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Sample records for patients undergoing coronary

  1. Antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary stenting

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, J.M.; van Werkum, J.W.; Heestermans, A.A.C.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Hautvast, R.M.A.; den Heijer, P.; de Boer, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation after coronary stenting is essential to prevent stent thrombosis. Drug-eluting stents, which are the preferred therapy, may be associated with a higher tendency for stent thrombosis. Methods Patients who underwent coronary stent placement and presented with late stent thrombosis are described. Results Eight patients with stent thrombosis are presented. Early discontinuation of the antithrombotic medication is associated with the occurrence of these complications. Conclusion Long-term antithrombotic therapy seems essential to prevent stent thrombosis, especially for patients treated with drug-eluting stents. PMID:25696663

  2. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  3. The role of eptifibatide in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zeymer, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the binding of ligands to activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and, therefore, prevent the formation of platelet thrombi. They have been extensively studied in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Eptifibatide, one of the approved GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, is a small heptapeptide that is highly selective and rapidly dissociates from its receptor after cessation of therapy. In clinical studies, concomitant administration of eptifibatide in patients undergoing elective PCI reduced thrombotic complications in the IMPACT-II (Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Prevent Coronary Thrombosis II) and ESPRIT (Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy) trials. In the PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy) trial, which included 10,948 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, eptifibatide significantly reduced the primary end point of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days compared with placebo. In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), eptifibatide has been studied as adjunct to primary PCI and improved epicardial flow and tissue reperfusion. Studies are now evaluating eptifibatide in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and a planned early invasive strategy in the EARLY-ACS (Eptifibatide Administration prior to Diagnostic Catherization and Revascularization to Limit Myocardial Necrosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial and in patients with primary PCI for STEMI in comparison to abciximab in the EVA-AMI (Eptifibatide versus Abciximab in Primary PCI for Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial. After the completion of these trials, the value of etifibatide in patients undergoing PCI in different indications can be determined.

  4. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass burgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Kirilova, Kremena; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the cerebroprotective effect of piracetam on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients scheduled for elective, primary and isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomised either to piracetam or placebo group. The study was performed in a double blind fashion. Patients received either 12 g piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total number of 120 patients were enrolled into the study. Preoperative overall cognitive function were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed a deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (placebo-pre: -0.06+/-0.99 vs placebo-post: -1.38+/-1.11; p<0.0005 and piracetam-pre: 0.06+/-1.02 vs piracetam-post: -0.65+/-0.93; p<0.0005). However, the piracetam patients performed significantly better compared to the placebo patients after the operation and had a less decline of overall cognitive function (p<0.0005). Piracetam has a cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. It reduces an early postoperative substantial decline of neuropsychological abilities.

  5. Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mirra, M; Di Maio, M; Vitulano, G; Prota, C; Polito, MV; Poto, S; Pierro, L; Piscione, F

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, occurring in 1-2% of overall population, involving more than 6 millions of European people. It is associated to a reduced quality of life and an increased morbidity and mortality. The Framingham study showed the link between angina and AF. The same risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity promote both AF and coronary artery disease (CAD). About 1/4 of AF patients develop a CAD and, in this setting, about 1/5 undergoes a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In patients with both AF and CAD, the optimal medical strategy is challenging and it is still debated in cardiological community, since patients treated by dual (two antiplatelets drugs ore one antiplatelets drug and an oral anticoagulant drug) or triple therapy (two antiplatelets drugs and an oral anticoagulant drug) are exposed to divergent risk of bleeding or thromboembolic and ischemic complications. Aim of this paper is to focus the attention on the different problems arising from the presence of AF in patients undergoing PCI, such as the risk of stroke, bleeding and stent thrombosis. PMID:24809033

  6. Preprocedural statin use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kenaan, Mohamad; Seth, Milan; Aronow, Herbert D; Naoum, Joseph; Wunderly, Douglas; Mitchiner, James; Moscucci, Mauro; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-07-01

    Earlier studies suggest that administering statins prior to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) is associated with lower risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction and contrast-induced nephropathy. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend routine use of statins prior to PCI. It is unclear how commonly this recommendation is followed in clinical practice and what its effect on outcomes is. We evaluated the incidence and in-hospital outcomes associated with statin pretreatment among patients undergoing PCI and enrolled in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry at 44 hospitals in Michigan between January 2010 and December 2012. Propensity and exact matching were used to adjust for the nonrandom use of statins prior to PCI. Long-term mortality was assessed in a subset of patients who were linked to Medicare data. Our study population was comprised of 80,493 patients of whom 26,547 (33 %) did not receive statins prior to undergoing PCI. When compared to statin receivers, nonreceivers had lower rates of prior cardiovascular disease. In the matched analysis, absence of statin use prior to PCI was associated with a similar rate of in-hospital mortality (0.43% vs 0.42%, odds ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.70-1.42, P = .98) and periprocedural myocardial infarction (2.34% vs 2.10%, odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.32, P = .11) compared to statin receivers. Likewise, no difference in the rate of coronary artery bypass grafting, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or contrast-induced nephropathy was observed. There was no association between pre-PCI use of statins and long-term survival among the subset of included Medicare patients (hazard ratio = 1.0, P = .96). A significant number of patients undergo PCI without statin pretreatment, but this is not associated with in-hospital major complications or long-term mortality. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Fauchier, L; Pellegrin, C; Clementy, N; Saint Etienne, C; Banerjee, A; Naudin, D; Angoulvant, D

    2013-09-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stent implantation, the optimal antithrombotic strategy is unclear. We evaluated whether use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) was associated with any benefit in morbidity or mortality in patients with AF, high risk of thromboembolism (TE) (CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2) and coronary stent implantation. Among 8,962 unselected patients with AF seen between 2000 and 2010, a total of 2,709 (30%) had coronary artery disease and 417/2,709 (15%) underwent stent implantation while having CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2. During follow-up (median=650 days), all TE, bleeding episodes, and major adverse cardiac events (i.e. death, acute myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation) were recorded. At discharge, 97/417 patients (23%) received OAC, which was more likely to be prescribed in patients with permanent AF and in those treated for elective stent implantation. The incidence of outcome event rates was not significantly different in patients treated and those not treated with OAC. However, in multivariate analysis, the lack of OAC at discharge was independently associated with increased risk of death/stroke/systemic TE (relative risk [RR] =2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.67, p=0.04), with older age (RR =1.12, 1.04-1.20, p=0.003), heart failure (RR =3.26, 1.18-9.01, p=0.02), and history of stroke (RR =18.87, 3.11-111.11, p=0.001). In conclusion, in patients with AF and high thromboembolic risk after stent implantation, use of OAC was independently associated with decreased risk of subsequent death/stroke/systemic TE, suggesting that OAC should be systematically used in this patient population.

  8. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  9. [Effects of video information in patients undergoing coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Philippe, F; Meney, M; Larrazet, F; Ben Abderrazak, F; Dibie, A; Meziane, T; Folliguet, T; Delahousse, P; Lemoine, J F; Laborde, F

    2006-02-01

    informed consent is a fundamental and legal obligation for each interventional cardiologist. The effect of consent form describing risks of invasive procedure on anxiety is controversial. This trial was aimed to assess the added value of video information to the standard informed consent process. 200 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled. The first one hundred were assigned to conventional education conducted by the physician (no video group) and the second one hundred had consent obtained in the conventional manner assisted by video information (video group). The outcome variables for this comparison consisted of a standard anxiety score (Spielberger Statement Anxiety Inventory questionnary) plus hemodynamics measurements of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained at baseline and immediately after written informed consent In addition, before discharge, patients graded the tolerability and satisfaction on a 4-point scale. The groups were similar with regard to their baseline characteristics and anxity score (37+23 vs 37+23). Patients who had not had prior experience of catheterization had higher baseline anxiety than those who had prior angiography (45 + 22 vs 31 + 20; p = 0.027). Patients who watched the video were significantly less anxious after informed consent (28 + 21 vs 34 + 22; p = 0.048) and had a significantly lower heart rate (65 + 10 vs 71 + 12; p = 0.03). The benefits of video information were especially prominent in those with higher anxiety scores at baseline (score after 45 + 24 vs 57 + 26; p = 0.046). Tolerability were higher in the video group compared with no video group (98% vs 86%; p = 0.003). Finally, satisfaction of information for informed consent process was higher in video group than in no video group (99% vs 76%; p = 0.001). a video information decreased anxiety level after written informed consent and improved tolerability and satisfaction scales in patients undergoing coronary angiography

  10. An algorithm for use of prasugrel (effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Julio; Morrow, David; Resnic, Frederic; Manica, Andre; Kirshenbaum, James; Cannon, Christopher; Croce, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    An algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital is presented. Our algorithm, which is in the process of being implemented, is consistent with published and generally accepted standards of care and is based on data from the pivotal Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38, which compared clopidogrel with prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Areas of focus include analysis of the benefit of prasugrel over clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome patients and appropriate selection of patients for prasugrel treatment.

  11. Coronary sinus plasma beta endorphin levels in cardioischemic patients undergoing PTCA.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Negri, M; Tonnarini, G; Borgia, M C; Martuscelli, E; Nigri, A; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P

    1998-01-01

    Plasma beta-endorphin levels were studied in the coronary sinus of 8 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). All the patients had ECG ischemic signs and pain during the inflation of the balloon. No significant changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels were observed during PTCA-induced ischemia. Baseline coronary sinus plasma beta-endorphin levels were found to be elevated when compared with peripheral ones which would suggest an accumulation of beta-endorphin in the ischemic heart.

  12. [Patients facing with the decision to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Bobbio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common procedure to treat coronary artery stenoses. Several studies had demonstrated that PCI does not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction when performed to patients with stable angina. However it has been observed that most patients believe that PCI will reduce their risk for death and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, cardiologists generally acknowledge the limitation of PCI according to the current literature.Cardiologists' decision to refer a patient to PCI is based on factors other then perceived benefits such as fear of missing a needed procedure, defensive medicine, desire of demonstrating their professional competence, vested professional and economic interests, accomplish patient expectation, the so called oculo-stenotic reflex, when a lesion is dilated regardless the clinical indication. Patients' misleading perception of harm and benefits of a procedure is mainly related to the cognitive dissonance, when individuals tend to reduce the conflict of an uncomfortable decision adopting information, which are likely to reduce their discomfort. Furthermore, patients believe that doing more means doing better, that technologic intervention are better than pharmacological treatment that in turn are better than doing nothing. Finally, they assume that a procedure is really effective since their physician suggested it.It should be emphasized that physicians and patients do not communicate successfully about key decision and how little we know about patient understanding of the factors that influence important medical care decisions. Although considerable attention is given to facilitating informed consent, patients' perceived benefits of elective PCI do not match existing evidence, as they overestimated both the benefits and urgency of their procedures. These findings suggest that an even greater effort at patient education is needed prior to elective PCI to facilitate fully informed decision-making.

  13. Clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yudi, M B; Clark, D J; Farouque, O; Eccleston, D; Andrianopoulos, N; Duffy, S J; Brennan, A; Lefkovits, J; Ramchand, J; Yip, T; Oqueli, E; Reid, C M; Ajani, A E

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines recommend prasugrel or ticagrelor instead of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). We sought to describe the trends in uptake of the newer agents and analyse the clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of patients treated with clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor. We analysed the temporal trends of antiplatelet use since the availability of prasugrel (2009-2013) in patients with ACS from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry. To assess clinical characteristics and outcomes, we included 1850 patients from 2012 to 2013, corresponding to the time all three agents were available. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The safety end-point was in-hospital bleeding. For the period of 2009-2013, the majority of patients were treated with clopidogrel (72%) compared with prasugrel (14%) or ticagrelor (14%). There was a clear trend towards ticagrelor by the end of 2013. Patients treated with clopidogrel were more likely to present with non-ST-elevation ACS, be older, and have more comorbidities. There was no difference in unadjusted 30-day mortality (0.9 vs 0.5 vs 1.0%, P = 0.76), myocardial infarction (2 vs 1 vs 2%, P = 0.52) or MACE (3 vs 3 vs 4%, P = 0.57) between the three agents. There was no difference in in-hospital bleeding (3 vs 2 vs 2%, P = 0.64). Prasugrel and ticagrelor are increasingly used in ACS patients treated with PCI, predominantly in a younger cohort with less comorbidity. Although antiplatelet therapy should still be individualised based on the thrombotic and bleeding risk, our study highlights the safety of the new P2Y12 inhibitors in contemporary Australian practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Cardiothoracic ratio within the “normal” range independently predicts mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, M Justin S; Sanders, Julie; Crook, Angela M; Feder, Gene; Shipley, Martin; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), within the range conventionally considered normal, predicted prognosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Design Cohort study with a median of 7‐years follow‐up. Setting Consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography at Barts and The London National Health Service (NHS) Trust. Subjects 1005 patients with CTRs measured by chest radiography, and who subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Of these patients, 7.3% had a CTR ⩾0.5 and were excluded from the analyses. Outcomes All‐cause mortality and coronary event (non‐fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death). Adjustments were made for age, left ventricular dysfunction, ACE inhibitor treatment, body mass index, number of diseased coronary vessels and past coronary artery bypass graft. Results The risk of death was increased among patients with a CTR in the upper part of the normal range. In total, 94 (18.9%) of those with a CTR below the median of 0.42 died compared with 120 (27.8%) of those with a CTR between 0.42 and 0.49 (log rank test p<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, this increased risk remained (adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.05). CTR, at values below 0.5, was linearly related to the risk of coronary event (test for trend p = 0.024). Conclusion : In patients undergoing coronary angiography, CTR between 0.42 and 0.49 was associated with higher mortality than in patients with smaller hearts. There was evidence of a continuous increase in risk with higher CTR. These findings, along with those in healthy populations, question the conventional textbook cut‐off point of ⩾0.5 being an abnormal CTR. PMID:17164481

  15. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  16. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  17. Recommendations for management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery after coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Croce, Kevin J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Resnic, Frederic S

    2012-12-01

    Patients commonly undergo noncardiac surgical procedures after implantation of a coronary stent. In the case where surgery cannot be deferred until completing the minimum duration of dual antiplatelet therapy, the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory recommends using a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging protocol to minimize the risk of perioperative ischemic events. We discuss our algorithm for managing antiplatelet agents, including the newer agents, prasugrel and ticagrelor, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery after coronary stenting and present our glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging strategy along with a review of the relevant pharmacodynamic and clinical evidence.

  18. Patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: current concepts and concerns: part II.

    PubMed

    Dzeshka, Mikhail S; Brown, Richard A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) often present concomitantly. Given the increased risk of thrombotic complications with either of them but different pathogenesis of clot formation, combined antithrombotic therapy is necessary in patients developing acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Different antithrombotic regimens in this group of patients have been summarized and discussed earlier. Triple therapy remains the treatment of choice in these patients despite the increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Given the absence of evidence from randomized controlled trials, balancing the risk of stroke and stent thrombosis against the risk of major bleeding is a challenge. Precise stroke and bleeding risk assessment is an essential part of the decision making process regarding antithrombotic management. Continuing the discussion of current concepts and concerns of antithrombotic management in AF patients undergoing PCI, we emphasize the importance of various strategies to reduce bleeding in the modern era, namely, radial access combined with careful selection of a P2Y₁₂ receptor inhibitor, use of newer drug-eluting stents, and uninterrupted anticoagulation for patients undergoing procedures. We also focus on the role of the non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (novel oral anticoagulants, eg, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) which are increasingly used for stroke prevention in AF. Finally, recent recommendations on the management of antithrombotic therapy in AF patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing PCI as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions are highlighted.

  19. Incidental visceral and renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Bageacu, S; Cerisier, A; Isaaz, K; Nourissat, A; Barral, X; Favre, J-P

    2011-03-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between incidentally discovered mesenteric artery stenosis, renal artery stenosis (RAS) and coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. We performed a prospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterisation. Abdominal aortograms in lateral and antero-posterior view were obtained to assess arterial stenosis of the coeliac axis, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries. Significant arterial stenosis was defined as a narrowing of at least 50% compared with the normal artery. Demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed. The prevalence of visceral artery stenosis (VAS) was 63/450 (14%) including 48/450 (10.6%) cases of coeliac axis stenosis and 15/450 (3.3%) cases of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Female sex (p = 0.01), older age (p = 0.03) and the presence of coronary artery disease (p = 0.05) were significant predictors for the presence of VAS in univariate analysis. The determinants for VAS in multivariate analysis were female sex and three-vessel coronary artery disease, while two- and three-vessel coronary artery disease was significant for RAS. Screening for VAS and RAS in female patients older than 60 years with more than two diseased coronary segments could have a high diagnostic value. Copyright © 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Symptoms and angiographic findings of patients undergoing elective coronary angiography without prior stress testing.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mouin S; Spertus, John A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Kennedy, Kevin F; Arnold, Suzanne V; Chan, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    Many patients undergo elective coronary angiography without preprocedural stress testing that may be suitable if performed in patients with more angina pectoris or more frequently identified obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry undergoing elective coronary angiography from July 2009 to April 2013 were assessed for differences in angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class) and severity of obstructive CAD in those with and without preprocedural stress testing, stratified by CAD history. Given the large sample size, differences were considered clinically meaningful if the standardized difference (SD) was >10%. Of 790,601 patients without CAD history, 36.9% did not undergo preprocedural stress testing. Compared with patients with preprocedural stress testing, patients without preprocedural stress testing were more frequently angina free (CCS class 0; 28.2% with stress test vs 38.5% without, SD = 14.8%) and had similar rates of obstructive CAD (40.1% with stress test vs 35.7% without, SD = 9.0). Of 449,579 patients with CAD history, 44.2% did not undergo preprocedural stress testing. Patients without preprocedural stress testing reported more angina (CCS class III/IV angina: 17.8% vs 13.4%; SD = 11.3%) but were not more likely to have obstructive CAD (78.7% vs 81.1%; SD = 5.8%) than patients with preprocedural stress testing. In conclusion, approximately 40% of patients undergoing elective coronary angiography did not have preprocedural risk stratification with stress testing. For these patients, the clinical decision to proceed directly to invasive evaluation was not driven primarily by severe angina and did not result in higher detection rates for obstructive CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ≥ 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7-6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women; systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 85 mmHg; and A1c ≥ 5.7% or on therapy]. Mean age was 67 years, median body mass index was 28.2 kg/m(2) and 39% had known DM. Of those without known DM, 8.3% and 58.5% met A1c criteria for DM and for prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Adverse Hospital Events for Mentally Ill Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Glance, Laurent G; Cai, Xueya; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Context Patients with mental disorders show higher burden of coronary heart disease, and may face special safety issues during in-hospital cardiac care. Objectives To compare the postoperative complication rate between patients with and without mental disorders undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective analyses of New York state hospital claims between 1997 and 2004 (N=135,701). Complications were defined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (AHRQ PSI). Principal Findings Mental disorders were significantly associated with higher anesthesia complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=6.44, p<.001), decubitus ulcer (AOR=1.42, p=.006), postoperative hip fracture (AOR=3.29, p<.001), and overall complication rate representing nine PSIs (AOR=1.27, p<.001). Conclusions Mentally ill patients undergoing CABG surgery are more likely to experience potentially preventable complications and injuries. The mechanism underlying this observation warrants further study. PMID:18665856

  3. Epicardial Adipose Tissue is Associated with Extensive Coronary Artery Lesions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    KAYA, Mehmet; YENITERZI, Mehmet; YAZICI, Pınar; DIKER, Mustafa; CELIK, Omer; ERTÜRK, Mehmet; BAKIR, Ihsan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume measured by 256-slice dual source computed tomography (DSCT) and the complexity with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Material and methods: Study subjects were enrolled as they were undergoing DSCT for coronary evaluation. Two subgroups were formed according to coronary artery bypass history: Group A (patients with significant CAD), Group B (patients with normal coronary arteries). In both groups, EAT volume was measured by DSCT with the same technique. The complexity of CAD was assessed by using Syntax score (SxS). Group A patients were subdivided into two groups according to these results (Group A1, A2). Outcomes: Ninety-three patients (53 male, 40 female) with a mean age of 55.1 years were enrolled in the study (48 in group A and 45 in Group B). The serum levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were found statistically higher in Group A. In Group A, mean EAT volume was 44.87±21.28 cm3 while it was in normal range (32.37±17.50 cm3) in control group (p=0.003). Higher EAT volume was found to be related to FPG (r=0.242, p=0.015) and body surface area (BSA) (r =0.268, p=0.009) and also correlated positively with CAD. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between subgroups when considering the complexity of CAD. Conclusions: Our data shows that increased EAT volume is associated with significant CAD. EAT volume contributes to the development of coronary lesions, but it does not affect the complexity of the lesions. PMID:25705268

  4. Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with extensive coronary artery lesions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet; Yeniterzi, Mehmet; Yazici, Pınar; Diker, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Ertürk, Mehmet; Bakir, Ihsan

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume measured by 256-slice dual source computed tomography (DSCT) and the complexity with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Study subjects were enrolled as they were undergoing DSCT for coronary evaluation. Two subgroups were formed according to coronary artery bypass history: Group A (patients with significant CAD), Group B (patients with normal coronary arteries). In both groups, EAT volume was measured by DSCT with the same technique. The complexity of CAD was assessed by using Syntax score (SxS). Group A patients were subdivided into two groups according to these results (Group A1, A2). Ninety-three patients (53 male, 40 female) with a mean age of 55.1 years were enrolled in the study (48 in group A and 45 in Group B). The serum levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were found statistically higher in Group A. In Group A, mean EAT volume was 44.87±21.28 cm(3) while it was in normal range (32.37±17.50 cm(3)) in control group (p=0.003). Higher EAT volume was found to be related to FPG (r=0.242, p=0.015) and body surface area (BSA) (r =0.268, p=0.009) and also correlated positively with CAD. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between subgroups when considering the complexity of CAD. Our data shows that increased EAT volume is associated with significant CAD. EAT volume contributes to the development of coronary lesions, but it does not affect the complexity of the lesions.

  5. Antithrombotic therapy for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a review.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Andrew; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2013-07-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation who have risk factors for thromboembolism benefit from chronic oral anticoagulation therapy, and antiplatelet therapy alone is of relatively little benefit for prevention of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents require dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine for 3 to 12 months or more prevention of stent thrombosis and recurrent ischemic events. When patients with atrial fibrillation undergo percutaneous coronary intervention, the need to combine dual antiplatelet therapy and warfarin raises the risk of major bleeding complications considerably. Recent trials have explored the option of omitting aspirin with promising results. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit factor IIa (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) and antiplatelet agents that inhibit the P(2)Y(12) receptor (prasugrel and ticagrelor) makes management of these patients even more challenging, but future trials addressing myriad alternative regimens may identify better tolerated strategies.

  6. An Algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Julio; Morrow, David; Resnic, Frederic; Manica, Andre; Kirshenbaum, James; Cannon, Christopher; Croce, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital is presented. Our algorithm, which is in the process of being implemented, is consistent with published and generally accepted standards of care and is based on data from the pivotal Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38, which compared clopidogrel to prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI. Areas of focus include analysis of the benefit of prasugrel over clopidogrel in ACS patients and appropriate selection of patients for prasugrel treatment. PMID:21119336

  7. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin Treated Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Seo Kwang; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Yun, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Statins remain the mainstay of secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention, but n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) display biological effects that may also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and CAD. However, data on the possible antiatherosclerotic benefits of adding ω-3 PUFA to statin therapy are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential additive effects of ω-3 PUFA on regression of atherosclerosis in CAD patients receiving statin therapy and stent implantation. Subjects and Methods Seventy-four CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation were enrolled, prescribed statins, and randomly assigned to two groups: n-3 group (ω-3 PUFA 3 g/day, n=38) or placebo group (placebo, n=36). All patients completed the study follow-up consisting of an intravascular ultrasound at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics and distribution of other medications. No significant differences were observed in primary endpoints, including changes in atheroma volume index (−12.65% vs. −8.51%, p=0.768) and percent atheroma volume (−4.36% vs. −9.98%, p=0.526), and in secondary endpoints including a change in neointimal volume index (7.84 vs. 4.94 mm3/mm, p=0.087). Conclusion ω-3 PUFA had no definite additional effect on the regression of coronary atherosclerosis when added to statin in CAD patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27482256

  8. Incidence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing First-Time Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Kralev, Stefan; Schneider, Kathrin; Lang, Siegfried; Süselbeck, Tim; Borggrefe, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background In standard reference sources, the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) ranged between 24 and 46.5%. Since then, the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) has increased and modern treatment strategies (“pill in the pocket”) are only applicable to patients without structural heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of CAD in patients with AF. Methods From January 2005 until December 2009, we included 261 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with paroxysmal, persistent or permanent AF in this prospective study. All patients underwent coronary angiography and the Framingham risk score (FRS) was calculated. Patients with previously diagnosed or previously excluded CAD were excluded. Results The overall incidence of CAD in patients presenting with AF was 34%; in patients >70 years, the incidence of CAD was 41%. The incidence of patients undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was 21%. Patients with CAD were older (73±8 years vs 68±10 years, p = 0.001), had significantly more frequent hypercholesterolemia (60% vs 30%, p<0.001), were more frequent smokers (26% vs 13%, p = 0.017) and suffered from angina more often (37% vs 2%, p<0.001). There was a significant linear trend among the FRS categories in percentage and the prevalence of CAD and PCI/CABG (p<0.0001). Conclusions The overall incidence of CAD in patients presenting with AF was relatively high at 34%; the incidence of PCI/CABG was 21%. Based upon increasing CRF in the western world, we recommend a careful investigation respecting the FRS to either definitely exclude or establish an early diagnosis of CAD – which could contribute to an early and safe therapeutic strategy considering type Ic antiarrhythmics and oral anticoagulation. PMID:21957469

  9. Current trends in patients with chronic total occlusions undergoing coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Opolski, Maksymilian P; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Berman, Daniel S; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Andreini, Daniele; Cademartiri, Filippo; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Leipsic, Jonathon; Maffei, Erica; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective Data describing the prevalence, characteristics and management of coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics and treatment strategies of CTO identified by CCTA. Methods We identified 23 745 patients who underwent CCTA for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) from the prospective international CCTA registry. Baseline clinical data were collected, and allocation to early coronary revascularisation performed within 90 days of CCTA was determined. Multivariable hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression reporting OR with 95% CI was performed. Results The prevalence of CTO was 1.4% (342/23 745) in all patients and 6.2% in patients with obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis). The presence of CTO was independently associated with male sex (OR 3.12, 95% CI 2.39 to 4.08, p<0.001), smoking (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.55 to 2.64, p<0.001), diabetes (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.11, p=0.001), typical angina (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.06, p=0.008), hypertension (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.88, p=0.003), family history of CAD (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67, p=0.04) and age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.07, p<0.001). Most patients with CTO (61%) were treated medically, while 39% underwent coronary revascularisation. In patients with severe CAD (≥70% stenosis), CTO independently predicted revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.06 to 5.66, p<0.001), but not by percutaneous coronary intervention (p=0.83). Conclusions CTOs are not uncommon in a contemporary CCTA population, and are associated with age, gender, angina status and CAD risk factors. Most individuals with CTO undergoing CCTA are managed medically with higher rates of surgical revascularisation in patients with versus without CTO. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01443637. PMID:26076936

  10. Periprocedural glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography with possible percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Berger, Jeffrey S; Amoroso, Nicholas S; Mai, Xingchen; Lorin, Jeffrey D; Danoff, Ann; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z; Lobach, Iryna; Guo, Yu; Feit, Frederick; Slater, James; Attubato, Michael J; Sedlis, Steven P

    2014-05-01

    Periprocedural hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, periprocedural management of blood glucose is not standardized. The effects of routinely continuing long-acting glucose-lowering medications before coronary angiography with possible PCI on periprocedural glycemic control have not been investigated. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM; n = 172) were randomized to continue (Continue group; n = 86) or hold (Hold group; n = 86) their clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications before the procedure. The primary end point was glucose level on procedural access. In a subset of patients (no DM group: n = 25; Continue group: n = 25; and Hold group: n = 25), selected measures of platelet activity that change acutely were assessed. Patients with DM randomized to the Continue group had lower blood glucose levels on procedural access compared with those randomized to the Hold group (117 [97 to 151] vs 134 [117 to 172] mg/dl, p = 0.002). There were two hypoglycemic events in the Continue group and none in the Hold group, and no adverse events in either group. Selected markers of platelet activity differed across the no DM, Continue, and Hold groups (leukocyte platelet aggregates: 8.1% [7.2 to 10.4], 8.7% [6.9 to 11.4], 10.9% [8.6 to 14.7], p = 0.007; monocyte platelet aggregates: 14.0% [10.3 to 16.3], 20.8% [16.2 to 27.0], 22.5% [15.2 to 35.4], p <0.001; soluble p-selectin: 51.9 ng/ml [39.7 to 74.0], 59.1 ng/ml [46.8 to 73.2], 72.2 ng/ml [58.4 to 77.4], p = 0.014). In conclusion, routinely continuing clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications before coronary angiography with possible PCI help achieve periprocedural euglycemia, appear safe, and should be considered as a strategy for achieving periprocedural glycemic control.

  11. The management of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation: in-hospital-data from the Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting study.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lahtela, Heli; Valencia, Josè; Karjalainen, Pasi P; Weber, Michael; Laine, Mika; Kirchhof, Paulus; Niemelä, Matti; Vikman, Saila; Buerke, Michael; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2013-12-01

    Current recommendations on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent (PCI-S) essentially derive from small, single-center, retrospective datasets. To obtain larger and better quality data, we carried out the prospective, multicenter Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting (AFCAS) study. Therefore, consecutive patients with history of or ongoing AF undergoing PCI-S were enrolled, and occurrence of adverse ischemic and bleeding events recorded during 12 months follow-up. In this article, we report the in-hospital observations. Out of the 963 patients, in the majority of cases (49.1%) AF was permanent. The associated risk of stroke, as defined by a CHADS2 -score ≥2, was in 70% of patients moderate to high. Upon enrollment in the registry, 69.3% of patients were on VKA therapy. Overall occurrence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events was 4.5% (cardiovascular death 1.9%, urgent revascularization in 1.5%, and stroke/arterial thromboembolism in 0.6%). Bleeding complications occurred in 7.1% of patients, being severe in 2.5%. In a logistic regression analysis, no risk factor was independently associated with bleeding events, whereas Clopidogrel treatment decreased and female gender/treatment with gpIIb/IIIa-antagonists, respectively increased the risk for the combined ischemic endpoint. The majority of AF patients undergoing PCI-S are at high stroke risk, and therefore VKA treatment should not be withdrawn and combined anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment is warranted. Current management appears largely in accordance with current recommendations, whereby accounting for the limited occurrence of in-hospital adverse ischemic and bleeding events.

  12. Microvolt T-wave alternans in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Khoueiry, G; Abdallah, M; Shariff, M; Kowalski, M; Lafferty, J

    2015-01-01

    We designed a prospective observational study targeting a selective population of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting with normal systolic function. In this study we looked at the prevalence of pre-operative microvolt T-wave alternans and if it predicts atrial fibrillation after surgery. The inclusion criteria included all patients referred to the cardiothoracic outpatient clinic for elective bypass, who can perform aerobic exercise, with a recent exercise stress test exercising at least to 85% of the maximal predicted heart rate (220 - age) and with non-limiting chest pain at maximal exercise. Twenty patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria between May 2008 and February 2010. The hospital course of those patients was followed, and in-hospital events were recorded. Nine out twenty (45%) of patients had a non-negative microvolt T-wave alternans tracing. Six patients (30%) developed new onset atrial fibrillation post surgery. Patients with non-negative microvolt level T-wave alternans are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation post coronary artery bypass grafting then patients with negative microvolt level T-wave alternans (p=0.05). This pilot study provides the first clinical evidence that patients with ischemic heart disease and normal systolic function have a high prevalence of abnormal microvolt T-wave alternans and might be at higher risk of sudden cardiac death. In addition our results show that microvolt level T-wave alternans predicts post coronary artery bypass grafting new onset atrial fibrillation.

  13. Evaluation of Pericardial Fluid C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients Undergoing Coronary Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Orkut; Karahan, Oguz; Karabacak, Mustafa; Yuksel, Volkan; Huseyin, Serhat; Mavitas, Binali

    2017-06-01

    Background Neurohumoral and hemodynamic mechanisms have an effect on cardiac activity. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is accessible in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine whether CNP concentrations in pericardial fluid and blood are related to cardiac dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were enrolled. The patients were separated into two groups according to left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF): group 1 contained 28 patients with normal LV systolic function (LVEF ≥ 50%) and group 2 contained 12 patients with impaired LV systolic function (LVEF < 45%). Plasma and pericardial fluid samples were acquired during surgery to measure CNP levels. Results In group 1, CNP levels were detected to be 0.46 ± 0.10 ng/mL in plasma and 0.66 ± 0.8 ng/mL in pericardial liquid. In group 2, these levels were 0.51 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.12 ng/mL, respectively. CNP levels were determined to be significantly higher in patients with low EF compared with those with normal EF in pericardial fluid concentrations (p = 0.013). Conclusions CNP level in pericardial fluid is a more sensitive and proper marker of LV dysfunction than CNP levels in plasma. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine pericardial fluid CNP levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. It may have a valuable role in organizing cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Provisional stenting in the real world: results in 1058 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Ten Berg, Jurriën M; Kelder, Johannes C; Suttorp, Maarten Jan; Plokker, Thijs HW

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study a strategy of aggressive coronary balloon angioplasty with provisional stenting in allcomers. In randomized trials, stenting has improved the outcome of patients undergoing coronary intervention. However, whether these results hold up in clinical practice is largely unknown. Furthermore, the results of balloon angioplasty have also improved dramatically. It is therefore essential to evaluate the current results of balloon angioplasty and to assess whether stents are required in all patients. METHODS: The authors prospectively studied the occurrence of death, myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) of a large consecutive group of patients undergoing aggressive balloon angioplasty with provisional stenting. None of the patients received a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker. The results were compared with the outcome of routine stenting in recent randomized trials. RESULTS: Angioplasty was performed in 1058 patients of whom 369 (34.9%) received a stent. The angiographic success rate was 98.9%. During hospital stay, 4.8% of the patients suffered any cardiac event. At one-year follow-up, death occurred in 1.1%, MI in 3.3%, TLR in 12.4% and any event in 16.7% of the patients. Event-free survival at one-year was 82.3%. These results compare favorably with routine stenting in recent trials. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive balloon angioplasty with provisional stenting yields excellent results in a general patient population.

  15. Relation of routine, periodic fasting to risk of diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; Muhlestein, Joseph B; May, Heidi T; Carlquist, John F; Lappé, Donald L; Bair, Tami L; Anderson, Jeffrey L

    2012-06-01

    Previously we discovered that routine periodic fasting was associated with a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Other studies have shown that fasting increases longevity in animals. A hypothesis-generating analysis suggested that fasting may also associate with diabetes. This study prospectively tested whether routine periodic fasting is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients (n = 200) undergoing coronary angiography were surveyed for routine fasting behavior before their procedure. DM diagnosis was based on physician reports of current and historical clinical and medication data. Secondary end points included CAD (physician reported for ≥ 1 lesion of ≥ 70% stenosis), glucose, and body mass index (BMI). Meta-analyses were performed by evaluation of these patients and 448 patients from a previous study. DM was present in 10.3% of patients who fasted routinely and 22.0% of those who do not fast (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 0.99, p = 0.042). CAD was found in 63.2% of fasting and 75.0% of nonfasting patients (OR 0.42, CI 0.21 to 0.84, p = 0.014), and in nondiabetics this CAD association was similar (OR 0.38, CI 0.16 to 0.89, p = 0.025). Meta-analysis showed modest differences for fasters versus nonfasters in glucose concentrations (108 ± 36 vs 115 ± 46 mg/dl, p = 0.047) and BMI (27.9 ± 5.3 vs 29.0 ± 5.8 kg/m(2), p = 0.044). In conclusion, prospective hypothesis testing showed that routine periodic fasting was associated with a lower prevalence of DM in patients undergoing coronary angiography. A reported fasting association with a lower CAD risk was also validated and fasting associations with lower glucose and BMI were found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoker's Paradox in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tanush; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Harikrishnan, Prakash; Mujib, Marjan; Aronow, Wilbert S; Jain, Diwakar; Ahmed, Ali; Cooper, Howard A; Frishman, William H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2016-04-22

    Prior studies have found that smokers undergoing thrombolytic therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction have lower in-hospital mortality than nonsmokers, a phenomenon called the "smoker's paradox." Evidence, however, has been conflicting regarding whether this paradoxical association persists in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We used the 2003-2012 National Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital mortality between smokers (current and former) and nonsmokers. Of the 985 174 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, 438 954 (44.6%) were smokers. Smokers were younger, were more often men, and were less likely to have traditional vascular risk factors than nonsmokers. Smokers had lower observed in-hospital mortality compared with nonsmokers (2.0% versus 5.9%; unadjusted odds ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.31-0.33, P<0.001). Although the association between smoking and lower in-hospital mortality was partly attenuated after baseline risk adjustment, a significant residual association remained (adjusted odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.58-0.62, P<0.001). This association largely persisted in age-stratified analyses. Smoking status was also associated with shorter average length of stay (3.5 versus 4.5 days, P<0.001) and lower incidence of postprocedure hemorrhage (4.2% versus 6.1%; adjusted odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.80-0.83, P<0.001) and in-hospital cardiac arrest (1.3% versus 2.1%; adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76-0.81, P<0.001). In this nationwide cohort of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, we observed significantly lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality in smokers, suggesting that the smoker's paradox

  17. Benefits of Intraaortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction Patients in Severe Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hsieh, I-Chang; Hung, Ming-Jui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) have a neutral effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). However, the effects of IABP on patients with severe CS remain unclear. We therefore investigated the benefits of IABP in AMI patients with severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization. Methods and Results This study identified 14,088 adult patients with AMI and severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, dividing them into the IABP group (n = 7044) and the Nonusers group (n = 7044) after propensity score matching to equalize confounding variables. The primary outcomes included myocardial infarction(MI), cerebrovascular accidents or cardiovascular death. In-hospital events including dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis were secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes were worse in the IABP group than in the Nonusers group in 1 month (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.84–2.12). The MI rate was higher in the IABP group (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.16–1.79), and the cardiovascular death was much higher in the IABP group (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.92–2.23). The IABP users had lower incidence of dialysis (8.5% and 9.5%, P = 0.04), stroke (2.6% and 3.8%, P<0.001), pneumonia (13.9% and 16.5%, P<0.001) and sepsis (13.2% and 16%, P<0.001) during hospitalization than Nonusers. Conclusion The use of IABP in patients with myocardial infarction and severe cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary revascularization did not improve the outcomes of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. However, it did reduce the incidence of dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis during hospitalization. PMID:27483439

  18. Performance of bleeding risk-prediction scores in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Puurunen, Marja; Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Karjalainen, Pasi; Vikman, Saila; Niemelä, Matti; Lahtela, Heli; Lip, Gregory Y H; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2014-06-15

    The hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, and drugs/alcohol (HAS-BLED); anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation (ATRIA); modified Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (mOBRI); and reduction of atherothrombosis for continued health (REACH) schemes are validated bleeding risk-prediction tools, but their predictive performance in patients with AF receiving multiple antithrombotic drugs after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We sought to compare the predictive performance of bleeding risk-estimation tools in a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing PCI. Management of patients with AF undergoing coronary artery stenting is a multicenter European prospective registry enrolling patients with AF undergoing PCI. We calculated HAS-BLED, ATRIA, mOBRI, and REACH bleeding risk-prediction scores and assessed the rate of bleeding complications as defined by Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 12 months follow-up in 929 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. Increasing age, femoral access site, and previous peptic ulcer were independent determinants of bleeding. Low bleeding risk scores as determined by HAS-BLED 0 to 2, ATRIA 0 to 3, mOBRI 0, and REACH 0 to 10 were detected in 23.7%, 73.0%, 7.8%, and 5.7% of patients of the cohort, respectively. No significant differences were detected in the rates of any bleeding or major bleeding events for low versus intermediate/high scores with each risk-prediction tool. In conclusion, the performance of ATRIA, HAS-BLED, mOBRI, and REACH scores in predicting bleeding complications in this high-risk patient subset was useless.

  19. Olmesartan reduces inflammatory biomarkers in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: results from the OLIVUS trial.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Toru; Hirohata, Atsushi; Usui, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keizo; Murakami, Takashi; Komatsubara, Issei; Kusachi, Shozo; Ohe, Tohru; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The OLmesartan on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis: evaluation by IntraVascular UltraSound (OLIVUS) trial demonstrated that an angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan, reduces the rate of coronary atheroma progression as evaluated by intravascular ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This substudy examined the impact of olmesartan on serum biomarkers and the relationship between biomarker changes and atheroma progression. Patients in the OLIVUS trial (n = 247) were randomly assigned to a control group or the olmesartan group. A subgroup of these patients (n = 135, 55 %) was analyzed at baseline and at 14 months. Patients' characteristics and blood-pressure control were identical between the control group (n = 65) and the olmesartan group (n = 70), and also between the subpopulation and total population. The change in the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (mg/l) and adiponectin (μg/ml) was significantly greater in the olmesartan group than in the control group (between-group differences: 0.5 and -0.7; 95 % confidence interval: 0.2-0.8 and -1.3 to -0.1; P = 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the nominal changes in total atheroma volume and percent atheroma volume were significantly associated with the nominal change in hs-CRP in the olmesartan group but not in the control group. Olmesartan reduced hs-CRP in patients with stable angina, and this correlated with the change in coronary atheroma.

