cytomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, Jozsef; Mittag, Anja; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Osmancik, Pavel; Dähnert, Ingo; Tárnok, Attila

    2011-02-01

    Introduction: Methylprednisolone (MP) is frequently preoperatively administered in children undergoing open heart surgery. The aim of this medication is to inhibit overshooting immune responses. Earlier studies demonstrated cellular and humoral immunological changes in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgeries with and without MP administration. Here in a retrospective study we investigated the modulation of the cellular immune response by MP. The aim was to identify suitable parameters characterizing MP effects by cluster analysis. Methods: Blood samples were analysed from two aged matched groups with surgical correction of septum defects. Group without MP treatment consisted of 10 patients; MP was administered on 21 patients (median dose: 11mg/kg) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). EDTA anticoagulated blood was obtained 24 h preoperatively, after anesthesia, at CPB begin and end (CPB2), 4h, 24h, 48h after surgery, at discharge and at out-patient followup (8.2; 3.3-12.2 month after surgery; median and IQR). Flow cytometry showed the biggest MP relevant changes at CPB2 and 4h postoperatively. They were used for clustering analysis. Classification was made by discriminant analysis and cluster analysis by means of Genes@work software. Results & conclusion: 146 parameters were obtained from analysis. Cross-validation revealed several parameters being able to discriminate between MP groups and to identify immune modulation. MP administration resulted in a delayed activation of monocytes, increased ratio of neutrophils, reduced T-lymphocytes counts. Cluster analysis demonstrated that classification of patients is possible based on the identified cytomics parameters. Further investigation of these parameters might help to understand the MP effects in pediatric open heart surgery.

  5. Acquired activated protein C resistance is associated with lupus anticoagulants and thrombotic events in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Male, C; Mitchell, L; Julian, J; Vegh, P; Joshua, P; Adams, M; David, M; Andrew, M E

    2001-02-15

    Acquired activated protein C resistance (APCR) has been hypothesized as a possible mechanism by which antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) cause thrombotic events (TEs). However, available evidence for an association of acquired APCR with APLAs is limited. More importantly, an association of acquired APCR with TEs has not been demonstrated. The objective of the study was to determine, in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), whether (1) acquired APCR is associated with the presence of APLAs, (2) APCR is associated with TEs, and (3) there is an interaction between APCR and APLAs in association with TEs. A cross-sectional cohort study of 59 consecutive, nonselected children with SLE was conducted. Primary clinical outcomes were symptomatic TEs, confirmed by objective radiographic tests. Laboratory testing included lupus anticoagulants (LAs), anticardiolipin antibodies (ACLAs), APC ratio, protein S, protein C, and factor V Leiden. The results revealed that TEs occurred in 10 (17%) of 59 patients. Acquired APCR was present in 18 (31%) of 58 patients. Acquired APCR was significantly associated with the presence of LAs but not ACLAs. Acquired APCR was also significantly associated with TEs. There was significant interaction between APCR and LAs in the association with TEs. Presence of both APCR and LAs was associated with the highest risk of a TE. Protein S and protein C concentrations were not associated with the presence of APLAs, APCR, or TEs. Presence of acquired APCR is a marker identifying LA-positive patients at high risk of TEs. Acquired APCR may reflect interference of LAs with the protein C pathway that may represent a mechanism of LA-associated TEs. (Blood. 2001;97:844-849)

  6. Accuracy assessment of pharmacogenetically predictive warfarin dosing algorithms in patients of an academic medical center anticoagulation clinic.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Paul B; Donovan, Jennifer L; Tran, Maichi T; Lemon, Stephenie C; Burgwinkle, Pamela; Gore, Joel

