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Sample records for patients undergoing coronary

  1. Antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary stenting

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, J.M.; van Werkum, J.W.; Heestermans, A.A.C.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Hautvast, R.M.A.; den Heijer, P.; de Boer, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation after coronary stenting is essential to prevent stent thrombosis. Drug-eluting stents, which are the preferred therapy, may be associated with a higher tendency for stent thrombosis. Methods Patients who underwent coronary stent placement and presented with late stent thrombosis are described. Results Eight patients with stent thrombosis are presented. Early discontinuation of the antithrombotic medication is associated with the occurrence of these complications. Conclusion Long-term antithrombotic therapy seems essential to prevent stent thrombosis, especially for patients treated with drug-eluting stents. PMID:25696663

  2. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  3. The role of eptifibatide in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zeymer, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the binding of ligands to activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and, therefore, prevent the formation of platelet thrombi. They have been extensively studied in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Eptifibatide, one of the approved GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, is a small heptapeptide that is highly selective and rapidly dissociates from its receptor after cessation of therapy. In clinical studies, concomitant administration of eptifibatide in patients undergoing elective PCI reduced thrombotic complications in the IMPACT-II (Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Prevent Coronary Thrombosis II) and ESPRIT (Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy) trials. In the PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy) trial, which included 10,948 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, eptifibatide significantly reduced the primary end point of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days compared with placebo. In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), eptifibatide has been studied as adjunct to primary PCI and improved epicardial flow and tissue reperfusion. Studies are now evaluating eptifibatide in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and a planned early invasive strategy in the EARLY-ACS (Eptifibatide Administration prior to Diagnostic Catherization and Revascularization to Limit Myocardial Necrosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial and in patients with primary PCI for STEMI in comparison to abciximab in the EVA-AMI (Eptifibatide versus Abciximab in Primary PCI for Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial. After the completion of these trials, the value of etifibatide in patients undergoing PCI in different indications can be determined.

  4. Anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Fauchier, L; Pellegrin, C; Clementy, N; Saint Etienne, C; Banerjee, A; Naudin, D; Angoulvant, D

    2013-09-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stent implantation, the optimal antithrombotic strategy is unclear. We evaluated whether use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) was associated with any benefit in morbidity or mortality in patients with AF, high risk of thromboembolism (TE) (CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2) and coronary stent implantation. Among 8,962 unselected patients with AF seen between 2000 and 2010, a total of 2,709 (30%) had coronary artery disease and 417/2,709 (15%) underwent stent implantation while having CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2. During follow-up (median=650 days), all TE, bleeding episodes, and major adverse cardiac events (i.e. death, acute myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation) were recorded. At discharge, 97/417 patients (23%) received OAC, which was more likely to be prescribed in patients with permanent AF and in those treated for elective stent implantation. The incidence of outcome event rates was not significantly different in patients treated and those not treated with OAC. However, in multivariate analysis, the lack of OAC at discharge was independently associated with increased risk of death/stroke/systemic TE (relative risk [RR] =2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.67, p=0.04), with older age (RR =1.12, 1.04-1.20, p=0.003), heart failure (RR =3.26, 1.18-9.01, p=0.02), and history of stroke (RR =18.87, 3.11-111.11, p=0.001). In conclusion, in patients with AF and high thromboembolic risk after stent implantation, use of OAC was independently associated with decreased risk of subsequent death/stroke/systemic TE, suggesting that OAC should be systematically used in this patient population.

  5. An algorithm for use of prasugrel (effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Julio; Morrow, David; Resnic, Frederic; Manica, Andre; Kirshenbaum, James; Cannon, Christopher; Croce, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    An algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital is presented. Our algorithm, which is in the process of being implemented, is consistent with published and generally accepted standards of care and is based on data from the pivotal Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38, which compared clopidogrel with prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Areas of focus include analysis of the benefit of prasugrel over clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome patients and appropriate selection of patients for prasugrel treatment.

  6. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  7. Recommendations for management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery after coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Croce, Kevin J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Resnic, Frederic S

    2012-12-01

    Patients commonly undergo noncardiac surgical procedures after implantation of a coronary stent. In the case where surgery cannot be deferred until completing the minimum duration of dual antiplatelet therapy, the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory recommends using a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging protocol to minimize the risk of perioperative ischemic events. We discuss our algorithm for managing antiplatelet agents, including the newer agents, prasugrel and ticagrelor, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery after coronary stenting and present our glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging strategy along with a review of the relevant pharmacodynamic and clinical evidence.

  8. Adverse Hospital Events for Mentally Ill Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Glance, Laurent G; Cai, Xueya; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Context Patients with mental disorders show higher burden of coronary heart disease, and may face special safety issues during in-hospital cardiac care. Objectives To compare the postoperative complication rate between patients with and without mental disorders undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective analyses of New York state hospital claims between 1997 and 2004 (N=135,701). Complications were defined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (AHRQ PSI). Principal Findings Mental disorders were significantly associated with higher anesthesia complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=6.44, p<.001), decubitus ulcer (AOR=1.42, p=.006), postoperative hip fracture (AOR=3.29, p<.001), and overall complication rate representing nine PSIs (AOR=1.27, p<.001). Conclusions Mentally ill patients undergoing CABG surgery are more likely to experience potentially preventable complications and injuries. The mechanism underlying this observation warrants further study. PMID:18665856

  9. An Algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Julio; Morrow, David; Resnic, Frederic; Manica, Andre; Kirshenbaum, James; Cannon, Christopher; Croce, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital is presented. Our algorithm, which is in the process of being implemented, is consistent with published and generally accepted standards of care and is based on data from the pivotal Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38, which compared clopidogrel to prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI. Areas of focus include analysis of the benefit of prasugrel over clopidogrel in ACS patients and appropriate selection of patients for prasugrel treatment. PMID:21119336

  10. Antithrombotic therapy for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a review.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Andrew; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2013-07-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation who have risk factors for thromboembolism benefit from chronic oral anticoagulation therapy, and antiplatelet therapy alone is of relatively little benefit for prevention of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents require dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine for 3 to 12 months or more prevention of stent thrombosis and recurrent ischemic events. When patients with atrial fibrillation undergo percutaneous coronary intervention, the need to combine dual antiplatelet therapy and warfarin raises the risk of major bleeding complications considerably. Recent trials have explored the option of omitting aspirin with promising results. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit factor IIa (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) and antiplatelet agents that inhibit the P(2)Y(12) receptor (prasugrel and ticagrelor) makes management of these patients even more challenging, but future trials addressing myriad alternative regimens may identify better tolerated strategies.

  11. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin Treated Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Seo Kwang; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Yun, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Statins remain the mainstay of secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention, but n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) display biological effects that may also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and CAD. However, data on the possible antiatherosclerotic benefits of adding ω-3 PUFA to statin therapy are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential additive effects of ω-3 PUFA on regression of atherosclerosis in CAD patients receiving statin therapy and stent implantation. Subjects and Methods Seventy-four CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation were enrolled, prescribed statins, and randomly assigned to two groups: n-3 group (ω-3 PUFA 3 g/day, n=38) or placebo group (placebo, n=36). All patients completed the study follow-up consisting of an intravascular ultrasound at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics and distribution of other medications. No significant differences were observed in primary endpoints, including changes in atheroma volume index (−12.65% vs. −8.51%, p=0.768) and percent atheroma volume (−4.36% vs. −9.98%, p=0.526), and in secondary endpoints including a change in neointimal volume index (7.84 vs. 4.94 mm3/mm, p=0.087). Conclusion ω-3 PUFA had no definite additional effect on the regression of coronary atherosclerosis when added to statin in CAD patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27482256

  12. The management of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation: in-hospital-data from the Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting study.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lahtela, Heli; Valencia, Josè; Karjalainen, Pasi P; Weber, Michael; Laine, Mika; Kirchhof, Paulus; Niemelä, Matti; Vikman, Saila; Buerke, Michael; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2013-12-01

    Current recommendations on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent (PCI-S) essentially derive from small, single-center, retrospective datasets. To obtain larger and better quality data, we carried out the prospective, multicenter Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting (AFCAS) study. Therefore, consecutive patients with history of or ongoing AF undergoing PCI-S were enrolled, and occurrence of adverse ischemic and bleeding events recorded during 12 months follow-up. In this article, we report the in-hospital observations. Out of the 963 patients, in the majority of cases (49.1%) AF was permanent. The associated risk of stroke, as defined by a CHADS2 -score ≥2, was in 70% of patients moderate to high. Upon enrollment in the registry, 69.3% of patients were on VKA therapy. Overall occurrence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events was 4.5% (cardiovascular death 1.9%, urgent revascularization in 1.5%, and stroke/arterial thromboembolism in 0.6%). Bleeding complications occurred in 7.1% of patients, being severe in 2.5%. In a logistic regression analysis, no risk factor was independently associated with bleeding events, whereas Clopidogrel treatment decreased and female gender/treatment with gpIIb/IIIa-antagonists, respectively increased the risk for the combined ischemic endpoint. The majority of AF patients undergoing PCI-S are at high stroke risk, and therefore VKA treatment should not be withdrawn and combined anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment is warranted. Current management appears largely in accordance with current recommendations, whereby accounting for the limited occurrence of in-hospital adverse ischemic and bleeding events.

  13. Periprocedural glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography with possible percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Berger, Jeffrey S; Amoroso, Nicholas S; Mai, Xingchen; Lorin, Jeffrey D; Danoff, Ann; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z; Lobach, Iryna; Guo, Yu; Feit, Frederick; Slater, James; Attubato, Michael J; Sedlis, Steven P

    2014-05-01

    Periprocedural hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, periprocedural management of blood glucose is not standardized. The effects of routinely continuing long-acting glucose-lowering medications before coronary angiography with possible PCI on periprocedural glycemic control have not been investigated. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM; n = 172) were randomized to continue (Continue group; n = 86) or hold (Hold group; n = 86) their clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications before the procedure. The primary end point was glucose level on procedural access. In a subset of patients (no DM group: n = 25; Continue group: n = 25; and Hold group: n = 25), selected measures of platelet activity that change acutely were assessed. Patients with DM randomized to the Continue group had lower blood glucose levels on procedural access compared with those randomized to the Hold group (117 [97 to 151] vs 134 [117 to 172] mg/dl, p = 0.002). There were two hypoglycemic events in the Continue group and none in the Hold group, and no adverse events in either group. Selected markers of platelet activity differed across the no DM, Continue, and Hold groups (leukocyte platelet aggregates: 8.1% [7.2 to 10.4], 8.7% [6.9 to 11.4], 10.9% [8.6 to 14.7], p = 0.007; monocyte platelet aggregates: 14.0% [10.3 to 16.3], 20.8% [16.2 to 27.0], 22.5% [15.2 to 35.4], p <0.001; soluble p-selectin: 51.9 ng/ml [39.7 to 74.0], 59.1 ng/ml [46.8 to 73.2], 72.2 ng/ml [58.4 to 77.4], p = 0.014). In conclusion, routinely continuing clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications before coronary angiography with possible PCI help achieve periprocedural euglycemia, appear safe, and should be considered as a strategy for achieving periprocedural glycemic control.

  14. Lipomatous Hypertrophy of the Atrial Septum in a Patient Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Michael; Agaimy, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum (LHAS) is a rare entity characterized by mass-forming deposition of fatty tissue within the atrial septum. To date, <300 cases have been reported; many of them were autopsy findings. The clinical presentation of LHAS varies from incidental asymptomatic mass (most frequent form) to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency cardiac surgery. Case Presentation. Here, we present the successful surgical resection of such a massive LHAS which was found incidentally on preoperative investigation of a 71-year-old patient with progressive coronary heart disease. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum. Conclusions. The described case report illustrates an unusual example of LHAS in a patient undergoing a planned coronary artery bypass surgery. In this case, surgical intervention was justified to avoid later outflow obstructions. PMID:28078155

  15. Benefits of Intraaortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction Patients in Severe Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hsieh, I-Chang; Hung, Ming-Jui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) have a neutral effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). However, the effects of IABP on patients with severe CS remain unclear. We therefore investigated the benefits of IABP in AMI patients with severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization. Methods and Results This study identified 14,088 adult patients with AMI and severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, dividing them into the IABP group (n = 7044) and the Nonusers group (n = 7044) after propensity score matching to equalize confounding variables. The primary outcomes included myocardial infarction(MI), cerebrovascular accidents or cardiovascular death. In-hospital events including dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis were secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes were worse in the IABP group than in the Nonusers group in 1 month (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.84–2.12). The MI rate was higher in the IABP group (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.16–1.79), and the cardiovascular death was much higher in the IABP group (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.92–2.23). The IABP users had lower incidence of dialysis (8.5% and 9.5%, P = 0.04), stroke (2.6% and 3.8%, P<0.001), pneumonia (13.9% and 16.5%, P<0.001) and sepsis (13.2% and 16%, P<0.001) during hospitalization than Nonusers. Conclusion The use of IABP in patients with myocardial infarction and severe cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary revascularization did not improve the outcomes of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. However, it did reduce the incidence of dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis during hospitalization. PMID:27483439

  16. Gender differences in health-related quality of life in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Hoefer, Imo E; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Nathoe, Hendrik; Appelman, Yolande E; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reflects the general well-being of individuals. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), HRQOL is compromised. Female patients with CAD have been reported to have lower HRQOL. In this study, we investigate gender differences in HRQOL and in associations of patient characteristics with HRQOL in patients with coronary angiography (CAG). Methods We cross-sectionally analysed patients from the Utrecht Coronary Biobank undergoing CAG. All patients filled in an HRQOL questionnaire (RAND-36 and EuroQoL) on inclusion. RAND-36 and EuroQoL HRQOL measures were compared between the genders across indications for CAG, CAD severity and treatment of CAD. RAND-36 HRQOL measures were compared with the general Dutch population. Additionally, we assessed interactions of gender with patient characteristics in their association with HRQOL (EuroQoL). Results We included 1421 patients (1020 men and 401 women) with a mean age of 65 in our analysis. Women reported lower HRQOL measures than men (mean EuroQoL self-rated health grade 6.84±1.49 in men, 6.46±1.40 in women, p<0.001). The reduction in RAND-36 HRQOL as compared with the general Dutch population was larger in women than in men. From regression analysis, we found that diabetes, a history of cardiovascular disease and symptoms of shortness of breath determined HRQOL (EuroQoL) more strongly in men than in women. Conclusions Women reported lower HRQOL than men throughout all indications for CAG and regardless of CAD severity or treatment. As compared with the general population, the reduction in HRQOL was more extreme in women than in men. Evident gender differences were found in determinants of HRQOL in patients undergoing CAG, which deserve attention in future research. Trial registration NCT02304744 (clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:26339493

  17. High Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Prasugrel and Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Tobias; Booth, Jean; Tavlaki, Elli; Karathanos, Athanasios; Müller, Karin; Droppa, Michal; Gawaz, Meinrad; Yanez-Lopez, Monica; Davidson, Simon J.; Stables, Rod H.; Banya, Winston; Zaman, Azfar; Flather, Marcus; Dalby, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Background Prasugrel is more effective than clopidogrel in reducing platelet aggregation in acute coronary syndromes. Data available on prasugrel reloading in clopidogrel treated patients with high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) i.e. poor responders, is limited. Objectives To determine the effects of prasugrel loading on platelet function in patients on clopidogrel and high platelet reactivity undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients Patients with ACS on clopidogrel who were scheduled for PCI found to have a platelet reactivity ≥40 AUC with the Multiplate Analyzer, i.e. “poor responders” were randomised to prasugrel (60 mg loading and 10 mg maintenance dose) or clopidogrel (600 mg reloading and 150 mg maintenance dose). The primary outcome measure was proportion of patients with platelet reactivity <40 AUC 4 hours after loading with study medication, and also at one hour (secondary outcome). 44 patients were enrolled and the study was terminated early as clopidogrel use decreased sharply due to introduction of newer P2Y12 inhibitors. Results At 4 hours after study medication 100% of patients treated with prasugrel compared to 91% of those treated with clopidogrel had platelet reactivity <40 AUC (p = 0.49), while at 1 hour the proportions were 95% and 64% respectively (p = 0.02). Mean platelet reactivity at 4 and 1 hours after study medication in prasugrel and clopidogrel groups respectively were 12 versus 22 (p = 0.005) and 19 versus 34 (p = 0.01) respectively. Conclusions Routine platelet function testing identifies patients with high residual platelet reactivity (“poor responders”) on clopidogrel. A strategy of prasugrel rather than clopidogrel reloading results in earlier and more sustained suppression of platelet reactivity. Future trials need to identify if this translates into clinical benefit. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01339026 PMID:26317618

  18. Factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting 1

    PubMed Central

    Koerich, Cintia; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in a cardiovascular referral hospital in Santa Catarina. Method: quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and retrospective study. The medical records of 1447 patients, from 2005 to 2013, were analyzed for statistically related variables, these being: profile, hospitalization diagnosis, risk factors for coronary artery disease, complications recorded during the hospitalization, length of hospitalization and cause of death. Results: the mortality rate was 5.3% during the study period. Death was more common in females and those of black skin color, with a mean age of 65 years. Acute myocardial infarction was the most common hospitalization diagnosis. The majority of the complications recorded during hospitalization were characterized by changes in the cardiovascular system, with longer hospitalization periods being directly related to death from septic shock. Conclusion: the data provide subsidies for nursing work with preventive measures and early detection of complications associated with coronary artery bypass grafting. This reinforces the importance of using the data as quality indicators, aiming to guarantee care guided by reliable information to guide managers in planning patient care and high complexity health services. PMID:27508918

  19. Nonselective carotid artery ultrasound screening in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: Is it necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Masabni, Khalil; Sabik, Joseph F.; Raza, Sajjad; Carnes, Theresa; Koduri, Hemantha; Idrees, Jay J.; Beach, Jocelyn; Riaz, Haris; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Gornik, Heather L.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nonselective preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening alters management of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and whether such screening affects neurologic outcomes. Methods From March 2011 to September 2013, preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening was performed on 1236 of 1382 patients (89%) scheduled to undergo CABG. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was classified as none or mild (any type 0%–59% stenosis), moderate (unilateral 60%-79% stenosis), or severe (bilateral 60%-79% stenosis or unilateral 80%–100% stenosis). Results A total of 1069 (86%) hadpatients with patients with ≥moderate CAS, 1 of 19 (5.3%) undergoing CABG + CEA and 3 of 148 (2.0%) undergoing CABG alone experienced stroke (P = .4). In patients with moderate CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 11 (9.1%) off-pump and 1 of 79 (1.3%) on-pump patients (P = .2). In patients with severe CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 6 (17%) off-pump and 1 of 71 (1.4%) on-pump patients (P = .15). Conclusions Routine preoperative carotid artery evaluation altered the management of a minority of patients undergoing CABG; this did not translate into perioperative stroke risk. Hence, a more targeted approach for preoperative carotid artery evaluation should be adopted. PMID:26586360

  20. Gender differences in risk profile and outcome of Middle Eastern patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jarrah, Mohamad I.; Hammoudeh, Ayman J.; Al-Natour, Dalal B.; Khader, Yousef S.; Tabbalat, Ramzi A.; Alhaddad, Imad A.; Kullab, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the gender differences in cardiovascular risk profile and outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: In a prospective multicenter study of consecutive Middle Eastern patients managed with PCI from January 2013 to February 2014 in 12 tertiary care centers in Amman and Irbid, Jordan. Clinical and coronary angiographic features, and major cardiovascular events were assessed for both genders from hospital stay to 1 year. Results: Women comprised 20.6% of 2426 enrolled patients, were older (mean age 62.9 years versus 57.2 years), had higher prevalence of hypertension (81% versus 57%), diabetes (66% versus 44%), dyslipidemia (58% versus 46%), and obesity (44% versus 25%) compared with men, p<0.001. The PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was indicated for fewer women than men (23% versus 33%; p=0.001). Prevalence of single or multi-vessel coronary artery disease was similar in women and men. More women than men had major bleeding during hospitalization (2.2% versus 0.6%; p=0.003) and at one year (2.5% versus 0.9%; p=0.007). There were no significant differences between women and men in mortality (3.1% versus 1.7%) or stent thrombosis (2.1% versus 1.8%) at 1 year. Conclusion: Middle Eastern women undergoing PCI had worse baseline risk profile compared with men. Except for major bleeding, no gender differences in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events were demonstrated. PMID:28133687

  1. Impact of Triple Therapy in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sambola, Antonia; Mutuberría, Maria; García del Blanco, Bruno; Alonso, Albert; Barrabés, José A.; Bueno, Héctor; Alfonso, Fernando; Cequier, Angel; Zueco, Javier; Rodríguez-Leor, Oriol; Tornos, Pilar; García-Dorado, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Selecting an ideal antithrombotic therapy for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be challenging since they have a higher thromboembolic and bleeding risk than younger patients. The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of triple therapy (TT: oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin plus clopidogrel) in patients ≥75 years of age with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A prospective multicenter study was conducted from 2003 to 2012 at 6 Spanish teaching hospitals. A cohort study of consecutive patients with AF undergoing PCI and treated with TT or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was analyzed. All outcomes were evaluated at 1-year of follow-up. Results Five hundred and eighty-five patients, 289 (49%) of whom were ≥75 years of age (79.6±3.4 years; 33% women) were identified. TT was prescribed in 55.9% of patients at discharge who had a higher thromboembolic risk (CHA2DS2VASc score: 4.23±1.51 vs 3.76±1.40, p = 0.007 and a higher bleeding risk (HAS-BLED ≥3: 88.6% vs 79.2%, p = 0.02) than those on DAPT. Therefore, patients on TT had a lower rate of thromboembolism than those on DAPT (0.6% vs 6.9%, p = 0.004; HR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.70, p = 0.004). Major bleeding events occurred more frequently in patients on TT than in those on DAPT (11.7% vs 2.4%, p = 0.002; HR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.53–17.57, p = 0.008). The overall mortality rate was similar in both treatment groups (11.9% vs 13.9%, p = 0.38); however, after adjustment for confounding variables, TT was associated with a reduced mortality rate (HR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12–0.86, p = 0.02). Conclusions In elderly patients with AF undergoing PCI, the use of TT compared to DAPT was associated with reduced thromboembolism and mortality rates, although a higher rate of major bleeding. PMID:26808678

  2. Coronary Stents in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Ahmed, Sumera; Hong, Young Joon; Sim, Doo Sun; Park, Keun Ho; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to compare different coronary stents used during primary PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and CKD. Subjects and Methods We selected 2408 consecutive STEMI patients with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) undergoing primary PCI and divided them into 5 groups based on the type of stent implanted: 1) bare metal stent (BMS), 2) paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES), 3) sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), 4) zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES), or 5) everolimus-eluting stent (EES). The study endpoint was the number of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months. Results There was no significant difference in the incidence of 12-month myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, or target vessel revascularization between stent groups; however, the overall rate of repeat revascularization differed significantly between groups. All-cause death differed significantly among the groups. The incidence of 12-month MACE in BMS, PES, SES, ZES, and EES was 8.3%, 9.8%, 8.6%, 5.5%, and 2.6%, respectively (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show a significant differences in 12-month MACE-free survival among the groups (log-rank p=0.076). This finding remained the same after adjusting for multiple confounders (p=0.147). Conclusion Any of the 5 stents can be used to treat STEMI patients with CKD undergoing primary PCI; all have similar risk of 12-month MACE. This result is hypothesis-generating and warrants further evaluation with a long-term randomized study. PMID:23323121

  3. Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Coronary Surgical Revascularization: Prognostic Impact on Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Batric; Agrinier, Nelly; Voilliot, Damien; Elfarra, Mazen; Villemot, Jean Pierre; Maureira, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF) are a poor prognosis group. The aim of our study was to assess the short and long term LEVF prognostic value in a cohort of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing surgical revascularization. Methods We performed elective and isolated CABG on a cohort of 206 consecutive patients with LVEF≤0.40 complicating acute coronary syndrome. The case cohort was compared with a cohort of controls (LVEF>0.40) randomly selected (2:1) among patients who underwent the procedure during this period. Results The Kaplan-Meier 5-year estimated survival rates for patients in the low and normal LVEF groups were 70.8% (95% confidence interval CI: 64.2–77.4) and 81.7% (95%CI: 77.8–85.6), respectively. A low LVEF was associated with both a higher all-cause (HR [95%CI] = 1.84[1.18–2.86]) and a higher cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.07 [1.27–3.38]) during the first 12 months of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, a low LVEF remained associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality only (1.87[1.03–3.38]) during the first 12 months of follow-up. After 12 months of follow-up, a low LVEF was no more associated with all-cause, nor cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion Patients with low LVEF might require more intensive care than patients with normal LVEF during the year after the surgical procedure, but once the first postoperative year over, the initial low LVEF was no more associated with long term mortality. PMID:28005944

  4. Mean platelet volume and long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Oberweis, Brandon; Tummala, Lakshmi; Amoroso, Nicholas S; Lobach, Iryna; Sedlis, Steven P; Grossi, Eugene; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-15

    Increased platelet activity is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The mean platelet volume (MPV) correlates with platelet activity; however, the relation between the MPV and long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well established. Furthermore, the role of change in the MPV over time has not been previously evaluated. We evaluated the MPV at baseline, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years after the procedure in 1,512 patients who underwent PCI. The speed of change in the MPV was estimated using the slope of linear regression. Mortality was determined by query of the Social Security Death Index. During a median of 8.7 years, mortality was 49.3% after PCI. No significant difference was seen in mortality when stratified by MPV quartile (first quartile, 50.1%; second quartile, 47.7%; third quartile, 51.3%; fourth quartile, 48.3%; p = 0.74). For the 839 patients with available data to determine a change in the MPV over time after PCI, mortality was 49.1% and was significantly greater in patients with an increase (52.9%) than in those with a decrease (44.2%) or no change (49.1%) in the MPV over time (p <0.0001). In conclusion, no association was found between the baseline MPV and long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI. However, increased mortality was found when the MPV increased over time after PCI. Monitoring the MPV after coronary revascularization might play a role in risk stratification.

  5. Mean Platelet Volume and Long-Term Mortality in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Oberweis, Brandon; Tummala, Lakshmi; Amoroso, Nicholas S.; Lobach, Iryna; Sedlis, Steven P.; Grossi, Eugene; Berger, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Increased platelet activity is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Mean platelet volume (MPV) correlates with platelet activity but the relationship between MPV and long-term mortalityin patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) is not well established. Furthermore, the role of change in MPV over time has not been previously evaluated. We evaluatedMPV at baseline, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-procedure in 1,512 patients who underwent PCI. The speed of change in MPV was estimated using slope of linear regression. Mortality was determined by query of social security death index. Over a median of 8.7 years, mortality was 49.3% post-PCI. There was no significant difference in mortality when stratified by MPV quartiles (1stquartile 50.1%, 2nd quartile 47.7%, 3rd quartile 51.3%, 4thquartile 48.3%, p=0.74). In patients with available data to determine a change in MPV over time post-PCI (n=839), mortality was 49.1% and significantly higher in patients with an increase (52.9%) compared to those with a decrease (44.2%) or no change (49.1%) in MPV over time (p<0.0001). In conclusion, there was no association between baseline MPV and long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI. However, there was increased mortality when MPV increasedover time post-PCI. Monitoring MPV after coronary revascularization may play a role in risk stratification. PMID:23102880

  6. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients.

  7. The net clinical benefit of personalized antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Gruber, Carina; Francesconi, Marcel; Dechant, Cornelia; Jilma, Bernd; Delle-Karth, Georg; Grohs, Katharina; Podczeck-Schweighofer, Andrea; Christ, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This was a prospective study comparing two groups: personalized and non-personalized treatment with P2Y12 receptor blockers during a 12-month follow-up. We aimed to investigate whether personalized antiplatelet treatment in patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) improves clinical outcome. Platelet reactivity was assessed by adenosine diphosphate induced aggregation using a multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) in 798 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with HTPR received up to four repeated loading doses of clopidogrel or prasugrel in the personalized treatment group (n=403), whereas no change in the treatment strategy was undertaken in patients with HTPR in the non-personalized treatment group (n=395). There were fewer major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in the personalized treatment group than in the non-personalized treatment group (7.4% compared with 15.3% respectively; P<0.001). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk to develop MACE was 51% lower in the personalized treatment group as compared with the non-personalized treatment group [hazard ratio (HR)=0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.77; P<0.001]. Similarly, there was a clear net benefit of the personalized antiplatelet treatment over the non-personalized treatment (ischemic and bleedings events: 8.2% versus 18.7% respectively; HR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.70; P<0.001). Further analysis indicated that patients with aggregation values within the therapeutic window (21-49 units) experienced the lowest event rates (stent thrombosis and major bleeding: 2.5%) as compared with poor responders (≥50 units: 5.4%) or ultra-responders (0-20 units: 5.2%). In conclusion, personalized antiplatelet treatment might improve patients' outcome without increasing bleeding complications compared with the non-personalized treatment during a 12-month follow-up.

  8. Peri-procedural Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Coronary Angiography with Possible Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Amoroso, Nicholas S.; Mai, Xingchen; Lorin, Jeffrey D.; Danoff, Ann; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z.; Lobach, Iryna; Guo, Yu; Feit, Frederick; Slater, James; Attubato, Michael J.; Sedlis, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-procedural hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, peri-procedural management of blood glucose is not standardized. The effects of routinely continuing long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to coronary angiography with possible PCI on peri-procedural glycemic control have not been investigated. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=172) were randomized to continue (Continue group; n=86) or hold (Hold group; n=86) their clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to procedure. The primary endpoint was glucose level on procedural access. In a subset of patients (no DM group, n=25, Continue group, n=25, and Hold group, n=25), selected measures of platelet activity that change acutely were assessed. Patients with DM randomized to the Continue group had lower blood glucose levels on procedural access compared with those randomized to the Hold group (117 [97–151] vs 134 [117–172] mg/dL, p=0.002). There were 2 hypoglycemic events in the Continue group and none in the Hold group, and no adverse events in either group. Selected markers of platelet activity differed across the no DM, Continue, and Hold groups (leukocyte platelet aggregates: 8.1% [7.2–10.4], 8.7% [6.9–11.4], 10.9% [8.6–14.7], p=0.007; monocyte platelet aggregates: 14.0% [10.3–16.3], 20.8% [16.2–27.0], 22.5% [15.2–35.4], p<0.001; soluble p-selectin: 51.9ng/mL [39.7–74.0], 59.1ng/mL [46.8–73.2], 72.2ng/mL [58.4–77.4], p=0.014). In conclusion, routinely continuing clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to coronary angiography with possible PCI helps achieve peri-procedural euglycemia, appears safe, and should be considered as a strategy for achieving peri-procedural glycemic control. PMID:24630791

  9. The Effects of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jinsong; Liu, Tao; Yang, Zhonglu; Jiang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Method. A total of 728 patients with DM and 1380 patients without DM who underwent OPCAB treatment from March 2012 to April 2015 were reviewed. The effects of DM on intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were determined using propensity score analysis. Results. Two well-matched subgroups were selected using propensity score analysis (DM = 728, no-DM = 728) to compare the perioperative outcome. The duration of the ICU stay, in hours (55.2 ± 53.0 versus 49.29 ± 51.30, P < 0.05), postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (20.9% versus 14.97%, P < 0.05), and postoperative infection (9.2% versus 4.67%, P < 0.05) were greater in DM patients, as indicated by univariate analysis. Conclusion. OPCAB was found to be effective in DM patients, but postoperative infection and postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation were found to be more likely to occur in DM patients than in other patients. DM was found to be a powerful risk factor for postoperative infection and postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation. PMID:27777946

  10. Risk Factors of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Qiu, Hong; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Luo, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Jin; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Yuan; Yan, Hong-Bing; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Yang, Yue-Jin; Gao, Run-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) were mostly based on selective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases, and risk factors of CI-AKI after emergency PCI are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors of CI-AKI in a Chinese population undergoing emergency PCI. Methods: A total of 1061 consecutive patients undergoing emergency PCI during January 2013 and June 2015 were enrolled and divided into CI-AKI and non-CI-AKI group. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the risk factors of CI-AKI in emergency PCI patients. CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl (44.2 μmol/L) above baseline within 3 days after exposure to contrast medium. Results: The incidence of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI was 22.7% (241/1061). Logistic multivariable analysis showed that body surface area (BSA) (odds ratio [OR] 0.213, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.075–0.607, P = 0.004), history of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.642, 95% CI: 1.079–2.499, P = 0.021), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR 0.969, 95% CI: 0.944–0.994, P = 0.015), hemoglobin (Hb) (OR 0.988, 95% CI: 0.976–1.000, P = 0.045), estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 1.027, 95% CI: 1.018–1.037, P < 0.001), left anterior descending (LAD) stented (OR 1.464, 95% CI: 1.000–2.145, P = 0.050), aspirin (OR 0.097, 95%CI: 0.009–0.987, P = 0.049), and diuretics use (OR 1.850, 95% CI: 1.233–2.777, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI. Conclusion: History of MI, low BSA, LVEF and Hb level, LAD stented, and diuretics use are associated with increased risk of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI. PMID:28051022

  11. CYP2C19 polymorphisms in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing clopidogrel therapy in Zhengzhou population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y M; Zhao, Z C; Zhang, L; Li, H Z; Li, Z; Sun, H L

    2016-05-25

    The goal of this study was to explore the polymorphisms of CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on clopidogrel therapy in Zhengzhou city for guidance on clinical medication and reduction in the incidence of thromboembolic events. Two hundred and thirty-four ACS patients undergoing PCI were included in the study, including 171 males (average age = 64.13 ± 12 years) and 63 females (average age = 67.86 ± 10.20 years). Pyrosequencing analysis detected CYP2C19*2/*3 genotypes, which were divided into wild-type homozygous C/C, mutant heterozygous C/T, and mutant homozygous T/T. This study further explored the relationship between CYP2C19 polymorphisms and clopidogrel resistance in ACS patients. Gene frequencies of C/C, C/T, and T/T for CYP2C19*2 were 39.74, 50, and 10.26%, respectively, while the frequencies of C/C, C/T, and T/T for CYP2C19*3 were 94.02, 5.55, and 0.43%, respectively. According to platelet aggregation analysis, 203 cases normally responded to clopidogrel (86.8%) and 31 cases were clopidogrel resistant (13.2%). There was a correlation between gender and genotype distribution but none between age and genotype. In addition, patients with clopidogrel resistance were treated with ticagrelor antiplatelet therapy instead of clopidogrel, and only 1 case in all patients suffered thrombotic events during a 3-12 month follow-up. In conclusion, CYP2C19*2/*3 polymorphisms may be associated with clopidogrel resistance. Wild-type homozygote and single mutant heterozygote of CYP2C19*2/*3 can be given a normal dose of clopidogrel, while carriers with single mutant homozygote or double mutant heterozygote require ticagrelor antiplatelet therapy as an alternative.

  12. ACTH- and Cortisol-Associated Neutrophil Modulation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undergoing Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Keresztes, Margit; Horváth, Tamás; Ocsovszki, Imre; Földesi, Imre; Serfőző, Gyöngyi; Boda, Krisztina; Ungi, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress and activation of neutrophil granulocytes are increasingly recognized as major risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the possible relationship of these two factors in CAD patients is largely unexplored. Activation of neutrophils was reported to be associated with stenting; however, the issue of neutrophil state in connection with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is incompletely understood from the aspect of stress and its hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) background. Thus, we aimed to study cortisol- and ACTH-associated changes in granulocyte activation in patients undergoing PCI. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples of 21 stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 20 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients were collected directly before (pre-PCI), after (post-PCI) and on the following day of PCI (1d-PCI). Granulocyte surface L-selectin, CD15 and (neutrophil-specific) lactoferrin were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lactoferrin, IL-6 were also assayed. In both groups, pre- and post-PCI ratios of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils were relatively high, these percentages decreased substantially next day; similarly, 1d-PCI plasma lactoferrin was about half of the post-PCI value (all p≤0.0001). Post-PCI ACTH was reduced markedly next day, especially in ACS group (SAP: p<0.01, ACS: p≤0.0001). In ACS, elevated pre-PCI cortisol decreased considerably a day after stenting (p<0.01); in pre-PCI samples, cortisol correlated with plasma lactoferrin (r∼0.5, p<0.05). In 1d-PCI samples of both groups, ACTH showed negative associations with the ratio of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils (SAP: r = −0.601, p<0.005; ACS: r = −0.541, p<0.05) and with plasma lactoferrin (SAP: r = −0.435, p<0.05; ACS: r = −0.609, p<0.005). Conclusions/Significance Pre- and post-PCI states were associated with increased percentage of activated/degranulated neutrophils indicated by elevated lactoferrin

  13. Insulin Resistance Increases the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueping; Liu, Yuyang; Shi, Dongmei; Yang, Lixia; Liang, Jing; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the influence of insulin resistance (IR) on the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients (n = 719) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into diabetes mellitus (DM = 242), nondiabetic IR (IR = 120), and nondiabetic insulin sensitivity (IS = 357) groups according to medical history and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured before and 72 hours after PCI. There were no differences in SCr and eGFR among the groups before PCI; SCr increased and eGFR decreased significantly in the DM and IR groups post-PCI (P < .001). The incidence of CIN in the IR group was as high as in the DM group and were both significantly higher than in the IS group (6.7% vs 8.7% vs 2.2%, P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.08-1.510, P < .001), HOMA-IR (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.23-1.58, P < 0.001), and eGFR (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.84-0.92, P < .001) were independent risk factors in predicting CIN. Screening IR patients and taking appropriate prophylactic strategy before PCI may reduce the incidence of CIN.

  14. Psychological state in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Khani, Azam; Andalib, Elham; Alikhasi, Hasan; Rafiei, Mohammadali

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) are well accepted treatments for coronary artery disease. Many patients and their spouses experience increased level of stress, anxiety and depression before and after going under the procedure. One hundred and ninety-six cardiac patients who were candidate for CABG or PCI procedures and their spouses were asked to complete Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12 before and 1 month after procedures. Anxiety, depression and stress level in patients and their spouses going under the procedures significantly reduced over time. Scores of anxiety, depression and stress in patients and their spouses were correlated. There was no difference in the level of anxiety, depression and stress between CABG and PCI groups before to after procedures. We suggest providing information about the procedures to both patients and their spouses to deal better with their own psychological state.

  15. Cangrelor for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Partha; Nairooz, Ramez; Chatterjee, Saurav; Mushiyev, Savi; Pekler, Gerald; Visco, Ferdinand

    2014-07-01

    Cangrelor is a new parenteral adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor inhibitor with rapid, profound and reversible inhibition of platelet activity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate efficacy and safety of this new agent in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL databases from the inception through April 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing cangrelor with control (clopidogrel/placebo) were selected. We used the random-effects models to calculate the risk ratio. The primary efficacy outcome was risk of myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was TIMI major bleeding at 48 h. Three RCTs included a total of 25,107 participants. Effects of Cangrelor were not different against comparators for myocardial infarction (MI) (Risk ratio [RR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.13) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.36-1.43). However, cangrelor significantly reduced the risk of ischemia-driven revascularization (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.98), stent thrombosis (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44-0.82) and Q wave MI (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.92) without causing extra major bleeding (Thrombolysis in Myocardial infarction criteria) and severe or life-threatening bleeding (Global utilization of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator for occluded coronary arteries criteria). Separate analysis against only clopidogrel also showed similar findings except Q wave MI outcome. Use of cangrelor during PCI might reduce the risk of ischemia-driven revascularization and stent thrombosis, without causing extra major bleeding.

  16. Antithrombotic treatment in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Dézsi, Csaba András; Dézsi, Balázs Bence; Dézsi, Döme András

    2017-01-05

    Coronary artery disease coexists in a clinically relevant number of patients with atrial fibrillation and it often requires percutaneous coronary intervention. These patients represent a particular challenge for clinicians in terms of antithrombotic management. They require combined antiplatelet-anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic cardiac events and stroke; however, this antithrombotic strategy is associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications. In the absence of randomized, controlled clinical trials, the majority of current recommendations rely on the results of cohort studies, meta-analyses, post-hoc analyses and subgroup analyses of large, phase III studies. Based on the available evidence, the present review discusses the optimal antithrombotic strategy for patients receiving chronic anticoagulant therapy due to atrial fibrillation who require antiplatelet treatment after acute coronary syndrome and/or percutaneous coronary intervention, and discusses the issue of dental procedures. The correct planning of therapy significantly reduces the risk of bleeding complications and thromboembolic events.

  17. Effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this study, 60 cases of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected and randomly divided into the sevoflurane group (group S) and the control group C (group C) with 30 cases in each group. The two groups received intravenous anesthesia. The patients of group C were only given oxygen mask and physiological saline to keep vein open; while the patients of group S were administered with 1% sevoflurane immediately after the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) until the end of the treatment. The cardiopulmonary functions at 30 min before operation (T0), postoperative 2 h (T1), 6h (T2), 24h (T3) and 48 (T4) were observed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) of the group S at T1, T2, T3 was lower than that of the group C, as were the heart rate (HR) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) during T1 to T4 in the group S was less than that of the group C, and there were significant differences between the two groups (P less than 0.05). The tidal volume (Vt), vital capacity (Vc) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) of the two groups during T1 and T2 were decreased, while respiratory frequency (RR) and alveolar-arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PA-aO2) were increased and they began to decrease during T3 and T4. Vt and Vc of the group S were higher during T1 and T2 periods than those of the group C, while RR was lower than that of the group C; PaO2 / FiO2 during T1 to T4 period of group S was higher than that of group C, while PA-aO2 was significantly lower than that of the control group (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, although LVEF was not improved in the sevoflurane group, sevoflurane may contribute to stabilizing the cardiopulmonary function and preventing from myocardial injury.

  18. In-hospital clinical outcomes of elderly patients (≥60 years) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya-Min; Cai, Xing-Xing; Geng, Hai-Hua; Sheng, Hong-Zhuan; Fan, Meng-Kan; Pan, Min

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients are at high risk of mortality when they present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the clinical outcomes of this sub-group undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have not been well established, despite recent advances in both devices and techniques. In the present retrospective cohort study from a Chinese single center, we assessed the clinical outcomes and predictors of mortality in elderly patients (≥60 years) underwent with PPCI. The primary endpoints were immediate angiographic success and in-hospital procedural success. The secondary endpoints were all-cause death in hospital. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a total of 184 consecutive patients with acute STEMI underwent PPCI were enrolled. 116 (63.04%) patients were in the elderly group. Despite the difference in lesion complexity between groups, the immediate angiographic success rate was similar (93.97% in the elderly group, and 94.12% in the non-elderly group, P=0.966). The procedural success rate were not significantly different between the two groups (90.52% in the elderly group, and 94.12% in the non-elderly group, P=0.389). However, in-hospital mortality was statistically higher in elderly group than in the non-elderly group (8.62% Vs 1.47%, P=0.048). The major causes of death were cardiac shock and malignant arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation). Our results indicate that PPCI in the elderly is feasible and has a high likelihood of immediate angiographic and procedural success. PMID:26379931

  19. Incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bohatch Júnior, Milton Sérgio; Matkovski, Paula Dayana; Giovanni, Frederico José Di; Fenili, Romero; Varella, Everton Luz; Dietrich, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A retrospective study with analysis of 230 medical records between January 2011 and October 2013 was conducted. Results Fifty-six (24.3%) out of the 230 patients were female. The average age of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was 59.91±8.62 years old, and off-pump was 57.16±9.01 years old (P=0.0213). The average EuroSCORE for the on-pump group was 3.37%±3.08% and for the off-pump group was 3.13%±3% (P=0.5468). Eighteen (13.43%) patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting developed postoperative atrial fibrillation, whereas for the onpump group, 19 (19.79%) developed this arrhythmia, with no significant difference between the groups (P=0.1955). Conclusion Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period. Important predictors of risk for the development of this arrhythmia were identified as: patients older than 70 years old and presence of atrial fibrillation in perioperative period in both groups, and non-use of beta-blockers drugs postoperatively in the on-pump group. PMID:26313722

  20. A Randomized-Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Anxiety of Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Molavi Vardanjani, Mehdi; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Razavi, Narges Sadat; Aghajani, Mohammad; Azizi-Fini, Esmail; Vaghefi, Seied Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The anxiety reduction before coronary angiography has clinical advantages and is one of the objectives of nursing. Reflexology is a non-invasive method that has been used in several clinical situations. Applying reflexology might have effect on the reduction of anxiety before coronary angiography. Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the effect of reflexology on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, in Kashan, Iran. One hundred male patients who were undergoing coronary angiography were randomly enrolled into intervention and placebo groups. The intervention protocol was included 30 minutes of general foot massage and the stimulation of three reflex points including solar plexus, pituitary gland, and heart. The placebo group only received the general foot massage. Spielbergers state trait anxiety inventory was used to assess the anxiety experienced by patients. Data was analyzed using Man-Witney, Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. The stepwise multiple regressions used to analyze the variables that are involved in anxiety reduction. Results: The mean range of anxiety decreased from 53.24 to 45.24 in reflexology group which represented 8 score reduction (P = 0.0001). The reduction in anxiety was 5.9 score in placebo group which was also significant (P = 0.0001). The anxiety reduction was significantly higher in reflexology group (P = 0.014). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that doing reflexology can explain the 7.5% of anxiety reduction which made a significant model. Conclusions: Reflexology can decrease the anxiety level before coronary angiography. Therefore, reflexology before coronary angiography is recommended. PMID:25414869

  1. The effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning on myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, D M; Mint, J J; Kim, J H; Sohn, I S; Lim, T W; Lim, Y J; Bahk, J H; Jeon, Y

    2010-09-01

    In several recent clinical trials on cardiac surgery patients, remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) showed a powerful myocardial protective effect. However the effect of RIPC has not been studied in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We evaluated whether RIPC could induce myocardial protection in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated to the RIPC (n = 65) or control group (n = 65). After induction of anaesthesia, RIPC was induced by four cycles of five-minute ischaemia and reperfusion on the upper limb using a pneumatic cuff. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, remifentanil and vecuronium. Myocardial injury was assessed by troponin I before surgery and 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery. There were no statistical differences in troponin I levels between RIPC and control groups (P = 0.172). Although RIPC reduced the total amount of troponin I (area under the curve of troponin increase) by 26%, it did not reach statistical significance (RIPC group 53.2 +/- 72.9 hours x ng/ml vs control group 67.4 +/- 97.7 hours x ng/ml, P = 0.281). In this study, RIPC by upper limb ischaemia reduced the postoperative myocardial enzyme elevation in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further study with a larger number of patients may be needed to fully evaluate the clinical effect of RIPC in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients.

  2. Congenital intrathoracic kidney in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Darwazah, Ahmad K; Yosri, Ahmad

    2011-03-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly. It appears as a posterior mediastinal mass on chest X-ray. Most cases are asymptomatic and are discovered accidentally. We present a 48-year-old male patient with intrathoracic kidney discovered during routine investigation for coronary artery bypass surgery.

  3. Frequency of abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Annabelle; Elkalioubie, Ahmed; Juthier, Francis; Tagzirt, Madjid; Vincentelli, André; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Haulon, Stéphan; Deklunder, Ghislaine; Breyne, Joke; Susen, Sophie; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Pinet, Florence; Jude, Brigitte

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the prevalence and the risk factors for unsuspected abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease and to identify the most at risk patients for AAA. Among 217 patients (189 men, mean age 64 +/- 11 years), asymptomatic AAAs, as prospectively identified by echocardiography, were found in 15 patients (6.9%). All patients with AAAs were men and smokers or past smokers. Factors significantly associated by univariate analysis with asymptomatic AAA presence were smoking (p = 0.003), symptomatic peripheral artery disease (p = 0.006), significant carotid artery stenosis (p = 0.007), and larger femoral and popliteal diameters (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0012, respectively). The other classic demographic, clinical, and biologic features were equally distributed among patients. In conclusion, in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting who were men and aged <75 years with smoking histories, the prevalence of AAA was as high as 24% when they had concomitant peripheral arterial disease and/or carotid artery stenosis (vs 4.4% in the absence of either condition, p = 0.007), justifying consideration of AAA screening in this subgroup of in-hospital patients.

  4. The coronary CT angiography vision protocol: a prospective observational imaging cohort study in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Tej; Butler, Craig; Chow, Benjamin; Chan, M T V; Mitha, Ayesha; Nagele, Peter; Tandon, Vikas; Stewart, Lori; Graham, Michelle; Choi, G Y S; Kisten, T; Woodard, P K; Crean, Andrew; Abdul Aziz, Y F; Karthikeyan, G; Chow, C K; Szczeklik, W; Markobrada, M; Mastracci, T.; Devereaux, P J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, physicians have a limited ability to predict major cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery and little is known about the anatomy of coronary arteries associated with perioperative myocardial infarction. We have initiated the Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) VISION Study to (1) establish the predictive value of coronary CTA for perioperative myocardial infarction and death and (2) describe the coronary anatomy of patients that have a perioperative myocardial infarction. Methods and analysis The Coronary CTA VISION Study is prospective observational study. Preoperative coronary CTA will be performed in 1000–1500 patients with a history of vascular disease or at least three cardiovascular risk factors who are undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery. Serial troponin will be measured 6–12 h after surgery and daily for the first 3 days after surgery. Major vascular outcomes at 30 days and 1 year after surgery will be independently adjudicated. Ethics and dissemination Coronary CTA results in a measurable radiation exposure that is similar to a nuclear perfusion scan (10–12 mSV). Treating physicians will be blinded to the CTA results until 30 days after surgery in order to provide the most unbiased assessment of its prognostic capabilities. The only exception will be the presence of a left main stenosis >50%. This approach is supported by best available current evidence that, excluding left main disease, prophylatic revascularisation prior to non-cardiac surgery does not improve outcomes. An external safety and monitoring committee is overseeing the study and will review outcome data at regular intervals. Publications describing the results of the study will be submitted to major peer-reviewed journals and presented at international medical conferences. PMID:22855630

  5. Coronary dominance and prognosis in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Catherine; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Stehli, Julia; Gransar, Heidi; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Andreini, Daniele; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M.; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Delago, Augustin; Gomez, Millie J.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Hindoyan, Niree; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison M.; Min, James K.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has become an important tool for non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary dominance can be assessed by CCTA; however, the predictive value of coronary dominance is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of coronary dominance in a large prospective, international multicentre cohort of patients undergoing CCTA. Methods and results The study population consisted of 6382 patients with or without CAD (47% females, 53% males, mean age 56.9 ± 12.3 years) who underwent CCTA and were followed over a period of 60 months. Right or left coronary dominance was determined. Right dominance was present in 91% (n = 5817) and left in 9% (n = 565) of the study population. At the end of follow-up, outcome in patients with obstructive CAD (>50% luminal stenosis) and right dominance was similar compared with patients with left dominance [hazard ratio (HR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.16–1.32, P = 0.15]. Furthermore, no differences were observed for the type of coronary dominance in patients with non-obstructive CAD (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.41–2.21, P = 0.8962) or normal coronary arteries (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68–1.59, P = 0.9). Subgroup analysis in patients with left main disease revealed an elevated hazard of the combined endpoint for left dominance (HR 6.45, 95% CI 1.66–25.0, P = 0.007), but not for right dominance. Conclusion In our study population, survival after 5 years of follow-up did not differ significantly between patients with left or right coronary dominance. Thus, assessment of coronary vessel dominance by CCTA may not enhance risk stratification in patients with normal coronary arteries or obstructive CAD, but may add prognostic information for specific subpopulations. PMID:25744341

  6. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  7. Safety and Efficacy of Caproamin Fides and Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Totonchi, Ziae; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholampour Dehaki, Maziar; Jalili, Farshid; Farsad, Fariborz; Hejrati, Maral

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive fibrinolysis contributes to post-cardiopulmonary bypass bleeding. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) and Caproamin Fides are synthetic lysine analogues that inhibit plasminogen-fibrin binding. The present study aimed to compare TXA and Caproamin Fides versus placebo in patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Methods: We analyzed perioperative data of 300 adult patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Patients were randomly allocated to receive TXA (n=100), Caproamin Fides (n=100) or placebo (n=100) during perioperative time. Mediastinal bleeding during the first 24 hours post-operation, transfusion requirement and post-surgical complications were assessed. Results: Most descriptive and intra-operative parameters were well comparable between the 3 study groups. Except for mean number of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused during ICU stay (P=0.01), patients in the Caproamin Fides and TXA groups did not show any statistically significant differences regarding transfusion of blood products during peri-operative period. There was no evidence of a significant difference in mediastinal blood loss during the first 24 hours post-operation between the patients receiving TXA or placebo, while patients in the Caproamin Fides group had significantly lower mediastinal bleeding than the other 2 groups (Caproamin Fides vs. placebo, P=0.002, <0.001 and <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation; Caproamin Fides vs. TXA, P=0.009, 0.003, <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation). The incidence of postoperative complications were comparable between Caproamin Fides and TXA groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Caproamin Fides seems to be superior to TXA regarding the blood saving effects in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. PMID:25320669

  8. Association of Serum Pentraxin-3 and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein with the Extent of Coronary Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Vuković-Dejanović, Vesna; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Spasić, Slavica; Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Oštrić, Dimitra; Topalović, Mirko; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We compared factors of inflammation – high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and we explored their relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, we tested the usefulness of hsCRP and PTX3 in the risk assessment of coronary stenosis development and the diagnostic ability of these biomarkers to detect disease severity. Methods The study group consisted of 93 CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients were divided into CAD(0), representing subclinical stenosis, and CAD (1–3), representing significant stenosis in one, two or three vessels. Results We determined the concentration of lipid status parameters, hsCRP and PTX3. We found significantly lower PTX3 and hsCRP concentrations in CAD(0) than in CAD(1–3) group. Concentration of PTX3 showed an increasing trend with the increasing number of vessels affected. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the combinations of hsCRP and PTX3 with lipid parameters had useful accuracy for detecting CAD(1–3) patients (AUC=0.770, p<0.001). Conclusion PTX3 is a promising independent diagnostic marker for identifying patients with CAD, and a useful indicator of disease progression. In all the analyses PTX3 showed better performance than hsCRP. A combination of PTX3, hsCRP with the lipid status parameters provides risk stratification of the development of coronary stenosis and better classification than their individual application. PMID:28356853

  9. Usefulness of Routine Periodic Fasting to Lower Risk of Coronary Artery Disease among Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Benjamin D.; May, Heidi T.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Bailey, Beau M.; McClure, Brian S.; Renlund, Dale G.; Lappé, Donald L.; Carlquist, John F.; Fisher, Patrick W.; Pearson, Robert R.; Bair, Tami L.; Adams, Ted D.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multi-factorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. While the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (N1=4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994-2002) were evaluated for association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (≥70% coronary stenosis on angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (N2=448) were surveyed (2004-2006) for association of behavioral factors with CAD, with the primary variable being routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink). Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee, social support, and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking]: odds ratio [OR]=0.81; p=0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs. 76% CAD; OR=0.55, CI=0.35, 0.87; p=0.010) and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR=0.46, CI=0.27, 0.81; p=0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p=0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD. PMID:18805103

  10. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; May, Heidi T; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Bailey, Beau M; McClure, Brian S; Renlund, Dale G; Lappé, Donald L; Carlquist, John F; Fisher, Patrick W; Pearson, Robert R; Bair, Tami L; Adams, Ted D; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2008-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multifactorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. Although the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (n(1) = 4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994 to 2002) were evaluated for the association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (> or = 70% coronary stenosis using angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (n(2) = 448) were surveyed (2004 to 2006) for the association of behavioral factors with CAD, with routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink) as the primary variable. Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee; social support; and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking] odds ratio [OR] 0.81, p = 0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs 76% CAD; OR 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.87, p = 0.010), and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.81, p = 0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p = 0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with a similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD.