  20. Gender differences in health-related quality of life in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Gijsberts, Crystel M; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Hoefer, Imo E; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Nathoe, Hendrik; Appelman, Yolande E; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reflects the general well-being of individuals. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), HRQOL is compromised. Female patients with CAD have been reported to have lower HRQOL. In this study, we investigate gender differences in HRQOL and in associations of patient characteristics with HRQOL in patients with coronary angiography (CAG). Methods We cross-sectionally analysed patients from the Utrecht Coronary Biobank undergoing CAG. All patients filled in an HRQOL questionnaire (RAND-36 and EuroQoL) on inclusion. RAND-36 and EuroQoL HRQOL measures were compared between the genders across indications for CAG, CAD severity and treatment of CAD. RAND-36 HRQOL measures were compared with the general Dutch population. Additionally, we assessed interactions of gender with patient characteristics in their association with HRQOL (EuroQoL). Results We included 1421 patients (1020 men and 401 women) with a mean age of 65 in our analysis. Women reported lower HRQOL measures than men (mean EuroQoL self-rated health grade 6.84±1.49 in men, 6.46±1.40 in women, p<0.001). The reduction in RAND-36 HRQOL as compared with the general Dutch population was larger in women than in men. From regression analysis, we found that diabetes, a history of cardiovascular disease and symptoms of shortness of breath determined HRQOL (EuroQoL) more strongly in men than in women. Conclusions Women reported lower HRQOL than men throughout all indications for CAG and regardless of CAD severity or treatment. As compared with the general population, the reduction in HRQOL was more extreme in women than in men. Evident gender differences were found in determinants of HRQOL in patients undergoing CAG, which deserve attention in future research. Trial registration NCT02304744 (clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:26339493

  1. The use of lipid-lowering therapy for secondary prevention in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jessica M; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Genus, Uchenwa; Dzavik, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent literature suggests that lipid-lowering therapy may have an early beneficial effect among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because the therapy decreases cardiac mortality, morbidity and possibly restenosis. OBJECTIVE The primary objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of PCI patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy at a large, tertiary-care referral centre. METHODS Patients undergoing a first PCI between August 2000 and August 2002 with corresponding inpatient medication information were included in the study. Patient demographics, procedural variables, and lipid-lowering and other evidence-based cardiac medication data were collected. A multiple logistical regression model was constructed to evaluate the factors associated with the use of lipid-lowering therapy. RESULTS Of the 3254 cases included in the analyses, 52% were elective, 44% were urgent or salvage, and 4% were emergent. The mean patient age was 63 years, and 73% of patients were male. Over 76% of patients were receiving lipid-lowering therapy at the time of PCI. Patient use of other medications was as follows: acetylsalicylic acid in 96%, beta-blocker in 80% and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in 59%. In the multiple regression analysis, variables significantly associated with lipid-lowering therapy use included hypercholesterolemia, beta-blocker use, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, case urgency, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, age and sex. CONCLUSION Lipid-lowering therapy use rates exceeded those previously reported in the literature. Women and patients undergoing elective procedures appear to be treated less often with lipid-lowering therapy. There remains an opportunity to further optimize use in this high-risk cohort at time of PCI. PMID:16639478

  2. High Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Prasugrel and Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Tobias; Booth, Jean; Tavlaki, Elli; Karathanos, Athanasios; Müller, Karin; Droppa, Michal; Gawaz, Meinrad; Yanez-Lopez, Monica; Davidson, Simon J.; Stables, Rod H.; Banya, Winston; Zaman, Azfar; Flather, Marcus; Dalby, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Background Prasugrel is more effective than clopidogrel in reducing platelet aggregation in acute coronary syndromes. Data available on prasugrel reloading in clopidogrel treated patients with high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) i.e. poor responders, is limited. Objectives To determine the effects of prasugrel loading on platelet function in patients on clopidogrel and high platelet reactivity undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients Patients with ACS on clopidogrel who were scheduled for PCI found to have a platelet reactivity ≥40 AUC with the Multiplate Analyzer, i.e. “poor responders” were randomised to prasugrel (60 mg loading and 10 mg maintenance dose) or clopidogrel (600 mg reloading and 150 mg maintenance dose). The primary outcome measure was proportion of patients with platelet reactivity <40 AUC 4 hours after loading with study medication, and also at one hour (secondary outcome). 44 patients were enrolled and the study was terminated early as clopidogrel use decreased sharply due to introduction of newer P2Y12 inhibitors. Results At 4 hours after study medication 100% of patients treated with prasugrel compared to 91% of those treated with clopidogrel had platelet reactivity <40 AUC (p = 0.49), while at 1 hour the proportions were 95% and 64% respectively (p = 0.02). Mean platelet reactivity at 4 and 1 hours after study medication in prasugrel and clopidogrel groups respectively were 12 versus 22 (p = 0.005) and 19 versus 34 (p = 0.01) respectively. Conclusions Routine platelet function testing identifies patients with high residual platelet reactivity (“poor responders”) on clopidogrel. A strategy of prasugrel rather than clopidogrel reloading results in earlier and more sustained suppression of platelet reactivity. Future trials need to identify if this translates into clinical benefit. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01339026 PMID:26317618

  3. Age-dependent defective TGF-beta1 signaling in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is deregulated in atherosclerosis; however the role of age in this process is unknown. We aimed to assess whether TGF-β1 signaling is affected by age. Methods Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were obtained from patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Levels of TGF-β1 were measured by ELISA in sera from 169 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The p27 expression was determined by Western blot from internal mammary arteries (IMA) obtained from CABG patients (n = 13). In VSMC from these patients undergoing abdominal surgery, secretion of TGF-β1 was determined by ELISA of cell-conditioned media. Results In VSMC from aged patients we observed a lower TGF-β1 secretion, measured as TGF-β1 concentration in cell conditioned medium (p < 0.001). This effect was correlated to an age-dependent decrease of p27 expression in IMA from aged CABG patients. In a similar manner, there was an age-dependent decrease of serum TGF-β1 levels in CABG patients (p = 0.0195). Conclusions VSMC from aged patients showed a higher degree of cellular senescence and it was associated to a lower TGF-β1 secretion and signaling. PMID:24495866

  4. [Coronary stenting and surgery: perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing surgery after coronary stent implantation].

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Bramucci, Ezio; Castiglioni, Battistina; De Servi, Stefano; Lettieri, Corrado; Lettino, Maddalena; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Savonitto, Stefano; Trabattoni, Daniela; Buffoli, Francesca; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Bovenzi, Francesco; Cremonesi, Alberto; Scherillo, Marino; Guagliumi, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    The management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery is a growing clinical problem and often represents a matter of debate between cardiologists and surgeons. It has been estimated that about 4-8% of patients undergoing coronary stenting need to undergo surgery within the next year. Surgery represents one of the most common reasons for premature antiplatelet therapy discontinuation, which is associated with a significant increase in mortality and major adverse cardiac events, in particular stent thrombosis. In addition, surgery confers an additional risk of perioperative cardiac ischemic events, being high in these patients because of the pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects of surgery. Current international guidelines recommend to postpone non-urgent surgery for at least 6 weeks after bare metal stent implantation and for 6-12 months after drug-eluting stent implantation. However, these recommendations provide little support with regard to managing antiplatelet therapy in the perioperative phase in case of urgent operations and/or high hemorrhagic risk. Furthermore, ischemic and hemorrhagic risk is not defined in detail on the basis of clinical and procedural characteristics. Finally, guidelines shared with cardiologists and surgeons are lacking. The present consensus document provides practical recommendations on the management of antiplatelet therapy in the perioperative period in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery. Cardiologists and surgeons contributed equally to its creation. An ischemic risk stratification has been provided on the basis of clinical and procedural data. All surgical interventions have been defined on the basis of the hemorrhagic risk. A consensus on the most appropriate antiplatelet regimen in the perioperative phase has been reached on the basis of the ischemic and hemorrhagic risk. Dual antiplatelet therapy should not be withdrawn for surgery at low bleeding risk, whereas aspirin

  5. Genetic testing in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Lala, A; Berger, J S; Sharma, G; Hochman, J S; Scott Braithwaite, R; Ladapo, J A

    2013-01-01

    The CYP2C19 genotype is a predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treated with clopidogrel. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a CYP2C19*2 genotype-guided strategy of antiplatelet therapy in ACS patients undergoing PCI, compared with two 'no testing' strategies (empiric clopidogrel or prasugrel). We developed a Markov model to compare three strategies. The model captured adverse cardiovascular events and antiplatelet-related complications. Costs were expressed in 2010 US dollars and estimated using diagnosis-related group codes and Medicare reimbursement rates. The net wholesale price for prasugrel was estimated as $5.45 per day. A generic estimate for clopidogrel of $1.00 per day was used and genetic testing was assumed to cost $500. Base case analyses demonstrated little difference between treatment strategies. The genetic testing-guided strategy yielded the most QALYs and was the least costly. Over 15 months, total costs were $18 lower with a gain of 0.004 QALY in the genotype-guided strategy compared with empiric clopidogrel, and $899 lower with a gain of 0.0005 QALY compared with empiric prasugrel. The strongest predictor of the preferred strategy was the relative risk of thrombotic events in carriers compared with wild-type individuals treated with clopidogrel. Above a 47% increased risk, a genotype-guided strategy was the dominant strategy. Above a clopidogrel cost of $3.96 per day, genetic testing was no longer dominant but remained cost-effective. Among ACS patients undergoing PCI, a genotype-guided strategy yields similar outcomes to empiric approaches to treatment, but is marginally less costly and more effective. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting 1

    PubMed Central

    Koerich, Cintia; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in a cardiovascular referral hospital in Santa Catarina. Method: quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and retrospective study. The medical records of 1447 patients, from 2005 to 2013, were analyzed for statistically related variables, these being: profile, hospitalization diagnosis, risk factors for coronary artery disease, complications recorded during the hospitalization, length of hospitalization and cause of death. Results: the mortality rate was 5.3% during the study period. Death was more common in females and those of black skin color, with a mean age of 65 years. Acute myocardial infarction was the most common hospitalization diagnosis. The majority of the complications recorded during hospitalization were characterized by changes in the cardiovascular system, with longer hospitalization periods being directly related to death from septic shock. Conclusion: the data provide subsidies for nursing work with preventive measures and early detection of complications associated with coronary artery bypass grafting. This reinforces the importance of using the data as quality indicators, aiming to guarantee care guided by reliable information to guide managers in planning patient care and high complexity health services. PMID:27508918

  7. [Coronary risk assessment in the management of patients undergoing noncardiac vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Schouten, Olaf; Bax, Jeroen J; Poldermans, Don

    2007-10-01

    Patients scheduled for noncardiac vascular surgery are at significant risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to underlying symptomatic or asymptomatic coronary artery disease. This review will give an overview of current preoperative cardiac risk assessment strategies for patients undergoing noncardiac vascular surgery. Clinical cardiac risk scores are useful tools for the simple identification of patients with an increased perioperative cardiac risk. These risk scores include factors as age, history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular events, diabetes mellitus, and renal dysfunction. Based on these cardiac risk scores further cardiac testing might be warranted in patients at increased risk. Recent developments in laboratory tests, noninvasive cardiac imaging, cardiac stress testing, and invasive cardiac imaging in the preoperative work-up of vascular surgical patients are reviewed.

  8. Dopamine Administration is a Risk Factor for Delirium in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Seyhan; Aksoy, Eray; Diken, Adem Ilkay; Yalcinkaya, Adnan; Erol, Mehmet Emir; Cagli, Kerim

    2016-05-01

    Delirium is an important morbidity following heart surgery. We sought to determine whether dopamine infusion is associated with increased risk of delirium in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 137 patients (mean age; 61.02±7.83, 105 males) were included in the study. Patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were considered eligible and those with preoperative neurological deficit or significant neurocognitive disorders, dementia or psychiatric disorders were excluded. Primary outcome measure was occurrence of delirium within 72 hours after operation. The diagnosis of delirium was made using confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit questionnaire. Both administration of dopamine as a dichotomised variable and the total amount of dopamine per kg body-weight were included in two different logistic regression models. Delirium occurred in 18 (13.1%) patients. Age adjusted Mantel-Haenszel relative risk for delirium with receiving dopamine was 4.62. Relative risk was 2.37 (0.18 to 31.28, 95% CI, p=0.51) in total doses over 10mg whereas it was 3.55 (1.16 to 10.89 95% CI, p=0.02) in total doses over 30 mg per kg body-weight. Older age (p=0.03), dopamine administration (OR: 9.227 95% CI, 2.688-32.022, p<0.001) and the amount of dopamine administered (OR: 1.072, 95% CI, 1.032-1.115, p<0.001) were independent predictors for delirium 72 hours after surgery. Along with older age, dopamine infusion--even in low doses but more probably in higher doses--emerged as an independent risk factor for delirium in patients undergoing CABG. Further study is needed to confirm the validity of results presented. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nonselective carotid artery ultrasound screening in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: Is it necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Masabni, Khalil; Sabik, Joseph F.; Raza, Sajjad; Carnes, Theresa; Koduri, Hemantha; Idrees, Jay J.; Beach, Jocelyn; Riaz, Haris; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Gornik, Heather L.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nonselective preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening alters management of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and whether such screening affects neurologic outcomes. Methods From March 2011 to September 2013, preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening was performed on 1236 of 1382 patients (89%) scheduled to undergo CABG. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was classified as none or mild (any type 0%–59% stenosis), moderate (unilateral 60%-79% stenosis), or severe (bilateral 60%-79% stenosis or unilateral 80%–100% stenosis). Results A total of 1069 (86%) hadpatients with patients with ≥moderate CAS, 1 of 19 (5.3%) undergoing CABG + CEA and 3 of 148 (2.0%) undergoing CABG alone experienced stroke (P = .4). In patients with moderate CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 11 (9.1%) off-pump and 1 of 79 (1.3%) on-pump patients (P = .2). In patients with severe CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 6 (17%) off-pump and 1 of 71 (1.4%) on-pump patients (P = .15). Conclusions Routine preoperative carotid artery evaluation altered the management of a minority of patients undergoing CABG; this did not translate into perioperative stroke risk. Hence, a more targeted approach for preoperative carotid artery evaluation should be adopted. PMID:26586360

  10. Gender differences in risk profile and outcome of Middle Eastern patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jarrah, Mohamad I.; Hammoudeh, Ayman J.; Al-Natour, Dalal B.; Khader, Yousef S.; Tabbalat, Ramzi A.; Alhaddad, Imad A.; Kullab, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the gender differences in cardiovascular risk profile and outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: In a prospective multicenter study of consecutive Middle Eastern patients managed with PCI from January 2013 to February 2014 in 12 tertiary care centers in Amman and Irbid, Jordan. Clinical and coronary angiographic features, and major cardiovascular events were assessed for both genders from hospital stay to 1 year. Results: Women comprised 20.6% of 2426 enrolled patients, were older (mean age 62.9 years versus 57.2 years), had higher prevalence of hypertension (81% versus 57%), diabetes (66% versus 44%), dyslipidemia (58% versus 46%), and obesity (44% versus 25%) compared with men, p<0.001. The PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was indicated for fewer women than men (23% versus 33%; p=0.001). Prevalence of single or multi-vessel coronary artery disease was similar in women and men. More women than men had major bleeding during hospitalization (2.2% versus 0.6%; p=0.003) and at one year (2.5% versus 0.9%; p=0.007). There were no significant differences between women and men in mortality (3.1% versus 1.7%) or stent thrombosis (2.1% versus 1.8%) at 1 year. Conclusion: Middle Eastern women undergoing PCI had worse baseline risk profile compared with men. Except for major bleeding, no gender differences in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events were demonstrated. PMID:28133687

  11. Association of glycemic control with mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praneet K; Agarwal, Shikhar; Ellis, Stephen G; Goel, Sachin S; Cho, Leslie; Tuzcu, E Murat; Lincoff, A Michael; Kapadia, Samir R

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus adversely affects outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The association of baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention with long-term mortality is unknown. Consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention between 1998 and 2008 were identified from our institutional database. Characteristics and outcomes of patients were compared based on HbA1c categories (≤7%, 7.1%-8.0%, 8.1%-9.0%, 9.1%-10.0%, and >10.0%). Among 3008 patients, 1321 had HbA1c ≤7%, 782 with HbA1c 7.1% to 8.0%, 401 with HbA1c 8.1% to 9.0%, 229 with HbA1c 9.1% to 10.0%, and 275 with HbA1c >10%. Compared with low HbA1c (≤7%), those with highest HbA1c (>10%) were younger (56.5 versus 67.5 years), had higher total cholesterol (188 versus 157 mg/dL), more insulin use (54% versus 26%), and presented more often with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (10.9% versus 5.6%). Those with lower HbA1c (≤7%) more often had other comorbidities (more hypertension [90.4% versus 82.5%] and chronic renal failure [14.4% versus 7.6%]). On multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, survival analysis demonstrated a trend toward higher mortality with higher HbA1c. Compared with the reference group of patients with HbA1c ≤7%, patients with HbA1c >10% had a significantly higher mortality on follow-up (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.52 [1.17-1.99]; P=0.002). This difference was primarily seen among noninsulin users; however, insulin users had no significant differences in mortality among HbA1c categories. Patients with diabetes mellitus who were not on insulin and had poor glycemic control (HbA1c >10%) had significantly higher long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention as compared with those with well-controlled diabetes mellitus, evidenced by HbA1c ≤7%. Insulin users, however, had similar rates of mortality among different HbA1c categories. © 2014

  12. Impact of Triple Therapy in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sambola, Antonia; Mutuberría, Maria; García del Blanco, Bruno; Alonso, Albert; Barrabés, José A.; Bueno, Héctor; Alfonso, Fernando; Cequier, Angel; Zueco, Javier; Rodríguez-Leor, Oriol; Tornos, Pilar; García-Dorado, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Selecting an ideal antithrombotic therapy for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be challenging since they have a higher thromboembolic and bleeding risk than younger patients. The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of triple therapy (TT: oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin plus clopidogrel) in patients ≥75 years of age with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A prospective multicenter study was conducted from 2003 to 2012 at 6 Spanish teaching hospitals. A cohort study of consecutive patients with AF undergoing PCI and treated with TT or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was analyzed. All outcomes were evaluated at 1-year of follow-up. Results Five hundred and eighty-five patients, 289 (49%) of whom were ≥75 years of age (79.6±3.4 years; 33% women) were identified. TT was prescribed in 55.9% of patients at discharge who had a higher thromboembolic risk (CHA2DS2VASc score: 4.23±1.51 vs 3.76±1.40, p = 0.007 and a higher bleeding risk (HAS-BLED ≥3: 88.6% vs 79.2%, p = 0.02) than those on DAPT. Therefore, patients on TT had a lower rate of thromboembolism than those on DAPT (0.6% vs 6.9%, p = 0.004; HR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01–0.70, p = 0.004). Major bleeding events occurred more frequently in patients on TT than in those on DAPT (11.7% vs 2.4%, p = 0.002; HR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.53–17.57, p = 0.008). The overall mortality rate was similar in both treatment groups (11.9% vs 13.9%, p = 0.38); however, after adjustment for confounding variables, TT was associated with a reduced mortality rate (HR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12–0.86, p = 0.02). Conclusions In elderly patients with AF undergoing PCI, the use of TT compared to DAPT was associated with reduced thromboembolism and mortality rates, although a higher rate of major bleeding. PMID:26808678

  13. Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Coronary Surgical Revascularization: Prognostic Impact on Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Batric; Agrinier, Nelly; Voilliot, Damien; Elfarra, Mazen; Villemot, Jean Pierre; Maureira, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by left ventricular dysfunction (LVEF) are a poor prognosis group. The aim of our study was to assess the short and long term LEVF prognostic value in a cohort of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing surgical revascularization. Methods We performed elective and isolated CABG on a cohort of 206 consecutive patients with LVEF≤0.40 complicating acute coronary syndrome. The case cohort was compared with a cohort of controls (LVEF>0.40) randomly selected (2:1) among patients who underwent the procedure during this period. Results The Kaplan-Meier 5-year estimated survival rates for patients in the low and normal LVEF groups were 70.8% (95% confidence interval CI: 64.2–77.4) and 81.7% (95%CI: 77.8–85.6), respectively. A low LVEF was associated with both a higher all-cause (HR [95%CI] = 1.84[1.18–2.86]) and a higher cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.07 [1.27–3.38]) during the first 12 months of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, a low LVEF remained associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality only (1.87[1.03–3.38]) during the first 12 months of follow-up. After 12 months of follow-up, a low LVEF was no more associated with all-cause, nor cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion Patients with low LVEF might require more intensive care than patients with normal LVEF during the year after the surgical procedure, but once the first postoperative year over, the initial low LVEF was no more associated with long term mortality. PMID:28005944

  14. Outcomes of patients with periprocedural atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Barbara E; Gebhard, Cathérine; Gick, Michael; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Buettner, Heinz Joachim; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Toma, Aurel

    2017-08-03

    Successful CTO recanalization has been associated with clinical benefit. Outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing CTO PCI have not been investigated, yet. This study sought to evaluate the association between atrial fibrillation and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTO). Consecutive patients undergoing CTO PCI between January 2005 and December 2013 were divided into patients with and without atrial fibrillation, and propensity-matched models used to adjust for baseline differences between groups. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range 3.1-4.5) years. Of 2002 patients undergoing CTO PCI, atrial fibrillation was present in 169 (8.4%) patients. Patients with atrial fibrillation were older, and more frequently had hypertension, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and chronic kidney disease. Before matching, all-cause mortality was 39.6 and 14.5% in the atrial fibrillation and the sinus rhythm groups (HR 2.92, 95% CI 2.23-3.82, p < 0.001). In the propensity-matched model, atrial fibrillation remained associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06-2.47, p = 0.03). In the unmatched patient cohort, all-cause mortality was significantly reduced in patients with procedural success, both in the atrial fibrillation (34.9 versus 55.0%, adjusted HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, p = 0.02) and the sinus rhythm groups (12.8 versus 23.0%, adjusted HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92, p = 0.01). Although atrial fibrillation is independently associated with mortality after CTO PCI, substantial survival benefit of successful CTO recanalization is observed in both patients with and without atrial fibrillation.

  15. Mean platelet volume and long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binita; Oberweis, Brandon; Tummala, Lakshmi; Amoroso, Nicholas S; Lobach, Iryna; Sedlis, Steven P; Grossi, Eugene; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-15

    Increased platelet activity is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The mean platelet volume (MPV) correlates with platelet activity; however, the relation between the MPV and long-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well established. Furthermore, the role of change in the MPV over time has not been previously evaluated. We evaluated the MPV at baseline, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years after the procedure in 1,512 patients who underwent PCI. The speed of change in the MPV was estimated using the slope of linear regression. Mortality was determined by query of the Social Security Death Index. During a median of 8.7 years, mortality was 49.3% after PCI. No significant difference was seen in mortality when stratified by MPV quartile (first quartile, 50.1%; second quartile, 47.7%; third quartile, 51.3%; fourth quartile, 48.3%; p = 0.74). For the 839 patients with available data to determine a change in the MPV over time after PCI, mortality was 49.1% and was significantly greater in patients with an increase (52.9%) than in those with a decrease (44.2%) or no change (49.1%) in the MPV over time (p <0.0001). In conclusion, no association was found between the baseline MPV and long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI. However, increased mortality was found when the MPV increased over time after PCI. Monitoring the MPV after coronary revascularization might play a role in risk stratification.

  16. Mean Platelet Volume and Long-Term Mortality in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Oberweis, Brandon; Tummala, Lakshmi; Amoroso, Nicholas S.; Lobach, Iryna; Sedlis, Steven P.; Grossi, Eugene; Berger, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Increased platelet activity is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Mean platelet volume (MPV) correlates with platelet activity but the relationship between MPV and long-term mortalityin patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) is not well established. Furthermore, the role of change in MPV over time has not been previously evaluated. We evaluatedMPV at baseline, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-procedure in 1,512 patients who underwent PCI. The speed of change in MPV was estimated using slope of linear regression. Mortality was determined by query of social security death index. Over a median of 8.7 years, mortality was 49.3% post-PCI. There was no significant difference in mortality when stratified by MPV quartiles (1stquartile 50.1%, 2nd quartile 47.7%, 3rd quartile 51.3%, 4thquartile 48.3%, p=0.74). In patients with available data to determine a change in MPV over time post-PCI (n=839), mortality was 49.1% and significantly higher in patients with an increase (52.9%) compared to those with a decrease (44.2%) or no change (49.1%) in MPV over time (p<0.0001). In conclusion, there was no association between baseline MPV and long-term mortality in patients undergoing PCI. However, there was increased mortality when MPV increasedover time post-PCI. Monitoring MPV after coronary revascularization may play a role in risk stratification. PMID:23102880

  17. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients.

  18. Preventing radiocontrast-induced nephropathy in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yao-Min; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Huang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou

    2012-01-01

    Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (RCIN) is an acute and severe complication after coronary angiography, particularly for patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, including the need for renal replacement therapy, increased length of hospital stay, major cardiac adverse events, and mortality. RCIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 h after contrast administration. There is no effective therapy once injury has occurred, therefore, prevention is the cornerstone for all patients at risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). There is a small but growing body of evidence that prevention of AKI is associated with a reduction in later adverse outcomes. The optimal strategy for preventing RCIN has not yet been established. This review discusses the principal risk factors for RCIN, evaluates and summarizes the evidence for RCIN prophylaxis, and proposes recommendations for preventing RCIN in CKD patients undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:22655164

  19. Radial versus femoral access in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing invasive management: a randomised multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Valgimigli, Marco; Gagnor, Andrea; Calabró, Paolo; Frigoli, Enrico; Leonardi, Sergio; Zaro, Tiziana; Rubartelli, Paolo; Briguori, Carlo; Andò, Giuseppe; Repetto, Alessandra; Limbruno, Ugo; Cortese, Bernardo; Sganzerla, Paolo; Lupi, Alessandro; Galli, Mario; Colangelo, Salvatore; Ierna, Salvatore; Ausiello, Arturo; Presbitero, Patrizia; Sardella, Gennaro; Varbella, Ferdinando; Esposito, Giovanni; Santarelli, Andrea; Tresoldi, Simone; Nazzaro, Marco; Zingarelli, Antonio; de Cesare, Nicoletta; Rigattieri, Stefano; Tosi, Paolo; Palmieri, Cataldo; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Rao, Sunil V; Heg, Dik; Rothenbühler, Martina; Vranckx, Pascal; Jüni, Peter

    2015-06-20

    It is unclear whether radial compared with femoral access improves outcomes in unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing invasive management. We did a randomised, multicentre, superiority trial comparing transradial against transfemoral access in patients with acute coronary syndrome with or without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were about to undergo coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to radial or femoral access with a web-based system. The randomisation sequence was computer generated, blocked, and stratified by use of ticagrelor or prasugrel, type of acute coronary syndrome (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, troponin positive or negative, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome), and anticipated use of immediate percutaneous coronary intervention. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The 30-day coprimary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, and net adverse clinical events, defined as major adverse cardiovascular events or Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) major bleeding unrelated to coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The analysis was by intention to treat. The two-sided α was prespecified at 0·025. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01433627. We randomly assigned 8404 patients with acute coronary syndrome, with or without ST-segment elevation, to radial (4197) or femoral (4207) access for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. 369 (8·8%) patients with radial access had major adverse cardiovascular events, compared with 429 (10·3%) patients with femoral access (rate ratio [RR] 0·85, 95% CI 0·74-0·99; p=0·0307), non-significant at α of 0·025. 410 (9·8%) patients with radial access had net adverse clinical events compared with 486 (11·7%) patients with femoral access (0·83, 95% CI 0·73-0·96; p

  20. Effect of opium use on short-term outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Safaii, Nasser; Kazemi, Babak

    2010-02-01

    Data regarding the effect of opium use on short-term outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery are limited. We sought to assess the morbidity and in-hospital mortality of current and past users compared the data with those from nonusers of opium after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This is a descriptive analytical review of prospectively collected data on 782 consecutive male patients who underwent isolated CABG between January 2005 and December 2007. Of these, 708 (90.5%) were nonusers, 56 (7.1%) were current users, and 18 (2.3%) were former opium users of more than 4 weeks. The effect of opium usage on clinical, admission, and outcome variables were analyzed. Current opium users were younger (P = 0.004) and more likely to be cigarette smokers (P = 0.0004). Other demographic characteristics, major coronary risk factors, rates of postoperative complications, intensive care unit readmission, postoperative length of stay, and in-hospital mortality did not differ among the three groups. Current opium users needed less analgesic postoperatively (P = 0.0001), were significantly less compliant with medical and dietary recommendations after discharge (P < 0.0001), and were more likely to be rehospitalized with cardiovascular causes within 6 months after CABG surgery; these differences were much more pronounced for nonusers versus current users of opium (P < 0.0001). Continued use of opium is a significant predictor of rehospitalization with a cardiac cause within 6 months of CABG surgery. This may be partly due to the low compliance of these patients with treatment recommendations.

  1. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Frequency of Adverse Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Franzone, Anna; Koskinas, Konstantinos C; Räber, Lorenz; Pilgrim, Thomas; Valgimigli, Marco; Stortecky, Stefan; Rat-Wirtzler, Julie; Silber, Sigmund; Serruys, Patrick W; Jüni, Peter; Heg, Dik; Windecker, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Few data are available on the timing of adverse events in relation to the status of diabetes mellitus and the type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated this issue in diabetic and nondiabetic patients admitted with a diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Patient-level data from 6 studies (n = 16,601) were pooled and only patients with ACS are included (n = 9,492). Early (0 to 30 days), late (31 to 365 days), and overall (0 to 365 days) events were analyzed. Diabetes mellitus was present in 1,927 patients (20.3%). At 1 year, all-cause mortality was highest for diabetic patients with STEMI (13.4%), followed by diabetic patients with NSTE-ACS (10.3%), nondiabetic patients with STEMI (6.4%) and nondiabetic patients with NSTE-ACS (4.4%; p <0.001). Among patients with diabetes, there was a significant interaction (p <0.001) for STEMI versus NSTE-ACS in early compared with late mortality, due to an excess of early mortality associated with STEMI (9.3% vs 3.7%; hazard ratio 2.31, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.54, p <0.001). Compared with diabetic NSTE-ACS patients, diabetic patients with STEMI had an increased risk of early stent thrombosis (hazard ratio 2.26, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.44, p <0.001), as well as a significant interaction (p = 0.009) in the risk of target lesion revascularization between the early and late follow-up. The distribution of fatal and nonfatal events according to the type of ACS was not influenced by diabetic status. In conclusion, diabetes in ACS setting confers a worse prognosis with 1-year mortality >10% in both STEMI and NSTE-ACS. Notwithstanding the high absolute rates, the temporal distribution of adverse events related to the type of ACS is similar between diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of music on anxiety, stress, and depression levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Moradipanah, F; Mohammadi, E; Mohammadil, A Z

    2009-01-01

    Control of stress and anxiety and the promotion of comfort are challenges facing health practitioners involved in catheterization. The aim of this case-control study was to examine the effect of music on the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression experienced by patients undergoing coronary angiography, as measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Differences in pre- and post-intervention scores demonstrated that there were significant decreases in mean scores of state anxiety (P = 0.006), stress (P = 0.001) and depression P = 0.02) in the intervention group, who listened to 20 minutes of relaxing music, as compared with the control group who had 20 minutes of bed rest.

  3. Dipyridamole thallium imaging may not be a reliable screening test for coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Underwood, D.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Dipyridamole thallium imaging has been proposed for cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to define the benefit of this investigation in routine preoperative evaluation of these patients. The outcome of 86 patients undergoing vascular surgery procedures was examined in light of preoperative clinical assessment and dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging (DST). Fifty-one patients (59%) were considered at high risk on clinical grounds, and 22 patients (26%) had perfusion defects. Ten patients suffered a perioperative coronary event, including unstable angina, myocardial infarction, or cardiac death. Seven of the patients with such events were among the 51 clinically high-risk subjects (14%). Three perioperative events occurred in the group of 19 patients with positive DST images who underwent surgery (16%), but the DST test failed to identify 7 patients who suffered coronary events. The frequency of abnormal thallium imaging was similar to the prevalence of angiographically significant coronary disease reported previously at this center, but considerably less than the rate of abnormal thallium imaging in past studies of vascular surgery patients. The application of the test to a low to moderate risk population is probably responsible for its lower predictive accuracy for coronary events. DST is not an ideal routine noninvasive technique for risk stratification in patients undergoing vascular surgery.

  4. Sleep apnoea and unscheduled re-admission in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang-Ping; Kofidis, Theodoros; Chan, Siew-Pang; Ong, Thun-How; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2015-09-01

    Although it has been recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor, data on sleep apnoea screening before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence, predictors and effects of sleep apnoea on re-admission in patients undergoing CABG. We prospectively recruited 152 patients to undergo an overnight sleep study before CABG. Sleep apnoea was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index of ≥15 events per hour. Data on unscheduled re-admission due to cardiovascular events were collected. Among the 138 patients who completed the sleep study, sleep apnoea was diagnosed in 69 (50%). The patients who had sleep apnoea had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.029), a larger left atrial diameter (p = 0.014) and a larger left ventricular end-systolic dimension (p = 0.019) than those who did not. Angiographic SYNTAX and Gensini scores were similar in patients with and without sleep apnoea. The generalised structural equation model revealed that hypertension, a high body mass index and chronic renal failure were independent predictors of sleep apnoea (p < 0.05). After an average follow-up of 6 ± 3 months, 12 patients with sleep apnoea (17.3%) and three patients without sleep apnoea (4.3%) were involved in unscheduled re-admission. Patients with sleep apnoea were almost five times more likely to have an unscheduled re-admission due to cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio: 4.63, 95% CI: 1.24-17.31, p = 0.023) than those without sleep apnoea. Sleep apnoea was prevalent and predictive of unscheduled re-admissions in patients scheduled for CABG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peri-procedural Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Undergoing Coronary Angiography with Possible Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Binita; Berger, Jeffrey S.; Amoroso, Nicholas S.; Mai, Xingchen; Lorin, Jeffrey D.; Danoff, Ann; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z.; Lobach, Iryna; Guo, Yu; Feit, Frederick; Slater, James; Attubato, Michael J.; Sedlis, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-procedural hyperglycemia is an independent predictor of mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, peri-procedural management of blood glucose is not standardized. The effects of routinely continuing long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to coronary angiography with possible PCI on peri-procedural glycemic control have not been investigated. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=172) were randomized to continue (Continue group; n=86) or hold (Hold group; n=86) their clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to procedure. The primary endpoint was glucose level on procedural access. In a subset of patients (no DM group, n=25, Continue group, n=25, and Hold group, n=25), selected measures of platelet activity that change acutely were assessed. Patients with DM randomized to the Continue group had lower blood glucose levels on procedural access compared with those randomized to the Hold group (117 [97–151] vs 134 [117–172] mg/dL, p=0.002). There were 2 hypoglycemic events in the Continue group and none in the Hold group, and no adverse events in either group. Selected markers of platelet activity differed across the no DM, Continue, and Hold groups (leukocyte platelet aggregates: 8.1% [7.2–10.4], 8.7% [6.9–11.4], 10.9% [8.6–14.7], p=0.007; monocyte platelet aggregates: 14.0% [10.3–16.3], 20.8% [16.2–27.0], 22.5% [15.2–35.4], p<0.001; soluble p-selectin: 51.9ng/mL [39.7–74.0], 59.1ng/mL [46.8–73.2], 72.2ng/mL [58.4–77.4], p=0.014). In conclusion, routinely continuing clinically prescribed long-acting glucose-lowering medications prior to coronary angiography with possible PCI helps achieve peri-procedural euglycemia, appears safe, and should be considered as a strategy for achieving peri-procedural glycemic control. PMID:24630791

  6. The net clinical benefit of personalized antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Gruber, Carina; Francesconi, Marcel; Dechant, Cornelia; Jilma, Bernd; Delle-Karth, Georg; Grohs, Katharina; Podczeck-Schweighofer, Andrea; Christ, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This was a prospective study comparing two groups: personalized and non-personalized treatment with P2Y12 receptor blockers during a 12-month follow-up. We aimed to investigate whether personalized antiplatelet treatment in patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) improves clinical outcome. Platelet reactivity was assessed by adenosine diphosphate induced aggregation using a multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) in 798 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with HTPR received up to four repeated loading doses of clopidogrel or prasugrel in the personalized treatment group (n=403), whereas no change in the treatment strategy was undertaken in patients with HTPR in the non-personalized treatment group (n=395). There were fewer major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in the personalized treatment group than in the non-personalized treatment group (7.4% compared with 15.3% respectively; P<0.001). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk to develop MACE was 51% lower in the personalized treatment group as compared with the non-personalized treatment group [hazard ratio (HR)=0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.77; P<0.001]. Similarly, there was a clear net benefit of the personalized antiplatelet treatment over the non-personalized treatment (ischemic and bleedings events: 8.2% versus 18.7% respectively; HR=0.46; 95%CI: 0.29-0.70; P<0.001). Further analysis indicated that patients with aggregation values within the therapeutic window (21-49 units) experienced the lowest event rates (stent thrombosis and major bleeding: 2.5%) as compared with poor responders (≥50 units: 5.4%) or ultra-responders (0-20 units: 5.2%). In conclusion, personalized antiplatelet treatment might improve patients' outcome without increasing bleeding complications compared with the non-personalized treatment during a 12-month follow-up.

  7. The Effects of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jinsong; Liu, Tao; Yang, Zhonglu; Jiang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Method. A total of 728 patients with DM and 1380 patients without DM who underwent OPCAB treatment from March 2012 to April 2015 were reviewed. The effects of DM on intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were determined using propensity score analysis. Results. Two well-matched subgroups were selected using propensity score analysis (DM = 728, no-DM = 728) to compare the perioperative outcome. The duration of the ICU stay, in hours (55.2 ± 53.0 versus 49.29 ± 51.30, P < 0.05), postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (20.9% versus 14.97%, P < 0.05), and postoperative infection (9.2% versus 4.67%, P < 0.05) were greater in DM patients, as indicated by univariate analysis. Conclusion. OPCAB was found to be effective in DM patients, but postoperative infection and postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation were found to be more likely to occur in DM patients than in other patients. DM was found to be a powerful risk factor for postoperative infection and postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation. PMID:27777946

  8. Risk Factors of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Qiu, Hong; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Luo, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Jin; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Yuan; Yan, Hong-Bing; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Yang, Yue-Jin; Gao, Run-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) were mostly based on selective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases, and risk factors of CI-AKI after emergency PCI are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors of CI-AKI in a Chinese population undergoing emergency PCI. Methods: A total of 1061 consecutive patients undergoing emergency PCI during January 2013 and June 2015 were enrolled and divided into CI-AKI and non-CI-AKI group. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the risk factors of CI-AKI in emergency PCI patients. CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl (44.2 μmol/L) above baseline within 3 days after exposure to contrast medium. Results: The incidence of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI was 22.7% (241/1061). Logistic multivariable analysis showed that body surface area (BSA) (odds ratio [OR] 0.213, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.075–0.607, P = 0.004), history of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.642, 95% CI: 1.079–2.499, P = 0.021), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR 0.969, 95% CI: 0.944–0.994, P = 0.015), hemoglobin (Hb) (OR 0.988, 95% CI: 0.976–1.000, P = 0.045), estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 1.027, 95% CI: 1.018–1.037, P < 0.001), left anterior descending (LAD) stented (OR 1.464, 95% CI: 1.000–2.145, P = 0.050), aspirin (OR 0.097, 95%CI: 0.009–0.987, P = 0.049), and diuretics use (OR 1.850, 95% CI: 1.233–2.777, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI. Conclusion: History of MI, low BSA, LVEF and Hb level, LAD stented, and diuretics use are associated with increased risk of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI. PMID:28051022

  9. Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome Causing Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Patient Undergoing Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mandak, Jiri; Lojik, Miroslav; Tuna, Martin; Chek, James Lago

    2012-01-01

    Coronary subclavian steal syndrome with retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary-coronary bypass graft is a rare but severe complication of cardiac surgery. The authors present a case of a 68-year-old man after coronary-artery bypass grafting using an internal mammary artery. He had been suffering from angina pectoris for the last several years before surgery. The patient was resuscitated at home by emergency medical service because of primary ventricular fibrillation due to an acute myocardial infarction 5 years after surgery. An occlusion of the left subclavian artery with the retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary coronary bypass was found. This could have been the cause of insufficiency in coronary blood flow and ischemia of the myocardial muscle. The subclavian artery occlusion was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and implantation of 2 stents. The patient remained free of any symptoms 2 years after this procedure. PMID:22969810

  10. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  11. Safety of Live Case Demonstrations in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Masanori; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kimura, Masashi; Satou, Hirotomo; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Kano, Seiji; Habara, Maoto; Nasu, Kenya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Matsubara, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Takahiko

    2016-10-01

    The data regarding the risk and benefits associated with live demonstrations at interventional cardiology congresses are scarce and controversial. We aimed to assess the clinical safety of chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) procedures during live demonstrations. From January 2008 to December 2013, 739 consecutive patients underwent CTO-PCI at our center, and 199 patients were scheduled to undergo live CTO-PCI demonstrations at cardiology congresses that were globally transmitted to international meetings. The baseline characteristics, procedural complications, and clinical outcomes were compared between the live demonstration group and nonlive demonstration group. The procedural success rates were similar in the live demonstration group than in the nonlive demonstration group (91.5% vs 86.7%, p = 0.076), although the CTO lesions were longer and more tortuous in the live demonstration group (p = 0.029, p = 0.022, respectively). No cases of 30-day mortality were noted in the live demonstration group (0% vs 0.7%, p = 0.28), and no significant differences in procedural complications, such as coronary dissection, coronary perforation, and cardiac tamponade, were observed between the groups (p = 0.53, p = 0.12, and p = 0.40, respectively). The survival rates were similar in the 2 groups at a median follow-up duration of 51.2 ± 28.9 months (log-rank test: p = 0.45). Compared with cases of unsuccessful CTO-PCI, the cases of successful CTO-PCI exhibited improved all-cause survival in both the live and nonlive demonstration groups (log-rank test: p = 0.045, p = 0.0056, respectively). In conclusion, we found that procedural and clinical outcomes of live demonstration CTO-PCI were not significantly different compared with cases undergoing routine CTO-PCI procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NIRS and IVUS for characterization of atherosclerosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Brugaletta, Salvatore; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Serruys, Patrick W; de Boer, Sanneke; Ligthart, Jurgen; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Witberg, Karen; Diletti, Roberto; Wykrzykowska, Joanna; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Schultz, Carl; Regar, Evelyn; Duckers, Henricus J; van Mieghem, Nicolas; de Jaegere, Peter; Madden, Sean P; Muller, James E; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van der Giessen, Wim J; Boersma, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the findings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) virtual histology (VH), and grayscale IVUS obtained in matched coronary vessel segments of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Intravascular ultrasound VH has been developed to add tissue characterization to the grayscale IVUS assessment of coronary plaques. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a new imaging technique able to identify lipid core-containing coronary plaques (LCP). We performed NIRS and IVUS-VH pullbacks in a consecutive series of 31 patients with a common region of interest (ROI) between 2 side branches. For each ROI, we analyzed the chemogram blocks by NIRS, plaque area and plaque burden by grayscale IVUS, and tissue types by IVUS-VH. The chemogram block is a summary metric of a 2-mm vertical slice of the chemogram. The value ranges from 0 to 1 according to the presence of lipids and represents the probability of LCP with a color scale from red (low probability) through orange and tan to yellow (high probability). Plaque area (mm(2)) increases as percentage VH derived-necrotic core (NC) content (4.6 ± 2.7 vs. 7.4 ± 3.5 vs. 8.6 ± 3.4 vs. 7.9 ± 3.3, grouped in percentage NC quartiles, p<0.001) and chemogram block probability color bin thresholds increase (4.9 ± 3.8 red, 7.3 ± 3.6 orange, 8.1 ± 3.4 tan, and 8.7 ± 3.4 yellow, p<0.001). The correlation between the block chemogram detection of lipid core and percentage NC content by VH was weak (r=0.149). Correction for the presence of calcium does not improve this correlation. Larger plaque area by grayscale IVUS was more often associated with either elevated percentage VH-NC or LCP by NIRS; however, the correlation between the detection of LCP by NIRS and necrotic core by VH is weak. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring aspirin resistance, clopidogrel responsiveness, and postprocedural markers of myonecrosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Buch, Ashesh N; Singh, Suman; Roy, Probal; Javaid, Aamir; Smith, Kimberly A; George, Christopher E; Pichard, Augusto D; Satler, Lowell F; Kent, Kenneth M; Suddath, William O; Waksman, Ron

    2007-06-01

    Aspirin and clopidogrel are proven to prevent thromboembolic events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Enzyme release of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) enzyme during PCI has been associated with an increased risk of future adverse cardiac events. This study examined the correlation between measurements of aspirin resistance and the level of inhibition of the thienopyridine-specific P2Y12 platelet receptor and CK-MB release after PCI. We prospectively studied 330 patients with elective PCI treated with drug-eluting stents. Patients were pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel. Patients with positive CK-MB or acute coronary syndrome and those on glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were excluded. Serum assays of aspirin resistance (Ultegra Rapid Platelet Function Assay-ASA, Accumetrics) and clopidogrel resistance (Rapid Platelet Function Assay P2Y12, Accumetrics) were performed before PCI. Serum troponinI and CK-MB levels were measured at 8, 16, and 24 hours after PCI. Aspirin resistance unit (ARU) measurement > or =550 was detected in 12 patients (3.7%). Mean platelet reactivity unit (PRU; measurement of inhibition of P2Y12 activity) was 192.2 +/- 95.4 (lower PRU, more inhibition of P2Y12 receptor). There was no correlation between level of ARU or PRU and troponin I or CK-MB release after PCI at any time point. Only multivessel coronary disease was found to be a predictor of any increase in CK-MB in a multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.3, p = 0.0003). A positive correlation was found between levels of ARU and PRU. Target vessel revascularization/major adverse cardiac event rate at 6 months was 8.2% with no correlation between ARU or PRU and release of cardiac enzymes or occurrence of adverse cardiac events. In conclusion, this study does not support routine measurements of aspirin and clopidogrel resistance in stable patients undergoing PCI.