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this retrospective cohort study are to evaluate the accuracy of pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms in predicting therapeutic dose and to determine if this degree of accuracy warrants the routine use of genotyping to prospectively dose patients newly started on warfarin. Seventy-one patients of an outpatient anticoagulation clinic at an academic medical center who were age 18 years or older on a stable, therapeutic warfarin dose with international normalized ratio (INR) goal between 2.0 and 3.0, and cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genotypes available between January 1, 2007 and September 30, 2008 were included. Six pharmacogenetic warfarin dosing algorithms were identified from the medical literature. Additionally, a 5 mg fixed dose approach was evaluated. Three algorithms, Zhu et al. (Clin Chem 53:1199-1205, 2007), Gage et al. (J Clin Ther 84:326-331, 2008), and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium (IWPC) (N Engl J Med 360:753-764, 2009) were similar in the primary accuracy endpoints with mean absolute error (MAE) ranging from 1.7 to 1.8 mg/day and coefficient of determination R (2) from 0.61 to 0.66. However, the Zhu et al. algorithm severely over-predicted dose (defined as >or=2x or >or=2 mg/day more than actual dose) in twice as many (14 vs. 7%) patients as Gage et al. 2008 and IWPC 2009. In conclusion, the algorithms published by Gage et al. 2008 and the IWPC 2009 were the two most accurate pharmacogenetically based equations available in the medical literature in predicting therapeutic warfarin dose in our study population. However, the degree of accuracy demonstrated does not support the routine use of genotyping to prospectively dose all patients newly started on warfarin.

  7. Primary Nonadherence to Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Real-World Data from a Population-Based Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bernal, Clara L; Peiró, Salvador; Hurtado, Isabel; García-Sempere, Aníbal; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel

    2018-05-01

    Primary nonadherence (not filling a first prescription) is an important yet unstudied aspect of adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. To estimate the rates of primary nonadherence to OACs and determine associated factors in real-world practice. This population-based retrospective cohort study set in the Valencia region of Spain (about 5 million inhabitants) included all patients with atrial fibrillation who were newly prescribed OACs during 2011-2014 (N = 18,715). Primary nonadherence was obtained by linking electronic prescription and dispensing data and assessed by type of OAC-vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Covariates were obtained from diverse databases, including electronic medical records. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess characteristics associated with primary nonadherence, adjusting for a propensity score to minimize confounding by indication. Primary nonadherence to OACs was 5.62% (VKA 4.29% vs. NOAC 10.81%; P < 0.001), with varying rates among specific drugs (acenocoumarol 4.2%, warfarin 10.9%, apixaban 5.0%, dabigatran 7.9%, and rivaroxaban 15.5%). After adjusting for potential confounders, the likelihood of not filling the first prescription was higher for NOAC patients than for VKA patients (OR = 2.76, 95% CI = 2.41-3.15). High coinsurance in the older groups (OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.47-4.69 for patients aged 66-75 years and OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.58-5.76 for patients aged > 75 years); being a non-Spanish European (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.12-1.99); and having dementia (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.37-2.16) were positively associated with primary nonadherence. Electronic transmission of prescriptions (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74-0.96); liver disease (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54-0.99); and polypharmacy (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.50-0.70) were inversely associated with primary nonadherence. Overall, primary nonadherence to OACs was relatively low (5%). However, important differences were found between

  8. Speech evaluation after palatal augmentation in patients undergoing glossectomy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho-Teles, Viviane; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara; Gielow, Ingrid

    2008-10-01

    To assess, in patients undergoing glossectomy, the influence of the palatal augmentation prosthesis on the speech intelligibility and acoustic spectrographic characteristics of the formants of oral vowels in Brazilian Portuguese, specifically the first 3 formants (F1 [/a,e,u/], F2 [/o,ó,u/], and F3 [/a,ó/]). Speech evaluation with and without a palatal augmentation prosthesis using blinded randomized listener judgments. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six patients (33 men and 3 women) aged 30 to 80 (mean [SD], 53.9 [10.5]) years underwent glossectomy (14, total glossectomy; 12, total glossectomy and partial mandibulectomy; 6, hemiglossectomy; and 4, subtotal glossectomy) with use of the augmentation prosthesis for at least 3 months before inclusion in the study. Spontaneous speech intelligibility (assessed by expert listeners using a 4-category scale) and spectrographic formants assessment. We found a statistically significant improvement of spontaneous speech intelligibility and the average number of correctly identified syllables with the use of the prosthesis (P < .05). Statistically significant differences occurred for the F1 values of the vowels /a,e,u/; for F2 values, there was a significant difference of the vowels /o,ó,u/; and for F3 values, there was a significant difference of the vowels /a,ó/ (P < .001). The palatal augmentation prosthesis improved the intelligibility of spontaneous speech and syllables for patients who underwent glossectomy. It also increased the F2 and F3 values for all vowels and the F1 values for the vowels /o,ó,u/. This effect brought the values of many vowel formants closer to normal.