  11. The effect of melatonin on endothelial dysfunction in patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Kiyan; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Mohsen; Sonbolestan, Sayed Ali; Ziayi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin administration on four markers of endothelial cell function including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), C-reactive protein (CRP), and nitric oxide (NO) on patients with three vessels coronary disease. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial study was conducted on 39 patients (32 men and 7 women) with three vessels coronary disease. The case group included 20 patients who received 10 mg oral melatonin 1 h before sleeping for 1 month. The control group included 19 patients who received placebo 1 h before sleeping for 1 month. The serum levels of CRP, ICAM, VCAM, and NO were compared after 1 month treatment. Results: After 1 month of melatonin treatment, the mean level of ICAM, VCAM, and CRP showed a statistically significant decrease in the case group. On the other hand, the mean level of VCAM increased significantly in the control group. The mean levels of CRP and ICAM were also increased in the control group, but the difference did not reach the significant threshold. With respect to NO, there was a statistically significant increase in the case group, while there was a statistically significant decrease in serum NO in the control group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that melatonin may have beneficial effects on endothelial oxidative stress even in patient with severe and advanced atherosclerosis. PMID:28028514

  12. The relation between mitral annular calcification and mortality in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Willens, Howard J; Chirinos, Julio A; Schob, Alan; Veerani, Anila; Perez, Armando J; Chakko, Simon

    2006-10-01

    To determine whether the observed association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and mortality is independent of the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), we analyzed data from 134 male veterans (age 63 +/- 10 years) followed for 5 years who had undergone diagnostic coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography within 6 months of each other. Echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of MAC. The relation of MAC to all-cause mortality was analyzed using logistic regression, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. MAC was present in 49 (37%) subjects. Over the 5-year follow-up period, 38 (28%) patients expired. Five-year survival was 80% for subjects without MAC and 56% for subjects with MAC (P = 0.003). MAC (OR = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.43-6.96, P = 0.003), ejection fraction (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97, P = 0.02), and left main CAD (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.11-6.57, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction, number of obstructed coronary arteries and the presence of left main coronary artery stenosis, MAC significantly predicted death (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.09-5.68, P = 0.03). Similarly, after adjusting for predictors of MAC, including ejection fraction, age, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure, MAC remained a significant predictor of death (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02-5.58, P = 0.04). MAC also predicted death independent of smoking status, hypertension, serum creatinine, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein levels (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.68-9.40, P = 0.001). MAC detected by two-dimensional echocardiography independently predicts mortality and may provide an easy-to-perform and inexpensive way to improve risk stratification.

  13. Management of patients with recently implanted coronary stents on dual antiplatelet therapy who need to undergo major surgery.

    PubMed

    Savonitto, S; Caracciolo, M; Cattaneo, M; DE Servi, S

    2011-11-01

    About 5% of patients undergoing coronary stenting need to undergo surgery within the next year. The risk of perioperative cardiac ischemic events, particularly stent thrombosis (ST), is high in these patients, because surgery has a prothrombotic effect and antiplatelet therapy is often withdrawn in order to avoid bleeding. The clinical and angiographic predictors of ST are well known, and the proximity to an acute coronary syndrome adds to the risk. The current guidelines recommend delaying non-urgent surgery for at least 6 weeks after the placement of a bare metal stent and for 6-12 months after the placement of a drug-eluting stent, when the risk of ST is reduced. However, in the absence of formal evidence, these recommendations provide little support with regard to managing urgent operations. When surgery cannot be postponed, stratifying the risk of surgical bleeding and cardiac ischemic events is crucial in order to manage perioperative antiplatelet therapy in individual cases. Dual antiplatelet therapy should not be withdrawn for minor surgery or most gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Aspirin can be safely continued perioperatively in the case of most major surgery, and provides coronary protection. In the case of interventions at high risk for both bleeding and ischemic events, when clopidogrel withdrawal is required in order to reduce perioperative bleeding, perioperative treatment with the short-acting intravenous glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor tirofiban is safe in terms of bleeding, and provides strong antithrombotic protection. Such surgical interventions should be performed at hospitals capable of performing an immediate percutaneous coronary intervention at any time in the case of acute myocardial ischemia.

  14. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saeide; Babaii, Atye; Abbasinia, Mohammad; Shamali, Mahdi; Abbasi, Mohammad; Rezaei, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P < 0.037) while it did not significantly change in the control group. However, there were no significant differences regarding the cardiovascular indices in the three consecutive measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG. PMID:26835471

  15. The optimal management of patients on oral anticoagulation undergoing coronary artery stenting. The 10th Anniversary Overview.

    PubMed

    Rubboli, A; Faxon, D P; Juhani Airaksinen, K E; Schlitt, A; Marín, F; Bhatt, D L; Lip, G Y H

    2014-12-01

    Even 10 years after the first appearance in the literature of articles reporting on the management of patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent (PCI-S), this issue is still controversial. Nonetheless, some guidance for the everyday management of this patient subset, accounting for about 5-8 % of all patients referred for PCI-S, has been developed. In general, a period of triple therapy (TT) of OAC, with either vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) or non-vitamin K-antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC), aspirin, and clopidogrel is warranted, followed by the combination of OAC, and a single antiplatelet agent for up to 12 months, and then OAC alone. The duration of the initial period of TT is dependent on the individual risk of thromboembolism, and bleeding, as well as the clinical context in which PCI-S is performed (elective vs acute coronary syndrome), and the type of stent implanted (bare-metal vs drug-eluting). In this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive, at-a-glance, overview of the management strategies, which are currently suggested for the peri-procedural, medium-term, and long-term periods following PCI-S in OAC patients. While acknowledging that most of the evidence has been obtained from patients on OAC because of atrial fibrillation, and with warfarin being the most frequently used VKA, we refer in this overview to the whole population of OAC patients undergoing PCI-S. We refer to the whole population of patients on OAC undergoing PCI-S also when OAC is carried out with NOAC rather than VKA, pointing out, when appropriate, the particular management issues.

  16. Impact of CYP2C19 Variants on Clinical Efficacy of Clopidogrel and 1-Year Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Heart Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Qu, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-Fan; Tan, Sheng-Lan; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Qu, Jian; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The impact of pharmacogenetic variants of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) on clopidogrel-mediated effects on platelet inhibition, inflammatory response and endothelial function, as well as risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), in coronary heart patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was investigated. To this end, we assessed the residual platelet aggregation rate (RPA), maximal aggregation rate (MAR) and plasma levels of sCD40L, sP-selectin, MMP-9, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin after 24 h of PCI in 559 patients treated with clopidogrel and followed up for 1 year for evidence of MACE. CYP2C19 *2 and *3 variants were identified using a clopidogrel-sensitive gene detection kit. Our results showed higher RPA and MAR as well as increased sE-selectin, sCD40L, sP-selectin, MMP-9, and sVCAM-1 levels in CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizer (IM, CYP2C19*1/*2, or *1/*3), poor metabolizer (PM, CYP2C19*2/*2, *2/*3, or *3/*3) and combined IM+PM groups, relative to those in extensive metabolizers (EM, CYP2C19*1/*1). In total, 519 patients completed 1 year of follow-up, among which 69 (13.3%) experienced MACE. The risk of MACE in CYP2C19 IM+PM patients was 2.664 times higher than that in CYP2C19 EM patients (OR = 2.664 (1.397–5.193), P = 0.004). The data suggest that CYP2C19*2 and *3 variants modulate the drug efficacy of clopidogrel in coronary heart patients undergoing PCI and further enhance the risk of MACE. Accordingly, CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic profiling may be beneficial for coronary heart patients undergoing PCI to predict the efficacy of treatment with clopidogrel. We propose that IM and PM patients should benefit from treatment with higher clopidogrel doses to improve efficacy and reduce the incidence of MACE. PMID:27932982

  17. Perioperative management of oral antiplatelet therapy and clinical outcomes in coronary stent patients undergoing surgery. Results of a multicentre registry.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Capodanno, Davide; Lettieri, Corrado; Limbruno, Ugo; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Russo, Nicolina; Calabria, Paolo; Romano, Michele; Inashvili, Ana; Sirbu, Vasile; Guagliumi, Giulio; Valsecchi, Orazio; Senni, Michele; Gavazzi, Antonello; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the perioperative risk of ischaemic and bleeding events in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery and how these outcomes are affected by the perioperative use of oral antiplatelet therapy. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study conducted in patients with coronary stent(s) undergoing cardiac or non-cardiac surgery. The primary efficacy endpoint was the 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. The primary safety endpoint was the 30-day incidence of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding ≥ 2. A total of 666 patients were included. Of these, 371 (55.7 %) discontinued their antiplatelet medication(s) (all or partly) before undergoing surgery. At 30 days, patients with perioperative discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy experienced a significantly higher incidence of MACE (7.5 % vs 0.3 %, p< 0.001), cardiac death (2.7 % vs 0.3 %, p=0.027), and MI (4.0 % vs 0 %, p< 0.001). After adjustment, peri-operative antiplatelet discontinuation was the strongest independent predictor of 30-day MACE (odds ratio [OR]=25.8, confidence interval [CI]=3.37-198, p=0.002). Perioperative aspirin (adjusted OR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.11-0.71, p=0.008) was significantly associated with a lower risk of MACE. The overall incidence of BARC ≥ 2 bleeding events at 30-days was significantly higher in patients who discontinued oral antiplatelet therapy (25.6 % vs 13.9 %, p< 0.001). However, after adjustment, antiplatelet discontinuation was not independently associated with BARC ≥ 2 bleeding. In conclusion antiplatelet discontinuation increases the 30-day risk of MACE, in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, while not offering significant protection from BARC≥ 2 bleeding.

  18. Risk of Stroke in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Optimal Medical Therapy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Taglieri, Nevio; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Ghetti, Gabriele; Saia, Francesco; Dall’Ara, Gianni; Gallo, Pamela; Moretti, Carolina; Palmerini, Tullio; Marrozzini, Cinzia; Marzocchi, Antonio; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke is a rare but serious adverse event associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relative risk of stroke between stable patients undergoing a direct PCI strategy and those undergoing an initial optimal medical therapy (OMT) strategy has not been established yet. This study sought to investigate if, in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), an initial strategy PCI is associated with a higher risk of stroke than a strategy based on OMT alone. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of 6 contemporary randomized control trials in which 5673 patients with SCAD were randomized to initial PCI or OMT. Only trials with stent utilization more than 50% were included. Study endpoint was the rate of stroke during follow up. Results Mean age of patients ranged from 60 to 65 years and stent utilization ranged from 72% to 100%. Rate of stroke was 2.0% at a weighted mean follow up of 55.3 months. On pooled analysis, the risk of stroke was similar between patients undergoing a PCI plus OMT and those receiving only OMT (2.2% vs. 1.8%, OR on fixed effect = 1.24 95%CI: 0.85–1.79). There was no heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.15). On sensitivity analysis after removing each individual study the pooled effect estimate remains unchanged. Conclusions In patients with SCAD an initial strategy based on a direct PCI is not associated with an increased risk of stroke during long-term follow up compared to an initial strategy based on OMT alone. PMID:27391212

  19. In-hospital management and outcome of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation: results of the multicenter, prospective WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry.

    PubMed

    Rubboli, Andrea; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Briguori, Carlo; Saia, Francesco; Palmieri, Cataldo; Moroni, Luigi Andrea; Calabrò, Paolo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Franco, Nicoletta; Valgimigli, Marco; Varani, Elisabetta; Santi, Michela; Pasqualini, Paola; Capecchi, Alessandro; Piccalò, Giacomo; Margheri, Massimo; di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Galvani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo; Gonzini, Lucio; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2013-04-01

    The in-hospital management of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation (PCI-S) is variable, and the in-hospital outcome incompletely defined. To determine the adherence to the current recommendations, and the incidence of adverse events, we carried out the prospective, multicenter, observational WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00722319). All consecutive patients on warfarin undergoing PCI-S at 37 Italian centers were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures were: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, need for urgent revascularization, stroke, and venous thromboembolism, and major and minor bleeding. In this paper, we report the in-hospital findings. Out of the 411 patients enrolled, 92% were at non-low (ie, moderate or high) thromboembolic risk. The radial approach and bare-metal stents were used in 61% and 60% of cases, respectively. Drug-eluting stents were essentially reserved to patients with diabetes, which in turn, significantly predicted the implantation of drug-eluting stents (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.17; P=.002). The in-hospital MACE and major bleeding rates were 2.7% and 2.1%, respectively. At discharge, triple therapy (TT) of warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel was prescribed to 76% of patients. Prescription of TT was significantly more frequent in the non-low thromboembolic risk group. Non-low thromboembolic risk, in turn, was a significant predictor of TT prescription (OR, 11.2; 95% CI, 4.83-26.3; P<.0001). In conclusion, real-world warfarin patients undergoing PCI-S are largely managed according to the current recommendations. As a consequence, the risk of in-hospital MACE and major bleedings appears limited and acceptable.

  20. The effects of discharge training and counseling on post-discharge problems in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Masoumeh; Celik, Sevilay Senol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advances in coronary artery surgery have reduced morbidity, mortality, and rates of graft occlusion. Discharge programs are important services for the continuity of treatment and must encompass physical, psychological, and social aspects of individual patient care. This study aimed at investigating the effect of planned discharge training and counseling on the problems experienced by patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study was performed on 100 patients undergoing CABG surgery in the surgery department. During a period of 9 months from January to September 2013, the patients in the intervention group were provided with adequate discharge training and counseling with a booklet before surgery and counseling until 6 weeks after discharge, while the control group patients received only routine clinical procedures, i.e. prescribing medicine, controlling vital signs, and wound dressing. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23. Frequency and distribution were used to describe the data, and paired sample t-test, variance analysis, Fisher's exact test, and Chi-squared tests were also used. Results: The reported problems for both groups had a descending pattern during the three follow-ups. However, this pattern had a greater slope in the intervention group compared to the control one. As a result of these education programs, problems were fewer in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Discharge training and counseling given to the intervention group had a positive impact on decreasing the problems that the patients had. Therefore, the institutions may be recommended to support multidisciplinary patient training and counseling activities using the methods described in this study. PMID:26257798

  1. Outcomes and predictors of prolonged ventilation in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Hesham Z.; Shaw, Matthew; Al-Rawi, Omar; Yates, Jonathan; Pullan, D. Mark; Chalmers, John A.C.; Fabri, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite the seriousness of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) as a postoperative complication, previously proposed risk prediction models were met with limited success. The purpose of this study was to identify perioperative variables associated with PMV in elective primary coronary bypass surgery. PMV was defined as the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation for >72 h, after completion of the operation. METHODS Between April 1997 and September 2010, 10 977 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. A series of two multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify preoperative predictors of prolonged ventilation and the impact of operative variables. RESULTS PMV occurred in 215 (1.96%) patients; 119 (55.3%) of these underwent tracheostomy. At multivariate analysis, predictors included NYHA higher than class II (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.34–2.34), renal dialysis (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.08–14.65), age at operation (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06), reduced FEV1 (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99), body mass index >35 kg/m2 (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14–2.63). On serial logistic regression analyses, operative variables added little to the discriminatory power of the model. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed reduced survival among PMV patients (P < 0.001) with an improved survival in the tracheostomy subgroup. CONCLUSIONS PMV after coronary bypass is associated with a reduction in early and mid-term survival. Risk modelling for PMV remains problematic even when examining a more homogenous lower risk group. PMID:22495507

  2. Does a "continuous care model" affect the quality of life of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Razmjoee, Nasrin; Ebadi, Abbas; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Hosseini, Marziyeh

    2017-03-01

    The physical and mental needs of patients with coronary heart disease are affected by both the disease and the heart surgery in different ways. Such diverse needs require different approaches. A continuous care model, which involves orientation, sensitization, control, and evaluation, may favorably influence patient outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We were interested to ascertain whether a continuous care model might lead to improved quality of life, compared with a routine care model, in patients undergoing CABG. A total of 66 patients scheduled for CABG were identified and randomized to receive either continuous care (based on the continuous care model) or routine postoperative management for 2 months. The subjects' quality of life and its physical and mental dimensions were measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Each dimension was scored between 0 and 100, and higher scores indicated better quality of life. One and 2 months after the intervention, the scores of quality of life and its two dimensions were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P < .001). The application of the continuous care model can promote health-related quality of life in patients after CABG.

  3. Comparison of Conventional versus Steerable-Catheter Guided Coronary Sinus Lead Positioning in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Er, Fikret; Yüksel, Dilek; Hellmich, Martin; Gassanov, Natig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare conventional versus steerable catheter guided coronary sinus (CS) cannulation in patients with advanced heart failure undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Background Steerable catheter guided coronary sinus cannulation could reduce fluoroscopy time and contrast medium use during CRT implantation. Methods 176 consecutive patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure undergoing CRT implantation from January 2008 to December 2012 at the University Hospital of Cologne were identified. During the study period two concurrent CS cannulation techniques were used: standard CS cannulation technique (standard-group, n = 113) and CS cannulation using a steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheter (EPCath-group, n = 63). Propensity-score matched pairs of conventional and EP-catheter guided CS cannulation made up the study population (n = 59 pairs). Primary endpoints were total fluoroscopy time and contrast medium amount used during procedure. Results The total fluoroscopy time was 30.9 min (interquartile range (IQR), 19.9–44.0 min) in the standard-group and 23.4 min (IQR, 14.2-34-2 min) in the EPCath-group (p = 0.011). More contrast medium was used in the standard-group (60.0 ml, IQR, 30.0–100 ml) compared to 25.0 ml (IQR, 20.0–50.0 ml) in the EPCath-group (P<0.001). Conclusions Use of steerable EP catheter was associated with significant reduction of fluoroscopy time and contrast medium use in patients undergoing CRT implantation. PMID:26599637

  4. Clinical evolution of mediastinitis in patients undergoing adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    do Egito, Julyana Galvão Tabosa; Abboud, Cely Saad; de Oliveira, Aline Pâmela Vieira; Máximo, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves; Montenegro, Carolina Moreira; Amato, Vivian Lerner; Bammann, Roberto; Farsky, Pedro Silvio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunctive treatment in mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study, performed between October 2010 and February 2012. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was indicated in difficult clinical management cases despite antibiotic therapy. Results: We identified 18 patients with mediastinitis during the study period. Thirty three microorganisms were isolated, and polymicrobial infection was present in 11 cases. Enterobacteriaceae were the most prevalent pathogens and six were multi-resistant agents. There was only 1 hospital death, 7 months after the oxygen therapy caused by sepsis, unrelated to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This treatment was well-tolerated. Conclusion: The initial data showed favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:24136762

  5. The Effect of Sex and Anthropometry on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Coronary Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yul; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of sex and anthropometry on clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and Methods From three randomized trials (REal Safety and Efficacy of 3-month dual antiplatelet Therapy following Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation, Impact of intraVascular UltraSound guidance on outcomes of Xience Prime stents in Long lesions, Chronic Total Occlusion InterVention with drUg-eluting Stents), we compared 333 pairs of men and women matched by propensity scores, all of whom underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI for complex lesions. Results For 12 months, the incidence of adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of cardiac death, target lesion–related myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization, was not different between women and men (2.4% vs. 2.4%, p=0.939). Using multivariable Cox's regression analysis, post-intervention minimum lumen area [MLA; hazard ratio (HR)=0.620, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.423–0.909, p=0.014] by IVUS was a predictor of adverse cardiac events. Height on anthropometry and lesions with chronic total occlusion were significantly related to post-intervention MLA. However, female sex was not independently associated with post-intervention MLA. In an age and sex-adjusted model, patients in the low tertile of height exhibited a greater risk for adverse cardiac events than those in the high tertile of height (HR=6.391, 95% CI=1.160–35.206, p=0.033). Conclusion Sex does not affect clinical outcomes after PCI for complex lesions. PCI outcomes, however, may be adversely affected by height. PMID:28120559

  6. Evaluation of antiplatelet effects of a modified protocol by platelet aggregation in patients undergoing "one-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peixian; Xiong, Hui; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Lihuan; Gao, Runlin; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2010-01-01

    "One-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization has emerged to be a reliable and attractive alternative for selected patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. However, the optimal antiplatelet regimen of the one-stop hybrid procedure still remains controversial. We modified the antiplatelet protocol in order to reduce the risk of perioperative bleeding and maximally inhibit platelet activity. This study sought to investigate whether the inhibition of platelet activity by this modified antiplatelet protocol is comparable with the conventional protocol widely used and recommended in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Twenty three patients undergoing one-stop hybrid procedure and 20 patients undergoing conventional PCI were enrolled in this prospective study. The modified antiplatelet protocol included perioperative use of aspirin; clopidogrel was administered immediately before PCI with a 300 mg loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose of 75 mg/day for 12 months. Blood samples were obtained before the operation and 2 hours, day 1 and day 3 after operation. Platelet aggregation was induced with: 1) arachidonic acid (AA) (final concentration 0.5 mmol/L) to assess the efficacy of aspirin; 2) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (final concentration 10 micromol/L) to assess the specific efficacy of clopidogrel. Platelet counts were statistically lower in the hybrid group than in the PCI control group (p = 0.0018) on day 1 after operation. AA-induced platelet aggregation increased significantly in comparison with the preoperative baseline values (p = 0.0079) and the PCI control group (p = 0.0023) on day 1 after operation. ADP-induced platelet aggregation gradually decreased in the hybrid group, and achieved similar platelet inhibition with the PCI group on 2 hours and day 1 after operation. No major adverse clinical events such as death, perioperative myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis or reoperation for bleeding occurred in both groups within 30 days after

  7. Efficacy of Danlou Tablet in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from a Multicentre, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xujie; Mao, Shuai; Guo, Liheng; Du, Tinghai; Yang, Haiyu; Zhao, Fuhai; Wu, Keng; Cong, Hongliang; Wu, Yang; Chen, Keji

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate potential cardioprotection of Danlou Tablets in patients undergoing PCI with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). 219 patients with NSTE-ACS were randomised to Danlou Tablet pretreatment (n = 109) or placebo (n = 110). No patients received statins prior to PCI and all patients were given atorvastatin (10 mg/day) after procedure. The main endpoint was the composite incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) within 30 days after PCI. The proportion of patients with elevated levels of cTn I>5 × 99% of upper reference limit was significantly lower in the Danlou Tablet group at 8 h (22.0% versus 34.5%, p = 0.04) and 24 h (23.9% versus 38.2%, p = 0.02) after PCI. The 30-day MACEs occurred in 22.0% of the Danlou Tablet group and 33.6% in the placebo group (p = 0.06). The incidence of MACE at 90-day follow-up was significantly decreased in the Danlou Tablet group compared to the placebo group (23.9% versus 37.3%, p = 0.03). The difference between the groups at 90 days was the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (22% versus 34.5%, p = 0.04). These findings might support that treatment with Danlou Tablet could reduce the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. PMID:27895696

  8. Pharmacokinetics of enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with and without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa therapy.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Domenick; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Heald, Donald; Jensen, Brad; Fareed, Jaweed

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of enoxaparin was established in a substudy involving 1054 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients enrolled in the National Investigators Collaborating on Enoxaparin 1 (NICE-1) trial received enoxaparin as a 1.0-mg/kg intravenous bolus. Patients enrolled in the NICE-4 trial received enoxaparin as a 0.75-mg/kg intravenous bolus followed by abciximab as a 0.25-mg/kg bolus and a 0.125-mcg/kg/min 12-hour infusion. Blood samples were collected at six time points over 12 hours and analyzed for plasma anti-Xa, anti-IIa, and Heptest (Haemachem Inc., St. Louis, MO) activity using specific and sensitive assay methods. Data were similar in both trials. Plasma anti-Xa, anti-IIa, and Heptest activity peaked shortly after the enoxaparin bolus and declined in parallel over the ensuing 12 hours. Area under the curve and peak activity were greatest for Heptest activity and least for anti-IIa activity. Values for clearance, volume of distribution, volume of distribution at steady state, and elimination rate constant were on the order of 10 mL/h/kg, 48 mL/kg, 45 mL/kg, and 0.22/h, respectively. These measures suggest that the use of abciximab in combination with enoxaparin during percutaneous coronary intervention is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of enoxaparin.

  9. A Comparison of Third-Generation Semi-Invasive Arterial Waveform Analysis with Thermodilution in Patients Undergoing Coronary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Broch, Ole; Renner, Jochen; Gruenewald, Matthias; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Steinfath, Markus; Malbrain, Manu; Bein, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Uncalibrated semi-invasive continous monitoring of cardiac index (CI) has recently gained increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of CI determination based on arterial waveform analysis with transpulmonary thermodilution. Fifty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia and before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), respectively. Each patient was monitored with a central venous line, the PiCCO system, and the FloTrac/Vigileo-system. Measurements included CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution and uncalibrated semi-invasive pulse contour analysis. Percentage changes of CI were calculated. There was a moderate, but significant correlation between pulse contour CI and thermodilution CI both before (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and after (r2 = 0.62, P < 0.0001) CPB, with a percentage error of 31% and 25%, respectively. Changes in pulse contour CI showed a significant correlation with changes in thermodilution CI both before (r2 = 0.52, P < 0.0001) and after (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001) CPB. Our findings demonstrated that uncalibrated semi-invasive monitoring system was able to reliably measure CI compared with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery. Furthermore, the semi-invasive monitoring device was able to track haemodynamic changes and trends. PMID:22919321

  10. A comparison of third-generation semi-invasive arterial waveform analysis with thermodilution in patients undergoing coronary surgery.

    PubMed

    Broch, Ole; Renner, Jochen; Gruenewald, Matthias; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Steinfath, Markus; Malbrain, Manu; Bein, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Uncalibrated semi-invasive continous monitoring of cardiac index (CI) has recently gained increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of CI determination based on arterial waveform analysis with transpulmonary thermodilution. Fifty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia and before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), respectively. Each patient was monitored with a central venous line, the PiCCO system, and the FloTrac/Vigileo-system. Measurements included CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution and uncalibrated semi-invasive pulse contour analysis. Percentage changes of CI were calculated. There was a moderate, but significant correlation between pulse contour CI and thermodilution CI both before (r(2) = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and after (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.0001) CPB, with a percentage error of 31% and 25%, respectively. Changes in pulse contour CI showed a significant correlation with changes in thermodilution CI both before (r(2) = 0.52, P < 0.0001) and after (r(2) = 0.67, P < 0.0001) CPB. Our findings demonstrated that uncalibrated semi-invasive monitoring system was able to reliably measure CI compared with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery. Furthermore, the semi-invasive monitoring device was able to track haemodynamic changes and trends.

  11. Predictors of Atrial Arrhythmias for Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    intraoperative factors have been studied as predictors of post- CABG atrial arrhythmias and include: aortic cross clamp time, number of grafts, perioperative...Shemin, R. J., Ryan, T. J., & Davidoff, R. (1995). Right coronary artery stenosis : An 60 independent predictor of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery

  12. Efficacy of short-term cordyceps sinensis for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Lin, Yu; Li, Yong-Jian; Gao, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the major causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The pathophysiological mechanism of CIN remains unknown. There has been little evidence regarding the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on CIN. Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used clinically for the prevention of the progression of renal failure. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of CS in the prevention of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The 150 ACS patients were randomly assigned to three groups, basic treatment group (n=51), standard CS therapy group (n=49, corbrin capsule 2 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography), and intensive CS therapy group (n=50, corbrin capsule 3 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography). Renal function was assessed at the time of hospital admission and on days 1, 2, and 3 after PCI. CIN occurred in 13 of 150 patients (8.67%). The incidence of CIN was lower in the CS treatment groups than in the basic treatment group (P<0.05), and a significant decrease in the incidence of CIN in the intensive CS therapy group was shown (P<0.01). In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with CS during the peri-procedural stage in ACS patients undergoing elective PCI has a preventive role against CIN, and intensive CS therapy could be more effective. PMID:25664103

  13. Triple anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention – real life assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Wrotniak, Leszek; Ostrowska-Kaim, Elżbieta; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Przewłocki, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triple anticoagulation therapy (TT), comprising dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC), is essential in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but it increases the bleeding risk. Aim To assess TT models, in- and out-hospital bleeding and thromboembolic complications, and TT alterations. Material and methods During 12 months, consecutive AF post-PCI patients were scheduled for TT. Alterations in TT and thromboembolic events (death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, in-stent thrombosis, peripheral embolization) were recorded. Major, non-major and minor bleeding episodes were assessed. Results One hundred and thirty-six out of 3171 patients, aged 73.0 ±8.4 years (90 male), were included. Intra-hospitally, thrombotic events occurred in 9 (6.6%), while bleeding events occurred in 71 (52.2%) patients. Access-site hematoma and blood transfusions during in-hospital stay predisposed physicians to heparin administration as part of TT on discharge (p = 0.018 and p = 0.033 respectively). Eventually, DAPT plus warfarin or plus novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) or plus low molecular weight heparin was prescribed in 72 (52.9%), 53 (39%), and 11 (8.1%) patients, respectively. HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were similar between subgroups (p = 0.63 and p = 0.64 respectively). During 10.2 ±4.2 months of follow-up, 11 (8.1%) deaths, and 9 (6.6%) non-fatal thromboembolic events occurred. Bleeding events occurred in 45 (34.6%) patients, including 14 (10.3%) major. TT was the only factor associated with increased risk of major bleeding (18.6% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.008). Early termination of any TT component, which concerned 59 (45.4%) patients, did not increase the risk of thromboembolic events (p = 0.89). Conclusions Our study indicates that TT is associated with high mortality and bleeding rates in a relatively short period of time. Discontinuation of any TT drug did not increase the thromboembolic event

  14. Pulmonary function and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Heijmans, J H; Liem, K S A E; Damoiseaux, G M C; Maessen, J G; Roekaerts, P M H J

    2007-12-01

    Lung injury after cardiac surgery is believed to result from cardiopulmonary bypass and its pro-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we compared the oxygenation ratios, extravascular lung water indices and systemic and pulmonary tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-8 at predetermined intervals in coronary artery surgery patients with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. No differences in oxygenation ratios or extravascular lung water indices were found. Serum values of TNF-alpha and IL-8 increased in both groups but were higher in the cardiopulmonary bypass group (end of surgery: mean (SD) TNF-alpha 3.68 (2.5) vs 2.20 (1.2) pg.ml(-1) (p = 0.043 (CI 0.05-2.9)) and mean (SD) IL-8 19.45 (10.8) vs 6.31 (5.3) pg.ml(-1) (p = 0.001 (CI 6.9-19.3)). In broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, TNF-alpha and IL-8 increased in both groups with no differences between the groups.

  15. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Nasser; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Badalzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reperfusion injury is a well-known phenomenon following restoration of the coronary circulation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that impairs myocardial function. In order to control the severity of this injury, we aimed to investigate the effect of a new conditioning strategy namely ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) along with controlled aortic root reperfusion (CARR) on myocardial protection in CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: In a doubled blind clinical trial study, 51 patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were randomly divided in three groups: CARR, IPOC, and combination of IPOC and CARR. At the end of procedure and just before aortic cross-clamp removal, reperfusion was started as following: In CARR-receiving groups, the reperfusion was started with low perfusion pressures for 10 minutes, and in IPOC-receiving groups, three cycles of 1 minute episodes of ischemia separated by 1 minute episodes of reperfusion was applied as postconditioning protocol. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (by echocardiography), inotrope requirement index, and myocardial arrhythmias were measured up to 72 hours after operation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that the recovery of EF after operation in IPOC group was significantly higher than those of two other groups (P < 0.05). Inotropic support requirement was significantly lower in IPOC groups. In addition, the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after opening of aortic clamp and in intensive care unit (ICU) as well as recovery time of cardiac rhythm upon reperfusion were lowered by administration of IPOC, as compared with CARR group. Conclusion: The study suggests that IPOC may provide clinical benefits against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing CABG surgery and maintain the post ischemic left ventricular performance. PMID:27489599

  16. Impact of cangrelor overdosing on bleeding complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the CHAMPION trials.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Prats, Jayne; Liu, Tiepu; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Overdosing of parenteral antithrombotic therapies can increase the risk of bleeding. Cangrelor is a potent intravenous platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist with rapid onset and offset of action. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), compared with control, cangrelor (30 µg/kg bolus, followed immediately by a 4 µg/kg per minute infusion for 2-4 h or until the conclusion of the index PCI, whichever was longer) reduces periprocedural thrombotic complications without an increase in major bleeding complications, although minor bleeding is increased. The impact of cangrelor overdosing on bleeding is unknown and represented the aim of this analysis. Patients with cangrelor overdosing were identified among safety population patients enrolled in the CHAMPION program (n = 25,107). Overdose was defined as administration of an excess >20 % of the bolus dose (30 μg/kg) and/or infusion rate (4 μg/kg per min). Bleeding complications were assessed. Among the safety analysis population in the CHAMPION program, 12,565 patients received cangrelor. A total of 36 overdosed cangrelor patients (0.29 %) were identified in this pooled analysis (20 with both bolus and infusion, 5 with bolus only, and 11 with infusion only). In the majority of patients, the dose did not exceed 2.5 times the recommended dose. Bleeding events were balanced between treatment arms and were consistent with those in the overall CHAMPION program. Only one overdosed patient experienced a serious bleed. There was no correlation between bleeding and magnitude of cangrelor overdose. In a large clinical trial program of patients undergoing PCI, cangrelor overdosing was rare and not associated with an increase in bleeding complications, an observation that may be attributed to its very short-half life and rapid offset of action.

  17. Goal-directed Therapy Improves the Outcome of High-risk Cardiac Patients Undergoing Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder Singh; Mehta, Yatin; Taneja, Sameer; Ravi, R; Hote, Milind P

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Material and Method: Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2), global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW), using FloTrac™, PreSep™, and EV-1000® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Result: Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. Conclusion: The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H) (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001) and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0.73 vs. 2.89

  18. Circulating microRNAs indicate cardioprotection by sevoflurane inhalation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAO; LIU, XIAOPENG; WANG, RUIKE; LUO, HUI; QIN, GANG; WANG, LU; YE, ZHI; GUO, QULIAN; WANG, E

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB), it is important to attenuate myocardium injury during the surgery. The present study aimed to observe the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane induction and maintenance compared with propofol intravenous anesthesia, and to detect its potential protection against acute myocardial injury with sensitive biomarkers. In total, 36 patients undergoing OPCAB were randomly assigned into two groups, receiving sevoflurane (n=18) or propofol (n=18) as the induction and maintenance anesthetic agent. The depth of anesthesia in the two groups was kept at a bispectral index value of 40–50. Physiological and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the surgery. Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and two microRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b) were also measured during and subsequent to surgery. Nno statistically significant differences were observed in the physiological and hemodynamic parameters between the two groups prior to surgery. Following surgery, the cardiac output and stroke volume improved significantly in the sevoflurane group (P<0.05). In addition, patients in the sevoflurane group had lower miR-499 (P<0.05) and miR-208b (P<0.01) levels at 12 h after surgery when compared with the propofol group. However, no significant differences in cTnI, CK-MB and LDH levels were observed following surgery between the two groups. In conclusion, volatile induction and maintenance with sevoflurane resulted in some extent of cardiac function improvement in patients undergoing OPCAB. Cardioprotection by sevoflurane is suggested by reduced cardiac injury compared with propofol, and indicated by the sensitive biomarkers, circulating miR-499 and miR-208b. PMID:27284310

  19. Circulating microRNAs indicate cardioprotection by sevoflurane inhalation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Ruike; Luo, Hui; Qin, Gang; Wang, L U; Ye, Zhi; Guo, Qulian; Wang, E

    2016-06-01

    In patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB), it is important to attenuate myocardium injury during the surgery. The present study aimed to observe the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane induction and maintenance compared with propofol intravenous anesthesia, and to detect its potential protection against acute myocardial injury with sensitive biomarkers. In total, 36 patients undergoing OPCAB were randomly assigned into two groups, receiving sevoflurane (n=18) or propofol (n=18) as the induction and maintenance anesthetic agent. The depth of anesthesia in the two groups was kept at a bispectral index value of 40-50. Physiological and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the surgery. Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and two microRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b) were also measured during and subsequent to surgery. Nno statistically significant differences were observed in the physiological and hemodynamic parameters between the two groups prior to surgery. Following surgery, the cardiac output and stroke volume improved significantly in the sevoflurane group (P<0.05). In addition, patients in the sevoflurane group had lower miR-499 (P<0.05) and miR-208b (P<0.01) levels at 12 h after surgery when compared with the propofol group. However, no significant differences in cTnI, CK-MB and LDH levels were observed following surgery between the two groups. In conclusion, volatile induction and maintenance with sevoflurane resulted in some extent of cardiac function improvement in patients undergoing OPCAB. Cardioprotection by sevoflurane is suggested by reduced cardiac injury compared with propofol, and indicated by the sensitive biomarkers, circulating miR-499 and miR-208b.

  20. A new protocol using sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Motohiro, Masayuki; Kamihata, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Seno, Takeshi; Manabe, Kenichi; Isono, Tsuyoshi; Sutani, Yasuo; Yuasa, Fumio; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2011-06-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Although a previous study reported that pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding. We performed a prospective randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided using sodium bicarbonate. In total 155 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) who were undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled. We assigned patients to sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate group, n = 78) or sodium chloride alone (chloride group, n = 77). Infusion of sodium bicarbonate at 1 ml/kg/hour continued from 3 hours before to 6 hours after coronary angiography. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline value or an absolute increase of ≥0.5 mg/dl, which appeared within 2 days of contrast. Baseline GFR was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Patients in the bicarbonate group had a higher GFR than those in the chloride group on day 2 (45.8 ± 13.4 vs 40.9 ± 14.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.031) and at 1 month (49.5 ± 14.7 vs 43.7 ± 15.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.019). CIN occurred in 10 patients (13%) in the chloride group but in only 2 patients (2.6%) in the bicarbonate group (p = 0.012). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can lead to retention of better long-term renal function.

  1. L-Carnitine Supplementation Reduces Short-Term Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Pektaş, Mehmet Bilgehan; Parlar, Ali İhsan; Akcı, Önder; Emren, Sadık Volkan; Tecer, Evren; Adalı, Fahri; Yüksel, Şeref; Darçın, Osman Tansel

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate whether preoperative L-carnitine supplementation affects the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an inflammatory marker that has proven usefulness for predicting postoperative complications in coronary artery bypass surgery. A lot of studies concerning the role of L-carnitine in the immune system have been performed, contradictory results have been reported on its effects on absolute numbers of WBC subtypes. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted among patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery between June 2012 and December 2013 in our cardiovascular surgery clinic. A total of 60 consecutive patients were randomized and divided into 2 groups. The first group received 2 g of L-carnitine in 1000 mL of 0.9% saline solution infused over 24 hours for each of the 3 preoperative days (L-carnitine group, n = 30), or only 1000 mL of 0.9% saline solution for the same time period (placebo group, n = 30). The basal values of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were similar in the 2 groups. After L-carnitine supplementation (just before surgery), leukocyte and neutrophil counts of the L-carnitine group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (7.7 ± 1.5 versus 9.7 ± 2.6, P < 0.001 and 4.6 ± 1.3 versus 6.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). On postoperative day 1, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the L-carnitine group (1.1 ± 0.6 versus 0.8 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Moreover, the increase in NLR was significantly lower in the L-carnitine group at postoperative day 1 (20.7 ± 13.8 versus 10.8 ± 4.1, P < 0.001). Preoperative L-carnitine supplementation may reduce neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio during the early postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  2. Relationship between site of myocardial infarction, left ventricular function and cytokine levels in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ilker, Kiris; Sahin, Kapan; Huseyin, Okutan,; Cuneyt, Narin; Mehmet, Ozaydın; Medine, Cumhur Cure; Recep, Sutcu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between left ventricular (LV) function, cytokine levels and site of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods Sixty patients undergoing CABG were divided into three groups (n = 20) according to their history of site of myocardial infarction (MI): no previous MI, anterior MI and posterior/inferior MI. In the pre-operative period, detailed analysis of LV function was done by transthoracic echocardiography.The levels of adrenomedullin, interleukin-1-beta,interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and angiotensin-II in both peripheral blood samples and pericardial fluid were also measured. Results Echocardiographic analyses showed that the anterior MI group had significantly worse LV function than both the group with no previous MI and the posterior/inferior MI group (p < 0.05 for LV end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, LV end-systolic volume, LV end-systolic volume index and ejection fraction). In the anterior MI group, both plasma and pericardial fluid levels of adrenomedullin and and pericardial fluid levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin- 1-beta were significantly higher than those in the group with no previous MI (p < 0.05), and pericardial fluid levels of adrenomedullin, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1-beta were significantly higher than those in the posterior/inferior MI group (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that (1) patients with an anterior MI had worse LV function than patients with no previous MI and those with a posterior/inferior MI, and (2) cytokine levels in the plasma and pericardial fluid in patients with anterior MI were increased compared to patients with no previous MI. PMID:27805242

  3. Prospective randomized comparison of cefodizime versus cefuroxime for perioperative prophylaxis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Bartunek, A; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, K; Hiesmayr, M; Parschalk, B; Pernerstorfer, T; Graninger, W

    1997-01-01

    The effects of cefodizime and cefuroxime on neutrophil phagocytosis and reactive oxygen production in 54 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were studied. Both drugs were administered twice at a dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight (pre- and intraoperative). Phagocytic capacity was assessed by measuring the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen generation after phagocytosis was estimated by determining the amount of dihydrorhodamine 123 converted to rhodamine 123 intracellularly. In both groups the mean phagocytic ability for E. coli and S. aureus decreased during surgery (-21 and -8%, respectively, for the cefodizime group and -39 and -38%, respectively, for the cefuroxime group; P < 0.05 for all). In the cefodizime group a normalization of mean E. coli and S. aureus neutrophil phagocytosis was seen on day 5 (+9 and -4% compared to preoperative values; P > 0.35 for both), whereas in cefuroxime-treated patients phagocytic ability remained depressed (-37 and -31%; P < 0.04 for both). In both groups mean neutrophil reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production after E. coli and S. aureus phagocytosis increased during cardiopulmonary bypass (+44 and +83%, respectively, in the cefodizime group and +58 and +73%, respectively, in the cefuroxime group; P < 0.05 for all). One day after surgery E. coli- and S. aureus-driven neutrophil ROI production was not different from the preoperative values (-2 and +12%, respectively, for the cefodizime group and +7 and +15%, respectively, for the cefuroxime group; P > 0.15 for all). Postoperative serum levels of the C-reactive protein on days 2 and 7 were lower in cefodizime-treated patients (19 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 2 mg/liter versus 23 +/- 6 and 11 +/- 5 mg/liter; P < 0.05 for both). In addition to cefodizime's antimicrobial activity during perioperative prophylaxis, its use in coronary artery bypass grafting can prevent procedure

  4. The effect of sukha pranayama on anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography: a single -blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mobini Bidgoli, Maryam; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Farokhian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is among the most common problems experienced by coronary angiography (CA) candidates. Different modalities are used to manage anxiety. This study sought to examine the effects of a pranayama exercise on CA candidates’ anxiety. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 2015 on 80 eligible patients. The patients were randomly allocated to a control and an experimental group. Before undergoing angiography, patients in the experimental group performed sukha pranayama exercises. They were trained to breathe slowly and rhythmically at a rate of ten breathing per minute for five consecutive minutes. Patients in the control group only received routine preangiography care. Data collection tools were a demographic questionnaire and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. The level of patients’ anxiety in both groups was measured before, half an hour after, and one hour after the intervention. The data were analyzed through doing the independent-sample t and the chi-square tests. Results: Before the intervention, the mean of anxiety score in the experimental group was 53.37, which significantly decreased to 40.75 after the intervention (P = 0.0001). In the control group, the mean of anxiety score decreased from 54.27 to 51.4. This decrease was not statistically significant. Moreover, between-group comparisons revealed significant differences between the groups regarding between-measurement mean differences of anxiety score (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Sukha pranayama is effective in alleviating CA candidates’ anxiety. PMID:28210473

  5. Shrunken Pore Syndrome is associated with a sharp rise in mortality in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dardashti, Alain; Nozohoor, Shahab; Grubb, Anders; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shrunken Pore Syndrome was recently suggested for the pathophysiologic state in patients characterized by an estimation of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon cystatin  C, which is lower or equal to 60% of their estimated GFR based upon creatinine, i.e. when eGFRcystatin  C ≤ 60% of eGFRcreatinine. Not only the cystatin  C level, but also the levels of other low molecular mass proteins are increased in this condition. The preoperative plasma levels of cystatin  C and creatinine were measured in 1638 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. eGFRcystatin  C and eGFRcreatinine were calculated using two pairs of estimating equations, CAPA and LMrev, and CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine, respectively. The Shrunken Pore Syndrome was present in 2.1% of the patients as defined by the CAPA and LMrev equations and in 5.7% of the patients as defined by the CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine equations. The patients were studied over a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (2.0–5.0 years) and the mortality determined. Shrunken Pore Syndrome defined by both pairs of equations was a strong, independent, predictor of long-term mortality as evaluated by Cox analysis and as illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased mortality was observed also for the subgroups of patients with GFR above or below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Changing the cut-off level from 60 to 70% for the CAPA and LMrev equations increased the number of patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome to 6.5%, still displaying increased mortality. PMID:26647957

  6. The Role of Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI.

    PubMed

    Alak, Aiman; Jolly, Sanjit S

    2016-03-01

    In STEMI, primary PCI restores macrovascular coronary blood flow effectively but microvascular perfusion remains a challenge. Thrombus has the potential to embolize to the microvasculature limiting effective coronary blood flow. Thrombus burden is associated with a higher mortality and manual aspiration thrombectomy has the potential to reduce thrombus burden. The first large trial of routine aspiration thrombectomy (TAPAS, N = 1071) showed an improvement in myocardial blush and an unexpected reduction in mortality. Reinforcing the enthusiasm for this finding meta-analysis of small trials also showed a reduction in mortality, which led to routine manual thrombectomy becoming a class IIa recommendation in the American and European Guidelines for STEMI. Subsequently; however, large trials such as TOTAL (N = 10,732) and TASTE (N = 7244) and meta-analysis showed an increase in the risk of stroke with routine manual thrombectomy but no improvement in mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or severe heart failure. As such, manual thrombectomy should not be routinely used instead saving it as a bailout procedure as indicated.

  7. Renal Dysfunction on Admission Predicts No-Reflow Phenomenon in Patients Undergoing Manual Thrombus Aspiration during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sensoy, Baris; Uzunget, Sezen Baglan; Acikgoz, SadikKadri; Sensoy, Nur; Sen, Fatih; Acar, Burak; Canpolat, Uğur; Ozeke, Ozcan; Cay, Serkan; Maden, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background No-reflow is a frequent complication during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Available data is limited regarding its impact on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing manual thrombus aspiration. Renal impairment is also associated with higher complication rates in STEMI. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the impact of baseline renal dysfunction on the no- reflow phenomenon and the association of no-reflow phenomenon with early clinical outcomes. Methods A total of 94 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary stent-based PCI and thrombus aspiration were enrolled. No-reflow was established by the use of angiographic and electrocardiographic reperfusion criteria, respectively. Additionally angiographic and clinical follow-up data were also recorded. Results In our study, the no-reflow phenomenon was observed in 10 patients (11%) angiographically and in 23 patients (24%) electrocardiographically. Whereas, the the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [odds ratio (OR) 10.4], hypertension (OR 6.2), previous MI (OR 6.5), previous PCI history, (OR 4.2), predilatation (OR 7.2), final balloon pressure (OR 0.9) were found to be the significant predictors of angiographic no-reflow, only reperfusion time was the predictor of electrocardiographic no-reflow (OR 1.12) at univariate analysis. After adjustment, lower eGFR (OR 14.8) was found to be the independent predictor for angiographic no-reflow. In-hospital mortality was more common in patients with either no-reflow condition separately. Conclusions Longer ischemic time and lower initial eGFR values were associated with no-reflow phenomenon. Irrespective of poor reperfusion criteria, no-reflow phenomenon is associated with in-hospital outcome. Future efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of no-reflow especially in patients with lower initial eGFR values. PMID:27122949

  8. Anesthetic management of a patient with polycythemia vera undergoing emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyeongwoo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera is a chronic progressive myeloproliferative disease characterized by increased circulating red blood cells, and the hyperviscosity of the blood can lead to an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. In a previous survey regarding postoperative outcomes in polycythemia vera patients, an increased risk of both vascular occlusive and hemorrhagic complications have been reported. Aortic surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass may be associated with the development of a coagulopathy, and as a result, the occurrence of thrombotic complications should be avoided after coronary anastomosis. Thus, optimizing the hemostatic balance is an important concern for anesthesiologists. However, only a few cases of anesthetic management in polycythemia vera patients undergoing concomitant aorta and coronary arterial bypass surgery have ever been reported. Here, we experience a polycythemia vera patient who underwent an emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, and report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26634086

  9. Nobori-Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Resolute Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention: A Propensity Score Matching

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Ayman; Ahn, Chul-Min; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the 1-year outcomes of a durable polymer Zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) versus a biodegradable polymer Biolimus-eluting stent (BES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Materials and Methods A total of 2083 patients from 2 different registries, 1125 treated with BES in NOBORI registry and 858 received ZES in CONSTANT registry were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were compared with the use of propensity score matching (PSM). The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization and stroke. Secondary end points were individual components of MACCEs as well as the incidence of stent thrombosis at 1-year follow-up. Results After PSM, 699 matched pairs of patients (n=1398) showed no significant difference between BES and ZES in the risk of composite MACCEs at 1 year (2.6% vs. 1.7%; p=0.36). Cardiac death was not statistically different between groups (0.7% vs. 0.4%, p=0.73). Target lesion revascularization rate was also similar between BES and ZES (1.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.579). Non-Q wave myocardial infarction, as well as target-vessel revascularization rate, was similar between the two groups (0.14% for BES and 0.72% for ZES). Both stent types were excellent with no cases of stent thrombosis and rate of Q wave myocardial infarction reported during the follow-up period. Conclusion In this cohort of patients treated with BES or ZES, the rate of MACCEs at 1 year was low and significantly not different between both groups. PMID:28120558

  10. Significance of Cystatin C for Early Diagnosis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li; Yue, Rongzheng; You, Guiying; Zeng, Rui

    2016-08-22

    BACKGROUND Contrast-induced nephropathy is acute kidney injury caused by contrast medium exposure. Serum creatinine is the clinical diagnostic standard, but it does not yield quick results. The serum level of cystatin C is stable and it can reflect renal function sensitively. The study aimed to assess the usefulness of cystatin C for early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 300 patients who underwent CAG. According to the sCr at 48 h, patients were divided into 2 groups: CIN group and non-CIN group. Their demographics and basal renal function were recorded. Changes in sCr, Cys C, and e GFR were compared at the same time. ROC analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of Cys C in the early diagnosis of CIN. RESULTS Comparison of basal renal function and serum level of Cys C showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. Serum level of Cys C increased significantly at 24 h (p<0.001), and sCr increased significantly at 48 h. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of the change in Cys C between baseline and 24 h was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.879-0.992, p=0.000) and the optimum cut-off level was 0.26 mg/L (sensitivity=89.7% and specificity=95.6%). CONCLUSIONS The concentration change of Cys C is better than sCr as a biomarker in the early detection of CIN.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and a simulation model of colforsin daropate, new forskolin derivative inotropic vasodilator, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kikura, Mutsuhito; Morita, Koji; Sato, Shigehito

    2004-03-01

    Colforsin daropate, a water-soluble forskolin derivative, is an adenyl cyclase activator with positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects that are useful in the treatment of ventricular dysfunction. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of colforsin daropate in cardiac surgery patients and performed simulations to determine the dosage necessary to maintain an effective plasma concentration following cardiopulmonary bypass. In six patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft, colforsin daropate (0.01mgkg(-1)) was administered immediately after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Arterial blood was sampled over the next 16h and plasma concentrations of colforsin daropate and its initial active metabolite were determined by gas-chromatography. Extended nonlinear least-squares regression was used to fit a three-compartment model to each patient's data. Distribution half-life (t(1/2alpha)) was 3.9+/-1.1min, metabolic half-life (t(1/2beta)) was 1.9+/-0.7h, and elimination half-life (t(1/2gamma)) was 95.3+/-15.2h. Central-compartment volume was 591.0+/-42.8mlkg(-1), volume distribution was 2689.2+/-450.6mlkg(-1), and elimination clearance was 27.7+/-14.7mlkg(-1)min(-1). In the pharmacokinetic simulation model, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0microgkg(-1)min(-1) continuous infusion of colforsin daropate produce effective concentration (5-10ngml(-1)) within 30, 20, and 10min, respectively following administration. An initial active metabolite of decreased rapidly to less than 1.0ngml(-1) within the first 10min.A colforsin daropate infusion of 0.7-1.0microgkg(-1)min(-1) for 10-20min followed by 0.5microgkg(-1)min(-1) continuous infusion is recommended to produce an effective concentration (5-10ngml(-1)) within 10-20min and to maintain a therapeutic concentration throughout the administration period after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  12. Effect of staged preconditioning on biochemical markers in the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Jafari, Naser; Babapoursaatlou, Behzad; Doustkami, Hossein; Hosseinian, Adallat; Hasanpour, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effectiveness of staged-preconditioning, in both remote and target organs. After IP the myocardial release of the biochemical markers including, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), cardiac creatine kinase (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in patients who underwent CABG, with and without staged-preconditioning. Sixty-one patients entered the study; there were 32 patients in the staged-preconditioning group and 29 patients in the control group. All patients underwent on-pump CABG using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) techniques. In the staged-preconditioning group, patients underwent two stages of IP on remote (upper limb) and target organs. Each stage of preconditioning was carried out by 3 cycles of ischemia and then reperfusion. Serum levels of biochemical markers were immediately measured postoperatively at 24, 48 and 72 h. Serum CK-MB, CPK and LDH levels were significantly lower in the staged-preconditioning group than in the control group. The CK-MB release in the staged-preconditioning patients reduced by 51% in comparison with controls over 72 h after CABG. These results suggest that myocardial injury was attenuated by the effect of three rounds of both remote and target organ IP.