  14. Predictors of permanent work disability among ≤50-year-old patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Jarmo; Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Biancari, Fausto; Kajander, Olli; Mäkikallio, Timo; Eskola, Markku; Ilveskoski, Erkki; Korpilahti, Kari; Wistbacka, Jan-Ola; Anttila, Vesa; Heikkinen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Juhani

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the incidence and periprocedural predictors of permanent work disability (PWD) pension among patients ≤50 years old who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patient records of 910 consecutive patients undergoing PCI at four Finnish hospitals in 2002-2012 were reviewed for baseline and procedural data and late adverse events. Data on permanent work disability (PWD) pension allocation were acquired from the Finnish Centre for Pensions, which governs the statutory pension security in Finland. Mean follow-up was 41 [standard deviation (SD) 31] months. Altogether 103/910 (11.3%) of patients were on PWD by the end of follow-up, 60 (58.3%) for cardiac diagnoses (cumulative freedom from PWD 81% at 7 years). Independent predictors of PWD were post procedural stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8-11.9], post procedural myocardial infarction (MI) (HR 3.3, 95% CI 1.8-6.0), diabetes (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7), discharge diuretics (HR 3.5, 95% CI 2.1-5.9), and increasing age (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Predictors of PWD for cardiac diagnoses were post procedural stroke and MI, discharge diuretics, and use of calcium-channel blockers, diabetes and older age. Patients ≤50 years old undergoing PCI are at a high risk for subsequent permanent disability for cardiac diagnoses. This finding underscores the need for reinforcing adherence to secondary prevention by cardiac rehabilitation and early collaboration with occupational health care professionals.

  15. CYP2C19 polymorphisms in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing clopidogrel therapy in Zhengzhou population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y M; Zhao, Z C; Zhang, L; Li, H Z; Li, Z; Sun, H L

    2016-05-25

    The goal of this study was to explore the polymorphisms of CYP2C19 (CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on clopidogrel therapy in Zhengzhou city for guidance on clinical medication and reduction in the incidence of thromboembolic events. Two hundred and thirty-four ACS patients undergoing PCI were included in the study, including 171 males (average age = 64.13 ± 12 years) and 63 females (average age = 67.86 ± 10.20 years). Pyrosequencing analysis detected CYP2C19*2/*3 genotypes, which were divided into wild-type homozygous C/C, mutant heterozygous C/T, and mutant homozygous T/T. This study further explored the relationship between CYP2C19 polymorphisms and clopidogrel resistance in ACS patients. Gene frequencies of C/C, C/T, and T/T for CYP2C19*2 were 39.74, 50, and 10.26%, respectively, while the frequencies of C/C, C/T, and T/T for CYP2C19*3 were 94.02, 5.55, and 0.43%, respectively. According to platelet aggregation analysis, 203 cases normally responded to clopidogrel (86.8%) and 31 cases were clopidogrel resistant (13.2%). There was a correlation between gender and genotype distribution but none between age and genotype. In addition, patients with clopidogrel resistance were treated with ticagrelor antiplatelet therapy instead of clopidogrel, and only 1 case in all patients suffered thrombotic events during a 3-12 month follow-up. In conclusion, CYP2C19*2/*3 polymorphisms may be associated with clopidogrel resistance. Wild-type homozygote and single mutant heterozygote of CYP2C19*2/*3 can be given a normal dose of clopidogrel, while carriers with single mutant homozygote or double mutant heterozygote require ticagrelor antiplatelet therapy as an alternative.

  16. Patients With Chronic Total Occlusions Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: Characteristics, Success, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Edward L; Zhong, Ye; Jacobs, Alice K; Stamato, Nicholas J; Berger, Peter B; Walford, Gary; Sharma, Samin; Venditti, Ferdinand J; King, Spencer B

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTO) has been identified as a beneficial treatment, but there is limited information about its use in everyday practice. Data from New York's PCI registry between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012, were used to examine the utilization and variation in use of CTO PCI, the success rates across providers, the multivariable correlates of success, and the mortality of successful CTO PCI. A total of 4030 (3.1%) patients undergoing PCI underwent CTO PCI with a success rate of 61.3%. Patients with successful CTO PCIs were younger; had higher ejection fractions; were less likely to have had previous revascularization or carotid/cerebrovascular disease; and were more likely to have the CTO in the left anterior descending artery. Operators with annual CTO PCI volumes of at least 48 per year (the top volume quartile) had odds of achieving success that were more than twice as high as the half of all operators who performed <9 CTO PCIs per year. Patients with unsuccessful CTO PCIs had significantly higher 2.5-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.08) than patients who had complete revascularization (CR) for all CTOs and other diseased lesions. The success rate for CTO is low compared with the rate for other lesions. Successful revascularization of CTO is associated with improved survival compared with procedures with unsuccessful CTO, and higher-volume CTO operators are more successful. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. ACTH- and Cortisol-Associated Neutrophil Modulation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undergoing Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Keresztes, Margit; Horváth, Tamás; Ocsovszki, Imre; Földesi, Imre; Serfőző, Gyöngyi; Boda, Krisztina; Ungi, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress and activation of neutrophil granulocytes are increasingly recognized as major risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the possible relationship of these two factors in CAD patients is largely unexplored. Activation of neutrophils was reported to be associated with stenting; however, the issue of neutrophil state in connection with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is incompletely understood from the aspect of stress and its hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) background. Thus, we aimed to study cortisol- and ACTH-associated changes in granulocyte activation in patients undergoing PCI. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples of 21 stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 20 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients were collected directly before (pre-PCI), after (post-PCI) and on the following day of PCI (1d-PCI). Granulocyte surface L-selectin, CD15 and (neutrophil-specific) lactoferrin were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lactoferrin, IL-6 were also assayed. In both groups, pre- and post-PCI ratios of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils were relatively high, these percentages decreased substantially next day; similarly, 1d-PCI plasma lactoferrin was about half of the post-PCI value (all p≤0.0001). Post-PCI ACTH was reduced markedly next day, especially in ACS group (SAP: p<0.01, ACS: p≤0.0001). In ACS, elevated pre-PCI cortisol decreased considerably a day after stenting (p<0.01); in pre-PCI samples, cortisol correlated with plasma lactoferrin (r∼0.5, p<0.05). In 1d-PCI samples of both groups, ACTH showed negative associations with the ratio of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils (SAP: r = −0.601, p<0.005; ACS: r = −0.541, p<0.05) and with plasma lactoferrin (SAP: r = −0.435, p<0.05; ACS: r = −0.609, p<0.005). Conclusions/Significance Pre- and post-PCI states were associated with increased percentage of activated/degranulated neutrophils indicated by elevated lactoferrin

  18. Insulin Resistance Increases the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueping; Liu, Yuyang; Shi, Dongmei; Yang, Lixia; Liang, Jing; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the influence of insulin resistance (IR) on the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients (n = 719) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into diabetes mellitus (DM = 242), nondiabetic IR (IR = 120), and nondiabetic insulin sensitivity (IS = 357) groups according to medical history and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured before and 72 hours after PCI. There were no differences in SCr and eGFR among the groups before PCI; SCr increased and eGFR decreased significantly in the DM and IR groups post-PCI (P < .001). The incidence of CIN in the IR group was as high as in the DM group and were both significantly higher than in the IS group (6.7% vs 8.7% vs 2.2%, P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.08-1.510, P < .001), HOMA-IR (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.23-1.58, P < 0.001), and eGFR (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.84-0.92, P < .001) were independent risk factors in predicting CIN. Screening IR patients and taking appropriate prophylactic strategy before PCI may reduce the incidence of CIN.

  19. Psychological state in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Khani, Azam; Andalib, Elham; Alikhasi, Hasan; Rafiei, Mohammadali

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) are well accepted treatments for coronary artery disease. Many patients and their spouses experience increased level of stress, anxiety and depression before and after going under the procedure. One hundred and ninety-six cardiac patients who were candidate for CABG or PCI procedures and their spouses were asked to complete Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12 before and 1 month after procedures. Anxiety, depression and stress level in patients and their spouses going under the procedures significantly reduced over time. Scores of anxiety, depression and stress in patients and their spouses were correlated. There was no difference in the level of anxiety, depression and stress between CABG and PCI groups before to after procedures. We suggest providing information about the procedures to both patients and their spouses to deal better with their own psychological state.

  20. Impact of diabetes mellitus on outcomes in Japanese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Kenji; Bando, Ko; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Konishi, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Kenji; Sato, Tosiya; Ueda, Yuichi; Okita, Yutaka; Masuda, Izuru; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Yaku, Hitoshi; Yasuno, Shinji; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Miyata, Shigeki; Okamura, Yoshitaka; Nasu, Michihiro; Tanemoto, Kazuo; Arinaga, Koichi; Hisashi, Yosuke; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2012-05-01

    There have been no large-scale studies on the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on outcomes in Japanese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A multi-institutional retrospective cohort study was conducted in 14 Japanese centers. All adult patients who underwent isolated CABG from 2007 to 2008 were included (n=1522, mean age: 68.5years). The definitions of DM were all patients admitted with diagnosis of DM and preoperative glycated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c≥6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk of morbidity and mortality. There were 849 DM and 572 non-DM patients. Preoperative mean HbA1c were 7.1% in the DM group and 5.7% in the non-DM group (p<0.0001). Preoperative, intraoperative, and 3-day average postoperative blood glucose (BG) were 146mg/dl, 172mg/dl, and 168mg/dl in the DM group, and 103mg/dl, 140mg/dl, and 136mg/dl in the non-DM group (all p<0.0001). Although there were no significant differences in postoperative cardiovascular events, the incidence of infection was significantly higher in the DM group than in the non-DM group (9.2% vs 6.1%, p=0.036) on the univariate analysis. The all-cause death was also relatively higher in the DM group than in the non-DM group (2.1% vs 1.1%, p=0.12), and this was likely related to infection. DM patients had worse perioperative BG control, higher incidence of infection, and higher mortality than non-DM patients. These results indicate that perioperative BG control guidelines should be standardized to obtain better surgical outcomes in Japanese DM patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cangrelor for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Partha; Nairooz, Ramez; Chatterjee, Saurav; Mushiyev, Savi; Pekler, Gerald; Visco, Ferdinand

    2014-07-01

    Cangrelor is a new parenteral adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor inhibitor with rapid, profound and reversible inhibition of platelet activity. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate efficacy and safety of this new agent in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL databases from the inception through April 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing cangrelor with control (clopidogrel/placebo) were selected. We used the random-effects models to calculate the risk ratio. The primary efficacy outcome was risk of myocardial infarction, and the primary safety outcome was TIMI major bleeding at 48 h. Three RCTs included a total of 25,107 participants. Effects of Cangrelor were not different against comparators for myocardial infarction (MI) (Risk ratio [RR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.13) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.36-1.43). However, cangrelor significantly reduced the risk of ischemia-driven revascularization (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.98), stent thrombosis (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44-0.82) and Q wave MI (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.92) without causing extra major bleeding (Thrombolysis in Myocardial infarction criteria) and severe or life-threatening bleeding (Global utilization of streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator for occluded coronary arteries criteria). Separate analysis against only clopidogrel also showed similar findings except Q wave MI outcome. Use of cangrelor during PCI might reduce the risk of ischemia-driven revascularization and stent thrombosis, without causing extra major bleeding.

  2. Antithrombotic treatment in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Dézsi, Csaba András; Dézsi, Balázs Bence; Dézsi, Döme András

    2017-01-05

    Coronary artery disease coexists in a clinically relevant number of patients with atrial fibrillation and it often requires percutaneous coronary intervention. These patients represent a particular challenge for clinicians in terms of antithrombotic management. They require combined antiplatelet-anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic cardiac events and stroke; however, this antithrombotic strategy is associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications. In the absence of randomized, controlled clinical trials, the majority of current recommendations rely on the results of cohort studies, meta-analyses, post-hoc analyses and subgroup analyses of large, phase III studies. Based on the available evidence, the present review discusses the optimal antithrombotic strategy for patients receiving chronic anticoagulant therapy due to atrial fibrillation who require antiplatelet treatment after acute coronary syndrome and/or percutaneous coronary intervention, and discusses the issue of dental procedures. The correct planning of therapy significantly reduces the risk of bleeding complications and thromboembolic events.

  3. Mortality in Medicare patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention with or without antecedent stress testing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Grace A; Lucas, F Lee; Malenka, David J; Skinner, Jonathan; Redberg, Rita F

    2013-05-01

    Guidelines advise testing for ischemia, such as with stress testing, before elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, pre-PCI stress testing is not always done; the implications of this practice are not known. Our objective was to evaluate whether receipt of stress testing before elective PCI predicts mortality. Using claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified patients who had elective PCI in 2004 and followed them for a median of 3.4 years (n=23 887). Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the relationship of pre-PCI stress testing to survival. Population-based rates of elective PCI and stress testing were calculated for 306 hospital referral regions and categorized into 4 groups: high stress test/high PCI, low stress test/low PCI, low stress test/high PCI, and high stress/low PCI regions. Cox modeling was used to test whether category of hospital referral regions is related to survival. Patients who underwent pre-PCI stress testing had a 13% lower risk of mortality than those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.92) after median follow-up of 3.4 years. Patients in low stress test/high PCI regions had a 14% higher risk of mortality than those in high stress test/high PCI regions (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.26). Pre-PCI stress testing is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing elective PCI. Greater adherence to guidelines with respect to documenting ischemia before elective PCI may result in improved outcomes for patients.

  4. Should studies of patients undergoing coronary angiography be used to evaluate the role of behavioral risk factors for coronary heart disease?

    PubMed

    Pickering, T G

    1985-09-01

    Several studies have attempted to assess the contribution of behavioral factors to coronary heart disease by relating the Type A behavior pattern to the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Although the earlier studies gave positive results, more recent results have been negative; overall the results are confusing. These differences cannot be easily explained by differences in study design. Possible confounding factors which may limit the usefulness of such studies include biased subject selection (approximately 70% of subjects were classified as Type A, and 70% had CAD) and the effects of beta blockers. Furthermore, other studies of similar design which have attempted to relate the three major risk factors to CAD have also yielded conflicting results: an association has been demonstrated consistently with cholesterol, less consistently with smoking, and not at all with hypertension. It is argued that such studies are not well suited to investigating relationships between behavioral factors and coronary heart disease.

  5. Effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate effects of sevoflurane on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). In this study, 60 cases of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected and randomly divided into the sevoflurane group (group S) and the control group C (group C) with 30 cases in each group. The two groups received intravenous anesthesia. The patients of group C were only given oxygen mask and physiological saline to keep vein open; while the patients of group S were administered with 1% sevoflurane immediately after the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) until the end of the treatment. The cardiopulmonary functions at 30 min before operation (T0), postoperative 2 h (T1), 6h (T2), 24h (T3) and 48 (T4) were observed. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) of the group S at T1, T2, T3 was lower than that of the group C, as were the heart rate (HR) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) during T1 to T4 in the group S was less than that of the group C, and there were significant differences between the two groups (P less than 0.05). The tidal volume (Vt), vital capacity (Vc) and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) of the two groups during T1 and T2 were decreased, while respiratory frequency (RR) and alveolar-arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PA-aO2) were increased and they began to decrease during T3 and T4. Vt and Vc of the group S were higher during T1 and T2 periods than those of the group C, while RR was lower than that of the group C; PaO2 / FiO2 during T1 to T4 period of group S was higher than that of group C, while PA-aO2 was significantly lower than that of the control group (P less than 0.05). In conclusion, although LVEF was not improved in the sevoflurane group, sevoflurane may contribute to stabilizing the cardiopulmonary function and preventing from myocardial injury.

  6. In-hospital clinical outcomes of elderly patients (≥60 years) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya-Min; Cai, Xing-Xing; Geng, Hai-Hua; Sheng, Hong-Zhuan; Fan, Meng-Kan; Pan, Min

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients are at high risk of mortality when they present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the clinical outcomes of this sub-group undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) have not been well established, despite recent advances in both devices and techniques. In the present retrospective cohort study from a Chinese single center, we assessed the clinical outcomes and predictors of mortality in elderly patients (≥60 years) underwent with PPCI. The primary endpoints were immediate angiographic success and in-hospital procedural success. The secondary endpoints were all-cause death in hospital. Between January 2011 and December 2013, a total of 184 consecutive patients with acute STEMI underwent PPCI were enrolled. 116 (63.04%) patients were in the elderly group. Despite the difference in lesion complexity between groups, the immediate angiographic success rate was similar (93.97% in the elderly group, and 94.12% in the non-elderly group, P=0.966). The procedural success rate were not significantly different between the two groups (90.52% in the elderly group, and 94.12% in the non-elderly group, P=0.389). However, in-hospital mortality was statistically higher in elderly group than in the non-elderly group (8.62% Vs 1.47%, P=0.048). The major causes of death were cardiac shock and malignant arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation). Our results indicate that PPCI in the elderly is feasible and has a high likelihood of immediate angiographic and procedural success. PMID:26379931

  7. Mean platelet volume and the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Camaro, Cyril; Barbieri, Lucia; Schaffer, Alon; Marino, Paolo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) represents a relatively common complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as a marker for platelet activation, as larger sized platelets have been associated with higher pro-thrombotic risk. Therefore, aim of the current study was to evaluate whether MPV is associated with increased risk of PMI after PCI. We included 1056 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. We measured myonecrosis biomarkers at intervals from 6 to 48 h after PCI. Periprocedural myonecrosis was defined for troponin I increase by 3 times the ULN or by 50% if elevated at the time of the procedure. PMI was defined as CK-MB increase by 3 times the ULN or 50% if elevated at the time of the procedure. We grouped patients according to tertiles values of MPV (<10.4 fl; 10.5-11.3 fl; >11.4 fl). High MPV was associated with diabetes (p = 0.025) and higher prevalence of cerebrovascular events (p = 0.005). MPV significantly related with haemoglobin levels (p < 0.001), but inversely to platelet count (p < 0.001) and higher presence of thrombus (p = 0.03). Larger sized platelets did not increase risk of periprocedural myonecrosis (p = 0.91; OR[95% CI] = 1.04[0.90-1.2], p = 0.64) or PMI (p = 0.09; OR[95%IC] = 1.13[0.93-1.37]; p = 0.20). Subgroup analysis confirmed no impact of MPV on periprocedural MI also in high-risk subsets of patients, such as those with ACS at presentation (OR[95%CI] = 1.09 [0.87-1.38]; p = 0.44), diabetes (OR[95% CI] = 1.02[0.71-1.47], p = 0.91), female gender (OR [95% CI] = 1.15 [0.78-1.71], p = 0.48), elderly patients (age ≥ 75 years) (OR[95%CI] = 1.21[0.87-1.69], p = 0.25) or with renal failure (OR[95%CI] = 1.55[0.91-2.61], p = 0.1). This study demonstrates that MPV does not predict the risk of PMI in patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Bohatch Júnior, Milton Sérgio; Matkovski, Paula Dayana; Giovanni, Frederico José Di; Fenili, Romero; Varella, Everton Luz; Dietrich, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A retrospective study with analysis of 230 medical records between January 2011 and October 2013 was conducted. Results Fifty-six (24.3%) out of the 230 patients were female. The average age of patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was 59.91±8.62 years old, and off-pump was 57.16±9.01 years old (P=0.0213). The average EuroSCORE for the on-pump group was 3.37%±3.08% and for the off-pump group was 3.13%±3% (P=0.5468). Eighteen (13.43%) patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting developed postoperative atrial fibrillation, whereas for the onpump group, 19 (19.79%) developed this arrhythmia, with no significant difference between the groups (P=0.1955). Conclusion Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting did not reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period. Important predictors of risk for the development of this arrhythmia were identified as: patients older than 70 years old and presence of atrial fibrillation in perioperative period in both groups, and non-use of beta-blockers drugs postoperatively in the on-pump group. PMID:26313722

  9. Management of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the United Kingdom TAVI Registry.

    PubMed

    Snow, Thomas M; Ludman, Peter; Banya, Winston; DeBelder, Mark; MacCarthy, Philip M; Davies, Simon W; Di Mario, Carlo; Moat, Neil E

    2015-11-15

    The management and impact of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients referred for TAVI remains contentious. We describe the prevalence, clinical impact and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients in the United Kingdom TAVI Registry. All-inclusive study of patients undergoing TAVI in the United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland) from January 2007 to December 2011. Coronary artery disease at the time of TAVI was demonstrated on invasive angiography. 2588 consecutive patients were entered in the U.K. TAVI Registry. CAD was reported in 1171 pts with left main stem involvement in 12.4% of this cohort (n=145). Most patients were free of chest pain, but limited by dyspnoea (NYHA Class III & IV 81.9%). Angina was however more prevalent in those patients with CAD (p<0.0001). Hybrid PCI was uncommon, performed in only 14.7% of the CAD cohort (n=172). Survival at 30days, 1year, and 4years was 93.7%, 81.4% and 72.0% respectively. Adjusting for confounders in a multivariate model the presence and extent of CAD was not associated with early (30-days, p=0.36) or late (4years, p=0.10) survival. This contemporary study of coronary artery disease management in an "all-comers" patient population undergoing TAVI demonstrates that whilst often an indicator of significant underlying comorbidity coronary artery disease is not associated with decreased short or long-term survival. The majority of patients with aortic stenosis and concomitant CAD can be managed effectively by TAVI alone. However, the importance of the Heart Team in making decisions on individual patients must not be underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Randomized-Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Reflexology on Anxiety of Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Molavi Vardanjani, Mehdi; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Razavi, Narges Sadat; Aghajani, Mohammad; Azizi-Fini, Esmail; Vaghefi, Seied Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The anxiety reduction before coronary angiography has clinical advantages and is one of the objectives of nursing. Reflexology is a non-invasive method that has been used in several clinical situations. Applying reflexology might have effect on the reduction of anxiety before coronary angiography. Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the effect of reflexology on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, in Kashan, Iran. One hundred male patients who were undergoing coronary angiography were randomly enrolled into intervention and placebo groups. The intervention protocol was included 30 minutes of general foot massage and the stimulation of three reflex points including solar plexus, pituitary gland, and heart. The placebo group only received the general foot massage. Spielbergers state trait anxiety inventory was used to assess the anxiety experienced by patients. Data was analyzed using Man-Witney, Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. The stepwise multiple regressions used to analyze the variables that are involved in anxiety reduction. Results: The mean range of anxiety decreased from 53.24 to 45.24 in reflexology group which represented 8 score reduction (P = 0.0001). The reduction in anxiety was 5.9 score in placebo group which was also significant (P = 0.0001). The anxiety reduction was significantly higher in reflexology group (P = 0.014). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that doing reflexology can explain the 7.5% of anxiety reduction which made a significant model. Conclusions: Reflexology can decrease the anxiety level before coronary angiography. Therefore, reflexology before coronary angiography is recommended. PMID:25414869

  11. The effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning on myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, D M; Mint, J J; Kim, J H; Sohn, I S; Lim, T W; Lim, Y J; Bahk, J H; Jeon, Y

    2010-09-01

    In several recent clinical trials on cardiac surgery patients, remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) showed a powerful myocardial protective effect. However the effect of RIPC has not been studied in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We evaluated whether RIPC could induce myocardial protection in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated to the RIPC (n = 65) or control group (n = 65). After induction of anaesthesia, RIPC was induced by four cycles of five-minute ischaemia and reperfusion on the upper limb using a pneumatic cuff. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, remifentanil and vecuronium. Myocardial injury was assessed by troponin I before surgery and 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery. There were no statistical differences in troponin I levels between RIPC and control groups (P = 0.172). Although RIPC reduced the total amount of troponin I (area under the curve of troponin increase) by 26%, it did not reach statistical significance (RIPC group 53.2 +/- 72.9 hours x ng/ml vs control group 67.4 +/- 97.7 hours x ng/ml, P = 0.281). In this study, RIPC by upper limb ischaemia reduced the postoperative myocardial enzyme elevation in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further study with a larger number of patients may be needed to fully evaluate the clinical effect of RIPC in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients.

  12. Antiplatelet therapy and outcome in patients undergoing surgery following coronary stenting: Results of the surgery after stenting registry.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Capodanno, Davide; Lettino, Maddalena; Trabattoni, Daniela; Pilleri, Annarita; Calabria, Paolo; Colombo, Paola; Bernabò, Paola; Ferlini, Marco; Ferri, Marco; Tarantini, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano; Savonitto, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the feasibility and clinical impact of complying with national consensus recommendations on perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery. There are limited evidence-based recommendations on the perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in stented patients undergoing surgery. The recommendations provided by the national consensus document were applied in a multicenter, prospective registry of consecutive patients with prior coronary stenting undergoing any type of surgery at 19 hospitals in Italy. The primary end-point was in-hospital net adverse clinical events (NACE) represented by the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, probable/definite stent thrombosis and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) grade ≥3 bleeding. Patients were followed for 30 days. A total of 1,082 patients were enrolled. Adherence to consensus recommendations occurred in 85% of the cases. Perioperative aspirin and dual antiplatelet therapy were maintained in 69.7 and 10.5% of the cases, respectively. In-hospital NACE rate was 12.7%, being significantly higher in patients undergoing cardiac surgery (36.3% vs. 7.3%, P < 0.01), mainly due to BARC 3 bleeding events (32.3%). At 30 days, MACE rates were similar (3.5% vs. 3.5%, P = NS) in patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery, whereas BARC ≥3 bleeding events were significantly higher with cardiac surgery (36.3% vs. 5.6%, P < 0.01). The results of this registry demonstrate the safety and feasibility of applying a national consensus document on the perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in stented patients undergoing surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Incident Type 2 Myocardial Infarction in a Cohort of Patients Undergoing Coronary or Peripheral Arterial Angiography.

    PubMed

    Gaggin, Hanna K; Liu, Yuyin; Lyass, Asya; van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Motiwala, Shweta R; Kelly, Noreen P; Mallick, Aditi; Gandhi, Parul U; Ibrahim, Nasrien E; Simon, Mandy L; Bhardwaj, Anju; Belcher, Arianna M; Harisiades, Jamie E; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Januzzi, James L

    2017-01-10

    Despite growing recognition of type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI; related to supply/demand mismatch), little is known about its risk factors or its association with outcome. A single-center cohort of patients undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography with or without intervention was prospectively enrolled and followed for incident type 1 and T2MI, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial complication, and cardiac arrhythmia), as well. T2MI was adjudicated using criteria from the Third Universal Definition of MI. Baseline characteristics, blood samples, and angiography information were obtained. Major end points subsequent to first MI were assessed using landmark analyses to compare the rates of first events only where everyone with a prior history of any MACE before MI were censored and adjusted for follow-up times. Cox proportional hazard models were used for time-to-event analyses with age and sex forced into all models and additional covariates evaluated by using the stepwise option for the selection. One thousand two hundred fifty-one patients were enrolled and followed for a median of 3.4 years. Of these patients, 152 (12.2%) had T2MI during follow-up; T2MI was frequently recurrent. Multivariable predictors of T2MI were older age, lower systolic blood pressure, history of coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, nitrate use, and elevated concentrations of glucose, N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide, and cystatin C. Patients with T2MI had higher rates of subsequent adverse events than those without T2MI (per 100 person-years: MACE, 53.7 versus 21.1, P<0.001; all-cause death, 23.3 versus 3.3, P<0.001; cardiovascular death, 17.5 versus 2.6, P<0.001; heart failure events, 22.4 versus 7.4, P<0.001); these rates are similar to those seen in patients with

  14. Congenital intrathoracic kidney in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Darwazah, Ahmad K; Yosri, Ahmad

    2011-03-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly. It appears as a posterior mediastinal mass on chest X-ray. Most cases are asymptomatic and are discovered accidentally. We present a 48-year-old male patient with intrathoracic kidney discovered during routine investigation for coronary artery bypass surgery.

  15. Frequency of abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Annabelle; Elkalioubie, Ahmed; Juthier, Francis; Tagzirt, Madjid; Vincentelli, André; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Haulon, Stéphan; Deklunder, Ghislaine; Breyne, Joke; Susen, Sophie; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Pinet, Florence; Jude, Brigitte

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the prevalence and the risk factors for unsuspected abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease and to identify the most at risk patients for AAA. Among 217 patients (189 men, mean age 64 +/- 11 years), asymptomatic AAAs, as prospectively identified by echocardiography, were found in 15 patients (6.9%). All patients with AAAs were men and smokers or past smokers. Factors significantly associated by univariate analysis with asymptomatic AAA presence were smoking (p = 0.003), symptomatic peripheral artery disease (p = 0.006), significant carotid artery stenosis (p = 0.007), and larger femoral and popliteal diameters (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0012, respectively). The other classic demographic, clinical, and biologic features were equally distributed among patients. In conclusion, in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting who were men and aged <75 years with smoking histories, the prevalence of AAA was as high as 24% when they had concomitant peripheral arterial disease and/or carotid artery stenosis (vs 4.4% in the absence of either condition, p = 0.007), justifying consideration of AAA screening in this subgroup of in-hospital patients.

  16. The coronary CT angiography vision protocol: a prospective observational imaging cohort study in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Tej; Butler, Craig; Chow, Benjamin; Chan, M T V; Mitha, Ayesha; Nagele, Peter; Tandon, Vikas; Stewart, Lori; Graham, Michelle; Choi, G Y S; Kisten, T; Woodard, P K; Crean, Andrew; Abdul Aziz, Y F; Karthikeyan, G; Chow, C K; Szczeklik, W; Markobrada, M; Mastracci, T.; Devereaux, P J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction At present, physicians have a limited ability to predict major cardiovascular complications after non-cardiac surgery and little is known about the anatomy of coronary arteries associated with perioperative myocardial infarction. We have initiated the Coronary CT Angiography (CTA) VISION Study to (1) establish the predictive value of coronary CTA for perioperative myocardial infarction and death and (2) describe the coronary anatomy of patients that have a perioperative myocardial infarction. Methods and analysis The Coronary CTA VISION Study is prospective observational study. Preoperative coronary CTA will be performed in 1000–1500 patients with a history of vascular disease or at least three cardiovascular risk factors who are undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery. Serial troponin will be measured 6–12 h after surgery and daily for the first 3 days after surgery. Major vascular outcomes at 30 days and 1 year after surgery will be independently adjudicated. Ethics and dissemination Coronary CTA results in a measurable radiation exposure that is similar to a nuclear perfusion scan (10–12 mSV). Treating physicians will be blinded to the CTA results until 30 days after surgery in order to provide the most unbiased assessment of its prognostic capabilities. The only exception will be the presence of a left main stenosis >50%. This approach is supported by best available current evidence that, excluding left main disease, prophylatic revascularisation prior to non-cardiac surgery does not improve outcomes. An external safety and monitoring committee is overseeing the study and will review outcome data at regular intervals. Publications describing the results of the study will be submitted to major peer-reviewed journals and presented at international medical conferences. PMID:22855630

  17. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  18. Real‐World Multicenter Registry of Patients with Severe Coronary Artery Calcification Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shlofmitz, Evan; Kaplan, Barry; Alexandru, Dragos; Meraj, Perwaiz; Shlofmitz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy in real‐world patients with severe coronary artery calcification (CAC). Background The presence of severe CAC increases the complexity of percutaneous coronary intervention as it may impede stent delivery and optimal stent expansion. Atherectomy may be an indispensable tool for uncrossable or undilatable lesions by modifying severe CAC. Although the ORBIT I and II trials report that orbital atherectomy was safe and effective for the treatment of severe CAC, patients with kidney disease, recent myocardial infarction, long diffuse disease, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and unprotected left main disease were excluded. Methods This retrospective study included 458 consecutive patients with severe CAC who underwent orbital atherectomy followed by stenting from October 2013 to December 2015 at 3 centers. Results The primary endpoint of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days was 1.7%. Low rates of 30‐day all‐cause mortality (1.3%), myocardial infarction (1.1%), target vessel revascularization (0%), stroke (0.2%), and stent thrombosis (0.9%) were observed. Angiographic complications were low: perforation was 0.7%, dissection 0.9%, and no‐reflow 0.7%. Emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed in 0.2% of patients. Conclusion In the largest real‐world study of patients who underwent orbital atherectomy, including high‐risk patients who were not surgical candidates as well as those with very complex coronary anatomy, acute and short‐term adverse clinical event rates were low. A randomized clinical trial is needed to identify the ideal treatment strategy for patients with severe CAC. PMID:27358246

  19. Coronary dominance and prognosis in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Catherine; Fuchs, Tobias A.; Stehli, Julia; Gransar, Heidi; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Andreini, Daniele; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha M.; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Delago, Augustin; Gomez, Millie J.; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Hindoyan, Niree; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison M.; Min, James K.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has become an important tool for non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary dominance can be assessed by CCTA; however, the predictive value of coronary dominance is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and prognosis of coronary dominance in a large prospective, international multicentre cohort of patients undergoing CCTA. Methods and results The study population consisted of 6382 patients with or without CAD (47% females, 53% males, mean age 56.9 ± 12.3 years) who underwent CCTA and were followed over a period of 60 months. Right or left coronary dominance was determined. Right dominance was present in 91% (n = 5817) and left in 9% (n = 565) of the study population. At the end of follow-up, outcome in patients with obstructive CAD (>50% luminal stenosis) and right dominance was similar compared with patients with left dominance [hazard ratio (HR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.16–1.32, P = 0.15]. Furthermore, no differences were observed for the type of coronary dominance in patients with non-obstructive CAD (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.41–2.21, P = 0.8962) or normal coronary arteries (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68–1.59, P = 0.9). Subgroup analysis in patients with left main disease revealed an elevated hazard of the combined endpoint for left dominance (HR 6.45, 95% CI 1.66–25.0, P = 0.007), but not for right dominance. Conclusion In our study population, survival after 5 years of follow-up did not differ significantly between patients with left or right coronary dominance. Thus, assessment of coronary vessel dominance by CCTA may not enhance risk stratification in patients with normal coronary arteries or obstructive CAD, but may add prognostic information for specific subpopulations. PMID:25744341

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Caproamin Fides and Tranexamic Acid Versus Placebo in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Totonchi, Ziae; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholampour Dehaki, Maziar; Jalili, Farshid; Farsad, Fariborz; Hejrati, Maral

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excessive fibrinolysis contributes to post-cardiopulmonary bypass bleeding. Tranexamic Acid (TXA) and Caproamin Fides are synthetic lysine analogues that inhibit plasminogen-fibrin binding. The present study aimed to compare TXA and Caproamin Fides versus placebo in patients undergoing elective coronary artery revascularization. Methods: We analyzed perioperative data of 300 adult patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. Patients were randomly allocated to receive TXA (n=100), Caproamin Fides (n=100) or placebo (n=100) during perioperative time. Mediastinal bleeding during the first 24 hours post-operation, transfusion requirement and post-surgical complications were assessed. Results: Most descriptive and intra-operative parameters were well comparable between the 3 study groups. Except for mean number of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused during ICU stay (P=0.01), patients in the Caproamin Fides and TXA groups did not show any statistically significant differences regarding transfusion of blood products during peri-operative period. There was no evidence of a significant difference in mediastinal blood loss during the first 24 hours post-operation between the patients receiving TXA or placebo, while patients in the Caproamin Fides group had significantly lower mediastinal bleeding than the other 2 groups (Caproamin Fides vs. placebo, P=0.002, <0.001 and <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation; Caproamin Fides vs. TXA, P=0.009, 0.003, <0.001 at 6, 12 and 24 hours post-operation). The incidence of postoperative complications were comparable between Caproamin Fides and TXA groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Caproamin Fides seems to be superior to TXA regarding the blood saving effects in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization. PMID:25320669

  1. [Effect of cardiac rehabilitation in ischemic patients not undergoing coronary revascularization].

    PubMed

    Leyva Gómez, M A; Ramírez Reyes Orduña, H A

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation program was implemented on 65 patients rejected for bypass surgery and/or coronary angioplasty. The group was formed by 63 males (96.9%), 2 females (3.0). Their ages ranged from 54.5 +/- 8.7 year (mean +/- SD). Their risk's factors, were (RF): cigarette smoking, 25 patients (38.6%), hypercholesterolemia 47 (72.3%), hypertriglyceridemia 48 (73.8%), hypertension 33 (50.7%), diabetes mellitus 33 (46.1%), myocardial infarction 56 (86.1%). Coronary arteriography showed one vessel disease (25.5%), two vessels (38.3%) and three (36.1%). Ejection fraction (EF) > 50% in 39 (60%). The features evaluated were: number of obstructed vessels, (EF) and age. One patient died, fifty two (80%) were asymptomatic ten showed stable angina (15.3%) and three (4.6%) unstable angina. Tobacco addiction decreased by 92%. Hypertension was controlled in 42.2%. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized in 82.9%. Hypertriglyceridemia improved in 53%. Oxygen uptake VO2 and Oxygen pulse PO2 improved in 42 patients (64.6%). Cardiac rehabilitation is a good alternative to improve quality of life in patients in whom a coronary revascularization is not feasible.

  2. Association of Serum Pentraxin-3 and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein with the Extent of Coronary Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Vuković-Dejanović, Vesna; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Spasić, Slavica; Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Oštrić, Dimitra; Topalović, Mirko; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We compared factors of inflammation – high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and we explored their relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, we tested the usefulness of hsCRP and PTX3 in the risk assessment of coronary stenosis development and the diagnostic ability of these biomarkers to detect disease severity. Methods The study group consisted of 93 CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients were divided into CAD(0), representing subclinical stenosis, and CAD (1–3), representing significant stenosis in one, two or three vessels. Results We determined the concentration of lipid status parameters, hsCRP and PTX3. We found significantly lower PTX3 and hsCRP concentrations in CAD(0) than in CAD(1–3) group. Concentration of PTX3 showed an increasing trend with the increasing number of vessels affected. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the combinations of hsCRP and PTX3 with lipid parameters had useful accuracy for detecting CAD(1–3) patients (AUC=0.770, p<0.001). Conclusion PTX3 is a promising independent diagnostic marker for identifying patients with CAD, and a useful indicator of disease progression. In all the analyses PTX3 showed better performance than hsCRP. A combination of PTX3, hsCRP with the lipid status parameters provides risk stratification of the development of coronary stenosis and better classification than their individual application. PMID:28356853

  3. Determinants and prognostic significance of collaterals in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Nathoe, Hendrik M; Koerselman, Jeroen; Buskens, Erik; van Dijk, Diederik; Stella, Pieter R; Plokker, Thijs H W; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Grobbee, Diederick E; de Jaegere, Peter P T

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence that coronary collaterals improve the prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited clinical information on the protective role of collaterals in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This information may help risk stratification and the development of novel therapies, such as arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. The relation between collaterals and cardiac death or MI at 1 year after coronary revascularization was studied in 561 patients who were enrolled in a randomized study that compared stent implantation with bypass grafting. Collaterals were assessed on an angiogram using Rentrop's classification and considered present with a Rentrop grade >1. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for cardiac death or MI at 1 year were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In addition, determinants of collaterals were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Collaterals were present in 176 patients (31%). The adjusted odds ratio of cardiac death or infarction was 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.78) in the presence of collaterals. Independent determinants of collaterals were age (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99), multivessel disease (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.51), impaired ventricular function (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 3.29), type C lesion (odds ratio 3.72, 95% confidence interval 2.33 to 5.95), and stenosis severity >90% (odds ratio 9.08, 95% confidence interval 4.65 to 17.73). In conclusion, in patients with a low risk profile, the presence of collaterals protects against cardiac death and MI at 1 year after coronary revascularization. Variables that reflect the duration and severity of the atherosclerotic and ischemic burden determine their presence.

  4. Prospective evaluation of the development of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing rotational coronary angiography vs. conventional coronary angiography: CINERAMA study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Grillo-Pérez, José J; Pérez-Hernández, Horacio; Rodríguez-Esteban, Marcos; Pimienta, Raquel; Acosta-Materán, Carlos; Rodríguez, Sara; Yanes-Bowden, Geoffrey; Vargas-Torres, Manuel J; Sánchez-Grande Flecha, Alejandro; Hernández-Afonso, Julio; Bosa-Ojeda, Francisco

    2017-07-19

    Rotational coronary angiography (RCA) requires less contrast to be administered and can prevent the onset of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) during invasive coronary procedures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of RCA on CIN (increase in serum creatinine ≥0.5mg/dl or ≥25%) after an acute coronary syndrome. From April to September 2016, patients suffering acute coronary syndromes who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography, with the possibility of ad hoc coronary angioplasty, were prospectively enrolled. At the operator's discretion, patients underwent RCA or conventional coronary angiography (CCA). CIN (primary endpoint), as well as analytical, angiographic and clinical endpoints, were compared between groups. Of the 235 patients enrolled, 116 patients received RCA and 119 patients received CCA. The RCA group was composed of older patients (64.0±11.8 years vs. 59.7±12.1 years; p=0.006), a higher proportion of women (44.8 vs. 17.6%; p<0.001), patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (76±25 vs. 86±27ml/min/1.73 m(2); p=0.001), and patients who underwent fewer coronary angioplasties (p<0.001) compared with the CCA group. Furthermore, the RCA group, received less contrast (113±92 vs. 169±103ml; p<0.001), including in diagnostic procedures (54±24 vs. 85±56ml; p<0.001) and diagnostic-therapeutic procedures (174±64 vs. 205±98ml; p=0.049) compared with the CCA group. The RCA group presented less CIN (4.3 vs. 22.7%; p<0.001) compared to the CCA group, and this finding was maintained in the regression analysis (Adjusted relative risk: 0.868; 95% CI: 0.794-0.949; p=0.002). There were no differences in clinical endpoints between the groups. RCA was associated with lower administration of contrast during invasive coronary procedures in acute coronary syndrome patients, resulting in lower incidence of CIN, in comparison with CCA. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  5. The effect of temperature management during cardiopulmonary bypass on neurologic and neuropsychologic outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Mora, C T; Henson, M B; Weintraub, W S; Murkin, J M; Martin, T D; Craver, J M; Gott, J P; Guyton, R A

    1996-08-01

    Several studies suggest that normothermic ("warm") bypass techniques may improve myocardial outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac operations. Normothermic temperatures during cardiopulmonary bypass may, however, decrease the brain's tolerance to the ischemic insults that accompany all cardiac procedures. To assess the effect of bypass temperature management strategy on central nervous system outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization, 138 patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1) hypothermia (n = 70), patients cooled to a temperature less than 28 degrees C during cardiopulmonary bypass, or (2) normothermia (n = 68), patients actively warmed to a temperature of at least 35 degrees C. Patients underwent detailed neurologic examination before the operation, on postoperative days 1 to 3 and 7 to 10, and at approximately 1 month after operation. In addition, a battery of five neuropsychologic tests was administered before operation, on postoperative days 7 to 10, and at the 4- to 6-week follow-up visit. Patients in the normothermic treatment group were older (65 +/- 10 vs 61 +/- 11 years in the hypothermic group), had statistically less likelihood of preexisting cerebrovascular disease, and had higher bypass blood glucose values (276 +/- 100 mg/% vs. 152 +/- 66 mg/% in the hypothermic group). All other patient characteristics and intraoperative variables were similar in the two treatment groups. Seven of 68 patients in the normothermic group were found to have a central neurologic deficit, compared with none of the patients cooled to 28 degrees C (p = 0.006). Performance on at least one neuropsychologic test deteriorated in the immediate postoperative period in more than one half of all patients in both treatment groups but returned to preoperative levels approximately 1 month after the operation in most (85%). This pattern was not related to bypass temperature management strategy. We conclude that active warming during

  6. Factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Koerich, Cintia; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2016-08-08

    to investigate the factors associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in a cardiovascular referral hospital in Santa Catarina. quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and retrospective study. The medical records of 1447 patients, from 2005 to 2013, were analyzed for statistically related variables, these being: profile, hospitalization diagnosis, risk factors for coronary artery disease, complications recorded during the hospitalization, length of hospitalization and cause of death. the mortality rate was 5.3% during the study period. Death was more common in females and those of black skin color, with a mean age of 65 years. Acute myocardial infarction was the most common hospitalization diagnosis. The majority of the complications recorded during hospitalization were characterized by changes in the cardiovascular system, with longer hospitalization periods being directly related to death from septic shock. the data provide subsidies for nursing work with preventive measures and early detection of complications associated with coronary artery bypass grafting. This reinforces the importance of using the data as quality indicators, aiming to guarantee care guided by reliable information to guide managers in planning patient care and high complexity health services. conhecer os fatores associados à mortalidade de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio em hospital referência cardiovascular em Santa Catarina. estudo quantitativo, exploratório, descritivo e retrospectivo. Foram analisados os prontuários de 1447 pacientes, entre 2005 e 2013, e as variáveis relacionadas estatisticamente, sendo estas: perfil, diagnóstico da internação, fatores de risco para doença arterial coronariana, intercorrências registradas na internação, tempo de internação e causa do óbito. a taxa de mortalidade foi de 5,3% no período do estudo. Os óbitos foram mais frequentes em negros, do sexo feminino e média de

  7. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; May, Heidi T; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Bailey, Beau M; McClure, Brian S; Renlund, Dale G; Lappé, Donald L; Carlquist, John F; Fisher, Patrick W; Pearson, Robert R; Bair, Tami L; Adams, Ted D; Muhlestein, Joseph B

    2008-10-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multifactorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. Although the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (n(1) = 4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994 to 2002) were evaluated for the association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (> or = 70% coronary stenosis using angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (n(2) = 448) were surveyed (2004 to 2006) for the association of behavioral factors with CAD, with routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink) as the primary variable. Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee; social support; and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking] odds ratio [OR] 0.81, p = 0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs 76% CAD; OR 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.87, p = 0.010), and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.81, p = 0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p = 0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with a similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD.