  9. Comparing new anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2012-12-01

    For years, the pharmaceutical industry has been trying to find a safe and effective drug to replace warfarin. Although warfarin is an effective anticoagulant, its pharmacology, adverse effects, and risk profiles dictate that patients taking this medication must be monitored judiciously. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved two drugs for commercial use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, that will compete directly with warfarin for use in specific indications. Because of direct marketing to patients, physicians are being asked to comment on these new medications. This brief review illustrates the data available for the two new drugs when compared to warfarin for the specified indications. For some patients, these drugs may be highly beneficial and offer an excellent alternative to warfarin. For others, warfarin may still be the preferred drug.

  10. Geriatric Patient Safety Indicators Based on Linked Administrative Health Data to Assess Anticoagulant-Related Thromboembolic and Hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Older Inpatients: A Study Proposal.

    PubMed

    Le Pogam, Marie-Annick; Quantin, Catherine; Reich, Oliver; Tuppin, Philippe; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Paccaud, Fred; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Burnand, Bernard

    2017-05-11

    Frail older people with multiple interacting conditions, polypharmacy, and complex care needs are particularly exposed to health care-related adverse events. Among these, anticoagulant-related thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events are particularly frequent and serious in older inpatients. The growing use of anticoagulants in this population and their substantial risk of toxicity and inefficacy have therefore become an important patient safety and public health concern worldwide. Anticoagulant-related adverse events and the quality of anticoagulation management should thus be routinely assessed to improve patient safety in vulnerable older inpatients. This project aims to develop and validate a set of outcome and process indicators based on linked administrative health data (ie, insurance claims data linked to hospital discharge data) assessing older inpatient safety related to anticoagulation in both Switzerland and France, and enabling comparisons across time and among hospitals, health territories, and countries. Geriatric patient safety indicators (GPSIs) will assess anticoagulant-related adverse events. Geriatric quality indicators (GQIs) will evaluate the management of anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of arterial or venous thromboembolism in older inpatients. GPSIs will measure cumulative incidences of thromboembolic and bleeding adverse events based on hospital discharge data linked to insurance claims data. Using linked administrative health data will improve GPSI risk adjustment on patients' conditions that are present at admission and will capture in-hospital and postdischarge adverse events. GQIs will estimate the proportion of index hospital stays resulting in recommended anticoagulation at discharge and up to various time frames based on the same electronic health data. The GPSI and GQI development and validation process will comprise 6 stages: (1) selection and specification of candidate indicators, (2) definition of administrative data

  11. Hemodialysis without Systemic Anticoagulation: A Prospective Randomized Trial to Evaluate 3 Strategies in Patients at Risk of Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Guéry, Bruno; Alberti, Corinne; Servais, Aude; Harrami, Elarbi; Bererhi, Lynda; Zins, Brigitte; Touam, Malik; Joly, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this clinical trial, we aimed to compare three means of performing chronic hemodialysis in patients with contra-indication to systemic heparinization. Methods This open-label monocentric randomized « n-of-one » trial, conducted in a single tertiary care center, recruited chronic hemodialysis patients with a contra-indication to systemic heparinization for at least 3 consecutive sessions. All patients underwent hemodialysis with an AN69ST dialyzer, and were administered three alternative dialysis procedures in a random sequence: intermittent saline flushes, constant saline infusion, or pre-dialysis heparin coating of the membrane. The primary outcome was the need to interrupt the dialysis session because of clotting events due to either (i) a complete coagulation of the circuit; (ii) a partial coagulation of the circuit; (iii) a>50% rise over baseline in the venous pressure. Results At the end of the inclusion period (May, 2007 to December, 2008), the number of patients to include (n = 75) was not reached: only 46 patients were included and underwent randomization. The study was terminated, and statistical analysis took into account 224 hemodialysis sessions performed in 44 patients with analyzable data. Heparin adsorption was associated with a significant reduction of the need to interrupt the dialysis session because of clotting events: odds ratio 0.3 (CI 95% 0.2 to 0.6; p<0.001, versus intermittent saline flushes). Heparin adsorption was also associated with higher odds for performing >3 h dialysis sessions and for having complete blood restitution. There were no significant effects of the dialysis procedure on weight loss, online ionic dialysance, and adverse events. Conclusion Heparin-coated AN69ST dialysis membrane is a safe and effective method to avoid or delay per-dialytic clotting events in patients with contra-indication to systemic anticoagulation. However, results are not generalizable safely to patients with active bleeding, since