  13. The Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps on Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Revascularization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Stenting Era

    PubMed Central

    Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Tong-Wen; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Guan, Fang-Xia; Liu, Zi-Qi; Zhang, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) have generally been used for patients undergoing high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization. However, there is still insufficient evidence to determine whether they can improve outcomes in reperfusion therapy patients, mainly by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study was designed to determine the difference between high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization with and without IABPs on mortality, by performing a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials of the current era. Methods Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Unpublished data were obtained from the investigators. Randomized clinical trials of IABP and non-IABP in high-risk coronary revascularization procedures (PCI or CABG) were included. In the case of PCI procedures, stents should be used in more than 80% of patients. Numbers of events at the short-term and long-term follow-up were extracted. Results A total of 12 randomized trials enrolling 2155 patients were included. IABPs did not significantly decrease short-term mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI, 0.42–1.01), or long-term mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.47–1.35), with low heterogeneity across the studies. The findings remained stable in patients with acute myocardial infarction with or without cardiogenic shock. But in high-risk CABG patients, IABP was associated with reduced mortality (71 events in 846 patients; RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25–0.67). Conclusion In patients undergoing high-risk coronary revascularization, IABP did not significantly decrease mortality. But high-risk CABG patients may be benefit from IABP. Rigorous criteria should be applied to the use of IABPs. PMID:26784578

  14. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR) were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (p < 0.05, all). Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (p < 0.05, all). Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size (p < 0.05) or large HDL cholesterol (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26688615

  15. Prevalence and predictors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients undergoing simultaneous coronary and renal artery angiography; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Payami, Babak; Jafarizade, Mehrian; Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Sattari, Shahab-Aldin; Nokhostin, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: According to the non-specific presentation of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), this disease is usually an under-diagnosed in clinical conditions. Objectives: The aim of the presence study was to evaluate the prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) and its related risk factors in hypertensive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, between March 2009 and October 2010, all of hypertensive patients candidate for diagnostic cardiac catheterization, underwent nonselective renal angiography before completion of their coronary angiography procedure. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographics, cardiac history, indications for cardiac catheterization and angiographic data. The degree of ARAS was estimated visually by skilled cardiologist. Narrowing greater than 50% of the arterial lumen considered as arterial stenosis. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 19, and by chi-square test and logistic regression model. Results: In overall 274 patients with mean age of 60.75 ± 10.92 years 108 (39.4%) were male and 166 (60.61%) were female. The prevalence of ARAS calculated 18.2%. According to the present study, heart failure and smoking were predictors of ARAS. However, old age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and family history of cardiovascular disease were not clinical predictors of significant ARAS in hypertensive patients, candidate for coronary angiography. Conclusion: According to present data, we suggest to consider renal artery angiography in combination with coronary artery angiography especially in hypertensive patients who are smoker or individuals who have heart failure. PMID:27069966

  16. Hemodynamic Responses to Two Different Anesthesia Regimens in Compromised Left Ventricular Function Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Etomidate-Midazolam Versus Propofol-Ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Aghdaii, Nahid; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Faritus, Seyedeh Zahra; Azarfarin, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various methods have been suggested to prevent hemodynamic instability caused by propofol and adverse effects caused by etomidate induction. The current study evaluated hemodynamic effects of propofol-ketamine mixture in comparison to etomidate-midazolam mixture during anesthesia induction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of etomidate-midazolam by comparing it with propofol-ketamine for the induction of anesthesia in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients and Methods: One-hundred patients aged between 40 and 65 with coronary artery disease and low ejection fraction scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery participated in this study. The patients were randomly allotted to one of the two groups to receive either propofol-ketamine or etomidate-midazolam combination. Two groups were compared for pain on injection and myoclonus, Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Cardiac Index (CI) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR), before and one minute after induction of anesthesia, and one, three and five minutes after intubation. Results: Incidence of pain on injection (2 - 4%) and myoclonus (10%) was less in both groups. The hemodynamic response was similar in the two groups for all variables over the time interval, except for CI at one and three minutes after intubation (P = 0.024 and P = 0.048, respectively), and SVR in five minutes after intubation (P = 0.009), with differences being statistically significant. Conclusions: Both anesthetic regimens were acceptable for induction in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:26161330

  17. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents or Bare-Metal Stents: A Nationwide Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Tzu-Ching; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lee, Jia-Chun; Lang, Hui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this propensity score-matched cohort study was to investigate the prognostic impacts of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the National Health Insurance program. Patients who had undergone coronary stenting between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2008 were recruited and monitored until the end of 2010. Subjects with either BMS or DES were matched 2:1 by propensity score, which adjusted for age, sex, stent number and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were used for prognostic analyses. Results Among a total of 966 patients with a mean age of 66 years, 644 subjects had BMS and 322 subjects had DES. The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and death were significantly lower in the DES group as compared with the BMS group for the three-year follow-up duration. With adjustments for age, sex, premium-based monthly salary, levels of hospital care, stent number, CCI, medications, and acute coronary syndrome presentation in the index hospitalization, use of DES rather than BMS was associated with reduced adverse coronary events (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.38-0.81 in the whole population, and 0.44, 0.26-0.73 in the subgroup patients with stable coronary artery disease). Conclusions Implantation of DES was related to better outcomes than for BMS, in terms of reducing MI and mortality after PCI. The survival benefit for patients with DES was even greater in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID:28115802

  18. [Optimal dose of bivalirudin in dialysis patients at high risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: case report].

    PubMed

    Notarangelo, Maria Francesca; Coppini, Lucia; Bontardelli, Federico; Boffetti, Francesca; Vignali, Luigi; Ardissino, Diego

    2013-02-01

    Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for use in patients with or at risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The efficacy of bivalirudin has been well documented in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention, but there are only few data on its use in chronic dialysis-dependent patients. Bivalirudin is mainly eliminated enzymatically (80%) and to a lesser extent renally (20%). Nevertheless, in patients with chronic kidney disease a substantial increase in coagulation time and bleeding complications has been reported. Therefore, dosage adjustments may be necessary in patients with renal impairment. Dosing and monitoring recommendations in dialysis patients have not yet been established. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure requiring dialysis treatment. During percutaneous coronary intervention, anticoagulant therapy with bivalirudin was administered at non-standard doses, though already documented in the literature.

  19. Beating heart versus conventional cardiopulmonary bypass: the octopus experience: a randomized comparison of 281 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Diederik; Diephuis, Jan C; Nierich, Arno P; Keizer, Annemieke M A; Kalkman, Cor J

    2006-06-01

    In the Octopus Study, 281 coronary artery bypass surgery patients were randomized to surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary objective was to compare cognitive outcome between off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Before and after surgery, psychologists administered a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests to the patients. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease in an individual's performance of at least 20% from baseline, in at least 20% of the main variables. According to this definition, cognitive decline was present in 21% in the off-pump group and 29% in the on-pump group, 3 months after the procedure (P = .15). At 12 months, cognitive decline was present in 31% in the off-pump group and 34% in the on-pump group (P = .69). These results indicated that patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass had improved cognitive outcomes 3 months after the procedure, but the effects were limited and became negligible at 12 months. The same definition of cognitive decline was also applied to 112 volunteers not undergoing surgery. The definition labeled 28% of the control subjects as suffering from cognitive decline, 3 months after their first assessment. This suggests that the natural fluctuations in performance during repeated neuropsychological testing should be included in the statistical analysis of cognitive decline. Using an alternative definition of cognitive decline that takes these natural fluctuations in performance into account, the proportions of coronary artery bypass surgery patients displaying cognitive decline were substantially lower. This indicates that the incidence of cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass surgery has been overestimated.

  20. The diagnosis and treatment of the no-reflow phenomenon in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramjane, Khalill; Han, Lei; Jin, Chang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the diagnosis and treatment available for myocardial infarction patients having no-reflow in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). DATA SOURCES Data for the present review were obtained from searches in PubMed (1997 to 2007) using the following key terms: “acute myocardial infarction”, “no-reflow phenomenon”, “myocardial contrast echocardiography”, “coronary angiography” and “cardioprotection devices”. STUDY SELECTION Mainly original articles and critical reviews written by major research pioneers in interventional cardiology were selected. RESULTS Despite a fully patent coronary artery post-PCI for myocardial infarction, patients may experience inadequate myocardial perfusion through a given segment of the coronary circulation without angiographic evidence of mechanical vessel obstruction. This phenomenon is defined as no-reflow and is a growing problem in the field of interventional cardiology. Although voluminous clinical trial data are available, the exact mechanisms involved and which treatment should be administered as first-line therapy are currently unknown. The different techniques used to diagnose no-reflow also have their pros and cons; myocardial contrast echocardiography and coronary angiography are the most reliable techniques. In cases when no-reflow was successfully reversed, patient recovery was associated with favourable left ventricular remodelling and increased left ventricular ejection fraction, even in the absence of significant improvement in regional contractile function. CONCLUSION Based on the trials in the literature, myocardial contrast echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of no-reflow. If no-reflow occurs following PCI, treatment with intracoronary adenosine or verapamil should be administered, because this form of therapy is inexpensive and safe, improves flow in the target vessel and may reduce infarct size. PMID:19343126

  1. Renal failure in 57 925 patients undergoing coronary procedures using iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    Liss, P; Persson, P B; Hansell, P; Lagerqvist, B

    2006-11-01

    We compared the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry with the Swedish 'Hospital Discharge Register' to assess contrast media (CM)-induced renal failure. Hospitals used only one type CM. From 2000 to 2003, iodixanol (iso-osmolar) was used in 45 485 patients, ioxaglate (low osmolar) in 12 440 subjects. To include the earlier used CM iohexol (low osmolar), analysis extended back to 1990 (86 334 patients). Incidence of clinically significant renal failure was greatest for patients receiving the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol (1.7%). Ioxaglate-treated patients had a significantly lower renal failure incidence (0.8%, P<0.001). The odds ratio for iodixanol-treated patients was significantly higher than for ioxaglate (1 vs 0.48, P<0.001). In subsets of either diabetic patients or patients with previous renal failure, odds ratios for renal failure remained greater in the iodixanol groups (P<0.01). Hospitals switching CM to iodixanol experienced a doubling in clinically significant renal failure after cardiac procedures. Dialysis was required in 0.2% of patients receiving iodixanol, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than for ioxaglate-treated patients (0.1%). Iohexol-treated patients had a similar low risk for developing clinically significant renal failure (0.9%) as ioxaglate. In conclusion, risk of developing renal failure and required dialysis after coronary procedures is higher when patients received iodixanol than ioxaglate or iohexol.

  2. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Reverse Remodeling in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    da Silva Guimarães, Sheila; de Souza Cruz, Wanise; da Silva, Licinio; Maciel, Gabrielle; Huguenin, Ana Beatriz; de Carvalho, Monicque; Costa, Bárbara; da Silva, Geisiane; da Costa, Carlos; D'Ippolito, João Alvaro; Colafranceschi, Alexandre; Scalco, Fernanda; Boaventura, Gilson

    2017-03-25

    During cardiac failure, cardiomyocytes have difficulty in using the substrates to produce energy. L-carnitine is a necessary nutrient for the transport of fatty acids that are required for generating energy. Coronary artery graft surgery reduces the plasma levels of L-carnitine and increases the oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the reverse remodeling of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Patients with ischemic heart failure who underwent coronary graft surgery were randomized to group A - supplemented with L-carnitine or group B controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters were assessed preoperatively, 60 and 180 days after surgery. Our study included 28 patients (26 [93.0%] males) with a mean age ± SD of 58.1 ± 10.5 years. The parameters for the evaluation of reverse remodeling did not improve after 60 and 180 days of coronary artery bypass grafting in comparison between groups (p > 0.05). Evaluation within the L-carnitine group showed a 37.1% increase in left ventricle ejection fraction (p = 0.002) and 14.3% (p = 0.006) and 3.3% (p > 0.05) reduction in systolic and diastolic diameters, respectively. L-carnitine supplementation at a dose of 50 mg/kg combined with artery bypass surgery did not demonstrate any additional benefit in reverse remodeling. However, evaluation within the L-carnitine group may indicate a clinical benefit of L-carnitine supplementation.

  3. [Mortality and morbidity in HIV-infected patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: a case control study].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Expósito, María J; Mestres, Carlos A; Claramonte, Xavier; Cartañá, Ramón; Josa, Miquel; Pomar, José L; Mulet, Jaume; Miró, José M

    2006-03-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection has improved survival. This improvement combined with the metabolic effects of treatment has increased cardiovascular risk and the need for cardiac surgery in these patients. We compared morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients (cases, n=7) and non-HIV-infected patients (controls, n=21) who underwent isolated coronary artery surgery between 1997 and 2004. The durations of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross-clamping were shorter in HIV-infected patients (P=.002 and P=.014, respectively). The percentage of patients who experienced complications was similar, at 57.1% in both groups, but there was a slightly higher number of complications per patient in non-HIV-infected individuals. The mean length of total hospitalization was greater in HIV-infected patients (27.1 [13.3] versus 8.8 [5.3] days; P=.003), as was that of postoperative hospitalization (18.2 [15.4] vs 7.9 [4.2] days; P=.08). No HIV-infected patient died or needed a repeat cardiac operation. No progression of the HIV infection was observed. Isolated coronary artery surgery in HIV-infected patients produces good results, and there is no increase in morbidity or mortality. Extracorporeal circulation did not influence disease progression.

  4. Safety and efficacy of transbrachial intra-aortic balloon pumping with the use of 7-Fr catheters in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Antonino S; Onorati, Francesco; Serraino, Filiberto; Renzulli, Attilio

    2009-07-01

    We report the cases of five consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) who required a transbrachial approach for 7-Fr catheter intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) insertion because of unsuitable femoral arteries. No adverse outcomes occurred in any patient during a mean 72 h of IABP support. Our experience with 7-Fr catheters appears to confirm previous reports of the safety and efficacy of transbrachial IABP assistance and suggests that such support can be provided safely for an extended duration with the use of these smaller catheters.

  5. Automated Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Emergency Department Patients Undergoing 256-Slice Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Acute Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Hashoul, Sharbell; Gaspar, Tamar; Halon, David A; Lewis, Basil S; Shenkar, Yuval; Jaffe, Ronen; Peled, Nathan; Rubinshtein, Ronen

    2015-10-01

    A 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an accurate method for detection and exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (OBS-CAD). However, accurate image interpretation requires expertise and may not be available at all hours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a fully automated computer-assisted diagnosis (COMP-DIAG) tool for exclusion of OBS-CAD in patients in the emergency department (ED) presenting with chest pain. Three hundred sixty-nine patients in ED without known coronary disease underwent 256-slice CCTA as part of the assessment of chest pain of uncertain origin. COMP-DIAG (CorAnalyzer II) automatically reported presence or exclusion of OBS-CAD (>50% stenosis, ≥1 vessel). Performance characteristics of COMP-DIAG for exclusion and detection of OBS-CAD were determined using expert reading as the reference standard. Seventeen (5%) studies were unassessable by COMP-DIAG software, and 352 patients (1,056 vessels) were therefore available for analysis. COMP-DIAG identified 33% of assessable studies as having OBS-CAD, but the prevalence of OBS-CAD on CCTA was only 18% (66 of 352 patients) by standard expert reading. However, COMP-DIAG correctly identified 61 of the 66 patients (93%) with OBS-CAD with 21 vessels (2%) with OBS-CAD misclassified as negative. In conclusion, compared to expert reading, automated computer-assisted diagnosis using the CorAnalyzer showed high sensitivity but only moderate specificity for detection of obstructive coronary disease in patients in ED who underwent 256-slice CCTA. The high negative predictive value of this computer-assisted algorithm may be useful in the ED setting.

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Data From The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Deepak; Gulack, Brian C.; Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y.; Davies, James E.; He, Xia; Brennan, J. Matthew; Thourani, Vinod H.; Williams, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) is associated with substantial mortality. We evaluated outcomes of patients in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in the setting of AMI-CS. Methods All patients with AMI-CS who underwent nonelective CABG or CABG with ventricular assist device implantation within 7 days after myocardial infarction were enrolled. The primary analysis sample consisted of patients who underwent surgery between June 2011 and December 2013. Baseline characteristics, operative findings, outcomes, and the utilization of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) were assessed in detail in this population. We also evaluated trends in unadjusted mortality for all patients undergoing CABG or CABG with ventricular assist device for AMI-CS from January 2005 to December 2013. Results A total of 5,496 patients met study criteria, comprising 1.5% of all patients undergoing CABG during the study period. Overall operative mortality was 18.7%, decreasing from 19.3% in 2005 to 18.1% in 2013 (p < 0.001). Use of MCS increased from 5.8% in 2011 to 8.8% in 2013 (p = 0.008). Patients receiving MCS had a high proportion of cardiovascular risk factors or high clinical acuity. Patients requiring preoperative and patients requiring intraoperative or postoperative MCS had operative mortality of 37.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Patients undergoing CABG as a salvage procedure had an operative mortality of 53.3%, and a high incidence of reoperation (21.8%), postoperative respiratory failure requiring prolonged ventilation (59.7%), and renal failure (18.5%). Conclusions Most patients undergoing CABG for AMI-CS have a sizeable but not prohibitive risk. Patients who require MCS and those undergoing operation as a salvage procedure reflect higher risk populations. PMID:26718859

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Thrombus Aspiration on 5-Year Clinical Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Shiomi, Hiroki; Nakatsuma, Kenji; Morimoto, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjunctive thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was reported to promote better coronary and myocardial reperfusion. However, long-term mortality benefit of TA remains controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical impact of TA on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI. Methods and Results The CREDO-Kyoto AMI Registry is a large-scale cohort study of acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing coronary revascularization in 2005–2007 at 26 hospitals in Japan. Among 5429 patients enrolled in the registry, the current study population consisted of 3536 patients who arrived at the hospital within 12 hours after the symptom onset and underwent primary PCI. Clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 patient groups with or without TA. During primary PCI procedures, 2239 out of 3536 (63%) patients underwent TA (TA group). The cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death was significantly lower in the TA group than in the non-TA group (18.5% versus 23.9%, log-rank P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, however, the risk for all-cause death in the TA group was not significantly lower than that in the non-TA group (hazard ratio: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.06, P=0.21). The adjusted risks for cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and target-lesion revascularization were also not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions Adjunctive TA during primary PCI was not associated with better 5-year mortality in STEMI patients. PMID:26077588

  8. The use of nitrates in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients hospitalized after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Peguero, Julio G; Cornielle, Vertilio; Gomez, Sabas I; Issa, Omar M; Heimowitz, Todd B; Santana, Orlando; Goldszer, Robert C; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2014-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and effective strategies for its prevention are greatly needed. The purpose of this retrospective, single-center study was to investigate whether nitrate use during percutaneous coronary artery intervention reduces the incidence of CIN. Chart review of all individuals who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from April 2010 to March 2011 was done. Included in the study were patients who were admitted to the hospital after percutaneous coronary artery intervention and had baseline and follow-up creatinine measured. Patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis and those patients with insufficient information to calculate Mehran score were excluded. There were 199 patients who met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. In the identified population, postprocedure renal function was compared between 112 patients who received nitrates prior to coronary intervention and 87 who did not. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as either a 25% or a 0.5 mg/dL, or greater, increase in serum creatinine during the first 48 to 72 hours after contrast exposure. Overall, 43 (21.6%) patients developed CIN post-PCI. Of the patients who received nitrates, 15.2% developed renal impairment when compared to 29.9% in those who did not (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.84, P = .014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nitrate use was independently correlated with a reduction in the development of contrast nephropathy (OR = 0.334, 95% CI 0.157-0.709, P = .004). Additionally, of the various methods of nitrate administration, intravenous infusion was shown to be the most efficacious route in preventing renal impairment (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.90, P = .03). In conclusion, the use of nitrates prior to PCI, particularly intravenous nitroglycerin infusion, may

  9. Effect of Prewarming during Induction of Anesthesia on Microvascular Reactivity in Patients Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youn Joung; Lee, Seo Yun; Kim, Tae Kyong; Hong, Deok Man; Jeon, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Background General anesthesia may induce inadvertent hypothermia and this may be related to perioperative cardiovascular complications. Microvascular reactivity, measured by the recovery slope during a vascular occlusion test, is decreased during surgery and is also related to postoperative clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that microvascular changes during surgery may be related to intraoperative hypothermia. To evaluate this, we conducted a randomized study in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, in which the effect of prewarming on microvascular reactivity was evaluated. Methods Patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were screened. Enrolled patients were randomized to the prewarming group to receive forced-air warming during induction of anesthesia or to the control group. Measurement of core and skin temperatures and vascular occlusion test were conducted before anesthesia induction, 1, 2, and 3 h after induction, and at the end of surgery. Results In total, 40 patients were enrolled and finished the study (n = 20 in the prewarming group and n = 20 in the control group). During the first 3 h of anesthesia, core temperature was higher in the prewarming group than the control group (p < 0.001). The number of patients developing hypothermia was lower in the prewarming group than the control group (4/20 vs. 13/20, p = 0.004). However, tissue oxygen saturation and changes in recovery slope following a vascular occlusion test at 3 h after anesthesia induction did not differ between the groups. There was no difference in clinical outcome, including perioperative transfusion, wound infection, or hospital stay, between the groups. Conclusions Prewarming during induction of anesthesia decreased intraoperative hypothermia, but did not reduce the deterioration in microvascular reactivity in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02186210 PMID:27442052

  10. The Duration of Impella 2.5 Circulatory Support and Length of Hospital Stay of Patients Undergoing High-risk Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Anusionwu, Obiora; Fischman, Daniel; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of duration of Impella 2.5 support (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) on hospitalization of patients after high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There has been a continuous increase in prevalence of coronary artery disease with more patients needing PCI during acute myocardial infarction. Some of these patients have to undergo high-risk revascularization with circulatory support like the Impella 2.5 device. Methods This study was a single center retrospective study of patients admitted to our hospital who required Impella circulatory support during percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients’ medical records, cardiac catheterization laboratory and 2-D echocardiography reports were reviewed to ascertain left ventricular ejection fraction, duration of Impella support, Coronary Care Unit (CCU) days and the length of stay in the hospital. A P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Over a 15-month period, we had 25 patients with 19 males and 6 females. Mean age of the patient cohort was 68 ± 10 years. Mean LVEF of the group was 32 ± 16%. Mean length of hospital stay was 8 ± 8 days and mean CCU stay was 4 ± 4 days. The Impella was successfully inserted in all cases with a median duration of support of 70 minutes (range, 4 - 5760 minutes). Bleeding complication occurred in 8%. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the duration of Impella support and hospital stay was 0.49 (P = 0.023) while it was 0.71 (P = 0.001) between Impella support duration and CCU days. Conclusions Our study suggests that there is a positive correlation between the duration of Impella 2.5 circulatory support and hospital stay and/or CCU days. The correlation seems to be stronger with CCU days.

  11. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  12. Association between RDW and stent thrombosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tunçez, Abdullah; Çetin, Mehmet Serkan; Çetin, Elif Hande Özcan; Yılmaz, Samet; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Uçar, Fatih Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stent thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). In recent years, the predictive and prognostic value of the red cell distribution width (RDW) as an indicator of inflammation has been shown in many cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of RDW for stent thrombosis in patients who underwent successful stent implantation for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this retrospective study, 146 patients who underwent successful PCI to native coronary artery due to STEMI previously and presented with acute coronary syndrome with stent thrombosis were included (stent thrombosis group). A total of 175 patients who had similar procedural characteristics (type, diameter, and length of stent) and not had stent thrombosis were consisted control group. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the admission RDW values (12.9 ± 0.4, 14.2 ± 0.4, and 16.3 ± 1.5, respectively). Stent thrombosis developed in 47 (40.9%) patients in the lowest tertile, 39 (37.9%) patients in mid tertile, and 60 (58.3%) patients in the highest tertile (P = 0.006). Female gender ratio was statistically significantly higher in the 3rd tertile (13 [11.3%], 8 [7.8%], 24 [23.3%], P = 0.003, respectively). RDW (OR: 1.397 [95% CI 1.177–1.657], P < 0.001) and platelet count (OR: 1.008 [95% CI 1.004–1.012], P < 0.001) remained independent predictors of stent thrombosis after multivariate logistic regression analysis. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that, admission RDW values higher than 13.9 can predict the development of stent thrombosis with a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 52% (The area under the ROC curve: 0.59 [95% CI 0.53–0.65] P = 0.007). High RDW values found to be independently associated with the development of stent thrombosis in patients with STEMI. PMID:28151892

  13. Acute Effects of Intracoronary Tirofiban on No-Reflow Phenomena in Patients With ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Akpek, Mahmut; Sahin, Omer; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Saglam, Hayrettin; Urkmez, Serkan; Ergin, Ali; Oguzhan, Abdurrahman; Arinc, Huseyin; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the acute effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban on no-reflow phenomenon in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Consecutive patients (n = 162) were randomized into 2 groups based on whether intracoronary tirofiban was administered. After the administration of intracoronary tirofiban, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade significantly increased (P < .001) and successful reperfusion was achieved in 26 (32%) patients. In the placebo group, however, after the administration of intracoronary placebo the TIMI flow grade did not change (P = .070), and successful reperfusion was achieved only in 8 (10%) patients. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly lower in the tirofiban group (36% vs 19%, P = .013). Intracoronary administration of tirofiban significantly improves TIMI flow grade and is associated with a lower in-hospital rate of MACE.

  14. Early and late response-to-injury in patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography: arterial remodeling in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Roberto; Stegemann, Emilia; Özaslan, Göksen; Schuler, Dominik; Lukosz, Margarete; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Lauer, Thomas; Westenfeld, Ralf; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of smoking on vascular response to transradial coronary angiography (TCA). Background: Cigarette smoking is the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods: Radial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (RA-FMD), local stiffness (fractional diameter change), intima-media thickness (IMT), luminal and external arterial diameter were measured in 40 current smokers (CS) and former smokers (FS) at 6-14 months at the site of previous TCA and contralateral control artery. Vascular regenerative capacity was studied as chemotactic cell migration in vitro and ex vivo (n=10) and the time course of endothelial functional recovery following RA-FMD up to 72 h after TCA (n=10). Results: At 10 ± 3 months after TCA, subjects exhibited significant local stiffening and increased IMT as compared to the control arm. These late structural changes were significantly more pronounced in CS as compared to FS. IMT thickening correlated with packyears, number of daily cigarettes, and inversely with RA-FMD. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent chemotaxis of CS’ circulating angiogenic cells was impaired. Ex vivo incubation of endothelial cells with CS’ plasma inhibited NOS-dependent endothelial wound closure and chemotaxis. In vivo, TCA acutely decreased RA-FMD. At 24 h, RA-FMD had recovered in FS but remained impaired at 24 h and only recovered at 48 h in CS. Conclusion: In active smokers, transradial coronary angiography is associated with delayed early recovery from transient endothelial dysfunction, decreased NOS-dependent vascular regeneration, and late arterial remodeling pointing towards potential harmful effects of transradial coronary angiography on vascular function in distinct subsets of patients. PMID:25006532

  15. Differences in Prevalence, Extent, Severity, and Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease Among Patients With and Without Diabetes Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Jamal S.; Dunning, Allison; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor Y.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jörg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Labounty, Troy M.; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Villines, Todd C.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the prevalence, extent, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in individuals with and without diabetes (DM) who are similar in CAD risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified 23,643 consecutive individuals without known CAD undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. A total of 3,370 DM individuals were propensity matched in a 1-to-2 fashion to 6,740 unique non-DM individuals. CAD was defined as none, nonobstructive (1–49% stenosis), or obstructive (≥50% stenosis). All-cause mortality was assessed by risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS At a 2.2-year follow-up, 108 (3.2%) and 115 (1.7%) deaths occurred among DM and non-DM individuals, respectively. Compared with non-DM individuals, DM individuals possessed higher rates of obstructive CAD (37 vs. 27%) and lower rates of having normal arteries (28 vs. 36%) (P < 0.0001). CAD extent was higher for DM versus non-DM individuals for obstructive one-vessel disease (19 vs. 14%), two-vessel disease (9 vs. 7%), and three-vessel disease (9 vs. 5%) (P < 0.0001 for comparison), with higher per-segment stenosis in the proximal and mid-segments of every coronary artery (P < 0.001 for all). Compared with non-DM individuals with no CAD, risk of mortality for DM individuals was higher for those with no CAD (hazard ratio 3.63 [95% CI 1.67–7.91]; P = 0.001), nonobstructive CAD (5.25 [2.56–10.8]; P < 0.001), one-vessel disease (6.39 [2.98–13.7]; P < 0.0001), two-vessel disease (12.33 [5.622–27.1]; P < 0.0001), and three-vessel disease (13.25 [6.15–28.6]; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Compared with matched non-DM individuals, DM individuals possess higher prevalence, extent, and severity of CAD. At comparable levels of CAD, DM individuals experience higher risk of mortality compared with non-DM individuals. PMID:22699296

  16. What Have We Learned from CONFIRM? Prognostic Implications from a Prospective Multicenter International Observational Cohort Study of Consecutive Patients Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yuka; Arsanjani, Reza; Gransar, Heidi; Cheng, Victor Y.; Dey, Damini; Labounty, Troy; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) employing CT scanners of 64-detector rows or greater represents a novel noninvasive method for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), providing excellent diagnostic information when compared to invasive angiography. In addition to its high diagnostic performance, prior studies have shown that CCTA can provide important prognostic information, although these prior studies have been generally limited to small cohorts at single centers. The Coronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For clinical Outcomes: An InterRnational Multicenter Registry, or CONFIRM, is a large, prospective, multinational, dynamic observational cohort study of patients undergoing CCTA. This registry currently represents more than 32,000 consecutive adults suspected of having CAD who underwent ≥ 64–detector row CCTA at 12 centers in 6 countries between 2005 and 2009. Based on its large sample size and adequate statistical power, the data derived from CONFIRM registry has and will continue to provide key answers to many important topics regarding CCTA. Based on its multisite international national design, the results derived from CONFIRM should be considered as more generalizable than prior smaller single-center studies. This article summarizes the current status of several studies from CONFIRM registry. PMID:22689072

  17. Impact of Body Mass Index on Short-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Anne B.; Lester, Kendra K.; Midodzi, William K.; Pearce, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) is associated with advanced cardiovascular disease requiring procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Studies report better outcomes in obese patients having these procedures but results are conflicting or inconsistent. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest rate of obesity in Canada. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between BMI and vascular and nonvascular complications in patients undergoing PCI in NL. Methods. We studied 6473 patients identified in the APPROACH-NL database who underwent PCI from May 2006 to December 2013. BMI categories included normal, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 (n = 1073); overweight, 25.0 ≤ BMI < 30 (n = 2608); and obese, BMI ≥ 30.0 (n = 2792). Results. Patients with obesity were younger and had a higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and family history of cardiac disease. Obese patients experienced less vascular complications (normal, overweight, and obese: 8.2%, 7.2%, and 5.3%, p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed for in-lab (4.0%, 3.3%, and 3.1%, p = 0.386) or postprocedural (1.0%, 0.8%, and 0.9%, p = 0.725) nonvascular complications. After adjusting for covariates, BMI was not a significant factor associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion. Overweight and obesity were not independent correlates of short-term vascular and nonvascular complications among patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27668118

  18. Intracoronary versus intravenous high-dose bolus plus maintenance administration of tirofiban in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Candemir, Basar; Kilickap, Mustafa; Ozcan, Ozgur Ulas; Kaya, Cansin Tulunay; Gerede, Menekse; Ozdemir, Aydan Ongun; Ozdol, Cagdas; Kumbasar, Deniz; Erol, Cetin

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to examine whether intracoronary high-dose bolus of tirofiban plus maintenance would result in improved clinical outcome in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in this pilot trial. A total of 56 patients were enrolled to receive either intracoronary high-dose bolus plus maintenance (n = 34) or intravenous high-dose bolus plus maintenance (n = 22) of tirofiban. Pre and post intervention TIMI flow grades, myocardial blush grades, peak CKMB and troponin levels, time to peak CKMB and troponin, time to 50% ST resolution and major composite adverse cardiac event rates at 30 days were recorded. Although incidence of major adverse cardiac events was not different, post intervention TIMI flow and TIMI blush grades, peak CKMB and troponin levels, and time to peak CKMB and time to peak troponin were significantly different, favoring intracoronary strategy. In conclusion, this regimen improved myocardial reperfusion and coronary flow, and reduced myocardial necrosis, but failed to improve clinical outcomes at 30 days.

  19. Effects of tirofiban on platelet activation and endothelial function in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuan; Zuo, Guoxing; Zheng, Liuying; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Dong; Cao, Zhongnan; Hu, Sheng; Du, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined, for the first time, the effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, on platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with ST-segment-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 119 STEMI patients were randomized into either tirofiban group (n = 72, intracoronary injection of 10 μg/kg tirofiban prior to PCI, followed by intravenous infusion at 0.15 μg/kg min) or a control group (n = 47), which did not receive tirofiban. Periprocedural administration of tirofiban was associated with significantly reduced levels of platelet activation (lower levels of CD62P and PAC-1) and endothelial dysfunction (reduced levels of endothelial microparticles, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) 48 h after PCI. At 10 days after PCI, patients in the tirofiban group had a higher incidence of complete STR (78.7 vs. 65.0%) and higher left ventricular ejection fractions (47.8 vs. 44.2) compared to those in the control group. The clinical outcomes between two groups did not differ significantly two weeks after treatment. The results demonstrated that periprocedural administration of tirofiban is associated with significantly attenuated platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. This may have contributed to the improved myocardial reperfusion and preservation of left ventricular systolic function in these patients.

  20. Perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery: a consensus document from Italian cardiological, surgical and anaesthesiological societies.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona; Bramucci, Ezio; Castiglioni, Battistina; De Servi, Stefano; Lettieri, Corrado; Lettino, Maddalena; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Savonitto, Stefano; Trabattoni, Daniela; Capodanno, Davide; Buffoli, Francesca; Parolari, Alessandro; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Boni, Luigi; Biglioli, Federico; Valdatta, Luigi; Droghetti, Andrea; Bozzani, Antonio; Setacci, Carlo; Ravelli, Paolo; Crescini, Claudio; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Scarone, Pietro; Francetti, Luca; D'Angelo, Fabio; Gadda, Franco; Comel, Andrea; Salvi, Luca; Lorini, Luca; Antonelli, Massimo; Bovenzi, Francesco; Cremonesi, Alberto; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Guagliumi, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    Optimal perioperative antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery still remains poorly defined and a matter of debate among cardiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists. Surgery represents one of the most common reasons for premature antiplatelet therapy discontinuation, which is associated with a significant increase in mortality and major adverse cardiac events, in particular stent thrombosis. Clinical practice guidelines provide little support with regard to managing antiplatelet therapy in the perioperative phase in the case of patients with non-deferrable surgical interventions and/or high haemorrhagic risk. Moreover, a standard definition of ischaemic and haemorrhagic risk has never been determined. Finally, recommendations shared by cardiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists are lacking. The present consensus document provides practical recommendations on the perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery. Cardiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists have contributed equally to its creation. On the basis of clinical and angiographic data, the individual thrombotic risk has been defined. All surgical interventions have been classified according to their inherent haemorrhagic risk. A consensus on the optimal antiplatelet regimen in the perioperative phase has been reached on the basis of the ischaemic and haemorrhagic risk. Aspirin should be continued perioperatively in the majority of surgical operations, whereas dual antiplatelet therapy should not be withdrawn for surgery in the case of low bleeding risk. In selected patients at high risk for both bleeding and ischaemic events, when oral antiplatelet therapy withdrawal is required, perioperative treatment with short-acting intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (tirofiban or eptifibatide) should be taken into consideration.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of everolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (from the SPIRIT-IV Trial).

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Vilain, Katherine; Durtschi, Amy J; Simonton, Charles A; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-15

    Although several drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been shown to be economically attractive compared to bare-metal stents in patients at moderate to high risk of restenosis, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative DES designs, especially second-generation DESs. We therefore performed an economic substudy alongside the SPIRIT-IV trial, in which 3,687 patients undergoing single or multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs; n = 2,458) or first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs; n = 1,229). Costs through 2 years of follow-up were assessed from the perspective of the United States health care system. The primary cost-effectiveness end point was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Over a 2-year period, use of EESs versus PESs led to a trend toward decreased overall repeat revascularization procedures (14.2 vs 16.2 per 100 subjects, p = 0.20) driven by a significant decrease in the number of target vessel revascularization procedures (8.2 vs 11.0 per 100 subjects, p = 0.02) but also a slight increase in the number of nontarget vessel revascularization procedures (6.0 vs 5.1 per 100 subjects, p = 0.37). Follow-up cardiovascular costs were decreased by $273/patient in the EES group (95% confidence interval for difference 1,048 less to 502 more, p = 0.49). Formal cost-effectiveness analysis based on these results demonstrated that the probability that EES was an economically attractive strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life year gained) was 85.7%. These findings demonstrate that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs, use of EESs is economically attractive compared to PESs with improved clinical outcomes and lower overall medical care costs at 2 years.

  2. Association between cardiothoracic ratio, left ventricular size and systolic function in patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YINSU; XU, HAI; ZHU, XIAOMEI; WEI, YONGYUE; YANG, GUANYU; XU, YI; TANG, LIJUN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and left ventricular (LV) systolic function parameters in patients with or without preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). A total of 203 subjects suspected with coronary artery disease underwent chest radiography and dual source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCT-CA). The LV systolic function parameters: LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), and LVEF were measured from the DSCT-CA. The association between CTR and LV systolic function parameters was analyzed according to LVEF value (<55%, depressed LVEF group; versus ≥55%, preserved LVEF group) and CTR value (<0.5, normal range CTR group; versus ≥0.5, larger CTR group). The LVEDVI and LVESVI were higher in the depressed LVEF group compared with the preserved LVEF group (108.56±57.15 vs. 67.52±14.56 ml/m2, P<0.001; and 64.07±37.81 vs. 20.23±7.23 ml/m2, P<0.001, respectively) and lower in the normal range CTR group compared with the larger CTR group (67.10±15.00 vs. 77.30±34.32 ml/m2, P=0.009 and 21.94±8.96 vs. 28.97±26.54 ml/m2, P=0.017, respectively). Significant correlations were found between CTR and LVEDVI, and LVESVI and LVEF in the depressed LVEF group (r=0.66, P<0.001; r=0.65, P<0.001; and r=−0.46, P=0.018, respectively). However, there was no significant association detected between CTR and LV systolic function parameters in the other subgroups. The LVEDVI and LVESVI showed an inverse correlation with the LVEF in each group. Although the CTR was not a reliable indicator of LV size and systolic function in patients with preserved LVEF, it was correlated with LV size and LVEF in patients with depressed LVEF. PMID:25371728

  3. Effect of milrinone on short term outcome of patients with myocardial dysfunction undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Habib; Mostafavi Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof; Naderi, Nafiseh; Emami Meybodi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is a major complication in cardiac surgery that needs inotropic support. This study evaluates the effect of milrinone on patients with low ventricular ejection fraction undergoing off- pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB). The present study is designed to evaluate the effect of milrinone on myocardial dysfunction. Eighty patients with low ventricular ejection fraction (<35%), candidate for elective OPCAB, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received milrinone (50 μg/kg) intravenously and another group received a saline as placebo followed by 24 hours infusion of each agent (0.5 μg/kg/min). Short outcome of patients such as hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction were variables evaluated. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, occurrence of arrhythmias and mean duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly lower in milrinone group (P<0.05). The mean post operative left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in milrinone group (P=0.031). There were no statistical significant differences between the two groups in terms of intra-aortic balloon pump, inotropic support requirement, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, duration of inotropic support, duration of intensive care unit stay, mortality and morbidity rate. Administration of milrinone in patients undergoing OPCAB with low ventricular ejection fraction is useful and effective.

  4. Comparison of TIVA and Desflurane Added to a Subanaesthetic Dose of Propofol in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Evaluation of Haemodynamic and Stress Hormone Changes

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Tülin; Onk, Oruç Alper; Aksüt, Mehmet; Günay, Murat; Turkmen, Kultigin; Özensoy, Aynur; Yazıcı Ersoy, Çiğdem; Çoban, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Increased levels of stress hormones are associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aim. To compare total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol. Material and Methods. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. Fentanyl (3–5 mcg/kg/h) was started in both groups. Patients were divided into two groups. The PD group (n = 25) received 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) desflurane anaesthesia in addition to propofol infusion (2-3 mg/kg/h), while P group (n = 25) received propofol infusion (5-6 mg/kg/h) only. Biochemical data, cortisol, and insulin levels were measured preoperatively (T0), after initiation of CPB but before cross-clamping the aorta (T1), after removal of the cross-clamp (T2), and at the 24th postoperative hour (T3). Results. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure levels were significantly higher in PD group than those in P group in T1 and T2 measurements (p ≤ 0.05). CK-MB showed a significant decrease in group P (p ≤ 0.05). When we compared both groups, cortisol levels were significantly higher in PD group than P group (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion. Stress and haemodynamic responses were better controlled using TIVA than desflurane inhalation added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol in patients undergoing CABG. PMID:27547757

  5. Outcomes of preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bandeali, Salman J; Kayani, Waleed T; Lee, Vei-Vei; Pan, Wei; Elayda, Mac Arthur A; Nambi, Vijay; Jneid, Hani M; Alam, Mahboob; Wilson, James M; Birnbaum, Yochai; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2012-10-01

    The association between preoperative use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remain controversial. Our aim was to study in-hospital outcomes after isolated CABG in patients on preoperative ACE inhibitors. A retrospective analysis of 8,889 patients who underwent isolated CABG from 2000 through 2011 was conducted. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of major adverse events (MAEs) defined as a composite of mortality, postoperative renal dysfunction, myocardial infarction, stroke, and atrial fibrillation during index hospitalization. The secondary outcome was the incidence of individual outcomes included in MAEs. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Of 8,889 patients, 3,983 (45%) were on preoperative ACE inhibitors and 4,906 (55%) were not. Overall incidence of MAEs was 38.1% (n = 1,518) in the ACE inhibitor group compared to 33.6% (n = 1,649) in the no-ACE inhibitor group. Preoperative use of ACE inhibitors was independently associated with MAEs (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.24), most of which was driven by a statistically significant increase in postoperative renal dysfunction (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.36) and atrial fibrillation (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27). In-hospital mortality, postoperative myocardial infarction, and stroke were not significantly associated with preoperative ACE inhibitor use. Analyses performed after excluding patients with low ejection fractions yielded similar results. In conclusion, preoperative ACE inhibitor use was associated with an increased risk of MAEs after CABG, in particular postoperative renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation.

  6. Mitral valve repair is not always needed in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, J.E.; Jaarsma, W.; Kelder, J.C.; Morshuis, W.J.; Visser, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is defined as mitral regurgitation in the absence of intrinsic valvular abnormalities. We prospectively evaluated the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement (AVR), without additional mitral valve repair, on the degree of moderate or severe FMR. Study design and methods From a cohort of 2829 patients undergoing CABG and/or AVR in the St. Antonius Hospital, 67 patients were identified with moderate or severe FMR by transthoracic and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Results Two out of the 67 patients (3%) died perioperatively. During follow-up (3-18 months) mitral regurgitation decreased by one grade in 29 patients, by two grades in 28, by three grades in five patients and remained unchanged in one patient (p=0.0001). Of all patients, 85% had grade I mitral regurgitation or less. Grade II mitral regurgitation remained in nine patients with a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications. NYHA class improved from 3.1+0.5 to 1.4+0.4 (p=0.0001). Ejection fraction increased from 46 to 55% (p=0.0001). Overall, left atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions decreased significantly. In contrast, no decrease in dimensions was seen in patients with postoperative grade II mitral regurgitation. Conclusion FMR may improve significantly following CABG and/or AVR, although a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications may affect outcome. PMID:25696484

  7. The Effect of Pre-Emptive Dexmedetomidine on the Incidence of Post-Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Jabbary Moghaddam, Morteza; Barkhori, Ali; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Hashemian, Morteza; Amir Mohajerani, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is pain that recurs or persists along a thoracotomy incision for at least two months following surgery. Dexmedetomidine (dex) is an α-2 agonist that also has analgesic, sedative-hypnotic, and sympatholytic properties. Objectives To determine the effect of pre-emptive dexmedetomidine on the incidence of PTPS in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients and Methods This randomized clinical trial enrolled 104 candidates for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and randomly assigned them to either a dex group or a control group. In the dex group, dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg/hour was infused from the initiation of anesthesia until postoperative extubation in the intensive-care unit. Two months after surgery, the patients were contacted by telephone and interviewed to determine the presence of pain at the thoracotomy scars. Results Fifty-four patients were placed in the control group, and 50 patients were assigned to the dex group. The age, sex, and body mass index were not significantly different between the two groups of study (P > 0.05). The incidence of PTPS was 11/50 (22%) patients in the dex group and 28/54 patients (52%) in the control group. A chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the incidence of PTPS after two months between the dex and control groups (P = 0.032). Conclusions PTPS is a common problem following CABG, and pre-emptive therapy with dex may decrease neuropathic pain. PMID:27660748

  8. Prasugrel Results in Higher Decrease in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Comparing to Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mandana; Chitsazan, Mitra; Salehi, Negar; Amin, Ahmad; Bidokhti, Arash Amin; Babaali, Nima; Bordbar, Armin; Hejrati, Maral; Moghadami, Samar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A growing body of clinical and laboratory evidence indicates that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we compared the effects of clopidogrel and prasugrel on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS The present randomized, double-blind clinical trial included 120 patients who underwent PCI. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to one of the two groups: 80 patients in the first group received clopidogrel (Plavix®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 300 and 75 mg daily, respectively) and 40 patients in the second group received prasugrel (Effient®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 60 and 10 mg, respectively) for 12 weeks. The hs-CRP levels between baseline and 12th week were compared. RESULTS Of the 120 patients, 69 patients (57.5%) were male. Pretreatment hs-CRP level was statistically comparable in clopidogrel (median, 15.10 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 9.62–23.75 mg/dL) and prasugrel groups (median, 18 mg/dL; IQR, 14.25–22 mg/dL; P = 0.06). Patients taking clopidogrel showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP level compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). Prasugrel administration also resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). A significant 73% overall reduction in the hs-CRP level was seen with prasugrel compared with 39% overall reduction in hs-CRP level with clopidogrel (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Prasugrel seems to be superior to clopidogrel in the reduction of hs-CRP in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27597810

  9. Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Era of Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Min; Tripathy, Dipti Ranjan; Park, Sang Wook; Park, Bonil; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun-Won; Ahn, Sung-Gyun; Ahn, Min Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be a major adverse predictor in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is expected that the use of newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) would improve clinical outcomes in these patients. We evaluated the impact of CKD on clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing PCI using newer-generation DES in a real-world setting. Subjects and Methods A total of 887 patients who underwent PCI with newer-generation DES and who had a history of DM or HbA1c >6.5% at the time of hospitalization were analyzed. These patients were divided into groups without CKD (n=549) and with CKD (n=338). Among survivors at discharge, a patient-oriented composite outcome (POCO) including all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization was evaluated, together with a device-oriented composite outcome (DOCO) including cardiac death, target vessel-related MI, and target lesion revascularization at a follow-up period of one year. Results The incidence of POCO (5.4% vs. 14.0%, log-rank p<0.001) and DOCO (1.1% vs. 4.1%, log-rank p<0.001) was higher in patients with CKD. According to multivariate analysis, which was adjusted for baseline differences in demographic, clinical, and angiographic factors, the presence of CKD was an independent predictor of POCO (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 3.12), but not of DOCO (HR 2.08, 95% CI: 0.69-6.28). Conclusion In DM patients, CKD is an independent and powerful predictor of patient-related outcomes, but not of device-related outcomes in the era of newer-generation DES. PMID:28382078

  10. Comparison of Perioperative Thoracic Epidural Fentanyl with Bupivacaine and Intravenous Fentanyl for Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Amitabh Chanchal; Rajan, Sunil; Balachandran, Rakhi; Kumar, Lakshmi; Nair, Suresh Gangadharan

    2017-01-01

    Context: Two-thirds of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery report moderate to severe pain, particularly with ambulatory or respiratory effort. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the analgesic effect of perioperative thoracic epidural fentanyl with bupivacaine and intravenous fentanyl in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Settings and Design: The study was a prospective, randomized, nonblinded comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients coming under the American Society of Anesthesiologists Class III who were posted for CABG surgery were recruited in this study. The patients were randomized into one of two groups, higher thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) group receiving general anesthesia with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in the postoperative period, and intravenous fentanyl analgesia group receiving general anesthesia with fentanyl infusion in the postoperative period. The pain was assessed at 4 h after extubation when the patient was fully awake, then at 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 100 mg as rescue analgesia whenever visual analog scale score was 5 and above. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), sedation scores, and physiotherapy cooperation were also assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: The numerical data were analyzed using an independent t-test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Pain at rest and on cough was significantly lower in HTEA patients as compared to control group. Patients HTEA group got less frequent rescue analgesia than the control group. Physiotherapy cooperation was significantly better in HTEA patients at 4, 12, and 24 h postextubation. They also had significantly lower heart rate, MAP, and sedation scores. Conclusion: Perioperative TEA using fentanyl with bupivacaine provided optimal postoperative analgesia at rest and during coughing in patients following CABG surgery as compared to postoperative analgesia with

  11. Uncalibrated pulse power analysis fails to reliably measure cardiac output in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Uncalibrated arterial pulse power analysis has been recently introduced for continuous monitoring of cardiac index (CI). The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of arterial pulse power analysis with intermittent transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Forty-two patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia, before and after CPB respectively. Each patient was monitored with the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system, a central venous line and the recently introduced LiDCO monitoring system. Haemodynamic variables included measurement of CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution (CITPTD) or CI derived by pulse power analysis (CIPP), before and after calibration (CIPPnon-cal., CIPPcal.). Percentage changes of CI (ΔCITPTD, ΔCIPPnon-cal./PPcal.) were calculated to analyse directional changes. Results Before CPB there was no significant correlation between CIPPnon-cal. and CITPTD (r2 = 0.04, P = 0.08) with a percentage error (PE) of 86%. Higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) values were significantly correlated with higher CIPPnon-cal. (r2 = 0.26, P < 0.0001). After CPB, CIPPcal. revealed a significant correlation compared with CITPTD (r2 = 0.77, P < 0.0001) with PE of 28%. Changes in CIPPcal. (ΔCIPPcal.) showed a correlation with changes in CITPTD (ΔCITPTD) only after CPB (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.005). Conclusions Uncalibrated pulse power analysis was significantly influenced by MAP and was not able to reliably measure CI compared with TPTD. Calibration improved accuracy, but pulse power analysis was still not consistently interchangeable with TPTD. Only calibrated pulse power analysis was able to reliably track haemodynamic changes and trends. PMID:21356060

  12. Cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baschet, Louise; Bourguignon, Sandrine; Marque, Sébastien; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Teiger, Emmanuel; Wilquin, Fanny; Levesque, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients requiring a percutaneous coronary intervention in France, using a recent meta-analysis including second-generation DES. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in the French National Health Insurance setting. Effectiveness settings were taken from a meta-analysis of 117 762 patient-years with 76 randomised trials. The main effectiveness criterion was major cardiac event-free survival. Effectiveness and costs were modelled over a 5-year horizon using a three-state Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were calculated for a range of thresholds for willingness to pay per year without major cardiac event gain. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results Base case results demonstrated that DES are dominant over BMS, with an increase in event-free survival and a cost-reduction of €184, primarily due to a diminution of second revascularisations, and an absence of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. These results are robust for uncertainty on one-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of €7000 per major cardiac event-free year gained, DES has a >95% probability of being cost-effective versus BMS. Conclusions Following DES price decrease, new-generation DES development and taking into account recent meta-analyses results, the DES can now be considered cost-effective regardless of selective indication in France, according to European recommendations. PMID:27621830

  13. Predictors of common femoral artery access site complications in patients on oral anticoagulants and undergoing a coronary procedure

    PubMed Central

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Shammas, Gail A; Jones-Miller, Susan; Gumpert, Mileah Rose; Gumpert, Miranda Jade; Harb, Christine; Chammas, Majid Z; Shammas, W John; Khalafallah, Rommy A; Barzgari, Amy; Bou Dargham, Bassel; Daher, Ghassan E; Rachwan, Rayan Jo; Shammas, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether patients on oral anticoagulants (OAC) undergoing a procedure using common femoral artery access have higher adverse events when compared to patients who are not anticoagulated at the time of the procedure. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients who underwent a cardiac procedure at a tertiary medical center. Patients were considered (group A) fully or partially anticoagulated if they had an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.6 on the day of the procedure or were on warfarin or new OAC within 48 h and 24 h of the procedure, respectively. The nonanticoagulated group (group B) had an INR <1.6 or had stopped their warfarin and new OAC >48 h and >24 h preprocedure, respectively. The index primary end point of the study was defined as the composite end point of major bleeding, vascular complications, or cardiovascular-related death during index hospitalization. The 30-day primary end point was defined as the occurrence of the index primary end point and up to 30 days postprocedure. Results A total of 779 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 27 (3.5%) patients were in group A. The index primary end point was met in 11/779 (1.4%) patients. The 30-day primary composite end point was met in 18/779 (2.3%) patients. There was no difference in the primary end point at index between group A (1/27 [3.7%]) and group B (10/752 [1.3%]; P=0.3155) and no difference in the 30-day primary composite end point between group A (2/27 [7.4%]) and group B (16/752 [2.1%]; P=0.1313). Multivariable analysis showed that a low creatinine clearance (odds ratio [OR] =0.56; P=0.0200) and underweight patients (<60 kg; OR =3.94; P=0.0300) were independent predictors of the 30-day primary composite end point but not oral anticoagulation (P=0.1500). Conclusion Patients on OAC did not have higher 30-day major adverse events than those who were not anticoagulated at index procedure.