  8. Usefulness of Routine Periodic Fasting to Lower Risk of Coronary Artery Disease among Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Benjamin D.; May, Heidi T.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Bailey, Beau M.; McClure, Brian S.; Renlund, Dale G.; Lappé, Donald L.; Carlquist, John F.; Fisher, Patrick W.; Pearson, Robert R.; Bair, Tami L.; Adams, Ted D.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multi-factorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. While the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (N1=4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994-2002) were evaluated for association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (≥70% coronary stenosis on angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (N2=448) were surveyed (2004-2006) for association of behavioral factors with CAD, with the primary variable being routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink). Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee, social support, and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking]: odds ratio [OR]=0.81; p=0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs. 76% CAD; OR=0.55, CI=0.35, 0.87; p=0.010) and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR=0.46, CI=0.27, 0.81; p=0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p=0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD. PMID:18805103

  9. Does SYNTAX score predict in-hospital outcomes in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention?

    PubMed

    Ayça, Burak; Akın, Fatih; Celik, Omer; Cetin, Sükrü; Sahin, Irfan; Gülşen, Kamil; Kalyoncuoğlu, Muhsin; Katkat, Fahrettin; Okuyan, Ertuğrul; Dinçkal, Mustafa Hakan

    2014-01-01

    SYNTAX score (SxS) has been demonstrated to predict long-term outcomes in stable patients with coronary artery disease. But its prognostic value for patients with acute coronary syndrome remains unknown. To evaluate whether SxS could predict in-hospital outcomes for patients admitted with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The study included 538 patients with STEMI who underwent pPCI between January 2010 and December 2012. The patients were divided into two groups: low SxS (< 22) and high SxS (> 22). The SxS of all patients was calculated from aninitial angiogram and TIMI flow grade of infarct related artery was calculated after pPCI. Left ventricular systolic functions of the patients were evaluated with an echocardiogram in the following week. The rates of reinfarction and mortality during hospitalisation were obtained from the medical records of our hospital. The high SxS group had more no-reflow (41% and 25.1%, p < 0.001, respectively), lower ejection fraction (38.2 ± 7.5% and 44.6 ± 8.8%, p < 0.001, respectively), and greater rates of re-infarction (9.5% and 7.3%, p = 0.037, respectively) and mortality (0.9% and 0.2%, p = 0.021, respectively) during hospitalisation compared to the low SxS group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis including clinical variables, SxS was an independent predictor of no-reflow (OR 1.081, 95% CI 1.032-1.133, p = 0.001). SxS is a useful tool that can predict in-hospital outcomes of patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI.

  10. Impact of anaemia on clinical outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the AFCAS registry.

    PubMed

    Puurunen, Marja; Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Nammas, Wail; Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Nyman, Kai; Karjalainen, Pasi; Kirchhof, Paulus; Lip, Gregory Y H; Airaksinen, Juhani K E

    2014-05-13

    Anaemia has an adverse impact on the outcome in the general patient population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of anaemia on the 12-month clinical outcome of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing PCI and therefore requiring intense antithrombotic treatment. We hypothesised that anaemia might be associated with a worse outcome and more bleeding in these anticoagulated patients. Data were collected from 17 secondary care centres in Europe. Consecutive patients with AF undergoing PCI were enrolled in the prospective, multicenter AFCAS (Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting) registry. Altogether, 929 patients participated in the study. Preprocedural haemoglobin concentration was available for 861 (92.7%; 30% women). The only exclusion criteria were inability or unwillingness to give informed consent. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration of <12 g/dL for women and <13 g/dL for men. The primary endpoint was occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) or bleeding events. 258/861 (30%) patients had anaemia. Anaemic patients were older, more often had diabetes, higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores, prior history of heart failure, chronic renal impairment and acute coronary syndrome. Anaemic patients had more MACCE than non-anaemic (29.1% vs 19.4%, respectively, p=0.002), and minor bleeding events (7.0% vs 3.3%, respectively, p=0.028), with a trend towards more total bleeding events (25.2% vs 21.7%, respectively, p=0.059). No difference was observed in antithrombotic regimens at discharge. In multivariate analysis, anaemia was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 12-month follow-up (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.51, p=0.029). Anaemia was a frequent finding in patients with AF referred for PCI. Anaemic patients had a higher all-cause mortality, more thrombotic events and minor bleeding events. Anaemia seems to be an

  11. Safety and efficacy of oral ivabradine as a heart rate-reducing agent in patients undergoing CT coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Adile, K K; Kapoor, A; Jain, S K; Gupta, A; Kumar, S; Tewari, S; Garg, N; Goel, P K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of oral ivabradine as a heart rate reducing agent in patients undergoing CT coronary angiography (CTCA). Despite the routine use of β-blockers prior to CTCA studies, it is not uncommon to have patients with heart rates persistently above the target range of 65 bpm. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the If current, which primarily contributes to sinus node pacemaker activity, and has no significant direct cardiovascular effects such as reduction of blood pressure, cardiac contractility or impairment of cardiac conduction. Methods We investigated 100 consecutive patients who had been referred for CTCA for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomised to receive either of the following two pre-medication protocols: oral metorprolol or oral ivabradine. Results Ivabradine was significantly more effective than metorprolol in lowering the heart rate; the mean percentage reduction in heart rate with ivabradine vs metorpolol was 23.89+6.95% vs 15.20+4.50%, respectively (p=0.0001). Metoprolol significantly lowered both systolic and diastolic blood pressure while ivabradine did not. The requirement of additional doses to achieve a target heart rate of <65 beats per min was also significantly more frequent with metoprolol. Conclusion Ivabradine is a potentially attractive alternative to currently used drugs for reduction of heart rate in patients undergoing CTCA. PMID:22815422

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and anemia in patients with coronary artery disease with normal serum creatinine undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: relation to New York Heart Association class.

    PubMed

    Malyszko, Jolanta; Bachorzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Malyszko, Jacek; Levin-Iaina, Nomy; Iaina, Adrian; Dobrzycki, Slawomir

    2010-08-01

    Kidney disease and cardiovascular disease seem to be lethally synergistic and both are approaching the epidemic level. A reduced glomerular filtration rate is associated with increased mortality risk in patients with heart failure. Many patients with congestive heart failure are anemic. Anemia is very often associated with chronic kidney disease. To assess--in relation to New York Heart Association class--the prevalence of anemia and chronic kidney disease in patients with normal serum creatinine in a cohort of 526 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. GFR was estimated using the simplified MDRD formula, the Cockcroft-Gault formula, the Jeliffe and the novel CKD-EPI formula. According to the WHO definition the prevalence of anemia in our study was 21%. We observed a progressive decline in GFR and hemoglobin concentration together with a rise in NYHA class. Significant correlations were observed between eGFR and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, age, NYHA class, complications of PCI, including bleeding, and major adverse cardiac events. The prevalence of anemia and chronic kidney disease is high in patients undergoing PCI despite normal serum creatinine, particularly in higher NYHA class. Lower eGFR and hemoglobin are associated with more complications, including bleeding after PCI and higher prevalence of major adverse cardiac events. In patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, GFR should be estimated since renal dysfunction and subsequent anemia are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  13. The effect of melatonin on endothelial dysfunction in patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Kiyan; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Mohsen; Sonbolestan, Sayed Ali; Ziayi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this study, we investigated the effect of melatonin administration on four markers of endothelial cell function including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), C-reactive protein (CRP), and nitric oxide (NO) on patients with three vessels coronary disease. Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial study was conducted on 39 patients (32 men and 7 women) with three vessels coronary disease. The case group included 20 patients who received 10 mg oral melatonin 1 h before sleeping for 1 month. The control group included 19 patients who received placebo 1 h before sleeping for 1 month. The serum levels of CRP, ICAM, VCAM, and NO were compared after 1 month treatment. Results: After 1 month of melatonin treatment, the mean level of ICAM, VCAM, and CRP showed a statistically significant decrease in the case group. On the other hand, the mean level of VCAM increased significantly in the control group. The mean levels of CRP and ICAM were also increased in the control group, but the difference did not reach the significant threshold. With respect to NO, there was a statistically significant increase in the case group, while there was a statistically significant decrease in serum NO in the control group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that melatonin may have beneficial effects on endothelial oxidative stress even in patient with severe and advanced atherosclerosis. PMID:28028514

  14. The relation between mitral annular calcification and mortality in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Willens, Howard J; Chirinos, Julio A; Schob, Alan; Veerani, Anila; Perez, Armando J; Chakko, Simon

    2006-10-01

    To determine whether the observed association between mitral annular calcification (MAC) and mortality is independent of the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), we analyzed data from 134 male veterans (age 63 +/- 10 years) followed for 5 years who had undergone diagnostic coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography within 6 months of each other. Echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of MAC. The relation of MAC to all-cause mortality was analyzed using logistic regression, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. MAC was present in 49 (37%) subjects. Over the 5-year follow-up period, 38 (28%) patients expired. Five-year survival was 80% for subjects without MAC and 56% for subjects with MAC (P = 0.003). MAC (OR = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.43-6.96, P = 0.003), ejection fraction (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97, P = 0.02), and left main CAD (OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.11-6.57, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for left ventricular ejection fraction, number of obstructed coronary arteries and the presence of left main coronary artery stenosis, MAC significantly predicted death (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.09-5.68, P = 0.03). Similarly, after adjusting for predictors of MAC, including ejection fraction, age, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure, MAC remained a significant predictor of death (OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02-5.58, P = 0.04). MAC also predicted death independent of smoking status, hypertension, serum creatinine, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein levels (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.68-9.40, P = 0.001). MAC detected by two-dimensional echocardiography independently predicts mortality and may provide an easy-to-perform and inexpensive way to improve risk stratification.

  15. Effect of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    FANG, YU; QIU, ZHANDONG; HU, WENTAO; YANG, JIA; YI, XIYAN; HUANG, LIANGJIANG; ZHANG, SUMING

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are observed in numerous patients following coronary bypass surgery, and piracetam are nootropic compounds that modulate cerebral functions by directly enhancing cognitive processes. The present meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The relevant studies were identified by searching Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library up to June 2013 and the pertinent bibliographies from the retrieved studies were reviewed. Data were selected from the studies according to predefined criteria. The meta-analysis included two randomized control trials involving 184 patients and including the Syndrom-Kurz test (SKT). Findings of the meta-analysis showed that following treatment the change from baseline observed in five SKT subtest scores, conducted with piracetam patients, indicated a significant advantage over those patients that were in the placebo group. The subtests included immediate pictured object recall, weighted mean difference (WMD)=0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–1.31, P<0.00001; delayed pictured object recall, WMD=0.74, 95% CI 0.19–1.28, P=0.008; delayed picture recognition, WMD=0.82, 95% CI 0.31–1.31, P=0.001; immediate word recall, WMD=0.87, 95% CI 0.47–1.28, P<0.0001; and letter interference, WMD=3.46, 95% CI −5.69 to −1.23, P=0.002. These results indicated that piracetam may have been effective in improving the short-term cognitive performance of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. High quality, well-controlled and longer randomized trials are required to corroborate this result. PMID:24396419

  16. Health locus of control in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery - changes and associated outcomes: a seven-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Andrew; Tolmie, Elizabeth; Lindsay, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Health locus of control is a measure of an individual's beliefs in factors that are thought to determine health experiences. Scores are generated and form a graduated linear scale from external to internal control, with respect to their views on health causality. Health locus of control has been considered to be a relatively stable entity. However, it is not clear if this status changes in the advent of serious health challenges, such as coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The aim of this study is to explore the variability of health locus of control and its association with postoperative health in this context. In a longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, a purposive sample ( n=215) were recruited from the waiting list and followed up postoperatively, at approximately one year and seven years later. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery demonstrated marked fluctuations in health locus of control in their peri-operative and rehabilitative phases. Mean health locus of control became more external (often associated with poorer outcomes) peri-operatively, and more internal (generally associated with better health outcomes) in the rehabilitative period. Health locus of control scores were shown to be changeable during a major health care intervention, with possible consequences for patient outcomes and care needs. The significant health belief upheaval demonstrated in this cohort should be considered in assessing patients preoperatively, and managed as part of the patients' clinical journey by both acute and rehabilitation staff. It is likely to have particular importance in individualised assessment and management of future prevention advice for patients.

  17. Management of patients with recently implanted coronary stents on dual antiplatelet therapy who need to undergo major surgery.

    PubMed

    Savonitto, S; Caracciolo, M; Cattaneo, M; DE Servi, S

    2011-11-01

    About 5% of patients undergoing coronary stenting need to undergo surgery within the next year. The risk of perioperative cardiac ischemic events, particularly stent thrombosis (ST), is high in these patients, because surgery has a prothrombotic effect and antiplatelet therapy is often withdrawn in order to avoid bleeding. The clinical and angiographic predictors of ST are well known, and the proximity to an acute coronary syndrome adds to the risk. The current guidelines recommend delaying non-urgent surgery for at least 6 weeks after the placement of a bare metal stent and for 6-12 months after the placement of a drug-eluting stent, when the risk of ST is reduced. However, in the absence of formal evidence, these recommendations provide little support with regard to managing urgent operations. When surgery cannot be postponed, stratifying the risk of surgical bleeding and cardiac ischemic events is crucial in order to manage perioperative antiplatelet therapy in individual cases. Dual antiplatelet therapy should not be withdrawn for minor surgery or most gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Aspirin can be safely continued perioperatively in the case of most major surgery, and provides coronary protection. In the case of interventions at high risk for both bleeding and ischemic events, when clopidogrel withdrawal is required in order to reduce perioperative bleeding, perioperative treatment with the short-acting intravenous glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor tirofiban is safe in terms of bleeding, and provides strong antithrombotic protection. Such surgical interventions should be performed at hospitals capable of performing an immediate percutaneous coronary intervention at any time in the case of acute myocardial ischemia.

  18. Comparison of Clinical Interpretation with Visual Assessment and Quantitative Coronary Angiography in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Contemporary Practice: The Assessing Angiography (A2) Project

    PubMed Central

    Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Lansky, Alexandra J.; Cohen, David J.; Jones, Philip G.; Kureshi, Faraz; Dehmer, Gregory J.; Drozda, Joseph P.; Walsh, Mary Norine; Brush, John E.; Koenig, Gerald C.; Waites, Thad F.; Gantt, D. Scott; Kichura, George; Chazal, Richard A.; O’Brien, Peter K.; Valentine, C. Michael; Rumsfeld, John S.; Reiber, Johan H.C.; Elmore, Joann G.; Krumholz, Richard A.; Weaver, W. Douglas; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies conducted decades ago described substantial disagreement and errors in physicians’ angiographic interpretation of coronary stenosis severity. Despite the potential implications of such findings, no large-scale efforts to measure or improve clinical interpretation were subsequently made. Methods & Results We compared clinical interpretation of stenosis severity in coronary lesions with an independent assessment using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in 175 randomly selected patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at 7 U.S. hospitals in 2011. To assess agreement, we calculated mean difference in percent diameter stenosis between clinical interpretation and QCA and a Cohen’s weighted kappa statistic. Of 216 treated lesions, median percent diameter stenosis was 80.0% (Q1 and Q3, 80.0 and 90.0%) with 213 (98.6%) assessed as ≥70%. Mean difference in percent diameter stenosis between clinical interpretation and QCA was +8.2 ± 8.4%, reflecting an average higher percent diameter stenosis by clinical interpretation (P<0.001). A weighted kappa of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.36) was found between the 2 measurements. Of 213 lesions considered ≥70% by clinical interpretation, 56 (26.3%) were <70% by QCA though none was <50%. Differences between the 2 measurements were largest for intermediate lesions by QCA (50 to <70%) with variation existing across sites. Conclusions Physicians tended to assess coronary lesions treated with PCI as more severe than measurements by QCA. Almost all treated lesions were ≥70% by clinical interpretation, while approximately a quarter were <70% by QCA. These findings suggest opportunities to improve clinical interpretation of coronary angiography. PMID:23470859

  19. The Effect of Music on Anxiety and Cardiovascular Indices in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saeide; Babaii, Atye; Abbasinia, Mohammad; Shamali, Mahdi; Abbasi, Mohammad; Rezaei, Mahboobe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P < 0.037) while it did not significantly change in the control group. However, there were no significant differences regarding the cardiovascular indices in the three consecutive measurements (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG. PMID:26835471

  20. The optimal management of patients on oral anticoagulation undergoing coronary artery stenting. The 10th Anniversary Overview.

    PubMed

    Rubboli, A; Faxon, D P; Juhani Airaksinen, K E; Schlitt, A; Marín, F; Bhatt, D L; Lip, G Y H

    2014-12-01

    Even 10 years after the first appearance in the literature of articles reporting on the management of patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent (PCI-S), this issue is still controversial. Nonetheless, some guidance for the everyday management of this patient subset, accounting for about 5-8 % of all patients referred for PCI-S, has been developed. In general, a period of triple therapy (TT) of OAC, with either vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) or non-vitamin K-antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC), aspirin, and clopidogrel is warranted, followed by the combination of OAC, and a single antiplatelet agent for up to 12 months, and then OAC alone. The duration of the initial period of TT is dependent on the individual risk of thromboembolism, and bleeding, as well as the clinical context in which PCI-S is performed (elective vs acute coronary syndrome), and the type of stent implanted (bare-metal vs drug-eluting). In this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive, at-a-glance, overview of the management strategies, which are currently suggested for the peri-procedural, medium-term, and long-term periods following PCI-S in OAC patients. While acknowledging that most of the evidence has been obtained from patients on OAC because of atrial fibrillation, and with warfarin being the most frequently used VKA, we refer in this overview to the whole population of OAC patients undergoing PCI-S. We refer to the whole population of patients on OAC undergoing PCI-S also when OAC is carried out with NOAC rather than VKA, pointing out, when appropriate, the particular management issues.

  1. Impact of CYP2C19 Variants on Clinical Efficacy of Clopidogrel and 1-Year Clinical Outcomes in Coronary Heart Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Qu, Qiang; Chen, Zhen-Fan; Tan, Sheng-Lan; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Qu, Jian; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The impact of pharmacogenetic variants of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) on clopidogrel-mediated effects on platelet inhibition, inflammatory response and endothelial function, as well as risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), in coronary heart patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was investigated. To this end, we assessed the residual platelet aggregation rate (RPA), maximal aggregation rate (MAR) and plasma levels of sCD40L, sP-selectin, MMP-9, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin after 24 h of PCI in 559 patients treated with clopidogrel and followed up for 1 year for evidence of MACE. CYP2C19 *2 and *3 variants were identified using a clopidogrel-sensitive gene detection kit. Our results showed higher RPA and MAR as well as increased sE-selectin, sCD40L, sP-selectin, MMP-9, and sVCAM-1 levels in CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizer (IM, CYP2C19*1/*2, or *1/*3), poor metabolizer (PM, CYP2C19*2/*2, *2/*3, or *3/*3) and combined IM+PM groups, relative to those in extensive metabolizers (EM, CYP2C19*1/*1). In total, 519 patients completed 1 year of follow-up, among which 69 (13.3%) experienced MACE. The risk of MACE in CYP2C19 IM+PM patients was 2.664 times higher than that in CYP2C19 EM patients (OR = 2.664 (1.397–5.193), P = 0.004). The data suggest that CYP2C19*2 and *3 variants modulate the drug efficacy of clopidogrel in coronary heart patients undergoing PCI and further enhance the risk of MACE. Accordingly, CYP2C19 pharmacogenetic profiling may be beneficial for coronary heart patients undergoing PCI to predict the efficacy of treatment with clopidogrel. We propose that IM and PM patients should benefit from treatment with higher clopidogrel doses to improve efficacy and reduce the incidence of MACE. PMID:27932982

  2. Differences in the outcome of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions at teaching versus non-teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Amneet; Moscucci, Mauro; Dixon, Simon; Wohns, David H; Share, David; LaLonde, Thomas; Smith, Dean; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2013-09-01

    Teaching hospitals have superior outcomes for major medical conditions including cardiovascular disease compared to non-teaching hospitals. This may not be applicable to invasive cardiac procedures given a potential increase in complications due to trainee participation. We assessed the impact of hospital teaching status on the outcome of 89,048 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Teaching hospitals were defined as trainee involvement in greater than 50% of PCIs conducted at that hospital and corresponded to teaching status granted by national accreditation agencies. Unadjusted and risk adjusted analyses were used to determine differences in process of care, morbidity and mortality. Of 89,048 patients studied, 30,870 received their PCI at teaching hospitals and 58,178 at non-teaching hospitals. Risk-adjusted analysis showed no significant difference in death, in-hospital myocardial infarction, contrast induced nephropathy or gastrointestinal bleeding between teaching and non-teaching hospitals. PCI at teaching hospitals was associated with a lower rate of emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.49-0.83; P = .0009) and an increased rate of vascular complications (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.21-1.46; P < .0001). General outcomes of patients undergoing PCI are similar across hospital types. However, PCI at teaching hospitals is associated with increased risk of vascular complications and reduced risk of emergency coronary artery bypass grafting compared to non-teaching hospitals. © 2013.

  3. Use of prasugrel vs clopidogrel and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in contemporary clinical practice: Results from the PROMETHEUS study.

    PubMed

    Baber, Usman; Sartori, Samantha; Aquino, Melissa; Kini, Annapoorna; Kapadia, Samir; Weiss, Sandra; Strauss, Craig; Muhlestein, J Brent; Toma, Catalin; Rao, Sunil V; DeFranco, Anthony; Poddar, Kanhaiya L; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Weintraub, William; Henry, Timothy D; Bansilal, Sameer; Baker, Brian A; Marrett, Elizabeth; Keller, Stuart; Effron, Mark; Pocock, Stuart; Mehran, Roxana

    2017-06-01

    We sought to determine the frequency of use and association between prasugrel and outcomes in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in clinical practice. PROMETHEUS was a multicenter observational registry of acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing PCI from 8 centers in the United States that maintained a prospective PCI registry for patient outcomes. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular events at 90days, a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or unplanned revascularization. Major bleeding was defined as any bleeding requiring hospitalization or blood transfusion. Hazard ratios (HRs) were generated using multivariable Cox regression and stratified by the propensity to treat with prasugrel. Of 19,914 patients (mean age 64.4years, 32% female), 4,058 received prasugrel (20%) and 15,856 received clopidogrel (80%). Prasugrel-treated patients were younger with fewer comorbid risk factors compared with their counterparts receiving clopidogrel. At 90days, there was a significant association between prasugrel use and lower major adverse cardiovascular event (5.7% vs 9.6%, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.67, P<.0001) and bleeding (1.9% vs 2.9%, HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51-0.83, P<.001). After propensity stratification, associations were attenuated and no longer significant for either outcome. Results remained consistent using different approaches to adjusting for potential confounders. In contemporary clinical practice, patients receiving prasugrel tend to have a lower-risk profile compared with those receiving clopidogrel. The lower ischemic and bleeding events associated with prasugrel use were no longer evident after accounting for these baseline differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear DNA as Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Likhvantsev, Valery V; Landoni, Giovanni; Grebenchikov, Oleg A; Skripkin, Yuri V; Zabelina, Tatiana S; Zinovkina, Liudmila A; Prikhodko, Anastasia S; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Zinovkin, Roman A

    2017-05-01

    To measure the release of plasma nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to assess the relationship between nuclear DNA level and acute kidney injury occurrence in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Cardiovascular anesthesiology and intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care university hospital. Prospective observational study. Fifty adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Nuclear DNA concentration was measured in the plasma. The relationship between the level of nuclear DNA and the incidence of acute kidney injury after coronary artery bypass grafting was investigated. Cardiac surgery leads to significant increase in plasma nuclear DNA with peak levels 12 hours after surgery (median [interquartile range] 7.0 [9.6-22.5] µg/mL). No difference was observed between off-pump and on-pump surgical techniques. Nuclear DNA was the only predictor of acute kidney injury between baseline and early postoperative risk factors. The authors found an increase of nuclear DNA in the plasma of patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, with a peak after 12 hours and an association of nuclear DNA with postoperative acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perioperative management of oral antiplatelet therapy and clinical outcomes in coronary stent patients undergoing surgery. Results of a multicentre registry.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Capodanno, Davide; Lettieri, Corrado; Limbruno, Ugo; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Russo, Nicolina; Calabria, Paolo; Romano, Michele; Inashvili, Ana; Sirbu, Vasile; Guagliumi, Giulio; Valsecchi, Orazio; Senni, Michele; Gavazzi, Antonello; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the perioperative risk of ischaemic and bleeding events in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery and how these outcomes are affected by the perioperative use of oral antiplatelet therapy. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study conducted in patients with coronary stent(s) undergoing cardiac or non-cardiac surgery. The primary efficacy endpoint was the 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. The primary safety endpoint was the 30-day incidence of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) bleeding ≥ 2. A total of 666 patients were included. Of these, 371 (55.7 %) discontinued their antiplatelet medication(s) (all or partly) before undergoing surgery. At 30 days, patients with perioperative discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy experienced a significantly higher incidence of MACE (7.5 % vs 0.3 %, p< 0.001), cardiac death (2.7 % vs 0.3 %, p=0.027), and MI (4.0 % vs 0 %, p< 0.001). After adjustment, peri-operative antiplatelet discontinuation was the strongest independent predictor of 30-day MACE (odds ratio [OR]=25.8, confidence interval [CI]=3.37-198, p=0.002). Perioperative aspirin (adjusted OR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.11-0.71, p=0.008) was significantly associated with a lower risk of MACE. The overall incidence of BARC ≥ 2 bleeding events at 30-days was significantly higher in patients who discontinued oral antiplatelet therapy (25.6 % vs 13.9 %, p< 0.001). However, after adjustment, antiplatelet discontinuation was not independently associated with BARC ≥ 2 bleeding. In conclusion antiplatelet discontinuation increases the 30-day risk of MACE, in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, while not offering significant protection from BARC≥ 2 bleeding.

  6. Uric acid levels and the risk of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography or PCI.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, L; Verdoia, M; Schaffer, A; Cassetti, E; Marino, P; Suryapranata, H; De Luca, G

    2015-02-01

    Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication of procedures that require the use of contrast media, and seems to be mediated by oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species generation. Hyperuricemia is characterized by inhibited nitric oxide system and enhanced synthesis of reactive oxygen species. However, few studies have so far investigated the association between hyperuricemia and CIN that is therefore the aim of the current study among patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous intervention. We analyzed a total of 1950 patients with Creatinine clearance <90 ml/min) undergoing elective or urgent coronary angiography and/or angioplasty. Patients were divided according to tertiles of baseline uric acid (Group 1, ≤ 5.5 mg/dL n = 653; Group 2, 5.6-7.0 mg/dL, n = 654; Group 3, ≥ 7.0 mg/dL, n = 643). CIN was defined as an absolute ≥ 0.5 mg/dl or a relative ≥ 25% increase in the serum creatinine level at 24 or 48 h after the procedure. Patients with higher uric acid levels were older, previous smokers, with higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, but with lower family history of CAD. They had more often history of a previous CABG and baseline renal dysfunction. Patients of the third Tertile had also higher levels of white blood cells, higher triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol and higher percentage of dilated cardiomyopathy/valvular disease as indication for angiography and consequently a lower prevalence of PCI. Patients with higher SUA were more often on therapy with ACE inhibitors and diuretics, but less often with statins, nitrate, ASA and Clopidogrel at admission. The occurrence of CIN was observed in 251 patients (12.9%), and was significantly associated with uric acid levels (12.3% in Group 1, 10.4% in Group 2 and 16.0% in Group 3; p = 0.04). Similar results were observed when the analysis was performed according to each tertiles values in both male and female gender. The association between elevated uric acid (

  7. Symptoms and quality of life in patients with suspected angina undergoing CT coronary angiography: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Mangion, Kenneth; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin JR; Timmis, Adam D; Newby, David E

    2017-01-01

    Background In patients with suspected angina pectoris, CT coronary angiography (CTCA) clarifies the diagnosis, directs appropriate investigations and therapies, and reduces clinical events. The effect on patient symptoms is currently unknown. Methods In a prospective open-label parallel group multicentre randomised controlled trial, 4146 patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease were randomised 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus CTCA. Symptoms and quality of life were assessed over 6 months using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and Short Form 12. Results Baseline scores indicated mild physical limitation (74±0.4), moderate angina stability (44±0.4), modest angina frequency (68±0.4), excellent treatment satisfaction (92±0.2) and moderate impairment of quality of life (55±0.3). Compared with standard care alone, CTCA was associated with less marked improvements in physical limitation (difference −1.74 (95% CIs, −3.34 to −0.14), p=0.0329), angina frequency (difference −1.55 (−2.85 to −0.25), p=0.0198) and quality of life (difference −3.48 (−4.95 to −2.01), p<0.0001) at 6 months. For patients undergoing CTCA, improvements in symptoms were greatest in those diagnosed with normal coronary arteries or who had their preventative therapy discontinued, and least in those with moderate non-obstructive disease or had a new prescription of preventative therapy (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions While improving diagnosis, treatment and outcome, CTCA is associated with a small attenuation of the improvements in symptoms and quality of life due to the detection of moderate non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Trial registration number: NCT01149590. PMID:28246175

  8. Symptoms and quality of life in patients with suspected angina undergoing CT coronary angiography: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle C; Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Mangion, Kenneth; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin Jr; Timmis, Adam D; Newby, David E

    2017-07-01

    In patients with suspected angina pectoris, CT coronary angiography (CTCA) clarifies the diagnosis, directs appropriate investigations and therapies, and reduces clinical events. The effect on patient symptoms is currently unknown. In a prospective open-label parallel group multicentre randomised controlled trial, 4146 patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease were randomised 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus CTCA. Symptoms and quality of life were assessed over 6 months using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and Short Form 12. Baseline scores indicated mild physical limitation (74±0.4), moderate angina stability (44±0.4), modest angina frequency (68±0.4), excellent treatment satisfaction (92±0.2) and moderate impairment of quality of life (55±0.3). Compared with standard care alone, CTCA was associated with less marked improvements in physical limitation (difference -1.74 (95% CIs, -3.34 to -0.14), p=0.0329), angina frequency (difference -1.55 (-2.85 to -0.25), p=0.0198) and quality of life (difference -3.48 (-4.95 to -2.01), p<0.0001) at 6 months. For patients undergoing CTCA, improvements in symptoms were greatest in those diagnosed with normal coronary arteries or who had their preventative therapy discontinued, and least in those with moderate non-obstructive disease or had a new prescription of preventative therapy (p<0.001 for all). While improving diagnosis, treatment and outcome, CTCA is associated with a small attenuation of the improvements in symptoms and quality of life due to the detection of moderate non-obstructive coronary artery disease. NCT01149590. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Risk of Stroke in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Optimal Medical Therapy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Taglieri, Nevio; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Ghetti, Gabriele; Saia, Francesco; Dall’Ara, Gianni; Gallo, Pamela; Moretti, Carolina; Palmerini, Tullio; Marrozzini, Cinzia; Marzocchi, Antonio; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke is a rare but serious adverse event associated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relative risk of stroke between stable patients undergoing a direct PCI strategy and those undergoing an initial optimal medical therapy (OMT) strategy has not been established yet. This study sought to investigate if, in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), an initial strategy PCI is associated with a higher risk of stroke than a strategy based on OMT alone. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of 6 contemporary randomized control trials in which 5673 patients with SCAD were randomized to initial PCI or OMT. Only trials with stent utilization more than 50% were included. Study endpoint was the rate of stroke during follow up. Results Mean age of patients ranged from 60 to 65 years and stent utilization ranged from 72% to 100%. Rate of stroke was 2.0% at a weighted mean follow up of 55.3 months. On pooled analysis, the risk of stroke was similar between patients undergoing a PCI plus OMT and those receiving only OMT (2.2% vs. 1.8%, OR on fixed effect = 1.24 95%CI: 0.85–1.79). There was no heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.15). On sensitivity analysis after removing each individual study the pooled effect estimate remains unchanged. Conclusions In patients with SCAD an initial strategy based on a direct PCI is not associated with an increased risk of stroke during long-term follow up compared to an initial strategy based on OMT alone. PMID:27391212

  10. In-hospital management and outcome of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation: results of the multicenter, prospective WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry.

    PubMed

    Rubboli, Andrea; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Briguori, Carlo; Saia, Francesco; Palmieri, Cataldo; Moroni, Luigi Andrea; Calabrò, Paolo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Franco, Nicoletta; Valgimigli, Marco; Varani, Elisabetta; Santi, Michela; Pasqualini, Paola; Capecchi, Alessandro; Piccalò, Giacomo; Margheri, Massimo; di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Galvani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo; Gonzini, Lucio; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2013-04-01

    The in-hospital management of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation (PCI-S) is variable, and the in-hospital outcome incompletely defined. To determine the adherence to the current recommendations, and the incidence of adverse events, we carried out the prospective, multicenter, observational WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00722319). All consecutive patients on warfarin undergoing PCI-S at 37 Italian centers were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures were: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, need for urgent revascularization, stroke, and venous thromboembolism, and major and minor bleeding. In this paper, we report the in-hospital findings. Out of the 411 patients enrolled, 92% were at non-low (ie, moderate or high) thromboembolic risk. The radial approach and bare-metal stents were used in 61% and 60% of cases, respectively. Drug-eluting stents were essentially reserved to patients with diabetes, which in turn, significantly predicted the implantation of drug-eluting stents (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.17; P=.002). The in-hospital MACE and major bleeding rates were 2.7% and 2.1%, respectively. At discharge, triple therapy (TT) of warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel was prescribed to 76% of patients. Prescription of TT was significantly more frequent in the non-low thromboembolic risk group. Non-low thromboembolic risk, in turn, was a significant predictor of TT prescription (OR, 11.2; 95% CI, 4.83-26.3; P<.0001). In conclusion, real-world warfarin patients undergoing PCI-S are largely managed according to the current recommendations. As a consequence, the risk of in-hospital MACE and major bleedings appears limited and acceptable.

  11. Internal thoracic artery grafting in the elderly patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: room for process improvement?

    PubMed

    Ferguson, T Bruce; Coombs, Laura P; Peterson, Eric D

    2002-05-01

    The acute and long-term benefits of internal thoracic artery grafting are clear in younger patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The elderly, however, face higher surgical risks and have shorter life expectancy, and thus the use of internal thoracic artery grafting in this age group has been debated. This study examined the use, complication risks, and operative (30-day) mortality associated with internal thoracic artery grafting in patients 75 years of age and older. Between 1996 and 1999, 522,656 patients in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Database underwent primary, nonemergency-salvage coronary artery bypass grafting; of these, 99,942 were 75 years of age or older. The influence of internal thoracic artery use on operative mortality and 5 major complications in this elderly group was examined by means of (1) risk adjustment (adjusting for 28 baseline risk factors and site) and (2) a treatment propensity score analysis that compares patients with similar baseline likelihood for receiving an internal thoracic artery graft. In the National Cardiac Database 77.4% of patients aged 75 to 84 years received an internal thoracic artery graft compared with 93.5% for those aged 55 years or less. In this elderly group use of the internal thoracic artery was strongly associated with decreased operative mortality (unadjusted mortality, 6.20% vs. 4.05%; P <.0001) that persisted after controlling for baseline risk and provider effects (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence intervals, 0.79-0.91). This mortality benefit was seen among those with low-to-high baseline propensity for receiving an internal thoracic artery graft. Use of the internal thoracic artery in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting provides an acute survival benefit. This benefit is similar to that seen in younger patients and persists after adjusting for both patient and provider selection factors. The internal thoracic artery appears to be underused

  12. Effects of music on patients undergoing a C-clamp procedure after percutaneous coronary interventions: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of music on the physiologic and psychologic parameters in patients undergoing application of a C-clamp after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). A repeated-measures randomized controlled trial was used. The study took place in three intensive care units in Hong Kong. Sixty-six patients undergoing application of a C-clamp after PCI were recruited. Physiologic parameters were blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. Psychologic parameters were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles universal pain score. Patients were randomized to receive 45 minutes of music therapy or 45 minutes of an uninterrupted rest period. Three types of music were used, including Chinese classical music, religious music, and Western classical music that had slow beats and was relaxing. The data were collected from September 2004 to December 2005. In the experimental group there were statistically significant reductions in heart rate (P < .001), respiratory rate (P < .001), and oxygen saturation (P < .001), and a lower pain score (P < .001) than in the control group. Music is a simple, safe, and effective method of reducing potentially harmful physiologic and psychologic responses arising from pain in patients post-PCI undergoing a C-clamp procedure.

  13. Prognostic implications of bundle branch block in patients undergoing primary coronary angioplasty in the stent era.

    PubMed

    Vivas, David; Pérez-Vizcayno, María Jose; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Bañuelos, Camino; Escaned, Javier; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; De Agustín, Jose Alberto; Núñez-Gil, Ivan; González-Ferrer, Juan Jose; Macaya, Carlos; Alfonso, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The presence of bundle branch block (BBB) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction has been associated with a poor outcome. However, the implications of BBB in patients undergoing primary angioplasty in the stent era are poorly established. Furthermore, the prognostic implications of BBB type (right vs left and previous vs transient or persistent) remain unknown. We analyzed the data from 913 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty. All clinical, electrocardiographic, and angiographic data were prospectively collected. The median follow-up period was 19 months. The primary end point was the combined outcome of death and reinfarction. BBB was documented in 140 patients (15%). Right BBB (RBBB) was present in 119 patients (13%) and was previous in 27 (23%), persistent in 45 (38%), and transient in 47 (39%). Left BBB (LBBB) was present in 21 patients (2%) and was previous in 8 (38%), persistent in 9 (43%), and transient in 4 (19%). Patients with BBB were older, and more frequently had diabetes, anterior infarctions, a greater Killip class, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and greater mortality (all p <0.005) than patients without BBB. The short- and long-term primary outcome occurred more frequently in patients with persistent RBBB/LBBB than in those with previous or transient RBBB/LBBB. On multivariate analysis, persistent RBBB/LBBB emerged as an independent predictor of death and reinfarction. In conclusion, in patients undergoing primary angioplasty in the stent era, BBB is associated with poor short- and long-term prognosis. This risk appears to be particularly high among patients with persistent BBB. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcomes and predictors of prolonged ventilation in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Hesham Z.; Shaw, Matthew; Al-Rawi, Omar; Yates, Jonathan; Pullan, D. Mark; Chalmers, John A.C.; Fabri, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite the seriousness of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) as a postoperative complication, previously proposed risk prediction models were met with limited success. The purpose of this study was to identify perioperative variables associated with PMV in elective primary coronary bypass surgery. PMV was defined as the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation for >72 h, after completion of the operation. METHODS Between April 1997 and September 2010, 10 977 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. A series of two multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify preoperative predictors of prolonged ventilation and the impact of operative variables. RESULTS PMV occurred in 215 (1.96%) patients; 119 (55.3%) of these underwent tracheostomy. At multivariate analysis, predictors included NYHA higher than class II (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.34–2.34), renal dialysis (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.08–14.65), age at operation (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06), reduced FEV1 (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99), body mass index >35 kg/m2 (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14–2.63). On serial logistic regression analyses, operative variables added little to the discriminatory power of the model. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed reduced survival among PMV patients (P < 0.001) with an improved survival in the tracheostomy subgroup. CONCLUSIONS PMV after coronary bypass is associated with a reduction in early and mid-term survival. Risk modelling for PMV remains problematic even when examining a more homogenous lower risk group. PMID:22495507

  15. The effects of discharge training and counseling on post-discharge problems in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Masoumeh; Celik, Sevilay Senol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advances in coronary artery surgery have reduced morbidity, mortality, and rates of graft occlusion. Discharge programs are important services for the continuity of treatment and must encompass physical, psychological, and social aspects of individual patient care. This study aimed at investigating the effect of planned discharge training and counseling on the problems experienced by patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Materials and Methods: A semi-experimental study was performed on 100 patients undergoing CABG surgery in the surgery department. During a period of 9 months from January to September 2013, the patients in the intervention group were provided with adequate discharge training and counseling with a booklet before surgery and counseling until 6 weeks after discharge, while the control group patients received only routine clinical procedures, i.e. prescribing medicine, controlling vital signs, and wound dressing. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23. Frequency and distribution were used to describe the data, and paired sample t-test, variance analysis, Fisher's exact test, and Chi-squared tests were also used. Results: The reported problems for both groups had a descending pattern during the three follow-ups. However, this pattern had a greater slope in the intervention group compared to the control one. As a result of these education programs, problems were fewer in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Discharge training and counseling given to the intervention group had a positive impact on decreasing the problems that the patients had. Therefore, the institutions may be recommended to support multidisciplinary patient training and counseling activities using the methods described in this study. PMID:26257798

  16. Comparison of Conventional versus Steerable-Catheter Guided Coronary Sinus Lead Positioning in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Er, Fikret; Yüksel, Dilek; Hellmich, Martin; Gassanov, Natig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare conventional versus steerable catheter guided coronary sinus (CS) cannulation in patients with advanced heart failure undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Background Steerable catheter guided coronary sinus cannulation could reduce fluoroscopy time and contrast medium use during CRT implantation. Methods 176 consecutive patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure undergoing CRT implantation from January 2008 to December 2012 at the University Hospital of Cologne were identified. During the study period two concurrent CS cannulation techniques were used: standard CS cannulation technique (standard-group, n = 113) and CS cannulation using a steerable electrophysiology (EP) catheter (EPCath-group, n = 63). Propensity-score matched pairs of conventional and EP-catheter guided CS cannulation made up the study population (n = 59 pairs). Primary endpoints were total fluoroscopy time and contrast medium amount used during procedure. Results The total fluoroscopy time was 30.9 min (interquartile range (IQR), 19.9–44.0 min) in the standard-group and 23.4 min (IQR, 14.2-34-2 min) in the EPCath-group (p = 0.011). More contrast medium was used in the standard-group (60.0 ml, IQR, 30.0–100 ml) compared to 25.0 ml (IQR, 20.0–50.0 ml) in the EPCath-group (P<0.001). Conclusions Use of steerable EP catheter was associated with significant reduction of fluoroscopy time and contrast medium use in patients undergoing CRT implantation. PMID:26599637

  17. Does a "continuous care model" affect the quality of life of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Razmjoee, Nasrin; Ebadi, Abbas; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Hosseini, Marziyeh

    2017-03-01

    The physical and mental needs of patients with coronary heart disease are affected by both the disease and the heart surgery in different ways. Such diverse needs require different approaches. A continuous care model, which involves orientation, sensitization, control, and evaluation, may favorably influence patient outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We were interested to ascertain whether a continuous care model might lead to improved quality of life, compared with a routine care model, in patients undergoing CABG. A total of 66 patients scheduled for CABG were identified and randomized to receive either continuous care (based on the continuous care model) or routine postoperative management for 2 months. The subjects' quality of life and its physical and mental dimensions were measured by the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Each dimension was scored between 0 and 100, and higher scores indicated better quality of life. One and 2 months after the intervention, the scores of quality of life and its two dimensions were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P < .001). The application of the continuous care model can promote health-related quality of life in patients after CABG.