  12. Edoxaban versus enoxaparin-warfarin in patients undergoing cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (ENSURE-AF): a randomised, open-label, phase 3b trial.

    PubMed

    Goette, Andreas; Merino, Jose L; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Zamoryakhin, Dmitry; Melino, Michael; Jin, James; Mercuri, Michele F; Grosso, Michael A; Fernandez, Victor; Al-Saady, Naab; Pelekh, Natalya; Merkely, Bela; Zenin, Sergey; Kushnir, Mykola; Spinar, Jindrich; Batushkin, Valeriy; de Groot, Joris R; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-10-22

    Edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, is non-inferior for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation and is associated with less bleeding than well controlled warfarin therapy. Few safety data about edoxaban in patients undergoing electrical cardioversion are available. We did a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint evaluation trial in 19 countries with 239 sites comparing edoxaban 60 mg per day with enoxaparin-warfarin in patients undergoing electrical cardioversion of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The dose of edoxaban was reduced to 30 mg per day if one or more factors (creatinine clearance 15-50 mL/min, low bodyweight [≤60 kg], or concomitant use of P-glycoprotein inhibitors) were present. Block randomisation (block size four)-stratified by cardioversion approach (transoesophageal echocardiography [TEE] or not), anticoagulant experience, selected edoxaban dose, and region-was done through a voice-web system. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of stroke, systemic embolic event, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality, analysed by intention to treat. The primary safety endpoint was major and clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding in patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Follow-up was 28 days on study drug after cardioversion plus 30 days to assess safety. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02072434. Between March 25, 2014, and Oct 28, 2015, 2199 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive edoxaban (n=1095) or enoxaparin-warfarin (n=1104). The mean age was 64 years (SD 10·54) and mean CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score was 2·6 (SD 1·4). Mean time in therapeutic range on warfarin was 70·8% (SD 27·4). The primary efficacy endpoint occurred in five (<1%) patients in the edoxaban group versus 11 (1%) in the enoxaparin-warfarin group (odds ratio [OR] 0·46, 95% CI 0·12-1·43). The primary safety endpoint occurred in 16 (1

  13. Educational intervention improves anticoagulation control in atrial fibrillation patients: the TREAT randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Clarkesmith, Danielle E; Pattison, Helen M; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lane, Deirdre A