  14. ADMA predicts major adverse renal events in patients with mild renal impairment and/or diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Heunisch, Fabian; Chaykovska, Lyubov; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of our study was to evaluate serum ADMA concentration as a biomarker of an acute renal damage during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast medium (CM) application. Blood samples were obtained from 330 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment immediately before, 24 and 48 hours after the CM application for coronary angiography. The patients were followed for 90 days. The composite endpoints were major adverse renal events (MARE) defined as occurrence of death, initiation of dialysis, or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration. Overall, ADMA concentration in plasma increased after CM application, although, there was no differences between ADMA levels in patients with and without CIN. ADMA concentration 24 hours after the CM application was predictive for dialysis with a specificity of 0.889 and sensitivity of 0.653 at values higher than 0.71 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.854, 95% confidential interval: 0.767–0.941, P < 0.001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. 24 hours after the CM application, ADMA concentration in plasma was predictive for MARE with a specificity of 0.833 and sensitivity of 0.636 at a value of more than 0.70 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.750, 95% confidence interval: 0.602–0.897, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ADMA and anemia were significant predictors of MARE. Further analysis revealed that increased ADMA concentration in plasma was highly significant predictor of MARE in patients with CIN. Moreover, patients with CIN and MARE had the highest plasma ADMA levels 24 hours after CM exposure in our study

  15. ADMA predicts major adverse renal events in patients with mild renal impairment and/or diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Heunisch, Fabian; Chaykovska, Lyubov; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of our study was to evaluate serum ADMA concentration as a biomarker of an acute renal damage during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast medium (CM) application.Blood samples were obtained from 330 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment immediately before, 24 and 48 hours after the CM application for coronary angiography. The patients were followed for 90 days. The composite endpoints were major adverse renal events (MARE) defined as occurrence of death, initiation of dialysis, or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration.Overall, ADMA concentration in plasma increased after CM application, although, there was no differences between ADMA levels in patients with and without CIN. ADMA concentration 24 hours after the CM application was predictive for dialysis with a specificity of 0.889 and sensitivity of 0.653 at values higher than 0.71 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.854, 95% confidential interval: 0.767-0.941, P < 0.001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. 24 hours after the CM application, ADMA concentration in plasma was predictive for MARE with a specificity of 0.833 and sensitivity of 0.636 at a value of more than 0.70 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.750, 95% confidence interval: 0.602-0.897, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ADMA and anemia were significant predictors of MARE. Further analysis revealed that increased ADMA concentration in plasma was highly significant predictor of MARE in patients with CIN. Moreover, patients with CIN and MARE had the highest plasma ADMA levels 24 hours after CM exposure in our study cohort. The impact

  16. Emotional Processes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgeries with Extracorporeal Circulation in View of Selected Indicators of the Inflammatory Condition

    PubMed Central

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Pielok, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin; Samborska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe positive and negative emotions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries with extracorporeal circulation and the correlations between emotions and basic indicators of the inflammatory condition: C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, body temperature, and leukocyte count. Material/Methods Standardized tools were used to select 52 patients (aged 47–63 years, 6 women – 11.5% and 46 men – 88.5%) without dementia or depression. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to examine positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X1 and X2) was used to examine the anxiety level. The patients underwent CABG surgery according to a common anesthesia protocol and for 5 consecutive days they were observed in the ward, where selected indicators of the inflammatory condition were monitored. Results A detailed description of the results of examinations of emotions was presented. The patients with low PA-trait level, high NA-trait level, and high anxiety-trait level (STAI X2) exhibited statistically significantly higher body temperatures than the other patients in the postoperative period. The patients with high NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1) had statistically significantly lower CRP levels in the postoperative period than the patients with low NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1). Conclusions Patients undergoing CABG operations express both positive and negative affects. The changes in the inflammatory markers are expressed mostly by CRP concentration. There exist relationships between the result of tests assessing emotions and the markers of the inflammatory condition. PMID:25573296

  17. Beneficial effect of preventative intra-aortic balloon pumping in high-risk patients undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass grafting-a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qingcheng; Xing, Jialin; Miao, Na; Zhao, Yanyan; Jia, Zaishen; Li, Jiawei; Chen, Yu; Gao, Quanxin; Liu, Anxin; Sun, Zhiquan; Liu, Xiaojun; Ji, Bingyang

    2009-08-01

    Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) has been used widely as a routine cardiac assist device for perioperative support in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the optimal timing for high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG using IABP is unknown. The purpose of this investigation is to compare preoperative and preventative IABP insertion with intraoperative or postoperative obligatory IABP insertion in high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG. We reviewed our IABP patients' database from 2002 to 2007; there were 311 CABG patients who received IABP treatment perioperatively. Of 311 cases, 41 high-risk patients who had first-time on-pump or off-pump CABG (presenting with three or more of the following criteria: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 0.45, unstable angina, CABG combined with aneurysmectomy, or left main stenosis greater than 70%) entered the study. We compared perioperatively the clinical results of 20 patients who underwent preoperative IABP placement (Group 1) with 21 patients who had obligatory IABP placement intraoperatively or postoperatively during CABG (Group 2). There were no differences in preoperative risk factors, except left ventricular aneurysm resection, between the two groups. There were no differences in indications for high-risk patients between the two groups. The mean number of grafts was similar. There were no significant differences in the need for inotropes, or in cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and infective complications postoperatively. There were no IABP-related complications in either group. Major adverse cardiac event (severe hypotension and/or shock, myocardial infarction, and severe hemodynamic instability) was higher in Group 2 (14 [66.4%] vs. 1 [5%], P < 0.0001) during surgery. The time of IABP pumping in Group 1 was shorter than in Group 2 (72.5 +/- 28.9 h vs. 97.5 +/- 47.7 h, P < 0.05). The duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay in Group 1 was significantly shorter

  18. Cost analysis of bivalirudin versus reference anticoagulants without GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome in routine clinical practice. Pompidou registry.

    PubMed

    Puymirat, E; Cohen, S; Védrenne, G; Caruba, T; Sabatier, B; Danchin, N; Durand, E

    2013-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown improved short-term bleeding outcomes for bivalirudin compared to other anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study analyzed the cost/efficacy profile of bivalirudin-based anticoagulation strategy versus non bivalirudin-based anticoagulant strategy without use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in routine clinical practice. From January 2009 to December 2010, 216 patients who underwent PCI for ACS at hospital Georges-Pompidou without GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors were studied. Of these patients, 24 (11%) received bivalirudin and 192 (88%) received others anticoagulants (mainly unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin). Ischemic events and bleeding or transfusion were slightly lower in bivalirudin group (0 vs. 4.2%, P=0.60 and 4.2 vs. 8.9%, P=0.70, respectively). In spite of a higher cost of the medication, the overall cost of the bivalirudin strategy was slightly lower (9167±3688 € vs. 14,016±14,749 €, P=0.23), in relation with a shorter average duration of the hospital stay. In conclusion, in this limited, single-center, population of patients with ACS, the clinical efficacy and safety of bivalirudin appeared at least as good as that of reference anticoagulants in real world clinical practice, with no increase in overall costs.

  19. ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway as an Alternative to Standard Endotracheal Tube in Securing Upper Airway in the Patients Undergoing Beating-heart Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    Background: ProSeal laryngeal mask airways (PLMAs) are routinely used after failed tracheal intubation as airway rescue, facilitating tracheal intubation by acting as a conduit and to secure airway during emergencies. In long duration surgeries, use of endotracheal tube (ETT) is associated with various hemodynamic complications, which are minimally affected during PLMA use. However, except for few studies, there are no significant data available that promote the use of laryngeal mask during cardiac surgery. This prospective study was conducted with the objective of demonstrating the advantages of PLMA over ETT in the patients undergoing beating-heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methodology: This prospective, interventional study was carried out in 200 patients who underwent beating-heart CABG. Patients were randomized in equal numbers to either ETT group or PLMA group, and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were observed at different time points. Results: Patients in PLMA group had mean systolic blood pressure 126.10 ± 5.31 mmHg compared to the patients of ETT group 143.75 ± 6.02 mmHg. Pulse rate in the PLMA group was less (74.52 ± 10.79 per min) (P < 0.05) compared to ETT group (81.72 ± 9.8). Thus, hemodynamic changes were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PLMA than in ETT group. Respiratory parameters such as oxygen saturation, pressure CO2 (pCO2), peak airway pressure, and lung compliance were similar to ETT group at all evaluation times. The incidence of adverse events was also lower in PLMA group. Conclusion: In experience hand, PLMA offers advantages over the ETT in airway management in the patients undergoing beating-heart CABG. PMID:28074798

  20. All-cause mortality benefit of coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy in patients without known coronary artery disease undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Min, James K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Dunning, Allison; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Plank, Fabian; Raff, Gilbert; Villines, Todd; Labounty, Troy M.; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To date, the therapeutic benefit of revascularization vs. medical therapy for stable individuals undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) based upon coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) findings has not been examined. Methods and results We examined 15 223 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA from eight sites and six countries who were followed for median 2.1 years (interquartile range 1.4–3.3 years) for an endpoint of all-cause mortality. Obstructive CAD by CCTA was defined as a ≥50% luminal diameter stenosis in a major coronary artery. Patients were categorized as having high-risk CAD vs. non-high-risk CAD, with the former including patients with at least obstructive two-vessel CAD with proximal left anterior descending artery involvement, three-vessel CAD, and left main CAD. Death occurred in 185 (1.2%) patients. Patients were categorized into two treatment groups: revascularization (n = 1103; 2.2% mortality) and medical therapy (n = 14 120, 1.1% mortality). To account for non-randomized referral to revascularization, we created a propensity score developed by logistic regression to identify variables that influenced the decision to refer to revascularization. Within this model (C index 0.92, χ2 = 1248, P < 0.0001), obstructive CAD was the most influential factor for referral, followed by an interaction of obstructive CAD with pre-test likelihood of CAD (P = 0.0344). Within CCTA CAD groups, rates of revascularization increased from 3.8% for non-high-risk CAD to 51.2% high-risk CAD. In multivariable models, when compared with medical therapy, revascularization was associated with a survival advantage for patients with high-risk CAD [hazards ratio (HR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.83], with no difference in survival for patients with non-high-risk CAD (HR 3.24, 95% CI 0.76–13.89) (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Conclusion In an intermediate-term follow-up, coronary revascularization is

  1. The Impact of Renal Dysfunction on the Long Term Clinical Outcomes of Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Drug-Eluting Stent Era

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited data are available regarding the association between renal dysfunction and clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. Methods Between March 2003 and December 2010, 2,181 diabetic patients were enrolled in a single-center registry. We divided diabetic patients into a renal dysfunction group (n = 518) and a non-renal dysfunction group (n = 1,663) according to a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Propensity score matching analysis was also performed. The primary outcome was cardiac death. Results The median follow-up duration was 48 months. The rate of cardiac death was higher in the renal dysfunction group than in the non-renal dysfunction group (14.3% vs. 3.0%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.47 to 5.35, p<0.001). Similarly, the incidence of stent thrombosis was significantly higher in the renal dysfunction group than in the non-renal dysfunction group (4.1% vs. 1.4%, adjusted HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.56, p = 0.04). After 1:1 propensity score matching (502 pairs), patients with renal dysfunction still had a higher rate of cardiac death (13.3% vs. 4.8%, HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.38, p<0.001) although there was no significant difference in the rate of stent thrombosis (4.0% vs. 2.8%, HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.69, p = 0.47). Conclusions Renal dysfunction is associated with long-term mortality for diabetic patients undergoing PCI in the DES era. PMID:26731526

  2. Meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuichi J; Nakra, Navin C; Fox, John T; Kanei, Yumiko

    2012-03-01

    Abciximab is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor that has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An earlier study reported better efficacy with intracoronary (IC) compared to intravenous (IV) administration, but this finding has not been duplicated in other studies, thus leaving a great deal of uncertainty as to the most efficacious route of administration. To investigate if IC abciximab compared to IV administration decreases mortality and major adverse cardiac events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo pPCI, a meta-analysis was performed consisting only of prospective randomized controlled trials. Subgroup analysis was performed to investigate the source of difference in efficacy between the 2 strategies. A meta-analysis of 4 trials including 1,148 subjects revealed that IC abciximab significantly reduced mortality compared to IV administration (1.5% vs 3.6%, odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.95, p = 0.04). Major adverse cardiac events were also reduced in a subgroup in which <30% of patients received aspiration thrombectomy (6.1% vs 16.2%, odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.61, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, the totality of the data available from relatively small but high-quality studies shows a significant mortality reduction associated using IC abciximab for pPCI compared to IV abciximab. IC abciximab in the setting of pPCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction may be beneficial for patients with higher risk profiles.

  3. The impact of surgical left atrial appendage amputation/ligation on stroke prevention in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Endo, Daisuke; Kato, Tomoko S; Iwamura, Tai; Oishi, Atsumi; Yokoyama, Yasutaka; Kuwaki, Kenji; Inaba, Hirotaka; Amano, Atsushi

    2016-11-09

    Stroke is a major adverse event in patients developing atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery. Surgical left atrial appendage amputation/ligation (LAA-A/L) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) is routinely performed in our institution. We analyzed 578 consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, male 82%) undergoing OPCAB with or without concomitant LAA-A/L from 2011 to 2014 at our institution in a prospective observational manner. The safety and efficacy of the concomitant LAA-A/L on preventing early (<30 days) and overall postoperative stroke were examined. A total of 193 patients (33.4%) underwent LAA-A/L, consisting of amputation in 154 and ligation in 39 patients (80 and 20% of the cases, respectively). Preoperative characteristics, operative time, requirement of blood transfusion, and 30-day mortality were not significantly different between those with and without LAA-A/L. The incidences of postoperative AF and early and overall stroke were not significantly different between the groups in the analysis based on a total cohort. In a subanalysis of patients without LAA-A/L, early and overall stroke occurred more frequently in those developing postoperative AF than those without AF (2.8 vs. 0%; p = 0.005, 6.2 vs. 1.5%; p = 0.017, respectively), while in patients receiving LAA-A/L, stroke incidences did not differ between those with and without AF. Multivariate logistic regression showed postoperative AF without LAA-A/L as the only independent positive predictor of overall stroke (OR 3.69, p = 0.03). Concomitant LAA-A/L with OPCAB can safely prevent postoperative stroke occurrence in case patients develop AF, the most common arrhythmia associated with stroke.

  4. Prognostic Impact of Baseline High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Based on Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khurshid; Chakraborty, Rabin; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Hachinohe, Daisuke; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of inflammation and may lead to the development of atherosclerosis, adversely affecting mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between baseline hs-CRP level and 12-month clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to their body mass index (BMI) status. Subjects and Methods Using data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from November 2005 to September 2008, a total of 8174 consecutive AMI patients were studied. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that higher baseline levels of hs-CRP was associated with 12-month all-cause mortality (p=0.045). To further understand this association, patients were divided into 3 groups based on their body mass index: 1) overweight/obese, 2) normal weight, and 3) underweight patients. Then each group was stratified into quartiles based on their hs-CRP. Results In overweight/obese patients, Cox model showed significant association of hs-CRP with 12-month mortality when adjusted for age and gender (p<0.001), however, after adjustment with multiple covariates, mortality was highest in the 4th quartile {HR 2.382, (1.079-5.259), p=0.032} though statistically insignificant (p=0.172). We observed no significant association of serum hs-CRP with 12-month mortality in normal weight (p=0.681) and underweight (p=0.760) patients. Conclusion Higher baseline hs-CRP level (≥4.08 mg/dL) in overweight/obese AMI patients showed significant association with 12-month all-cause mortality independent of other prognostic markers. PMID:22493611

  5. Indications, algorithms, and outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Yerokun, Babatunde A.; Williams, Judson B.; Gaca, Jeffrey; Smith, Peter K.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), guideline recommendations and treatment pathways focus on revascularization for definitive treatment if the patient is an appropriate candidate. Despite the widespread use of revascularization for NSTE-ACS, most patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention, whereas a minority of patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Focusing specifically on the USA, the contemporary utilization, preoperative and perioperative considerations, and outcomes of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting have not been comprehensively reviewed. PMID:26945187

  6. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Prasugrel, Ticagrelor, and Standard-Dose and High-Dose Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhchain; Singh, Mukesh; Grewal, Navsheen; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Authors aimed to compare efficacy and safety of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and standard-dose (SD) and high-dose (HD) clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies comparing prasugrel, ticagrelor, SD and HD clopidogrel in patients undergoing PCI. Frequentist and Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed besides direct pairwise comparisons. Thirty trials, comprising 34,563 person-year data, were included. Prasugrel emerged as a best drug to prevent definite or probable stent thrombosis, followed by HD clopidogrel and ticagrelor, with SD clopidogrel being the worst. Myocardial infarction was least likely to be prevented by SD clopidogrel after PCI, and remaining 3 were superior to it with little difference among them. SD clopidogrel was least effective in preventing cardiovascular deaths after PCI. Prasugrel was most effective in preventing cardiovascular deaths, although having only small advantage over ticagrelor and HD clopidogrel. Ticagrelor reduced all-cause mortality by a small margin compared with rest of treatments. SD clopidogrel, followed by ticagrelor, resulted in significantly lower thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding complications compared with prasugrel. Analysis of any bleeding revealed similar trend. HD clopidogrel performed better than prasugrel in terms of bleeding complications. In conclusion, Prasugrel is likely most effective drug to prevent post-PCI ischemic events but at the expense of higher bleeding. Ticagrelor followed by HD clopidogrel seems to strike the right balance between efficacy and safety. HD clopidogrel can be considered as an alternative to newer P2Y12 inhibitors.

  7. Randomized Trial of Complete Versus Lesion-Only Revascularization in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI and Multivessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, Anthony H.; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J.; Greenwood, John P.; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J.; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L.; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L.; Kelion, Andrew D.; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. Objectives CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. Methods After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (≤3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Results Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. Conclusions In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the

  8. The Effect of Desmopressin on the Amount of Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery with a Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pump After Taking Anti-Platelet Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mirmansoori, Ali; Farzi, Farnoush; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Imantalab, Vali; mohammadzadeh, Ali; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghazanfar Tehran, Samaneh; Nemati, Maryam; Dehghan, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common surgical intervention at the end-stages of coronary artery occlusion disease. Despite the effectiveness of CABG, it may have particular complications, such as bleeding during and after surgery. So far, there have been many drugs used to reduce bleeding. Objectives This study aimed at investigating the effects of desmopressin on the amount of bleeding in patients undergoing CABG with a cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPBP) who were taking anti-platelet medicine. Methods One hundred patients scheduled for elective CABG with a CPBP were included in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial study. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group received desmopressin (40 μg) and the other group received a placebo (isotonic saline). Seven patients were excluded from the study, and 47 and 46 patients participated in the desmopressin and control groups, respectively. The methods of monitoring and the anesthetic techniques were similar in both groups, and all surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Variables including age, gender, pump time, aortic clamp time, duration of surgery, complications (e.g., nausea and vomiting, blood pressure changes), the necessity to receive blood products, and coagulation tests (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, and bleeding time) were assessed. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS software version 17. Results There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, gender, pump time, clamp time, duration of surgery, complications, and the changes in hemoglobin and coagulation test measurements (P > 0.05). No significant difference was noted between the groups regarding the rate of bleeding after surgery (359.3 ± 266.2 in group D vs. 406.3 ± 341.6 in group P (control group); P = 0.208). However, the platelet changes after surgery in both groups were significantly different. The analysis

  9. Prognostic impact of alkaline phosphatase measured at time of presentation in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Moon, Jeonggeun; Park, Hyun Woo; Jang, Ho-Jun; Park, Sang-Don; Kwon, Sung Woo; Suh, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in several subgroups of patients due to its promotion of vascular calcification. However, the prognostic impact of serum ALP level in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a relatively low calcification burden has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the association of ALP level measured at time of presentation on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 1178 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry and classified into tertiles by ALP level (<64, 65–82, or >83 IU/L). The primary study outcome was a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Results Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10–39 months). The incidence of MACCE significantly increased as ALP level increased, that is, for the <64, 65–82, and >83 IU/L tertiles incidences were 8.7%, 11.7%, and 15.7%, respectively; p for trend = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACCE in the middle and highest tertiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.01–2.81) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.48–4.09), respectively, as compared with the lowest ALP tertile. Conclusions Elevated ALP level at presentation, but within the higher limit of normal, was found to be independently associated with higher risk of MACCE after primary PCI in patients with STEMI. PMID:28182682

  10. Independent association between symptom onset time and infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Karim D; Nijsten, Maarten W; Wieringa, Wouter G; Ottervanger, Jan P; Holmes, David R; Hillege, Hans L; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; Lipsic, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have reported on circadian variation in infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Controversy remains as to whether this finding indicates circadian dependence of myocardial tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury or that it can simply be explained by confounding factors such as baseline profile and ischemic time. We assessed the clinical impact and independent association between symptom onset time and infarct size, accounting for possible subgroup differences. From a multicenter registry, 6799 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2004 and 2010 were included. Infarct size was measured using peak creatine kinase (CK). Infarct size exhibited circadian variation with largest infarct size in patients with symptom onset around 03:00 at night (estimated peak CK 1322 U/l; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1217-1436) and smallest infarct size around 11:00 in the morning (estimated peak CK 1071 U/l; 95% CI: 1001-1146; relative reduction 19%; p = 0.001). Circadian variation in infarct size followed an inverse pattern in patients with prior myocardial infarction (p-interaction <0.001) and prior PCI (p-interaction = 0.006), although the later did not persist in multivariable analysis. Symptom onset time remained associated with infarct size after accounting for these interactions and adjusting for baseline characteristics and ischemic time. Symptom onset time did not predict one-year mortality (p = 0.081). In conclusion, there is substantial circadian variation in infarct size, which cannot be fully explained by variations in baseline profile or ischemic time. Our results lend support to the hypothesis of circadian myocardial ischemic tolerance and suggest a different mechanism in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

  11. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on clinical evolution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, according to serum levels of zinc.

    PubMed

    Matos, A C; Souza, G G; Moreira, V; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A and zinc are powerful antioxidants with synergy between them, thus protecting the organism against oxidative stress during the pre and postoperative periods. Our aim was to investigate the evolution clinical in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting while receiving vitamin A supplements according to their zinc nutritional status. They were randomly divided into two groups (2:1): Control group (G1 = 60); and Supplemented group (G2 = 30) and subdivided according to the nutritional status of zinc. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, zinc and levels of malondialdehyde were measured prior to (T0) and on the 21st day (T1) following surgery. After surgery, was found a significant difference between G1 and G2 when comparing retinol (G1 = 38.7 ± 17.1 μg/dL and G2 = 62.1 ± 20.3 μg/dL; p < 0.001) and β-carotene (G1 = 12.3 ± 5.7 μg/dL and G2 = 53.5 ± 20.9 μg/dL; p < 0.001) in the patients with adequate concentrations of zinc. Analyzing the evolution clinical, operative mortality was 8.33% in G1 and 3.33% in G2. Hospitalization time significantly smaller in the G2 was found in the patients who had adequate concentrations of zinc (p = 0.001), as well as time in the intensive care unit both in those with adequate and inadequate levels of zinc (p = 0.047; p = 0.039). Such results may indicate that vitamin A supplementation may have a positive impact in combating the oxidative stress to which these patients are exposed above all in patients with adequate levels of zinc.

  12. Morphine Post-Conditioning Effect on QT Dispersion in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Anterior Descending Cardiac Artery: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Ali; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Bagheri, Ramin Khameneh; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Golnezhad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction QT dispersion is the difference between the maximum and minimum QTc interval in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Some researchers have demonstrated the effects of an increase of QT-d in STEMI and its reduction with successful therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphine post-conditioning effect on the QT dispersion in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on anterior descending cardiac artery. Methods This cohort study was conducted on STEMI patients admitted to the Hospital of Imam Reza (AS), Mashhad, Iran, from March 2015 to February 2016 who were undergoing primary angioplasty on the anterior descending cardiac artery. The patients were divided into two groups based on the intake or non-intake of morphine (5 mg morphine for the period of 30 minutes prior to PCI). Parameters, including age, gender, history of diabetes, and blood pressure as well as admission and 24 hours after PCI ejection fraction (EF) and QT-d, were recorded in all patients and compared between the two intervention and control groups. Independent and paired t-tests and chi-square test were used to compare the qualitative and quantitative data between the two groups using SPSS version 19 software. Results The present research was performed on 77 patients (61 males) with mean age of 58.71±11.84 years in the two groups of morphine consumption before PCI (n=46) and control (n=31). No statistical difference was found among the groups in age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and onset of symptoms until primary PCI. Admission electrocardiogram QT-d value in the positive exposure group showed no significant difference with the control group, but QT-d value at 24 hours after PCI was lower in the positive exposure group than in the control group (morphine versus control: 40.32±6.98 versus 59.64±8.89; p=0.000). QT-d value 24 hours after PCI compared with the admission QT-d value was significantly reduced in both groups. The mean decrease of

  13. Development of a concept for a personalized approach in the perioperative antiplatelet therapy administration/discontinuation management based on multiple electrode aggregometry in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Mate; Milicic, Davor; White, Alexandra; Boban, Marko; Mihaljevic, Martina Zrno; Piljic, Dragan; Rotim, Ante; Buca, Ante; Mihalj, Mario; Biocina, Bojan

    2015-10-01

    In patients undergoing coronary artery surgery, improvements in clinical outcomes currently rely on continued refinements of the surgical technique and modulation of adjuvant pharmacotherapy. Despite medical and technological advances, negligible rate of bleeding and ischemic events still persist necessitating further improvements in patient management. Platelet function testing (PFT) might play an important role in meticulous balancing between the risk of bleeding and thrombotic events. A suitable balance can be achieved by implementing a personalized, PFT based approach in antiplatelet therapy (APT) administration/discontinuation management. Despite emerging evidence on the widespread variability in platelet inhibitory response to APT, numerous PFT devices and heterogeneity in reporting study results hamper pooling of the evidence which in turn results with a lack of consensus in "on treatment" platelet reactivity associated with ischemic and bleeding events in perioperative phase. The literature on multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate(®); Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in coronary artery disease patients was reviewed systematically. Based on the evidence evaluating the relationship between "drug specific" PFT and bleeding or adverse ischemic events, we sought to define therapeutic window for the most commonly administered antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin (ASPI test) and adenosine-diphosphate receptor blockers (ADP test). Preoperatively, APT administration was primarily focused to avoid bleeding complications. ASPI test value of 20 AUC and ADP test value of <73 AUC were set as cut-off values that delineate bleeding tendency. Postoperatively, "therapeutic window" was set to avoid both bleeding and adverse ischemic events. Therapeutic ranges were as follows: 20 AUC < ASPItest ≤ 30 AUC and 19AUC < ADP ≤ 46AUC, respectively. This is the first attempt to define PFT based "therapeutic window" according to, perioperative APT administration

  14. Clinical benefit of low molecular weight heparin for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Her, Sung-Ho; Baek, Ju Yeal; Park, Mahn-Won; Kim, Hyoung Doo; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Young keun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jim; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2010-11-01

    The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with low dose unfractionated heparin (UFH) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with or without glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitor compared to UFH with or without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor has not been elucidated. Between October 2005 and July 2007, 2,535 patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) were assigned to either of two groups: a group with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=476) or a group without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=2,059). These groups were further subdivided according to the use of LMWH with low dose UFH (n=219) or UFH alone (n=257). The primary end points were cardiac death or myocardial infarction during the 30 days after the registration. The primary end point occurred in 4.1% (9/219) of patients managed with LMWH during PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor and 10.8% (28/257) of patients managed with UFH and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (odds ratio [OR], 0.290; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.132-0.634; P=0.006). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) with major bleeding was observed in LMHW and UFH with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (1/219 [0.5%] vs 1/257 [0.4%], P=1.00). For patients with STEMI managed with a primary PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor, LMWH is more beneficial than UFH.

  15. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Núñez, B; van den Hurk, G H A M; de Vries, J H M; Mariani, M A; de Jongste, M J L; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2015-05-14

    CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80% men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84% men, median age 69 years; range 46-84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18-36) kg/m(2). The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0-433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0-303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9-45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0.14 g/d; range 0.01-1.06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4.9 μg/d; range 1.9-11.2 μg/d), saturated fat (median 13.1% of energy (E%); range 9-23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6.3 E%; range 1.9-11.3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62% (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150-200 g/d), 73% (dietary fibre; recommendation 30-45 g/d), 91% (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0.45 g/d), 98% (vitamin D; recommendation 10-20 μg/d) and 13% (LA; recommendation 5-10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95% (saturated fat; recommendation < 10 E%) and 7% (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.

  16. Resolution of left ventricular postinfarction thrombi in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention using rivaroxaban in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) thrombus is usually seen in situations with reduced LV function, and is mostly seen in patients with large anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Most embolic events, in patients with LV thrombus formation, occur within the first 3–4 months, thus the recommendations regarding the duration of anticoagulant therapy. According to guidelines, an oral vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, is being used as an anticoagulant for this period. Novel oral anticoagulants were found to be either non-inferior or superior compared with warfarin in prevention of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. However, the data about their role in the management of LV thrombus are limited to case reports. Here, we report on the dissolution of LV apical thrombus in 3 patients with anterior ST-elevation MI receiving dual antiplatelet therapy and rivaroxaban on a reduced dose for 3 months. PMID:27797850

  17. Hereditary spherocytosis in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass--a case report.

    PubMed

    Spegar, J; Riha, H; Kotulak, T; Vanek, T

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically determined abnormality of red blood cells. It is the most common cause of inherited haemolysis in Europe and North America within the Caucasian population. We document a patient who underwent an aortocoronary bypass procedure on cardiopulmonary bypass. In view of the uncertain tolerance of the abnormal red cells in hereditary spherocytosis to cardiopulmonary bypass, we reviewed the patient's chart and analyzed recorded values of these parameters: free plasma haemoglobin, renal parameters, cystatin C, bilirubin, liver tests, urine samples. From the results, we can see that slight haemolysis-elevated bilirubin in the blood sample and elevated bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine sample occurred on the first postoperative day. The levels of these parameters slowly decreased during the next postoperative days. There was no real clinical effect of this haemolysis on renal functions.

  18. Comparison of outcomes of patients with painless versus painful ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Yeong; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Young Keun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Hong, Taek Jong; Choi, Dong Hoon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Chung, Wook Sung; Jang, Yang Soo; Cho, Seung Yun; Rha, Seung Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Seung Jung

    2012-02-01

    There are few data available on the prognosis of painless ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of painless STEMI. We analyzed the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) study, which enrolled 7,288 patients with STEMI (61.8 ± 12.8 years old, 74% men; painless STEMI group, n = 763; painful STEMI group, n = 6,525). End points were in-hospital mortality and 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Patients with painless STEMI were older and more likely to be women, nonsmokers, diabetic, and normolipidemic and to have a higher Killip class. The painless group had more in-hospital deaths (5.9% vs 3.6%, p = 0.026) and 1-year MACEs (26% vs 19%, p = 0.002). In Cox proportional hazards analysis, hypotension (hazard ratio [HR] 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41 to 13.78, p = 0.011), low left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 3.12, 95% CI 1.21 to 8.07, p = 0.019), and a high Killip class (HR 3.48, 95% CI 1.19 to 10.22, p = 0.023) were independent predictors of 1-year MACEs in patients with painless STEMI. In conclusion, painless STEMI was associated with more adverse outcomes than painful STEMI and late detection may have contributed significantly to total ischemic burden. These results warrant more investigations for methodologic development in the diagnosis of silent ischemia and painless STEMI.

  19. Increased coronary artery disease severity in black women undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Griffin, William F; Anderson, Ethan J; Davies, Stephen W; Landrine, Hope; O'Neal, Jason B; Shiue, Kristin Y; Kindell, Linda C; Bruce Ferguson, T; Randolph Chitwood, W; Kypson, Alan P

    2015-02-01

    Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran-Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race-sex groups.Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group.

  20. Prayer Sign as a Marker of Increased Ventilatory Hours, Length of Intensive Care Unit and Hospital Stay in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Tanveer Singh; Kaur, Parminder; Manjunatha, N

    2017-01-01

    Context: Various predictors have been used to predict diabetic patients who are likely to have increased ventilatory hours and an increased length of stay (LOS) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) as well as in the hospital after undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, for example, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The authors propose a simple bed-side test, i.e., the prayer sign to predict increased ventilatory hours and increased length of ICU and hospital stay. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess whether any association exists between a positive prayer sign and increased ventilatory hours, length of ICU and hospital stay after CABG surgery in diabetic patients. Settings and Design: This prospective observational study was conducted in a 650-bedded tertiary cardiac center. Subjects and Methods: A total of 501 diabetic patients were recruited in the study over a period of 1 year. Group P consisted of 121 patients with prayer sign positive, whereas Group N consisted of 380 patients with prayer sign negative. HbA1c levels, ventilatory hours, LOS in the postoperative ICU and hospital were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare the data. Results: The mean HbA1c levels in Group P were 8.01 ± 2.28% as compared to 6.52 ± 2.46% in Group N (P < 0.0001). The mean ventilatory hours in Group P were 9.52 ± 6.46 h, and in Group N were 7.42 ± 8.01 h (P = 0.013). Whereas, the mean length of ICU stay and hospital stay in Group P was 156.42 ± 32.66 h (6.51 ± 1.36 days) and 197.36 ± 32.46 h (8.22 ± 1.35 days), respectively, it was 121.12 ± 29.48 h (5.04 ± 1.22 days) and 178.52 ± 28.52 h (7.43 ± 1.18 days) in Group N (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A positive prayer sign is a useful bedside test for predicting increased ventilatory hours and increased length of ICU and hospital stay after CABG surgery. PMID:28074803

  1. Prediction of left ventricular contractile recovery using tissue Doppler strain and strain rate measurements at rest in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawwad, Ihab M; Al Hawary, Ahmed A; Kamal, Hanan M; Al Maghawry, Layla M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of tissue Doppler (TD) deformation analysis at rest to predict left ventricular contractile recovery in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This prospective cohort enrolled 67 patients with segmental wall motion abnormality. Assessment of each segment was performed at rest and during low dose Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) using a 4 point scoring system, TD peak systolic strain (PSS) and peak systolic strain rate (PSSR). The study followed up the patients for contractile improvement after 6 months of successful PCI by echocardiography. Of a 319 dysfunctional segments, 155 (49%) showed contractile recovery and 164 (51%) did not. PSS and PSSR at rest were significantly higher in recovered segments compared to segments without recovery (PSS: -7.27 ± 0.8 Vs. -6.14 ± 0.7%, PSSR: -0.34 ± 0.13 Vs. -0.24 ± 0.1/s. p < 0.0001 both). Similarly, both parameters were significantly higher in the contractile recovery group at follow up (p 0.001). Resting PSSR as well as PSS and PSSR during DSE were significant independent predictors of contractile recovery (p < 0.001 each). For predicting segmental contractile recovery, resting PSSR with a -0.31/s cut-off point had 76% sensitivity and 59% specificity (AUC 0.74), DSE qualitative viability assessment had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 77%, DSE PSS with a cut-off point of -9.1% had 74% sensitivity and 63% specificity (AUC 0.77) and DSE PSSR with a cut-off point of -0.72/s had 78% sensitivity and 77% specificity (AUC 0.81). Resting PSSR is a modest predictor of segmental contractile recovery after PCI while PSSR during DSE has a comparable diagnostic performance to subjective wall motion scoring. Recovered segments show improvement of deformation parameters after PCI.

  2. Cardiometabolic risk profile of rural South Indians undergoing coronary interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sriharibabu, Manne; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Kabir, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    Background According to projected estimates, India will bear 60% of the world's cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden by the year 2020. CVD mortality rates are high in South India compared with the rest of India. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of behavioural, biological and metabolic risk factors in different age groups of rural South Indians undergoing coronary interventions under a governmental health insurance scheme. Methods This study includes 1294 patients who underwent coronary interventions. Age, gender and anthropometric measurements were recorded. History of hypertension, diabetes, smoking and family history of ischaemic heart disease was obtained from every subject. Physical activity was assessed using a General Practise physical activity questionnaire. Investigations like haemogram, blood urea, serum creatinine, fasting and postprandial blood glucose, lipid profile and echocardiography were carried out for all patients. Results Hypertension was found in 65% patients, 32.38% had diabetes mellitus, 41.65% were smokers (current and former), 37.17% had dyslipidemia, 31.06% had body mass index more than 25 kg/m, 27.04% were physically active, 37% had left ventricular dysfunction, and 8.57% had renal impairment ( table 1). Statistically significant differences were seen in the prevalence rates of different risk factors in the compared age groups (p=<0.05) except for hypertension and dyslipidemia (p=0.596 and 0.306). Conclusions Risks to health, as an area of study, has recently begun to receive attention in developing countries including India. Population-based strategies aimed at bringing down risk factor levels in the community can translate into major public health benefits. PMID:27326054

  3. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder; Mehta, Yatin

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP) through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI) monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation <10%; in addition to the control group parameters such as CVP 6–8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 90–105 mmHg, normal ABG values, oxygen saturation, hematocrit value >30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025), hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0

  4. Transradial approach for coronary angiography and interventions in patients with coronary bypass grafts: tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Hamon, Martial; Amoroso, Giovanni; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2008-08-01

    Among patients undergoing coronary procedures, patients with coronary artery bypass grafts represent an important, high risk subgroup. Routine transradial approach may be successfully adopted in these patients to reduce access-site complications. However, transradial cannulation of the grafts may result technically demanding. In this article we discuss the specific technical issues and we present a series of tips and tricks which may facilitate angiography and interventions on both internal mammary and aorto-coronary grafts.

  5. Triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary artery stenting: hovering among bleeding risk, thromboembolic events, and stent thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is the antithrombotic treatment recommended after an acute coronary syndrome and/or coronary artery stenting. The evidence for optimal antiplatelet therapy for patients, in whom long-term treatment oral anticoagulation is mandatory, is however scarce. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the various antithrombotic strategies adopted in this population, we reviewed the available evidence on the management of patients receiving oral anticoagulation, such as a vitamin-k-antagonists, referred for coronary artery stenting. Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent indication for oral anticoagulation. The need of starting antiplatelet therapy in this clinical scenario raises concerns about the combination to choose: triple therapy with warfarin, aspirin, and a thienopyridine being the most frequent and advised. The safety of this regimen appeared suboptimal because of an increased risk in hemorrhagic complications. On the other hand, the combination of oral anticoagulation and an antiplatelet agent is suboptimal in preventing thromboembolic events and stent thrombosis; dual antiplatelet therapy may be considered only when a high hemorrhagic risk and low thromboembolic risk are perceived. Indeed, the need for prolonged multiple-drug antithrombotic therapy increases the bleeding risks when drug eluting stents are used. Since current evidence derives mainly from small, single-center and retrospective studies, large-scale prospective multicenter studies are urgently needed. PMID:23075316

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells, microvascular obstruction, and left ventricular remodeling in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Porto, Italo; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Leone, Antonio Maria; Dato, Ilaria; D'Amario, Domenico; Burzotta, Francesco; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Trani, Carlo; Biasucci, Luigi Marzio; Bolognese, Leonardo; Crea, Filippo

    2013-09-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are released from the bone marrow during cardiac ischemic events, potentially influencing vascular and myocardial repair. We assessed the clinical and angiographic correlates of EPC mobilization at the time of primary percutaneous coronary intervention in 78 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction and the impact of both baseline and follow-up EPC levels on left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Blood samples were drawn from the aorta and the culprit coronary artery for cytofluorimetric EPC detection (CD34+CD45dimKDR+ cells, in percentage of cytofluorimetric counts). Area at risk was assessed by Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation myocardial jeopardy index, thrombotic burden as thrombus score and microvascular obstruction (MVO) as a combination of ST segment resolution and myocardial blush grade. Echocardiographic evaluation of LV remodeling was performed at 1-year follow-up in 54 patients, whereas peripheral EPC levels were reassessed in 40 patients. EPC levels during primary percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly higher in intracoronary than in aortic blood (0.043% vs 0.0006%, p <0.001). Both intracoronary and aortic EPC were related to area at risk extent, to intracoronary thrombus score (p <0.001), and inversely to MVO (p = 0.001). Peripheral EPC levels at 1-year follow-up were lower in patients with LV remodeling than in those without (0.001% [0.001 to 0.002] vs 0.003% [0.002 to 0.010]; p = 0.01) and independently predicted absence of remodeling at multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a rapid intracoronary EPC recruitment takes place in the early phases of ST elevation myocardial infarction, possibly reflecting an attempted reparative response. The extent of this mobilization seems to be correlated to the area at risk and to the amount of MVO. Persistently low levels of EPC are associated to LV remodeling.

  7. Procedural and follow-up outcomes among patients undergoing successful recanalisation of coronary chronic total occlusions using biolimus drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Saraf, S; Cockburn, J; Ferreira, I; Hopkins, S; Hildick-Smith, D

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the outcome of Biolimus eluting stent (BES) implantation in the treatment of chronic total coronary occlusions (CTO). We identified patients who underwent successful angioplasty for a CTO lesion with ≥1 BES between June 2008 and March 2012. All patients were followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which comprised death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident, target vessel revascularization (TVR), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stent thrombosis. 125 patients underwent successful CTO angioplasty with ≥1 Biolimus-eluting stents. Mean age was 63.8 ± 12.0 years, and 82.4 % were males. Lesion location was right coronary artery (n = 80, 64 %), left anterior descending artery (n = 35, 28 %) and left circumflex artery (n = 10, 8 %). During follow-up of 579 ± 293 days, all cause mortality was n = 8 (6.4 %) patients, non-fatal MI was n = 3 (2.4 %), TVR was n = 3 (2.4 %) and TLR was n = 1 (0.8 %). Overall MACE was, therefore, n = 15 (12 %). BES is safe and effective in treatment of CTO lesions, with a low rate of major adverse cardiovascular events during follow-up.

  8. The effect of lavender essential oil on anxiety level in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Zahra; Beikmoradi, Ali; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Poorolajal, Jalal; Araghchian, Malihe; Safiaryan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Open heart surgery can cause high levels of anxiety in patients. Nowadays, lavender essential oil is widely used in medical research. This study was conducted with an aim to investigate the effects of lavender essential oil to reduce the anxiety of patients after coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods: This research is double-blinded randomized controlled trial on 60 patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery in a 2-day intervention targeting reduction of anxiety. This study was conducted in Ekbatan Therapeutic and Educational Center, Hamadan city, Iran, in 2013. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled two drops of 2% lavender essential oil and those in the control group inhaled two drops of distilled water as placebo for 20 min on the 2nd and 3rd days after surgery. The level of anxiety was evaluated by Spielberger's State Anxiety questionnaire before and after intervention and the vital signs were documented as well. Data were analyzed using Stata 11 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA) by independent t-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: The mean score of anxiety in the aromatherapy group was 48.73 ± 5.08 and in the control group was 48 ± 6.98 before the intervention (P = 0.64), which reduced after the intervention to 42.6 ± 5.44 and 42.73 ± 7.30, respectively. On the 3rd day after surgery, the mean score of anxiety in the aromatherapy group was 46.76 ± 4.07 and in the control group was 46.53 ± 7.05 before the intervention, which reduced to 41.33 ± 3.65 and 41.56 ± 6.18, respectively, after the intervention. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean scores of anxiety between the aromatherapy and control groups. Conclusions: Lavender essential oil has no significant effect on anxiety in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery, although it decreased the level of anxiety in the patients. PMID:25558253

  9. Do preoperative C-reactive protein and mean platelet volume levels predict development of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed Central

    Düzyol, Çağrı; Aksoy, Rezan; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; Güngör, Barış; İdiz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operation is associated with increased risk of prolonged hospitalisation, health expenses and adverse clinical outcomes. Aim To investigate the relationship of atrial fibrillation after an isolated coronary artery bypass operation with levels of mean platelet volume and C-reactive protein. Material and methods Among 1240 patients who underwent operations for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 2007 and May 2014, 1138 (91.8%) patients with preoperative normal sinusal rhythm were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned to group 1 (n = 294) comprising patients who developed atrial fibrillation in the first 72 postoperative hours or group 2 (n = 844) comprising patients who remained in normal sinusal rhythm in the postoperative period. Results The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation was 25.8%. The preoperative mean platelet volume (fl) and C-reactive protein (mg/dl) values in group 1 were 9.1 ±0.5 and 1.1 ±0.9 respectively, while these values were 8.3 ±0.6 and 0.5 ±0.3 respectively in group 2, which was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Length of stay in the hospital (p = 0.0001) was higher in group 1. The values of mean platelet volume (fl) and mean C-reactive protein (mg/dl) were 9.9 ±0.9 and 30.9 ±3.4 respectively in group 1, while the values of mean platelet volume (fl) and mean C-reactive protein (mg/dl) were 8.8 ±0.6 and 24.9 ±4.8 respectively in group 2 (p = 0.0001 for mean platelet volume, p = 0.0001 for C-reactive protein). The difference between the groups was statistically significant in terms of postoperative neurologic events (p = 0.0001) and hospital mortality (p = 0.001). Increased C-reactive protein and mean platelet volume levels were found to be independent predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Conclusions In our study, elevated preoperative mean platelet volume and C

  10. Role of pre-procedural C-reactive protein level in the prediction of major adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysisof longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Bibek, Singh-Baniya; Xie, Yong; Gao, Jia-Jia; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jing-Feng; Geng, Deng-Feng

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have reported the relation between pre-procedural C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the results across the studies were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive effect of pre-procedural CRP levels and the risk of MACEs in patients undergoing PCI. Longitudinal studies on the association between pre-procedural CRP levels and MACEs were identified by electronic and manual searches. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing an inverse variance random-effects model irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Thirty-three studies involving 34,367 patients with 4119 MACEs were included in this study. High CRP level was associated with increased incidences of MACEs, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and clinical restenosis, with pooled RRs of 1.97 (95 % CI, 1.65, 2.35), 2.88 (95 % CI, 2.15, 3.86), 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.48, 2.21), 1.31 (95 % CI, 1.11, 1.56), and 1.45 (95 % CI, 1.07, 1.96), respectively. Dose-response analysis showed that every 1 mg/L increment in pre-procedural serum CRP level was associated with a significant 12 % increase in the risk of MACEs. In spite of heterogeneity across the included studies, this meta-analysis suggests that pre-procedural serum CRP level is a valuable predictor of MACEs in patients undergoing PCI.

  11. Prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ottervanger, J.P.; Thomas, K.; Sie, T.H.; Haalebos, M.M.P.; Zijlstra, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background Because of a high prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve disease, coronary angiography is recommended before aortic valve replacement. However, during the last three decades, a decline in mortality due to coronary heart disease has been observed in the general population in both Western Europe and the United States. It is unknown whether preoperative angiography is still mandatory in all patients. Aim To assess the prevalence of angiographically defined coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve replacement and trends during a ten-year period. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement between 1988 and 1998 in our institution. Patients with a history of coronary artery disease and patients younger than 25 years were excluded. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as one or more coronary artery luminal stenosis of 50% or more on preoperative coronary angiography. Results During the study period 1339 patients had aortic valve replacement in our institution, data on 1322 (98%) were available for analysis. Previous coronary artery disease was documented in 124 patients (10%). After exclusion of 17 patients (no angiography), data on a total of 1181 patients were analysed. Coronary atherosclerosis was present in 472 patients (40%) on preoperative coronary angiography. Several well-known risk factors of ischaemic heart disease were associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The prevalence of angiographically defined coronary atherosclerosis varied between 30% and 50% per year. There was, however, no significant trend during the study period. Multivariate analyses, to adjust for potential differences in risk factors during the observation period, did not change this conclusion. Conclusions The prevalence of angiographically defined coronary artery disease in patients scheduled for aortic valve replacement is still high. From 1988 to 1998, no significant change

  12. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; P<0.00001) and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45–0.83; P = 0.002). The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin

  13. A Review of the Use of Iloprost, A Synthetic Prostacyclin, in the Prevention of Radiocontrast Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Hayah M; Minsinger, Kristopher D; McCullough, Peter A; Block, Clay A; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2015-08-01

    Iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue, has been effective in preventing renal dysfunction among transplant patients. We hypothesized that iloprost is protective against renal dysfunction in different settings, in which similar underlying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity occur. We conducted a literature review, and discuss the application of iloprost in reducing acute renal insufficiency and the pathophysiological mechanisms of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). One proposed mechanism of CIN is prolonged renal arterial vasoconstriction, causing renal hypoperfusion, ischemia, and release of free radicals. Iloprost is an analogue of the vasodilatory prostaglandin PGI2 . It has demonstrated cytoprotective properties in the renal transplant population by inhibiting lysosomal degradation and release of free radicals, allowing membrane stabilization. Two good-quality studies reported on iloprost and CIN. Five studies reported protective effects of iloprost in renal transplantation and 1 in coronary artery bypass grafting. Iloprost was found to be renoprotective in patients with baseline renal insufficiency who underwent coronary angiography for CIN (risk ratio [RR] = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-0.67) and increases the weighted mean difference improvement in creatinine clearance (RR = 4.56, 95% CI: 1.82-7.30). CIN is associated with major adverse cardiac events. Preventing CIN is important for patient safety and reducing disease burden. Iloprost may reduce CIN by up to 68%. The same mechanisms of iloprost that inhibit graft dysfunction in the acute post-renal transplant and cardiopulmonary bypass setting may also contribute to preventing CIN. Large randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the clinical efficacy of iloprost in the angiography setting.

  14. Early Open-Lung Ventilation Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Left Cardiac Dysfunction Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bolzan, Douglas W.; Gomes, Walter José; Rocco, Isadora S.; Viceconte, Marcela; Nasrala, Mara L. S.; Pauletti, Hayanne O.; Moreira, Rita Simone L.; Hossne Jr, Nelson A.; Arena, Ross; Guizilini, Solange

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare pulmonary function, functional capacity and clinical outcomes amongst three groups of patients with left ventricular dysfunction following off-pump coronary artery bypass, namely: 1) conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); 2) late open lung strategy (L-OLS); and 3) early open lung strategy (E-OLS). Methods Sixty-one patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1) CMV (n=21); 2) L-OLS (n=20) initiated after intensive care unit arrival; and 3) E-OLS (n=20) initiated after intubation. Spirometry was performed at bedside on preoperative and postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and pulmonary shunt fraction were evaluated preoperatively and on POD1. The 6-minute walk test was applied on the day before the operation and on POD5. Results Both the open lung groups demonstrated higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second on PODs 1, 3 and 5 when compared to the CMV group (P<0.05). The 6-minute walk test distance was more preserved, shunt fraction was lower, and PaO2 was higher in both open-lung groups (P<0.05). Open-lung groups had shorter intubation time and hospital stay and also fewer respiratory events (P<0.05). Key measures were significantly more favorable in the E-OLS group compared to the L-OLS group. Conclusion Both OLSs (L-OLS and E-OLS) were able to promote higher preservation of pulmonary function, greater recovery of functional capacity and better clinical outcomes following off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation. However, in this group of patients with reduced left ventricular function, initiation of the OLS intra-operatively was found to be more beneficial and optimal when compared to OLS initiation after intensive care unit arrival. PMID:27982344

  15. The effects of preemptive pregabalin on attenuation of stress response to endotracheal intubation and opioid-sparing effect in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Ayya Syama; Kodali, Rajeshkumar; Sulaiman, Sajith; Ravullapalli, Harish; Karthekeyan, Ranjith; Vakamudi, Mahesh

    2012-01-01

    The clinical study was designed to evaluate and compare single preoperative dose of pregabalin to a placebo regarding hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation, to assess perioperative fentanyl requirement and any side-effects. It was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment, efficacy study. The study was done at a tertiary university hospital. This study was a comparison between two groups of 30 adult patients scheduled for elective off pump coronary artery bypass surgery. In the control group, the patients were given placebo capsules, and in the pregabalin group, the patients were given pregabalin 150 mg capsule orally 1 h before surgery. The patients were compared for hemodynamic changes before the start of the surgery, after induction, 1, 3, and 5 min after intubation. Additionally, fentanyl requirement during surgery and the first postoperative day was also compared. The present study shows that a single oral dose of 150 mg pregabalin given 1 h before surgery attenuated the pressor response to tracheal intubation in adults, but the drug did not show any effect on perioperative opioid consumption and was devoid of side-effects in the given dose.

  16. The effect of milrinone on the right ventricular function in patients with reduced right ventricular function undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Oh, Young Jun; Shim, Yon Hee; Hong, Yong Woo; Yi, Gijong; Kwak, Young Lan

    2006-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the effect of continuous milrinone infusion on right ventricular (RV) function during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery in patients with reduced RV function. Fifty patients scheduled for OPCAB, with thermodilution RV ejection fraction (RVEF) <35% after anesthesia induction, were randomly allocated to either milrinone (0.5 microg/kg/min) or control (saline) group. Hemodynamic variables and RV volumetric data measured by thermodilution method were collected as follows: after anesthesia induction (T1); 10 min after heart displacement for obtuse marginal artery anastomosis (T2); after pericardial closure (T3). Cardiac index and heart rate increased and systemic vascular resistance significantly decreased in milrinone group at T2. Initially lower RVEF of milrinone group was eventually comparable to control group after milrinone infusion. RVEF did not significantly change at T2 and T3 in both groups. RV end-diastolic volume in milrinone group consistently decreased from the baseline at T2 and T3. Continuous infusion of milrinone without a bolus demonstrated potentially beneficial effect on cardiac output and RV afterload in patients with reduced RV function during OPCAB. However, aggressive augmentation of intravascular volume seems to be necessary to maximize the effect of the milrinone in these patients.