  18. Comparison of hydroxyl radical generation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Motoo; Aoyagi, Kazumasa; Hirakawa, Akiko; Nakajima, Motoo; Jikuya, Tomoaki; Shigeta, Osamu; Sakakibara, Yuzuru

    2006-02-01

    We measured the hydroxyl radical (.OH) generation in fourteen patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), of whom seven patients underwent on-pump CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and seven patients underwent off-pump CABG without CPB. To detect .OH generation, we measured the urinary excretion of .OH products of creatinine (Cr), creatol (CTL; 5-hydroxycreatinine) and methylguanidine (MG) with HPLC using the one point sampling and collected urine during and after the operation. The urinary CTL value corrected urinary Cr value of on-pump CABG significantly increased about 3-5 times from the beginning of CPB to 4 h after operation compared to the baseline value before CPB in both the collected urine and the one point sampling urine. The urinary MG/Cr value in both groups did not change significantly. Significantly increased .OH generation was found during and soon after on-pump CABG.

  19. Marked reduction of effective radiation dose in patients undergoing CT coronary angiography using prospective ECG gating.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Anthony; Learner, Ruth; Eggleton, Simon; Lambros, John; Friedman, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a rapidly evolving technology which can characterise and image sub clinical atherosclerotic plaque and visualise anatomy and quantitate stenosis. Concern about radiation exposure has limited the uptake of this technology. The aim of this study was to review the radiation dose data in 2298 consecutive patients referred to a single centre in an Australian outpatient setting over 27 months using all available radiation dose reduction strategies. Prospective ECG gating ("step and shoot") was used preferentially in 2025 patients with a mean effective dose of 3.39 ± 1.84 mSv (range 0.86-12.6 mSv). For clinical reasons only 273 patients required retrospective ECG gating, mean dose 19.21 ± 5.58 mSv (range 2.4-34.9 mSv) resulting in an 85.7% reduction in dose for the majority of patients with the low dose technique. In conclusion, most patients referred for routine CCTA can be studied with a radiation dose comparable to invasive X-ray angiography and less than radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging. Copyright © 2011 Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical evolution of mediastinitis in patients undergoing adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    do Egito, Julyana Galvão Tabosa; Abboud, Cely Saad; de Oliveira, Aline Pâmela Vieira; Máximo, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves; Montenegro, Carolina Moreira; Amato, Vivian Lerner; Bammann, Roberto; Farsky, Pedro Silvio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunctive treatment in mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study, performed between October 2010 and February 2012. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was indicated in difficult clinical management cases despite antibiotic therapy. Results: We identified 18 patients with mediastinitis during the study period. Thirty three microorganisms were isolated, and polymicrobial infection was present in 11 cases. Enterobacteriaceae were the most prevalent pathogens and six were multi-resistant agents. There was only 1 hospital death, 7 months after the oxygen therapy caused by sepsis, unrelated to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This treatment was well-tolerated. Conclusion: The initial data showed favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:24136762

  1. The Effect of Sex and Anthropometry on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Coronary Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yul; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of sex and anthropometry on clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and Methods From three randomized trials (REal Safety and Efficacy of 3-month dual antiplatelet Therapy following Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation, Impact of intraVascular UltraSound guidance on outcomes of Xience Prime stents in Long lesions, Chronic Total Occlusion InterVention with drUg-eluting Stents), we compared 333 pairs of men and women matched by propensity scores, all of whom underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI for complex lesions. Results For 12 months, the incidence of adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of cardiac death, target lesion–related myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization, was not different between women and men (2.4% vs. 2.4%, p=0.939). Using multivariable Cox's regression analysis, post-intervention minimum lumen area [MLA; hazard ratio (HR)=0.620, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.423–0.909, p=0.014] by IVUS was a predictor of adverse cardiac events. Height on anthropometry and lesions with chronic total occlusion were significantly related to post-intervention MLA. However, female sex was not independently associated with post-intervention MLA. In an age and sex-adjusted model, patients in the low tertile of height exhibited a greater risk for adverse cardiac events than those in the high tertile of height (HR=6.391, 95% CI=1.160–35.206, p=0.033). Conclusion Sex does not affect clinical outcomes after PCI for complex lesions. PCI outcomes, however, may be adversely affected by height. PMID:28120559

  2. The effect of TIcagrelor administered through a nasogastric tube to COMAtose patients undergoing acute percutaneous coronary intervention: the TICOMA study.

    PubMed

    Ratcovich, Hanna; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Andersson, Hedvig B; Frydland, Martin; Wiberg, Sebastian; Dridi, Nadia P; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Holmvang, Lene

    2017-02-20

    Patients in a coma after cardiac arrest may have adversely affected drug absorption and metabolism. This study, the first of its kind, aimed to investigate the early pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor administered through a nasogastric tube (NGT) to patients resuscitated after an out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at two, four, six, eight, 12, and 24 hours and then daily for up to five days after administration of a 180 mg ticagrelor loading dose (LD), followed by 90 mg twice daily in 44 patients. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of high platelet reactivity (HPR) 12 hours after the LD. Assessment by VerifyNow (VFN) showed 96 (15.25-140.5) platelet reactivity units (PRU), and five (12%) patients exhibited HPR. Multiplate analysis showed 19 (12-29) units (U) at twelve hours, and three patients (7%) had HPR. Ticagrelor and its main metabolite AR-C124910XX concentrations were 85.2 (37.2-178.5) and 18.3 (6.4-52.4) ng/mL. Median times to sufficient platelet inhibition below the HPR limit were 3 (2-6) hours (VFN) and 4 (2-8) hours (Multiplate). Ticagrelor, administered as crushed tablets through a nasogastric tube, leads to sufficient platelet inhibition after 12 hours, and in many cases earlier, in the vast majority of patients undergoing pPCI and subsequent intensive care management after an OHCA.

  3. Evaluation of antiplatelet effects of a modified protocol by platelet aggregation in patients undergoing "one-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peixian; Xiong, Hui; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Lihuan; Gao, Runlin; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2010-01-01

    "One-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization has emerged to be a reliable and attractive alternative for selected patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. However, the optimal antiplatelet regimen of the one-stop hybrid procedure still remains controversial. We modified the antiplatelet protocol in order to reduce the risk of perioperative bleeding and maximally inhibit platelet activity. This study sought to investigate whether the inhibition of platelet activity by this modified antiplatelet protocol is comparable with the conventional protocol widely used and recommended in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Twenty three patients undergoing one-stop hybrid procedure and 20 patients undergoing conventional PCI were enrolled in this prospective study. The modified antiplatelet protocol included perioperative use of aspirin; clopidogrel was administered immediately before PCI with a 300 mg loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose of 75 mg/day for 12 months. Blood samples were obtained before the operation and 2 hours, day 1 and day 3 after operation. Platelet aggregation was induced with: 1) arachidonic acid (AA) (final concentration 0.5 mmol/L) to assess the efficacy of aspirin; 2) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (final concentration 10 micromol/L) to assess the specific efficacy of clopidogrel. Platelet counts were statistically lower in the hybrid group than in the PCI control group (p = 0.0018) on day 1 after operation. AA-induced platelet aggregation increased significantly in comparison with the preoperative baseline values (p = 0.0079) and the PCI control group (p = 0.0023) on day 1 after operation. ADP-induced platelet aggregation gradually decreased in the hybrid group, and achieved similar platelet inhibition with the PCI group on 2 hours and day 1 after operation. No major adverse clinical events such as death, perioperative myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis or reoperation for bleeding occurred in both groups within 30 days after

  4. Predictors of Atrial Arrhythmias for Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    intraoperative factors have been studied as predictors of post- CABG atrial arrhythmias and include: aortic cross clamp time, number of grafts, perioperative...Shemin, R. J., Ryan, T. J., & Davidoff, R. (1995). Right coronary artery stenosis : An 60 independent predictor of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery

  5. Cytochrome c in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: A post hoc analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars W; Liu, Xiaowen; Montissol, Sophia; Holmberg, Mathias J; Fabian-Jessing, Bjørn K; Donnino, Michael W

    2017-08-04

    To establish whether plasma cytochrome c is detectable in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, whether cytochrome c levels are associated with lactate/inflammatory markers/cellular oxygen consumption, and whether cytochrome c levels are associated with clinical outcomes. This was an observational sub-study of a randomized trial comparing thiamine to placebo in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Patients had blood drawn before, after, and again 6h after surgery. Cytochrome c, inflammatory markers, and cellular oxygen consumption were measured. 64 patients were included. Cytochrome c was detectable in 63 (98%) patients at baseline with a median cytochrome c level of 0.18ng/mL (quartiles: 0.13, 0.55). There was no difference from baseline level to post-surgical level (0.19ng/mL [0.09, 0.51], p=0.36) or between post-surgical level and 6-hour post-surgical level (0.17ng/mL [0.10, 0.57], p=0.61). There was no difference between the thiamine and placebo groups' change in cytochrome c levels from baseline to after surgery (p=0.22). Cytochrome c levels were not associated with lactate, inflammatory markers, cellular oxygen consumption, or clinical outcomes. Cytochrome c levels did not increase after cardiac surgery and was not associated with the degree of inflammation or clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Heart-Rate Reduction With Adjusted-Dose Ivabradine in Patients Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Kacijan, Blaž; Novak, Zala; Jug, Borut; Dolenc Novak, Maja; Vrtovec, Matjaž; Gužič Salobir, Barbara

    Our prospective, randomized, open-label study assessed the efficacy of a heart rate-lowering, adjusted-dose protocol with ivabradine prior to coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). Patients undergoing CCTA were randomized to 7 days of adjusted-dose ivabradine or standard care (ie, no additional medication). Heart rate and β-blocker and antianxiety medication use on the day of the CCTA were recorded. One hundred one patients were randomized (mean age, 60 [SD, 13] years; 66% women). Significantly more patients on ivabradine had heart rates of 60 beats per minute or less at the time of the CCTA scan (48% vs 8%, P < 0.01); accordingly, fewer patients on ivabradine needed additional heart rate lowering with β-blockers (40% vs 86%, P < 0.01), as well as antianxiety medication (18% vs 39%, P < 0.05), and also required lower doses of intravenous β-blockers (4 [SD, 2] vs 7 [SD, 5] mg, P < 0.05). A 7-day premedication protocol with ivabradine effectively lowers heart rate in patients undergoing CCTA.

  7. Efficacy of Danlou Tablet in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from a Multicentre, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xujie; Mao, Shuai; Guo, Liheng; Du, Tinghai; Yang, Haiyu; Zhao, Fuhai; Wu, Keng; Cong, Hongliang; Wu, Yang; Chen, Keji

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate potential cardioprotection of Danlou Tablets in patients undergoing PCI with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). 219 patients with NSTE-ACS were randomised to Danlou Tablet pretreatment (n = 109) or placebo (n = 110). No patients received statins prior to PCI and all patients were given atorvastatin (10 mg/day) after procedure. The main endpoint was the composite incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) within 30 days after PCI. The proportion of patients with elevated levels of cTn I>5 × 99% of upper reference limit was significantly lower in the Danlou Tablet group at 8 h (22.0% versus 34.5%, p = 0.04) and 24 h (23.9% versus 38.2%, p = 0.02) after PCI. The 30-day MACEs occurred in 22.0% of the Danlou Tablet group and 33.6% in the placebo group (p = 0.06). The incidence of MACE at 90-day follow-up was significantly decreased in the Danlou Tablet group compared to the placebo group (23.9% versus 37.3%, p = 0.03). The difference between the groups at 90 days was the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (22% versus 34.5%, p = 0.04). These findings might support that treatment with Danlou Tablet could reduce the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients with ACS undergoing PCI. PMID:27895696

  8. Pharmacokinetics of enoxaparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with and without glycoprotein IIb/IIIa therapy.

    PubMed

    Argenti, Domenick; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Heald, Donald; Jensen, Brad; Fareed, Jaweed

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of enoxaparin was established in a substudy involving 1054 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients enrolled in the National Investigators Collaborating on Enoxaparin 1 (NICE-1) trial received enoxaparin as a 1.0-mg/kg intravenous bolus. Patients enrolled in the NICE-4 trial received enoxaparin as a 0.75-mg/kg intravenous bolus followed by abciximab as a 0.25-mg/kg bolus and a 0.125-mcg/kg/min 12-hour infusion. Blood samples were collected at six time points over 12 hours and analyzed for plasma anti-Xa, anti-IIa, and Heptest (Haemachem Inc., St. Louis, MO) activity using specific and sensitive assay methods. Data were similar in both trials. Plasma anti-Xa, anti-IIa, and Heptest activity peaked shortly after the enoxaparin bolus and declined in parallel over the ensuing 12 hours. Area under the curve and peak activity were greatest for Heptest activity and least for anti-IIa activity. Values for clearance, volume of distribution, volume of distribution at steady state, and elimination rate constant were on the order of 10 mL/h/kg, 48 mL/kg, 45 mL/kg, and 0.22/h, respectively. These measures suggest that the use of abciximab in combination with enoxaparin during percutaneous coronary intervention is unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of enoxaparin.

  9. A Comparison of Third-Generation Semi-Invasive Arterial Waveform Analysis with Thermodilution in Patients Undergoing Coronary Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Broch, Ole; Renner, Jochen; Gruenewald, Matthias; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Steinfath, Markus; Malbrain, Manu; Bein, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Uncalibrated semi-invasive continous monitoring of cardiac index (CI) has recently gained increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of CI determination based on arterial waveform analysis with transpulmonary thermodilution. Fifty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia and before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), respectively. Each patient was monitored with a central venous line, the PiCCO system, and the FloTrac/Vigileo-system. Measurements included CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution and uncalibrated semi-invasive pulse contour analysis. Percentage changes of CI were calculated. There was a moderate, but significant correlation between pulse contour CI and thermodilution CI both before (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and after (r2 = 0.62, P < 0.0001) CPB, with a percentage error of 31% and 25%, respectively. Changes in pulse contour CI showed a significant correlation with changes in thermodilution CI both before (r2 = 0.52, P < 0.0001) and after (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001) CPB. Our findings demonstrated that uncalibrated semi-invasive monitoring system was able to reliably measure CI compared with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery. Furthermore, the semi-invasive monitoring device was able to track haemodynamic changes and trends. PMID:22919321

  10. A comparison of third-generation semi-invasive arterial waveform analysis with thermodilution in patients undergoing coronary surgery.

    PubMed

    Broch, Ole; Renner, Jochen; Gruenewald, Matthias; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Steinfath, Markus; Malbrain, Manu; Bein, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    Uncalibrated semi-invasive continous monitoring of cardiac index (CI) has recently gained increasing interest. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of CI determination based on arterial waveform analysis with transpulmonary thermodilution. Fifty patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia and before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), respectively. Each patient was monitored with a central venous line, the PiCCO system, and the FloTrac/Vigileo-system. Measurements included CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution and uncalibrated semi-invasive pulse contour analysis. Percentage changes of CI were calculated. There was a moderate, but significant correlation between pulse contour CI and thermodilution CI both before (r(2) = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and after (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.0001) CPB, with a percentage error of 31% and 25%, respectively. Changes in pulse contour CI showed a significant correlation with changes in thermodilution CI both before (r(2) = 0.52, P < 0.0001) and after (r(2) = 0.67, P < 0.0001) CPB. Our findings demonstrated that uncalibrated semi-invasive monitoring system was able to reliably measure CI compared with transpulmonary thermodilution in patients undergoing elective coronary surgery. Furthermore, the semi-invasive monitoring device was able to track haemodynamic changes and trends.

  11. Clinical and economic effectiveness of percutaneous ventricular assist devices for high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Atman P; Retzer, Elizabeth M; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D; Friant, Janet; Dill, Karin E; Thomas, Joseph L

    2015-03-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is taking a more prominent role in formalizing hospital treatment protocols and health-care coverage policies by having health-care providers consider the impact of new devices on costs and outcomes. CER balances the need for innovation with fiscal responsibility and evidence-based care. This study compared the clinical and economic impact of percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVAD) with intraaortic balloon pumps for high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study conducted a review of all comparative randomized control trials of the pVADS (Impella and TandemHeart) vs IABP for patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A retrospective analysis of the 2010 and 2011 Medicare MEDPAR data files was also performed to compare procedural costs and hospital length of stay (LOS). Readmission rates between the devices were also studied. Based on available trials, there is no significant clinical benefit with pVAD compared to IABP. Use of pVADs is associated with increased length of Intensive Care Unit stay and a total longer LOS. The incremental budget impact for pVADs was $33,957,839 for the United States hospital system (2010-2011). pVADs are not associated with improved clinical outcomes, reduced hospital length of stay, or reduced readmission rates. Management of high-risk PCI and cardiogenic shock patients with IABP is more cost effective than a routine use of pVADS. Use of IABP as initial therapy in high-risk PCI and cardiogenic shock patients may result in savings of up to $2.5 billion annually of incremental costs to the hospital system.

  12. Ability of B-type natriuretic peptide in predicting postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Ata, Yusuf; Turk, Tamer; Ay, Derih; Eris, Cuneyt; Demir, Mihriban; Ari, Hasan; Ata, Filiz; Yavuz, Senol; Ozyazicioglu, Ahmet

    2009-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is still the most frequent rhythm disturbance after coronary artery surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the predictive value of preoperative brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels for determining postoperative new-onset AF in patients undergoing isolated first-time coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We recruited 144 consecutive patients (51 women and 93 men) who underwent isolated CABG. Preoperative and postoperative data were collected. Preoperative BNP levels were measured the day before surgery. The median preoperative BNP level was 68 pg/mL. Postoperative AF occurred in 36 (25%) of the patients. Univariate analyses showed that both advanced age and median preoperative BNP levels were associated with postoperative AF (63.9 +/- 8 years versus 57.3 +/- 9.8 years, P < .001; 226 pg/mL versus 65.2 pg/mL, P <.001). Both variables remained independent predictors of postoperative AF after multivariate logistic regression analyses. For advanced age, the odds ratio was 1.074 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.019-1.131; P = .008); for preoperative BNP level, the odds ratio was 1.004 (95% CI, 1.001-1.006; P = .002). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that preoperative BNP level was a predictor of postoperative AF, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.750. A cutoff value of 135 pg/mL for AF demonstrated a 72.2% sensitivity, a 71.2% specificity, a 45.6% positive predictive value, a 88.5% negative predictive value, and a 71.5% accuracy for predicting postoperative AF. Elevated preoperative BNP levels and advanced age together are significant predictors for the development of postoperative AF in patients undergoing isolated CABG with CPB.

  13. Prasugrel compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutenaous coronary intervention: a Spanish model-based cost effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Sculpher, M; Barrett, A; Huete, T; Sacristán, J A; Dilla, T

    2013-01-01

    To assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of 12 months treatment of prasugrel compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Spanish health care system. A Markov state transition model was developed to estimate health outcomes, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), life years (LY), and costs over patients' lifetimes. Clinical inputs were based on an analysis of the TRITON-TIMI 38 clinical trial. Hospital readmissions captured during the trial in a sub-study of patients from eight countries (and subsequent re-hospitalisations modelled to accrue beyond the time horizon of the trial), were assigned to Spanish diagnosis-related group payment schedules to estimate hospitalisation costs. Mean total treatment costs were ?11,427 and ?10,910 for prasugrel and clopidogrel respectively. The mean cost of the study drug was ?538 higher for prasugrel vs. clopidogrel, but rehospitalisation costs at 12 months were ?79 lower for prasugrel due to reduced rates of revascularisation. Hospitalisation costs beyond 12 months were higher with prasugrel by ?55, due to longer life expectancy (+0.071 LY and +0.054 QALYs) associated with the decreased nonfatal myocardial infarction rate in the prasugrel group. The incremental cost per life year and QALY gained with prasugrel was ?7,198, and ?9,489, respectively. Considering a willingness-to-pay threshold of ?30,000/QALY gained in the Spanish setting, prasugrel represents a cost-effective option in comparison with clopidogrel among patients with ACS undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2013 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of short-term cordyceps sinensis for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Lin, Yu; Li, Yong-Jian; Gao, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the major causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The pathophysiological mechanism of CIN remains unknown. There has been little evidence regarding the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on CIN. Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used clinically for the prevention of the progression of renal failure. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of CS in the prevention of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The 150 ACS patients were randomly assigned to three groups, basic treatment group (n=51), standard CS therapy group (n=49, corbrin capsule 2 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography), and intensive CS therapy group (n=50, corbrin capsule 3 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography). Renal function was assessed at the time of hospital admission and on days 1, 2, and 3 after PCI. CIN occurred in 13 of 150 patients (8.67%). The incidence of CIN was lower in the CS treatment groups than in the basic treatment group (P<0.05), and a significant decrease in the incidence of CIN in the intensive CS therapy group was shown (P<0.01). In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with CS during the peri-procedural stage in ACS patients undergoing elective PCI has a preventive role against CIN, and intensive CS therapy could be more effective. PMID:25664103

  15. Predictive Value of Aortic Valve Calcification for Periprocedural Myocardial Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yohei; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Tatami, Yosuke; Harata, Shingo; Ota, Tomoyuki; Shimbo, Yusaku; Takayama, Yohei; Kunimura, Ayako; Hirayama, Kenshi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Osugi, Naohiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Previous studies have shown that aortic valve calcification (AVC) was associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. On the other hand, periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a well-known predictor of subsequent mortality and poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of the study was to assess the hypothesis that the presence of AVC could predict PMI in PCI. Methods: This study included 370 patients treated with PCI for stable angina pectoris. AVC was defined as bright echoes > 1 mm on one or more cusps of the aortic valve on ultrasound cardiography (UCG). PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T level of > 5 times the upper normal limit (> 0.070 ng/ml) at 24 hours after PCI. Results: AVC was detected in 45.9% of the patients (n = 170). The incidence of PMI was significantly higher in the patients with AVC than in those without AVC (43.5% vs 21.0%, p < 0.001). The presence of AVC independently predicted PMI after adjusting for other significant variables (odds ratio 2.26, 95% confidence interval 1.37–3.74, p = 0.002). Other predictors were male sex, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and total stent length. Furthermore to predict PMI, adding AVC to the established risk factors significantly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, from 0.68 to 0.72, of the PMI prediction model (p = 0.025). Conclusion: The presence of AVC detected in UCG could predict the incidence of PMI. PMID:27733732

  16. Predictive Value of Aortic Valve Calcification for Periprocedural Myocardial Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yohei; Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Susumu; Tanaka, Akihito; Tatami, Yosuke; Harata, Shingo; Ota, Tomoyuki; Shimbo, Yusaku; Takayama, Yohei; Kunimura, Ayako; Hirayama, Kenshi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Osugi, Naohiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that aortic valve calcification (AVC) was associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. On the other hand, periprocedural myocardial injury (PMI) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a well-known predictor of subsequent mortality and poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of the study was to assess the hypothesis that the presence of AVC could predict PMI in PCI. This study included 370 patients treated with PCI for stable angina pectoris. AVC was defined as bright echoes >1 mm on one or more cusps of the aortic valve on ultrasound cardiography (UCG). PMI was defined as an increase in high-sensitivity troponin T level of >5 times the upper normal limit (>0.070 ng/ml) at 24 hours after PCI. AVC was detected in 45.9% of the patients (n=170). The incidence of PMI was significantly higher in the patients with AVC than in those without AVC (43.5% vs 21.0%, p<0.001). The presence of AVC independently predicted PMI after adjusting for other significant variables (odds ratio 2.26, 95% confidence interval 1.37-3.74, p=0.002). Other predictors were male sex, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and total stent length. Furthermore to predict PMI, adding AVC to the established risk factors significantly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, from 0.68 to 0.72, of the PMI prediction model (p=0.025). The presence of AVC detected in UCG could predict the incidence of PMI.

  17. Triple anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention – real life assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kabłak-Ziembicka, Anna; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Wrotniak, Leszek; Ostrowska-Kaim, Elżbieta; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Przewłocki, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triple anticoagulation therapy (TT), comprising dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anticoagulation (OAC), is essential in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but it increases the bleeding risk. Aim To assess TT models, in- and out-hospital bleeding and thromboembolic complications, and TT alterations. Material and methods During 12 months, consecutive AF post-PCI patients were scheduled for TT. Alterations in TT and thromboembolic events (death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, in-stent thrombosis, peripheral embolization) were recorded. Major, non-major and minor bleeding episodes were assessed. Results One hundred and thirty-six out of 3171 patients, aged 73.0 ±8.4 years (90 male), were included. Intra-hospitally, thrombotic events occurred in 9 (6.6%), while bleeding events occurred in 71 (52.2%) patients. Access-site hematoma and blood transfusions during in-hospital stay predisposed physicians to heparin administration as part of TT on discharge (p = 0.018 and p = 0.033 respectively). Eventually, DAPT plus warfarin or plus novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) or plus low molecular weight heparin was prescribed in 72 (52.9%), 53 (39%), and 11 (8.1%) patients, respectively. HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were similar between subgroups (p = 0.63 and p = 0.64 respectively). During 10.2 ±4.2 months of follow-up, 11 (8.1%) deaths, and 9 (6.6%) non-fatal thromboembolic events occurred. Bleeding events occurred in 45 (34.6%) patients, including 14 (10.3%) major. TT was the only factor associated with increased risk of major bleeding (18.6% vs. 4.2%, p = 0.008). Early termination of any TT component, which concerned 59 (45.4%) patients, did not increase the risk of thromboembolic events (p = 0.89). Conclusions Our study indicates that TT is associated with high mortality and bleeding rates in a relatively short period of time. Discontinuation of any TT drug did not increase the thromboembolic event

  18. Prevalence and Prognosis of Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography or Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Jian; Zhang, Lin Lin; Elmariah, Sammy; Han, Hong Ya; Zhou, Yu Jie

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and risk of cardiac events in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from January 1, 1990, to November 31, 2015. Studies were included if they reported prevalence or prognosis of patients with nonobstructive CAD (≤50% stenosis) among patients with known or suspected CAD. Patients with nonobstructive CAD were further grouped as those with no angiographic CAD (0% or ≤20%) and those with mild CAD (>0% or >20% to ≤50%). Data were pooled using random effects modeling, and annualized event rates were assessed. Fifty-four studies with 1,395,190 participants were included. The prevalence of patients with nonobstructive CAD was 67% (95% CI, 63%-71%) among patients with stable angina and 13% (95% CI, 11%-16%) among patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The prevalence varied depending on sex, clinical setting, and risk profile of the population investigated. The risk of hard cardiac events (cardiac death or myocardial infarction) in patients with mild CAD was lower than that in patients with obstructive CAD (risk ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.20-0.38) but higher than that in those with no angiographic CAD (risk ratio, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.52-2.26). The annualized event rates of hard cardiac events in patients with no angiographic CAD, mild CAD, and obstructive CAD were 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1%-0.4%), 0.7% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.0%), and 2.7% (95% CI, 1.7%-3.7%), respectively, among patients with stable angina and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.02%-2.3%), 4.1% (95% CI, 3.3%-4.9%), and 17.0% (95% CI, 8.4%-25.7%) among patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The correlation between CAD severity and prognosis is consistent regardless of clinical presentation of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, total cardiovascular events, and revascularization. Nonobstructive CAD is associated with a favorable prognosis compared with obstructive

  19. Pulmonary function and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Heijmans, J H; Liem, K S A E; Damoiseaux, G M C; Maessen, J G; Roekaerts, P M H J

    2007-12-01

    Lung injury after cardiac surgery is believed to result from cardiopulmonary bypass and its pro-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we compared the oxygenation ratios, extravascular lung water indices and systemic and pulmonary tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-8 at predetermined intervals in coronary artery surgery patients with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. No differences in oxygenation ratios or extravascular lung water indices were found. Serum values of TNF-alpha and IL-8 increased in both groups but were higher in the cardiopulmonary bypass group (end of surgery: mean (SD) TNF-alpha 3.68 (2.5) vs 2.20 (1.2) pg.ml(-1) (p = 0.043 (CI 0.05-2.9)) and mean (SD) IL-8 19.45 (10.8) vs 6.31 (5.3) pg.ml(-1) (p = 0.001 (CI 6.9-19.3)). In broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, TNF-alpha and IL-8 increased in both groups with no differences between the groups.

  20. [Evolution of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Voces-Álvarez, Jael; Díaz-Grávalos, Gabriel J

    2015-01-01

    Controlling cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) is important for the outcome of interventional practices (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) in ischemic heart disease. The aim is to determine the evolution of the CVRF 6 months after the intervention and their relationship with new events. A descriptive study was conducted on a case series. The variables recorded were: age, sex and chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as total (TC) and HDL cholesterol, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), smoking habit, and body mass index (BMI), before PCI and after 6 months. The occurrence of death or new PCI during the follow-up was considered an independent variable in a logistic regression analysis. A P<.05 was assumed significant. A total of 222 cases (75.2% males) were included, with a mean age of 70.2 (SD 11.9) years, of whom 57.7% were hypertensive patients, 55.9% had hyperlipidemia, 50.4% were smokers or ex-smokers, and 28.2% were diabetics. After 6 months, 5% died, and 15.3% needed a new PCI, while 33% of the sample had all the CVRF considered. Decreases were observed in SBP (-3.3 mmHg), DBP (-2.6 mmHg), and TC (-35.2mg/dl). The emergence of new event was associated with age (OR: 1.06; P=.003) and CKD (OR: 3.7; P=.04). There is a high prevalence of CVRF. After 6 months, there was a decrease in blood pressure and TC, although incomplete control of CVRF was found. One fifth of the patients had an event in that period, showing association with age and CKD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Nasser; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Badalzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reperfusion injury is a well-known phenomenon following restoration of the coronary circulation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that impairs myocardial function. In order to control the severity of this injury, we aimed to investigate the effect of a new conditioning strategy namely ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) along with controlled aortic root reperfusion (CARR) on myocardial protection in CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: In a doubled blind clinical trial study, 51 patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were randomly divided in three groups: CARR, IPOC, and combination of IPOC and CARR. At the end of procedure and just before aortic cross-clamp removal, reperfusion was started as following: In CARR-receiving groups, the reperfusion was started with low perfusion pressures for 10 minutes, and in IPOC-receiving groups, three cycles of 1 minute episodes of ischemia separated by 1 minute episodes of reperfusion was applied as postconditioning protocol. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (by echocardiography), inotrope requirement index, and myocardial arrhythmias were measured up to 72 hours after operation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that the recovery of EF after operation in IPOC group was significantly higher than those of two other groups (P < 0.05). Inotropic support requirement was significantly lower in IPOC groups. In addition, the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after opening of aortic clamp and in intensive care unit (ICU) as well as recovery time of cardiac rhythm upon reperfusion were lowered by administration of IPOC, as compared with CARR group. Conclusion: The study suggests that IPOC may provide clinical benefits against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing CABG surgery and maintain the post ischemic left ventricular performance. PMID:27489599

  2. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Nasser; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Badalzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Reperfusion injury is a well-known phenomenon following restoration of the coronary circulation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that impairs myocardial function. In order to control the severity of this injury, we aimed to investigate the effect of a new conditioning strategy namely ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) along with controlled aortic root reperfusion (CARR) on myocardial protection in CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In a doubled blind clinical trial study, 51 patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were randomly divided in three groups: CARR, IPOC, and combination of IPOC and CARR. At the end of procedure and just before aortic cross-clamp removal, reperfusion was started as following: In CARR-receiving groups, the reperfusion was started with low perfusion pressures for 10 minutes, and in IPOC-receiving groups, three cycles of 1 minute episodes of ischemia separated by 1 minute episodes of reperfusion was applied as postconditioning protocol. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (by echocardiography), inotrope requirement index, and myocardial arrhythmias were measured up to 72 hours after operation. Echocardiography revealed that the recovery of EF after operation in IPOC group was significantly higher than those of two other groups (P < 0.05). Inotropic support requirement was significantly lower in IPOC groups. In addition, the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after opening of aortic clamp and in intensive care unit (ICU) as well as recovery time of cardiac rhythm upon reperfusion were lowered by administration of IPOC, as compared with CARR group. The study suggests that IPOC may provide clinical benefits against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing CABG surgery and maintain the post ischemic left ventricular performance.

  3. A Preoperative Assessment of Significant Coronary Stenosis Based on a Semiquantitative Analysis of Coronary Artery Calcification on Noncontrast Computed Tomography in Aortic Stenosis Patients Undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Won; Kim, Sung Mok; Park, Sung-Ji; Cho, Eun Jeong; Lee, Sans-Chol; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is the recommended assessment for coronary artery disease in patients undergoing elective aortic valve replacement (AVR). Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating lung lesions and calcifications at the cannulation site of the ascending aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of noncontrast CT in the visual assessment of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients undergoing AVR. We retrospectively identified patients with significant aortic stenosis (AS) who were referred for AVR between January 2006 and December 2013. Among these, we included 386 patients (53.6% males, 69.2 ± 8.4 years) who underwent both noncontrast CT and ICA. Significant coronary artery stenosis (CAS) in the ICA was defined as luminal stenosis ≥70%. The 4 main coronary arteries were visually assessed on noncontrast CT and were scored based on the Weston score as follows: 0, no visually detected calcium; 1, a single high-density pixel detected; 3, calcium was dense enough to create a blooming artifact; and 2, calcium in between 1 and 3. Four groups were reclassified by the sum of the Weston scores from each vessel, as follows: noncalcification (0); mild calcification (1–4); moderate calcification (5–8); and severe calcification (9–12). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was generated to identify the cutoff Weston score values for predicting significant CAS. Diagnostic estimates were calculated based on these cutoffs. In the ICA analysis, 62 of the 386 patients (16.1%) had significant CAS. All patients were divided into 4 groups. The noncalcification group had 97 subjects (Weston score 0), the mild degree group had 100 (2.6 ± 1.0), the moderate calcification group had 114 (6.6 ± 1.1), and the severe calcification group had 75 (10.7 ± 1.1). The prevalence of significant CAS in the noncalcification, mild, moderate, and severe groups was 1% (1/97), 5% (5/100), 24% (27

  4. Association of Variation in Contrast Volume With Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Bach, Richard G; Caruso, Mary L; Kennedy, Kevin F; Spertus, John A

    2017-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common, morbid, and costly; increases patients' mortality risk; and can be mitigated by limiting contrast use. To examine the national variation in AKI incidence and contrast use among US physicians and the variation's association with patients' risk of developing AKI after PCI. This cross-sectional study used the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI Registry to identify in-hospital care for PCI in the United States. Participants included 1 349 612 patients who underwent PCI performed by 5973 physicians in 1338 hospitals between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2014, to August 31, 2016. The primary outcome was AKI, defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria as an absolute increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more or a relative increase of 50% or more from preprocedural to peak creatinine. A secondary outcome was the mean contrast volume as reported in the NCDR CathPCI Registry. Physicians who performed more than 50 PCIs per year were the main exposure variable of interest. Hierarchical regression with adjustment for patients' AKI risk was used to identify the variation in AKI rates, the variation in contrast use, and the association of contrast volume with patients' predicted AKI risk. Of the 1 349 612 patients who underwent PCI, the mean (SD) age was 64.9 (12.2) years, 908 318 (67.3%) were men, and 441 294 (32.7%) were women. Acute kidney injury occurred in 94 584 patients (7%). A large variation in AKI rates was observed among individual physicians ranging from 0% to 30% (unadjusted), with a mean adjusted 43% excess likelihood of AKI (median odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.41-1.44) for statistically identical patients presenting to 2 random physicians. A large variation in physicians' mean contrast volume, ranging from 79 mL to 487 mL with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0

  5. Circulating microRNAs indicate cardioprotection by sevoflurane inhalation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Xiaopeng; Wang, Ruike; Luo, Hui; Qin, Gang; Wang, L U; Ye, Zhi; Guo, Qulian; Wang, E

    2016-06-01

    In patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB), it is important to attenuate myocardium injury during the surgery. The present study aimed to observe the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane induction and maintenance compared with propofol intravenous anesthesia, and to detect its potential protection against acute myocardial injury with sensitive biomarkers. In total, 36 patients undergoing OPCAB were randomly assigned into two groups, receiving sevoflurane (n=18) or propofol (n=18) as the induction and maintenance anesthetic agent. The depth of anesthesia in the two groups was kept at a bispectral index value of 40-50. Physiological and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the surgery. Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and two microRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b) were also measured during and subsequent to surgery. Nno statistically significant differences were observed in the physiological and hemodynamic parameters between the two groups prior to surgery. Following surgery, the cardiac output and stroke volume improved significantly in the sevoflurane group (P<0.05). In addition, patients in the sevoflurane group had lower miR-499 (P<0.05) and miR-208b (P<0.01) levels at 12 h after surgery when compared with the propofol group. However, no significant differences in cTnI, CK-MB and LDH levels were observed following surgery between the two groups. In conclusion, volatile induction and maintenance with sevoflurane resulted in some extent of cardiac function improvement in patients undergoing OPCAB. Cardioprotection by sevoflurane is suggested by reduced cardiac injury compared with propofol, and indicated by the sensitive biomarkers, circulating miR-499 and miR-208b.

  6. Circulating microRNAs indicate cardioprotection by sevoflurane inhalation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAO; LIU, XIAOPENG; WANG, RUIKE; LUO, HUI; QIN, GANG; WANG, LU; YE, ZHI; GUO, QULIAN; WANG, E

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB), it is important to attenuate myocardium injury during the surgery. The present study aimed to observe the cardioprotection induced by sevoflurane induction and maintenance compared with propofol intravenous anesthesia, and to detect its potential protection against acute myocardial injury with sensitive biomarkers. In total, 36 patients undergoing OPCAB were randomly assigned into two groups, receiving sevoflurane (n=18) or propofol (n=18) as the induction and maintenance anesthetic agent. The depth of anesthesia in the two groups was kept at a bispectral index value of 40–50. Physiological and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the surgery. Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and two microRNAs (miR-499 and miR-208b) were also measured during and subsequent to surgery. Nno statistically significant differences were observed in the physiological and hemodynamic parameters between the two groups prior to surgery. Following surgery, the cardiac output and stroke volume improved significantly in the sevoflurane group (P<0.05). In addition, patients in the sevoflurane group had lower miR-499 (P<0.05) and miR-208b (P<0.01) levels at 12 h after surgery when compared with the propofol group. However, no significant differences in cTnI, CK-MB and LDH levels were observed following surgery between the two groups. In conclusion, volatile induction and maintenance with sevoflurane resulted in some extent of cardiac function improvement in patients undergoing OPCAB. Cardioprotection by sevoflurane is suggested by reduced cardiac injury compared with propofol, and indicated by the sensitive biomarkers, circulating miR-499 and miR-208b. PMID:27284310

  7. Thyromental height test for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nilesh; Das, Sucharita; Kanchi, Muralidhar

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures have higher incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation than general surgery population. Accurate prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in CABG patients is desirable to reduce the hemodynamic response and myocardial oxygen requirements. Recently, thyromental height test (TMHT) has been proposed as one of the highly sensitive and specific bedside tests to predict difficult airway. We, in our prospective observational study, evaluated the accuracy of the TMHT in predicting difficult laryngoscopy. A total of 345 patients undergoing CABG of either sex, in the age group of 35-80 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists 111, undergoing CABG, were studied. Airway assessment was performed with modified Mallampati test with the addition of thyromental distance, sternomental distance, and TMHT. Intraoperatively, direct laryngoscopy was done in accordance with Cormack and Lehane grade of laryngoscopy. The preoperative data and laryngoscopic findings were used together to evaluate the accuracy of TMHT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of other three tests were calculated according to standard formula. A total of 345 patients were in the group with mean age of study population at 56.7 (standard deviation 9.1) years (35-80 years). This study showed that almost all tests had good specificity, but sensitivity was poor. However, sensitivity of TMHT was 75% with accuracy of 95%. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of TMHT-derived cutoff was 52.17 which increased sensitivity to 81.25% and specificity to 92.3%. TMHT had a higher sensitivity compared to other tests along with good positive and negative predictive value and a very high specificity.

  8. Thyromental Height Test for Prediction of Difficult Laryngoscopy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgical Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nilesh; Das, Sucharita; Kanchi, Muralidhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures have higher incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation than general surgery population. Accurate prediction of difficult laryngoscopy in CABG patients is desirable to reduce the hemodynamic response and myocardial oxygen requirements. Recently, thyromental height test (TMHT) has been proposed as one of the highly sensitive and specific bedside tests to predict difficult airway. We, in our prospective observational study, evaluated the accuracy of the TMHT in predicting difficult laryngoscopy. Methodology: A total of 345 patients undergoing CABG of either sex, in the age group of 35–80 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists 111, undergoing CABG, were studied. Airway assessment was performed with modified Mallampati test with the addition of thyromental distance, sternomental distance, and TMHT. Intraoperatively, direct laryngoscopy was done in accordance with Cormack and Lehane grade of laryngoscopy. The preoperative data and laryngoscopic findings were used together to evaluate the accuracy of TMHT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of other three tests were calculated according to standard formula. Results: A total of 345 patients were in the group with mean age of study population at 56.7 (standard deviation 9.1) years (35–80 years). This study showed that almost all tests had good specificity, but sensitivity was poor. However, sensitivity of TMHT was 75% with accuracy of 95%. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of TMHT-derived cutoff was 52.17 which increased sensitivity to 81.25% and specificity to 92.3%. Conclusion: TMHT had a higher sensitivity compared to other tests along with good positive and negative predictive value and a very high specificity. PMID:28393782

  9. Goal-directed Therapy Improves the Outcome of High-risk Cardiac Patients Undergoing Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder Singh; Mehta, Yatin; Taneja, Sameer; Ravi, R; Hote, Milind P

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Material and Method: Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2), global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW), using FloTrac™, PreSep™, and EV-1000® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Result: Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. Conclusion: The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H) (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001) and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0.73 vs. 2.89

  10. Goal-directed therapy improves the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder Singh; Mehta, Yatin; Taneja, Sameer; Ravi, R; Hote, Milind P

    2017-01-01

    There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO 2 ), global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW), using FloTrac™ , PreSep™ , and EV-1000 ® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H) (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001) and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0.73 vs. 2.89 ± 0.68 h, P = 0.005) was also significantly lower

  11. No association between donor age and recipient outcomes: transfusion of plasma in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    PubMed

    Guinn, Nicole R; Waldron, Nathan H; Cooter, Mary L; Goldberg, Corinne L; Kertai, Miklos D; Raghunathan, Karthik; Bandarenko, Nicholas; Hoffman, Maureane; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott

    2016-07-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that transfusion of plasma from young donors reverses age-related neurologic and cardiac changes in older recipients. Associations between age of blood product donors and corresponding outcomes in recipients have not been studied in humans. Therefore, our primary objective was to examine this relationship between donor age and recipient outcomes among patients that received plasma during and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. This retrospective cohort included patients undergoing CABG surgery who received plasma during or after surgery. All plasma units transfused were evenly divided into tertiles based on the plasma donor age (17-37, 38-50, and 51-86 years), and CABG patients receiving all perioperative plasma within a single donor tertile were studied. Patient demographics and outcomes including mortality, length of stay (LOS), and acute kidney injury (AKI) were measured. Overall, 1306 patients (24% of 5339) received American Red Cross plasma perioperatively, with a median dose of 2 units. In a multivariate model of 1-year mortality, transfusion of a greater number of plasma units (p = 0.0007) and EuroSCORE (p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with patient mortality while donor age was not. There was no difference in mortality between patients receiving plasma from donors in the youngest, middle, or oldest age tertile (10.2 and 8.1% vs. 7.8%, respectively, p = 0.76). Other outcomes, including rates of AKI or LOS, were also independent of plasma donor age. We did not observe an association between donor age and recipient outcomes among patients who received plasma perioperatively while undergoing CABG surgery. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Impact of cangrelor overdosing on bleeding complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the CHAMPION trials.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Stone, Gregg W; White, Harvey D; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Prats, Jayne; Liu, Tiepu; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Harrington, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Overdosing of parenteral antithrombotic therapies can increase the risk of bleeding. Cangrelor is a potent intravenous platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist with rapid onset and offset of action. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), compared with control, cangrelor (30 µg/kg bolus, followed immediately by a 4 µg/kg per minute infusion for 2-4 h or until the conclusion of the index PCI, whichever was longer) reduces periprocedural thrombotic complications without an increase in major bleeding complications, although minor bleeding is increased. The impact of cangrelor overdosing on bleeding is unknown and represented the aim of this analysis. Patients with cangrelor overdosing were identified among safety population patients enrolled in the CHAMPION program (n = 25,107). Overdose was defined as administration of an excess >20 % of the bolus dose (30 μg/kg) and/or infusion rate (4 μg/kg per min). Bleeding complications were assessed. Among the safety analysis population in the CHAMPION program, 12,565 patients received cangrelor. A total of 36 overdosed cangrelor patients (0.29 %) were identified in this pooled analysis (20 with both bolus and infusion, 5 with bolus only, and 11 with infusion only). In the majority of patients, the dose did not exceed 2.5 times the recommended dose. Bleeding events were balanced between treatment arms and were consistent with those in the overall CHAMPION program. Only one overdosed patient experienced a serious bleed. There was no correlation between bleeding and magnitude of cangrelor overdose. In a large clinical trial program of patients undergoing PCI, cangrelor overdosing was rare and not associated with an increase in bleeding complications, an observation that may be attributed to its very short-half life and rapid offset of action.