    2013-01-01

    Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), most commonly with warfarin, requires maintenance of a narrow therapeutic target (INR 2.0 to 3.0) and is often poorly controlled in practice. Poor patient-understanding surrounding AF and its treatment may contribute to the patient's willingness to adhere to recommendations. A theory-driven intervention, developed using patient interviews and focus groups, consisting of a one-off group session (1-6 patients) utilising an "expert-patient" focussed DVD, educational booklet, self-monitoring diary and worksheet, was compared in a randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN93952605) against usual care, with patient postal follow-ups at 1, 2, 6, and 12-months. Ninety-seven warfarin-naïve AF patients were randomised to intervention (n=46, mean age (SD) 72.0 (8.2), 67.4% men), or usual care (n=51, mean age (SD) 73.7 (8.1), 62.7% men), stratified by age, sex, and recruitment centre. Primary endpoint was time within therapeutic range (TTR); secondary endpoints included knowledge, quality of life, anxiety/depression, beliefs about medication, and illness perceptions. Intervention patients had significantly higher TTR than usual care at 6-months (76.2% vs. 71.3%; p=0.035); at 12-months these differences were not significant (76.0% vs. 70.0%; p=0.44). Knowledge increased significantly across time (F (3, 47) = 6.4; p<0.01), but there were no differences between groups (F (1, 47) = 3.3; p = 0.07). At 6-months, knowledge scores predicted TTR (r=0.245; p=0.04). Patients' scores on subscales representing their perception of the general harm and overuse of medication, as well as the perceived necessity of their AF specific medications predicted TTR at 6- and 12-months. A theory-driven educational intervention significantly improves TTR in AF patients initiating warfarin during the first 6-months. Adverse clinical outcomes may potentially be reduced by improving patients' understanding of the necessity of warfarin and reducing their perception

  14. [Blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Wen; Hua, Rui; Zhou, Yao; Li, Hong; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2017-07-20

    To explore the incidence and risk factors of blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 2378 patients who were pregnant following embryo transfer at our center from January, 2012 to December, 2015, including cases of early pregnancy losses and simultaneous live births. The cases with early pregnancy losses were divided into embryonic pregnancy and blighted ovum groups based on the presence or absence of an embryonic pole before dilation and curettage. The clinical data of the 3 groups were analyzed for comparisons of the maternal age, paternal age, BMI, AFC, basal FSH, bFSH/bLH, duration of infertility, Gn dosage, Gn days, serum estradiol on the day of HCG administration, endometrium thickness, number of oocyte retrieved, proportion of high-quality embryos transferred, serum β-HCG value on the 10th to 14th days of embryo transfer, infertility type and miscarriage times. The incidences of blighted ovum were compared between cases with different cycles, embryo stages, infertile factors and methods of fertilization. Maternal age and paternal age, BMI, duration of infertility, infertility type and miscarriage times differed significantly between cases with blighted ovum and those with live births. Serum β-HCG level was the lowest in blighted ovum group followed by embryonic pregnancy group and then by live birth group. Blastocyst transfer was associated with a significantly higher incidence of blighted ovum as compared with cleavage embryo transfer (11.6% vs 5.6%, P=0.000). No significant difference was found in the other parameters among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age, β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer were risk factors of blighted ovum. Advanced maternal age, low β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer may increase the risk of blighted ovum possibly in association with gene imprinting errors during the early stage of

  15. Responsive measures to prehabilitation in patients undergoing bowel resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Jun; Mayo, Nancy E; Carli, Franco; Montgomery, David L; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2009-02-01

    Surgical patients often show physiological and metabolic distress, muscle weakness, and long hospital stays. Physical conditioning might help recovery. We attempted to identify the most responsive measure of aerobic fitness from a four-week pre-surgical aerobic exercise program (prehabilitation) in patients undergoing major bowel resection. Twenty-one subjects randomized two to one (exercise: control) scheduled for colorectal surgery. Fourteen subjects [Body Mass Index (BMI) = 27 +/- 6 kg/m(2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) = 22 +/- 10 ml/kg/min] underwent 3.8 +/- 1.2 weeks (27 +/- 8 sessions) of progressive, structured pre-surgical aerobic exercise training at 40 to 65% of heart rate reserve (%HRR). Peak power output was the only maximal measure that was responsive to training [26 +/- 27%, Effects Size (ES) = 0.24; Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 1.05; p < 0.05]. For the submaximal measures, heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise was most responsive to training (decrease by 13% +/- 15%, ES = -0.24; SRM = -0.57; and 7% +/- 6%, ES = -0.40; SRM -0.97; p < 0.05) at an exercise intensity of 76 +/- 47 W. There was no change to maximal or submaximal measures in the control group. The distance walked over six minutes improved in both groups (by approximately 30 m), but the effect size and t-statistic were higher in the exercise group. Heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise, and peak power output are the most responsive measures to four weeks of prehabilitation in subjects with low initial fitness.