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Versus Conservative Glucose Control in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: GLUCO-CABG Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Saumeth; Pasquel, Francisco; Jacobs, Sol; Peng, Limin; Unigwe, Michael; Newton, Christopher A.; Smiley-Byrd, Dawn; Vellanki, Priyathama; Halkos, Michael; Puskas, John D.; Guyton, Robert A.; Thourani, Vinod H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The optimal level of glycemic control needed to improve outcomes in cardiac surgery patients remains controversial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomized patients with diabetes (n = 152) and without diabetes (n = 150) with hyperglycemia to an intensive glucose target of 100–140 mg/dL (n = 151) or to a conservative target of 141–180 mg/dL (n = 151) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) surgery. After the intensive care unit (ICU), patients received a single treatment regimen in the hospital and 90 days postdischarge. Primary outcome was differences in a composite of complications, including mortality, wound infection, pneumonia, bacteremia, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, and major cardiovascular events. RESULTS Mean glucose in the ICU was 132 ± 14 mg/dL (interquartile range [IQR] 124–139) in the intensive and 154 ± 17 mg/dL (IQR 142–164) in the conservative group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the composite of complications between intensive and conservative groups (42 vs. 52%, P = 0.08). We observed heterogeneity in treatment effect according to diabetes status, with no differences in complications among patients with diabetes treated with intensive or conservative regimens (49 vs. 48%, P = 0.87), but a significant lower rate of complications in patients without diabetes treated with intensive compared with conservative treatment regimen (34 vs. 55%, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS Intensive insulin therapy to target glucose of 100 and 140 mg/dL in the ICU did not significantly reduce perioperative complications compared with target glucose of 141 and 180 mg/dL after CABG surgery. Subgroup analysis showed a lower number of complications in patients without diabetes, but not in patients with diabetes treated with the intensive regimen. Large prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26180108

  18. Cardioprotection Effects of Sevoflurane by Regulating the Pathway of Neuroactive Ligand-Receptor Interaction in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinquan; Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to identify attractor modules and further reveal the potential biological processes involving in sevoflurane-induced anesthesia in patients treated with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Microarray profile data (ID: E-GEOD-4386) on atrial samples obtained from patients receiving anesthetic gas sevoflurane prior to and following CABG procedure were downloaded from EMBL-EBI database for further analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of baseline and sevoflurane groups were inferred and reweighted according to Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC), followed by systematic modules inference using clique-merging approach. Subsequently, attract method was utilized to explore attractor modules. Finally, pathway enrichment analyses for genes in the attractor modules were implemented to illuminate the biological processes in sevoflurane group. Using clique-merging approach, 27 and 36 modules were obtained from the PPI networks of baseline and sevoflurane-treated samples, respectively. By comparing with the baseline condition, 5 module pairs with the same gene composition were identified. Subsequently, 1 out of 5 modules was identified as an attractor based on attract method. Additionally, pathway analysis indicated that genes in the attractor module were associated with neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. Accordingly, sevoflurane might exert important functions in cardioprotection in patients following CABG, partially through regulating the pathway of neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction. PMID:28348638

  19. Diffuse coronary artery ectasia in a patient with left main coronary artery trifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Desperak, Piotr; Bujak, Kamil; Głowacki, Jan; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The term coronary ectasia is reserved to describe a diffuse dilatation of coronary artery segments that have a diameter that exceeds the size of normal adjacent coronary segments by 1.5 times. The occurrence of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) ranges from 3% to 8% in the group of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. The CAE is associated with traditional risk factors and often co-exists with coronary atherosclerosis, which suggests that ectasia may represent an advanced form of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical implications and management of patients in whom the occurrence of CAE is observed, especially in patients without concomitant obstructive atherosclerosis. Here, we present a rare case of a 62-year-old patient with multiple CAEs and left main trifurcation. PMID:27785148

  20. Impact of Physician-Coordinated Intensive Follow-Up on Long-Term Medical Costs in Patients with Unstable Angina Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jing-Jing; Dong, Ping-Shuan; Du, Lai-Jing; Li, Zhi-Guo; Lai, Li-Hong; Yang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Shao-Xin; Yang, Xi-Shan; Li, Zhi-Juan; Shang, Xi-Yan; Fan, Xi-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate the impact of professional physician-coordinated intensive follow-up on long-term expenditures after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in unstable angina (UA) patients. Methods In this study, there were 669 UA patients who underwent successful PCI and followed up for 3 years, then divided into the intensive follow-up group (N = 337), and the usual follow-up group (N = 332). Patients were provided with detailed discharge information and individualized follow-up schedules. The intensive group received the extra follow-up times and medical consultations, and all patients were followed up for approximately 3 years. Results At the 3-year mark after PCI, the cumulative major adverse cardiac events (MACE), recurrence of myocardial ischemia, cardiac death, all-cause death and revascularization in the intensive group were lower than in the usual group. Additionally, the proportion of good medication adherence was significantly higher than in the usual group (56.4% vs. 46.1%, p < 0.001). The hospitalization daytime, total hospitalization cost and total medical cost in the intensive group were lower. Multiple linear regression showed that diabetes, hypertension, intensive follow-up and good medication adherence were associated with emergency and regular clinical cost (p < 0.05), the re-hospitalization cost (p < 0.05) and the total medical cost (p < 0.05) of patient care. Intensive follow-up and good adherence were negatively correlated with the cost of re-hospitalization (standardized coefficients = -0.132, -0.128, p < 0.05) and total medical costs (standardized coefficients = -0.072, -0.086, p < 0.05). Conclusions Intensive follow-up can reduce MACE, improve medication adherence and save long-term total medical costs, just by increasing the emergency and regular clinical visits cost in UA patients after PCI. PMID:28344421

  1. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  2. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M.; Walters, Ryan W.; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 ± 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  3. Performance, pain, and quality of life on use of central venous catheter for management of pericardial effusions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Kamran; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Forozeshfard, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Different pericardial catheters have been suggested as an effective alternative method for drainage of pericardial effusion. The aim of this study was to determine the performance, pain, and quality of life on use of central venous catheter (CVC) for drainage of pericardial effusion in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Fifty-five patients who had developed pericardial effusion after an open heart surgery (2012–2015) were prospectively assessed. Triple-lumen central catheters were inserted under echocardiographic guidance. Clinical, procedural, complication, and outcome details were analyzed. Intensity of pain and quality of life of patients were assessed using the numerical rating scale and Short-Form Health Survey. CVC was inserted for 36 males and 19 females, all of whom had a mean age of 58.5±15 years, and the mean duration of the open heart surgery was 8±3.5 hours. The mean central venous pressure catheter life span was 14.6 days. No cases of recurrent effusion and complication were reported. The technical success rate of procedure was 100%. Intensity of pain and quality of life of patients had improved during follow-up. CVC insertion is a safe and effective technique for the management of pericardial effusion in patients after open heart surgery. PMID:27826210

  4. Polygamy and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Men Undergoing Angiography: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Daoulah, Amin; Lotfi, Amir; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Al-Kaabi, Salem; Al-Faifi, Salem M; Elkhateeb, Osama E; Alama, Mohamed N; Hersi, Ahmad S; Dixon, Ciaran M; Ahmed, Waleed; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; Youssef, Ali; Elimam, Ahmed Moustafa; Abougalambou, Ayman S; Murad, Waheed; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between psychosocial risk factors such as marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polygamy (multiple concurrent wives) is a distinct marital status practiced in many countries in Asia and the Middle East, but its association with CAD is not well defined. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period from April 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 enrolled patients, 687 were married men. Polygamy was reported in 32% of married men (1 wife: 68%, 2 wives: 19%, 3 wives: 10%, and 4 wives: 3%). When stratified by number of wives, significant baseline differences were observed in age, type of community (rural versus urban), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and household income. After adjusting for baseline differences, there was a significant association between polygamy and CAD (adjusted OR 4.6 [95% CI 2.5, 8.3]), multivessel disease (MVD) (adjusted OR 2.6 [95% CI 1.8, 3.7]), and left main disease (LMD) (adjusted OR 3.5 [95% CI 2.1, 5.9]). Findings were consistent when the number of wives was analyzed as a continuous variable. In conclusion, among married men undergoing coronary angiography for clinical indications, polygamy is associated with the presence of significant CAD, MVD, and LMD.

  5. Polygamy and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Men Undergoing Angiography: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Amir; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Al-kaabi, Salem; Al-Faifi, Salem M.; Alama, Mohamed N.; Hersi, Ahmad S.; Dixon, Ciaran M.; Ahmed, Waleed; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; Youssef, Ali; Elimam, Ahmed Moustafa; Abougalambou, Ayman S.; Murad, Waheed; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between psychosocial risk factors such as marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polygamy (multiple concurrent wives) is a distinct marital status practiced in many countries in Asia and the Middle East, but its association with CAD is not well defined. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period from April 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 enrolled patients, 687 were married men. Polygamy was reported in 32% of married men (1 wife: 68%, 2 wives: 19%, 3 wives: 10%, and 4 wives: 3%). When stratified by number of wives, significant baseline differences were observed in age, type of community (rural versus urban), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and household income. After adjusting for baseline differences, there was a significant association between polygamy and CAD (adjusted OR 4.6 [95% CI 2.5, 8.3]), multivessel disease (MVD) (adjusted OR 2.6 [95% CI 1.8, 3.7]), and left main disease (LMD) (adjusted OR 3.5 [95% CI 2.1, 5.9]). Findings were consistent when the number of wives was analyzed as a continuous variable. In conclusion, among married men undergoing coronary angiography for clinical indications, polygamy is associated with the presence of significant CAD, MVD, and LMD. PMID:28250991

  6. St. John's Wort in patients non-responders to clopidogrel undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a single-center randomized open-label trial (St. John's Trial).

    PubMed

    Trana, Catalina; Toth, Gabor; Wijns, William; Barbato, Emanuele

    2013-06-01

    We assessed if St. John's Wort (SJW) improves platelet response in patients (pts) resistant to clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Stable angina pts non-responders to 600 mg clopidogrel (P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) >240) were randomized (2:1) to SJW (n = 15) or placebo (n = 8). SJW (300 mg × 3/day) was administrated for 2 weeks after PCI. Platelet reactivity was assessed by VerifyNowTM before (BL), 2 (T1), and 4 weeks (T2) after PCI. PRU significantly changed during protocol in SJW (BL (316 ± 60) vs. T1 (170 ± 87) vs. T2 (220 ± 96), p < 0.0001) and placebo group (BL (288 ± 36) vs. T1 (236 ± 31) vs. T2 (236 ± 62), p = 0.046). Yet, PRU changes from BL were higher at T1 in SJW than in placebo group (Δ%, -47 ± 24 vs. -16 ± 15, p = 0.0033), with no differences at T2 between the groups (Δ%, -30 ± 29 vs. -17 ± 24, p = 0.30). Residual platelet reactivity improved with SJW during the first month post-PCI.

  7. Coronary surgery in an old patient with hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Babapoursaatlou, Behzad

    2015-02-01

    Patients with hemophilia because of limited lifespan rarely undergo cardiac surgery. Due to improved healthcare and management in these patients, the life expectancy is increasing. Nevertheless, surgical intervention is a new challenge in patients with hemophilia, particularly very old patients. We describe an old patient with hemophilia A, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.

  8. Impact of white blood cell count on myocardial salvage, infarct size, and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seungmin; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Chang, Sung-A; Lee, Sang-Chol; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Jae K; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between white blood cell count (WBCc) and infarct size assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In 198 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, WBCc was measured upon arrival and CMR was performed a median of 7 days after the index event. Infarct size was measured on delayed enhancement imaging and the area at risk (AAR) was quantified on T2-weighted images. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the high WBCc group (>11,000/mm(3), n = 91) and low WBCc group (≤11,000/mm(3), n = 107). The median infarct size was larger in the high WBCc group than in the low WBCc group [22.0% (16.7-33.9) vs. 14.7% (8.5-24.7), p < 0.01]. Compared with the low WBCc group, the high WBCc group had a greater extent of AAR and a smaller myocardial salvage index [MSI = (AAR-infarct size)/AAR × 100]. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death, nonfatal reinfarction, and rehospitalization for congestive heart failure at 12-month occurred more frequently in the high WBCc group (12.1 vs. 0.9%, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, high WBCc significantly increased the risk of a large infarct (OR 3.04 95% CI 1.65-5.61, p < 0.01), a low MSI (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.13-3.86, p = 0.02), and 1-year MACE (OR 16.0, 95% CI 1.89-134.5, p = 0.01). In patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI, an elevated baseline WBCc is associated with less salvaged myocardium, larger infarct size and poorer clinical outcomes.

  9. Long-term prognostic value of admission haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ozgur; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Erturk, Mehmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Uzun, Fatih; Akkaya, Emre; Yildirim, Aydın

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have reported the diagnostic and prognostic value of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, the short- and long-term prognostic value of HbA1c level in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is controversial. Aim To investigate whether admission HbA1c level has a prognostic value for in-hospital, short-, and long-term cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Material and methods This prospective study included 443 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI between September 2010 and July 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on admission HbA1c levels: group I (HbA1c ≤ 5.6%), group II (HbA1c 5.7–6.4%), and group III (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%). The in-hospital, 1-month, and 1-year CV events of all 3 patient groups were followed up. Results A significant association was found between HbA1c level and 1-year primary clinical outcomes, including CV mortality, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke (p = 0.037). In addition, age, Killip class > 1, and left ventricular ejection fraction were found to be independent predictors of long-term CV mortality in multivariate analysis (hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) 1.081 (1.020–1.146), 4.182 (1.171–14.935), and 0.832 (0.752–0.920); p = 0.009, p = 0.028, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that increased admission HbA1c levels were associated with higher rates of major adverse CV events, including mortality, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke, in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. PMID:25489302

  10. Impact of high lipoprotein(a) levels on in-stent restenosis and long-term clinical outcomes of angina pectoris patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents in Asian population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung-Geol; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Ung; Seo, Hong-Seog; Kim, Eung-Ju; Na, Jin-Oh; Choi, Cheol-Ung; Kim, Jin-Won; Lim, Hong-Euy; Park, Chang-Gyu; Oh, Dong-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known to be associated with cardiovascular complications and atherothrombotic properties in general populations. However, it has not been examined whether Lp(a) levels are able to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). A total of 595 consecutive patients with angina pectoris who underwent elective PCI with DES were enrolled from 2004 to 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the levels of Lp(a): Lp(a) < 50 mg/dL (n = 485 patients), and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL (n = 111 patients). The 6-9-month angiographic outcomes and 3-year cumulative major clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Binary restenosis occurred in 26 of 133 lesions (19.8%) in the high Lp(a) group and 43 of 550 lesions (7.9%) in the low Lp(a) group (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the reference vessel diameter, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lesion length, and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL were predictors of binary restenosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Lp(a) > 50 mg/dL was significantly associated with the 3-year adverse clinical outcomes including any myocardial infarction, revascularization (target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR)), TLR-major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), TVR-MACE, and All-MACEs. In our study, high Lp(a) level ≥ 50 mg/dL in angina pectoris patients undergoing elective PCI with DES was significantly associated with binary restenosis and 3-year adverse clinical outcomes in an Asian population.

  11. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 μg/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1μg/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  12. Distal coronary perforation in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery: The importance of early treatment.

    PubMed

    Karatasakis, Aris; Akhtar, Yasir N; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-09-01

    In patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, distal coronary perforations are commonly considered to be at low risk for causing cardiac tamponade due to a potential protective role of pericardial adhesions, which obliterate the pericardial space. Loculated effusions can however form in such patients, compressing various cardiac structures and causing hemodynamic compromise. We present two cases of distal coronary perforation in prior CABG patients undergoing chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention. In the first case a distal coronary perforation was initially observed, resulting in a loculated pericardial effusion that caused ST-segment elevation and death, despite successful sealing of the perforation. In the second case a similar perforation was immediately sealed with a covered stent, followed by uneventful patient recovery. A literature review of coronary perforation leading to hemodynamic compromise in patients with prior CABG surgery revealed high mortality (22%), suggesting that prompt sealing of the perforation is critical in these patients.

  13. Radiation dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery during interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy used as a boost in breast cancer patients undergoing organ-sparing treatment

    PubMed Central

    Serkies, Krystyna; Dziadziuszko, Rafał; Narkowicz, Magdalena; Kamińska, Joanna; Lipniewicz, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess dose received by the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery during interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDR-BT) boost for left-sided breast cancer patients undergoing organ-sparing treatment. Material and methods Thirty consecutive pT1-3N0-1M0 breast cancer patients boosted between 2014 and 2015 with 10 Gy/10 pulses/hour PDR-BT following a computed tomography (CT) simulation with the multi-catheter implant were included. The most common localization of primary tumor were upper quadrants. Patients were implanted with rigid tubes following breast conserving surgery and whole breast external beam irradiation (40 Gy/15 or 50 Gy/25 fractions). Computed tomography scans were retrospectively reviewed and LADs were contoured without and with margin of 5 mm (LAD5mm). Standard treatment plan encompassed tumor bed determined by the surgical clips with margin of 2 cm. Dosimetric parameters were extracted from the dose-volume histograms. Results The mean D90 and V100 were 10.3 Gy (range: 6.6-13.3), and 42.0 cc (range: 15.3-109.3), respectively. The median dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR) was 0.50 (range: 0.27-0.82). The mean doses to LAD and LAD5mm were 1.0 Gy and 0.96 Gy, and maximal doses were 1.57 Gy and 1.99 Gy, respectively. Dose to the 0.1 cc of the LAD and LAD5mm were 1.42 Gy and 1.85 Gy (range: 0.01-4.98 Gy and 0.1-6.89 Gy), respectively. Conclusions Interstitial multi-catheter PDR-BT used as a boost for left-sided breast cancer is generally associated with low dose to the LAD. However, higher dose in individual cases may require alternative approaches. PMID:28344598

  14. Perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867

  15. Cangrelor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: the BRIDGE study.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Michele D; Manoukian, Steven V

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes, drug-eluting stents and those at high risk for thromboembolic events has been well established in a number of well-designed randomized controlled studies. Current research in this area has focused on the development of novel antiplatelet agents for clinical use. The BRIDGE trial evaluated the use of cangrelor as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients receiving extended DAPT. The BRIDGE trial results confirm the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in this population. This study is novel as it attempts to address the lapse in thienopyridine therapy required for many surgical and invasive procedures. The future of antiplatelet agents, particularly cangrelor, must also focus on bridging for high-risk patients undergoing noncoronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures. Overall, the BRIDGE trial represents a significant advance for patients appropriate for long-term DAPT.

  16. Effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide on the prognosis of patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective, multi-center, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ai-Jie; Zang, Hong-Yun; Huang, Ru-Gang; Zheng, Xiao-Qun; Lin, Hai-Long; Wang, Wei; Hou, Ping; Xia, Fei; Li, Zhan-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on serum enzyme data, cardiac function parameters and cardiovascular events in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI). Methods A total of 421 patients with acute anterior or extensive anterior MI were collected from 20 hospitals. These patients were randomly divided into two groups: rhBNP and control groups. Both groups of patients received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the effective time window. In the rhBNP group, rhBNP administration (0.01 µg/kg/min, 48–72 successive hours) was performed as early as possible after hospital admission. Prior to and one or seven days after PCI, serum concentrations of cardiac troponin (cTnT), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured. At seven days and 6 months after PCI, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) and stroke volume (SV) were measured using 2D Doppler echocardiography. MACEs that occurred during hospitalization and within 6 months after PCI were recorded. Results At postoperative days one and seven, serum concentrations of cTnT were significantly lower in the rhBNP group than in the control group. At postoperative day one, serum concentrations of CK-MB were significantly lower in the rhBNP group than in the control group. At postoperative day seven, serum concentrations of NT-proBNP were significantly lower in the rhBNP group than in the control group, and LVEF was significantly greater in the rhBNP group than in the control group. At postoperative 6 months, LVEDd was significantly lower in the rhBNP group compared with the control group. In addition, SV and LVEF were significantly greater in the rhBNP group than in the control group. By postoperative month 6, the incidence of composite cardiovascular events (16.0% vs. 26.0%, P=0.012), cardiac death (7.0% vs.13

  17. A comparison of arterial closure devices to manual compression in liver transplantation candidates undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Lee A; Beohar, Nirat; Wang, Norman C; Nee, Lisa; Chandwaney, Raj; Ricciardi, Mark J; Benzuly, Keith H; Meyers, Sheridan N; Gheorghiada, Mihai; Davidson, Charles J

    2003-02-01

    Whether arterial closure devices can be used safely in a coagulopathic population undergoing cardiac catheterization and at high risk for groin complications, such as liver transplant candidates, is unknown. In this prospective, non-randomized consecutive series of 80 liver transplant candidates undergoing coronary angiography, manual compression and arterial closure devices were compared. Ilio-femoral angiography was performed to determine suitability for use of the closure device. Bleeding and vascular complications were recorded along with time to ambulation. Arterial closure devices were used in 31 patients (39%), whereas manual compression was used in 49 patients (50 procedures) (61%). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, sex, cardiac risk factors, peripheral vascular disease, baseline platelet count or baseline INR. There were 10 total vascular complications out of 50 procedures (20%) in the manual compression group compared to 2 vascular complications out of 31 procedures in the arterial closure device group (6%; p = 0.12). The time to ambulation was significantly less in the group receiving arterial closure devices versus manual compression (4.2 1.8 hours versus 6.6 3.7 hours, respectively; p = 0.0003). In coagulopathic patients at higher risk for groin complications, arterial closure devices can be safely used and decrease time to ambulation compared to manual compression.

  18. Preoperative IABP in high risk patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Theologou, T; Field, M L

    2011-01-01

    A recent international consensus conference on the reduction in mortality in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care included intraoperative aortic balloon pump among the ancillary (i.e. non-surgical) drugs/techniques/strategies that might influence survival rates in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The consensus conferences state that "Pre-operative intraoperative aortic balloon pump might reduce 30-day mortality in elective high risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery unless specifically contraindicated". The authors of this "expert opinion" presents their insights into the use of the preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump and conclude that based on available limited randomized controlled trials and clinical experience preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump saves lives in unstable patients.

  19. Comparison of Symptoms, Treatment and Outcomes of Coronary Artery Disease among Rheumatoid Arthritis and Matched Subjects Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonali P.; Januzzi, James L.; Pande, Ashvin N.; Pomerantsev, Eugene V.; Resnic, Frederic S.; Fossel, Anne; Chibnik, Lori B.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the presenting symptoms of CAD, coronary anatomy (single vs. multivessel CAD), and treatment among a group of subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with angioplasty and/or stenting. Methods We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 43 RA subjects and 43 matched non-RA subjects undergoing PCI at 2 academic referral centers. RA subjects were matched to non-RA subjects on age, gender, history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), date of PCI and Interventional Cardiologist. We compared cardiac risk factors, presentation, treatment and outcomes. Results The mean age of the study cohort was 71 ± 10 years, and the distribution of traditional cardiac risk factors was similar in the subjects with RA compared to the matched non-RA subjects (all P values > 0.05). Seventy-four percent of subjects with RA compared to 67% of those without RA presented with an acute coronary syndrome prior to PCI (P = 0.48). All subjects in this cohort undergoing PCI had at least one stenosis in a major epicardial vessel and similar percentages of subjects with RA (44%) and without RA (40%) had multivessel CAD (P = 0.66). The administration of cardiac medications both at PCI and at hospital discharge was not different among subjects with RA compared to matched non-RA subjects. Conclusions Among this cohort with significant CAD undergoing PCI, clinical characteristics, presentation, severity of CAD, treatment modalities and outcomes were similar in subjects with RA and well-matched non-RA subjects. PMID:20541791

  20. Resistance to Clopidogrel among Iranian Patients Undergoing Angioplasty Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Kobarfard, Farzad; Safi, Olia; Sheibani, Kourosh; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the resistance to standard dosage of clopidogrel among Iranian patients following percutaneous coronary intervention measured by platelet aggregation test. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Imam Hussein Medical center, Tehran, Iran, who were under treatment with aspirin, but had no history of clopidogrel usage, entered the study. Patients received standard dosage of clopidogrel (Plavix®, Sanofi, France, 600 mg loading dose and 75 mg/day afterward). Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmission aggregometer. The response to the drug was categorized as complete resistance (platelet aggregation decreased less than 10%), intermediate resistance (platelet aggregation decreased between 10 to 30%) and complete response (platelet aggregation decreased to 30% or more). All patients were evaluated for major adverse cardio vascular events one month after the angioplasty based on MACE criteria by phone contact. Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 59 ± 13 entered the study. Sixty-five percent of patients showed complete response to clopidogrel (95% CI: 45% to 81%), 22% showed intermediate resistance (95% CI: 10-41%) and 13% showed complete resistance (95% CI: 4-30%). One month after the angioplasty, no major adverse cardiovascular event was recorded. Based on our findings, it seems that there is no major difference between Iranian population and other studies regarding the resistance to clopidogrel. Due to the limited number of participants in our study, further investigations with higher number of patients are recommended to more precisely calculate the percentage of resistance among Iranian patients. PMID:24250685

  1. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Multivessel Versus Culprit-Only Revascularization for Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Disease Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    El-Hayek, Georges E; Gershlick, Anthony H; Hong, Mun K; Casso Dominguez, Abel; Banning, Amerjeet; Afshar, Arash Ehteshami; Herzog, Eyal; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Current guidelines recommend against revascularization of the noninfarct artery during the index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This was based largely on observational studies with few data coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Recently, several small-to-moderate sized RCTs have provided data, suggesting that a multivessel revascularization approach may be appropriate. We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs comparing multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV PCI) versus culprit vessel-only revascularization (COR) during primary PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary disease (MVCD). We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases for RCTs comparing MV PCI versus COR in patients with STEMI and MVCD. The incidence of all-cause death, cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization during follow-up were extracted. Four RCTs fit our primary selection criteria. Among these, 566 patients underwent MV PCI (either at the time of the primary PCI or as a staged procedure) and 478 patients underwent COR. During long-term follow-up (range 1 to 2.5 years), combined data indicated a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36 to 0.92, p = 0.02) and in cardiac death (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.73, p = 0.004) with MV PCI. In addition, there was a significantly lower risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.75; p = 0.004) and future revascularization (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.52; p <0.00001). In conclusion, from the RCT data, MV PCI appears to improve outcomes in patients with STEMI and MVCD.

  2. Prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality in all comers with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kiatchoosakun, Songsak; Wongwipaporn, Chaiyasith; Pussadhamma, Burabha

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality in all comers and unselected patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been well established. Objective To identify the predictive factors of in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI in a tertiary heart centre. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2011, all patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were retrospectively included in this study. Baseline characteristics and angiographic data were reviewed and recorded. The study endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Results Of the 541 patients included in the study, 63 (11.6%) died during hospitalisation. Cardiogenic shock at admission was recorded in 301 patients (55.6%) and 424 patients (78%) had multivessel disease. Median door-to-device time was 65 min. After adjustment for baseline variables, the factors associated with in-hospital mortality included age >60 years (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.17 to 7.05; p=0.01), left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.20 to 5.36; p=0.02), and final TIMI flow grade 0/1 (OR 20.55, 95% CI 3.49 to 120.94; p=0.001). Conclusions Age, left ventricular function and final TIMI flow are significant predictors of adverse outcomes in unselected patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. PMID:27347008

  3. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  4. Impact of cytochrome P450 3A4-metabolized statins on the antiplatelet effect of a 600-mg loading dose clopidogrel and on clinical outcome in patients undergoing elective coronary stent placement.

    PubMed

    Trenk, Dietmar; Hochholzer, Willibald; Frundi, Devine; Stratz, Christian; Valina, Christian M; Bestehorn, Hans-Peter; Büttner, Heinz Joachim; Neumann, Franz-Josef

    2008-01-01

    Early studies suggested interactions between statins and clopidogrel. Based on the outcome and platelet data, there is now huge evidence of no interactions between statins and 75 to 300 mg clopidogrel; however, data with 600-mg loading are lacking. In a pre-specified analysis of the EXCELSIOR cohort, we investigated the interaction between statins, especially cytochrome P4503A4-metabolized atorvastatin and simvastatin, and the antiplatelet effects of a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel. We analyzed 1,395 patients scheduled for coronary angiography (CA). Patients received clopidogrel 600 mg at least two hours before CA and 75 mg daily thereafter in case of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Statin medication on admission was continued unaltered until discharge. Platelet function was assessed by optical aggregometry and flow cytometry of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated surface expression of CD62P, CD63 and PAC-1 before clopidogrel and immediately before CA. Residual platelet aggregation (RPA) after addition of ADP 5 muM was similar irrespective of statin treatment at baseline (p = 0.968). RPA at CA was 46.2 +/- 16.8% in patients without statin (n = 682), 45.5 +/- 17.0% in patients with atorvastatin (n = 255), 45.8 +/- 16.3% with simvastatin (n = 335), 47.3 +/- 14.9% with fluvastatin (n = 42) and 45.9 +/- 16.2% with pravastatin (n = 81; p = 0.962). Consistent results were obtained by flow cytometry. In patients with PCI (n = 553), the one-year incidence of death, myocardial infarction and target lesion reintervention did not differ between cohorts stratified according to statin co-medication (p = 0.645). Thus, peri-interventional atorvastatin and simvastatin had no effect on the antiplatelet activity of a loading dose of clopidogrel 600 mg and did not affect clinical outcome after PCI.

  5. Hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahdi; Faraoni, David

    2015-07-26

    Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions, anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. For these reasons, the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia, prevent excessive blood loss, and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions, several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications, dosage, and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects, some high-risk patients (e.g., symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade, a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  6. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.

  7. Q10 supplementation effects on cardiac enzyme CK-MB and troponin in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moludi, Jalal; Keshavarz, Seyedali; Tabaee, Ali Sadeghpour; Safiri, Saeid; Pakzad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury and tissue damage. CoQ10 as an antioxidant has an important role and may have cardio-protective effects after myocardial dysfunction and CABG. We aimed to evaluate whether CoQ10 has a myocardial cardio protective impact on cardiac biomarkers after CABG. Methods: In this double-blind study, 80 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent CABG surgery were divided into intervention and control groups and received Q10 supplement or placebo, respectively. The surgical characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. The intervention group received 150 mg of Q10 supplement per day for 7 days before the surgery. The control group received placebo capsule. After operation the inter- and intra-group blood levels of CK-MB and troponin, before and after supplementation and 12 hours after the CABG, and postoperative outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay were compared. Results: In this study, 40 subjects were located in each group. The participation rate was 97.5% and men and women accounted for 52.5% and 47.5% respectively. The mean age of the subjects was 58.17 ± 8.55. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of basic variables. Within-group comparison showed a significant increase in the level of troponin enzymes over time (P < 0.001) and CK-MB (P < 0.001). However, between-group comparison showed no significant difference between the two groups in terms of CK-MB (P = 0.384) and troponin (P = 0.115). In the end, no interaction was observed between the intervention and time on CK-MB (P = 0.095) and troponin (P = 0.198) variables. Conclusion: Q10 supplementation 7 days before surgery was not effective in reducing CK-MB and troponin after CABG. PMID:27069560

  8. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  9. Nutrition assessment in patients undergoing liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Neha; Singh, Kalyani

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery performed on patients with end stage liver disease. Nutrition is an integral part of patient care, and protein-energy malnutrition is almost universally present in patients suffering from liver disease undergoing LT. Nutrition assessment of preliver transplant phase helps to make a good nutrition care plan for the patients. Nutrition status has been associated with various factors which are related to the success of liver transplant such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. To assess the nutritional status of preliver transplant patients, combinations of nutrition assessment methods should be used like subjective global assessment, Anthropometry mid arm-muscle circumference, Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and handgrip strength. PMID:25316978

  10. Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Page Coronary Artery Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus David H. Fitchett , Milan Gupta , Michael E. ... with exertion), heart attack, and possibly sudden death. Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease Patients with diabetes mellitus ...

  11. Effect of etomidate and propofol induction on hemodynamic and endocrine response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting/mitral valve and aortic valve replacement surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Ram Prasad; Vatal, Ajay; Pathak, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The concerns for induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery include hemodynamic stability, attenuation of stress response and maintenance of balance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. Various Intravenous anaesthetic agents like Thiopentone, Etomidate, Propofol, Midazolam, and Ketamine have been used for anesthetizing patients for cardiac surgeries. However, many authors have expressed concerns regarding induction with thiopentone, midazolam and ketamine. Hence, Propofol and Etomidate are preferred for induction in these patients. However, these two drugs have different characteristics. Etomidate is preferred for patients with poor left ventricular (LV) function as it provides stable cardiovascular profile. But there are concerns about reduction in adrenal suppression and serum cortisol levels. Propofol, on the other hand may cause a reduction in systemic vascular resistance and subsequent hypotension. Thus, this study was conducted to compare induction with these two agents in cardiac surgeries. Methods: Baseline categorical and continuous variables were compared using Fisher's exact test and student's t test respectively. Hemodynamic variables were compared using student's t test for independent samples. The primary outcome (serum cortisol and blood sugar) of the study was compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. The P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Etomidate provides more stable hemodynamic parameters as compared to Propofol. Propofol causes vasodilation and may result in drop of systematic BP. Etomidate can therefore be safely used for induction in patients with good LV function for CABG/MVR/AVR on CPB without serious cortisol suppression lasting more than twenty-four hours. PMID:25849685

  12. Comparison of anti-thrombotic strategies using Bivalirudin, Heparin plus Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and Unfractionated Heparin Monotherapy for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention – A single centre observational study☆

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Upendra; Dua, Ajay; Sethi, Arvind K.; Arambam, Priyadarshini; Seth, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Aims The study was planned to compare Anti-thrombotic strategies for patients undergoing PCI in a real world population with an emphasis on occurrence of major bleeding, composite ischemic end points and economic outcomes. Methods The present study is a single center, prospective, observational study in consecutive patients undergoing PCI at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute (FEHI) and describes Authors' experience with three different Anti-Thrombotic Strategies in a real world population. Patients were consecutively enrolled in the study and the choice of Anti-thrombotic strategy was left to individual operator(s) based on their own clinical judgment and patient's affordability. No specific inclusion/exclusion criteria were specified on the choice of Anti-Thrombotic Strategy. Results A total 1453 patients were consecutively enrolled into the study and were followed telephonically after 30 days. 252 patients were treated with Bivalirudin (Angiomax) during PCI (17.3%), 430 (29.6%) patients were treated with Heparin plus GPI & remaining 771 (53.1%) were treated with Heparin monotherapy. Incidence of major bleeding was lowest in patients treated with Bivalirudin (1.59%) when compared to Heparin plus GPI (3.49%) and Heparin monotherapy (5.97%), p = 0.005 Bivalirudin vs. Heparin Monotherapy, and p = 0.145, Bivalirudin vs. Heparin + GPI. No bleeding was observed in STEMI patients treated with Bivalirudin compared to 7.4% in patients treated with GPI and 14.3% in patients treated with UFH. Similarly non-access site bleeding was lowest in patients treated with Bivalirudin. Only 4 patients (1.6%) treated with Bivalirudin required Blood transfusion compared to 25 in Heparin plus GPI (5.8%) and 38 (5%) in Heparin Monotherapy arm. In Composite Ischemic end-points, no “All-cause Mortality” was observed in Bivalirudin group compared to 2.8% in Heparin plus GPI. Early stent thrombosis was seen in 1 patient with Heparin plus GPI and none with Heparin monotherapy and

  13. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  14. Current Practice and Recommendation for Presurgical Cardiac Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing major noncardiac surgery justifies guidelines concerning preoperative cardiac evaluation. This is compounded by increasing chances for a volatile perioperative period if the underlying cardiac problems are left uncorrected prior to major noncardiac surgeries. Preoperative cardiac evaluation requires the clinician to assess the patient's probability to have CAD, severity and stability of CAD, placing these in perspective regarding the likelihood of a perioperative cardiac complication based on the planned surgical procedure. Coronary events like new onset ischemia, infarction, or revascularization, induce a high-risk period of 6 weeks, and an intermediate-risk period of 3 months before performing noncardiac surgery. This delay is unwarranted in cases where surgery is the mainstay of treatment. The objective of this review is to offer a comprehensive algorithm in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and highlight the importance of myocardial perfusion imaging in risk stratifying these patients. PMID:25191106

  15. Prediction of cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.

  16. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    VIDAL, Eduardo Arevalo; RENDON, Francisco Abarca; ZAMBRANO, Trino Andrade; GARCÍA, Yudoco Andrade; VITERI, Mario Ferrin; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. Aim: To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Methods: Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Results: Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Conclusion: Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. PMID:27683770

  17. Prognostic Impact of Combined Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Hypoxic Liver Injury in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from INTERSTELLAR Registry

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Ju; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jang, Ho-Jun; Suh, Jon; Park, Hyun Woo; Oh, Pyung Chun; Shin, Sung-Hee; Woo, Seong-Il; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Kwan, Jun; Kang, WoongChol

    2016-01-01

    Background Besides contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI), adscititious vital organ damage such as hypoxic liver injury(HLI) may affect the survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of CI-AKI and HLI in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 668 consecutive patients (77.2% male, mean age 61.3±13.3 years) from the INTERSTELLAR STEMI registry who underwent primary PCI were analyzed. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine level or 25% relative increase, within 48h after the index procedure. HLI was defined as ≥2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase above the upper normal limit on admission. Patients were divided into four groups according to their CI-AKI and HLI states. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization and target vessel revascularization were recorded. Results Over a mean follow-up period of 2.2±1.6 years, 94 MACCEs occurred with an event rate of 14.1%. The rates of MACCE and all-cause mortality were 9.7% and 5.2%, respectively, in the no organ damage group; 21.3% and 21.3% in CI-AKI group; 18.5% and 14.6% in HLI group; and 57.7% and 50.0% in combined CI-AKI and HLI group. Survival probability plots of composite MACCE and all-cause mortality revealed that the combined CI-AKI and HLI group was associated with the worst prognosis (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusion Combined CI-AKI after index procedure and HLI on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. (INTERSTELLAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800421.) PMID:27415006

  18. Bivalirudin in Patients Undergoing PCI: State of Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Galasso, G; Mirra, M; De Luca, G; Piscione, F

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the management of choice in patients with ACS and occurrence of intra-procedural thrombotic complications are an independent predictor of mortality and other major adverse cardiovascular events in patients undergoing PCI. According to current guideline, anticoagulation therapy is indicated during PCI in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications such as stent thrombosis. Among currently available anticoagulant drugs, bivalirudin demonstrates a lower incidence of bleeding risk, despite it is associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pharmacology of bivalirudin and the clinical evidences of its use in patients undergoing PCI for ACS. PMID:27326396

  19. Assessment, treatment, and prognostic implications of CAD in patients undergoing TAVI.

    PubMed

    Danson, Edward; Hansen, Peter; Sen, Sayan; Davies, Justin; Meredith, Ian; Bhindi, Ravinay

    2016-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), but its clinical relevance is controversial. At present, the optimal means of defining CAD in patients undergoing TAVI with respect to its prognostic implications and the assessment of myocardial ischaemia is not known. For this reason, the best treatment options are a matter for debate, and current guidelines do not recommend revascularization. As the indications for TAVI expand, the lack of any rigorous means of guiding coronary revascularization might negatively affect the clinical outcomes of future patients. In this Review, we summarize the methods of assessing CAD in TAVI populations, and the data on the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients undergoing TAVI. We discuss the putative effects of aortic stenosis on the functional assessment of CAD using pressure or flow wires or by noninvasive stress testing. We propose that a new, well-validated method of assessing CAD as a cause of myocardial ischaemia--which distinguishes it from myocardial infarction, previous revascularization, or non-flow-limiting disease--in patients with severe aortic stenosis is needed to guide revascularization in the current era of TAVI.

  20. A Randomized Comparison between Everolimus-Eluting Stent and Cobalt Chromium Stent in Patients with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Routine Intravenous Eptifibatide: The X-MAN (Xience vs. Multi-Link Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Trial, A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Wardeh, Alexander J; Soerianata, Sunarya; Firdaus, Isman; Jukema, J Wouter

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of an everolimus-eluting stent (EES/Xience; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) compared with a cobalt chromium stent (CoCr/Multi-Link Vision; Abbott Vascular) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with routine administration of eptifibatide infusion. This is a prospective, single center, randomized trial comparing EES (n = 75) and CoCr stent (n = 75) implantation in patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Intravenous eptifibatide administration was mandatory by protocol in this pilot study. The primary efficacy endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days, defined as the composite of death, reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization. Secondary safety endpoints were stent thrombosis at 30 days and in-hospital bleeding event. Acute reperfusion parameters were also assessed. One-month MACE rate did not differ between EES and CoCr group (1.3 vs. 1.3%, p = 1.0). No stent thrombosis cases were observed in the EES group. The groups did not differ with respect to in-hospital bleeding events (5 vs. 9%, p = 0.37), achievement of final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow 2 or 3 (p = 0.21), achievement of myocardial blush grade 2 or 3 (p = 0.45), creatine kinase-MB level at 8 to 12 hours after stenting (p = 0.29), and left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.21). This pilot study demonstrates that after one-month follow-up, the use of EES is as safe and effective as the use of CoCr stents in patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI with routine administration of intravenous eptifibatide.

  1. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  2. Use of Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Craniotomies

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Nalini; Wagaskar, Vinayak; Kondwilkar, Bharati; Patil, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The neuroanaesthesia ensures stable perioperative cerebral haemodynamics, avoids sudden rise in intracranial pressure and prevents acute brain swelling. The clinical characteristics of dexmeditomidine make this intravenous agent a potentially attractive adjunct for neuroanaesthesia and in the neurological intensive care unit. Aim This study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative haemodynamic stability and to assess the intraoperative requirements of analgesic and other anaesthetic agents, and also to assess postoperative sedation, respiratory depression and any other side effects of dexmedetomidine as compared to placebo. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was done in 60 patients of either sex, age between 18 to 60 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) Grade I and II undergoing elective craniotomies under General Anaesthesia (GA) for intracranial Space Occupying Lesion (SOL). These 60 patients underwent thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. They were randomly divided into two groups, Group D (received Inj. Dexmedetomidine) and Group P (received Inj. Placebo). During bolus and infusion Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO2) was recorded at every five minutes interval for first 20 minute. Results The mean age in Group D was 39.5 years and in Group P was 40 years. The sex distribution in two groups was in Group D, 12 patients (40%) were females and 18 (60%) patients were males. While in Group P 10 (33.3%) were females and 20 (66.7%) patients were males. The two groups were comparable with respect to diagnosis and type of surgery of patients and difference was not statistically significant. The mean HR, the mean DBP and the mean MAP was lower in Group D as compared to Group P and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine

  3. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Seecheran, Valmiki K.; Giddings, Stanley L.

    2017-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has considerably increased the life expectancy of patients infected with HIV. Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of mortality in patients infected with HIV. This is primarily attributed to their increased survival, HAART-induced metabolic derangements, and to HIV itself. The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in HIV is both multifactorial and complex – involving direct endothelial injury and dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and a significant contribution from traditional cardiac risk factors. The advent of HAART has since heralded a remarkable improvement in outcomes, but at the expense of other unforeseen issues. It is thus of paramount importance to swiftly recognize and manage acute coronary syndromes in HIV-infected patients to attenuate adverse complications, which should translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27845996

  4. Successful management of grade III coronary perforation after percutaneous angioplasty in a high-risk patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Coloma Araniya, Ricardo; Beas, Renato; Maticorena-Quevedo, Jesús; Anduaga-Beramendi, Alexander; Pastrana Castillo, Marco Antonio

    2016-03-03

    Coronary perforation is a rare complication in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The mortality of this complication varies depending on factors related to the patient and the procedure performed, reaching 44% in patients with Ellis type III perforation. We report the case of an 81 year old male with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who underwent percutaneous angioplasty for unstable angina management. The patient developed grade III coronary perforation in the anterior descending artery, which was successfully managed with balloon inflation to 6 atmospheres for 10 minutes twice in the affected area, with an interval of 5 minutes between each dilatation. The patient improved and was discharged.

  5. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents for patients with multivessel and unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Lekakis, Ioannis; Nicolaides, Evagoras

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents with those of coronary artery bypass grafting among patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease in terms of mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and angina. Background: Although coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world and in many developing countries, its optimal treatment is still a matter of controversy. Several studies have examined the clinical safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using first-generation drug-eluting stents over coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. However, this study compared the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents to that of coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Methods: This was a prospective single-center cohort study conducted from September 2012 to November 2014 at the Nicosia General Hospital. In total, 140 patients (94% men and 6% women) with chronic coronary artery disease undergoing revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass grafting were evaluated. We examined the differences in clinical outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention at 1-year follow-up. Results: Percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents as opposed to coronary artery bypass grafting resulted in similar rates of mortality (5.7% vs 11.4%, respectively; p = 0.135), myocardial infarction (0% vs 4.3%, respectively), repeat revascularization (4.3% vs 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.115) and angina (10% vs 18.6%, respectively; p = 0.153). Conclusion

  6. Transthoracic coronary Doppler vibrometry in the evaluation of normal volunteers and patients with coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Comess, Keith A; Choi, Joon Hwan; Xie, Zhiyong; Achenbach, Stephan; Daniel, Werner; Beach, Kirk W; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    Coronary artery vibrometry is a new transthoracic Doppler ultrasound method for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. It detects audio-frequency vibrations generated by coronary artery luminal diameter reduction. We studied 31 patients with known or suspected stenosis using coronary artery vibrometry and quantitative coronary angiography and 83 normal volunteers. A tissue vibration difference index (TVDI) was calculated from the left anterior descending, circumflex, left main and right coronary arteries. Accuracy for coronary artery stenosis detection using TVDI was assessed. Sensitivity for detecting coronary stenosis equal or greater than 25% diameter reduction was 89% in the left anterior descending coronary artery (16/18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 64%-98%), 87% in the right coronary artery (13/15, 95% CI = 58%-98%), 83% in the circumflex coronary artery (5/6, 95% CI = 36%-99%) and 100% in the left main artery (3/3, 95% CI = 31%-100%). The median TVDI increased with severity of stenosis, suggesting that this measure might be used to track progression/regression of coronary artery stenosis.

  7. Coronary revascularization after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Luisi, Stefano Vincenzo; Vanini, Vittorio

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases presenting bilateral coronary artery obstruction after arterial switch operation. The first patient underwent bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting to the left and right coronary arteries. The other patient, presenting a single coronary ostium, underwent surgical coronary ostial angioplasty in concomitance to proximal arterioplasty of both coronary arteries employing a single "pantaloon" shape autologous pericardial patch. Both patients survived and, at 1 year and 9 months after the coronary revascularization procedures, the coronary angiography demonstrated a good patency of the internal thoracic grafts and excellent ostial plasty results, respectively. A complete literature review of patients undergoing different coronary revascularization procedures after arterial switch operation is reported.

  8. Anesthetic challenges of patients with cardiac comorbidities undergoing major urologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. Number of this group of patients having to go through this procedure is constantly increasing, due to prolonged life, increased agressiveness of surgery and increased anesthesia’s safety. The anesthesiologist usually has to deal with several problems of the patient, such as hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, rhythm disturbances, intraoperative hemodymanic changes, intraoperative bleeding, perioperative fluid imbalance, and metabolic disturbances. A cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. The scope of this review article is to present the most frequent issues encountered with this group of patients, and to synthetically discuss the respective strategies and maneuvers during perioperative period, which is the major challenge for the anesthesiologist. PMID:24791166

  9. Myocardial infarction and subsequent death in a patient undergoing robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Judy

    2009-10-01

    A 52-year-old patient, ASA physical status IV, undergoing a radical prostatectomy for cancer with a robotic system had a cardiac arrest 3 hours into the case. All attempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful, and several hours later he was pronounced dead. Underlying patient comorbidity and procedural issues contributed to the patient's death. The patient had a history of coronary artery disease that required the placement of drug-eluting stents 2 years before this surgical procedure. The preoperative cardiac evaluation and pharmacological management of patients with drug-eluting coronary stents are reviewed. There are a number of positional and technical considerations for patients undergoing robotic surgical procedures, especially in relation to the requirement of low-lithotomy and steep Trendelenburg positions. The cardiac and respiratory systems are especially vulnerable to the extreme and lengthy head-down position. The needed positioning, combined with the problems associated with insufflation, presents a unique challenge in anesthetic management. This course reviews the current literature on the surgical implications for patients with drug-eluting stents and the physiologic factors related to position and pneumoperitoneum and their associated stressors. By using a review of the contemporary literature, a best-evidence approach to anesthetic management is reviewed.

  10. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulas in Adult Patients: Surgical Management and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Albeyoglu, Sebnem; Aldag, Mustafa; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Sargin, Murat; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Kutlu, Hakan; Dagsali, Sabri

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical and anatomic characteristics of coronary arteriovenous fistulas in adult patients who underwent open cardiac surgery and to review surgical management and outcomes. Methods Twenty-one adult patients (12 female, 9 male; mean age: 56.1±7.9 years) who underwent surgical treatment for coronary arteriovenous fistulas were retrospectively included in this study. Coronary angiography, chest X-ray, electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were preoperatively performed in all patients. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Postoperative courses of all patients were monitored and postoperative complications were noted. Results A total of 25 coronary arteriovenous fistulas were detected in 21 patients; the fistulas originated mainly from left anterior descending artery (n=9, 42.8%). Four (19.4%) patients had bilateral fistulas originating from both left anterior descending and right coronary artery. The main drainage site of coronary arteriovenous fistulas was the pulmonary artery (n=18, 85.7%). Twelve (57.1%) patients had isolated coronary arteriovenous fistulas and 4 (19.4%), concomitant coronary artery disease. Twenty (95.3%) of all patients were symptomatic. Seventeen patients were operated on with and 4 without cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no mortality. Three patients had postoperative atrial fibrillation. One patient had pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade who underwent reoperation. Conclusion The decision of surgical management should be made on the size and the anatomical location of coronary arteriovenous fistulas and concomitant cardiac comorbidities. Surgical closure with ligation of coronary arteriovenous fistulas can be performed easily with on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, even in asymptomatic patients to prevent fistula related complications with very low risk of mortality and morbidity.

  11. Self-management of coronary heart disease in older patients after elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dawkes, Susan; Smith, Graeme D; Elliott, Lawrie; Raeside, Robert; Donaldson, Jayne H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore how older patients self-manage their coronary heart disease (CHD) after undergoing elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Methods This mixed methods study used a sequential, explanatory design and recruited a convenience sample of patients (n = 93) approximately three months after elective PTCA. The study was conducted in two phases. Quantitative data collected in Phase 1 by means of a self-administered survey were subject to univariate and bivariate analysis. Phase 1 findings informed the purposive sampling for Phase 2 where ten participants were selected from the original sample for an in-depth interview. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. This paper will primarily report the findings from a sub-group of older participants (n = 47) classified as 65 years of age or older. Results 78.7% (n = 37) of participants indicated that they would manage recurring angina symptoms by taking glyceryl trinitrate and 34% (n = 16) thought that resting would help. Regardless of the duration or severity of the symptoms 40.5% (n = 19) would call their general practitioner or an emergency ambulance for assistance during any recurrence of angina symptoms. Older participants weighed less (P = 0.02) and smoked less (P = 0.01) than their younger counterparts in the study. Age did not seem to affect PTCA patients' likelihood of altering dietary factors such as fruit, vegetable and saturated fat consumption (P = 0.237). Conclusions The findings suggest that older people in the study were less likely to know how to correctly manage any recurring angina symptoms than their younger counterparts but they had fewer risk factors for CHD. Age was not a factor that influenced participants' likelihood to alter lifestyle factors. PMID:27594866

  12. Relation of metformin treatment to clinical events in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Kao, John; Tobis, Jonathan; McClelland, Robyn L; Heaton, Melissa R; Davis, Barry R; Holmes, David R; Currier, Jesse W

    2004-06-01

    Diabetic patients undergoing coronary interventions have worse clinical and angiographic outcomes than do patients without diabetes. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, may decrease the occurrence of these outcomes. Diabetic patients in the Prevention of Restenosis with Tranilast and its Outcomes Trial were identified through their medical records (n = 2,772). In this trial, 1,110 diabetic patients received nonsensitizer therapy (insulin and/or sulfonylureas) and 887 received sensitizer therapy (metformin with or without additional therapy). Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) (sensitizer vs nonsensitizer therapy) of any clinical event (death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization) and adjusted for multiple risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed no effect of lesion characteristics on clinical outcomes. Compared with patients on nonsensitizer therapy, those on sensitizer therapy showed an adjusted OR of 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 0.91, p = 0.005) for any clinical event. The differences between the nonsensitizer therapy group and the sensitizer group were attributable mainly to decreased rates of death (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.77, p = 0.007) and myocardial infarction (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.66, p = 0.002). In our retrospective analysis, use of metformin in diabetics undergoing coronary interventions appeared to decrease adverse clinical events, especially death and myocardial infarction, compared with diabetic patients treated with nonsensitizer therapy.

  13. [Prehospital stage of medical aid to patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated ST segment].

    PubMed

    Vertkin, A L; Morozov, S N; Fedorov, A I

    2013-01-01

    We studied effect of time on the outcome of acute coronary syndrome and elevated ST segment at the prehospital stage. Logistic regression analysis revealed two time-dependent predictors: "symptom-needle" time and total call service time. In patients undergoing prehospital thrombolysis, these indices (88 and 85 min respectively) reliably predicted the probability of fatal outcome. Their values of 71 and 77 min respectively predicted the risk of unfavourable outcome. The total call service time may serve as an indicator of the quality of work of an ambulance crew at the prehospital stage of management of acute coronary syndrome with elevated ST segment.

  14. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Chevli, Parag; Kelash, Fnu; Gadhvi, Pragnesh; Grandhi, Sreeram; Syed, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50) and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement. PMID:25317268

  15. Usefulness of 40-slice multidetector row computed tomography to detect coronary disease in patients prior to cardiac valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Kefer, Joëlle; Pasquet, Agnès; Coche, Emmanuel; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Gerber, Bernhard L

    2007-12-01

    Preoperative identification of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients prior to valve surgery requires systematic invasive coronary angiography. The purpose of this current prospective study was to evaluate whether exclusion of CAD by multi-detector CT (MDCT) might potentially avoid systematic cardiac catheterization in these patients. Eighty-two patients (53 males, 62 +/- 13 years) scheduled to undergo valve surgery underwent 40-slice MDCT before invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). According to QCA, 15 patients had CAD (5 one-vessel, 6 two-vessel and 4 three-vessel disease). The remaining 67 patients had no CAD. On a per-vessel basis, MDCT correctly identified 27/29 (sensitivity 93%) vessels with and excluded 277/299 vessels (specificity 93%) without CAD. On a per-patient basis, MDCT correctly identified 14/15 patients with (sensitivity 93%) and 60/67 patients without CAD (specificity 90%). Positive and negative predictive values of MDCT were 67% and 98%. Performing invasive angiography only in patients with abnormal MDCT might have avoided QCA in 60/82 (73%). MDCT could be potentially useful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with valve disease. By selecting only those patients with coronary lesions to undergo invasive coronary angiography, it could avoid cardiac catheterization in a large number of patients without CAD.

  16. Evaluation of troponin T criteria for periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Shugman, Ibrahim Meloud; Diu, Patrick; Gohil, Jayesh; Kadappu, Krishna Kishor; Leung, Melissa; Lo, Sidney; Leung, Dominic Y; Hopkins, Andrew P; Juergens, Craig P; French, John K

    2011-03-15

    In patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the diagnosis of periprocedural myocardial infarction is often problematic when the pre-PCI levels of cardiac troponin T (TnT) are elevated. Thus, we examined different TnT criteria for periprocedural myocardial infarction when the pre-PCI TnT levels were elevated and also the associations between the post-PCI cardiac marker levels and outcomes. We established the relation between the post-PCI creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) and TnT levels in 582 patients (315 with acute coronary syndromes and 272 with stable coronary heart disease). A post-PCI increase in the CKMB levels to 14.7 μg/L (3 × the upper reference limit [URL] in men) corresponded to a TnT of 0.23 μg/L. In the 85 patients with acute coronary syndromes and normal CKMB, but elevated post peak TnT levels before PCI (performed at a median of 5 days, interquartile range 3 to 7), the post-PCI cardiac marker increases were as follows: 21 (24.7%) with a ≥ 20% increase in TnT, 10 (11.8%) with an CKMB level >3 × URL, and 12 (14%) with an absolute TnT increase of >0.09 μg/L (p <0.005 for both). In the patients with stable coronary heart disease and post-PCI cardiac markers > 3× URL compared to those without markers elevations, the rate of freedom from death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was 88% for those with TnT elevations versus 99% (p <0.001, log-rank) and 84% for those with CKMB elevations versus 98% (p <0.001, log-rank). Of the patients with acute coronary syndromes, the post-PCI marker levels did not influence the outcomes. In conclusion, in patients with acute coronary syndromes and elevated TnT levels undergoing PCI several days later, ≥20% increases in TnT were more common than absolute increments in the TnT or CKMB levels of >3× URL. Also, periprocedural cardiac marker elevations in patients with acute coronary syndromes did not have prognostic significance.