  13. L-Carnitine Supplementation Reduces Short-Term Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Mustafa; Pektaş, Mehmet Bilgehan; Parlar, Ali İhsan; Akcı, Önder; Emren, Sadık Volkan; Tecer, Evren; Adalı, Fahri; Yüksel, Şeref; Darçın, Osman Tansel

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate whether preoperative L-carnitine supplementation affects the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an inflammatory marker that has proven usefulness for predicting postoperative complications in coronary artery bypass surgery. A lot of studies concerning the role of L-carnitine in the immune system have been performed, contradictory results have been reported on its effects on absolute numbers of WBC subtypes. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted among patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery between June 2012 and December 2013 in our cardiovascular surgery clinic. A total of 60 consecutive patients were randomized and divided into 2 groups. The first group received 2 g of L-carnitine in 1000 mL of 0.9% saline solution infused over 24 hours for each of the 3 preoperative days (L-carnitine group, n = 30), or only 1000 mL of 0.9% saline solution for the same time period (placebo group, n = 30). The basal values of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were similar in the 2 groups. After L-carnitine supplementation (just before surgery), leukocyte and neutrophil counts of the L-carnitine group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (7.7 ± 1.5 versus 9.7 ± 2.6, P < 0.001 and 4.6 ± 1.3 versus 6.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). On postoperative day 1, lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the L-carnitine group (1.1 ± 0.6 versus 0.8 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Moreover, the increase in NLR was significantly lower in the L-carnitine group at postoperative day 1 (20.7 ± 13.8 versus 10.8 ± 4.1, P < 0.001). Preoperative L-carnitine supplementation may reduce neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio during the early postoperative period of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  14. A new protocol using sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Motohiro, Masayuki; Kamihata, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Seno, Takeshi; Manabe, Kenichi; Isono, Tsuyoshi; Sutani, Yasuo; Yuasa, Fumio; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2011-06-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Although a previous study reported that pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding. We performed a prospective randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided using sodium bicarbonate. In total 155 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) who were undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled. We assigned patients to sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate group, n = 78) or sodium chloride alone (chloride group, n = 77). Infusion of sodium bicarbonate at 1 ml/kg/hour continued from 3 hours before to 6 hours after coronary angiography. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline value or an absolute increase of ≥0.5 mg/dl, which appeared within 2 days of contrast. Baseline GFR was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Patients in the bicarbonate group had a higher GFR than those in the chloride group on day 2 (45.8 ± 13.4 vs 40.9 ± 14.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.031) and at 1 month (49.5 ± 14.7 vs 43.7 ± 15.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.019). CIN occurred in 10 patients (13%) in the chloride group but in only 2 patients (2.6%) in the bicarbonate group (p = 0.012). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can lead to retention of better long-term renal function.

  15. Association between CK-MB Area Under the Curve and Tranexamic Acid Utilization in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Sean; Merrill, Peter D; Carrier, Michel; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Podgoreanu, Mihai; Alexander, John H; Lopes, Renato D

    2017-05-01

    Myonecrosis after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is associated with excess mortality. Tranexamic acid (TA), an anti-fibrinolytic agent, has been shown to reduce peri-operative blood loss without increasing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, no large study has examined the association between TA treatment and post-CABG myonecrosis. In the MC-1 to Eliminate Necrosis and Damage in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery II trial, inverse probability weighting of the propensity to receive TA was used to test for differences among the 656 patients receiving and 770 patients not receiving TA. The primary outcome was creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) area under the curve (AUC) through 24 h. The secondary outcome was 30-day cardiovascular death or MI. Patients who received TA were more frequently female, had a previous MI, heart failure, low molecular weight heparin therapy, on-pump CABG, valvular surgery, and saphenous vein or radial grafts. The median 24-h CK-MB AUC was higher in TA-treated patients [301.9 (IQR 196.7-495.6) vs 253.5 (153.4-432.5) ng h/mL, p < 0.001]. No differences in the 30-day incidence of cardiovascular death or MI were observed (8.7 vs 8.3%, adjusted OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.67-1.45, p = 0.948). In patients undergoing CABG, TA use was associated with a higher risk of myonecrosis; however, no differences were observed in death or MI. Future larger studies should be directed at examining the pathophysiology of TA myonecrosis, and its association with subsequent clinical outcomes.

  16. Temporal Trends in and Factors Associated With Bleeding Complications Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Subherwal, Sumeet; Peterson, Eric D.; Dai, David; Thomas, Laine; Messenger, John C.; Xian, Ying; Brindis, Ralph G.; Feldman, Dmitriy N.; Senter, Shaun; Klein, Lloyd W.; Marso, Steven P.; Roe, Matthew T.; Rao, Sunil V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine temporal trends in post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) bleeding among patients with elective PCI, unstable angina (UA)/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Background The impact of bleeding avoidance strategies on post-PCI bleeding rates over time is unknown. Methods Using the CathPCI Registry, we examined temporal trends in post-PCI bleeding from 2005 to 2009 among patients with elective PCI (n = 599,524), UA/NSTEMI (n = 836,103), and STEMI (n = 267,632). We quantified the linear time trend in bleeding using 3 sequential logistic regression models: 1) clinical factors; 2) clinical + vascular access strategies (femoral vs. radial, use of closure devices); and 3) clinical, vascular strategies + antithrombotic treatments (anticoagulant ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor [GPI]). Changes in the odds ratio for time trend in bleeding were compared using bootstrapping and converted to risk ratio. Results An approximate 20% reduction in post-PCI bleeding was seen (elective PCI: 1.4% to 1.1%; UA/NSTEMI: 2.3% to 1.8; STEMI: 4.9% to 4.5%). Radial approach remained low (<3%), and closure device use increased marginally from 44% to 49%. Bivalirudin use increased (17% to 30%), whereas any heparin + GPI decreased (41% to 28%). There was a significant 6% to 8% per year reduction in annual bleeding risk in UA/NSTEMI and elective PCI, but not in STEMI. Antithrombotic strategies were associated with roughly half of the reduction in annual bleeding risk: change in risk ratio from 7.5% to 4% for elective PCI, and 5.7% to 2.8% for UA/NSTEMI (both p <0.001). Conclusions The nearly 20% reduction in post-PCI bleeding over time was largely due to temporal changes in antithrombotic strategies. Further reductions in bleeding complications may be possible as bleeding avoidance strategies evolve, especially in STEMI. PMID:22595404

  17. Levosimendan facilitates weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with impaired left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Heidi I; Jalonen, Jouko R; Heikkinen, Leo O; Kivikko, Matti; Laine, Mika; Leino, Kari A; Kuitunen, Anne H; Kuttila, Kari T; Peräkylä, Tarja K; Sarapohja, Toni; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili T; Valtonen, Mika; Salmenperä, Markku T

    2009-02-01

    Levosimendan is a compound with vasodilatory and inotropic properties. Experimental data suggest effective reversal of stunning and cardioprotective properties. This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study included 60 patients with 3-vessel coronary disease and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 0.50. Levosimendan administration (12 microg/kg bolus, followed by an infusion of 0.2 microg/kg/min) was started immediately after induction anesthesia. Predefined strict hemodynamic criteria were used to assess the success of weaning. If weaning was not successful, CPB was reinstituted and an epinephrine infusion was started. If the second weaning attempt failed, intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was instituted. The groups had comparable demographics. The mean (standard deviation) preoperative LVEF was 0.36 (0.8) in both groups. The baseline cardiac index was 1.8 (0.3) L/min/m(2) in the levosimendan group and 1.9 (0.4) L/min/m(2) in the placebo group. The mean duration of CPB to primary weaning attempt was 104 (25) minutes in the levosimendan and 109 (22) minutes in the placebo group. Primary weaning was successful in 22 patients (73%) in the levosimendan group and in 10 (33%) in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The odds ratio for failure in primary weaning was 0.182 (95% confidence interval, 0.060 to 0.552). Four patients in the placebo group failed the second weaning and underwent IABP compared with none in the levosimendan group (p = 0.112). Levosimendan significantly enhanced primary weaning from CPB compared with placebo in patients undergoing 3-vessel on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. The need for additional inotropic or mechanical therapy was decreased.

  18. Relationship between site of myocardial infarction, left ventricular function and cytokine levels in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Ilker; Kapan, Sahin; Narin, Cuneyt; Ozaydın, Mehmet; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Sutcu, Recep; Okutan, Huseyin

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between left ventricular (LV) function, cytokine levels and site of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Sixty patients undergoing CABG were divided into three groups (n = 20) according to their history of site of myocardial infarction (MI): no previous MI, anterior MI and posterior/inferior MI. In the pre-operative period, detailed analysis of LV function was done by transthoracic echocardiography. The levels of adrenomedullin, interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and angiotensin-II in both peripheral blood samples and pericardial fluid were also measured. Echocardiographic analyses showed that the anterior MI group had significantly worse LV function than both the group with no previous MI and the posterior/inferior MI group (p < 0.05 for LV end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, LV end-systolic volume, LV end-systolic volume index and ejection fraction). In the anterior MI group, both plasma and pericardial fluid levels of adrenomedullin and and pericardial fluid levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin- 1-beta were significantly higher than those in the group with no previous MI (p < 0.05), and pericardial fluid levels of adrenomedullin, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1-beta were significantly higher than those in the posterior/inferior MI group (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that (1) patients with an anterior MI had worse LV function than patients with no previous MI and those with a posterior/inferior MI, and (2) cytokine levels in the plasma and pericardial fluid in patients with anterior MI were increased compared to patients with no previous MI.

  19. Relationship between site of myocardial infarction, left ventricular function and cytokine levels in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ilker, Kiris; Sahin, Kapan; Huseyin, Okutan,; Cuneyt, Narin; Mehmet, Ozaydın; Medine, Cumhur Cure; Recep, Sutcu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between left ventricular (LV) function, cytokine levels and site of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods Sixty patients undergoing CABG were divided into three groups (n = 20) according to their history of site of myocardial infarction (MI): no previous MI, anterior MI and posterior/inferior MI. In the pre-operative period, detailed analysis of LV function was done by transthoracic echocardiography.The levels of adrenomedullin, interleukin-1-beta,interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and angiotensin-II in both peripheral blood samples and pericardial fluid were also measured. Results Echocardiographic analyses showed that the anterior MI group had significantly worse LV function than both the group with no previous MI and the posterior/inferior MI group (p < 0.05 for LV end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, LV end-systolic volume, LV end-systolic volume index and ejection fraction). In the anterior MI group, both plasma and pericardial fluid levels of adrenomedullin and and pericardial fluid levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin- 1-beta were significantly higher than those in the group with no previous MI (p < 0.05), and pericardial fluid levels of adrenomedullin, interleukin-6 and interleukin-1-beta were significantly higher than those in the posterior/inferior MI group (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that (1) patients with an anterior MI had worse LV function than patients with no previous MI and those with a posterior/inferior MI, and (2) cytokine levels in the plasma and pericardial fluid in patients with anterior MI were increased compared to patients with no previous MI. PMID:27805242

  20. Inhibition of inflammation mediates the protective effect of atorvastatin reload in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Wei, Lixin; Zhang, Haiqing

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to (a) investigate whether atorvastatin reload protects against acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing noncardiac emergency surgery and decreases the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during hospitalization and (b) elucidate its possible mechanism of action. In total, 500 patients with stable CAD before noncardiac emergency surgery were randomized either to the atorvastatin reload or to the placebo group. All patients received atorvastatin treatment postoperatively. The primary end point was the incidence of AHF during hospitalization, and the secondary end point was the incidence of MACE during hospitalization. Preoperative and 72 h postoperative changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels were compared between the two groups. AHF during hospitalization occurred in 5.2% of patients in the atorvastatin reload group and 11.2% in the placebo group (P=0.0225). MACE during hospitalization occurred in 2.4% of patients in the atorvastatin reload group and 8.0% in the placebo group (P=0.0088). According to multivariable analysis, atorvastatin reload conferred a 50% reduction in the risk of AHF during hospitalization (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8; P=0.005). The median decrease in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels was significantly greater in the atorvastatin reload group (P<0.001). Atorvastatin reload may improve the clinical outcome of patients with stable CAD undergoing noncardiac emergency surgery by decreasing the incidence of AHF and MACE during hospitalization. The mechanism of this protective effect may involve inhibition of inflammation.

  1. Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients With Previous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Toma, Aurel; Stähli, Barbara Elisabeth; Gick, Michael; Colmsee, Herman; Gebhard, Cathérine; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Buettner, Heinz Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Successful revascularization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has been associated with clinical benefit. Data on outcomes in patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for CTO, however, are scarce. A total of 2,002 consecutive patients undergoing PCI for CTO from January 2005 to December 2013 were divided into patients with and without previous CABG, and outcomes were retrospectively assessed. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Median follow-up was 2.6 years (interquartile range 1.1 to 3.1). A total of 292 patients (15%) had previous CABG; they were older and had a greater prevalence of comorbidities. Procedural success was achieved in 75% and 84% of patients in the previous CABG and the non-CABG groups (p <0.001), respectively. All-cause mortality was 16% and 11% in the previous CABG and the non-CABG groups (p = 0.002), and differences were mitigated after adjustment for baseline characteristics (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86 to 1.74, p = 0.27). All-cause death was significantly reduced in patients with procedural success, both in the previous CABG (11% vs 32%, adjusted HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.77, p = 0.005) and the non-CABG groups (10% vs 20%, adjusted HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.86, p = 0.004), with similar mortality benefits associated with successful revascularization in both groups (interaction p = 0.24). In conclusion, the relative survival benefit of successful recanalization of CTO is independent of previous CABG. However, owing to a greater baseline risk, the absolute survival benefit of successful CTO procedures is more pronounced in patients with previous CABG than in non-CABG patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of minimized extracorporeal circulation on outcome in patients with preoperative anemia undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Haneya, Assad; Philipp, Alois; Von Suesskind-Schwendi, Marietta; Diez, Claudius; Hirt, Stephan W; Kolat, Philipp; Attmann, Tim; Schoettler, Jan; Zausig, York; Ried, Michael; Schmid, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative anemia and low hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass have been associated with worse outcome in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The minimized extracorporeal circulation (MECC) allows a reduction of the negative effects associated with conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC). In this study, the impact of the MECC on outcome of anemic patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was assessed. Between January 2004 and December 2011, 1,945 consecutive patients with preoperative anemia underwent isolated CABG using CECC (44.8%) or MECC (55.2%). The cutoff point for anemia was 13 g/dl for men and 12 g/dl for women. The postoperative creatine kinase and lactate levels were significantly lower in the MECC group (p < 0.001). There was no difference in postoperative blood loss between the groups. However, the intraoperative and postoperative transfusion requirements were significantly lower in the MECC group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, MECC patients had lower incidences of postoperative acute renal failure, and low cardiac output syndrome, shorter intensive care unit lengths of stay and reduced 30-day mortality (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a reduced postoperative mortality, lower transfusion requirements, and less renal and myocardial damage encourage the use of MECC for CABG, especially in the specific high-risk subgroup of patients with anemia.

  3. Long-Term Survival and Quality of Life of Patients Undergoing Emergency Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Postinfarction Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Mario; Glineur, David; Mazza, Andrea; Papadatos, Spiridon; Farina, Piero; Etienne, Pierre Yves; Fracassi, Francesco; Cammertoni, Federico; Crea, Filippo; Massetti, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the long-term outcome of patients undergoing emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (eCABG) for cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction. Sixty-seven consecutive patients underwent eCABG for cardiogenic shock at 2 European institutions during an 11-year period. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative, and long-term follow-up data of all patients were prospectively collected. Hospital survival was 86% (58 of 67), with all deaths due to cardiac causes. At a mean follow-up of 78 ± 48 months (range, 1 to 153 months), 43 of the 58 patients (74%) discharged from the hospital were alive. Causes of death in 9 of the 15 follow-up deaths (60%) were noncardiac. Overall survival rate at the end of follow-up was 64% (43 of 67). Of the 43 survivors, 41 (95%) were in New York Heart Association Functional Classification I to II, ischemia free, had a Karnofsky performance status exceeding 80, and an excellent quality of life as assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass and the internal thoracic artery were associated with significantly better long-term survival. The long-term survival and quality of life of patients who undergo eCABG for cardiogenic shock after acute myocardial infarction are good, and eCABG should be considered a valuable therapeutic option in this setting. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass and the internal thoracic artery at the time of the operation are strongly advocated. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation with adaptive servo-ventilation in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Naonori; Takahashi, Shinya; Takasaki, Taiichi; Katayama, Keijiro; Taguchi, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masazumi; Kurosaki, Tatsuya; Imai, Katsuhiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sueda, Taijiro

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative complications after cardiac surgery increase mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation with adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). A total of 66 patients undergoing OPCAB were enrolled and divided into 2 groups according to the use of ASV (ASV group, 30 patients; non-ASV group, 36 patients). During the perioperative period, all patients undertook cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. ASV was used from postoperative day (POD) 1 to POD5. Hemodynamics showed a different pattern in the 2 groups. Blood pressure (BP) on POD6 in the ASV group was significantly lower than that in the non-ASV group (systolic BP, 112.9±12.6 vs. 126.2±15.8 mmHg, P=0.0006; diastolic BP, 62.3±9.1 vs. 67.6±9.3 mmHg, P=0.0277). The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) was lower in the ASV group than in the non-ASV group (10% vs. 33%, P=0.0377). The duration of oxygen inhalation in the ASV group was significantly shorter than that in the non-ASV group (5.1±2.2 vs. 7.6±6.0 days, P=0.0238). The duration of postoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter in the ASV group than in the non-ASV group (23.5±6.6 vs. 29.0±13.1 days, P=0.0392). Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation with ASV after OPCAB reduces both POAF occurrence and the duration of hospitalization.

  5. Prospective randomized comparison of cefodizime versus cefuroxime for perioperative prophylaxis in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Bartunek, A; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, K; Hiesmayr, M; Parschalk, B; Pernerstorfer, T; Graninger, W

    1997-01-01

    The effects of cefodizime and cefuroxime on neutrophil phagocytosis and reactive oxygen production in 54 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting were studied. Both drugs were administered twice at a dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight (pre- and intraoperative). Phagocytic capacity was assessed by measuring the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen generation after phagocytosis was estimated by determining the amount of dihydrorhodamine 123 converted to rhodamine 123 intracellularly. In both groups the mean phagocytic ability for E. coli and S. aureus decreased during surgery (-21 and -8%, respectively, for the cefodizime group and -39 and -38%, respectively, for the cefuroxime group; P < 0.05 for all). In the cefodizime group a normalization of mean E. coli and S. aureus neutrophil phagocytosis was seen on day 5 (+9 and -4% compared to preoperative values; P > 0.35 for both), whereas in cefuroxime-treated patients phagocytic ability remained depressed (-37 and -31%; P < 0.04 for both). In both groups mean neutrophil reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production after E. coli and S. aureus phagocytosis increased during cardiopulmonary bypass (+44 and +83%, respectively, in the cefodizime group and +58 and +73%, respectively, in the cefuroxime group; P < 0.05 for all). One day after surgery E. coli- and S. aureus-driven neutrophil ROI production was not different from the preoperative values (-2 and +12%, respectively, for the cefodizime group and +7 and +15%, respectively, for the cefuroxime group; P > 0.15 for all). Postoperative serum levels of the C-reactive protein on days 2 and 7 were lower in cefodizime-treated patients (19 +/- 6 and 4 +/- 2 mg/liter versus 23 +/- 6 and 11 +/- 5 mg/liter; P < 0.05 for both). In addition to cefodizime's antimicrobial activity during perioperative prophylaxis, its use in coronary artery bypass grafting can prevent procedure

  6. The effect of sukha pranayama on anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography: a single -blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mobini Bidgoli, Maryam; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Farokhian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is among the most common problems experienced by coronary angiography (CA) candidates. Different modalities are used to manage anxiety. This study sought to examine the effects of a pranayama exercise on CA candidates’ anxiety. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 2015 on 80 eligible patients. The patients were randomly allocated to a control and an experimental group. Before undergoing angiography, patients in the experimental group performed sukha pranayama exercises. They were trained to breathe slowly and rhythmically at a rate of ten breathing per minute for five consecutive minutes. Patients in the control group only received routine preangiography care. Data collection tools were a demographic questionnaire and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. The level of patients’ anxiety in both groups was measured before, half an hour after, and one hour after the intervention. The data were analyzed through doing the independent-sample t and the chi-square tests. Results: Before the intervention, the mean of anxiety score in the experimental group was 53.37, which significantly decreased to 40.75 after the intervention (P = 0.0001). In the control group, the mean of anxiety score decreased from 54.27 to 51.4. This decrease was not statistically significant. Moreover, between-group comparisons revealed significant differences between the groups regarding between-measurement mean differences of anxiety score (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Sukha pranayama is effective in alleviating CA candidates’ anxiety. PMID:28210473

  7. Use of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy and Patient Outcomes in Those Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The ROCKET AF Trial.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Matthew W; Cyr, Derek D; Jones, W Schuyler; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Washam, Jeffrey B; Breithardt, Günter; Fox, Keith A A; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Singer, Daniel E; Piccini, Jonathan P; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Patel, Manesh R

    2016-08-22

    The authors assessed the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation). The frequency, patterns, and outcomes when adding DAPT to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in the setting of PCI in patients with AF are largely unknown. The study population included all patients in the treatment group of the ROCKET AF trial divided by the receipt of PCI during follow-up. Clinical characteristics, PCI frequency, and rates of DAPT were reported. Clinical outcomes were adjudicated independently as part of the trial. Among 14,171 patients, 153 (1.1%) underwent PCI during a median 806 days of follow-up. Patients treated with rivaroxaban were significantly less likely to undergo PCI compared with warfarin-treated patients (61 vs. 92; p = 0.01). Study drug was continued during PCI in 81% of patients. Long-term DAPT (≥30 days) was used in 37% and single antiplatelet therapy in 34%. A small number switched from DAPT to monotherapy within 30 days of PCI (n = 19 [12.3%]) and 15% of patients received no antiplatelet therapy after PCI. Rates of stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding events were high in post-PCI patients (4.5/100 patient-years and 10.2/100 patient-years) in both treatment groups. In patients with AF at moderate to high risk for stroke, PCI occurred in <1% per year. DAPT was used in a variable manner, with the majority of patients remaining on study drug after PCI. Rates of both thrombotic and bleeding events were high after PCI, highlighting the need for studies to determine the optimal antithrombotic therapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Culprit Vessel-Only vs. Staged Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Strategies in Patients With Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Toshiaki; Shiomi, Hiroki; Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Morimoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the current status of treatment strategy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with multivessel disease (MVD) in real world practice, focusing on the benefit of staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From the CREDO-Kyoto AMI Registry, 2,010 STEMI patients with MVD undergoing primary PCI were analyzed. Only 96 patients (4.8%) received acute multivessel PCI, and the majority of patients (n=1,914, 95.2%) had culprit-only PCI acutely. After excluding 699 patients (acute multivessel PCI, Killip class ≥3, age ≥90 years, coronary artery bypass grafting within 90 days, or clinical events within 90 days), 681 MVD patients underwent staged PCI for angiographically significant non-culprit lesions within 90 days (staged PCI group), while 630 MVD patients received primary PCI only (culprit-only PCI group). The cumulative 5-year incidence of and adjusted risk for all-cause death were significantly lower in the staged PCI group compared with the culprit-only PCI group (9.5% vs. 16.0%, P<0.001; HR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50-0.96, P=0.03). The risks for MI and any coronary revascularization favored the staged PCI strategy. The staged PCI strategy for angiographically significant non-culprit lesions was associated with lower 5-year mortality compared with the culprit-only PCI strategy in STEMI patients with MVD who underwent primary PCI.

  9. Effects of atorvastatin and aspirin combined therapy on inflammatory responses in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kariyazono, Hiroko; Arima, Junko; Iguro, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Katsushi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of atorvastatin plus aspirin combined therapy on inflammatory responses, endothelial cell function, and blood coagulation system in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to aspirin monotherapy. The patients were randomized into atorvastatin plus aspirin combined therapy group and aspirin monotherapy group. Reduced total cholesterol in the combined therapy group was found in a short term of medication for 14 days. On postoperative day (POD)-14, inhibitory effects of the combined therapy on whole blood aggregation as well as platelet activation assessed by flow cytometry were stronger than those of the monotherapy. Furthermore, cytokine, cytokine receptors, c-reactive protein and alpha1-acid glycoprotein in the combined therapy group were down-regulated on POD-14. At the same time, circulating levels of thromboxane A(2), vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombin-antithrombin III complex as well as P-selectin, L-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were down-regulated, while E-selectin and transforming growth factor-beta1 was up-regulated. Atorvastatin plus aspirin combined therapy may improve inflammatory responses, accelerated platelet function, vascular endothelial cell function, blood coagulation system at the early stage such as 14th day after CABG. In conclusion, atorvastatin and aspirin combined therapy may bring beneficial effects to the patient after CABG.

  10. Meta-analysis of time-related benefits of statin therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Navarese, Eliano Pio; Kowalewski, Mariusz; Andreotti, Felicita; van Wely, Marleen; Camaro, Cyril; Kolodziejczak, Michalina; Gorny, Bartosz; Wirianta, Jeffrey; Kubica, Jacek; Kelm, Malte; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Suryapranata, Harry

    2014-05-15

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) still experience high rates of recurrent coronary events, particularly, early in their presentation. Statins yield substantial cardiovascular benefits, but the optimal timing of their administration, before or after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), remains unclear. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of statin administration before or after PCI versus no statin or low-dose statin in patients with ACS. Primary end points were 30-day all-cause mortality and 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) stratified by pre- and post-PCI statin administration. Secondary end points were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) or major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). Long-term analysis beyond 30 days was also performed. Twenty randomized controlled trials enrolling 8,750 patients were included. At 30 days, the rate of MI was significantly lower in the statin group (odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53 to 0.84, p = 0.0007) with a trend toward reduced mortality (p = 0.06) and significant reductions in MACE and MACCE compared with no or low-dose statin. The 30-day incidence of MI was markedly lower when statins were administered before PCI (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.59, p <0.0001) rather than after PCI (p = 0.28). The direction and magnitude of the estimates for before and after PCI versus no statin or low-dose statin were sustained at long term, not reaching statistical significance for MI (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.01, p = 0.06) but with significant reductions in MACE (p = 0.0002). By meta-regression, earlier statin administration correlated significantly with lower risk of MI, MACE, and MACCE at 30 days. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicates a time-related impact of statin therapy on clinical outcomes of patients with ACS undergoing PCI: the earlier the administration before PCI, the greater the benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. The Role of Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI.

    PubMed

    Alak, Aiman; Jolly, Sanjit S

    2016-03-01

    In STEMI, primary PCI restores macrovascular coronary blood flow effectively but microvascular perfusion remains a challenge. Thrombus has the potential to embolize to the microvasculature limiting effective coronary blood flow. Thrombus burden is associated with a higher mortality and manual aspiration thrombectomy has the potential to reduce thrombus burden. The first large trial of routine aspiration thrombectomy (TAPAS, N = 1071) showed an improvement in myocardial blush and an unexpected reduction in mortality. Reinforcing the enthusiasm for this finding meta-analysis of small trials also showed a reduction in mortality, which led to routine manual thrombectomy becoming a class IIa recommendation in the American and European Guidelines for STEMI. Subsequently; however, large trials such as TOTAL (N = 10,732) and TASTE (N = 7244) and meta-analysis showed an increase in the risk of stroke with routine manual thrombectomy but no improvement in mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or severe heart failure. As such, manual thrombectomy should not be routinely used instead saving it as a bailout procedure as indicated.

  12. Shrunken Pore Syndrome is associated with a sharp rise in mortality in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Dardashti, Alain; Nozohoor, Shahab; Grubb, Anders; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Shrunken Pore Syndrome was recently suggested for the pathophysiologic state in patients characterized by an estimation of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based upon cystatin  C, which is lower or equal to 60% of their estimated GFR based upon creatinine, i.e. when eGFRcystatin  C ≤ 60% of eGFRcreatinine. Not only the cystatin  C level, but also the levels of other low molecular mass proteins are increased in this condition. The preoperative plasma levels of cystatin  C and creatinine were measured in 1638 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. eGFRcystatin  C and eGFRcreatinine were calculated using two pairs of estimating equations, CAPA and LMrev, and CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine, respectively. The Shrunken Pore Syndrome was present in 2.1% of the patients as defined by the CAPA and LMrev equations and in 5.7% of the patients as defined by the CKD-EPIcystatin  C and CKD-EPIcreatinine equations. The patients were studied over a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (2.0–5.0 years) and the mortality determined. Shrunken Pore Syndrome defined by both pairs of equations was a strong, independent, predictor of long-term mortality as evaluated by Cox analysis and as illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Increased mortality was observed also for the subgroups of patients with GFR above or below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Changing the cut-off level from 60 to 70% for the CAPA and LMrev equations increased the number of patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome to 6.5%, still displaying increased mortality. PMID:26647957

  13. Impact of Anemia and Dual Antiplatelet Therapy on Mortality in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Yang, Yuan; Ma, Lufeng; Wang, Xian; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Jinguo; Zhang, Shouyan; Zhang, Ling; Hu, Dayi; Ding, Rongjing

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of baseline anemia on all-cause mortality and whether 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) affects 1-year mortality linked to anemia in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). 4109 enrolled patients divided into three groups based on their pre-procedural hemoglobin (Hb) level: Hb < 100 mg/L represented moderate-severe anemia; 100 mg/L ≤ Hb < 120 mg/L for women and 100 mg/L ≤ Hb < 130 mg/L for men represented mild anemia; Hb ≥ 120 mg/L for women and Hb≥130 mg/L for men represented no anemia. DAPT medications were prescribed when patients were discharged. There were significant differences in 30-day and 1-year mortality between moderate-severe anemia and no anemia patients (HR 8.05, 95% CI 1.46 to 44.33, P = 0.017; HR 3.93, 95% CI 1.11 to 13.98, P = 0.034), and in long-term mortality between anemia and no anemia groups (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.83, P = 0.008 for mild anemia; HR 3.19,95% CI 1.29 to 7.86, P = 0.012 for moderate-severe anemia). There was not significant interaction between 12-month DAPT and anemia on mortality in anemic patients (P for interaction > 0.05). Anemia shows association with increased all-cause mortality in patients undergoing PCI. Twelve-month DAPT does not show synergy with anemia to increase the risk of all-cause 1-year mortality in anemic patients after PCI. PMID:26601689

  14. Is monocyte to HDL ratio superior to monocyte count in predicting the cardiovascular outcomes: evidence from a large cohort of Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Gao, Ying; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Recently, monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has been proposed as a novel prognostic indicator of cardiovascular diseases. However, no study is currently available regarding the comparison between MHR and monocyte count (MC) in predicting the outcomes among patients undergoing coronary angiography. A total of 3798 patients scheduled for selective coronary angiography were enrolled and followed up to capture major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, death, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, heart failure, and unexpected coronary revascularization). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of MHR or MC on MACEs. During a median of 24.6 months follow-up, 347 (9.1%) MACEs occurred. The upper tertiles of MC and MHR have a significant lower event-free survival (p = 0.011; p = 0.014, respectively). Significantly, both MC and MHR were associated with increased MACEs risk after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.734 (1.547-4.832); 2.031 (1.268-3.254), respectively]. Additionally, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of MC or MHR in predicting MACEs were 0.574 (0.542-0.606) and 0.562 (0.530-0.594) (p < 0.001, both), respectively. Our data firstly indicated that MHR was an independent predictor of MACEs whereas the prognostic impact was not superior to MC in patients who underwent coronary angiography. Key Messages MHR has been suggested as a novel prognostic indicator of several cardiovascular diseases. No study is currently available regarding the comparison of MHR to MC in predicting the outcomes in a large cohort of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Our data firstly indicate that MHR is independently associated with MACEs in patients undergoing coronary angiography whereas the prognostic impact is similar to MC.

  15. Impact of bivalirudin on mortality and bleeding complications in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing invasive revascularization : A real world experience.

    PubMed

    Rohla, Miklos; Tentzeris, Ioannis; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Farhan, Serdar; Jarai, Rudolf; Egger, Florian; Weiss, Thomas W; Wojta, Johann; Geppert, Alexander; Kastrati, Adnan; Stone, Gregg W; Huber, Kurt

    2016-12-01

    In a retrospective analysis of a prospective single center registry we compared the use of bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin (UFH) monotherapy, UFH + abciximab in 1240 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing stent implantation. Bivalirudin was associated with tendentially reduced in-hospital minor or major bleeding rates compared to UFH monotherapy (5.9 % vs. 9.4 % adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.82, 95 % confidence interval CI 0.45-1.51, p = 0.53) and compared to the pooled UFH group (5.9 % vs. 11.9 %, adjusted OR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.36-1.08, p = 0.09) but with significantly lower bleeding hazards compared to UFH + abciximab (5.9 % vs. 16 %, adjusted OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.22-0.78, p < 0.01). After 3 years of follow-up, adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates were similar between all groups, particularly between bivalirudin vs. UFH monotherapy (hazard ratio HR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.58-2.16, p = 0.73) and vs. UFH + abciximab (HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.40-2.10, p = 0.83). Acute or subacute stent thrombosis occurred at a rate of 0.8 % with no significant differences between the groups. This retrospective analysis in a real world situation of medium to high-risk ACS patients undergoing invasive revascularization confirmed the results of most large-scale randomized trials by demonstrating reduced bleeding rates in favor of bivalirudin vs. UFH + GPI but with no significant differences between treatment strategies for long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

  16. Renal Dysfunction on Admission Predicts No-Reflow Phenomenon in Patients Undergoing Manual Thrombus Aspiration during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sensoy, Baris; Uzunget, Sezen Baglan; Acikgoz, SadikKadri; Sensoy, Nur; Sen, Fatih; Acar, Burak; Canpolat, Uğur; Ozeke, Ozcan; Cay, Serkan; Maden, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background No-reflow is a frequent complication during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Available data is limited regarding its impact on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing manual thrombus aspiration. Renal impairment is also associated with higher complication rates in STEMI. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the impact of baseline renal dysfunction on the no- reflow phenomenon and the association of no-reflow phenomenon with early clinical outcomes. Methods A total of 94 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary stent-based PCI and thrombus aspiration were enrolled. No-reflow was established by the use of angiographic and electrocardiographic reperfusion criteria, respectively. Additionally angiographic and clinical follow-up data were also recorded. Results In our study, the no-reflow phenomenon was observed in 10 patients (11%) angiographically and in 23 patients (24%) electrocardiographically. Whereas, the the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [odds ratio (OR) 10.4], hypertension (OR 6.2), previous MI (OR 6.5), previous PCI history, (OR 4.2), predilatation (OR 7.2), final balloon pressure (OR 0.9) were found to be the significant predictors of angiographic no-reflow, only reperfusion time was the predictor of electrocardiographic no-reflow (OR 1.12) at univariate analysis. After adjustment, lower eGFR (OR 14.8) was found to be the independent predictor for angiographic no-reflow. In-hospital mortality was more common in patients with either no-reflow condition separately. Conclusions Longer ischemic time and lower initial eGFR values were associated with no-reflow phenomenon. Irrespective of poor reperfusion criteria, no-reflow phenomenon is associated with in-hospital outcome. Future efforts should be made to reduce the incidence of no-reflow especially in patients with lower initial eGFR values. PMID:27122949

  17. Absence of a 'smoker's paradox' in field triaged ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Allahwala, Usaid K; Murphy, John C; Nelson, Gregory I C; Bhindi, Ravinay

    2013-01-01

    The 'smoker's paradox' refers to the observation of favorable prognosis in current smokers following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Initial positive findings were in the era of fibrinolysis, with more contemporary studies finding conflicting results. We sought to determine the presence of a 'smoker's paradox' in a cohort of ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients identified via field triage, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This was a single center retrospective cohort study identifying consecutive STEMI patients presenting for pPCI via field triage. The primary end points were all cause mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), major bleeding, in-hospital cardiac arrest and length of stay (LOS). A total of 382 patients were included in the study. Current smokers were more likely to be younger (p<0.00001), male (p<0.001) and have fewer comorbidities, including renal impairment (p<0.01) and a history of AMI (p<0.05). Current smokers also had a shorter ischemic time (p<0.05), were less likely to have collateral circulation (p<0.05), and more likely to have signs of pulmonary edema at presentation (p<0.05). There was no difference between smoking groups and all cause mortality (p=0.67), MACE (p=0.49), major bleeding (p=0.49) or in-hospital cardiac arrest (p=0.43). Current smokers had a shorter LOS (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis smoking status did not correlate with primary outcomes. The 'smoker's paradox' does not appear to be relevant among STEMI patients undergoing pPCI, identified via field triage. The previously documented 'smoker's paradox' may have been an indication of patient characteristics and the historical treatment of STEMI with thrombolysis. Further studies with larger numbers may be warranted. © 2013.

  18. Anesthetic management of a patient with polycythemia vera undergoing emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyeongwoo; Yang, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangmin Maria; Lee, Jong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera is a chronic progressive myeloproliferative disease characterized by increased circulating red blood cells, and the hyperviscosity of the blood can lead to an increased risk of arterial thrombosis. In a previous survey regarding postoperative outcomes in polycythemia vera patients, an increased risk of both vascular occlusive and hemorrhagic complications have been reported. Aortic surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass may be associated with the development of a coagulopathy, and as a result, the occurrence of thrombotic complications should be avoided after coronary anastomosis. Thus, optimizing the hemostatic balance is an important concern for anesthesiologists. However, only a few cases of anesthetic management in polycythemia vera patients undergoing concomitant aorta and coronary arterial bypass surgery have ever been reported. Here, we experience a polycythemia vera patient who underwent an emergency repair of a type-A aortic dissection and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, and report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:26634086

  19. Nobori-Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Resolute Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention: A Propensity Score Matching

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Ayman; Ahn, Chul-Min; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the 1-year outcomes of a durable polymer Zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) versus a biodegradable polymer Biolimus-eluting stent (BES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Materials and Methods A total of 2083 patients from 2 different registries, 1125 treated with BES in NOBORI registry and 858 received ZES in CONSTANT registry were included in this study. Clinical outcomes were compared with the use of propensity score matching (PSM). The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, clinically driven target lesion revascularization and stroke. Secondary end points were individual components of MACCEs as well as the incidence of stent thrombosis at 1-year follow-up. Results After PSM, 699 matched pairs of patients (n=1398) showed no significant difference between BES and ZES in the risk of composite MACCEs at 1 year (2.6% vs. 1.7%; p=0.36). Cardiac death was not statistically different between groups (0.7% vs. 0.4%, p=0.73). Target lesion revascularization rate was also similar between BES and ZES (1.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.579). Non-Q wave myocardial infarction, as well as target-vessel revascularization rate, was similar between the two groups (0.14% for BES and 0.72% for ZES). Both stent types were excellent with no cases of stent thrombosis and rate of Q wave myocardial infarction reported during the follow-up period. Conclusion In this cohort of patients treated with BES or ZES, the rate of MACCEs at 1 year was low and significantly not different between both groups. PMID:28120558

  20. Long-term angiographic follow up, cardiac events, and survival in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, S M; van der Feltz, T A; Bal, E T; van Bogerijen, L; van den Berg, E; Ascoop, C A; Plokker, H W

    1987-01-01

    The results of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were studied in 1352 consecutive patients. The angioplasty procedure was angiographically successful in 1163 (86%) patients and the success rate increased gradually with time. There were no significant differences in success rates in different vessels or indications. The success rate for repeat coronary angioplasty was 92%. In 85% of the patients the clinical course was uncomplicated. Myocardial infarction occurred in 3.6%, emergency coronary bypass grafting in 2.6%, elective bypass surgery in 4.6%, and there were 10 deaths (0.7%). There were 16 deaths (10 non-cardiac) during follow up in the 1163 patients in whom the first procedure was successful. Actuarial analysis showed that after a first angioplasty 77.9% remained free of symptoms and cardiac events for five years and that after a second angioplasty 76% did so. Angiographic follow up showed restenosis in 24% of patients but the overall clinical success rate was 86.2%. On the basis of the intention to treat the procedure was successful in 74.3% of all 1352 patients. Coronary artery bypass surgery was eventually performed in 11.6% of all patients. The long term angiographic success rate of coronary angioplasty is higher than previously suggested. PMID:2952153

  1. Significance of Cystatin C for Early Diagnosis of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li; Yue, Rongzheng; You, Guiying; Zeng, Rui

    2016-08-22

    BACKGROUND Contrast-induced nephropathy is acute kidney injury caused by contrast medium exposure. Serum creatinine is the clinical diagnostic standard, but it does not yield quick results. The serum level of cystatin C is stable and it can reflect renal function sensitively. The study aimed to assess the usefulness of cystatin C for early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 300 patients who underwent CAG. According to the sCr at 48 h, patients were divided into 2 groups: CIN group and non-CIN group. Their demographics and basal renal function were recorded. Changes in sCr, Cys C, and e GFR were compared at the same time. ROC analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of Cys C in the early diagnosis of CIN. RESULTS Comparison of basal renal function and serum level of Cys C showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. Serum level of Cys C increased significantly at 24 h (p<0.001), and sCr increased significantly at 48 h. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of the change in Cys C between baseline and 24 h was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.879-0.992, p=0.000) and the optimum cut-off level was 0.26 mg/L (sensitivity=89.7% and specificity=95.6%). CONCLUSIONS The concentration change of Cys C is better than sCr as a biomarker in the early detection of CIN.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and a simulation model of colforsin daropate, new forskolin derivative inotropic vasodilator, in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kikura, Mutsuhito; Morita, Koji; Sato, Shigehito

    2004-03-01

    Colforsin daropate, a water-soluble forskolin derivative, is an adenyl cyclase activator with positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects that are useful in the treatment of ventricular dysfunction. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of colforsin daropate in cardiac surgery patients and performed simulations to determine the dosage necessary to maintain an effective plasma concentration following cardiopulmonary bypass. In six patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft, colforsin daropate (0.01mgkg(-1)) was administered immediately after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Arterial blood was sampled over the next 16h and plasma concentrations of colforsin daropate and its initial active metabolite were determined by gas-chromatography. Extended nonlinear least-squares regression was used to fit a three-compartment model to each patient's data. Distribution half-life (t(1/2alpha)) was 3.9+/-1.1min, metabolic half-life (t(1/2beta)) was 1.9+/-0.7h, and elimination half-life (t(1/2gamma)) was 95.3+/-15.2h. Central-compartment volume was 591.0+/-42.8mlkg(-1), volume distribution was 2689.2+/-450.6mlkg(-1), and elimination clearance was 27.7+/-14.7mlkg(-1)min(-1). In the pharmacokinetic simulation model, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0microgkg(-1)min(-1) continuous infusion of colforsin daropate produce effective concentration (5-10ngml(-1)) within 30, 20, and 10min, respectively following administration. An initial active metabolite of decreased rapidly to less than 1.0ngml(-1) within the first 10min.A colforsin daropate infusion of 0.7-1.0microgkg(-1)min(-1) for 10-20min followed by 0.5microgkg(-1)min(-1) continuous infusion is recommended to produce an effective concentration (5-10ngml(-1)) within 10-20min and to maintain a therapeutic concentration throughout the administration period after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  3. Effect of staged preconditioning on biochemical markers in the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Jafari, Naser; Babapoursaatlou, Behzad; Doustkami, Hossein; Hosseinian, Adallat; Hasanpour, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effectiveness of staged-preconditioning, in both remote and target organs. After IP the myocardial release of the biochemical markers including, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), cardiac creatine kinase (CK-MB), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in patients who underwent CABG, with and without staged-preconditioning. Sixty-one patients entered the study; there were 32 patients in the staged-preconditioning group and 29 patients in the control group. All patients underwent on-pump CABG using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) techniques. In the staged-preconditioning group, patients underwent two stages of IP on remote (upper limb) and target organs. Each stage of preconditioning was carried out by 3 cycles of ischemia and then reperfusion. Serum levels of biochemical markers were immediately measured postoperatively at 24, 48 and 72 h. Serum CK-MB, CPK and LDH levels were significantly lower in the staged-preconditioning group than in the control group. The CK-MB release in the staged-preconditioning patients reduced by 51% in comparison with controls over 72 h after CABG. These results suggest that myocardial injury was attenuated by the effect of three rounds of both remote and target organ IP.