  16. Non–Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Asian Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the cornerstone treatment for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, is limited by the perceived risk of serious bleeding in Asia. Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are safer alternatives. Here, we evaluate performance differences of NOACs between Asians and non-Asians. Methods— We compared efficacy and safety of NOACs between patients enrolled in Asian and non-Asian countries using aggregative data from phase III clinical trials. The odds ratios (ORs [95% confidence interval]) were calculated by a random effects model. Results— Comparing with VKAs, standard-dose NOACs reduced stroke or systemic embolism (OR=0.65 [0.52–0.83] versus 0.85 [0.77–0.93], P interaction= 0.045) more in Asians than in non-Asians and were safer in Asians than in non-Asians about major bleeding (OR=0.57 [0.44–0.74] versus 0.89 [0.76–1.04], P interaction=0.004), hemorrhagic stroke (OR=0.32 [0.19–0.52] versus 0.56 [0.44–0.70], P interaction=0.046) in particular, whereas gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly increased in non-Asians (OR=0.79 [0.48–1.32] versus 1.44 [1.12–1.85], P interaction=0.041). Generally, low-dose NOACs were safer than VKAs without heterogeneity in efficacy and safety between Asians and non-Asians, except for ischemic stroke, major, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Conclusions— Our findings suggest that standard-dose NOACs were more effective and safer in Asians than in non-Asians, whereas low-dose NOACs performed similarly in both populations. PMID:26304863

  17. Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention in Asian Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chiang, Chern-En

    2015-09-01

    The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the cornerstone treatment for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, is limited by the perceived risk of serious bleeding in Asia. Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are safer alternatives. Here, we evaluate performance differences of NOACs between Asians and non-Asians. We compared efficacy and safety of NOACs between patients enrolled in Asian and non-Asian countries using aggregative data from phase III clinical trials. The odds ratios (ORs [95% confidence interval]) were calculated by a random effects model. Comparing with VKAs, standard-dose NOACs reduced stroke or systemic embolism (OR=0.65 [0.52-0.83] versus 0.85 [0.77-0.93], P interaction= 0.045) more in Asians than in non-Asians and were safer in Asians than in non-Asians about major bleeding (OR=0.57 [0.44-0.74] versus 0.89 [0.76-1.04], P interaction=0.004), hemorrhagic stroke (OR=0.32 [0.19-0.52] versus 0.56 [0.44-0.70], P interaction=0.046) in particular, whereas gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly increased in non-Asians (OR=0.79 [0.48-1.32] versus 1.44 [1.12-1.85], P interaction=0.041). Generally, low-dose NOACs were safer than VKAs without heterogeneity in efficacy and safety between Asians and non-Asians, except for ischemic stroke, major, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Our findings suggest that standard-dose NOACs were more effective and safer in Asians than in non-Asians, whereas low-dose NOACs performed similarly in both populations. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. [Current status of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, G L; Lei, X Z