  17. Multivessel Coronary Thrombosis in a Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Yagmur, Julide; Cansel, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Nusret; Yagmur, Murat; Eyupkoca, Ferhat; Ermis, Necip; Akturk, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was admitted to our hospital with severe chest pain. Electrocardiography revealed inferolateral myocardial infarction. The patient underwent immediate coronary angiography, which revealed thrombi in the left coronary system. Percutaneous intervention was not indicated, because the thrombi had occluded the distal segments of multiple coronary arteries. Administration of tirofiban satisfactorily dissolved the thrombi. PMID:23304046

  18. [Psychoprophylaxis in patients after coronary artery bypass graft operations].

    PubMed

    Rymaszewska, Joanna; Chładzińska-Kiejna, Sylwia; Górna, Renata; Kustrzycki, Wojciech

    2004-05-01

    The paper presented problems of quality of life and psychosocial functioning of patients following coronary artery bypass grafting operations. Possibilities of psychoprophylactic effects towards these patients and its efficacy were described.

  19. Coronary CTA: indications, patient selection, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Christian; Auler, Mark; Zwerner, Peter; Costello, Philip; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2007-02-01

    Recent technical advancements of modern multislice computed tomography scanners including improved temporal and spatial resolution allow for the evaluation of cardiac patients. These modern techniques have been applied to bypass imaging, assessment of pulmonary veins following ablative therapy, congenital and acquired anatomic abnormalities, and also the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Cardiac computed tomography angiography is a valuable tool for patients with equivocal stress test results or inconclusive echocardiography in patients with intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease. Future applications of this study include coronary plaque imaging, triage of patients with chest pain in the emergency room, and evaluation of myocardial viability.

  20. High platelet reactivity after P2Y12-inhibition in patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary stenting.

    PubMed

    Rilinger, Jonathan; Meyer, Melanie; Schnabel, Katharina; Weik, Patrick; Charlet, Anne; Esser, Jennifer S; Zhou, Qian; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Diehl, Philipp; Olivier, Christoph B

    2016-11-01

    High platelet reactivity (HPR) after P2Y12-inhibition in patients undergoing coronary stenting is associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic events and coronary death. So far it is not known how HPR affects the clinical outcome of different treatment strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stenting. In this single centre, observational study the antiplatelet effect of P2Y12-inhibitors in AF patients undergoing coronary stenting was investigated using impedance aggregometry. Patients received either dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) or triple therapy (TT). HPR was defined as the ratio of ADP-to TRAP-induced aggregation (r-ADP-agg) ≥50 %. Thromboembolic and bleeding events were assessed within the first 30 days after stenting. Out of 910 screened patients 167 patients were available for the present analysis. HPR was found in 5 of 43 (12 %) patients treated with DAPT and in 18 of 124 (15 %) patients treated with TT. In patients receiving TT, HPR was not a risk factor for thromboembolic events compared to patients with adequate response to P2Y12-inhibitors (6 vs. 8 %, p = 0.712). There was a trend for less bleeding events in patients with HPR compared to r-ADP-agg <50 % in the TT group (0 vs. 16 %, p = 0.077). Our data suggest that HPR after P2Y12-antagonism in patients receiving TT due to AF and coronary stenting might protect from bleeding without increasing thromboembolic risk. Future studies will need to investigate if patients with AF receiving coronary stenting benefit from a reduction of antithrombotic therapy.

  1. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index Independently Predicts Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Patients Undergoing Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Ye, Tingting; Ge, Shengjie; Zhuo, Ruyi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Patients with diabetic foot ulcers undergoing amputations have poor prognosis. Malnutrition usually occurs in this population and is associated with increased risk of mortality. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) is a widely used, simple, and well-established tool to assess nutritional risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between GNRI and all-cause mortality in diabetic foot ulcers patients undergoing minor or major amputations. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study including 271 adult patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to a GNRI cutoff value of 92, and characteristics and mortality were compared between the two groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to explore the association between GNRI and mortality. Result. GNRI (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), and eGFR (p = 0.002) were independent predictors of mortality. Among a subgroup of 230 patients with minor amputation, increased age (p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (p = 0.030), and increased GNRI (p < 0.001) were major risk factors. Conclusion. GNRI on admission might be a novel clinical predictor for the incidence of death in patients with diabetic foot ulcers who were undergoing amputations. PMID:28164133

  2. Gender differences in the prevalence, severity, and composition of coronary artery disease in the young: a study of 1635 individuals undergoing coronary CT angiography from the prospective, multinational confirm registry

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Cheng, Victor Y.; Dey, Damini; Labounty, Troy; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prior studies examining coronary atherosclerosis in the young have been limited by retrospective analyses in small cohorts. We examined the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a large, prospective, multinational registry of consecutive young individuals undergoing coronary computerized tomographic angiography (CCTA). Method and results Of 27 125 patients undergoing CCTA, 1635 young (<45 years) individuals without known coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary anomalies were identified. Coronary plaque was assessed for any CAD, obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis), and presence of calcified plaque (CP) and non-calcified plaque (NCP). Among 1635 subjects (70% men, age 38 ± 6 years), any CAD, obstructive CAD, CP, and NCP were observed in 19, 4, 5, and 8%, respectively. Compared with women, men demonstrated higher rates of any CAD (21 vs. 12%, P < 0.001), CP (6 vs. 3%, P = 0.01), and NCP (9 vs. 5%, P = 0.008), although no difference was observed for rates of obstructive CAD (5 vs. 4%, P = 0.46). Any CAD, obstructive CAD, and NCP were higher for young individuals with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, current smoking, or family history of CAD; while only diabetes and dyslipidaemia were associated with CP. Increasing cardiovascular RFs was associated with a greater prevalence and extent and severity of CAD, with individuals with 0, 1, 2, ≥3 RFs manifesting a dose–response increase in any CAD (P < 0.001, for trend), obstructive CAD (P < 0.001, for trend), NCP (P < 0.001, for trend), and CP (P < 0.001, for trend). In multivariable analysis adjusting for sex and cardiovascular RFs, male sex was the strongest predictor for any CAD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43–2.66, P < 0.001), CP (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.08–1.98, P = 0.01), and NCP (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.06–1.67, P = 0.01); family history of CAD was the strongest predictor for obstructive CAD

  3. Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Pastromas, Georgios Spiliopoulos, Stavros Katsanos, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Athanasios Kitrou, Panagiotis Karnabatidis, Dimitrios Siablis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical significance of platelet responsiveness in patients receiving clopidogrel after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients receiving antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 75 mg after infrainguinal angioplasty or stenting and who presented to our department during routine follow-up. Clopidogrel responsiveness was tested using the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay. Patients with residual platelet reactivity units (PRU) {>=} 235 were considered as nonresponders (NR group NR), whereas patients with PRU < 235 were considered as normal (responders [group R]). Primary end points were incidence of resistance to clopidogrel and target limb reintervention (TLR)-free survival, whereas secondary end points included limb salvage rates and the identification of any independent predictors influencing clinical outcomes. Results: In total, 113 consecutive patients (mean age 69 {+-} 8 years) with 139 limbs were enrolled. After clopidogrel responsiveness analysis, 61 patients (53.9 %) with 73 limbs (52.5 %) were assigned to group R and 52 patients (46.1 %) with 66 limbs (47.5 %) to group NR. Mean follow-up interval was 27.7 {+-} 22.9 months (range 3-95). Diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia, and renal disease were associated with clopidogrel resistance (Fisher's exact test; p < 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, TLR-free survival was significantly superior in group R compared with group NR (20.7 vs. 1.9 %, respectively, at 7-year follow-up; p = 0.001), whereas resistance to clopidogrel was identified as the only independent predictor of decreased TLR-free survival (hazard rate 0.536, 95 % confidence interval 0.31-0.90; p = 0.01). Cumulative TLR rate was significantly increased in group NR compared with group R (71.2 % [52 of 73] vs. 31.8 % [21 of 66], respectively; p < 0.001). Limb salvage was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance was related with

  4. Respiratory infections in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina

    2014-09-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern.

  5. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  6. Non-clinical factors influencing the selection of patients with acute coronary syndromes for angiography

    PubMed Central

    Quaas, A; Curzen, N; Garratt, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse clinical and non-clinical factors determining the selection for coronary angiography in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Design: Single centre, prospective cohort study. Participants: Eighty consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS during the period 21 May 2001 to 4 July 2001. Setting: Coronary care unit of a tertiary referral centre, the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Data collection: Information concerning baseline patient characteristics, clinical presentation, and the selection for angiography was collected from the patient notes. Data analysis: Windows SPSS version 9.0 using cross tabulations with χ2 estimation and binomial logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Selection for angiography in ACS. Results: Cross tabulations with χ2 analysis and logistic regression analysis identified significant non-clinical factors predicting the use of angiography. Although clinical factors such as recurrent ischaemia (odds ratio 5.11) influenced the decision to undergo coronary angiography, non-clinical factors such as young age (odds ratio 6.88 for <65 years old), gender (odds ratio 3.81 for males), admission on a weekday (odds ratio 0.2488 for admission on the weekend), and consultant in charge (odds ratio 0.111 for consultant "2") independently predicted the use of angiography in ACS. Conclusion: The selection of patients for angiography in ACS is not based purely on clinical criteria. Awareness of the apparent sources of bias among clinical decision makers may improve management of these patients. PMID:15254306

  7. Bivalirudin versus Heparin plus Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Women Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Wang, Bingjian; Yang, Jing; Ma, Shuren

    2017-01-01

    Bivalirudin has been shown to be safe and efficacious compared with heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether bivalirudin would have the beneficial effects in female patients undergoing PCI remains unknown. We searched the literature for randomized controlled trials that assessed bivalirudin versus heparin plus GPI therapy in female patients undergoing PCI. The primary efficacy end point was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) within 30 days. The secondary efficacy end points were 30-day incidence of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), urgent/ischemia-driven revascularization of target vessel. The safety end point was major bleeding up to 30 days. A total of 4,501 female patients were included in five randomized trials. No significant difference in MACE emerged between bivalirudin and heparin plus GPI at 30 days (8.15% vs 8.76%, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.77–1.16, P = .57). There were no significant differences in rates of mortality (1.28% vs 1.91%, RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45–1.20, P = .22), MI (5.46% vs 5.25%, RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.79–1.32, p = .88), or target vessel revascularization (2.13% vs 1.65%, RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.88–2.30, P = .15). Compared with heparin plus GPI, bivalirudin was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day major bleeding (5.32% vs 9.20%, RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47–0.72, P < .0001). In conclusion, bivalirudin is associated with a significant reduction in 30-day major bleeding without increased ischemic events compared with heparin plus GPI in female patients undergoing PCI. PMID:28095453

  8. Long-term Prognosis for Individuals with Hypertension Undergoing Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Cho, Iksung; Kalra, Dan K.; Truong, Quynh A.; Giambrone, Ashley E; Gransar, Heidi; Callister, Tracy Q.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Lin, Fay Y.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Min, James K

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine the performance of coronary artery calcification (CAC) for stratifying long-term risk of death in asymptomatic hypertensive patients. Methods and Results 8905 consecutive asymptomatic individuals without cardiovascular disease or diabetes who underwent CAC testing (mean age 53.3±10.5, 59.3% male) were followed for a mean of 14 years and categorized on the background of hypertension (in accordance with the 2014 Guidelines from the Joint National Committee 8) as well as age above or below 60 years. The prevalence and severity of CAC was higher for those with versus without hypertension (P<0.001), and the extent increased proportionally with advancing age (P<0.001). Following adjustment, the presence of CAC in patients above and below the age of 60 years was associated with worse prognosis for hypertensive (HR 7.74 [95% CI: 5.15-11.63] and HR 3.18 [95% CI: 2.42-4.19]) and normotensive (HR 4.83 [95% CI: 3.18-7.33] and HR 2.14 [95% CI: 1.61-2.85]), respectively. A zero CAC score was associated with a lower but persisting risk of mortality for hypertensives over the age of 60 years (HR 2.48 [95% CI: 1.50-4.08]); albeit, attenuating for those below the age of 60 years (P=0.09). In a “low risk” hypertensive population, a combined presence of hypertension and any CAC was associated with an almost five-fold (HR 4.68 [95% CI: 2.22-9.87]) risk of death. Conclusion Among asymptomatic hypertensive individuals, the presence and extent of CAC effectively identified individuals at heightened risk of mortality beyond conventional cardiovascular risk. PMID:25863296

  9. LPA rs10455872 polymorphism is associated with coronary lesions in Brazilian patients submitted to coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the LPA gene were associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are differences in the allelic frequencies, Lp(a) levels, and significant association with CAD according to ethnic groups. In this scenario, the main aim of this study was to assess the influence of the LPA polymorphisms on coronary lesions in Brazilian patients. Methods 1,394 consecutive patients submitted to coronary angiography to study suggestive CAD and twenty coronary segments were scored. Genotyping for the LPA rs10455872 and rs3798220 polymorphisms were performed by high resolution melting analysis. Results The frequencies of the rs10455872 G and rs3798220 C variant alleles were 6.4% and 6.2%, respectively. LPA rs10455872 G variant allele was associated with higher odds ratio of having coronary lesions in an adjusted model (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.10-3.72, p = 0.02). Scores of coronary lesions (extension, severity, and Gensini scores) were significantly different among rs10455872 genotype groups. Coronary lesions was not associated with LPA rs3798220 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.67-1.76, p = 0.73) and scores of coronary lesions were not different among rs3798220 genotypes. Conclusions We confirmed the association of the LPA rs10455872 with CAD in a large sample of Brazilian patients. For the LPA rs3798220, our finding is consistent with studies which showed the lack of this genetic association. PMID:24776095

  10. Outcomes of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    McGrath-Cadell, Lucy; McKenzie, Pamela; Emmanuel, Sam; Muller, David W M; Graham, Robert M; Holloway, Cameron J

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon but serious condition presenting as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or cardiac arrest. The pathophysiology and outcomes are poorly understood. We investigated the characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with SCAD. Methods In a retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with SCAD, data were collected regarding clinical presentation, patient characteristics, vascular screening, coronary artery involvement and clinical outcomes. Results 40 patients with SCAD (95% women, mean age 45±10 years) were included. At least 1 traditional cardiovascular risk factor was present in 40% of patients. Migraine was reported in 43% of patients. Events preceding SCAD included parturition (8%), physical stress (13%), emotional stress (10%) and vasoconstrictor substance-use (8%). 65% of patients had a non-ST elevation ACS (NSTEACS) at presentation, 30% had an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 13% had a cardiac arrest. The left anterior descending artery was most frequently involved (68% of patients), and 13% had involvement of multiple coronary territories. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was identified in 7 (37%) of 19 patients screened. 68% of patients were managed medically, 30% had percutaneous coronary intervention and 5% had coronary artery bypass grafting. Over a median 16-month follow-up period, 8% of patients had at least 1 recurrent SCAD event. There were no deaths. Conclusions Patients with SCAD in this study often had multiple coronary territories involved (13%) and extracardiac vascular abnormalities, suggesting a systemic vascular process, which may explain the high incidence of migraine. All patients with SCAD should be screened for FMD and followed closely due to the possibility of recurrence. PMID:27621835

  11. Lower coronary plaque burden in patients with HIV presenting with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, E J; Bhamra-Ariza, P; Rao, S; Emmanuel, S; Carr, A; Holloway, C J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Treated HIV infection is associated with a higher incidence of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to characterise the burden of coronary artery disease in men with HIV using retrospective data from invasive coronary angiograms in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Demographic and coronary angiographic data were obtained from 160 men with ST elevation myocardial infarction, non-STEMI or high-risk chest pain; 73 HIV-infected cases and 87 age-matched controls. The burden of coronary disease was calculated using the Gensini Angiographic Scoring System by 2 independent cardiologists blinded to HIV status. Results The 2 groups were matched for age, sex and cardiac event subtype and there was no difference in rates of smoking or cholesterol levels. Compared with control participants, patients with HIV had higher usage of antihypertensives (46 (63%) vs 30 (35%), p<0.001) and statins (47 (64%) vs 29 (33%), p<0.001). There was no difference in plaque distribution between both groups; however, the Gensini score was 42% lower in cases with HIV than in controls (p<0.03). C reactive protein was higher in cases with HIV (13.4±15.4 vs 3.7±3.6). Conclusions Men with HIV presenting with ACS paradoxically had a lower burden of coronary plaque than matched controls, despite more aggressive risk factor management, suggesting that plaque vulnerability, rather than total burden of atherosclerosis, may be important in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in men with HIV. PMID:28123757

  12. Fate of Patients With Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Euro Heart Survey Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Boeder, Niklas; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2015-11-01

    Coronary perforation (CP) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known, however, about the incidence and clinical outcome of CP. We sought to investigate the occurrence of CP and its determinants and risk profile in a large-scale, prospective registry. From 2005 to 2008, unselected patients (n = 42,068) from 175 centers in 33 countries who underwent a PCI procedure were prospectively enrolled in the PCI registry of the Euro Heart Survey program. For the present analysis, patients experiencing CP during PCI (n = 124, 0.3%) were compared with those who underwent PCI without CP. Patients with CP were older, more often women, had more severe coronary disease, and underwent more complex types of coronary intervention. Independent factors associated with CP were the use of rotablation, intravascular ultrasound-guided PCI, bypass PCI, a totally occluded vessel, a type C lesion, peripheral arterial disease, and body mass index <25. More than 10% of the patients developed cardiac tamponade. In a small minority (3.3%), emergency bypass surgery had to be performed. The inhospital death rate was markedly elevated in patients with CP (7.3% vs 1.5%, p <0.001). After adjustment for the EuroHeart score, CP remained a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval 2.34 to 11.60). In conclusion, in this real world, all-comers registry, the incidence of CP was low, occurred more often in patients who underwent more complex coronary interventions, and was associated with a fivefold higher hospital mortality.

  13. Weight and patients' decision to undergo cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    King-Shier, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mather, Charles; Sandham, Sarah; Seneviratne, Cydnee; Maitland, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Obese patients are less likely to have cardiac surgery than normal weight patients. This could be due to physician or patient decision-making. We undertook a qualitative descriptive study to explore the influence of obesity on patients' decision-making to have cardiac surgery. Forty-seven people referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were theoretically sampled. Twelve people had declined cardiac surgery. Participants underwent in-depth interviews aimed at exploring their decision-making process. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Though patients' weight did not play a role in their decision, their relationship with their cardiologist/surgeon, the rapidity and orchestration of the diagnosis and treatment, appraisal of risks and benefits, previous experience with other illness or others who had cardiac surgery, and openness to other alternatives had an impact. It is possible that there is a lack of comfort or acknowledgment by all parties in discussing the influence of weight on CABG surgery risks.

  14. Efficacy of Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography in Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Costa Filho, Francisco Flávio; Chaves, Áurea Jacob; Ligabó, Lourenço Teixeira; dos Santos, Eduardo Moreira; da Silva, Danillo Taiguara; Puzzi, Marcelo Aguiar; Braga, Sérgio Luiz; Abizaid, Alexandre; Sousa, Amanda GMR

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend that in suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD), a clinical (non-invasive) evaluation should be performed before coronary angiography. Objective We assessed the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography in suspected stable CAD. Methods We prospectively selected consecutive patients without known CAD, referred to a high-volume tertiary center. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, symptoms and non-invasive test results were correlated to the presence of obstructive CAD. We estimated the CAD probability based on available clinical data and the incremental diagnostic value of previous non-invasive tests. Results A total of 830 patients were included; median age was 61 years, 49.3% were males, 81% had hypertension and 35.5% were diabetics. Non-invasive tests were performed in 64.8% of the patients. At coronary angiography, 23.8% of the patients had obstructive CAD. The independent predictors for obstructive CAD were: male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.95; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 2.70 - 5.77), age (OR for 5 years increment, 1.15; CI 95%, 1.06 - 1.26), diabetes (OR, 2.01; CI 95%, 1.40 - 2.90), dyslipidemia (OR, 2.02; CI 95%, 1.32 - 3.07), typical angina (OR, 2.92; CI 95%, 1.77 - 4.83) and previous non-invasive test (OR 1.54; CI 95% 1.05 - 2.27). Conclusions In this study, less than a quarter of the patients referred for coronary angiography with suspected CAD had the diagnosis confirmed. A better clinical and non-invasive assessment is necessary, to improve the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography. PMID:26312552

  15. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in high-risk patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Fudulu, Daniel; Rapetto, Filippo; Sedmakov, Christo; Marsico, Roberto; Zakkar, Mustafa; Bryan, Alan J.; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2016-01-01

    The role of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) grafting in high risk patients remains controversial. While there have been studies showing the potential benefits of it, there is still a lot to be learned from the application of this technique in this sub-group of patients. The results of the different trials and papers that we reviewed seem to indicate a benefit in the OPCAB group. Despite of the fact that trials were significantly different in methodology, especially when choosing the risk score stratification tool or the cut-off to define high risk the literature seems to suggest a benefit from the use of OPCAB surgery. Here, we present a review which focussed on early and late outcome in high risk patients undergoing on- and off-pump coronary revascularization. PMID:27942397

  16. Influence of an extended education program on the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects undergoing rehabilitation following acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krzych, Łukasz J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health education is a component of complex cardiac rehabilitation (CCR). Aim To evaluate the influence of an authorial extended educational program on the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects undergoing early in-hospital rehabilitation following acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous intervention. Material and methods This prospective study covered 205 consecutive subjects (153 men and 52 women, aged 62 ±9 years) undergoing CCR. They were randomly allocated to the control group (105 patients receiving standard education during CCR) or the study group (100 patients participating in the extended education program). The extended education program was conducted in the 2nd and 3rd week of CCR and included a package of educational materials and additional lectures. Results Knowledge of basic rules for secondary cardiac prevention was better in the study group, both on admission and after CCR. Notwithstanding, a positive influence of the extended educational program was found with regard to awareness of recommended blood pressure levels and blood lipid profile (improvement of 15–20% in the study group). At baseline, the knowledge of risk factors was comparable between the groups (the percentage of correct questionnaire answers was 50 ±17% among the controls vs. 49 ±16% in the study group; p = 0.77), but improved significantly after education (52 ±17% among controls vs. 58 ±19% in the study group; p = 0.009) and remained better in the study group after a 3-month follow-up (56 ±19% among controls vs. 64 ±19% in the study group). Conclusions Extended education during CCR significantly improves the knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors in patients after acute coronary syndrome. PMID:28096844

  17. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281

  18. [Access to somatic care for patients undergoing psychiatric treatment].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    In France, there is no across-the-board formal connection between psychiatric and somatic treatment and the somatic care of patients undergoing psychiatric treatment remains very heterogeneous and inadequate. Despite some attempts at providing structure, it is the place of the physician which must be examined and optimised.

  19. Patients ≥ 75 years with acute coronary syndrome but without critical epicardial coronary disease: prevalence, characteristics, and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vincent; Farah, Ahmed; von Korn, Hubertus; Memisevic, Nedim; Richter, Stefan; Tukhiashvili, Ketevan; Lauer, Bernward; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute onset of chest pain and elevation of myocardial necrosis markers is occasionally observed. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics and outcome of such patients with advanced age. Methods We retrospectively analysed 4,311 patients with acute onset of chest pain plus necrosis marker elevation. Two hundred and seventy two patients without CAD on angiogram (6.3%) were identified. Out of them, 50 (1.2%) patients ≥ 75 years (Group I) were compared with (1) 222 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients without CAD on angiogram < 75 years (Group II), and (2) 610 consecutive patients ≥ 75 years with Non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (Group III). Results Group I compared to Group III patients made up for more females (64.0% vs. 49.2%; P < 0.0001), and had more severe anginal symptoms on presentation [Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class I/II, 26.0% vs. 49.8%; P = 0.02]. Group I patients also had lower troponin levels (0.62 ± 0.8 ng/mL vs. 27 ± 74 ng/mL; P < 0.02), lower leukocyte count (9.4 ± 3.13 × 109 vs. 12 ± 5.1 × 109; P = 0.001) and better preserved left ventricular function (56.7% ± 14.3% vs. 45% ± 11%; P < 0.0001). Event-free survival (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, recurrent angina, and re-hospitalisation) was more frequent in Group I and II patients compared to Group III patients (64.9%, 66.7%, and 41.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions ACS in patients ≥ 75 years without CAD is very infrequent, associated with a (1) similar outcome compared to ACS patients < 75 years without CAD, and (2) significant better outcome compared to NSTEMI patients ≥ 75 years. PMID:25678899

  20. Coronary Arterioles in Type 2 Diabetic (db/db) Mice Undergo a Distinct Pattern of Remodeling Associated with Decreased Vessel Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paige S.; Trask, Aaron J.; Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Hutchinson, Kirk R.; Galantowicz, Maarten L.; Lord, Kevin C.; Stewart, James A.; Cismowski, Mary J.; Varner, Kurt J.; Lucchesi, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on coronary arteriole remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms that underlie coronary arteriole structural remodeling in type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. Methods and Results Passive structural properties of septal coronary arterioles isolated from 12- and 16-wk-old diabetic db/db and control mice were assessed by pressure myography. Coronary arterioles from 12-wk-old db/db mice were structurally similar to age-matched controls. By 16-wks of age, coronary wall thickness was increased in db/db arterioles (p < 0.01), while luminal diameter was reduced (Control: 118±5μm; db/db: 102±4μm, p < 0.05), augmenting the wall-to-lumen ratio by 58% (Control: 5.9±0.6; db/db: 9.5±0.4, p < 0.001). Inward hypertrophic remodeling was accompanied by a 56% decrease in elastic modulus (p < 0.05, indicating decreased vessel coronary wall stiffness) and a ~30% reduction in coronary flow reserve in diabetic mice. Interestingly, aortic pulse wave velocity and femoral artery incremental modulus were increased (p < 0.05) in db/db mice, indicating macrovascular stiffness. Molecular tissue analysis revealed increased elastin-to-collagen ratio in diabetic coronaries when compared to control and a decrease in the same ratio in the diabetic aortas. Conclusions These data show that coronary arterioles isolated from type 2 diabetic mice undergo inward hypertrophic remodeling associated with decreased stiffness and increased elastin-to-collagen ratio which results in a decreased coronary flow reserve. This study suggests that coronary microvessels undergo a different pattern of remodeling from macrovessels in type 2 DM. PMID:21744279

  1. Nutritional status of patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yasushi; Ikeda, Naoki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Kadota, Yoshihisa; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ohno, Yuko; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2012-04-01

    Impaired nutrition is an important predictor of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients, and preoperative chemoradiotherapy increases the risk of such complications. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of an immune-enhancing diet on nutritional status in patients undergoing lung resection after chemoradiotherapy. We compared the preoperative nutritional status in 15 patients with lung cancer undergoing lung resection without chemoradiotherapy and 15 who had chemoradiotherapy. Body mass index and lymphocyte counts were lower in patients who had chemoradiotherapy. Although there was no difference in the rate of postoperative morbidity between groups, the chemoradiotherapy patients were more likely to have severe complications postoperatively. After chemoradiotherapy in 12 patients, 6 received oral Impact for 5 days, and 6 had a conventional diet before surgery. Oral intake of Impact for 5 days before surgery modified the decrease in transferrin and lymphocytes after the operation. Preoperative immunonutrition may improve the perioperative nutritional status after induction chemoradiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, and reduce the severity of postoperative complications. These potential benefits need to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.

  2. [Management of aortic stenosis in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Labbé, Vincent; Ederhy, Stéphane; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Cohen, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis (valve area <1cm(2) or 0.6cm(2)/m(2) body surface area, and maximum jet velocity ≥4m/sec, and mean aortic pressure gradient ≥40mmHg) undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with symptoms (dyspnoea, angina, syncope, or heart failure). Before any surgery, clinical assessment should search for signs of aortic stenosis which justifies echocardiographic examination, particularly in the elderly. A systematic rest echocardiography with searching aortic stenosis should be considered in patients undergoing high risk surgery. The key points of pre-operative cardiac risk assessment are: assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis, measurement of the functional capacity, evaluation of the left ventricular systolic function, search of associated coronary artery disease, estimate of the surgical risk of cardiac events, and achievement of risk indices. In symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, only urgent non-cardiac surgery should be performed under careful haemodynamic monitoring. Aortic valve replacement should be considered before elective non-cardiac surgery. In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement should be considered before non-cardiac high risk surgery. Non-cardiac surgery at low/intermediate risk can be performed provided an adapted anaesthetic technique.

  3. Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Gremmel, Thomas; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and therefore considered a platelet activation marker. Although the predictive value of sCD40L for ischemic events has been demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), studies on the association of sCD40L with cardiovascular outcomes in lower risk populations yielded heterogeneous results. We therefore sought to investigate factors influencing sCD40L levels, and the predictive value of sCD40L for long-term ischemic events in unselected, aspirin-treated patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. sCD40L was determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 682 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Two-year follow-up data were obtained from 562 patients. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was associated with significantly lower levels of sCD40L and lower platelet surface expressions of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa compared to aspirin monotherapy (all p≤0.01). Hypertension was linked to lower plasma concentrations of sCD40L, whereas female sex, increasing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hematocrit were associated with higher sCD40L concentrations (all p<0.05). sCD40L levels were similar in patients without and with the primary endpoint in the overall study population (p = 0.4). Likewise, sCD40L levels did not differ significantly between patients without and with the secondary endpoints (both p≥0.4). Similar results were obtained when only patients with angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (n = 459), stent implantation (n = 205) or ACS (n = 125) were analyzed. The adjustment for differences in patient characteristics by multivariate regression analyses did not change the results. ROC curve analyses did not reveal cut-off values for sCD40L for the prediction of the primary or secondary endpoints. In conclusion, plasma sCD40L levels are

  4. Prevention and management of coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Majid, Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common medical problem and a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease is highly prevalent and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Patients with CAD and prediabetic states should undergo lifestyle modifications aimed at preventing DM. In patients with CAD and DM, routine use of aspirin and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I)-unless contraindicated or not tolerated-and strict glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control are strongly recommended. Intense insulin therapy might be needed for glycemic control, and high-dose statin therapy might be needed for lipid control. For blood pressure control, ACE-Is and angiotensin receptor blockers are considered as first-line therapy. The outcomes after revascularization in diabetic patients are usually worse compared with non-diabetic patients. Advances in PCI include the use of drug-eluting stents and adjunctive drug therapies, such as abciximab. Glycemic control is an important determinant of outcome after revascularization in diabetic patients. Improvements in PCI and coronary artery bypass graft surgery are leading to better results in diabetic patients, and clinical trials are presently comparing contemporary PCI with surgery.

  5. A randomized comparative study of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: The MASS III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hueb, Whady; Lopes, Neuza HM; Gersh, Bernard J; Castro, Cláudio C; Paulitsch, Felipe S; Oliveira, Sergio A; Dallan, Luis A; Hueb, Alexandre C; Stolf, Noedir A; Ramires, José AF

    2008-01-01

    The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function. The aim of the MASS III Trial is to compare medical effectiveness, cerebral injury, quality of life, and the cost-effectiveness of coronary surgery with and without of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with multivessel coronary disease referred for both strategies. The primary endpoint should be a composite of cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular accident, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and refractory angina requiring revascularization. The secondary end points in this trial include noncardiac mortality, presence and severity of angina, quality of life based on the SF-36 Questionnaire, and cost-effectiveness at discharge and at 5-year follow-up. In this scenario, we will analyze the cost of the initial procedure, hospital length of stay, resource utilization, repeat hospitalization, and repeat revascularization events during the follow-up. Exercise capacity will be assessed at 6-months, 12-months, and the end of follow-up. A neurocognitive evaluation will be assessed in a subset of subjects using the Brain Resource Center computerized neurocognitive battery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging will be made to detect any cerebral injury before and after procedures in patients who undergo coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinical Trial registration information ISRCTN59539154 Off-pump vs. on-pump surgery in patients with Stable CAD MASS III PMID:18755039

  6. Spinal Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Noah L; Edwards, Charles C; Brown, Charles H; Ledford, Emily C; Dean, Clayton L; Lin, Charles; Edwards, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Spinal anesthesia is increasingly viewed as a reasonable alternative to general anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery. However, the results of spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression and combined decompression and fusion procedures are limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience using spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. A retrospective review was conducted using a prospectively collected database of consecutive lumbar spine surgeries performed under spinal anesthesia in patients 70 years or older at a single center between December 2013 and October 2015. A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 27 patients (48%) underwent lumbar decompression and 29 patients (52%) underwent combined decompression and fusion procedures. Mean operative time was 101 minutes (range, 30-210 minutes), and mean operative blood loss was 187 mL (range, 20-700 mL). Mean maximum inpatient postoperative visual analog scale score was 6.2 (range, 1-10). Nausea occurred in 21% (12 of 56) of the patients. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days (range, 1-6 days). No mortality, stroke, permanent loss of function, or pulmonary embolism occurred. None of the cases required conversion to general anesthesia. All of the patients were ambulatory on either the day of the surgery or the next morning. These results demonstrate that spinal anesthesia is a viable method of anesthesia for patients 70 years and older undergoing lumbar spine surgery. They also demonstrate the safety of this method for patients older than 84 years and for surgeries lasting up to 3½ hours. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e317-e322.].

  7. Antithrombotic management in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention requiring oral anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Undas, Anetta

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic evolution of therapeutic options including the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA), non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC), more potent antiplatelet drugs as well as new generation drug-eluting stents could lead to the view that the current recommendations on the management of patients with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) requiring oral anticoagulation do not keep up with the results of several clinical studies published within the last 5 years. In the present overview, we summarize the recent advances in antithrombotic management used in atrial fibrillation patients undergoing PCI for stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The safety and efficacy of prasugrel and ticagrelor taken with oral anticoagulants also remain to be established in randomized trials; therefore the P2Y12 inhibitor clopidogrel on top of aspirin or without is now recommended to be used together with a VKA or NOAC. It is still unclear which dose of a NOAC in combination with antiplatelet agents and different stents should be used in this clinical setting and whether indeed NOAC are safer compared with VKA in such cardiovascular patients. Moreover, we discuss the use of anticoagulation in addition to antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention in patients with ACS. To minimize bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients following PCI or ACS, the right agent should be prescribed to the right patient at the right dose and supported by regular clinical evaluation and laboratory testing, especially assessment of renal function when a NOAC is used. PMID:27980542

  8. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients undergoing dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Weibert, R T

    1992-10-01

    The literature on dental surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulants is reviewed, and methods of managing anticoagulant therapy to minimize the risk of complications are discussed. Although blood loss during and after oral surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulant drugs can be substantial, research indicates that most bleeding incidents are not serious and can be controlled by local measures. Studies of 241 anticoagulant-treated patients undergoing more than 500 dental extractions during the 1950s and 1960s showed that only 9 had postoperative bleeding. More recent studies indicate that continued anticoagulation can increase the frequency of prolonged bleeding and delay wound healing. An antifibrinolytic mouthwash containing tranexamic acid can effectively suppress postoperative bleeding. Gelatin sponges, oxidized cellulose, and microcrystalline collagen are other useful hemostatic agents. A reduction in the intensity of anticoagulation therapy has been recommended; the prothrombin time should be measured shortly before the procedure in such patients. In many patients the duration of subtherapeutic anticoagulation must be minimized to reduce the possibility of thromboembolism. An option for high-risk patients is to switch them to heparin. Each patient must be evaluated individually, and the level of risk of the dental procedure and the risk of thromboembolism should be taken into account. In patients taking oral anticoagulants who must undergo dental surgery, careful control of the intensity of anticoagulation and improved methods of local hemostasis can minimize the risk of hemorrhagic complications and thromboembolism.

  9. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-08-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic.

  10. Unexplained hemolysis in patients undergoing ECMO: beware of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Venado, A; Wille, K; Belott, S C; Diaz-Guzman, E

    2015-09-01

    Hemolysis is a common complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent monitoring of markers of hemolysis is performed at ECMO centers. We report two cases of spurious hemolysis caused by hypertriglyceridemia in patients undergoing ECMO support. Critically ill patients, including those receiving ECMO, may be at risk of developing medication-induced hypertriglyceridemia. The interference of lipids with the measurement of plasma free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, should be recognized. Our cases highlight the importance of investigating hypertriglyceridemia as part of the assessment of unexplained hemolysis in patients supported with ECMO.

  11. Influence of metal alloy and the profile of coronary stents in patients with multivessel coronary disease

    PubMed Central

    Maurício de Abreu Filho, Luciano; da Cruz Forte, Antonio Artur; Kiyoshi Sumita, Marcos; Favarato, Desidério; César Ximenes Meireles, George

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Brazil, despite the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Hemodynamics and Interventional Cardiology, the National Health System has not yet approved the use of drug-eluting stents. In percutaneous coronary interventions performed in the public and part of the private health care system, bare metal stents are used as the only option. Therefore, new information on bare metal stents is of great importance. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the influence of the alloy and the profile of coronary stents on late loss and restenosis rates 6 months after implantation in patients with multivessel coronary disease. METHODS: Single center, randomized and prospective study comparison of cobalt–chromium versus stainless steel stent implantation in 187 patients with multivessel coronary disease. At least one cobalt–chromium and one stainless steel stent were implanted per patient. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 59.5±10.1 years with a prevalence of males (66.3%) and patients with acute coronary syndrome (56%). Baseline clinical characteristics were similar with hypertension in 146 (78%), dyslipidemia in 85 (45.5%) and diabetes in 68 (36.4%). Two hundred and twenty-nine cobalt–chromium and 284 stainless steel stents were implanted. Angiographic variables showed no statistically significant difference. Angiographic follow-up to 6 months after implantation showed similar late loss and restenosis rates. CONCLUSION: The use of two different alloys, stainless steel and cobalt–chrome stents, in the same patient and in the same vessel produced similar 6-month restenosis and late loss rates. PMID:21808863

  12. Acute coronary syndrome among older patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Veerasamy, Murugapathy; Edwards, Richard; Ford, Gary; Kirkwood, Tom; Newton, Julia; Jones, Dave; Kunadian, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Due to advances in medicine in the past few decades, life expectancy has increased resulting in an aging population in developed and developing countries. Acute coronary syndrome causes greater morbidity and mortality in this group of older patients, which appears to be due to age-related comorbidities. This review examines the incidence and prevalence of acute coronary syndrome among older patients, examines current treatment strategies, and evaluates the predictors of adverse outcomes. In particular, the impact of frailty on outcomes and the need for frailty assessment in developing future research and management strategies among older patients are discussed.

  13. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Simona M; Kiss, Rudolf; Hekkert, Sacco te Lintel; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J M; Risby, Terence H; Marczin, Nandor

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (> 30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (> 10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene.

  14. Real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation by exhaled ethylene in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523

  15. The Defense Mechanisms of Coronary Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peglar, Marian; Borgen, Fred H.

    1984-01-01

    Tested 73 male inpatients with coronary heart disease on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a perception of health measure. Subjects were followed for five years. Principalization was discovered to be the most successful and projection the least successful defense. (JAC)

  16. Knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing EMG examinations.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Mauro; Aretini, Alessandro; Greco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing the procedure. In one year, 1,586 consecutive patients (mean age 56 years; 58.8% women) were admitted to two EMG labs to undergo EMG for the first time. The patients found to be "informed" about the how an EMG examination is performed and about the purpose of EMG numbered 448 (28.2%), while those found to be "informed" only about the manner of its execution or only about its purpose numbered 161 (10.2%) and 151 (9.5%), respectively. The remaining 826 (52.1%) patients had either no information, or the information they had was very poor or incorrect (this was particularly true if they had been consulting websites). Being "informed" was associated with level of education (high), type of referring physician (specialist) and with an appropriate referral diagnosis specified in the EMG request. The quality of patient information on EMG was found to be very poor and could be improved. Physicians referring patients for EMG examinations, especially general practitioners, should assume primary responsibility for patient education and counseling in this field.

  17. The 'MAP strategy' (Maximum aspiration of atherothrombus and adjunctive glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor utilization combined with prolonged inflation of balloon/stent) for preventing no-reflow in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A retrospective analysis of seventy-one cases.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Anil; Sharma, Satyavan

    2015-12-01

    'No-reflow' phenomenon is a common occurrence in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A three-component 'MAP strategy' was designed to prevent no-reflow by addressing both intralesional and intraluminal thrombus in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this analysis, we observed Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3 or 2 in all patients, with no incidence of no-reflow. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) 3 or 2 was observed in most (87.32%) patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was improved, without any incidence of death up to 9-month follow-up. All patients safely tolerated the strategy-driven prolonged, 35-s inflation of the balloon/stent.

  18. Should patients with asymptomatic significant carotid stenosis undergo simultaneous carotid and cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Ogutu, Peter; Werner, Raphael; Oertel, Frank; Beyer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiovascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether patients with severe asymptomatic carotid and coronary artery diseases should undergo simultaneous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 624 papers were found using the reported search, of which 20 represent the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study results of these papers are tabulated. Previous cohort studies showed mixed results, while advocating for the necessity of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). A recent RCT showed that patients undergoing prophylactic or simultaneous CEA + CABG had lower rates of stroke (0%) compared with delayed CEA 1–3 months after CABG (7.7%), without significant perioperative mortality difference. This study included patients with unilateral severe (>70%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis requiring CABG. An earlier partly randomized trial also showed better outcomes for patients undergoing simultaneous procedures (P = 0.045). Interestingly, systematic reviews previously failed to show compelling evidence supporting prophylactic CEA. This could be partly due to the fact that these reviews collectively analyse different cohort qualities. Neurological studies have, however, shown reduced cognitive and phonetic quality and function in patients with unilateral and bilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Twenty-one RCTs comparing lone carotid artery stenting (CAS) and CEA informed the American Heart Association guidelines, which declared CAS comparable with CEA for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis (CS). However, the risk of death/stroke for CAS alone is double that for CEA alone in the acute phase following onset of symptoms, while CEA alone is associated with a doubled risk of myocardial infarction. There is

  19. Neutrophil-derived microparticles are released into the coronary circulation following percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Gonzalo J.; Barraclough, Jennifer Y.; Nakhla, Shirley; Kienzle, Vivian; Robertson, Stacy; Mallat, Ziad; Celermajer, David S.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MP are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilization and shed neutrophil-derived MP that have the potential to drive significant proinflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects. Eight ACS and eight SAP patients were included. Coronary sinus (CS) samples pre-intervention (CS1), 45 s following balloon angioplasty (CS2) and at 45 s intervals following stent deployment (CS3, CS4 and CS5), together with peripheral vein samples, pre- and post-PCI were analysed for neutrophil-derived (CD66b+), endothelial-derived (CD144+), platelet-derived (CD41a+), monocyte-derived (CD14+) and apoptotic (Annexin V+) MP. ELISA for interleukin (IL)-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and P-selectin was also performed. CD66b+ MP levels were similar in both groups pre-intervention. Post-PCI, CS levels rose significantly in ACS but not SAP patients (ACS area under the curve (AUC): 549 ± 83, SAP AUC: 24 ± 29, P<0.01). CS CD41a+, CD144+, CD14+ and Annexin V+ MP levels did not differ between groups. Acute neutrophil-derived MP release post-PCI occurs in ACS compared with stable patients, likely to be reflective of plaque MP content in vulnerable lesions. PMID:27913753

  20. Atherosclerosis and Liver Function Tests in Coronary Angiography Patients

    PubMed Central

    Doganer, YC; Rohrer, JE; Aydogan, U; Agerter, DC; Cayci, T; Barcin, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Elevated aminotransferase levels indicating liver function, even in the normal range, have attracted great concern as potential novel markers of cardiovascular risk assessment. We hypothesized the possibility that liver function test variations in the normal range might be meaningfully associated to coronary artery disease (CAD). Method: Eighty-eight patients were randomly selected from those who underwent coronary angiography from June 2010 to June 2011 after applying to the outpatient cardiology clinic in Gulhane Military Medical Academy. According to the results of angiographies, patients were classified into three groups as normal, non-critical (< 50% involvement in coronaries), and critical (≥ 50% involvement in coronaries). In addition to angiographic intervention, measurements of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations, albumin and the other serum parameters were performed in all patients. Results: The patient groups of CAD were balanced (28 critical cases, 30 non-critical cases and 30 normal cases). Mean age was 51.93 ± 9.3 (range 32–65) years and 19.3 per cent (n = 17) were females. Multiple linear regression analysis of all three liver function tests explained a significant portion of the variance, but adjusted r-squares were small (AST = 0.174, ALT = 0.242, albumin = 0.124). Albumin was significantly higher for patients with critical CAD than for patients with no CAD (beta = 3.205, p = 0.002). Non-critical CAD was not significantly different from no CAD for any of the dependent variables. Mean AST was significantly higher for patients taking aspirin (beta = 0.218, p = 0.049), as was mean ALT (beta = 0.264, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Alanine aminotransferase and AST may not be associated with angiographically determined coronary atherosclerosis. Albumin may be more sensitive to demonstrate the burden of atherosclerosis. These results indicate that the association between the liver

  1. Health utility indexes in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Gencer, Baris; Rodondi, Nicolas; Auer, Reto; Nanchen, David; Räber, Lorenz; Klingenberg, Roland; Pletscher, Mark; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas F; Mach, François; Perneger, Thomas V; Girardin, François R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have been associated with lower health utilities (HUs) compared with the general population. Given the prognostic improvements after ACS with the implementation of coronary angiography (eg, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), contemporary HU values derived from patient-reported outcomes are needed. Methods We analysed data of 1882 patients with ACS 1 year after coronary angiography in a Swiss prospective cohort. We used the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS) to derive HU indexes. We estimated the effects of clinical factors on HU using a linear regression model and compared the observed HU with the average values of individuals of the same sex and age in the general population. Results Mean EQ-5D HU 1-year after coronary angiography for ACS was 0.82 (±0.16) and mean VAS was 0.77 (±0.18); 40.9% of participants exhibited the highest utility values. Compared with population controls, the mean EQ-5D HU was similar (expected mean 0.82, p=0.58) in patients with ACS, but the mean VAS was slightly lower (expected mean 0.79, p<0.001). Patients with ACS who are younger than 60 years had lower HU than the general population (<0.001). In patients with ACS, significant differences were found according to the gender, education and employment status, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, recurrent ischaemic or incident bleeding event and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, patients with ACS with coronary angiography had HU indexes similar to a control population. Subgroup analyses based on patients' characteristics and further disease-specific instruments could provide better sensitivity for detecting smaller variations in health-related quality of life. PMID:27252878

  2. Coronary calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease: a novel endocrine disorder?

    PubMed

    Efstratiadis, Georgios; Koskinas, Konstantinos; Pagourelias, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is significantly increased among patients with end-stage renal disease. The commonly observed vascular calcification in such patients has been considered as one of the causative factors. In patients undergoing dialysis, the incidence of coronary artery calcification is 2-5 times higher compared to patients with normal renal function and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. Moreover, epidemiological studies have revealed a significant correlation of the extent of coronary artery calcification with the severity of underlying atherosclerotic lesions. Vascular calcification was initially considered as a passive process of hydroxyapatite deposition due to elevated plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence that vascular calcification is an actively regulated and cell-mediated process. This phenomenon includes phenotypic alterations of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly resulting from an imbalance between promoters (such as increased Ca x P product) and inhibitors (fetuin-A, GLA protein, osteoprotegerin) of mineral deposition. With regard to the therapeutic approach, despite the evident effectiveness of both traditional and innovative remedies in the management of metabolic and electrolytic abnormalities of patients with end-stage renal disease, an individualized intervention based on etiopathogenesis is really required.

  3. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  4. Retrograde coronary sinus versus aortic root perfusion with cold cardioplegia: randomized study of levels of cardiac enzymes in 40 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraudon, G.M.; Campbell, C.S.; McLellan, D.G.; Kostuk, W.J.; Purves, P.D.; MacDonald, J.L.; Cleland, A.G.; Tadros, N.B.

    1986-11-01

    Myocardial injury was assessed with the use of enzyme indexes in 40 patients randomly assigned to one of two groups undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Twenty patients received cold cardioplegia delivered by retrograde coronary sinus perfusion and 20 received cardioplegic solution by anterograde aortic root perfusion. Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and lactate dehydrogenese isoenzyme 1 and isoenzyme 2 assays were carried out on blood samples obtained from the coronary sinus before aortic cross-clamping and 0, 5, and 30 min after aortic unclamping. Levels of these enzymes were also obtained from venous blood samples before aortic cross-clamping and 3, 8, 14, and 20 hr after aortic unclamping and 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic measurements (Swan-Ganz catheter) and radionuclide wall motion studies were also obtained for comparison. There was no overall significant difference between the two groups postoperatively in terms of enzyme indexes, hemodynamic measurements, or results of wall motion studies. We conclude that retrograde coronary sinus perfusion is an alternative to aortic root perfusion in delivering cold cardioplegia. More studies are required to determine which subgroup of patients with coronary artery disease may benefit from retrograde coronary perfusion.

  5. Maintaining perioperative normothermia in the patient undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Lavenia; Baysinger, Curtis L

    2012-07-01

    Anesthesia and surgery interfere with normal thermoregulation, and nearly all patients will become hypothermic unless compensatory measures are used. Preoperative patient warming and intraoperative methods using forced air and warmed intravenous fluids are important methods for maintaining patient's core temperature during the perioperative period. The benefits of maintaining normothermia include reductions in postoperative wound infection, the risk of perioperative coagulopathy, and myocardial ischemia. These advantages, demonstrated in patients undergoing general surgery, would be expected in patients undergoing gynecological surgery but have not been specifically studied in that population. Few studies have examined the maternal and neonatal effects of hypothermia after cesarean delivery. The results conflict as to the effectiveness of maternal warming techniques used to prevent it and the effects on neonatal temperature and acid-base status at delivery. Large prospective studies will be required to show significant effects on rates of maternal wound infection after cesarean delivery. European and American national obstetrical organizations have not published recommendations regarding the perioperative thermal regulation for cesarean delivery. We review the physiology of thermal regulation and perioperative thermal management in surgical patients and the literature that has examined perioperative maternal warming for cesarean delivery.

  6. Association Between Hematological Indices and Coronary Calcification in Symptomatic Patients without History of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaikriangkrai, Kongkiat; Kassi, Mahwash; Alchalabi, Sama; Bala, Sayf Khaleel; Adigun, Rosalyn; Botero, Sharleen; Chang, Su Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) has long been shown to involve chronic low-grade subclinical inflammation. However, whether there is association between hematological indices assessed by complete blood count (CBC) and coronary atherosclerotic burden has not been well studied. Materials and Methods: Consecutive 868 patients without known CAD who presented with acute chest pain to emergency department and underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring evaluation by multi-detector cardiac computed tomography were included in our study. Clinical characteristics and CBC indices were compared among different CAC groups. Results: The cohort comprised 60% male with a mean age of 61 (SD = 14) years. Median Framingham risk of CAD was 4% (range 1-16%). Median CAC score was 0 (IQR 0-43). Higher CAC groups had significantly higher Framingham risk of CAD than lower CAC groups (P < 0.001). Among different CAC categories, there was no statistically significant difference in hemoglobin level (p 0.45), mean corpuscular volume (p 0.43), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p 0.28), mean corpuscular hemoglobin volume (p 0.36), red cell distribution width (0.42), total white blood cell counts (p 0.291), neutrophil counts (p 0.352), lymphocyte counts (p 0.92), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p 0.68), monocyte count (p 0.48), and platelet counts (p 0.25). Conclusion: Our study did not detect significant association between hematological indices assessed with CBC and coronary calcification in symptomatic patients without known CAD. PMID:25317386

  7. Electroacupuncture for Bladder Function Recovery in Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of electroacupuncture on recovering postanesthetic bladder function. Materials and Methods. Sixty-one patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia were recruited and allocated into electroacupuncture or control group randomly. Patients in electroacupuncture group received electroacupuncture therapy whereas ones in control group were not given any intervention. Primary endpoint was incidence of bladder overdistension and postoperative urinary retention. Secondary endpoints included time to spontaneous micturition, voided volume, and adverse events. Results. All patients (31 in electroacupuncture group and 30 in control group) completed the evaluation. During postoperative follow-up, patients in electroacupuncture group presented a significant lower proportion of bladder overdistension than counterparts in control group (16.1% versus 53.3%, P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in incidence of postoperative urinary retention between the two groups (0% versus 6.7%, P > 0.05). Furthermore, a shorter time to spontaneous micturition was found in electroacupuncture group compared to control group (228 min versus 313 min, P < 0.001), whereas urine volume and adverse events had no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions. Electroacupuncture reduced the proportion of bladder overdistension and shortened the time to spontaneous micturition in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Electroacupuncture may be a therapeutic strategy for postanesthetic bladder dysfunction. PMID:25610486

  8. Perioperative physiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important component of the perioperative period of lung resection surgery. A systematic review was conducted to assess evidence for the effectiveness of different physiotherapy interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection surgery. Online literature databases [Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, PEDro and CINAHL] were searched up until June 2013. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, compared 2 or more perioperative physiotherapy interventions or compared one intervention with no intervention, included only patients undergoing pulmonary resection for lung cancer and assessed at least 2 or more of the following variables: functional capacity parameters, postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Eight studies were selected for inclusion in this review. They included a total of 599 patients. Seven of the studies were identified as having a low risk of bias. Two studies assessed preoperative interventions, 4 postoperative interventions and the remaining 2 investigated the efficacy of interventions that were started preoperatively and then continued after surgery. The substantial heterogeneity in the interventions across the studies meant that it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. The most important finding of this systematic review is that presurgical interventions based on moderate-intense aerobic exercise in patients undergoing lung resection for lung cancer improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative morbidity, whereas interventions performed only during the postoperative period do not seem to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Nevertheless, no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Further research into the efficacy and effectiveness of perioperative respiratory physiotherapy in

  9. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin-Ru; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Shih, Chun-Che; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chan, Wan-Leong; Wu, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, Tse-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetic nephropathy and unprotected left main (LM) coronary artery disease suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although surgical revascularization is currently recommended in this special patient population, the optimal revascularization method for this distinct patient group has remained unclear. Methods We collected 99 consecutive patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, including 46 patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 53 who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with a mean age of 72 ± 10; with 80.8% male. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as overt proteinuria (proteinuria > 500 mg/day) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The baseline characteristics, angiographic results and long-term clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results The baseline characteristic of all patients were similar except for smokers, low density lipoprotein (LDL) level and extension of coronary artery disease involvement. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years. There were 73 patients (74%) considered as high risk with additive European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) ≥ 6. During follow-up period, the long term rate of all-cause death (PCI vs. CABG: 45.7% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.20) and all-cause death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke (PCI vs. CABG: 52.2% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.41) were comparable between the PCI and CABG group, whereas the repeat revascularization rate was significantly higher in the PCI group (PCI vs. CABG: 32.6% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.01). eGFR remained an independent predictor for all-cause death [hazard ratio: 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 0.99; p = 0.002] in multivariate logistic regression. Conclusions In the real-world practice of high-risk patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, we found

  10. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  11. Switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel in patients undergoing PCI: A meta-analytic overview.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated benefits of Prasugrel, a new generation thienopyridine, in the prevention of thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS), its use is still precluded to those many patients arriving to the cath lab pre-treated with Clopidogrel. Conclusive data on the strategy of switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel are still missing, therefore we aimed to perform a meta-analysis of current studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel (PS) as compared to a standard thienopyridine therapy with Clopidogrel or Prasugrel in patients undergoing PCI. Literature archives and main scientific sessions' abstracts were scanned for studies comparing a switching strategy from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel vs. Prasugrel or Clopidogrel. Primary efficacy endpoint was overall mortality. Secondary endpoints were: non-fatal myocardial infarction and definite/probable stent thrombosis. Safety endpoint was the rate of major bleedings according to a per-protocol definition. A total of 12 studies, involving 3956 patients, were included. Among them, 1396 patients (35.3%), received Prasugrel after a Clopidogrel treatment (PS), while 2560 (64.7%) received either Prasugrel or Clopidogrel. The switch from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel was in the majority of the studies periprocedural. The mortality was numerically lower, but not statistically significant, in the PS group as compared with patients who did not switch (1.7% vs. 3.8%, OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.40,1.15], p = 0.15, phet = 0.61), without any relationship with patients' risk profile (r = -0.68 [-2.09, 0.73], p = 0.35). Similar results were obtained for secondary efficacy endpoints and at sensitivity analysis in the majority of subgroups evaluated. Moreover, the PS strategy did not increase major bleedings as compared with standard therapy (1.4% vs. 2.5%, OR [95% CI = 0.70 [0.39, 1.25], p = 0.23, phet = 0.6). The present meta

  12. Respiratory management of the obese patient undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Luke E.; Murphy, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    As a reflection of the increasing global incidence of obesity, there has been a corresponding rise in the proportion of obese patients undergoing major surgery. This review reports the physiological effect of these changes in body composition on the respiratory system and discusses the clinical approach required to maximize safety and minimize the risk to the patient. The changes in respiratory system compliance and lung volumes, which can adversely affect pulmonary gas exchange, combined with upper airways obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing need to be considered carefully in the peri-operative period. Indeed, these challenges in the obese patient have led to a clear focus on the clinical management strategy and development of peri-operative pathways, including pre-operative risk assessment, patient positioning at induction and under anesthesia, modified approach to intraoperative ventilation and the peri-operative use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure. PMID:26101653

  13. [Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata Cristina Schmidt; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to classify oral mucositis according to the Common Toxicity Criterion (CTC) international parameters in head and neck tumor patients simultaneously treated with radio and chemotherapy, and characterize a patient profile in our area, observing the individuals' habits, tumor characteristics, treatment protocol and acute reaction intensity. Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous 66 to 70 Gy megavoltage radiotherapy and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Weekly evaluations of the degree of mucositis were perfoemed according to CTC, a four-degree ordinal scale; 36% of all patients and 100% of those with diabetes discontinued treatment due to mucositis, showing that this pathology contributes to the severity of mucositis.