  4. Effects of perioperative statin treatment on postoperative atrial fibrillation and cardiac mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Kunt, Ayşegül; Özcan, Sedat; Küçüker, Aslihan; Odabaşi, Dolunay; Sami Kunt, Alper

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of perioperative statin treatment on postoperative atrial fibrillation and cardiac mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. A total of 1890 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass were analyzed retrospectively, of which 425 patients (22.4%) older than 70 were included in the study. The demographic properties, preoperative, operative and postoperative data and other medications of these patients were recorded. Continuous preoperative and postoperative atorvastatin therapy were received by 124 (29.17%) patients; 301 (70.82%) patients were matched to a control group (no-statin group). The two groups were matched by propensity score analysis in terms of atrial fibrillation development and cardiac mortality. Medical history, medical treatment, cardiovascular history, and operative characteristics demonstrated significant heterogeneity in both groups. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was similar in both groups. Before propensity score matching, the percentages of patients in postoperative atrial fibrillation with respect to Atorvastain-group and No-statin-group were 13.71 and 10.3 respectively; however, those were 13.71 and 14.51 after matching. In a multivariate regression analysis, five-vessel bypass (odds ratio OR, 2.354; 95% confidence interval CI, 0.99 to 5.57) was an independent predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. In-hospital mortality was higher in the Atorvastatin-group compared with the No-statin-group: 124 (8.9%) versus 301 (3.7%), respectively; p=0.027). Perioperative atorvastatin treatment is not found to be associated with reduced postoperative atrial fibrillation and cardiac mortality in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting above the age of seventy years. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  5. Modest correlation between serum neopterin levels and Gensini scores in a cohort of patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Özbek, C; Baran, I; Tütüncü, A; Kuştarcı, T; Karaağaç, K; Özbek, A

    2014-06-01

    We initially tried to study the possible correlation between the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and serum neopterin levels in stable coronary artery disease patients. Also we tried to investigate the neopterin as an indicator for the extent of CAD using the Gensini score. A total of 40 patients with stable angina pectoris who are chosen for coronary angiography were selected for the study. Before the angiography procedure, blood samples were taken for the measurement of serum neopterin levels and the results of the coronary angiography were scored according to the Gensini scoring system. Neopterin levels were correlated with the Gensini scores [p = 0.010, ρ = 0.401] and a correlation between the age of patient population and Gensini score was also observed in the study [p = 0.016, ρ = 0.380]. By the guidance of our results, we can confidently state that there is a correlation between serum neopterin levels and the severity and extent of CAD in stable coronary artery disease patients.

  6. Evaluation of a 'color coding' system for the assessment of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Nodar, Juan M; Gómez-Sansano, José M; Galcerá, Emilio; Mainar, Vicente; Valencia, José; Pineda, Javier; Bordes, Pascual; Ramos, David; Sogorb, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-06-01

    The reduction of delay times as well as the rate of false alarms (FA) have become some of the main points of the different infarction networks. We propose a simple way of classifying patients derived for primary PCI (pPCI) into well-defined simple groups by colors, where we can assess real delays of each clinical presentation, define the FA and, furthermore, establish their immediate and short term prognosis. Prospective study of STEMI consecutive patients derived for pPCI during 2014. Patients were categorized into one of the 3 predesigned groups [(i) Green: diagnostic-ECG with compatible clinical presentation for pPCI; (ii) Yellow: LBBB, pacemaker rate or non-diagnostic ECG; and (iii) Red: very complex patients], always before performing the angiography in 518 patients. Delay times were highest in the Yellow group, with much longer first medical contact (FMC) to balloon time (median Green 118'; Yellow 163'; Red 130'; p<0.001) mainly due to higher times from the first medical contact to the diagnosis and team activation (median Green 30'; Yellow 70'; Red 39'; p<0.001). In the whole cohort, pPCI was performed in 80.2% of patients, with 11.9% of FA. The Green group had only a 2.5% FA rate, in contrast to the Yellow group where FA were 43.2%. This simple classification differentiates the 3 very clear groups in which delay times and prognosis are very different. This classification allows us to measure, evaluate and compare the performance of each of our pPCI networks with others and within different periods of times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation between the Change in Mean Platelet Volume and Clopidogrel Resistance in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young-Youp; Kim, Hyung Ho; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Ki, Young-Jae; Kang, Seong-Ho; Park, Geon; Chung, Joong-Wha; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the association between the change in mean platelet volume (MPV) over time and aspirin/ clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The MPV and platelet function were analysed in 302 patients who underwent PCI. MPV changes were associated with increased aspirin reaction units (ARU, r = 0.114; P = 0.047), increased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU, r = 0.193; P = 0.001), and decreased P2Y12% inhibition (PI%, r = - 0.273; P < 0.001). The group with increasing MPV values showed significantly higher PRU values and lower PI% compared with the group with decreasing MPV values (222.5 ± 73.9 vs. 195.6 ± 63.7 PRU, P = 0.001; 24.1 ± 21.0 vs. 32.8 ± 18.5 PI%, P < 0.001, respectively). The clopidogrel resistant group (≥235 PRU or ≤15% of PI%) showed a significantly higher positive change in MPV (ΔMPV) values than the clopidogrel responder group (0.53 ± 0.78 vs. 0.13 ± 0.69 fL, P < 0.001). When the ΔMPV cut-off level was set at 0.20 fL using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating between the clopidogrel resistant and responder groups were 72.6% and 59.3%, respectively. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, the odds ratio in the clopidogrel resistant group with ΔMPV ≥0.2 fL was 4.10 (95% confidence interval; 1.84-9.17). In conclusion, ΔMPV was associated with PRU and PI%; a positive ΔMPV was an independent predictive marker for clopidogrel resistance after PCI.

  8. Contrast media use in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing coronary angiography: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Bhavi; Chaloub, Jean; Parikh, Valay; Gaddam, Sainath; Spagnola, Jonathan; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; Bogin, Marc; Kandov, Ruben; Lafferty, James; Bangalore, Sripal

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing coronary angiography (CA), adequate hydration and minimizing volume of contrast media (CM) are class 1b recommendations for preventing contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). Current data are insufficient to justify specific recommendations about isoosmolar vs. low-osmolar contrast media by the ACCF/AHA/SCAI guidelines. Randomized trials comparing IOCM to LOCM in CKD stage 3 and above patients undergoing CA, and reporting incidence of CIN (defined by a rise in creatinine of 25% from baseline) were included in the analysis. The secondary outcome of the study was the incidence of serum creatinine increase by >1mg/dl. A total of 2839 patients were included in 10 trials, in which 1430 patients received IOCM and 1393 received LOCM. When compared to LOCM, IOCM was not associated with significant benefit in preventing CIN (OR=0.72, [CI: 0.50-1.04], P=0.08, I2=59%). Subgroup analysis revealed non-significant difference in incidence of CIN based on baseline use of N-acetylcystine (NAC), diabetes status, ejection fraction, and whether percutaneous coronary intervention vs coronary angiography alone was performed. The difference between IOCM and LOCM was further attenuated when restricted to studies with larger sample size (>250 patients) (OR=0.93; [CI: 0.66-1.30]) or when compared with non-ionic LOCM (OR=0.79, [CI: 0.52-1.21]). In patients with CKD stage 3 and above undergoing coronary angiography, use of IOCM showed overall non-significant difference in incidence of CIN compared to LOCM. The difference was further attenuated when IOCM was compared with non-ionic LOCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR) were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (p < 0.05, all). Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (p < 0.05, all). Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size (p < 0.05) or large HDL cholesterol (p < 0.05). Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26688615

  10. The Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps on Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Revascularization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Stenting Era

    PubMed Central

    Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Tong-Wen; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Guan, Fang-Xia; Liu, Zi-Qi; Zhang, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) have generally been used for patients undergoing high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization. However, there is still insufficient evidence to determine whether they can improve outcomes in reperfusion therapy patients, mainly by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study was designed to determine the difference between high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization with and without IABPs on mortality, by performing a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials of the current era. Methods Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Unpublished data were obtained from the investigators. Randomized clinical trials of IABP and non-IABP in high-risk coronary revascularization procedures (PCI or CABG) were included. In the case of PCI procedures, stents should be used in more than 80% of patients. Numbers of events at the short-term and long-term follow-up were extracted. Results A total of 12 randomized trials enrolling 2155 patients were included. IABPs did not significantly decrease short-term mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI, 0.42–1.01), or long-term mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.47–1.35), with low heterogeneity across the studies. The findings remained stable in patients with acute myocardial infarction with or without cardiogenic shock. But in high-risk CABG patients, IABP was associated with reduced mortality (71 events in 846 patients; RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25–0.67). Conclusion In patients undergoing high-risk coronary revascularization, IABP did not significantly decrease mortality. But high-risk CABG patients may be benefit from IABP. Rigorous criteria should be applied to the use of IABPs. PMID:26784578

  11. Prevalence and predictors of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients undergoing simultaneous coronary and renal artery angiography; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Payami, Babak; Jafarizade, Mehrian; Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Sattari, Shahab-Aldin; Nokhostin, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: According to the non-specific presentation of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), this disease is usually an under-diagnosed in clinical conditions. Objectives: The aim of the presence study was to evaluate the prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS) and its related risk factors in hypertensive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, between March 2009 and October 2010, all of hypertensive patients candidate for diagnostic cardiac catheterization, underwent nonselective renal angiography before completion of their coronary angiography procedure. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographics, cardiac history, indications for cardiac catheterization and angiographic data. The degree of ARAS was estimated visually by skilled cardiologist. Narrowing greater than 50% of the arterial lumen considered as arterial stenosis. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 19, and by chi-square test and logistic regression model. Results: In overall 274 patients with mean age of 60.75 ± 10.92 years 108 (39.4%) were male and 166 (60.61%) were female. The prevalence of ARAS calculated 18.2%. According to the present study, heart failure and smoking were predictors of ARAS. However, old age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and family history of cardiovascular disease were not clinical predictors of significant ARAS in hypertensive patients, candidate for coronary angiography. Conclusion: According to present data, we suggest to consider renal artery angiography in combination with coronary artery angiography especially in hypertensive patients who are smoker or individuals who have heart failure. PMID:27069966

  12. Hemodynamic Responses to Two Different Anesthesia Regimens in Compromised Left Ventricular Function Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Etomidate-Midazolam Versus Propofol-Ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Aghdaii, Nahid; Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Faritus, Seyedeh Zahra; Azarfarin, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various methods have been suggested to prevent hemodynamic instability caused by propofol and adverse effects caused by etomidate induction. The current study evaluated hemodynamic effects of propofol-ketamine mixture in comparison to etomidate-midazolam mixture during anesthesia induction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of etomidate-midazolam by comparing it with propofol-ketamine for the induction of anesthesia in patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients and Methods: One-hundred patients aged between 40 and 65 with coronary artery disease and low ejection fraction scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery participated in this study. The patients were randomly allotted to one of the two groups to receive either propofol-ketamine or etomidate-midazolam combination. Two groups were compared for pain on injection and myoclonus, Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Cardiac Index (CI) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR), before and one minute after induction of anesthesia, and one, three and five minutes after intubation. Results: Incidence of pain on injection (2 - 4%) and myoclonus (10%) was less in both groups. The hemodynamic response was similar in the two groups for all variables over the time interval, except for CI at one and three minutes after intubation (P = 0.024 and P = 0.048, respectively), and SVR in five minutes after intubation (P = 0.009), with differences being statistically significant. Conclusions: Both anesthetic regimens were acceptable for induction in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:26161330

  13. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents or Bare-Metal Stents: A Nationwide Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Tzu-Ching; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lee, Jia-Chun; Lang, Hui-Chu; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this propensity score-matched cohort study was to investigate the prognostic impacts of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the National Health Insurance program. Patients who had undergone coronary stenting between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2008 were recruited and monitored until the end of 2010. Subjects with either BMS or DES were matched 2:1 by propensity score, which adjusted for age, sex, stent number and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models were used for prognostic analyses. Results Among a total of 966 patients with a mean age of 66 years, 644 subjects had BMS and 322 subjects had DES. The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and death were significantly lower in the DES group as compared with the BMS group for the three-year follow-up duration. With adjustments for age, sex, premium-based monthly salary, levels of hospital care, stent number, CCI, medications, and acute coronary syndrome presentation in the index hospitalization, use of DES rather than BMS was associated with reduced adverse coronary events (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 0.55, 0.38-0.81 in the whole population, and 0.44, 0.26-0.73 in the subgroup patients with stable coronary artery disease). Conclusions Implantation of DES was related to better outcomes than for BMS, in terms of reducing MI and mortality after PCI. The survival benefit for patients with DES was even greater in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID:28115802

  14. Post-procedural hemodiafiltration in acute coronary syndrome patients with associated renal and cardiac dysfunction undergoing urgent and emergency coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Mazzotta, Gianfranco; Londrino, Francesco; Gistri, Roberto; Moltrasio, Marco; Cabiati, Angelo; Assanelli, Emilio; Veglia, Fabrizio; Rombolà, Giuseppe

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the use of a 3-hr treatment with hemodiafiltration, initiated soon after emergency or urgent coronary angiography in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with associated severe renal and cardiac dysfunction. Patients with ACS and severe combined renal and cardiac dysfunction have a particularly high mortality risk. In them, the ideal strategy to both optimize treatment of coronary disease and minimize renal injury risk is currently unknown. This was an interventional study. ACS patients (STEMI and NSTEMI) with associated severe renal (eGFR ≤30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) and cardiac (LVEF ≤40%) dysfunction, admitted at La Spezia Hospital <24 hr from symptoms onset, underwent a prophylactic 3-hr hemodiafiltration treatment, which was started soon after urgent or emergency coronary procedure. Controls were patients matched for age, gender, Mehran's risk score, and kind of ACS, admitted at the Centro Cardiologico Monzino Milan. In-hospital and 1-year outcomes were evaluated. Sixty patients (30% STEMI), 30 hemodiafiltration-treated patients and 30 controls, with similar baseline characteristics, were included. In-hospital and cumulative 1-year mortality rates were significantly lower in hemodiafiltration-treated patients than in controls (3% vs. 23%; P = 0.05, and 10% vs. 53%; P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, they had a lower incidence of severe AKI (10% vs. 40%; P = 0.015) and lower need for rescue renal replacement therapy during hospitalization (7% vs. 27%; P = 0.04). Our pilot study suggests that, in ACS patients with severe renal and cardiac insufficiency, treatment with an aggressive prophylactic hemodiafiltration session after urgent or emergency coronary angiography seems to be associated with a relevant improvement in survival. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Optimal dose of bivalirudin in dialysis patients at high risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: case report].

    PubMed

    Notarangelo, Maria Francesca; Coppini, Lucia; Bontardelli, Federico; Boffetti, Francesca; Vignali, Luigi; Ardissino, Diego

    2013-02-01

    Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for use in patients with or at risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The efficacy of bivalirudin has been well documented in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention, but there are only few data on its use in chronic dialysis-dependent patients. Bivalirudin is mainly eliminated enzymatically (80%) and to a lesser extent renally (20%). Nevertheless, in patients with chronic kidney disease a substantial increase in coagulation time and bleeding complications has been reported. Therefore, dosage adjustments may be necessary in patients with renal impairment. Dosing and monitoring recommendations in dialysis patients have not yet been established. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure requiring dialysis treatment. During percutaneous coronary intervention, anticoagulant therapy with bivalirudin was administered at non-standard doses, though already documented in the literature.

  16. Beating heart versus conventional cardiopulmonary bypass: the octopus experience: a randomized comparison of 281 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Diederik; Diephuis, Jan C; Nierich, Arno P; Keizer, Annemieke M A; Kalkman, Cor J

    2006-06-01

    In the Octopus Study, 281 coronary artery bypass surgery patients were randomized to surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary objective was to compare cognitive outcome between off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Before and after surgery, psychologists administered a battery of 10 neuropsychological tests to the patients. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease in an individual's performance of at least 20% from baseline, in at least 20% of the main variables. According to this definition, cognitive decline was present in 21% in the off-pump group and 29% in the on-pump group, 3 months after the procedure (P = .15). At 12 months, cognitive decline was present in 31% in the off-pump group and 34% in the on-pump group (P = .69). These results indicated that patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass had improved cognitive outcomes 3 months after the procedure, but the effects were limited and became negligible at 12 months. The same definition of cognitive decline was also applied to 112 volunteers not undergoing surgery. The definition labeled 28% of the control subjects as suffering from cognitive decline, 3 months after their first assessment. This suggests that the natural fluctuations in performance during repeated neuropsychological testing should be included in the statistical analysis of cognitive decline. Using an alternative definition of cognitive decline that takes these natural fluctuations in performance into account, the proportions of coronary artery bypass surgery patients displaying cognitive decline were substantially lower. This indicates that the incidence of cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass surgery has been overestimated.

  17. Early physical training and psycho-educational intervention for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The SheppHeart randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Højskov, Ida E; Moons, Philip; Hansen, Niels V; Greve, Helle; Olsen, Dorte Bæk; Cour, Søren La; Glud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Lindschou, Jane; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of problems and symptoms such as immobility, pain and insufficient sleep. Results from trials investigating testing in-hospital physical exercise or psychological intervention have been promising. However, no randomized clinical trials have tested a comprehensive rehabilitation programme consisting of both physical exercise and psycho-education in the early rehabilitation phase. The aims of the present SheppHeart pilot randomized clinical trial were to evaluate the feasibility of patient recruitment, patient acceptance of the intervention, safety and tolerability of the intervention. Sixty patients admitted for coronary artery bypass graft were randomized 1:1:1:1 to: 1) physical exercise plus usual care, or 2) psycho-educational intervention plus usual care, or 3) physical exercise and psycho-educational plus usual care, or 4) usual care alone during a four week period after surgery. The acceptability of trial participation was 67% during the three month recruitment period. In the physical exercise groups, patients complied with 59% of the total expected training sessions during hospitalization. Nine patients (30%) complied with >75% and nine patients (30%) complied with 50% of the planned exercise sessions. Eleven patients (42%) participated in ⩾75% of the four consultations and six patients (23%) participated in 50% of the psycho-educational programme. Comprehensive phase one rehabilitation combining physical exercise and psycho-education in coronary artery bypass graft patients shows reasonably high inclusion, feasibility and safety. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  18. Role of simultaneous carotid ultrasound in patients undergoing stress echocardiography for assessment of chest pain with no previous history of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmadvazir, Shahram; Zacharias, Konstantinos; Shah, Benoy N; Pabla, Jatinder S; Senior, Roxy

    2014-08-01

    We prospectively explored prevalence of carotid disease (CD), its independent association with coronary artery disease (CAD) and outcome as well as potential impact on management, in patients undergoing stress echocardiography (SE) for new onset chest pain without known CAD. Accordingly, 591 consecutive patients referred for SE underwent carotid ultrasound. Carotid disease was defined as carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) >75th percentile for age and sex and/or presence of plaque. Myocardial ischemia was demonstrated in only a minority (11%), but there was a high prevalence of CD (70%). Incidence of CD was similar in patients with and without ischemia (76% versus 69%, P = .26). Carotid data led to reclassification of Framingham risk score categories in 65% of patients as well as more than a third of negative SE patients potentially benefitting from primary prevention therapy. Of the 83 patients undergoing coronary arteriography, 59 (71%) demonstrated coronary atherosclerosis (any atheroma) and 33 (40%) CAD. Positive predictive value of SE for CAD was 56%, but presence of carotid plaque improved it to 70%. Although both CD and plaque showed association with CAD and revascularization, after adjustment for conventional risk factors, only carotid plaque maintained significant association (P = .024 and P = .023, respectively). There is significantly higher prevalence of CD compared with myocardial ischemia in patients undergoing SE and carotid ultrasound for suspected CAD. This can lead to significant Framingham risk score reclassification with important primary prevention implications. Carotid plaque is superior to clinical assessment for the prediction of CAD and improves positive predictive value of SE for CAD in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of 1-year clinical outcomes using the SYNTAX score in patients with prior heart failure undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: sub-analysis of the SHINANO registry.

    PubMed

    Minamisawa, Masatoshi; Miura, Takashi; Motoki, Hirohiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hikaru; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Sato, Toshio; Hotta, Shoji; Kamiyoshi, Yuichi; Maruyama, Takuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Eisawa, Takayuki; Aso, Shinichi; Uchikawa, Shinichiro; Senda, Keisuke; Morita, Takehiro; Hashizume, Naoto; Abe, Naoyuki; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Izawa, Atsushi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2017-04-01

    Although coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), little is known about the prognostic significance of coronary lesion complexity in patients with prior HF undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the coronary Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with TAXus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score could improve risk stratification in HF patients with CAD. Two hundred patients (mean age 73 ± 11 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 49 ± 15 %) with prior HF who underwent PCI were divided into two groups stratified by SYNTAX score (median value 12) and tracked prospectively for 1 year. The study endpoint was the composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for worsening HF. Adverse events were observed in 39 patients (19.5 %). Patients with high SYNTAX scores (n = 100) showed worse prognoses than those with low scores (n = 100) (26.0 vs. 13.0 %, respectively, P = 0.021). In multivariate Cox-regression analysis, SYNTAX score ≥12 was significantly associated with MACE (hazard ratio: 1.99, 95 % confidence interval: 1.02-3.97; P = 0.045). In patients with prior HF and CAD, high SYNTAX scores predicted a high incidence of MACE. These results suggest that the SYNTAX score might be a useful parameter for improving risk stratification in these patients.

  20. The diagnosis and treatment of the no-reflow phenomenon in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramjane, Khalill; Han, Lei; Jin, Chang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the diagnosis and treatment available for myocardial infarction patients having no-reflow in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). DATA SOURCES Data for the present review were obtained from searches in PubMed (1997 to 2007) using the following key terms: “acute myocardial infarction”, “no-reflow phenomenon”, “myocardial contrast echocardiography”, “coronary angiography” and “cardioprotection devices”. STUDY SELECTION Mainly original articles and critical reviews written by major research pioneers in interventional cardiology were selected. RESULTS Despite a fully patent coronary artery post-PCI for myocardial infarction, patients may experience inadequate myocardial perfusion through a given segment of the coronary circulation without angiographic evidence of mechanical vessel obstruction. This phenomenon is defined as no-reflow and is a growing problem in the field of interventional cardiology. Although voluminous clinical trial data are available, the exact mechanisms involved and which treatment should be administered as first-line therapy are currently unknown. The different techniques used to diagnose no-reflow also have their pros and cons; myocardial contrast echocardiography and coronary angiography are the most reliable techniques. In cases when no-reflow was successfully reversed, patient recovery was associated with favourable left ventricular remodelling and increased left ventricular ejection fraction, even in the absence of significant improvement in regional contractile function. CONCLUSION Based on the trials in the literature, myocardial contrast echocardiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of no-reflow. If no-reflow occurs following PCI, treatment with intracoronary adenosine or verapamil should be administered, because this form of therapy is inexpensive and safe, improves flow in the target vessel and may reduce infarct size. PMID:19343126

  1. Renal failure in 57 925 patients undergoing coronary procedures using iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    Liss, P; Persson, P B; Hansell, P; Lagerqvist, B

    2006-11-01

    We compared the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry with the Swedish 'Hospital Discharge Register' to assess contrast media (CM)-induced renal failure. Hospitals used only one type CM. From 2000 to 2003, iodixanol (iso-osmolar) was used in 45 485 patients, ioxaglate (low osmolar) in 12 440 subjects. To include the earlier used CM iohexol (low osmolar), analysis extended back to 1990 (86 334 patients). Incidence of clinically significant renal failure was greatest for patients receiving the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol (1.7%). Ioxaglate-treated patients had a significantly lower renal failure incidence (0.8%, P<0.001). The odds ratio for iodixanol-treated patients was significantly higher than for ioxaglate (1 vs 0.48, P<0.001). In subsets of either diabetic patients or patients with previous renal failure, odds ratios for renal failure remained greater in the iodixanol groups (P<0.01). Hospitals switching CM to iodixanol experienced a doubling in clinically significant renal failure after cardiac procedures. Dialysis was required in 0.2% of patients receiving iodixanol, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than for ioxaglate-treated patients (0.1%). Iohexol-treated patients had a similar low risk for developing clinically significant renal failure (0.9%) as ioxaglate. In conclusion, risk of developing renal failure and required dialysis after coronary procedures is higher when patients received iodixanol than ioxaglate or iohexol.

  2. Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Reverse Remodeling in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    da Silva Guimarães, Sheila; de Souza Cruz, Wanise; da Silva, Licinio; Maciel, Gabrielle; Huguenin, Ana Beatriz; de Carvalho, Monicque; Costa, Bárbara; da Silva, Geisiane; da Costa, Carlos; D'Ippolito, João Alvaro; Colafranceschi, Alexandre; Scalco, Fernanda; Boaventura, Gilson

    2017-03-25

    During cardiac failure, cardiomyocytes have difficulty in using the substrates to produce energy. L-carnitine is a necessary nutrient for the transport of fatty acids that are required for generating energy. Coronary artery graft surgery reduces the plasma levels of L-carnitine and increases the oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on the reverse remodeling of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Patients with ischemic heart failure who underwent coronary graft surgery were randomized to group A - supplemented with L-carnitine or group B controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters were assessed preoperatively, 60 and 180 days after surgery. Our study included 28 patients (26 [93.0%] males) with a mean age ± SD of 58.1 ± 10.5 years. The parameters for the evaluation of reverse remodeling did not improve after 60 and 180 days of coronary artery bypass grafting in comparison between groups (p > 0.05). Evaluation within the L-carnitine group showed a 37.1% increase in left ventricle ejection fraction (p = 0.002) and 14.3% (p = 0.006) and 3.3% (p > 0.05) reduction in systolic and diastolic diameters, respectively. L-carnitine supplementation at a dose of 50 mg/kg combined with artery bypass surgery did not demonstrate any additional benefit in reverse remodeling. However, evaluation within the L-carnitine group may indicate a clinical benefit of L-carnitine supplementation.

  3. Transfer times and outcomes in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing interhospital transfer for primary percutaneous coronary intervention: APEX-AMI insights.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Sean; Widimsky, Petr; Lopes, Renato D; White, Kyle R; Weaver, W Douglas; Van de Werf, Frans; Ardissino, Diego; van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Armstrong, Paul W; Granger, Christopher B

    2012-07-01

    Transfer delays for primary percutaneous coronary intervention may increase mortality in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. We examined the association between door 1-to-door 2 (D1D2) time, a measure capturing the entire transfer process, and outcomes in patients undergoing interhospital transfer for primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated the relationship between D1D2 time and the 90-day incidence of death, shock, and heart failure in the subset of 2075 (36.1%) of 5745 patients who underwent interhospital transfer for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the Assessment of Pexelizumab in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial. There was no significant difference in the 90-day incidence of death, shock, and heart failure between the transferred and the nontransferred groups (10.3% versus 10.2%; P = 0.89). The median difference in symptom-to-balloon time between the 2 groups was 45 minutes (229 versus 184; P<0.001). The primary outcome per 30-minute delay was higher for patients with a D1D2 time ≤150 minutes (hazard ratio, 1.19: 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.33; P = 0.004) but not for D1D2 times >150 minutes (hazard ratio, 0.99: 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.02; P = 0.496). The association between longer D1D2 time and worsening outcome was no longer statistically significant after multivariable adjustment. Longer transfer times were associated with higher rate of death, shock, and heart failure among patients undergoing interhospital transfer from primary percutaneous coronary intervention, although this difference did not persist after adjusting for baseline characteristics.

  4. [Mortality and morbidity in HIV-infected patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: a case control study].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Expósito, María J; Mestres, Carlos A; Claramonte, Xavier; Cartañá, Ramón; Josa, Miquel; Pomar, José L; Mulet, Jaume; Miró, José M

    2006-03-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with HIV infection has improved survival. This improvement combined with the metabolic effects of treatment has increased cardiovascular risk and the need for cardiac surgery in these patients. We compared morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients (cases, n=7) and non-HIV-infected patients (controls, n=21) who underwent isolated coronary artery surgery between 1997 and 2004. The durations of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross-clamping were shorter in HIV-infected patients (P=.002 and P=.014, respectively). The percentage of patients who experienced complications was similar, at 57.1% in both groups, but there was a slightly higher number of complications per patient in non-HIV-infected individuals. The mean length of total hospitalization was greater in HIV-infected patients (27.1 [13.3] versus 8.8 [5.3] days; P=.003), as was that of postoperative hospitalization (18.2 [15.4] vs 7.9 [4.2] days; P=.08). No HIV-infected patient died or needed a repeat cardiac operation. No progression of the HIV infection was observed. Isolated coronary artery surgery in HIV-infected patients produces good results, and there is no increase in morbidity or mortality. Extracorporeal circulation did not influence disease progression.

  5. Automated Computer-Assisted Diagnosis of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Emergency Department Patients Undergoing 256-Slice Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for Acute Chest Pain.

    PubMed

    Hashoul, Sharbell; Gaspar, Tamar; Halon, David A; Lewis, Basil S; Shenkar, Yuval; Jaffe, Ronen; Peled, Nathan; Rubinshtein, Ronen

    2015-10-01

    A 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is an accurate method for detection and exclusion of obstructive coronary artery disease (OBS-CAD). However, accurate image interpretation requires expertise and may not be available at all hours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a fully automated computer-assisted diagnosis (COMP-DIAG) tool for exclusion of OBS-CAD in patients in the emergency department (ED) presenting with chest pain. Three hundred sixty-nine patients in ED without known coronary disease underwent 256-slice CCTA as part of the assessment of chest pain of uncertain origin. COMP-DIAG (CorAnalyzer II) automatically reported presence or exclusion of OBS-CAD (>50% stenosis, ≥1 vessel). Performance characteristics of COMP-DIAG for exclusion and detection of OBS-CAD were determined using expert reading as the reference standard. Seventeen (5%) studies were unassessable by COMP-DIAG software, and 352 patients (1,056 vessels) were therefore available for analysis. COMP-DIAG identified 33% of assessable studies as having OBS-CAD, but the prevalence of OBS-CAD on CCTA was only 18% (66 of 352 patients) by standard expert reading. However, COMP-DIAG correctly identified 61 of the 66 patients (93%) with OBS-CAD with 21 vessels (2%) with OBS-CAD misclassified as negative. In conclusion, compared to expert reading, automated computer-assisted diagnosis using the CorAnalyzer showed high sensitivity but only moderate specificity for detection of obstructive coronary disease in patients in ED who underwent 256-slice CCTA. The high negative predictive value of this computer-assisted algorithm may be useful in the ED setting.

  6. Safety and efficacy of transbrachial intra-aortic balloon pumping with the use of 7-Fr catheters in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Antonino S; Onorati, Francesco; Serraino, Filiberto; Renzulli, Attilio

    2009-07-01

    We report the cases of five consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) who required a transbrachial approach for 7-Fr catheter intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) insertion because of unsuitable femoral arteries. No adverse outcomes occurred in any patient during a mean 72 h of IABP support. Our experience with 7-Fr catheters appears to confirm previous reports of the safety and efficacy of transbrachial IABP assistance and suggests that such support can be provided safely for an extended duration with the use of these smaller catheters.

  7. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Data From The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Deepak; Gulack, Brian C.; Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y.; Davies, James E.; He, Xia; Brennan, J. Matthew; Thourani, Vinod H.; Williams, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) is associated with substantial mortality. We evaluated outcomes of patients in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in the setting of AMI-CS. Methods All patients with AMI-CS who underwent nonelective CABG or CABG with ventricular assist device implantation within 7 days after myocardial infarction were enrolled. The primary analysis sample consisted of patients who underwent surgery between June 2011 and December 2013. Baseline characteristics, operative findings, outcomes, and the utilization of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) were assessed in detail in this population. We also evaluated trends in unadjusted mortality for all patients undergoing CABG or CABG with ventricular assist device for AMI-CS from January 2005 to December 2013. Results A total of 5,496 patients met study criteria, comprising 1.5% of all patients undergoing CABG during the study period. Overall operative mortality was 18.7%, decreasing from 19.3% in 2005 to 18.1% in 2013 (p < 0.001). Use of MCS increased from 5.8% in 2011 to 8.8% in 2013 (p = 0.008). Patients receiving MCS had a high proportion of cardiovascular risk factors or high clinical acuity. Patients requiring preoperative and patients requiring intraoperative or postoperative MCS had operative mortality of 37.2% and 58.4%, respectively. Patients undergoing CABG as a salvage procedure had an operative mortality of 53.3%, and a high incidence of reoperation (21.8%), postoperative respiratory failure requiring prolonged ventilation (59.7%), and renal failure (18.5%). Conclusions Most patients undergoing CABG for AMI-CS have a sizeable but not prohibitive risk. Patients who require MCS and those undergoing operation as a salvage procedure reflect higher risk populations. PMID:26718859

  8. Clinical Efficacy of Thrombus Aspiration on 5-Year Clinical Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Shiomi, Hiroki; Nakatsuma, Kenji; Morimoto, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Horie, Minoru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjunctive thrombus aspiration (TA) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was reported to promote better coronary and myocardial reperfusion. However, long-term mortality benefit of TA remains controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical impact of TA on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI. Methods and Results The CREDO-Kyoto AMI Registry is a large-scale cohort study of acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing coronary revascularization in 2005–2007 at 26 hospitals in Japan. Among 5429 patients enrolled in the registry, the current study population consisted of 3536 patients who arrived at the hospital within 12 hours after the symptom onset and underwent primary PCI. Clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 patient groups with or without TA. During primary PCI procedures, 2239 out of 3536 (63%) patients underwent TA (TA group). The cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death was significantly lower in the TA group than in the non-TA group (18.5% versus 23.9%, log-rank P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, however, the risk for all-cause death in the TA group was not significantly lower than that in the non-TA group (hazard ratio: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.06, P=0.21). The adjusted risks for cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and target-lesion revascularization were also not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions Adjunctive TA during primary PCI was not associated with better 5-year mortality in STEMI patients. PMID:26077588

  9. Postoperative delirium and short-term cognitive dysfunction occur more frequently in patients undergoing valve surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery alone: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hudetz, Judith A; Iqbal, Zafar; Gandhi, Sweeta D; Patterson, Kathleen M; Byrne, Alison J; Pagel, Paul S

    2011-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that patients undergoing valve repair or replacement surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) had a greater incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction compared with patients undergoing CABG surgery alone. Prospective study. Veterans Affairs medical center. Forty-four age- and education-balanced male patients (≥ 55 years of age) undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB (n = 22 valve ± CABG surgery and n = 22 CABG surgery alone) and nonsurgical controls (n = 22) were recruited. None. Delirium was assessed with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist before and for 5 consecutive days after surgery. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed using a psychometric test battery before and 1 week after cardiac surgery or at 1-week intervals in nonsurgical controls. Intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and 30-day readmission were significantly (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively) longer in patients undergoing valve surgery ± CABG surgery versus CABG surgery alone. Postoperative delirium occurred more frequently (p = 0.01) in patients undergoing valve ± CABG surgery versus CABG surgery alone. Overall cognitive performance (composite z score) after surgery also was impaired significantly (p = 0.004) in patients undergoing valve ± CABG surgery compared with CABG surgery alone. The composite z score after surgery decreased by at least 1.5 standard deviations in 11 patients (50%) versus 1 patient (5%) without valve surgery compared with nonsurgical controls (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test). The presence of delirium predicted a composite z score decrease of 1.2 points (odds ratio = 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.68). The results indicated that patients undergoing valve surgery with or without CABG surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction 1 week after

  10. The use of nitrates in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients hospitalized after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Peguero, Julio G; Cornielle, Vertilio; Gomez, Sabas I; Issa, Omar M; Heimowitz, Todd B; Santana, Orlando; Goldszer, Robert C; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2014-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and effective strategies for its prevention are greatly needed. The purpose of this retrospective, single-center study was to investigate whether nitrate use during percutaneous coronary artery intervention reduces the incidence of CIN. Chart review of all individuals who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from April 2010 to March 2011 was done. Included in the study were patients who were admitted to the hospital after percutaneous coronary artery intervention and had baseline and follow-up creatinine measured. Patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis and those patients with insufficient information to calculate Mehran score were excluded. There were 199 patients who met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. In the identified population, postprocedure renal function was compared between 112 patients who received nitrates prior to coronary intervention and 87 who did not. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Contrast-induced nephropathy was defined as either a 25% or a 0.5 mg/dL, or greater, increase in serum creatinine during the first 48 to 72 hours after contrast exposure. Overall, 43 (21.6%) patients developed CIN post-PCI. Of the patients who received nitrates, 15.2% developed renal impairment when compared to 29.9% in those who did not (odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.84, P = .014). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nitrate use was independently correlated with a reduction in the development of contrast nephropathy (OR = 0.334, 95% CI 0.157-0.709, P = .004). Additionally, of the various methods of nitrate administration, intravenous infusion was shown to be the most efficacious route in preventing renal impairment (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.90, P = .03). In conclusion, the use of nitrates prior to PCI, particularly intravenous nitroglycerin infusion, may

  11. PlA(1)/PlA(2) polymorphism does not influence response to Gp IIb-IIIa inhibitors in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Pergolini, Patrizia; Camaro, Cyril; Restifo, Maria; Rolla, Roberta; Schaffer, Alon; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Marino, Paolo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (Gp IIb-IIIa), a fibrinogen receptor located on platelet surface, is a key point in the pathway leading to platelet aggregation. Therefore, great interest has emerged in the last decades on its pharmacological block, both by irreversible binding of abciximab or by competitive small molecules (tirofiban and eptifibatide). Gp IIb-IIIa inhibitors, in fact have demonstrated to provide benefits in clinical outcome among patients with acute myocardial infarction and in complex elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures. Still unclear is whether the genetic Leu 33Pro substitution in Gp IIIa may affect the extent of platelet aggregation inhibition by these drugs. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate whether this polymorphism (PlA) may influence inhibition of platelet aggregation after Gp IIb-IIIa administration in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. We analyzed 80 patients undergoing nonurgent coronary revascularization and receiving Gp IIb-IIIa inhibitors (bolus and endovenous infusion; 40 patients with Abciximab and 40 patients with eptifibatide or tirofiban). The aggregation tests were performed at baseline and after 10 min, 1 h and 4 h, through multiplate impedance aggregometry. The PlA polymorphic variant was found in 26 patients (32.5%). The PlA carriers did not differ significantly from wild-type subjects for main clinical and angiographic features, except for in-stent restenosis that was more frequent among PlA carriers (P = 0.003). Therapy and aggregation values at baseline were similar in the two groups. The Leu33Pro substitution did not influence platelet response after Gp IIb-IIIa administration, which was confirmed for both abciximab and small molecules. This study showed that Leu33Pro polymorphism of Gp IIIa does not affect the extent of inhibition of platelet aggregation by Gp IIb-IIIa inhibitors.

  12. Effect of Prewarming during Induction of Anesthesia on Microvascular Reactivity in Patients Undergoing Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youn Joung; Lee, Seo Yun; Kim, Tae Kyong; Hong, Deok Man; Jeon, Yunseok

    2016-01-01

    Background General anesthesia may induce inadvertent hypothermia and this may be related to perioperative cardiovascular complications. Microvascular reactivity, measured by the recovery slope during a vascular occlusion test, is decreased during surgery and is also related to postoperative clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that microvascular changes during surgery may be related to intraoperative hypothermia. To evaluate this, we conducted a randomized study in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, in which the effect of prewarming on microvascular reactivity was evaluated. Methods Patients scheduled for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were screened. Enrolled patients were randomized to the prewarming group to receive forced-air warming during induction of anesthesia or to the control group. Measurement of core and skin temperatures and vascular occlusion test were conducted before anesthesia induction, 1, 2, and 3 h after induction, and at the end of surgery. Results In total, 40 patients were enrolled and finished the study (n = 20 in the prewarming group and n = 20 in the control group). During the first 3 h of anesthesia, core temperature was higher in the prewarming group than the control group (p < 0.001). The number of patients developing hypothermia was lower in the prewarming group than the control group (4/20 vs. 13/20, p = 0.004). However, tissue oxygen saturation and changes in recovery slope following a vascular occlusion test at 3 h after anesthesia induction did not differ between the groups. There was no difference in clinical outcome, including perioperative transfusion, wound infection, or hospital stay, between the groups. Conclusions Prewarming during induction of anesthesia decreased intraoperative hypothermia, but did not reduce the deterioration in microvascular reactivity in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02186210 PMID:27442052

  13. The burgeoning epidemic of morbid obesity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insight from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium.