    2017-03-20

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a higher rate of hepatitis C virus infection than the general population, and due to various factors including hemodialysis and immunosuppression, it is difficult to make a diagnosis. The appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents greatly promotes the treatment of hepatitis C, but there are still no adequate data on their effect and safety in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This article discusses the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  19. Geriatric Patient Safety Indicators Based on Linked Administrative Health Data to Assess Anticoagulant-Related Thromboembolic and Hemorrhagic Adverse Events in Older Inpatients: A Study Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Reich, Oliver; Tuppin, Philippe; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Paccaud, Fred; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Burnand, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background Frail older people with multiple interacting conditions, polypharmacy, and complex care needs are particularly exposed to health care-related adverse events. Among these, anticoagulant-related thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events are particularly frequent and serious in older inpatients. The growing use of anticoagulants in this population and their substantial risk of toxicity and inefficacy have therefore become an important patient safety and public health concern worldwide. Anticoagulant-related adverse events and the quality of anticoagulation management should thus be routinely assessed to improve patient safety in vulnerable older inpatients. Objective This project aims to develop and validate a set of outcome and process indicators based on linked administrative health data (ie, insurance claims data linked to hospital discharge data) assessing older inpatient safety related to anticoagulation in both Switzerland and France, and enabling comparisons across time and among hospitals, health territories, and countries. Geriatric patient safety indicators (GPSIs) will assess anticoagulant-related adverse events. Geriatric quality indicators (GQIs) will evaluate the management of anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of arterial or venous thromboembolism in older inpatients. Methods GPSIs will measure cumulative incidences of thromboembolic and bleeding adverse events based on hospital discharge data linked to insurance claims data. Using linked administrative health data will improve GPSI risk adjustment on patients’ conditions that are present at admission and will capture in-hospital and postdischarge adverse events. GQIs will estimate the proportion of index hospital stays resulting in recommended anticoagulation at discharge and up to various time frames based on the same electronic health data. The GPSI and GQI development and validation process will comprise 6 stages: (1) selection and specification of candidate indicators, (2

  20. Increased major bleeding complications related to triple antithrombotic therapy usage in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; Pastor, Francisco J; Marín, Francisco; Cambronero, Francisco; Caro, Cesar; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A; Garrido, Iris P; Pinar, Eduardo; Valdés, Mariano; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2008-09-01

    The optimal antithrombotic therapy strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation (PCI-S) is unknown. We assessed the safety of antithrombotic therapy strategies in AF patients with indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing PCI-S. We studied consecutive AF patients with indication for OAC who underwent PCI-S. We compared patients that received triple antithrombotic therapy (TT) [aspirin, clopidogrel, and coumadin] against other regimes (non-TT) after PCI-S. The primary end point was defined as the occurrence of major bleeding complications that were termed as early major bleeding (EMB) [< or = 48 h] or late major bleeding (LMB) [> 48 h]. Clinical follow-up was performed, and complications were recorded. We studied 104 patients (mean age +/- SD, 72 +/- 8 years; 70% men); TT was used in 51 patients (49%). TT was associated with a higher incidence of LMB (21.6% vs non-TT, 3.8%; p = 0.006) but not of EMB (5.8% vs non-TT, 11.3%; p = 0.33). In multivariate analyses, glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor use (hazard ratio [HR], 13.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 108.3; p = 0.014) and PCI-S of three vessels or left main artery disease (HR, 7.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 39.2; p = 0.01) were independent predictors for EMB. TT use (HR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 32.4; p = 0.012), the occurrence of EMB (HR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.8 to 25.3; p = 0.005), and baseline anemia (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 12.5; p = 0.027) were independent predictors for LMB. No differences in major cardiovascular events were observed in patients treated with TT vs non-TT (25.5% vs 21.0%; p = 0.53). A high rate of major bleeding is observed in AF patients with indication for OAC undergoing PCI-S who receive TT. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and multivessel/left main artery disease during PCI-S were independent predictors for EMB, while TT use, occurrence of EMB, and baseline anemia were independent predictors for LMB.

  1. Implementation of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in daily practice: the need for comprehensive education for professionals and patients.

    PubMed

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Berti, Dana; Campos, Manuel; Desteghe, Lien; Freixo, Ana Parente; Nunes, António Robalo; Roldán, Vanessa; Toschi, Vincenzo; Lassila, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. NOACs do not require routine coagulation monitoring, creating a challenge to established systems for patient follow-up based on regular blood tests. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are required to cope with a mixture of patients receiving either a vitamin K antagonist or a NOAC for the same indications, and both professionals and patients require education about the newer drugs. A European working group convened to consider the challenges facing HCPs and healthcare systems in different countries and the educational gaps that hinder optimal patient management. Group members emphasised the need for regular follow-up and noted national, regional and local variations in set-up and resources for follow-up. Practical incorporation of NOACs into healthcare systems must adapt to these differences, and practical follow-up that works in some systems may not be able to be implemented in others. The initial prescriber of a NOAC should preferably be a true anticoagulation specialist, who can provide initial patient education and coordinate the follow-up. The long-term follow-up care of patients can be managed through specialist coagulation nurses, in a dedicated anticoagulation clinic or by general practitioners trained in NOAC use. The initial prescriber should be involved in educating those who perform the follow-up. Specialist nurses require access to tools, potentially including specific software, to guide systematic patient assessment and workflow. Problem cases should be referred for specialist advice, whereas in cases for which minimal specialist attention is required, the general practitioner could take responsibility for patient follow-up. Hospital departments and anticoagulation clinics should proactively engage with all downstream HCPs (including pharmacists) to ensure