  14. Comparison of Outcomes of Women Versus Men With Non-ST-elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Japanese Nationwide Registry).

    PubMed

    Numasawa, Yohei; Inohara, Taku; Ishii, Hideki; Kuno, Toshiki; Kodaira, Masaki; Kohsaka, Shun; Fujii, Kenshi; Uemura, Shiro; Amano, Tetsuya; Kadota, Kazushige; Nakamura, Masato

    2017-03-15

    Previous studies have reported that women have worse outcomes than men after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. However, gender-related differences in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) have not been thoroughly investigated. In the Japanese nationwide registry, a total of 43,239 patients with NSTE-ACS from 861 hospitals underwent PCI in 2014. Overall, 11,326 patients (26.2%) were women. The women were older (75.0 ± 10.3 vs 68.7 ± 11.4 years, p <0.001) and had a higher prevalence of hypertension (p <0.001), hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), and heart failure (p <0.001) compared with men. For inpatient outcomes, women had a higher rate of overall complications (3.3% vs 2.4%, p <0.001) and bleeding complications that required blood transfusion (0.6% vs 0.2%, p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, female gender was an independent predictor of overall (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; p = 0.011) and bleeding complications (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.79; p <0.001) after adjustment but was not associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.40; p = 0.747). In conclusion, in patients with NSTE-ACS who underwent PCI, women were at greater risk than men for in-hospital complications, especially in bleeding complications.

  15. [Exrercise tolerance in patients with coronary artery disease after coronary artery stenting].

    PubMed

    Tseluyko, V; Kreyndel, K; Vashakidze, Z

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate the impact of coronary stenting on exercise tolerance after 4-8 week and after 12-15 months. The study involved total 90 patients with coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary stenting. All patients underwent clinical examination, including an assessment of their condition, the frequency of angina attacks, echocardioscopy, resting ECG was recorded in all the patients in the standard 12 -lead veloergometry. Statistical processing was performed using Statistica 6.0 for Windows, the method of Wald - Wolfowitz . Data are presented as arithmetic means and error average M ± m. We used a statistical method of calculation - the median ranks (with the median calculated by the usual rules of statistics - the arithmetic mean of the central members of the ordered series). Significant differences were assessed by t-test . The level of significance was considered significant when p <0,05. According to the monitoring data of patients have a significant increase in exercise tolerance: threshold power increased by 63% and in 12-15 months by 58 % compared with the original. The duration of the test conducted after stenting increased by almost 2 -fold. In addition, significantly reduced the proportion of patients whose test results were evaluated as positive. Stenting of the coronary arteries after 4-8 weeks promotes the significant increase in exercise tolerance that persists after 12-15 months. The factors of associated with insufficient increase in exercise tolerance after stenting according veloergometry are: female gender, diabetes, smoking cessation further contributes to the increase in the threshold of physical activity.

  16. Noninvasive assessment of coronary vasodilation using cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients at high risk for coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Patricia K; Meyer, Craig; Engvall, Jan; Yang, Phillip; McConnell, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    Background Impaired coronary vasodilation to both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent stimuli have been associated with atherosclerosis. Direct measurement of coronary vasodilation using x-ray angiography or intravascular ultrasound is invasive and, thus, not appropriate for asymptomatic patients or for serial follow-up. In this study, high-resolution coronary cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was used to investigate the vasodilatory response to nitroglycerine (NTG) of asymptomatic patients at high risk for CAD. Methods A total of 46 asymptomatic subjects were studied: 13 high-risk patients [8 with diabetes mellitus (DM), 5 with end stage renal disease (ESRD)] and 33 age-matched controls. Long-axis and cross-sectional coronary artery images were acquired pre- and 5 minutes post-sublingual NTG using a sub-mm-resolution multi-slice spiral coronary CMR sequence. Coronary cross sectional area (CSA) was measured on pre- and post-NTG images and % coronary vasodilation was calculated. Results Patients with DM and ESRD had impaired coronary vasodilation to NTG compared to age-matched controls (17.8 ± 7.3% vs. 25.6 ± 7.1%, p = 0.002). This remained significant for ESRD patients alone (14.8 ± 7.7% vs. 25.6 ± 7.1%; p = 0.003) and for DM patients alone (19.8 ± 6.3% vs. 25.6 ± 7.1%; p = 0.049), with a non-significant trend toward greater impairment in the ESRD vs. DM patients (14.8 ± 7.7% vs. 19.8 ± 6.3%; p = 0.23). Conclusion Noninvasive coronary CMR demonstrates impairment of coronary vasodilation to NTG in high-risk patients with DM and ESRD. This may provide a functional indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis and warrants clinical follow up to determine prognostic significance. PMID:18513419

  17. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing pharmacoinvasive treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade Falcão, Felipe José; Alves, Cláudia Maria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Adriano Henrique Pereira; Caixeta, Adriano; Sousa, José Marconi Almeida; Souza, José Augusto Marcondes; Amaral, Amaury; Wilke, Luiz Carlos; Perez, Fátima Cristina A.; Gonçalves, Iran; Stefanini, Edson; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing pharmacoinvasive treatment. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective study that included 398 patients admitted to a tertiary center for percutaneous coronary intervention within 3 to 24 hours after thrombolysis with tenecteplase. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01791764 RESULTS: The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 5.8%. Compared with patients who survived, patients who died were more likely to be older, have higher rates of diabetes and chronic renal failure, have a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and demonstrate more evidence of heart failure (Killip class III or IV). Patients who died had significantly lower rates of successful thrombolysis (39% vs. 68%; p = 0.005) and final myocardial blush grade 3 (13.0% vs. 61.9%; p<0.0001). Based on the multivariate analysis, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.09; p = 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.89-0.97; p = 0.001), and final myocardial blush grade of 0-2 (odds ratio 8.85, 95% CI 1.34-58.57; p = 0.02) were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study that evaluated patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated by a pharmacoinvasive strategy, the in-hospital mortality rate was 5.8%. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score, left ventricular ejection fraction, and myocardial blush were independent predictors of mortality in this high-risk group of acute coronary syndrome patients. PMID:24473509

  18. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-01-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic. PMID:19209255

  19. Distribution characteristics of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Boros, L; Cacek, T; Pine, R B; Battaglia, A C

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis is described. Significant characteristics of our patient included lymphoma with liver involvement, tumor lysis syndrome, renal and hepatic failure. Combination chemotherapy consisted of mitoxantrone, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. Mitoxantrone plasma samples were obtained prior to dosing and at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, and 12 h after the intravenous infusion of a 17-mg dose over 20 min. Serum concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration versus time curve was consistent with a three-compartment model. However, rebounds in serum drug concentrations were detected during the last portion of dialysis and after its completion. The gamma elimination half-life could not be determined due to the continued detection of rebounds in drug concentrations throughout the postdialysis sampling period. The alpha and beta distribution phases did not appear to be affected by hemodialysis. The peak mitoxantrone concentration fell within the reported range. Mitoxantrone does not appear to be eliminated by hemodialysis, and dose adjustments are not needed in patients undergoing this procedure.

  20. Immediate hemodynamic response to furosemide in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, R E; Messerli, F H; deCarvalho, J G; Husserl, F E

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of furosemide on cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with end-stage renal failure, we studied ten patients undergoing hemodialysis three times a week. Arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output (indocyanine green dye) were measured in triplicate; total peripheral resistance and central blood volume were calculated by standard formulas. Hemodynamics were determined at baseline and 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) bolus injection of furosemide 60 mg. Furosemide produced a decrease in central blood volume of -13% +/- 2.2% from pretreatment values (P less than .01) that was most pronounced five minutes after injection, together with a fall in cardiac output (from 6.76 +/- 0.59 to 6.17 +/- 0.52 L/min, P less than .10). Stroke volume decreased with a maximum fall occurring after 15 minutes (from 84 +/- 7 to 79 +/- 7 mL/min, P less than .05), and total peripheral resistance increased (from 15.8 +/- 2.1 to 17.8 +/- 2.3 units, P less than .05) after furosemide. Arterial pressure and heart rate did not change. The decrease in central blood volume reflects a shift of the total blood volume from the cardiopulmonary circulation to the periphery, suggesting dilation of the peripheral venous bed. Thus, even in patients undergoing hemodialysis, furosemide acutely decreases left ventricular preload by venous dilation and should therefore prove to be beneficial in acute volume overload.

  1. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  2. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L. Objective To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Results Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose (B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug (B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval (B = −2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15–20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10–14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. Conclusions The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15–20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27826151

  3. Antithrombotic Therapy for Secondary Prevention in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongwhi; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a key risk factor for recurrent atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prothrombotic milieu that characterizes patients with DM underscores the importance of oral antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention of recurrent events in these patients. Indeed, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and the P2Y12inhibitor clopidogrel, which has represented the mainstay of treatment for many years, has significantly reduced the incidence of recurrent atherothrombotic events. However, recurrence rates in DM patients still remain high despite this treatment regimen, which may be partly related to inadequate platelet inhibition induced by standard DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel. This underpins the need for more potent antithrombotic treatment regimens for secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events in DM patients following ACS or PCI. The development of antiplatelet therapies associated with more potent oral platelet P2Y12receptor inhibition, including prasugrel and ticagrelor, as well as platelet inhibitors blocking alternative pathways, such as thrombin-mediated platelet inhibition with vorapaxar, may represent potential treatment options in DM patients. Moreover, with the introduction of the target-specific oral anticoagulants, there has been a reappraisal of the use of anticoagulation in addition to antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention in patients with ACS. This review provides an update on the recent advances and limitations of oral antithrombotic agents used for secondary prevention in DM patients following ACS or PCI.

  4. Preoperative Optimization of the Heart Failure Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Maxime; Liszkowski, Mark; Ducharme, Anique

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers. Levels of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) provide additional prognostic value and therefore should be measured. In addition, individual patient's risk should be objectively assessed using standard formulas such as the EuroSCORE-II or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores, which are simple and validated for various cardiac surgeries, including left ventricular assist device implantation. When patients are identified as high risk, preoperative hemodynamic optimization might be achieved with the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and hemodynamic-based tailored therapy. Finally, a prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump might be considered in certain circumstances to decrease morbidity and even mortality, like in some high risk heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery, whereas routine preoperative inotropes are not recommended and should be reserved for patients in shock, except maybe for levosimendan.

  5. Anomalous right coronary artery in a middle-aged patient

    PubMed Central

    Rosseel, Liesbeth; Bonnier, Hans; Sonck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An anomalous right coronary artery originating from the left sinus of Valsalva is a rare, but often incidental, finding in middle-aged to elderly people. Prevalence is difficult to define, as well as determining potential harmful hemodynamic consequences. Moreover, the optimal treatment remains debatable. Case summary: The authors present a case of a middle-aged patient diagnosed with an anomalous right coronary artery causing ischemia, who was treated surgically. Conclusion: By reviewing literature, the authors conclude that choice of treatment depends on age, symptoms, and certain anatomic features of this anomaly. However, there are no randomized trials available in this field. PMID:27930539

  6. Percutaneous coronary intervention for poor coronary microcirculation reperfusion of patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, J S; Zhao, X J; Ma, B X; Wang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been extensively applied to repair the forward flow of diseased coronary artery and can achieve significant curative results. However, some patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) develop non-perfusion or poor perfusion of cardiac muscle tissue after PCI, which increases the incidence of cardiovascular events and the death rate. PCI can dredge narrowed or infarct-related artery (IRA) and thus induce full reperfusion of ischemic myocardium. It is found in practice that some cases of AMI still have no perfusion or poor perfusion in myocardial tissue even though coronary angiography suggests opened coronary artery after PCI, which increases the incidence of vascular events and mortality. Therefore, to explore the detailed mechanism of PCI in treating coronary microcirculation of patients with stable angina pectoris, we selected 140 patients with stable angina pectoris for PCI, observing the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) of descending branch and changes of myocardial injury markers and left ventricular systolic function, and made a subgroup analysis based on the correlation between clinical indexes, IMR and other variables of diabetic and non-diabetic patients, PCI-related and non-PCI-related myocardial infarction patients. The results suggest that IMR of anterior descending branch after PCI was higher compared to that before PCI, and the difference was significant (P less than 0.05); creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), myohemoglobin and high sensitive troponin T were all increased after PCI, and the difference was also significant (P less than 0.05); brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level became higher after PCI, with significant difference (P less than 0.05); left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) declined after PCI, and the difference before and after PCI was statistically significant (P less than 0.05). Moreover, subgroup analysis results of the three groups all demonstrated statistically significant

  7. [Coronary artery disease in patient 80 years and older].

    PubMed

    Hanon, Olivier

    2008-09-30

    The prevalence of coronary artery disease increases with age. Its clinical presentation is even less typical and its prognosis even more severe that it occurs in frail subjects with several co-morbidities. These atypical symptoms are often associated with a delayed diagnosis and therapy. The presence of comorbidities requires a comprehensive geriatric assessment to detect the existence of "frailty". Evidence based medicine available for coronary artery disease is based on studies that involve very few subjects over 80 years and recommendations are extrapolated from data based on evidence obtained in younger populations. Basically the strategy of treatments of coronary artery disease in octogenarians remains identical to the youngest subject. However, epidemiological studies indicate an under-prescription of recommended drugs whereas this older population is likely to derive the greatest benefit because of its elevated cardiovascular risk. Cautions for use of cardio-vascular therapies are necessary in octogenarian people because of comorbidities and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes related to aging. Globally, the therapeutic strategy of coronary artery disease should be based not on the age but on an individual analysis that takes into account the severity of coronary artery disease, the existence of comorbidities, the iatrogenic risk, the expectancy and the quality of life of the patient.

  8. Unroofed coronary sinus in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Luciano Pereira; Meyer, Maria Rita F.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Trevisan, Patrícia; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the uncommon association between neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and unroofed coronary sinus. CASE DESCRIPTION: Girl with four years and six months old who was hospitalized for heart surgery. The cardiac problem was discovered at four months of life. On physical examination, the patient presented several café-au-lait spots in the trunk and the limbs and freckling of the axillary and groin regions. Her father had similar skin findings, suggesting the NF1 diagnosis. The cardiac evaluation by echocardiography disclosed an atrial septal defect of unroofed coronary sinus type. This cardiac finding was confirmed at surgery. The procedure consisted of the atrial septal defect repair with autologous pericardium. COMMENTS: NF1 is a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the NF1 gene. Among the NF1 findings, congenital heart defects are considered unusual. In the literature review, there was no association between NF1 and unroofed coronary sinus, which is a rare cardiac malformation, characterized by a communication between the coronary sinus and the left atrium, resultant from the partial or total absence of the coronary sinus roof. It represents less than 1% of atrial septal defect cases. More reports are important to determine if this association is real or merely casual, since NF1 is a common condition. PMID:24473962

  9. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  10. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  11. Coronary artery compliance and adaptive vessel remodelling in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeremias, A; Spies, C; Herity, N; Pomerantsev, E; Yock, P; Fitzgerald, P; Yeung, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that patients with unstable coronary syndromes show accentuated compensatory vessel enlargement compared with patients with stable angina, and that this may in part be related to increased coronary artery distensibility.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS—In 23 patients with unstable coronary syndromes (10 with non-Q wave myocardial infarction and 13 with unstable angina), the culprit lesion was investigated by intravascular ultrasound before intervention. The vessel cross sectional area (VA), lumen area (LA), and plaque area (VA minus LA) were measured at end diastole and end systole at the lesion site and at the proximal and distal reference segments. Similar measurements were made in 23 patients with stable angina admitted during the same period and matched for age, sex, and target vessel. Calculations were made of remodelling index (VA at lesion site ÷ VA at reference site), distensibility index ([(ΔA/A)/ΔP] × 103, where ΔA is the luminal area change in systole and diastole and ΔP the difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured at the tip of the guiding catheter during a cardiac cycle), and stiffness index β ([ln(Psys/Pdias)]/(ΔD/D), where Psys is systolic pressure, Pdias is diastolic pressure, and ΔD is the difference between systolic and diastolic lumen diameters). Positive remodelling was defined as when the VA at the lesion was > 1.05 times larger than at the proximal reference site, and negative remodelling when the VA at the lesion was < 0.95 of the reference site.
RESULTS—Mean (SD) LA at the lesion site was similar in both groups (4.03 (1.8) v 4.01 (1.93) mm2), while plaque area was larger in the unstable group (13.29 (4.04) v 8.34 (3.6) mm2, p < 0.001). Remodelling index was greater in the unstable group (1.14 (0.18) v 0.83 (0.15), p < 0.001). Positive remodelling was observed in 15 patients in the unstable group (65%) but in only two (9%) in the stable group (p < 0

  12. Predicting Infected Bile Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, Shannon L.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Patel, Aalpen; Freiman, David B.; Soulen, Michael C.; Stavropoulos, S. William; Clark, Timothy W.I.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Patients may not achieve a clinical benefit after percutaneous cholecystostomy due to the inherent difficulty in identifying patients who truly have infected gallbladders. We attempted to identify imaging and biochemical parameters which would help to predict which patients have infected gallbladders. Methods. A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy for clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis in whom bile culture results were available. Multiple imaging and biochemical variables were examined alone and in combination as predictors of infected bile, using logistic regression. Results. Of the 52 patients, 25 (48%) had infected bile. Organisms cultured included Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Citrobacter and Candida. No biochemical parameters were significantly predictive of infected bile; white blood cell count >15,000 was weakly associated with greater odds of infected bile (odds ratio 2.0, p = NS). The presence of gallstones, sludge, gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid by ultrasound or CT were not predictive of infected bile, alone or in combination, although a trend was observed among patients with CT findings of acute cholecystitis toward a higher 30-day mortality. Radionuclide scans were performed in 31% of patients; all were positive and 66% of these patients had infected bile. Since no patient who underwent a radionuclide scan had a negative study, this variable could not be entered into the regression model due to collinearity. Conclusion. No single CT or ultrasound imaging variable was predictive of infected bile, and only a weak association of white blood cell count with infected bile was seen. No other biochemical parameters had any association with infected bile. The ability of radionuclide scanning to predict infected bile was higher than that of ultrasound or CT. This study illustrates the continued challenge to identify bacterial cholecystitis

  13. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  14. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing electrophysiological device surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural

  15. Simultaneous thrombosis of multiple coronary arteries in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kalayci, Arzu; Arslan, Erol; Bakar, Salih Murat; Guneri, Mahmut; Dizman, Rafet; Kivanc, Eylem; Karabay, Can Yucel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of simultaneous coronary thrombosis of the left main, the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery in a patient, recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27489603

  16. Incidental adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for stricturing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083

  17. Lasting monitoring of immune state in patients with coronary atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Immune state monitoring is an expensive, invasive and sometimes difficult necessity in patients with different disorders. Immune reaction dynamics study in patients with coronary atherosclerosis provides one of the leading components to complication development, clinical course prognosis and treatment and rehabilitation tactics. We've chosen intravenous glucose injection as metabolic irritant in the following four groups of patients: men with proved coronary atherosclerosis (CA), non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), men hereditary burden by CA and NIDDM and practically healthy persons with longlivers in generation. Immune state parameters such as quantity of leukocytes and lymphocytes, circulating immune complexes levels, serum immunoglobulin levels, HLA antigen markers were studied at 0, 30 and 60 minutes during glucose loading. To obtain continues time function of studied parameters received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree with after going first derivatives. Time functions analyze elucidate principally different dynamics studied parameters in all chosen groups of patients, which couldn't be obtained from discontinuous data compare. Leukocyte and lymphocyte levels dynamics correlated HLA antigen markers in all studied groups. Analytical estimation of immune state in patients with coronary atherosclerosis shows the functional "margin of safety" of immune system state under glucose disturbance. Proposed method of analytical estimation also can be used in immune system monitoring in other groups of patients.

  18. Predictive value of elevated D-dimer in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Akgul, Ozgur; Uyarel, Huseyin; Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Gul, Mehmet; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Turen, Selahattin; Erturk, Mehmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Cetin, Mustafa; Bulut, Umit; Baycan, Omer F; Uslu, Nevzat

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of D-dimer in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prognostic value of D-dimer has been documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, its value in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. We prospectively enrolled 453 consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 55.6 ± 12.4 years, 364 male, 89 female) undergoing primary PCI. The study population was divided into tertiles based on admission D-dimer values. The high D-dimer group (n = 151) was defined as a value in the third tertile [>0.72 ug/ml fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU)], and the low D-dimer group (n = 302) included those patients with a value in the lower two tertiles (≤0.72 ug/ml FEU). Clinical characteristics, in-hospital and 6-month outcomes of primary PCI were analyzed. The patients of the high D-dimer group were older (mean age 60.1 ± 13.5 versus 52.4 ± 10.6, P < 0.001). Higher in-hospital cardiovascular mortality and 6-month all-cause mortality rates were observed in the high D-dimer group (7.2 versus 0.6%, P < 0.001 and 13.9 versus 2%, P < 0.001, respectively). In Cox multivariate analysis; a high admission D-dimer value (>0.72 ug/ml FEU) was found to be a powerful independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality (odds ratio: 10.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-42.73, P = 0.03). These results suggest that a high admission D-dimer, level was associated with increased in-hospital cardiovascular mortality and 6-month all-cause mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  19. Value of extended warming in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasfie, Tarik J; Barber, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative temperature management is imperative for positive surgical outcomes. This study assessed the clinical and wellbeing benefits of extending normothermia by using a portable warming gown. A total of 94 patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. They were randomized pre-operatively to either a portable warming gown or the standard warming procedure. The warming gown stayed with patients from pre-op to operating room to postrecovery room discharge. Core temperature was tracked throughout the study. Patients also provided responses to a satisfaction and comfort status survey. The change in average core temperature did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.23). A nonsignificant 48% relative decrease in hypothermic events was observed for the extended warming group (P = 0.12). Patients receiving the warming gown were more likely to report always having their temperature controlled (P = 0.04) and significantly less likely to request additional blankets for comfort (P = 0.006). Clinical outcomes and satisfaction were improved for patients with extended warming.

  20. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  1. Effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Verani, M.S.; Tortoledo, F.E.; Batty, J.W.; Raizner, A.E.

    1985-05-01

    The effects of coronary artery recanalization by intracoronary administration of streptokinase on left ventricular function during acute myocardial infarction have received increasing attention in recent years. Although myocardial dysfunction is often more pronounced in the right ventricle than in the left ventricle in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, the effect of coronary artery recanalization on right ventricular dysfunction has not been previously addressed. Accordingly, in this investigation, 54 patients who participated in a prospective, controlled, randomized trial of recanalization during acute myocardial infarction were studied. Among 30 patients with inferior wall infarction, 19 had right ventricular dysfunction on admission; 11 of these 19 had positive uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the right ventricle, indicative of right ventricular infarction. Patients with successful recanalization exhibited improved right ventricular ejection fraction from admission to day 10. However, control patients and patients who did not undergo recanalization also exhibited improvement. These data indicate that the right ventricular dysfunction commonly associated with inferior wall infarction is often transient, and improvement is the rule, irrespective of early recanalization of the infarct vessel.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Wildfeuer, A; Müller, V; Springsklee, M; Sonntag, H G

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, were investigated in 16 patients undergoing prosthetic cardiac valve insertion. The combination of 2 g of ampicillin and 1 g of sulbactam was administered as perioperative prophylaxis intravenously over 3 to 6 days. Several serum pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for the two drugs after three intravenous doses were given to patients following surgery. The half-lives of elimination of ampicillin and sulbactam were 79 +/- 4.9 and 88 +/- 5.9 min, the volumes of distribution were 15.6 +/- 1.4 and 17.7 +/- 1.2 liters/70 kg, and the total plasma clearances were 144.4 +/- 14.5 and 147.2 +/- 14.5 ml/min, respectively. The peak concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum were calculated to be 134.3 +/- 1.3 and 58.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Ampicillin and sulbactam rapidly penetrated from the blood into various tissues collected during heart surgery, such as sternum, pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The concentrations of ampicillin in tissue ranged from 17.8 +/- 9.9 to 50 +/- 29.5 micrograms/g, and those of sulbactam in tissue ranged from 8.8 +/- 6.2 to 19.6 +/- 10.1 micrograms/g. The concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and tissue also apparently exceeded the MICs against most beta-lactamase-producing bacteria usually involved in postoperative wound infections and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The ratio of the two compounds was approximately 2:1 in serum and in the various tissues affected by the operation. The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and investigated tissues suggest that the combination of the two beta-lactams will be effective in the perioperative prophylaxis of patients undergoing heart surgery. PMID:1952846

  3. Coronary artery calcification is inversely related to body morphology in patients with significant coronary artery disease: a three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study

    PubMed Central

    Dangas, George D.; Maehara, Akiko; Evrard, Solene M.; Sartori, Samantha; Li, Jennifer R.; Chirumamilla, Amala P.; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Gukathasan, Nilusha; Hassanin, Ahmed; Baber, Usman; Fahy, Martin; Fuster, Valentin; Mintz, Gary S.; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Emerging data have indicated unexpected complexity in the regulation of vascular and bone calcification. In particular, several recent studies have challenged the concept of a universally positive relationship between body morphology [weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA)] and the extent of vascular calcification. We sought to clarify these discrepancies and investigated the relationship between index lesion coronary artery calcification (CAC) and body morphology in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods and results We analysed CAC in patients who underwent PCI with pre-intervention IVUS imaging. The main outcome measure was the calcium index (CalcIndex); a three-dimensional IVUS-derived measure of total calcification per obstructive coronary lesion. A total of 346 patients (65.3 ± 10.6 years; 29.5% females) underwent PCI with IVUS-based CAC assessment. CalcIndex was categorized as zero–low (0–0.1399; n = 152) or intermediate–high (0.1400–1.2541; n = 194). All measures of body morphology were lower in patients with intermediate–high CalcIndex (height, P = 0.024; weight, P = 0.008; BMI, P = 0.064; BSA, P = 0.005). In adjusted multivariable models, weight and BSA were independent inverse predictors of intermediate–high CalcIndex [weight: odds ratio (OR) 0.986, P = 0.017; BSA: OR 0.323, P = 0.012] while CalcIndex also trended towards an inverse association with both height (P = 0.068) and BMI (P = 0.064). These independent inverse associations were consistent across multiple clinical subgroups, including stratification by age, race, gender, diabetes, and renal impairment. Conclusion Using three-dimensional IVUS to assess vascular calcification, these data confirm an independent, inverse relationship between body size and index lesion CAC in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. PMID:23904334

  4. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LIFE QUALITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963

  5. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-03-19

    Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. Results A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate

  6. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  7. Contemporary sex differences among patients with acute coronary syndrome treated by emergency percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Tsuboi, Shuta; Konishi, Hirokazu; Shitara, Jun; Kunimoto, Mitsuhiro; Sonoda, Taketo; Iso, Takashi; Ebina, Hideki; Aoki, Eriko; Kitamura, Kenichi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Suwa, Satoru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-08

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in the general population. Recent advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and optimal medical treatment have helped to improve the prognosis of patients with ACS. The previous reports indicated that women with ACS have a higher risk of adverse outcomes. However, sex differences in clinical outcomes with contemporary coronary revascularization and medical therapy for ACS have not been elucidated. We analyzed data from 676 consecutive patients with ACS (female, n = 166; male, n = 510) who were treated by emergency PCI between 2011 and 2014 at Juntendo Shizuoka Hospital. The patients were grouped according to sex. We defined major adverse cardiovascular events as a composite of all-cause death and ACS recurrence at 1 year and compared rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) between the groups. Women were older (75.4 ± 11.0 vs. 66.2 ± 12.2 years) and had a higher rate of multi-vessel disease, chronic kidney disease, and Killip IV at presentation. The cumulative rate of MACE at 1 year was significantly higher among women than men (17.5 vs. 10.2 %, p = 0.02, log-rank test). However, the association between women and a higher risk of MACE was attenuated after adjusting for age (HR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.77-2.00, p = 0.36) and other variables (HR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.36-2.44, p = 0.88). Adjustment for age and other risk factors attenuated sex differences in mid-term clinical outcomes among patients with ACS after emergency PCI.

  8. Pooled Analysis Comparing the Efficacy of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Abciximab in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Eitel, Ingo; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg; Gu, Youlan L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; de Smet, Bart J G L; Esposito, Giovanni; Windecker, Stephan; Thiele, Holger; Piscione, Federico

    2016-12-15

    Cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may present different response to potent antithrombotic therapy compared to nonsmokers. We assessed the impact of smoking status and intracoronary abciximab in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We pooled data from 5 randomized trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab bolus in patients undergoing primary PCI. The primary end point was the composite of death or reinfarction at a mean follow-up of 292 ± 138 days. Of 3,158 participants, 1,369 (43.3%) were smokers, and they had a lower risk of the primary end point in crude, but not in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.21, p = 0.405). Intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of primary end point among smokers (3.6% vs 8.0%; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72, p = 0.001), but not in nonsmokers (10.2% vs 9.9%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.36, p = 0.96), with a significant interaction (p = 0.009). Furthermore, intracoronary abciximab decreased the risk of reinfarction in smokers (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62, p = 0.001), with no difference in nonsmokers (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.01, p = 0.50). Stent thrombosis was lowered by intracoronary abciximab in smokers (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.66, p = 0.009), but was ineffective in nonsmokers (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.00, p = 0.903). Interaction testing showed heterogeneity in treatment effect for reinfarction (p = 0.002) and stent thrombosis (p = 0.018) according to smoking status. In conclusion, among patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, smoking status did not affect the adjusted risk of clinical events. Intracoronary abciximab bolus improved clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of death or reinfarction.

  9. Postoperative urinary retention in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Altschul, David; Kobets, Andrew; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jada, Ajit; Nasser, Rani; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza; Houten, John

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common problem leading to morbidity and an increased hospital stay. There are limited data regarding its baseline incidence in patients undergoing spinal surgery and the risk factors with which it may be associated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POUR in elective spine surgery patients and determine the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery and had been prospectively monitored for POUR during an 18-month period. Collected data included operative positioning, surgery duration, volume of intraoperative fluid, length of hospital stay, and patient characteristics such as age, sex, and medical comorbidities. Dialysis patients or those with complete urinary retention preoperatively were excluded from analysis. RESULTS Of the 397 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 35 (8.8%) developed POUR. An increased incidence of POUR was noted in those who underwent posterior lumbar surgery, those with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), those with chronic constipation or prior urinary retention, and those using a patient-controlled analgesia pump postoperatively. An increased incidence of POUR was seen with a longer operative time but not with intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. A significant relationship between the female sex and POUR was noted after controlling for BPH, yet there was no association between POUR and diabetes or intraoperative instrumentation. Postoperative retention significantly prolonged the hospital stay. Three patients developed epidural hematomas necessitating operative reexploration, and while they experienced POUR, they also developed the full constellation of cauda equina syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Awareness of the risk factors for POUR may be useful in perioperative Foley catheter management and in identifying patients who need particular

  10. Coronary Spasm in Neurosurgical Patients and Role of Trigeminocardiac Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, Nora; Cappellani, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. PMID:24587903

  11. Intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) reduces postoperative anaemia in preoperatively non-anaemic patients undergoing elective or subacute coronary artery bypass graft, valve replacement or a combination thereof: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial (the PROTECT trial)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, P I; Rasmussen, A S; Thomsen, L L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This trial explores whether intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 (Monofer®) results in a better regeneration of haemoglobin levels and prevents anaemia compared to placebo in preoperative non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Study Design and Methods The trial is a prospective, double-blind, comparative, placebo-controlled trial of 60 non-anaemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The patients were randomized 1:1 to either 1000 mg intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 administered perioperatively by infusion or placebo. Results Mean preoperative haemoglobin in the active treatment group was 14·3 g/dl vs. 14·0 g/dl in the placebo group. At discharge 5 days after surgery, haemoglobin levels were reduced to 10·7 and 10·5 g/dl, respectively. One month after surgery, haemoglobin concentration had increased to an average of 12·6 g/dl vs. 11·8 g/dl (p = 0·012) and significantly more patients were non-anaemic in the intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000-treated group compared to the placebo group (38·5% vs. 8·0%; p = 0·019). There were no differences in side-effects between the groups. Conclusion A single perioperative 1000 mg dose of intravenous iron isomaltoside 1000 significantly increased the haemoglobin level and prevented anaemia 4 weeks after surgery, with a short-term safety profile similar to placebo. Future trials on potential clinical benefits of preoperative treatment with intravenous iron in non-anaemic patients are needed. PMID:25900643

  12. Myoinositol Improves Embryo Development in PCOS Patients Undergoing ICSI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of myoinositol, in a court of 217 PCOS women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), on pregnancy rate, embryo development, estradiol, and progesterone concentration in blood serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in follicular fluid. Concerning the court of patient, 112 (groups I and II) out of 217 were PCOS women, whereas group III consisted of healthy subjects (not PCOS). Group I patients were treated with 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI, whereas group II patients received 4000 mg of myoinositol and 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI. Group II revealed a shorter embryo/blastocyst development period between microinjection and 5-cell stage compared to group I. The difference in SOD concentration between groups I and II and between groups II and III was statistically significant. In group II, 34.62% of pregnancies were obtained, whereas in group I this number reached 20% (NS). Myoinositol increased embryo development dynamics and accelerated blastocyst stage reaching time; however, no effect was shown on clinical pregnancy. Furthermore, it restored SOD concentration, lowered in PCOS women, but did not exert any effect on CAT concentration. PMID:27777587

  13. Prospective Coronary Heart Disease Screening in Asymptomatic Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Using Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Results and Risk Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, Theodore; M’Kacher, Radhia; Koscielny, Serge; Elfassy, Eric; Raoux, François; Carde, Patrice; Santos, Marcos Dos; Margainaud, Jean-Pierre; Sabatier, Laure; Paul, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the coronary artery status using coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with combined modalities and mediastinal irradiation. Methods and Materials: All consecutive asymptomatic patients with Hodgkin lymphoma entered the study during follow-up, from August 2007 to May 2012. Coronary CT angiography was performed, and risk factors were recorded along with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measurements. Results: One hundred seventy-nine patients entered the 5-year study. The median follow-up was 11.6 years (range, 2.1-40.2 years), and the median interval between treatment and the CCTA was 9.5 years (range, 0.5-40 years). Coronary artery abnormalities were demonstrated in 46 patients (26%). Coronary CT angiography abnormalities were detected in nearly 15% of the patients within the first 5 years after treatment. A significant increase (34%) occurred 10 years after treatment (P=.05). Stenoses were mostly nonostial. Severe stenoses were observed in 12 (6.7%) of the patients, entailing surgery with either angioplasty with stent placement or bypass grafting in 10 of them (5.5%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age at treatment, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, as well as radiation dose to the coronary artery origins, were prognostic factors. In the group of patients with LTL measurements, hypertension and LTL were the only independent risk factors. Conclusions: The findings suggest that CCTA can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk of acute coronary artery disease who might require either preventive or curative measures. Conventional risk factors and the radiation dose to coronary artery origins were independent prognostic factors. The prognostic value of LTL needs further investigation.

  14. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  15. Outcomes of Brugada Syndrome Patients with Coronary Artery Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Kujime, Shingo; Sakurada, Harumizu; Saito, Naoki; Enomoto, Yoshinari; Ito, Naoshi; Nakamura, Keijiro; Fukamizu, Seiji; Tejima, Tamotsu; Yambe, Yuzuru; Nishizaki, Mitsuhiro; Noro, Mahito; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Sugi, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcomes of patients with concomitant Brugada syndrome and coronary artery vasospasm. Methods Patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome with an implantable cardiac defibrillator were retrospectively investigated, and the coexistence of vasospasm was evaluated. The clinical features and outcomes were evaluated, especially in patients with coexistent vasospasm. A provocation test using acetylcholine was performed in patients confirmed to have no organic stenosis on percutaneous coronary angiography to confirm the presence of vasospasm. Implantable cardiac defibrillator shock status was checked every three months. Statistical comparisons of the groups with and without vasospasm were performed. A univariate analysis was also performed, and the odds ratio for the risk of implantable cardiac defibrillator shock was calculated. Patients Thirty-five patients with Brugada syndrome, of whom six had coexistent vasospasm. Results There were no significant differences in the laboratory data, echocardiogram findings, disease, or the history of taking any drugs between patients with and without vasospasm. There were significant differences in the clinical features of Brugada syndrome, i.e. cardiac events such as resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation or appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock. Four patients with vasospasm had cardiac events such as resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation and/or appropriate defibrillator shock; three of them had no cardiac events with calcium channel blocker therapy to prevent vasospasm. The coexistence of vasospasm was a potential risk factor for an appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (odds ratio: 13.5, confidence interval: 1.572-115.940, p value: 0.035) on a univariate analysis. Conclusion Coronary artery vasospasm could be a risk factor for cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome. PMID:28090040

  16. Primary coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Popma, J J; Chuang, Y C; Satler, L F; Kleiber, B; Leon, M B

    1994-01-01

    In some patients with acute myocardial infarction, thrombolytic therapy may be limited by its failure to reperfuse the occluded artery, by recurrent ischemia (despite initially successful reperfusion), and by major hemorrhagic complications. Primary coronary angioplasty may circumvent these limitations. This article reviews the results of primary angioplasty reported in patients with myocardial infarction and makes recommendations for its use. The review includes pertinent articles found in the English language literature from July 1987 to July 1993 on MEDLINE. Nonrandomized series of primary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction have demonstrated high procedural success rates (86% to 99%) and infrequent recurrent ischemia (4%). Two randomized trials comparing primary angioplasty and thrombolytic therapy have shown that primary angioplasty results in lower mortality, less recurrent ischemia, shorter length of hospital stay, and improved left ventricular function. Two other randomized studies have shown little benefit from primary angioplasty on myocardial salvage, recurrent ischemia, or ventricular function. One major limitation of primary angioplasty is that it requires 24-hour availability of a catheterization laboratory and experienced surgical personnel. Primary angioplasty may be the preferred approach in patients with extensive myocardial infarction who have immediate (< 120 min) access to a cardiac catheterization laboratory with experienced personnel. Patients having 1) contraindications to thrombolytic therapy, 2) cardiogenic shock, 3) prior coronary bypass surgery, or 4) "stuttering" onset of pain may also benefit from primary angioplasty. Poor candidates for this procedure are those with a small myocardial infarction, those in whom undue delays in access to a cardiac catheterization facility would be expected, or those with complex coronary anatomy, including left main coronary artery disease. PMID:8061539

  17. Medical personnel and patient dosimetry during coronary angiography and intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P.; Makrygiannis, Stamatis S.; Kottou, Sofia; Karvouni, Evangelia; Giazitzoglou, Eleftherios; Korovesis, Socrates; Tzanalaridou, Efthalia; Raptou, Panagiota D.; Katritsis, Demosthenes G.

    2003-09-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions are associated with increased radiation exposure compared to most radiological examinations. This prospective study aimed at (1) measuring entrance doses for all in-room personnel, (2) performing an assessment of patient effective dose and intracoronary doses, (3) investigating the contribution of each projection to kerma-area product (KAP) and irradiation time, (4) comparing results with established DRL values in this clinical setting and (5) estimating the risk for fatal cancer to patients and operators. Measurements were performed during 40 consecutive procedures of coronary angiography (CA), half of which were followed by ad hoc coronary angioplasty (PTCA). KAP measurements were used for patients and thermoluminescent dosimetry for the in-room personnel. The mean KAP value per procedure for CA was 29 +/- 9 Gy cm2. Thirty four per cent of KAP was due to fluoroscopy, whereas the remainder (66%) was due to digital cine. Accordingly, the mean KAP value per PTCA procedure was 75 +/- 30 Gy cm2, and contribution of fluoroscopy is 57%. Effective dose per year was estimated to be 0.04-0.05 mSv y-1 for the primary operator, and 0.03-0.04 mSv y-1 for those assisting. Corresponding measurements for radiographer and nurse were below detectable level, implying minimal radiation hazards for them. Regarding radiation exposure, coronary intervention is considered a quite safe procedure for both patients and personnel in laboratories with modern equipment and experienced operators as long as standard safety precautions are considered. Exposure optimization though should be constantly sought through continuous review of procedures.

  18. The burden of bowel preparations in patients undergoing elective colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    El Reda, Zeinab D; Harb, Ali H; Abou Fadel, Carla G; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Abou Mrad, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate bowel preparation is an important quality measure for optimal colonoscopy. Aims The aim of this article is to study the burden of bowel preparations by examining seven specific variables (hunger, taste, volume, sleep, social, work, and adverse events (AEs)). Methods Ambulatory patients undergoing elective colonoscopy completed a questionnaire regarding their experience with the prescribed preparation. The seven study variables were graded using a numerical scale of 0–10 (best to worst). A score >6 was considered to indicate a significant impact and used as primary outcome. Patients were also asked to grade in descending order what they perceived as the worst aspect of the preparation. Results A total of 216 patients completed the survey. Preparations consisted of split-dose sodium picosulfate (SPS) (n = 49), split-dose 4 l PEG ± menthol (n = 49), full-dose PEG (n = 68), and 2 l split-dose PEG + ascorbic acid (n = 50). Except for work and AEs, all variables were considered to have a negative impact by >20% of patients (range 20.4–34.2). SPS was superior to PEG regimens in taste (4.1% vs. 35.9%) and volume (0% vs. 44.9%) (p < 0.05 for both) but inferior for hunger (30.6% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.09). The addition of menthol to PEG significantly improved taste (22.4% vs. 41.5%; p = 0.02). Sleep disturbances were most common with SPS and least with split-dose PEG (30.6% vs. 17.4%; p < 0.05). Overall, patients ranked volume, taste, and hunger as most burdensome. Conclusions The burden of bowel preparation is substantial. An informed personalized choice of preparation may improve adherence, tolerability and colon cleansing. PMID:27087962

  19. Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Prescribing Patterns for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Erin A; Ackman, Margaret L; Graham, Michelle M; Koshman, Sheri L; Boswell, Rosaleen M; Barry, Arden R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines recommend triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT), defined as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel, and warfarin, for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. The choice of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy in this population is ambiguous and complex, and prescribing patterns are not well documented. Objective: To characterize local prescribing patterns for anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: A chart review was conducted at a single quaternary cardiology centre. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were identified via medical records, and those who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified using a local clinical patient registry. Adult inpatients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and a CHADS2 score (based on congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke) of 1 or higher who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2011 to 2013 were included. Patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement, those with mechanical devices requiring anticoagulation, and those with an allergy to any component of TAT were excluded. Results: Seventy patients were included. The median age was 75 years, and 52 (74%) were men. At discharge, 30 (43%) were receiving TAT and 27 (39%) were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel and ASA). No patients received the combination of warfarin and clopidogrel. Among those who received TAT, 90% (19 of 21) who received a bare metal stent had a recommended duration of 1 month, and 75% (6 of 8) who received a drug-eluting stent had a recommended duration of 1 year. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants with 2 antiplatelet drugs were prescribed for 9% (6 of 70) of the patients, and 10% (7 of 70) received ticagrelor and ASA

  20. Urgent Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in a Patient with Postinfarction Angina and Active Myelomonocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Samuel Anthony; Galea, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm affecting the production and differentiation of the monocyte cell lineage. Cardiac surgery in the context of CMML poses challenges that are not routinely encountered. This is the first reported case in the literature of a patient with active CMML undergoing urgent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. A 68-year-old Caucasian man with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, hypothyroidism, and hypercholesterolaemia, who had been diagnosed by the haematologists with CMML a few months earlier but had remained untreated, underwent urgent surgical coronary revascularisation because of postinfarction angina following a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction associated with troponin I rise. The patient had fulminant postoperative myelomonocytic leukaemoid reaction, with a clinical picture of severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This led to extensive vasodilation and heart failure that resulted in the death of the patient. Various authors have suggested different techniques and treatment options, each attempting to mitigate the effect of the postoperative inflammatory response. However, this is a high-risk endeavour with a myriad of inflammatory signals mobilised into action because of the surgical insult. Off-pump surgery or preoperative pharmacological attenuation of CMML activity might have dampened this response and resulted in a positive outcome for the patient. PMID:27990115

  1. Heart rate and outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing major noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Biccard, B M

    2008-07-01

    There is an increasing awareness that an elevated resting heart rate is associated with increased all-cause mortality in the general population and that this may be an independent coronary risk factor This review was undertaken to determine whether heart rate is predictive of increased mortality and major morbidity in noncardiac surgical patients and whether heart rate manipulation improves perioperative outcome. A search of Medline from 1966 until October 2007 was conducted using the terms "heart rate", "surgery", "cardiac", "morbidity", "mortality" and "perioperative". The main findings were that an elevated perioperative heart rate, an absolute increase in heart rate and heart rate lability are independent predictors of both short- and long-term adverse outcomes in patients at cardiovascular risk undergoing major noncardiac surgery. Although prospective nonrandomised and retrospective data suggest heart rate control improves perioperative outcome, there is conflicting evidence from randomised trials that perioperative heart rate control improves outcome. This may be because drug-associated bradycardia influences mortality in the perioperative period. Further studies reporting the absolute heart rate, the absolute change of heart rate and the time period of the observations are needed to identify 'early warning systems', which may allow earlier triage and improved outcome. Enthusiasm for this approach must be tempered by the appreciation that a J-shaped relationship probably exists between heart rate and morbidity, particularly following bradycardic therapy. Therefore, any bradycardic manipulation of heart rate in the perioperative period must be accompanied by simultaneous attention to other physiological variables associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

  2. Multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable angina: a common approach? Lessons learned from the EHS PCI registry.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Möllmann, Helge; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Nef, Holger; Weidinger, Franz; Zahn, Ralf; Hamm, Christian W; Marco, Jean; Gitt, Anselm K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, procedural details, and outcomes of patients undergoing elective multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in Europe. A total of 7113 patients with stable coronary artery disease and at least two major epicardial vessels with ≥ 70% stenosis were included in this analysis of the contemporary Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 3376, 47.5%) were compared with those with single-vessel PCI (SV-PCI) (n = 3737, 52.5%). Patients with MV-PCI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, whereas those with SV-PCI more often suffered from noncardiac comorbidities. Hospital mortality (0.1% vs 0.3%) and the incidence of nonfatal postprocedural myocardial infarction (1.0% vs 0.7%) were low in patients with MV-PCI and SV-PCI. In the multivariate analysis, no significant difference in the incidence of hospital death (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-1.27) could be observed between the two groups. However, the risk for postprocedural myocardial infarction (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.93-2.67) tended to be higher among patients undergoing MV-PCI. Independent determinants for performing MV-PCI were age, comorbidities, and coronary anatomy. In Europe almost half of all patients with multivessel disease were treated with MV-PCI. Hospital complications were low, but a trend toward a higher rate of postprocedural myocardial infarctions was seen in patients with MV-PCI.

  3. Preoperative laxity in osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideo; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kiga, Hiroshi; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A preoperative quantitative evaluation of soft tissues is helpful for planning total knee arthroplasty, in addition to the conventional clinical examinations involved in moving the knee manually. We evaluated preoperative coronal laxity with osteoarthritis in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty by applying a force of 150 N with an arthrometer. We examined a consecutive series of 120 knees in 102 patients. The median laxity was 0° in abduction and 8° in adduction. The femorotibial angle on non-weight-bearing standard anteroposterior radiographs was 180° and correlated with both abduction (r = −0.244, p = 0.007) and adduction (r = 0.205, p = 0.025) laxity. The results of a regression analysis suggested that the femorotibial angle is helpful for estimating both laxities. Considering the many reports on how to obtain well-balanced soft tissues, stress radiographs might help to improve the preoperative planning for gaining the optimal laxity deemed appropriate by surgeons. PMID:17938923

  4. [Panniculitis in patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Feki, Nabil Bel; Khanfir, Monia Smiti; Ghorbel, Imed Ben; Said, Fatma; Houman, Mohamed Habib

    2016-01-01

    Panniculitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM). The appearance of panniculitis during treatment with methotrexate (MTX) is exceptional and has only been described in 3 cases. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman suffering from DM since 1997 who was treated with corticosteroids showing favorable clinical and biological evolution. When a relapse occurred 2 years later, she was treated with higher-dose of corticosteroids in combination with a 7,5 mg weekly dose of methotrexate. The evolution was rapidly favorable. Eighteen months later, the patient had multiple subcutaneous nodules on limbs and buttocks. Anatomopathological examination showed panniculitis. There was no evidence supporting progression in DM. Prednisone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/kg/day, always in combination with MTX, without any clear signs of improvement. MTX treatment was stopped and the cutaneous lesions completely disappeared in 2 months without any relapse. This objective response lasted for 42 months. Our observation is particular given the occurrence of panniculitis in a patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate and illustrates the difficulties in the diagnosis. This entity must be known despite its exceptional nature since cutting off MTX treatment generally induces the disappearance of subcutaneous nodules.

  5. Patient-controlled analgesia after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Sarah

    Patient-controlled analgesia is a method of pain control that allows the patient to self-administer opioid medication as and when it is needed. Pain is a personal experience and one pain-relieving intervention may not be effective for all patients. This article reviews the literature on patient-controlled analgesia, particularly with reference to patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Pain policies and education programmes need to be proactive in addressing staff and patient gaps in knowledge and misconceptions about pain assessment and management. Nurses need to appreciate the nature and importance of research in promoting a more critical approach to patient care and the development of quality nursing practice.