  2. Choosing a particular oral anticoagulant and dose for stroke prevention in individual patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: part 1

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Aisenberg, James; Ansell, Jack; Atar, Dan; Breithardt, Günter; Eikelboom, John; Ezekowitz, Michael D.; Granger, Christopher B.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Kirchhof, Paulus; Lane, Deirdre A.; Verheugt, Freek W.A.; Veltkamp, Roland; Lip, Gregory Y.H.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have a high risk of stroke and mortality, which can be considerably reduced by oral anticoagulants (OAC). Recently, four non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were compared with warfarin in large randomized trials for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism. Today's clinician is faced with the difficult task of selecting a suitable OAC for a patient with a particular clinical profile or a particular pattern of risk factors and concomitant diseases. We reviewed analyses of subgroups of patients from trials of vitamin K antagonists vs. NOACs for stroke prevention in AF with the aim to identify patient groups who might benefit from a particular OAC more than from another. In the first of a two-part review, we discuss the choice of NOAC for stroke prevention in the following subgroups of patients with AF: (i) stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease, including percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting and triple therapy; (ii) cardioversion, ablation and anti-arrhythmic drug therapy; (iii) mechanical valves and rheumatic valve disease, (iv) patients with time in therapeutic range of >70% on warfarin; (v) patients with a single stroke risk factor (CHA2DS2VASc score of 1 in males, 2 in females); and (vi) patients with a single first episode of paroxysmal AF. Although there are no major differences in terms of efficacy and safety between the NOACs for some clinical scenarios, in others we are able to suggest that particular drugs and/or doses be prioritized for anticoagulation. PMID:26848149

  3. Hepatic dysfunction contributes to coagulation disturbances in patients undergoing whole body hyperthermia by use of extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Worel, Nina; Knöbl, Paul; Karanikas, Georgios; Fuchs, Eva-Maria; Bojic, Andja; Brodowicz, Thomas; Jilma, Petra; Zielinski, Christoph C; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Locker, Gottfried J

    2014-09-01

    This phase I study was performed to evaluate coagulation alterations during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) induced whole body hyperthermia (WBHT) in 12 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. To distinguish between effects of normothermic ECC and ECC-WBHT, blood samples were drawn at different time points: at baseline, after 30 min on normothermic ECC, at the end of the heating period, and 24 h and 7 days thereafter. Standard coagulation tests, coagulation factors, thrombelastography,platelets and reticulated platelets, liver enzymes, and scintigraphic platelet imaging were performed. Normothermic ECC resulted in coagulation alterations most likely due to systemic anticoagulation. Induction of hyperthermia caused thrombocytopenia, increased fibrin degradation products,prolonged clotting times, alteration in coagulation factors, and increased liver enzymes. The majority of these effects was most pronounced 24 h after ECC-WBHT. In addition, late liver sequestration of platelets was demonstrated in scintigraphic imaging at that time point. Temporal correlation between hemostatic alterations and elevation in liver enzymes leads to the assumption that liver impairment might play a crucial role in coagulation disturbances observed during ECC-WBHT and thereafter, thus strongly supported by liver sequestration of platelets.Therefore a close monitoring of hepatic derived coagulation alterations in patients undergoing extracorporeal whole body hypothermia is warranted.

  4. Amiodarone, anticoagulation, and clinical events in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial.

    PubMed

    Flaker, Greg; Lopes, Renato D; Hylek, Elaine; Wojdyla