  6. Variable coronary vasomotor responses to acetylcholine in patients with normal coronary arteriograms: evidence for localised endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Tousoulis, D.; Davies, G.; Lefroy, D. C.; Haider, A. W.; Crake, T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The vasomotor responses of the epicardial coronary arteries to acetylcholine were examined in patients with normal coronary arteries and chest pain. DESIGN: Quantitative angiography was used to measure minimum lumen diameter of proximal and distal coronary artery segments at baseline, during intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine (10(-7) - 10(-3) mol/l), and following an intracoronary bolus (2 mg) of isosorbide dinitrate. PATIENTS: Coronary arteriograms were obtained in 15 patients (mean (SEM) age 48 (10) years) with normal coronary arteries and chest pain. MAIN RESULTS: In response to the low concentrations of acetylcholine (10(-7) - 10(-6) mol/1) 20 (61%) distal and 11 (41%) proximal segments showed dilatation (group 1), whereas 13 (39%) distal segments and 14 (52%) proximal segments showed constriction (group 2) (P < 0.05 v group 1). In group 1, the maximum dilatation induced by acetylcholine in the proximal and distal segments was 7.83 (1.19)% and 11.6 (2.2)% respectively. In group 2, the maximum constriction at higher concentration was 16.55 (3.3)% and 33.11 (11.63)% in the proximal and distal segments respectively. The two different patterns of the vasomotor response coexisted in eight (53%) of the 15 patients. Intracoronary isosorbide dinitrate caused a greater increase in the coronary luminal diameter of distal segments than in proximal segments in group 1 (25.63 (5.16)% v 12.43 (3.48)%, P < 0.01) but not in group 2 (12.65 (2.53)% v 10.82 (3.33)%. CONCLUSIONS: Constriction and dilatation may occur in proximal and distal coronary artery segments, suggesting local areas of endothelial dysfunction, in response to acetylcholine in patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries. Images PMID:8800989

  7. Estimating radiation dose to organs of patients undergoing conventional and novel multidetector CT exams using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Erin

    Advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology have led to an increase in the modality's diagnostic capabilities and therefore its utilization, which has in turn led to an increase in radiation exposure to the patient population. As a result, CT imaging currently constitutes approximately half of the collective exposure to ionizing radiation from medical procedures. In order to understand the radiation risk, it is necessary to estimate the radiation doses absorbed by patients undergoing CT imaging. The most widely accepted risk models are based on radiosensitive organ dose as opposed to whole body dose. In this research, radiosensitive organ dose was estimated using Monte Carlo based simulations incorporating detailed multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner models, specific scan protocols, and using patient models based on accurate patient anatomy and representing a range of patient sizes. Organ dose estimates were estimated for clinical MDCT exam protocols which pose a specific concern for radiosensitive organs or regions. These dose estimates include estimation of fetal dose for pregnant patients undergoing abdomen pelvis CT exams or undergoing exams to diagnose pulmonary embolism and venous thromboembolism. Breast and lung dose were estimated for patients undergoing coronary CTA imaging, conventional fixed tube current chest CT, and conventional tube current modulated (TCM) chest CT exams. The correlation of organ dose with patient size was quantified for pregnant patients undergoing abdomen/pelvis exams and for all breast and lung dose estimates presented. Novel dose reduction techniques were developed that incorporate organ location and are specifically designed to reduce close to radiosensitive organs during CT acquisition. A generalizable model was created for simulating conventional and novel attenuation-based TCM algorithms which can be used in simulations estimating organ dose for any patient model. The generalizable model is a significant contribution of this

  8. Blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Volumetric blood flow velocity was supporting on constant level (1 ml/h). Silicone tube of diameter comparable with coronary arteries diameter was used as vessel model. Cell-cell interactions were studied under glucose and anticoagulants influence. Increased adhesiveness of blood cells to tube walls was revealed in patient with coronary heart disease (CHD) compare to practically healthy persons (PHP). In patients with stable angina pectoris of high functional class and patients with AMI shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were predominating in blood flow structure up to microclots formation. Clotting and erythrocytes aggregation increase as response to glucose solution injection, sharply defined in patients with CHD. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with CHD and PHP. After compare our results with other author's data we can consider that method used in our study is sensible enough to investigate blood flow structure violations in patients with CHD and PHP. Several differences of cell-cell interaction in flow under glucose and anticoagulant influence were found out in patients with CHD and PHP.

  9. Prevention and noninvasive management of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Martial G; Berry, Colin

    2008-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide epidemic. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing in both developing and developed countries. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Individuals with prediabetes states, with or without known CHD, should undergo lifestyle modifications aimed at preventing DM. In patients with CHD and DM, routine use of aspirin and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, along with strict glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control, is strongly recommended. Intense insulin therapy may be needed for glycemic control, and high-dose statin therapy may be needed for lipid control. For blood pressure control, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are considered first-line therapy. Noncompliance with medications and/or lifestyle measures and underprescription of evidence-based therapies remain important unsolved problems.

  10. Efficacy and safety of individually tailored antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome after coronary stenting: a single center, randomized, feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong-Chang; Li, Yi; Guan, Shao-Yi; Li, Jing; Wang, Xiao-Zeng; Jing, Quan-Min; Wang, Zu-Lu; Han, Ya-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background Low responsiveness to clopidogrel (LRC) is associated with increased risk of ischemic events. This study was aimed to explore the feasibility of tailored antiplatelet therapy according to the responsiveness to clopidogrel. Methods A total of 305 clopidogrel naïve patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing coronary stenting were randomly assigned to receive standard (n = 151) or tailored (n = 154) antiplatelet therapy. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation tests by light transmission aggregometry were performed to identify LRC patients assigned to the tailored group. The standard antiplatelet regimen was dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. The tailored antiplatelet therapy was standard regimen for non-LRC patients and an additional 6-month cilostazol treatment for LRC patients. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke at one year. Results LCR was present in 26.6% (41/154) of patients in the tailored group. The percentage platelet aggregation for LCR patients was significantly decreased at three days after adjunctive cilostazol treatment (77.5% ± 12.1% vs. 64.5% ± 12.1%, P < 0.001). At one year follow-up, a non-significant 37% relative risk reduction of primary events were observed in the tailored group as compared to the standard group (5.8% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.257). There were no differences in the rates of stent thrombosis and hemorrhagic events between the two groups. Conclusions Tailored antiplatelet therapy for ACS patients after coronary stenting according to responsiveness to clopidogrel is feasible. However, its efficacy and safety need further confirmation by clinical trials with larger sample sizes. PMID:25678901

  11. Clinical effect of ticagrelor administered in acute coronary syndrome patients following percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    LU, YANJIAO; LI, YANSHEN; YAO, RUI; LI, YAPENG; LI, LING; ZHAO, LUOSHA; ZHANG, YANZHOU

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical effect and safety of ticagrelor administration in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In total, 203 patients were enrolled, who were confirmed with ACS between March 2013 and May 2013, and had successfully undergone PCI. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, including the clopidogrel (group A, n=108) and ticagrelor groups (group B, n=95). Patients in group A were treated with a 600 mg loading dose of clopidogrel followed by 75 mg/day clopidogrel plus 100 mg/day aspirin. Patients in group B received a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor followed by 90 mg ticagrelor twice daily plus 100 mg/day aspirin. Light transmission aggregometry was performed to measure the platelet aggregation rate prior to and following 4 weeks of anti-platelet drug treatment. In addition, the rate of cardiovascular events and the adverse drug reactions were recorded within a 1-year treatment period. Compared with the clopidogrel group, the rate of recurrent angina in the ticagrelor group was significantly lower (P=0.05). However, the rate of dyspnea in the ticagrelor group was significantly higher when compared with that in the clopidogrel group (P=0.03). After 4 weeks of treatment, the reduction in the platelet aggregation rate was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Therefore, ticagrelor, which is a novel antiplatelet aggregation drug, may reduce the rate of the adverse cardiovascular events in ACS patients following PCI, but a higher incidence of side-effects, such as dyspnea, may be observed. PMID:27284299

  12. Rapid Aspirin Challenge in Patients with Aspirin Allergy and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kevin A; White, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin allergy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome represents one of the more urgent challenges an allergist may face. Adverse reactions to aspirin are reported in 1.5% of patients with coronary artery disease. A history of adverse reaction to aspirin often leads to unnecessary withholding of this medication or use of alternative antiplatelet therapy which may be inferior or more costly. Aspirin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Rapid aspirin challenge/desensitization in the aspirin allergic patient has been consistently shown to be both safe and successful in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leser, Laura; Lanckohr, Christian; Wempe, Carola; Ellger, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysregulations of blood glucose (BG) are associated with adverse outcome in critical illness; controlling BG to target appears to improve outcome. Since BG-control is challenging in daily intensive care practice BG-control remains poor especially in patients with rapidly fluctuating BG. To improve BG-control and to avoid deleterious hypoglycemia, automated online-measurement tools are advocated. We thus evaluated the point-accuracy of the subcutaneous Sentrino® Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGM, Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, California) in patients undergoing extracorporeal cardiac life support (ECLS) for cardiogenic shock. Methods Management of BG was performed according to institute’s standard aiming at BG-levels between 100–145 mg/dl. CGM-values were recorded without taking measures into therapeutic account. Point-accuracy in comparison to intermittent BG-measurement by the ABL-blood-gas analyzer was determined. Results CGM (n = 25 patients) correlated significantly with ABL-values (r = 0.733, p<0.001). Mean error from standard was 15.0 mg/dl (11.9%). 44.2% of the readings were outside a 15% range around ABL-values. In one of 635 paired data-points, ABL revealed hypoglycemia (BG 32 mg/dl) whereas CGM did not show hypoglycemic values (132mg/dl). Conclusions CGM reveals minimally invasive BG-values in critically ill adults with dynamically impaired tissue perfusion. Because of potential deviations from standard, CGM-readings must be interpreted with caution in specific ICU-populations. PMID:26963806

  14. Role of surgical revascularization in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Enrique; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2005-03-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Currently, diabetics represent approximately a quarter of patients requiring coronary revascularization in the USA. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze the available data in surgical revascularization of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The review will also examine new developments in myocardial revascularization and assess their probable impact on the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.

  15. Responsive measures to prehabilitation in patients undergoing bowel resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Jun; Mayo, Nancy E; Carli, Franco; Montgomery, David L; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2009-02-01

    Surgical patients often show physiological and metabolic distress, muscle weakness, and long hospital stays. Physical conditioning might help recovery. We attempted to identify the most responsive measure of aerobic fitness from a four-week pre-surgical aerobic exercise program (prehabilitation) in patients undergoing major bowel resection. Twenty-one subjects randomized two to one (exercise: control) scheduled for colorectal surgery. Fourteen subjects [Body Mass Index (BMI) = 27 +/- 6 kg/m(2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) = 22 +/- 10 ml/kg/min] underwent 3.8 +/- 1.2 weeks (27 +/- 8 sessions) of progressive, structured pre-surgical aerobic exercise training at 40 to 65% of heart rate reserve (%HRR). Peak power output was the only maximal measure that was responsive to training [26 +/- 27%, Effects Size (ES) = 0.24; Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 1.05; p < 0.05]. For the submaximal measures, heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise was most responsive to training (decrease by 13% +/- 15%, ES = -0.24; SRM = -0.57; and 7% +/- 6%, ES = -0.40; SRM -0.97; p < 0.05) at an exercise intensity of 76 +/- 47 W. There was no change to maximal or submaximal measures in the control group. The distance walked over six minutes improved in both groups (by approximately 30 m), but the effect size and t-statistic were higher in the exercise group. Heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise, and peak power output are the most responsive measures to four weeks of prehabilitation in subjects with low initial fitness.

  16. [Screening and management of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Kraiem, Sondos; Abassi, Chedly; Annabi, Nizar; Smaali, Ibtissem; Issaa, Inès; Wali, Mouin; Malou, Monia; Hannachi, Sofiane; Longo, Selma; Battikh, Kaies; Slimane, Mohamed Lotfi

    2006-10-01

    Diabetes represents as independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and the prognosis in term of survival rates is worse for diabetic patients who have CAD with report to those with CAD but no diabetes. The coronary artery disease in diabetes has specificities and, in particular, more extensive atherosclerosis. Diabetic patients are also more frequently asymptomatic. Due to the extreme complexity of ischemic vascular disease in patients with diabetes, an optimal therapeutic strategy is based on the correction of elevated blood glucose and lipid levels, of blood pressure, of platelet and coagulation abnormalities. Diabetic patients benefit from secondary prevention by drug therapy(aspirin, lipid lowering with statines, beta blocker and ACE inhibitors) to the same extent as, or more than, non-diabetic patients. Both percutaneous and surgical myocardial revascularization have been proved equally effective for CAD treatment in diabetes. A recent randomized trial has shown a significantly improved outcome after surgical revascularization. But, the effects of drug-eluting stents, which dramatically decrease the incidence of re-stenosis, seem promising.

  17. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Bolouri, Ahmad; Mahmoudi Mozaffar, Milad; Karajibani, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a worldwide health problem, which is growing in Iranian adults. MetS is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its individual components in CAD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 CAD patients who had undergone elective coronary angiography at the cardiology department. Anthropometric indices including waist circumference (WC) and body mass index were measured. Blood samples were obtained to determine glucose and lipid profile. MetS components were defined according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results The prevalence of MetS among patients was 49.5% (women: 55.9%; men: 40.2%; P < 0.05). The prevalence increased with age. The low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (low HDL-C) (84.8%), high fasting blood glucose (high FBG) (77.8%) and high WC (75.8%) were the most prevalent risk factors in CAD patients with MetS. Conclusions Recent data indicate that the dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity are crucial predictors of MetS in CAD patients. Further prospective studies are recommended for more clarification. PMID:28197293

  18. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Management for Patients Who Undergo Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Duceppe, Emmanuelle; Parlow, Joel; MacDonald, Paul; Lyons, Kristin; McMullen, Michael; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Tandon, Vikas; Styles, Kim; Bessissow, Amal; Sessler, Daniel I; Bryson, Gregory; Devereaux, P J

    2017-01-01

    The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α2 agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery.

  19. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program in Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Junjie; Szatmary, Peter; Huang, Wei; de la Iglesia-Garcia, Daniel; Nunes, Quentin M.; Xia, Qing; Hu, Weiming; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xubao; Raraty, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    -regression analysis. Our study suggested that ERAS was as safe as CPC and improved recovery of patients undergoing PD, thus reducing in-hospital costs. General adoption of ERAS protocols during PD should be recommended. PMID:27149448

  20. Cytomegalovirus in Plasma of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikitskaya, E. A.; Grivel, J.C.; Maryukhnich, E. V.; Lebedeva, A. M.; Ivanova, O. I.; Savvinova, P. P.; Shpektor, A. V.; Margolis, L. B.; Vasilieva, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and local and systemic inflammation, including accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and upregulation of blood cytokines (e.g., C-reactive protein (CRP)), has been known for more than 100 years. The atherosclerosis-associated inflammatory response has been traditionally considered as an immune system reaction to low-density lipoproteins. At the same time, some data have indicated a potential involvement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the activation and progression of atherosclerosis-associated inflammation, leading to ACS. However, these data have been tangential and mainly concerned the relationship between a coronary artery disease (CAD) prognosis and the anti-CMV antibody titer. We assumed that ACS might be associated with CMV reactivation and virus release into the bloodstream. The study’s aim was to test this assumption through a comparison of the plasma CMV DNA level in patients with various CAD forms and in healthy subjects. To our knowledge, no similar research has been undertaken yet. A total of 150 subjects (97 CAD patients and 53 healthy subjects) were examined. Real- time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the number of plasma CMV DNA copies. We demonstrated that the number of plasma CMV genome copies in ACS patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (p = 0.01). The CMV genome copy number was correlated with the plasma CRP level (p = 0.002). These findings indicate a potential relationship between CMV activation and atherosclerosis exacerbation that, in turn, leads to the development of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. Monitoring of the CMV plasma level in CAD patients may be helpful in the development of new therapeutic approaches to coronary atherosclerosis treatment. PMID:27437144

  1. Effects of Collaboration Care Model on the Quality of Life in Patients after Coronary Angioplasty: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezapoor, Parastoo; Shahriari, Mohsen; Sanei, Hamid; Moeini, Mahin

    2017-01-01

    ABSRTACT Background: Coronary artery diseases and therapies such as coronary angioplasty would lead to changes in the quality of life in patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of collaborative care model on the quality of life in patients after coronary angioplasty. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in Isfahan, Iran during 2015. In this study, 50 samples were selected by simple sampling and randomly allocated into two equal groups of intervention and control. Collaborative care model was performed in the intervention group for 3 months. Data were collected using quality of life (SF-36) questionnaire which includes 36 questions on physical and psychological dimensions and was completed before and one month after the intervention in both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics and by independent t- test, paired t test, Chi square and Mann-Whitney tests through SPSS 18. Results: After the intervention, the mean score of quality of life in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05). The results of independent t-test showed a significant difference between both groups regarding the mean of changes in the score of quality of life and its dimensions in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty 3 months after the intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: Results revealed that patients who had been cared based on collaborative care model had better scores of quality of life in all the physical, mental and social dimensions than the control group. Therefore, using this model for taking care of patients after coronary angioplasty is recommended. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2015120120912N4

  2. Is there a role for robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass in patients with a colostomy?

    PubMed

    Gibber, Marc; Lehr, Eric J; Kon, Zachary N; Wehman, P Brody; Griffith, Bartley P; Bonatti, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative colostomy presents a significant risk of sternal wound complications, mediastinitis, and ostomy injury in patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. Less invasive procedures in coronary surgery have a potential to reduce the risk of sternal wound healing problems. Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with a colostomy has not been reported. We describe a case of completely endoscopic coronary surgery using the da Vinci Si system in a patient with a transverse colostomy. Single left internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior coronary artery was performed successfully on the beating heart. We regard this technique as the least invasive method of surgical coronary revascularization with a potential to reduce the risk of surgical site infection and mediastinitis in patients with a colostomy.

  3. Microparticles in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Wernly, Bernhard; Goebel, Bjoern; Foerster, Martin; Edlinger, Christoph; Lauten, Alexander

    2016-08-03

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent form of acquired valvular heart disease. AS is known to entail endothelial dysfunction caused by increased mechanical shear stress leading to elevated circulatory levels of microparticles. Endothelial and platelet microparticles (EMP and PMP) are small vesicles that originate from activated cells and thrombocytes. We sought to evaluate whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure would elicit effects on circulating EMP and PMP. 92 patients undergoing TAVI procedure for severe AS were included in this study. Samples were obtained at each visit before TAVI, 1 week post-procedure and at 1, 3 and after 6 months after TAVI and were evaluated using flow cytometry. A 12 month clinical follow-up was also performed. CD62E+ EMP concentration before TAVI was 21.11 % (±6.6 % SD) and declined to 20.99 % (±6.8 % SD) after 1 week, to 16.63 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 1 month, to 17.08 % (±4.6 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 3 months and to 15.94 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 6 months. CD31+/CD42b-, CD31+/Annexin+/- EMP remained unchanged. CD31+/CD41b+ PMP evidenced a slight, but statistically significant increase after TAVI and remained elevated during the entire follow-up. Apart from a procedure-related improvement in echocardiographic parameters, TAVI procedure led also to a decline in CD62E+ EMP. The reduction in pressure gradients with less hemodynamic shear stress seems also to have beneficially affected endothelial homeostasis.

  4. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge. PMID:25267878

  5. Effectiveness of theophylline prophylaxis of renal impairment after coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Schipek, Chrysantha; Ilgmann, Kathrin; Page, Michael; Hennig, Michael; Wacker, Annette; Schweigart, Ursula; Lutilsky, Leopoldo; Valina, Christian; Seyfarth, Melchior; Schömig, Albert; Classen, Meinhard

    2003-05-15

    Contrast media can lead to renal impairment that results in longer hospitalization and increased mortality. Adenosine is a crucial mediator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN; an increase in serum creatinine of >or=0.5 mg/dl within 48 hours). Therefore, it was the purpose of our study to investigate whether the adenosine antagonist theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN after coronary angiography. We also characterized risk factors for CIN after coronary angiography. One hundred patients with serum creatinine concentrations of >or=1.3 mg/dl randomly received 200 mg IV theophylline or placebo 30 minutes before coronary angiography (amount of contrast medium >or=100 ml). Patients who received theophylline and the controls were comparable with regard to baseline creatinine levels (means +/- SD) (1.65 +/- 0.41 vs 1.72 +/- 0.69 mg/dl) and the amount of contrast medium received (235 +/- 89 vs 261 +/- 139 ml). Theophylline significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (4% vs 20%, p = 0.0138). With placebo, creatinine significantly increased at 12 (1.82 +/- 0.79 mg/dl, p = 0.0057), 24 (1.90 +/- 0.86 mg/dl, p = 0.0001), and 48 hours (1.90 +/- 0.89 mg/dl, p = 0.0007) after administration of contrast medium. With pretreatment with theophylline, mean creatinine only increased 24 hours after contrast medium administration (1.70 +/- 0.40 mg/dl, p = 0.029), but was stable 12 hours (1.65 +/- 0.43 mg/dl, p = 0.99) and 48 hours after contrast medium administration (1.65 +/- 0.41 mg/dl, p = 0.99). The following parameters were significantly associated with contrast-induced renal impairment: Cigarroa quotient >5 (contrast medium [milliters] x serum creatinine/body weight [kg]), elevated troponin T, >300 ml of contrast medium, and emergency angiography. In conclusion, theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography. It should be used especially in patients receiving large amounts of contrast medium, and in

  6. Blood viscosity changes in slow coronary flow patients.

    PubMed

    Ergun-Cagli, Kumral; Ileri-Gurel, Esin; Ozeke, Ozcan; Seringec, Nurten; Yalcinkaya, Adnan; Kocabeyoglu, Sabit; Basar, Fatma Nurcan; Sen, Nihat; Cagli, Kerim; Dikmenoglu, Neslihan

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of slow coronary flow (SCF), but less attention has been paid to intrinsic properties of blood that can also impair the microcirculatory flow. In this study we aimed to evaluate the blood viscosity focusing on erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability and plasma viscosity in SCF. Thirty-three patients with SCF (21 male, 54 ± 12.8 years) and 23 subjects with normal coronary arteries (13 male, 59 ± 10.3 years) were included in the study. Coronary flow was quantified by means of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count and aggregation and deformability of erythrocytes were measured by an ektacytometer. Plasma viscosity was measured by a cone-plate viscometer. Aggregation amplitude (23 ± 3.8 au vs. 15.7 ± 6.1 au, respectively, p < 0.001) and area A index (area above syllectogram) (153.2 ± 30.7 au.s vs. 124.9 ± 49.3 au.s, respectively, p < 0.01) were higher in SCF patients. Aggregation half-time, aggregation index, elongation index and plasma viscosity values were similar between two groups. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between the TIMI frame count for left anterior descending artery and aggregation amplitude in SCF patients (r = 0.679, p < 0.0001). The result of this study reveals changes in erythrocyte aggregation which may contribute to the pathophysiology of SCF. Larger studies are needed to make more robust conclusions on this issue.

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Resting CT Myocardial Perfusion in Patients With Possible Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Kelley R.; Busey, Janet; Mitsumori, Lee M.; Strote, Jared; Caldwell, James H.; Busch, Joshua H.; Shuman, William P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Coronary CT angiography has high sensitivity, but modest specificity, to detect acute coronary syndrome. We studied whether adding resting CT myocardial perfusion imaging improved the detection of acute coronary syndrome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Patients with low-to-intermediate cardiac risk presenting with possible acute coronary syndrome received both the standard of care evaluation and a research thoracic 64-MDCT examination. Patients with an obstructive (> 50%) stenosis or a nonevaluable coronary segment on CT were diagnosed with possible acute coronary syndrome. CT perfusion was determined by applying gray and color Hounsfield unit maps to resting CT angiography images. Adjudicated patient diagnoses were based on the standard of care and 3-month follow-up. Patient-level diagnostic performance for acute coronary syndrome was calculated for coronary CT, CT perfusion, and combined techniques. RESULTS A total of 105 patients were enrolled. Of the nine (9%) patients with acute coronary syndrome, all had obstructive CT stenoses but only three had abnormal CT perfusion. CT perfusion was normal in all other patients. To detect acute coronary syndrome, CT angiography had 100% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and a positive predictive value of 45%. For CT perfusion, specificity and positive predictive value were each 100%, and sensitivity was 33%. Combined cardiac CT and CT perfusion had similar specificity but a higher positive predictive value (100%) than did CT angiography. CONCLUSION Resting CT perfusion using CT angiographic images may have high specificity and may improve CT positive predictive value for acute coronary syndrome without added radiation and contrast. However, normal resting CT perfusion cannot exclude acute coronary syndrome. PMID:23617513

  8. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p < 0.0001) and extent score (7.1 ± 2.9 vs. 5.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001) were significantly higher in opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD.

  9. "Wet diapers--dry patients": an effective dressing for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Atul; Bhargava, Amit; Funk, Len; Copeland, Stephen; Levy, Ofer

    2005-02-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is very commonly associated with postoperative leakage of irrigation fluid. This causes apprehension to patients and their relatives and leads to frequent change of dressings. We describe a simple and effective diaper dressing for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. It is highly absorbent, cost-effective, and easy to apply. We have used this dressing successfully in more than 1,500 shoulder arthroscopies over the last 3 years with no adverse reaction.

  10. Determinants of distance walked during the six-minute walk test in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of distance walked in six-minute walk test (6MWD) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at hospital discharge. Methods The assessment was performed preoperatively and at discharge. Data from patient records were collected and measurement of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were performed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was performed at discharge. Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement were eligible. Patients older than 75 years who presented arrhythmia during the protocol, with psychiatric disorders, muscular or neurological disorders were excluded from the study. Results Sixty patients (44.26% male, mean age 51.53 ± 13 years) were assessed. In multivariate analysis the following variables were selected: type of surgery (P = 0.001), duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (P = 0.001), Functional Independence Measure - FIM (0.004) and body mass index - BMI (0.007) with r = 0.91 and r2 = 0.83 with P < 0.001. The equation derived from multivariate analysis: 6MWD = Surgery (89.42) + CPB (1.60) + MIF (2.79 ) - BMI (7.53) - 127.90. Conclusion In this study, the determinants of 6MWD in patients undergoing cardiac surgery were: the type of surgery, CPB time, functional capacity and body mass index. PMID:24885130

  11. Benefits of exercise training on coronary blood flow in coronary artery disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Rebecca S.; Sturek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Every 34 seconds an American experiences a myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Approximately 80% of these coronary artery disease (CAD)-related deaths are attributable to modifiable behaviors, such as a lack of physical exercise training (ET). Regular ET decreases CAD morbidity and mortality through systemic and cardiac-specific adaptations. ET increases myocardial oxygen demand acting as a stimulus to increase coronary blood flow and thus myocardial oxygen supply, which reduces myocardial infarction and angina. ET augments coronary blood flow through direct actions on the vasculature that improve endothelial and coronary smooth muscle function, enhancing coronary vasodilation. Additionally, ET promotes collateralization, thereby, increasing blood flow to ischemic myocardium and also treats macrovascular CAD by attenuating the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and restenosis, potentially through stabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. In summary, ET can be used as a relatively safe and inexpensive way to prevent and treat CAD. PMID:25446554

  12. Tolerance and safety of pharmacologic coronary vasodilation with adenosine in association with thallium-201 scintigraphy in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, A.; Mahmarian, J.J.; Nishimura, S.; Boyce, T.M.; Verani, M.S. )

    1991-09-01

    Adenosine thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy is a promising test for coronary artery disease detection, but its safety has not been reported in large patient cohorts. Accordingly, the tolerance and safety profile of adenosine infusion were analyzed in 607 patients (351 men, 256 women, mean age 63 {plus minus} 11 years) undergoing this test either because of suspected coronary artery disease (Group I, n = 482) or for risk stratification early (5.2 {plus minus} 2.8 days) after myocardial infarction (Group II, n = 125). Adenosine increased the heart rate from 74.5 {plus minus} 14.0 to 91.8 {plus minus} 15.9 beats/min (p less than 0.001) and decreased systolic blood pressure from 137.8 {plus minus} 26.8 to 120.7 {plus minus} 26.1 mm Hg (p less than 0.001). Side effects were frequent and similar in both groups. Flushing occurred in 35%, chest pain in 34%, headache in 21% and dyspnea in 19% of patients. Only 35.6% of Group I patients with chest pain during adenosine infusion had concomitant transient perfusion abnormalities, compared with 60.7% of Group II patients (p less than 0.05). First- and second-degree AV block occurred in 9.6% and 3.6% of patients, respectively, and ischemic ST changes in 12.5% of cases. Concomitance of chest pain and ischemic ST depression was uncommon (6%) but, when present, predicted perfusion abnormalities in 73% of patients. Most side effects ceased rapidly after stopping the adenosine infusion. The side effects were severe in only 1.6% of patients and in only six patients (1%) was it necessary to discontinue the infusion. No serious adverse reactions such as acute myocardial infarction or death occurred.

  13. High prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in elderly patients with non-operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension referred for balloon pulmonary angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wretowski, Dominik; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Łabyk, Andrzej; Irzyk, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Wyzgał, Anna; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is a new emerging catheter-based alternative treatment option for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Aim To show that all elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of obstructive coronary artery disease and that, in daily practice, they should undergo invasive coronary angiography. Material and methods Eleven patients at the age of at least 65 years (6 males, 5 females, 77.2 ±5.9 years) with confirmed non-operable type II or type III CTEPH, considered for BPA, underwent elective coronary angiography. Severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was diagnosed when stenosis of left main coronary artery ≥ 50% or stenosis of ≥ 70% of epicardial arteries was angiographically confirmed. We also screened for CAD consecutive age- and sex-matched 114 PE survivors (52 males, 62 females, 74.8 ±7.2 years) with excluded CTEPH. Results Severe CAD was more frequent in elderly patients with non-operable type II or type III CTEPH candidates for BPA than in elderly acute PE survivors with excluded CTEPH (54.5% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.01), and therefore elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA were at higher risk of CAD (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.64–21.46, p = 0.007) when compared to elderly survivors after acute PE with excluded CTEPH. Conclusions All elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of severe CAD and should routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography before BPA. PMID:27980550

  14. [THE EXPERIENCE OF DETECTION OF SERUM CARDIO MARKERS IN PATIENTS AFTER PLANNED CORONARY ARTERY GRAFTING].

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A S; Yakovlev, A A; Nesterko, A O; Rukavishnikova, S A; Ahmedov, T A

    2015-05-01

    The article exposes the results of experience of laboratory diagnostic of myocardium infarction in patients subjected to operation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The study included patients hospitalized in a planned order and with further coronary artery bypass grafting carried out.

  15. Value of tomographic thallium-201 imaging in patients with chest pain following coronary artery bypass grafting

    SciTech Connect

    Starling, M.R.; Walsh, R.A.; Dehmer, G.J.; Lasher, J.C.; Blumhardt, R.

    1987-02-01

    To determine whether thallium-201 washout profile analysis can detect regional myocardial ischemia caused by coronary artery bypass graft occlusion or progression of disease in nonbypassed coronary arteries, 19 consecutive patients with chest pain following bypass grafting were evaluated with coronary arteriography and thallium-201 scintigraphy. Twenty of the 55 coronary artery regions were perfused by an occluded bypass graft or a significantly stenosed (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing) nonbypassed coronary artery, while 35 coronary regions were perfused by patent bypass grafts or insignificantly diseased coronary arteries. The tomographic thallium-201 washout profile results correlated with the bypass graft and coronary arteriographic findings. The sensitivity of tomographic thallium-201 washout profile abnormalities for arteriographic abnormalities was 75%, while the specificity was 86%. The authors conclude that tomographic thallium-201 washout profile analysis may be very useful in the evaluation of patients with chest pain following coronary artery bypass grafting by detecting regional myocardial ischemia caused by occlusion of specific bypass grafts or progression of disease in nonbypassed coronary arteries.

  16. Negative calcium score and the presence of obstructive coronary lesions in patients with intermediate CAD probability.

    PubMed

    Sosnowski, M; Pysz, P; Szymański, L; Gola, A; Tendera, M

    2011-04-01

    We intended to estimate how the zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in symptomatic patients with intermediate probability of coronary artery disease predicts the absence of obstructive non-calcified coronary plaques (NCAPs). CAC scoring and coronary arteries were evaluated by means of 64-multislice CT coronary angiography (CCTA). In 166 subject with CAC=0, Non-obstructive NCAPs (less than 50%) were found in 17 patients (10.2%), while significant stenosis were diagnosed in 3 (2%). In the female insignificant stenoses were more frequent (12%) than in men (6%), however, all 3 cases with significant stenosis were male. In our study, where CCTA has been used as diagnostic method for CAD diagnosing, the prevalence of non-calcified plaques in CAC=0 subjects is relatively high. Our study confirms a relatively low incidence of significant coronary stenosis in this subset of CAD-suspected subjects.

  17. [Painless myocardial ischemia in patient with extensive constrictive atherosclerosis of coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Oshchepkova, E V; Lazareva, N V

    2012-01-01

    We describe in this article a clinical case of a patient with arterial hypertension, painless myocardial ischemia and extensive constrictive atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. Coronary heart disease (painless ischemia) was suspected basing on results of transesophageal electrostimulation coupled with stress echocardiography and was confirmed by coronary angiography. This description is followed by discussion of possibilities of different instrumental methods in diagnostics of painless ischemia, classification of painless ischemia, treatment, and prognosis.

  18. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  19. Intensive Statin Therapy in NSTE-ACS Patients Undergoing PCI: Clinical and Biochemical Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fayez, George; Nassar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of statin therapy in acute coronary syndrome patients has a favorable prognostic impact because of its anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties. In this study, we explored the effect of atorvastatin-loading, followed by intensive atorvastatin therapy, on clinical and biochemical outcomes in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention. We prospectively enrolled 140 patients (mean age, 56 ± 9 years, 68% men). Once eligible, patients were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate 20-mg daily dose of atorvastatin (Group A) or a 160-mg loading dose followed by an intensified 80-mg daily dose (Group B). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were recorded before and after intervention. Evaluation after 6 months included hs-CRP levels, left ventricular systolic function, and major adverse cardiac events. We found no significant difference between the 2 groups in regard to the interventional data. However, blood sampling after coronary intervention, and again 6 months later, revealed a significant decline in mean hs-CRP level among Group B patients (P <0.001). Moreover, patients in Group B manifested a higher left ventricular ejection fraction than did patients in Group A (P <0.05). After 6 months, we found no significant difference between groups in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events. We conclude that intensive atorvastatin therapy in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients is associated with lower hs-CRP levels and with higher left ventricular ejection fraction after 6 months, with no significant impact on adverse cardiac events. PMID:26664304

  20. Impact of Timing of Eptifibatide Administration on Preprocedural Infarct-Related Artery Patency in Acute STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Firdaus, Isman; Danny, Siska Suridanda; Juzar, Dafsah A; Wardeh, Alexander J; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2014-09-01

    The appropriate timing of eptifibatide initiation for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the impact of timing of eptifibatide administration on infarct-related artery (IRA) patency in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Acute STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI (n = 324) were enrolled in this retrospective study; 164 patients received eptifibatide bolus ≤ 30 minutes after emergency department (ED) admission (group A) and 160 patients received eptifibatide bolus > 30 minutes after ED admission (group B). The primary endpoint was preprocedural IRA patency. Most patients in group A (90%) and group B (89%) were late presenters (> 2 hours after symptom onset). The two groups had similar preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 2 or 3 flow of the IRA (26 vs. 24%, p = not significant [NS]), similar creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels at 8 hours after admission (339 vs. 281 U/L, p = NS), similar left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (52 vs. 50%, p = NS), and similar 30-day mortality (2 vs. 7%, p = NS). Compared with group B, patients in group A had shorter door-to-device time (p < 0.001) and shorter procedural time (p = 0.004), without increased bleeding risk (13 vs. 18%, p = NS). Earlier intravenous administration of eptifibatide before primary PCI did not improve preprocedural IRA patency, CK-MB level at 8 hours after admission, LVEF and 30-day mortality compared with patients who received intravenous eptifibatide that was administered later.

  1. Coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes: part I: recent advances in prevention and noninvasive management.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Bourassa, Martial G

    2007-02-13

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide epidemic. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing in both developing and developed countries. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The purpose of this review is to assess the clinical impact of recent advances in the epidemiology, prevention, and management of CHD in diabetic patients. A systematic review of publications in this area, referenced in MEDLINE in the past 5 years (2000 to 2005), was undertaken. Patients with CHD and prediabetic states should undergo lifestyle modifications aimed at preventing DM. Pharmacological prevention of DM is also promising but requires further study. In patients with CHD and DM, routine use of aspirin and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I)--unless contraindicated or not tolerated-and strict glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control are strongly recommended. The targets for secondary prevention in these patients are relatively well defined, but the strategies to achieve them vary and must be individualized. Intense insulin therapy might be needed for glycemic control, and high-dose statin therapy might be needed for lipid control. For blood pressure control, ACE-Is and angiotensin receptor blockers are considered as first-line therapy. Noncompliance, particularly with lifestyle measures, and underprescription of evidence-based therapies remain important unsolved problems.

  2. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Valotassiou, Varvara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Demakopoulos, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease affecting about 13 million Americans, while more than one million percutaneous transluminal intervention (PCI) procedures are performed annually in the USA. The relative high occurrence of restenosis, despite stent implementation, seems to be the primary limitation of PCI. Over the last decades, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), has proven an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of CAD and patients' risk stratification, providing useful information regarding the decision about revascularization and is well suited to assess patients after intervention. Information gained from post-intervention MPI is crucial to differentiate patients with angina from those with exo-cardiac chest pain syndromes, to assess peri-intervention myocardial damage, to predict-detect restenosis after PCI, to detect CAD progression in non-revascularized vessels, to evaluate the effects of intervention if required for occupational reasons and to evaluate patients' long-term prognosis. On the other hand, chest pain and exercise electrocardiography are largely unhelpful in identifying patients at risk after PCI.Although there are enough published data demonstrating the value of myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients after PCI, there is still debate on whether or not these tests should be performed routinely.

  3. A mobile application improves therapy-adherence rates in elderly patients undergoing rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Alexander; Brandl, Christopher; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Schlick, Christopher; Neumann, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Meister, Sven; Diamantidis, Clarissa Jonas; Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Horn, Peter; Becker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medication adherence is crucial for success in the management of patients with chronic conditions. This study analyzes whether a mobile application on a tablet aimed at supporting drug intake and vital sign parameter documentation affects adherence in elderly patients. Patients with coronary heart disease and no prior knowledge of tablet computers were recruited. They received a personal introduction to the mobile application Medication Plan, installed on an Apple iPad. The study was conducted using a crossover design with 3 sequences: initial phase, interventional phase (28 days of using the app system), and comparative phase (28 days of using a paper diary). Users experienced the interventional and comparative phases alternately. A total of 24 patients (12 males; mean age 73.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The mean for subjectively assessed adherence (A14-scale; 5-point Likert scale, from “never” to “very often” which results in a score from 0 to 56) before the study was 50.0 (SD = 3.44). After both interventions there was a significant increase, which was more pronounced after the interventional phase (54.0; SD = 2.01) than after the comparative phase (52.6; SD = 2.49) (for all pairs after both interventions, P <0.001). Neither medical conditions nor the number of drug intake (amount and frequency of drug taking) per day affected subjective adherence. Logging data showed a significantly stronger adherence for the medication app than the paper system for both blood pressure recordings (P <0.001) and medication intake (P = 0.033). The majority of participants (n = 22) stated that they would like to use the medication app in their daily lives and would not need further assistance with the app. A mobile app for medication adherence increased objectively and subjectively measured adherence in elderly users undergoing rehabilitation. The findings have promising clinical implications: digital tools can assist chronic disease patients achieve

  4. Anomalous left main coronary artery detected by CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Forte, Ernesto; Inglese, Marianna; Infante, Teresa; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Tedeschi, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The growing improvements of computed tomography have made this technique more and more available for cardiac evaluation. Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are often incidental findings in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography or computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). In some cases, CAAs can be clinically relevant so their identification could change radically patient management and treatment. We report the case of a 68-year-old male patient with known CAD and associated anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the opposite sinus.

  5. Modification of the association between smoking status and severity of coronary stenosis by vitamin D in patients suspected of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xiyan; Wang, Lefeng; Chen, Mulei; Zhao, Wenshu; Xu, Li; Yang, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given both smoking and vitamin D are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) via inflammation and smoking may interfere with the local antiinflammatory effects of vitamin D. We hypothesized that the relationship between smoking and severity of CHD may be modified by vitamin D. A cross-sectional study was conducted. 25-OH vitamin D values were determined in 348 consecutive patients (mean age 62.4 ± 10.5 years; 56.3% male) undergoing coronary angiography at the Heart Center of Chaoyang Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University between the period of September 2014 and May 2015. We categorized the patients into 2 groups based on 25-OH vitamin D levels, that is, severe hypovitaminosis D (25-OH vitamin D < 10 ng/mL) and higher vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D > =  10 ng/mL). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of severe coronary stenosis or higher Gensini score across three smoking status, that is, never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers in severe hypovitaminosis D and higher vitamin D groups, respectively. Of these patients, we identified 212 (60.9%) cases of severe CHD and 161 (46.3%) cases of severe hypovitaminosis D. Multivariable logistic regression model showed the ORs of severe CHD were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 7.98) for former smokers and 2.62 (95% CI: 0.83, 8.24) for current smokers, compared with never smokers in group with severe hypovitaminosis D (P-trend = 0.005). In contrast, smoking was not found to be significantly associated with severe CHD in group with higher 25-OH vitamin D (P-trend = 0.115). We found a significant interaction between smoking status and vitamin D on presence of severe CHD (P-interaction = 0.015). In terms of Gensini score as a dependent variable, similar results were identified. Our finding indicated the association between smoking and severity of CHD appeared to be substantially stronger among patients with severe hypovitaminosis

  6. Isolated huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery in a 22-year-old patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Pontailler, Margaux; Vilarem, Didier; Paul, Jean-François; Deleuze, Philippe H

    2015-03-01

    A 22-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with acute chest pain. A computed tomography scan and coronary angiography revealed a partially thrombosed huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite medical treatment, the patient's angina recurred. The patient underwent a coronary bypass grafting operation and surgical exclusion of the aneurysm. Postoperative imaging disclosed good permeability of the 3 coronary artery bypass grafts and complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm.

  7. Interventional treatment of the left subclavian in 2 patients with coronary steal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Julia; Vogel, Britta; Kristen, Arnt; Kloos, Wanda; Kohler, Benedikt; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2017-01-01

    In patients with history of coronary artery disease angina pectoris is usually attributed to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. However, in patients with previous coronary artery bypass graft operation (CABG) using internal mammary artery grafts, great vessel disease should also be considered. Herein we present two patients with history of CABG whose symptoms were suspicious for coronary ischemia. During cardiac catheterization reverse blood flow was observed from the left artery disease to the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft in both cases. After angioplasty and stent implantation of the left subclavian artery antegrade flow was restored in the LIMA grafts and both patients had complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28163839

  8. Illness perception patterns in patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Kunschitz, E; Friedrich, O; Schöppl, Ch; Maitz, J; Sipötz, J

    2016-12-23

    The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of illness perception in patients with angiografically verified Coronary Artery Disease. A total of 166 patients (age: 64.4 ± 12.1, 80.7% male) were recruited after angiography. Cluster analysis on the items of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to identify patterns of illness perception. The resulting groups were characterized with regard to Quality of Life (MacNew), anxiety and depression (GAD-7 and PHQ-9) and resilience (RS-13). The analysis revealed 4 distinct groups differing with regard to the items covering the perception of the physical and emotional impact of disease. Stronger perceptions in these domains were associated with lower Health Related Quality of Life and higher levels of emotional distress. Group 1 (33.1%) reported the strongest perceptions of the physical and emotional impact of disease and expressed low treatment control, high chronic timeline and significantly higher levels of depression than the other groups. Group 2 (27.7%) was characterized by more moderate perceptions of the emotional and physical impact of disease together with low scores on illness coherence and chronic timeline. Groups 3 (25.3%) and 4 (13.9%) reported smaller physical and emotional impact of illness but differed in chronic timeline. Our results correspond largely to recent findings in patients with other chronic diseases. Further research is needed to explore if stratification of patients according patterns of illness perception can help to inform patient-physician communication strategies.

  9. Acceptance of Combined Coronary CT Angiography and Myocardial CT Perfusion versus Conventional Coronary Angiography in Patients with Coronary Stents—Intraindividual Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Martus, Peter; Laule, Michael; Dewey, Marc; Schönenberger, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how well patients with coronary stents accept combined coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) compared with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Background While combined CTA and CTP may improve diagnostic accuracy compared with CTA alone, patient acceptance of CTA/CTP remains to be defined. Methods A total of 90 patients with coronary stents prospectively underwent CTA/CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine) and CCA as part of the CARS-320 study. In this group, an intraindividual comparison of patient acceptance of CTA, CTP, and CCA was performed. Results CTP was experienced to be significantly more painful than CTA (p<0.001) and was associated with a higher frequency of dyspnea (p<0.001). Comparison of CTA/CTP with CCA revealed no significant differences in terms of pain (p = 0.141) and comfort (p = 0.377). Concern before CTA/CTP and CCA and overall satisfaction were likewise not significantly different (p = 0.097 and p = 0.123, respectively). Nevertheless, about two thirds (n = 60, 68%) preferred CTA/CTP to CCA (p<0.001). Moreover, patients felt less helpless during CTA/CTP than during CCA (p = 0.026). Lack of invasiveness and absence of pain were the most frequently mentioned advantages of CTA/CTP over CCA in our patient population. Conclusions CCA and combined CTA/CTP are equally well accepted by patients; however, more patients prefer CTA/CTP. CTP was associated with more intense pain than CTA and more frequently caused dyspnea than CTA alone. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00967876 PMID:26327127

  10. Panic disorder in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Beitman, B D

    1992-05-27

    Several lines of investigation strongly support the notion that panic disorder afflicts at least one third of patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries and unexplained chest pain. Panic disorder is a common problem, affecting 1-2% of the U.S. population. Current research suggests an etiology that is both psychophysiologic and cognitive. The locus ceruleus and cortico-releasing factor are implicated in the biological circuit associated with panic attacks, while psychological research indicates that catastrophic thinking, phobic responses to somatic sensations, and repressed anger, grief, and traumatic events play a part in triggering attacks. Treatment consists of pharmacologic interventions, including antidepressants and benzodiazepines, as well as psychotherapeutic work focusing on catastrophic thinking and repressed anger, grief responses, and other traumatic experiences.

  11. Nurse led Patient Education Programme for patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of patients undergoing lung resection for primary or suspected primary lung cancer in the UK due to improved staging techniques, dedicated thoracic surgeons and other initiatives such as preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation. This has had an impact on local healthcare resources requiring new ways of delivering thoracic surgical services. When considering service changes, patient reported outcomes are pivotal in terms of ensuring that the experience of care is enhanced and may include elements such as involving patients in their care, reducing the length of inpatient stay and reducing postoperative complications. The implementation of a thoracic surgical Patient Education Programme (PEP) has the potential to address these measures and improve the psychological and physical wellbeing of patients who require a lung resection. It may also assist in their care as an inpatient and to enhance recovery after surgery both in the short and long term. PMID:25984358

  12. Patient-Specific Computational Models of Coronary Arteries Using Monoplane X-Ray Angiograms

    PubMed Central

    Zifan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease in western countries. Early detection and diagnosis of CAD is quintessential to preventing mortality and subsequent complications. We believe hemodynamic data derived from patient-specific computational models could facilitate more accurate prediction of the risk of atherosclerosis. We introduce a semiautomated method to build 3D patient-specific coronary vessel models from 2D monoplane angiogram images. The main contribution of the method is a robust segmentation approach using dynamic programming combined with iterative 3D reconstruction to build 3D mesh models of the coronary vessels. Results indicate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed pipeline. In conclusion, patient-specific modelling of coronary vessels is of vital importance for developing accurate computational flow models and studying the hemodynamic effects of the presence of plaques on the arterial walls, resulting in lumen stenoses, as well as variations in the angulations of the coronary arteries. PMID:27403203

  13. The angiotensin-I converting enzyme I/D polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes in individuals undergoing coronary angiography. (The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study).

    PubMed

    Grammer, Tanja B; Renner, Wilfried; von Karger, Sabine; Boehm, Bernhard O; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Maerz, Winfried

    2006-08-01

    The deletion (D) allele of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is associated with higher ACE activity and has been implicated only recently in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Caucasian subjects. We have studied the ACE I/D polymorphism in 1054 patients with type 2 diabetes and in 2251 individuals without type 2 diabetes in Caucasians persons undergoing coronary angiography. Further parameters of glucose metabolism (fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide, pro-insulin, and pancreatic beta-cell function) were analyzed according to the ACE I/D genotype in a subgroup of 2000 individuals in whom an oral glucose challenge was performed. The genotypes ACE II, ID, DD occurred at similar frequencies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (21.0, 50.8, and 28.3%, respectively) compared to non-diabetic individuals (23.3, 49.2, and 27.5%, respectively). There was no association of the ACE D allele with all type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR 1.16, 95%CI, 0.94-1.43), nor with known (OR 1.28, 95% CI, 0.99-1.68) or newly diagnosed diabetes (OR 1.00, 95% CI, 0.75-1.32). These findings were not materially altered when we adjusted for age and gender, cardiovascular risk factors and anti-diabetic or cardiovascular medication. Further the ACE D-allele was not associated with angiographic coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction. The ACE I/D genotype is not associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, glucose metabolism, coronary heart disease, or myocardial infarction.

  14. Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Communication: Report of Two Patients Successfully Treated by Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Bruaire, Jean-Pierre; Commeau, Philippe; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Leborgne, Laurent; Auquier, Marie-Anne; Delonca, Jean; Quiret, Jean-Claude; Remond, Alexandre

    1999-05-15

    We report two cases of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication responsible for coronary steal. In both cases the anastomosis originated from the proximal circumflex artery and developed because of bronchiectasis. In both cases closure of the anastomosis was achieved successfully by embolization. To date, the patients remained free from symptoms.

  15. Relation between myocardial thallium-201 kinetics during exercise and quantitative coronary angiography in patients with one vessel coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjimiltiades, S.; Watson, R.; Hakki, A.H.; Heo, J.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1989-05-01

    This study examined the relation between the kinetics of thallium-201 and coronary stenosis in 30 patients with one vessel coronary artery disease; 25 patients had no visible collateral vessels. The myocardial thallium concentration in the postexercise images and percent washout were determined in the distribution of the diseased vessel and a normal vessel, and each was expressed as a ratio. Coronary stenosis was assessed as minimal diameter stenosis, minimal area stenosis and percent diameter stenosis. The correlations between the myocardial concentration ratio or washout ratio and the descriptors of coronary stenosis improved when the patients with collateral vessels were excluded. There were significant correlations between the myocardial thallium concentration ratio and minimal diameter stenosis (r = 0.73, p less than 0.001), minimal area stenosis (r = 0.72, p less than 0.001) and, to a lesser degree, percent diameter stenosis (r = -0.51, p less than 0.01). Similarly, there were significant correlations between washout ratio and minimal diameter stenosis (r = 0.50, p less than 0.01) and minimal area stenosis (r = 0.45, p less than 0.02) but not percent diameter stenosis (r = 0.37, p = 0.06). Thus, variation in thallium kinetics in relation to the severity of coronary stenosis can be demonstrated with conventional imaging in patients with one vessel disease. The myocardial thallium concentration and washout are physiologic expressions of the severity of perfusion deficit and are dependent on collateral flow. The myocardial thallium concentration ratio and washout ratio correlate better with minimal diameter and area stenosis than with percent diameter stenosis.

  16. Recurrent Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Severe Coronary Artery Ectasia: Implication of Antithrombotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Ito, Yoshitaka; Shioiri, Hiroki; Koyama, Jiro; Inoue, Kanichi

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 78 Final Diagnosis: Acute myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest discomfort Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can be caused not only by plaque rupture/erosion, but also by many other mechanisms. Thromboembolism due to atrial fibrillation and coronary thrombosis due to coronary artery ectasia are among the causes. Here we report on a case of recurrent myocardial infarction with coronary artery ectasia. Case Report: Our case was a 78-year-old woman with hypertension. Within a one-month interval, she developed AMI twice at the distal portion of her right coronary artery along with coronary artery ectasia. On both events, emergent coronary angiography showed no obvious organic stenosis or trace of plaque rupture at the culprit segment after thrombus aspiration. After the second acute event, we started anticoagulation therapy with warfarin to prevent thrombus formation. In the chronic phase, we confirmed, by using coronary angiography, optimal coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound, that there was no plaque rupture and no obvious thrombus formation along the coronary artery ectasia segment of the distal right coronary artery, which suggested effectiveness of anticoagulant. Furthermore, by Doppler velocimetry we found sluggish blood flow only in the coronary artery ectasia lesion but not in the left atrium which is generally the main site of systemic thromboembolism revealed by transesophageal echocardiography. Conclusions: These results suggest that the two AMI events at the same coronary artery ectasia segment were caused by local thrombus formation due to local stagnant blood flow. Although it has not yet been generally established, anticoagulation therapy may be effective to prevent thrombus formation in patients with coronary artery ectasia regardless of the prevalence of atrial fibrillation. PMID:27941711

  17. Deficiency of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Associates with Graft Thrombosis in Patients Undergoing Endovascular Therapy of Dysfunctional Dialysis Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsung-Yan; Lin, Lin; Hsieh, Mu-Yang; Kuo, Jui-Cheng; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wang, Ren-Huei; Lai, Chao-Lun; Huang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Chih-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background The deficiency of endothelial progenitor cells has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular events in patients undergoing dialysis. However, their correlation with dialysis graft outcomes remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cells and dialysis graft outcomes. Methods After excluding 14 patients with acute coronary syndrome, decompensated heart failure or graft thrombosis in the prior three months, a total of 120 patients undergoing dialysis who underwent endovascular therapy of dysfunctional dialysis grafts were prospectively enrolled. Blood was sampled from study subjects in the morning of a mid-week non-dialysis day. Surface makers of CD34, KDR, and CD133 were used in combination to determine the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. All participants were prospectively followed until June 2013. Results The median follow-up duration was 13 months, within which 62 patients experienced at least one episode of graft thrombosis. Patients with graft thrombosis had lower CD34+KDR+ cell counts compared with patients without graft thrombosis (median 4.5 vs. 8 per 105 mononuclear cells, p = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated thrombosis-free survival was lower in the low CD34+KDR+ cell count group (30%) than in the high CD34+KDR+ cell count group (61%; p = 0.007). Univariate analysis showed diabetes, high sensitive C-reactive protein, lesion length and CD34+KDR+ cell counts associated with graft thrombosis. Multivariate analyses confirmed an independent association between low CD34+KDR+ cell counts and graft thrombosis (hazard ratio, 2.52; confidence interval, 1.43-4.44; p = 0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrated an independent association between low circulating endothelial progenitor cell counts and dialysis graft thrombosis. PMID:28115811

  18. Clinical effectiveness of centrifugal pump to produce pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E; Epema, Anne H; den Hamer, Inez J; Keizer, Jorrit J; Leuvenink, Ron P; Mariani, Massimo A; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate whether the Rotaflow centrifugal pump produces effective pulsatile flow during CPB and whether the pulsatile flow in this setting is clinically effective in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing CPB for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to a pulsatile perfusion group (n = 16) or a nonpulsatile perfusion group (n = 16). All patients were perfused with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. In the pulsatile group, the centrifugal pump was adjusted to the pulsatile mode (60 cycles/min) during aortic cross-clamping, whereas in the nonpulsatile group, the pump was kept in its nonpulsatile mode during the same period of time. Compared with the nonpulsatile group, the pulsatile group had a higher pulse pressure (P < 0.01) and a fraction higher energy equivalent pressure (EEP, P = 0.058). The net gain of pulsatile flow, represented by the surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), was found much higher in the CPB circuit than in patients (P < 0.01). Clinically, there was no difference between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups with regard to postoperative acute kidney injury, endothelial activation, or inflammatory response. Postoperative organ function and the duration of hospital stay were similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, pulsatile CPB with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump is associated with a small gain of EEP and SHE, which does not seem to be clinically effective in adult cardiac surgical patients.

  19. Ineffectiveness of dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging as a screening technique for coronary artery disease in patients with end-stage renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Steinmuller, D.R.; Underwood, D.A.; Hobbs, R.E.; Go, R.T.; Swift, C.; Braun, W.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of dipyridamole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium as a screening test for coronary artery disease (CAD), was studied in 45 patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing evaluation