    PubMed

    Buschur, Michael E; Smith, Dean; Share, David; Campbell, William; Mattichak, Stephen; Sharma, Manoj; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2013-08-20

    This study sought to examine the prevalence and clinical implications of morbid obesity among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prevalence of obesity, and morbid obesity in particular, continues to rise rapidly in the United States. Obese patients are at increased risk for cardiac disease and are more likely to need invasive cardiac procedures. There is a paucity of contemporary data on the prevalence and clinical implications of morbid obesity among patients undergoing PCI. We examined the prevalence of morbid obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m²) among 227,044 patients undergoing PCI and enrolled in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium registry from 1998 to 2009. The proportion of morbidly obese patients undergoing PCI increased from 4.38% in 1998 to 8.36% in 2009. Compared with overweight patients (BMI 25 to 30 kg/m²), these patients had significantly increased vascular complications (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.47; p < 0.0001), contrast-induced nephropathy (adjusted OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.70 to 2.11; p < 0.0001), nephropathy requiring dialysis (adjusted OR: 4.08; 95% CI: 2.98 to 5.59; p < 0.0001), and mortality (adjusted OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.33 to 2.00; p < 0.0001). Morbid obesity is increasing in prevalence among patients undergoing PCI and is associated with a higher risk of mortality and morbidity. These epidemiological changes have important implications for technical considerations of cardiac catheterization, design of the catheterization lab to accommodate these patients, and most importantly, for societal effort toward prevention of obesity. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of hand reflexology on anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography: A single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mobini-Bidgoli, Maryam; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Farokhian, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effects of hand reflexology on anxiety level in coronary angiography patients. This clinical trial recruited 80 eligible patients >6 months. The patients were randomly assigned to receive routine care plus either hand reflexology or a simple hand massage. Data were collected using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Both groups' anxiety levels were measured before (T0) and 30 min (T1) and 1 h after the intervention (T2). The mean anxiety level in the intervention group decreased from 57.54 at baseline to 55.47 after the intervention (P = 0.0001). The values in the control group were 54.27 and 51.4, respectively. The two groups had statistically significant differences in the mean scores of anxiety at T0 and T1 (P = 0.003), T1 and T2, and T0 and T2 (P = 0.0001). Hand reflexology could effectively decrease anxiety in coronary angiography patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Duration of Impella 2.5 Circulatory Support and Length of Hospital Stay of Patients Undergoing High-risk Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Anusionwu, Obiora; Fischman, Daniel; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of duration of Impella 2.5 support (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) on hospitalization of patients after high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There has been a continuous increase in prevalence of coronary artery disease with more patients needing PCI during acute myocardial infarction. Some of these patients have to undergo high-risk revascularization with circulatory support like the Impella 2.5 device. Methods This study was a single center retrospective study of patients admitted to our hospital who required Impella circulatory support during percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients’ medical records, cardiac catheterization laboratory and 2-D echocardiography reports were reviewed to ascertain left ventricular ejection fraction, duration of Impella support, Coronary Care Unit (CCU) days and the length of stay in the hospital. A P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Over a 15-month period, we had 25 patients with 19 males and 6 females. Mean age of the patient cohort was 68 ± 10 years. Mean LVEF of the group was 32 ± 16%. Mean length of hospital stay was 8 ± 8 days and mean CCU stay was 4 ± 4 days. The Impella was successfully inserted in all cases with a median duration of support of 70 minutes (range, 4 - 5760 minutes). Bleeding complication occurred in 8%. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the duration of Impella support and hospital stay was 0.49 (P = 0.023) while it was 0.71 (P = 0.001) between Impella support duration and CCU days. Conclusions Our study suggests that there is a positive correlation between the duration of Impella 2.5 circulatory support and hospital stay and/or CCU days. The correlation seems to be stronger with CCU days.

  16. Association between RDW and stent thrombosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Tunçez, Abdullah; Çetin, Mehmet Serkan; Çetin, Elif Hande Özcan; Yılmaz, Samet; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Uçar, Fatih Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stent thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). In recent years, the predictive and prognostic value of the red cell distribution width (RDW) as an indicator of inflammation has been shown in many cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of RDW for stent thrombosis in patients who underwent successful stent implantation for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this retrospective study, 146 patients who underwent successful PCI to native coronary artery due to STEMI previously and presented with acute coronary syndrome with stent thrombosis were included (stent thrombosis group). A total of 175 patients who had similar procedural characteristics (type, diameter, and length of stent) and not had stent thrombosis were consisted control group. Patients were divided into tertiles according to the admission RDW values (12.9 ± 0.4, 14.2 ± 0.4, and 16.3 ± 1.5, respectively). Stent thrombosis developed in 47 (40.9%) patients in the lowest tertile, 39 (37.9%) patients in mid tertile, and 60 (58.3%) patients in the highest tertile (P = 0.006). Female gender ratio was statistically significantly higher in the 3rd tertile (13 [11.3%], 8 [7.8%], 24 [23.3%], P = 0.003, respectively). RDW (OR: 1.397 [95% CI 1.177–1.657], P < 0.001) and platelet count (OR: 1.008 [95% CI 1.004–1.012], P < 0.001) remained independent predictors of stent thrombosis after multivariate logistic regression analysis. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that, admission RDW values higher than 13.9 can predict the development of stent thrombosis with a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 52% (The area under the ROC curve: 0.59 [95% CI 0.53–0.65] P = 0.007). High RDW values found to be independently associated with the development of stent thrombosis in patients with STEMI. PMID:28151892

  17. Association of subclinical wall changes of carotid, femoral, and popliteal arteries with obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Kafetzakis, Alexandros; Kochiadakis, George; Laliotis, Aggelos; Peteinarakis, Ioannis; Touloupakis, Emmanouel; Igoumenidis, Nikos; Katsamouris, Asterios

    2005-10-01

    To examine the association of occult atherosclerosis of carotid, femoral, and popliteal arteries with the presence and severity of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients without a history or presence of cerebrovascular or peripheral arterial disease using ultrasound examination of peripheral arteries. One hundred eighty-four such individuals underwent routine coronary angiography. Obstructive CAD was found in 103 cases, which comprised the patient group. The remaining 81 individuals comprised the control group. All were blindly examined by duplex ultrasonography in order to assess occult atherosclerosis, as indicated by the estimation of intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (IMTC), intima-media thickness of the femoral artery (IMTF), intima-media thickness of the popliteal artery (IMTP), and ultrasonic biopsy (UB) of the carotid and femoral arteries. For the individuals with positive coronary angiography findings, the severity of CAD was estimated by the number of the diseased vessels. IMTC, IMTF, IMTP, and UB showed significant correlation with the presence of obstructive CAD, but only IMTC and IMTF were independent predictive factors, with specificity of 74% and 60% and sensitivity of 76% and 70%, respectively. Additionally, our analysis yielded a regression model that, for a given value of IMTC and IMTF, may estimate the probability of CAD: p (CAD) = e((- 4.765 + 3.36 IMTC + 1.91 IMTF))/1 + e((- 4.765 + 13.36 IMTC + 1.91 IMTF)). Patients with one-vessel disease had significantly lower IMTC (p < 0.001) and UB (p = 0.011) and lower IMTF (p = 0.057) than those with three-vessel disease. The assessment of occult atherosclerosis by duplex ultrasonography in both the carotid and the femoral arteries is significantly associated with the presence and severity of CAD.

  18. Ultrathin, bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents versus thin, durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation (BIOFLOW V): a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Mauri, Laura; Koolen, Jacques J; Massaro, Joseph M; Doros, Gheorghe; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Bennett, Johan; Roguin, Ariel; Gharib, Elie G; Cutlip, Donald E; Waksman, Ron

    2017-08-25

    The development of coronary drug-eluting stents has included use of new metal alloys, changes in stent architecture, and use of bioresorbable polymers. Whether these advancements improve clinical safety and efficacy has not been shown in previous randomised trials. We aimed to examine the clinical outcomes of a bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent compared with a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent in a broad patient population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. BIOFLOW V was an international, randomised trial done in patients undergoing elective and urgent percutaneous coronary intervention in 90 hospitals in 13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, and the USA). Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older with ischaemic heart disease undergoing planned stent implantation in de-novo, native coronary lesions. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to either an ultrathin strut (60 μm) bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent or to a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. Randomisation was via a central web-based data capture system (mixed blocks of 3 and 6), and stratified by study site. The primary endpoint was 12-month target lesion failure. The primary non-inferiority comparison combined these data from two additional randomised trials of bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent with Bayesian methods. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02389946. Between May 8, 2015, and March 31, 2016, 4772 patients were recruited into the study. 1334 patients met inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to treatment with bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (n=884) or durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (n=450). 52 (6%) of 883 patients in the bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent group and 41 (10%) of

  19. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  20. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  1. Prognostic impact of nutritional status assessed by the Controlling Nutritional Status score in patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideki; Dohi, Tomotaka; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Doi, Shinichiro; Konishi, Hirokazu; Naito, Ryo; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Kasai, Takatoshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Suwa, Satoru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-20

    Recently, malnutrition has been shown to be related to worse clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. However, the association between nutritional status and clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. We investigated the prognostic value of malnutrition assessed by the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT; range 0-12, higher = worse, consisting of serum albumin, cholesterol and lymphocytes) score in patients with CAD. The CONUT score was measured on admission in a total of 1987 patients with stable CAD who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2000 and 2011. Patients were divided into two groups according to their CONUT score (0-1 vs. ≥2). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including all-cause death and non-fatal myocardial infarction, was evaluated. The median CONUT score was 1 (interquartile range 0-2). During the median follow-up of 7.4 years, 342 MACE occurred (17.2%). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that patients with high CONUT scores had higher rates of MACE (log-rank p < 0.0001). High CONUT scores showed a significant increase in the incidence of MACE compared with low CONUT scores, even after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratio: 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.07, p < 0.0001). Adding CONUT scores to a baseline model with established risk factors improved the C-index (p = 0.02), net reclassification improvement (p = 0.004) and integrated discrimination improvement (p = 0.0003). Nutritional status assessed by the CONUT score was significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes in patients with CAD. Pre-PCI assessment of the CONUT score may provide useful prognostic information.

  2. Prevalence of incidental pulmonary findings and early follow-up results in patients undergoing dual-source 64-slice computed tomography coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Yorgun, Hikmet; Kaya, Ergün Barş; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Canpolat, Uğur; Sunman, Hamza; Aytemr, Kudret; Kabakçi, Giray; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Karçaaltincaba, Muşturay; Akata, Deniz; Oto, Ali

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence of pulmonary abnormalities and document early follow-up results in subjects undergoing multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the assessment of coronary artery disease. In this retrospective analysis, 1206 patients including 701 men (58.1%) with a mean age of 58.75 (SD, 11.4) years were involved in the study who underwent coronary multislice computed tomography imaging with a 64-slice dual-source scanner. Pulmonary abnormalities were reported as nodules, pulmonary mass, emphysema, bullae, atelectasia, bronchiectasia, pleural effusion, pulmonary fibrosis, and other findings. In total, 186 pulmonary abnormalities were detected in 171 patients (14.1%). Of those, 90 (48.4%) were pulmonary nodules, and 30 (16.1%) were emphysema. Also, we report 3 cases of lung cancer, and 1 case of breast cancer. Early follow-up results revealed stable pulmonary findings. Multislice computed tomography can give important clues including diseases regarding the pulmonary system. It is essential for the reporting practitioner to review the entire scan for pulmonary pathological findings.

  3. Early and late response-to-injury in patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography: arterial remodeling in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Roberto; Stegemann, Emilia; Özaslan, Göksen; Schuler, Dominik; Lukosz, Margarete; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Lauer, Thomas; Westenfeld, Ralf; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of smoking on vascular response to transradial coronary angiography (TCA). Background: Cigarette smoking is the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods: Radial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (RA-FMD), local stiffness (fractional diameter change), intima-media thickness (IMT), luminal and external arterial diameter were measured in 40 current smokers (CS) and former smokers (FS) at 6-14 months at the site of previous TCA and contralateral control artery. Vascular regenerative capacity was studied as chemotactic cell migration in vitro and ex vivo (n=10) and the time course of endothelial functional recovery following RA-FMD up to 72 h after TCA (n=10). Results: At 10 ± 3 months after TCA, subjects exhibited significant local stiffening and increased IMT as compared to the control arm. These late structural changes were significantly more pronounced in CS as compared to FS. IMT thickening correlated with packyears, number of daily cigarettes, and inversely with RA-FMD. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent chemotaxis of CS’ circulating angiogenic cells was impaired. Ex vivo incubation of endothelial cells with CS’ plasma inhibited NOS-dependent endothelial wound closure and chemotaxis. In vivo, TCA acutely decreased RA-FMD. At 24 h, RA-FMD had recovered in FS but remained impaired at 24 h and only recovered at 48 h in CS. Conclusion: In active smokers, transradial coronary angiography is associated with delayed early recovery from transient endothelial dysfunction, decreased NOS-dependent vascular regeneration, and late arterial remodeling pointing towards potential harmful effects of transradial coronary angiography on vascular function in distinct subsets of patients. PMID:25006532

  4. Differences in Prevalence, Extent, Severity, and Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease Among Patients With and Without Diabetes Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Jamal S.; Dunning, Allison; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor Y.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jörg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Labounty, Troy M.; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Villines, Todd C.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the prevalence, extent, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in individuals with and without diabetes (DM) who are similar in CAD risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified 23,643 consecutive individuals without known CAD undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. A total of 3,370 DM individuals were propensity matched in a 1-to-2 fashion to 6,740 unique non-DM individuals. CAD was defined as none, nonobstructive (1–49% stenosis), or obstructive (≥50% stenosis). All-cause mortality was assessed by risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS At a 2.2-year follow-up, 108 (3.2%) and 115 (1.7%) deaths occurred among DM and non-DM individuals, respectively. Compared with non-DM individuals, DM individuals possessed higher rates of obstructive CAD (37 vs. 27%) and lower rates of having normal arteries (28 vs. 36%) (P < 0.0001). CAD extent was higher for DM versus non-DM individuals for obstructive one-vessel disease (19 vs. 14%), two-vessel disease (9 vs. 7%), and three-vessel disease (9 vs. 5%) (P < 0.0001 for comparison), with higher per-segment stenosis in the proximal and mid-segments of every coronary artery (P < 0.001 for all). Compared with non-DM individuals with no CAD, risk of mortality for DM individuals was higher for those with no CAD (hazard ratio 3.63 [95% CI 1.67–7.91]; P = 0.001), nonobstructive CAD (5.25 [2.56–10.8]; P < 0.001), one-vessel disease (6.39 [2.98–13.7]; P < 0.0001), two-vessel disease (12.33 [5.622–27.1]; P < 0.0001), and three-vessel disease (13.25 [6.15–28.6]; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Compared with matched non-DM individuals, DM individuals possess higher prevalence, extent, and severity of CAD. At comparable levels of CAD, DM individuals experience higher risk of mortality compared with non-DM individuals. PMID:22699296

  5. [Association of cognitive impairments with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Trubnikova, О А; Mamontova, A S; Tarasova, I V; Maleva, O V; Kuzmina, A A; Barbarash, O L

    2015-01-01

    AIM. To comparatively analyze neuropsychological parameters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) depending on the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to evaluate their relationship to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic parameters. Fifty-two male patients with type 2 DM (mean age 58.0 ± 5.7 years) and 46 male patients without this condition (mean age 57.1 ± 6.2 years) were examined. Besides standard clinical examination, neurophysiological testing and determinations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c),) and insulin concentrations, QUICKI index, and blood lipid profile were made. The patients with DM differed from those without DM in the lower speeds of sensorimotor reactions during neurodynamic testing and in worse attention values. In the patients with type 2 DM, the worse neuropsychological status was associated with the higher plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, HbA(1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides and with the lower levels of high-density lipoproteins. These relationships were not observed in the patients without DM. The patients with CAD concurrent with DM had a worse neurophysiological status than those without DM. Only the DM group demonstrated a relationship between cognitive impairments and carbohydrate metabolic markers. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic disturbances may be assumed to make a negative contribution to the development of cognitive impairments in patients with CAD concurrent with type 2 DM.

  6. Acute Effects of Intracoronary Tirofiban on No-Reflow Phenomena in Patients With ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Akpek, Mahmut; Sahin, Omer; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Saglam, Hayrettin; Urkmez, Serkan; Ergin, Ali; Oguzhan, Abdurrahman; Arinc, Huseyin; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the acute effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban on no-reflow phenomenon in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Consecutive patients (n = 162) were randomized into 2 groups based on whether intracoronary tirofiban was administered. After the administration of intracoronary tirofiban, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade significantly increased (P < .001) and successful reperfusion was achieved in 26 (32%) patients. In the placebo group, however, after the administration of intracoronary placebo the TIMI flow grade did not change (P = .070), and successful reperfusion was achieved only in 8 (10%) patients. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly lower in the tirofiban group (36% vs 19%, P = .013). Intracoronary administration of tirofiban significantly improves TIMI flow grade and is associated with a lower in-hospital rate of MACE.

  7. Early but not late stent thrombosis is influenced by residual platelet aggregation in patients undergoing coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Tobias; Zürn, Christine; Simonenko, Rostislav; Rapin, Mathilde; Kraibooj, Hassan; Kilias, Antonios; Bigalke, Boris; Stellos, Konstantinos; Schwab, Matthias; May, Andreas E; Herdeg, Christian; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a relevant association of post-interventional residual platelet aggregation (RPA) under therapy with oral platelet inhibitors and the occurrence of atherothrombotic events. The influence of post-interventional RPA on the incidence of stent thrombosis (ST) has not been sufficiently evaluated in consecutive unselected cohorts of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients. The aim of this observational study was to investigate the impact of RPA on the incidence of ST within 3 months in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. The study population included a consecutive cohort of 1019 patients treated with PCI [n = 741 bare-metal stent (BMS) and n = 278 drug-eluting stent (DES)] due to symptomatic coronary artery disease. Residual platelet activity was assessed by adenosine disphosphate (20 micromol/L)-induced PA after 600 mg clopidogrel loading dose. Maximum RPA was measured as peak of aggregation, final RPA was measured 5 min after addition of agonist. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of ST within 3 months defined according to academic research consortium (ARC) criteria. Final and maximum RPA were independent predictors of ST after 3 months. In secondary analysis, the observed effects were independently associated with early ST (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08 and HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09, P < 0.01, respectively). However, incidence of 3-month late stent thrombosis (LAT) was not influenced by post-interventional RPA in multivariable analysis. Post-interventional RPA is associated with the occurrence of early ST in patients treated with either BMS or DES; however, there is no predictive value of RPA for the incidence of 3-month LAT, suggesting the involvement of other possible mechanisms like discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy.

  8. Safety and tolerability of SCH 530348 in patients undergoing non-urgent percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard C; Moliterno, David J; Jennings, Lisa K; Pieper, Karen S; Pei, Jinglan; Niederman, Alan; Ziada, Khaled M; Berman, Gail; Strony, John; Joseph, Diane; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Van de Werf, Frans; Veltri, Enrico; Harrington, Robert A

    2009-03-14

    An antithrombotic drug is needed that safely reduces cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We therefore assessed the tolerability and safety of SCH 530348-an oral platelet protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist. We randomly assigned patients aged 45 years or older and undergoing non-urgent PCI or coronary angiography with planned PCI to an oral loading dose of SCH 530348 (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) or matching placebo in a 3:1 ratio in a multicentre international study. Those in the SCH 530348 group who subsequently underwent PCI (primary PCI cohort) continued taking an oral maintenance dose (0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, or 2.5 mg per day), and patients in the placebo group continued placebo for 60 days. The primary endpoint was the incidence of clinically significant major or minor bleeding according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scale. Both investigators and patients were unaware of treatment allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00132912. 257 patients were assigned to placebo and 773 to SCH 530348. The primary endpoint occurred in 2 (2%) of 129, 3 (3%) of 120, and 7 (4%) of 173 patients, respectively, in the SCH 530348 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg groups compared with 5 (3%) of 151 patients in the placebo group (p=0.5786). TIMI major plus minor bleeding occurred in 3 (2%) of 136, 5 (4%) of 139, and 4 (3%) of 138 patients given SCH 530348 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, and 2.5 mg once per day, respectively (p=0.7561). Oral SCH 530348 was generally well tolerated and did not cause increased TIMI bleeding, even when administered concomitantly with aspirin and clopidogrel. Further testing in phase III trials to accurately define the safety and efficacy of SCH 530348 is warranted.

  9. A Modified Supine Position Facilitates Bladder Function in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yisi; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Ying; Elliott, Malcolm

    2017-07-18

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is currently the most common intervention for cardiovascular disease. Standard care after PCI typically involves a period of bed rest in the supine position, but this position creates voiding difficulties. This study aimed to determine whether a modified supine position could facilitate bladder emptying after PCI. A randomized controlled trial involving 300 patients was conducted. Patients in the intervention group were nursed in the supine position with the bed tilted 20° upright and with a pillow between their feet and the end of the bed. Patients in the control group received standard care, which was supine positioning. One hundred fifty patients were allocated to the intervention group (100 men, 50 women), and 150 were allocated to the control group (103 men, 47 women). Baseline data did not differ between the 2 groups. Patients in the intervention group had significantly better bladder function as evidenced by a shorter time to the first void (5 vs 15 minutes) and fewer patients requiring voiding assistance (8.6% vs 35.3%). Residual urinary volumes were also much lower in the intervention group (88.71 vs 248.22 mL, P < .001). This study demonstrates that a modified supine position can reduce the incidence of impaired micturition and the preservation of normal bladder function after PCI.

  10. What Have We Learned from CONFIRM? Prognostic Implications from a Prospective Multicenter International Observational Cohort Study of Consecutive Patients Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Otaki, Yuka; Arsanjani, Reza; Gransar, Heidi; Cheng, Victor Y.; Dey, Damini; Labounty, Troy; Lin, Fay Y.; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) employing CT scanners of 64-detector rows or greater represents a novel noninvasive method for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), providing excellent diagnostic information when compared to invasive angiography. In addition to its high diagnostic performance, prior studies have shown that CCTA can provide important prognostic information, although these prior studies have been generally limited to small cohorts at single centers. The Coronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For clinical Outcomes: An InterRnational Multicenter Registry, or CONFIRM, is a large, prospective, multinational, dynamic observational cohort study of patients undergoing CCTA. This registry currently represents more than 32,000 consecutive adults suspected of having CAD who underwent ≥ 64–detector row CCTA at 12 centers in 6 countries between 2005 and 2009. Based on its large sample size and adequate statistical power, the data derived from CONFIRM registry has and will continue to provide key answers to many important topics regarding CCTA. Based on its multisite international national design, the results derived from CONFIRM should be considered as more generalizable than prior smaller single-center studies. This article summarizes the current status of several studies from CONFIRM registry. PMID:22689072

  11. Efficacy and safety of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (MC-1) in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the MEND-CABG II randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alexander, John H; Emery, Robert W; Carrier, Michel; Ellis, Stephen J; Mehta, Rajendra H; Hasselblad, Vic; Menasche, Philippe; Khalil, Ahmad; Cote, Robert; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Mack, Michael J; Schuler, Gerhard; Harrington, Robert A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-16

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is frequently performed and effective; however, perioperative complications related to ischemia-reperfusion injury, including myocardial infarction (MI), remain common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. MC-1, a naturally occurring pyridoxine metabolite and purinergic receptor antagonist, prevents cellular calcium overload and may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Phase 2 trial data suggest that MC-1 may reduce death or MI in high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery. To assess the efficacy and safety of MC-1 administered immediately before and for 30 days after surgery in patients undergoing CABG surgery. The MC-1 to Eliminate Necrosis and Damage in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery II Trial, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 3023 intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass enrolled between October 2006 and September 2007 at 130 sites in Canada, the United States, and Germany. Patients received either MC-1, 250 mg/d (n = 1519), or matching placebo (n = 1504) immediately before and for 30 days after CABG surgery. The primary efficacy outcome was cardiovascular death or nonfatal MI, defined as a creatine kinase (CK) MB fraction of at least 100 ng/mL or new Q waves through postoperative day 30. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 140 of 1510 patients (9.3%) in the MC-1 group and 133 of 1486 patients (9.0%) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.30; P = .76). All-cause mortality was higher among patients assigned to MC-1 than placebo at 4 days (1.0% vs 0.3%; P = .03) but was similar at 30 days (1.9% vs 1.5%; P = .44). There was no difference in the 8- to 24-hour CK-MB area under the curve between the MC-1 and placebo groups (median, 270 [interquartile range, 175-492] vs 268 [interquartile range, 170-456] hours x ng/mL; P = .11). In this population of intermediate- to high

  12. Ethnicity and adverse operative outcomes among Australian patients undergoing first-time isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Maqsood; Matata, Bashir; Yii, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The study compared cardiovascular risks factors, morbidity and in-hospital mortality following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in Australian patients of different ethnic backgrounds including Aboriginal (AB), Italian (IT), Indian (IA), British Caucasians (BC), and Chinese (CH). These groups AB (n = 20), CH (n = 12), IT (n = 104), BC (n = 493), and IA (n = 16) all had first-time isolated CABG surgery at St. Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne from March 2001 to March 2007. AB patients were current or past smokers with the highest prevalence of preoperative diabetes (P = 0.001) and mostly had nonelective CABG surgery (P = 0.018). AB patients had higher incidences of postoperative respiratory failure (P = 0.001) compared with the other groups. In contrast, past history of MI (P = 0.012) was associated with IA patients. Both IA and AB groups had significantly higher acute renal failure rates requiring temporary dialysis (P = 0.025), longer ICU (P = 0.003) and hospital stays (P = 0.03) compared to BC, IT and CH groups. All groups had similar 30-day (P = 0.59) in-hospital mortality. The higher incidences of in-hospital morbidity observed in IA and AB compared to BC, IT, and CH groups suggests that ethnic lifestyle may be a strong risk factor. Larger confirmatory studies are required to verify incidents and elucidate reasons why ethnic-associated perioperative complications exist.

  13. [Development and evaluation of individualized fluid therapy in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: a randomized, controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Guo, Hai; Ye, Jian-rong; Chen, Lin

    2012-06-01

    To develop and evaluate an individualized fluid therapy in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. In this prospective study, 60 coronary heart disease patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery were included in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from March 2009 to March 2012. Patients were randomized into the intervention group and the control group with 30 patients in each group. Individualized fluid therapy was used during surgery and postoperative period in the ICU, which was determined based on target controlled fluid therapy according to cardiac index, stroke volume, and stroke volume variation. Traditional fluid therapy was used in the control group in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The two groups were compared in terms of postoperative hemodynamic parameters, total fluid volume, incidence of adverse cardiac events, and recovery of bowel function. Compared with the control group, mean arterial pressure was significantly increased at the commencement of the surgery. The cardiac index was significantly elevated during surgery and at the end of the surgery. Stroke volume was significantly increased after induction of anesthesia, during the surgery, and at the early stay of ICU period(all P<0.05). Serum lactic acid in the intervention group was significantly lower at the end of surgery and during ICU stay than that in the control group (all P<0.05). During surgery and 24-hour stay in ICU, the total fluid volume, crystal usage, and urine were significantly less, while colloidal fluid use was significantly more in the intervention group as compared to the control group(all P<0.05). The perioperative adverse cardiac event rate was 36.7%(11/30) in the intervention group, lower than 56.7%(17/30) in the control group, but the difference was no statistically significance(P>0.05). In the intervention group, defecation time, time to first flatus, resumption of liquid intake, length of

  14. Plasma levels of growth differentiation factor-15 are associated with myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhize; Li, Haiqing; Qi, Quan; Gong, Wenhui; Qian, Cheng; Dong, Rong; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Zhou, Mi; Cai, Junfeng; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Anqing; Ye, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-06-17

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has recently emerged as a risk predictor in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We therefore aimed to investigate the role of GDF-15 in the occurrence of cardiac injury during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). 55 consecutive patients with coronary artery diseases were recruited in this prospective, observational study. All patients were operated for OPCAB surgery. Serial blood samples were collected preoperatively, 12 hours and 36 hours after surgery. GDF-15, together with C-reactive protein, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels in plasma were measured at each time-point. GDF-15 levels increased significantly at 12 hours after surgery, attaining nearly 2.5 times the baseline levels (p < 0.001). Postoperative GDF-15 levels correlated positively with cTnI (p = 0.003) and EuroSCORE II (p = 0.013). According to the ROC curves, postoperative plasma GDF-15 was found to be the best biomarker to predict perioperative cardiac injury, compared with cTnI, CK-MB and EuroSCORE II. Circulating GDF-15 is a promising novel biomarker for identifying perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing OPCAB.

  15. Impact of Body Mass Index on Short-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Anne B.; Lester, Kendra K.; Midodzi, William K.; Pearce, Neil J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) is associated with advanced cardiovascular disease requiring procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Studies report better outcomes in obese patients having these procedures but results are conflicting or inconsistent. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest rate of obesity in Canada. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between BMI and vascular and nonvascular complications in patients undergoing PCI in NL. Methods. We studied 6473 patients identified in the APPROACH-NL database who underwent PCI from May 2006 to December 2013. BMI categories included normal, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 (n = 1073); overweight, 25.0 ≤ BMI < 30 (n = 2608); and obese, BMI ≥ 30.0 (n = 2792). Results. Patients with obesity were younger and had a higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and family history of cardiac disease. Obese patients experienced less vascular complications (normal, overweight, and obese: 8.2%, 7.2%, and 5.3%, p = 0.001). No significant differences were observed for in-lab (4.0%, 3.3%, and 3.1%, p = 0.386) or postprocedural (1.0%, 0.8%, and 0.9%, p = 0.725) nonvascular complications. After adjusting for covariates, BMI was not a significant factor associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion. Overweight and obesity were not independent correlates of short-term vascular and nonvascular complications among patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27668118

  16. Effect of hospital case volume on treatment and in-hospital outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. Results from the Ibaraki Coronary Artery Disease Study (ICAS) Registry.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka Machino, Tomoko; Toyama, Masahiro; Obara, Kenichi; Takeyasu, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2008-05-01

    The volume of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in a hospital has been suggested to correlate with favorable outcomes in patients undergoing primary PCI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, studies that use current data and compare treatment and outcomes for AMI among hospitals with different volumes are still limited in Japan. Between January 2004 and March 2006, 401 AMI patients underwent primary PCI in the 11 hospitals participating in the Ibaraki Coronary Artery Disease Study (ICAS). Clinical characteristics, treatment, and in-hospital outcomes were retrospectively compared between 254 patients admitted to high-volume PCI hospitals and 147 patients admitted to low-volume hospitals. Low-volume hospitals had a higher prevalence of multivessel disease patients. High-volume hospitals had longer onset-to-door times, which were offset by faster door-to-balloon times. Rates of coronary stent use and successful PCI were comparable between the groups. Low-volume hospitals more frequently performed intra-aortic balloon pumping. Length of stay was longer in low-volume hospitals, whereas in-hospital mortality, bypass surgery, and repeat PCI rates did not differ between groups. Although the present study assessed limited data based on small sample size, we observed that contemporary standard treatments including stent implantation were performed for AMI patients undergoing primary PCI in hospitals with both high and low case volumes. We did not find an obvious relationship between hospital PCI volume and in-hospital outcomes in our data. However, further prospective surveys should be attempted to confirm these results.

  17. Intra-procedural stent thrombosis: a new risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Brener, Sorin J; Cristea, Ecaterina; Kirtane, Ajay J; McEntegart, Margaret B; Xu, Ke; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence, correlates, and consequences of intra-procedural stent thrombosis (IPST) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Stent thrombosis (ST) is a rare but serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Academic Research Consortium definition of ST excludes events occurring during PCI. Angiograms from the ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage StrategY) and HORIZONS-AMI (Harmonizing Outcomes with RevascularIZatiON and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trials were reviewed frame-by-frame at an independent core laboratory for the occurrence of IPST. Patients with versus without IPST were compared to identify baseline characteristics associated with IPST and demonstrate the independent association between IPST and adjudicated events at 30 days and 1 year. Intra-procedural ST occurred in 47 (0.7%) of 6,591 patients. The occurrence of IPST was associated with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction presentation, high white blood cell count, treatment of thrombotic and bifurcation lesions, bivalirudin monotherapy, bail-out IIb/IIIa inhibitor use, and implantation of bare-metal (rather than drug-eluting) stents. Major adverse ischemic events were markedly higher in patients with versus without IPST, including mortality at 30 days (12.9% vs. 1.4%, p < 0.0001) and 1 year (12.9% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.0001). Out-of-lab Academic Research Consortium definite or probable ST also occurred significantly more often among IPST patients at 30 days (17.4% vs. 1.8%, p < 0.0001) and 1 year (19.9% vs. 2.7%, p < 0.0001). Intra-procedural ST was a significant independent predictor of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio: 3.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.66 to 9.00, p = 0.002). Intra-procedural ST is a relatively rare complication of PCI in ACS but is strongly associated with subsequent out-of-lab ST and mortality. Intra-procedural ST should be considered as a distinct category of ST and routinely

  18. The relationship between apnoea hypopnoea index and Gensini score in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing emergency primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cai-Ping; Li, Tao-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Shi-Xi; Fu, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Wei; Xiao, Xue-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) is characterised by repetitive nocturnal hypoxemia and has a high prevalence among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). But there are few studies on patients with AMI undergoing emergency primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). In this study, we want to find the prevalence of SAHS among patients with AMI undergoing emergency pPCI and determine whether SAHS would worsen the condition among these people, and especially affect the damage degree of the coronary artery. Over four months, 95 patients admitted for the first time for AMI were observed. All of them had emergency primary PCIs. A total of 86 patients accepted the sleep study and were divided into four groups according to the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI): SAHS was diagnosed when AHI ≥5/h and was defined as mild for AHI ≥5/h and <15/h, moderate for AHI ≥15/h and <30/h, and severe for AHI ≥30/h. On the contrary, the patients whose AHI <5/h were Non-SAHS. And the characteristics of the patients among these four groups were compared. According to the time of chest pain onset, the number of the patients between SAHS and non-SAHS, and patients' AHI during three intervals of one day were measured and compared; Makers including the sensitivity of serum troponin T (hs-TnT), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP), Gensini score and collateral vessels between the SAHS and non-SAHS were compared. And the relationships between the AHI of these patients and the markers were analysed. Of the 86 patients studied, 65 had SAHS, representing a SAHS prevalence of 75.58% among patients with AMI undergoing emergency pPCI. There were significant differences in average ages, smoking and arrhythmia (P<0.05) between these four groups. There was no significant difference between AMI patients with or without SAHS regarding the day-night pattern. But there showed significant

  19. Intracoronary versus intravenous high-dose bolus plus maintenance administration of tirofiban in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Candemir, Basar; Kilickap, Mustafa; Ozcan, Ozgur Ulas; Kaya, Cansin Tulunay; Gerede, Menekse; Ozdemir, Aydan Ongun; Ozdol, Cagdas; Kumbasar, Deniz; Erol, Cetin

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to examine whether intracoronary high-dose bolus of tirofiban plus maintenance would result in improved clinical outcome in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in this pilot trial. A total of 56 patients were enrolled to receive either intracoronary high-dose bolus plus maintenance (n = 34) or intravenous high-dose bolus plus maintenance (n = 22) of tirofiban. Pre and post intervention TIMI flow grades, myocardial blush grades, peak CKMB and troponin levels, time to peak CKMB and troponin, time to 50% ST resolution and major composite adverse cardiac event rates at 30 days were recorded. Although incidence of major adverse cardiac events was not different, post intervention TIMI flow and TIMI blush grades, peak CKMB and troponin levels, and time to peak CKMB and time to peak troponin were significantly different, favoring intracoronary strategy. In conclusion, this regimen improved myocardial reperfusion and coronary flow, and reduced myocardial necrosis, but failed to improve clinical outcomes at 30 days.

  20. Effects of tirofiban on platelet activation and endothelial function in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuan; Zuo, Guoxing; Zheng, Liuying; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Dong; Cao, Zhongnan; Hu, Sheng; Du, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined, for the first time, the effect of intracoronary administration of tirofiban, an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, on platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with ST-segment-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 119 STEMI patients were randomized into either tirofiban group (n = 72, intracoronary injection of 10 μg/kg tirofiban prior to PCI, followed by intravenous infusion at 0.15 μg/kg min) or a control group (n = 47), which did not receive tirofiban. Periprocedural administration of tirofiban was associated with significantly reduced levels of platelet activation (lower levels of CD62P and PAC-1) and endothelial dysfunction (reduced levels of endothelial microparticles, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1) 48 h after PCI. At 10 days after PCI, patients in the tirofiban group had a higher incidence of complete STR (78.7 vs. 65.0%) and higher left ventricular ejection fractions (47.8 vs. 44.2) compared to those in the control group. The clinical outcomes between two groups did not differ significantly two weeks after treatment. The results demonstrated that periprocedural administration of tirofiban is associated with significantly attenuated platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction in STEMI patients undergoing PCI. This may have contributed to the improved myocardial reperfusion and preservation of left ventricular systolic function in these patients.

  1. Multiarterial grafts improve the rate of early major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in patients undergoing coronary revascularization: analysis of 12 615 patients with multivessel disease†.

    PubMed

    Locker, Chaim; Schaff, Hartzell V; Daly, Richard C; Bell, Malcolm R; Frye, Robert L; Stulak, John M; Said, Sameh M; Dearani, Joseph A; Joyce, Lyle D; Greason, Kevin L; Pochettino, Alberto; Li, Zhuo; Lennon, Ryan J; Lerman, Amir

    2017-06-07

    Our goal was to compare the rates of in-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) including death, stroke, myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization in patients with multivessel disease undergoing multiarterial (MultArt) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with the left internal mammary artery/saphenous vein (LIMA/SV) CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). From 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2009, 12 615 consecutive patients underwent isolated primary CABG ( n  = 6667) with LIMA/SV ( n  = 5712) or MultArt ( n  = 955) or were treated by PCI ( n  = 5948) with balloon angioplasty ( n  = 1020), bare metal stent ( n  = 3242), and drug-eluting stent ( n  = 1686). We excluded patients with acute myocardial infarction. We matched the CABG group with the 3 PCI subgroups, and the PCI group with the 2 CABG subgroups. Multivariable analyses were used to evaluate the impact of CABG versus PCI and their subgroups on early MACCE. Unadjusted early MACCE were lower for MultArt (1.5%) than for LIMA/SV (4.5%, P  <   0.001) and PCI (8.5%, P  <   0.001). In matched analysis, CABG had lower early MACCE versus balloon angioplasty (4.7% vs 13.2%, P  <   0.001), bare metal stent (4.3% vs 8.3%, P  <   0.001), and drug-eluting stent (2.9% vs 5.5%, P  =   0.008), as well as LIMA/SV versus PCI (4.6% vs 9.2%, P  <   0.001) and MultArt versus PCI (1.8% vs 7.8%, P  <   0.001). Stroke rate was similar in MultArt versus PCI (0.8% vs 0.3%, P  =   0.18) but higher with LIMA/SV versus PCI (2.3% vs 0.4%, P  <   0.001). In multivariable analysis, PCI (odds ratio 4.53, 95% confidence interval: 2.62-7.83; P  <   0.001) and LIMA/SV (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-3.53; P  <   0.011) were strong predictors of early MACCE compared with MultArt. MultArt confers the lowest rate of early MACCE.

  2. Association between cardiothoracic ratio, left ventricular size and systolic function in patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, YINSU; XU, HAI; ZHU, XIAOMEI; WEI, YONGYUE; YANG, GUANYU; XU, YI; TANG, LIJUN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and left ventricular (LV) systolic function parameters in patients with or without preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). A total of 203 subjects suspected with coronary artery disease underwent chest radiography and dual source computed tomography coronary angiography (DSCT-CA). The LV systolic function parameters: LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), and LVEF were measured from the DSCT-CA. The association between CTR and LV systolic function parameters was analyzed according to LVEF value (<55%, depressed LVEF group; versus ≥55%, preserved LVEF group) and CTR value (<0.5, normal range CTR group; versus ≥0.5, larger CTR group). The LVEDVI and LVESVI were higher in the depressed LVEF group compared with the preserved LVEF group (108.56±57.15 vs. 67.52±14.56 ml/m2, P<0.001; and 64.07±37.81 vs. 20.23±7.23 ml/m2, P<0.001, respectively) and lower in the normal range CTR group compared with the larger CTR group (67.10±15.00 vs. 77.30±34.32 ml/m2, P=0.009 and 21.94±8.96 vs. 28.97±26.54 ml/m2, P=0.017, respectively). Significant correlations were found between CTR and LVEDVI, and LVESVI and LVEF in the depressed LVEF group (r=0.66, P<0.001; r=0.65, P<0.001; and r=−0.46, P=0.018, respectively). However, there was no significant association detected between CTR and LV systolic function parameters in the other subgroups. The LVEDVI and LVESVI showed an inverse correlation with the LVEF in each group. Although the CTR was not a reliable indicator of LV size and systolic function in patients with preserved LVEF, it was correlated with LV size and LVEF in patients with depressed LVEF. PMID:25371728

  3. The impact of listening to pleasant natural sounds on anxiety and physiologic parameters in patients undergoing coronary angiography: A pragmatic quasi-randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Seyed Davood; Jahani, Ali; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of listening to pleasant natural sounds on anxiety and physiological parameters in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The present pragmatic quasi-randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 130 patients undergone elective angiography. The participants were randomly divided into two groups, including a pleasant natural sounds group, and a control group (n1/2 65 per group). Spielberger's state/trait anxiety inventory was used to assess levels of anxiety. The patients' anxiety level and physiological parameters were measured at baseline, before, during, immediately after, and 20 min after coronary angiography. The mean level of anxiety was similar in both arms at baseline (t = 1.317, df = 128, p = 0.190). The intervention arm displayed significantly lower anxiety levels than the control arm during the intervention (Wilks' lambda 0.11, Pillai's trace 0.89, P 0.001, F 2.05). The physiological parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation) of both groups showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) over time and in group-by time interactions. As an effective nursing intervention presenting no side-effects, listening to pleasant natural sounds can be helpful in the management of anxiety. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between epicardial adipose tissue and ST-segment resolution in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zencirci, Ertuğrul; Zencirci, Aycan Esen; Değirmencioğlu, Aleks; Karakuş, Gültekin; Uğurlucan, Murat; Özden, Kıvılcım; Erdem, Aysun; Güllü, Ahmet Ümit; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Velibey, Yalçın; Erer, Hatice Betül; Çelik, Seden; Akyol, Ahmet

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and coronary artery disease has been predominantly demonstrated in the last two decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of EAT thickness on ST-segment resolution that reflects myocardial reperfusion in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The present study prospectively included 114 consecutive patients (mean age 54 ± 10 years, range 35-83, 15 women) with first acute STEMI who underwent successful pPCI. ST-segment resolution (ΔSTR) <70 % was accepted as ECG sign of no-reflow phenomenon. The EAT thickness was measured by two-dimensional echocardiography. EAT thickness was increased in patients with no-reflow (3.9 ± 1.7 vs. 5.4 ± 2, p = 0.001). EAT thickness was also found to be inversely correlated with ΔSTR (r = -0.414, p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that EAT thickness independently predicted no-reflow (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.13-1.82, p = 0.003). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy for EAT thickness in predicting no-reflow [area under curve (AUC) = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.63-0.82, p < 0.001]. In conclusion, increased EAT thickness may play an important role in the prediction of no-reflow in STEMI treated with pPCI.

  5. Comparing S-100 beta protein levels and neurocognitive functions between patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Huseyin; Hidiroglu, Mete; Cetin, Levent; Kucuker, Aslihan; Iriz, Erkan; Uguz, Emrah; Saglam, Fethi; Sener, Erol

    2013-06-15

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and on-pump cardiopulmonary bypass on the serum S-100 beta (S-100B) protein levels and neurocognitive functions of the patients. Sixty-four patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups: off-pump (group I, n = 24) and on-pump CABG (group II, n = 40) group. Serum S-100B levels were measured before and 0, 6, and 24 h after the operation. Neurocognitive function tests were done preoperatively and were repeated in the postoperative period as well. Serum S-100B levels were similar between the two groups preoperatively. However, median S-100B levels at 0, 6, and 24 h after the surgery were found to be significantly lower in the off-pump CABG group than in the on-pump group. The preoperative neurocognitive functions of the patients were similar between the two groups, whereas neurocognitive function was found to be significantly impaired postoperatively in the on-pump group in comparison with the off-pump CABG group. We concluded that off-pump CABG is associated with decreased serum S100 protein levels and less impairment on neurocognitive functions compared with the on-pump group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ISAR-REACT 3A: a study of reduced dose of unfractionated heparin in biomarker negative patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefanie; Mehilli, Julinda; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Schuster, Tibor; Massberg, Steffen; Valina, Christian; Seyfarth, Melchior; Pache, Jürgen; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Büttner, Hans-Joachim; Ndrepepa, Gjin; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2010-10-01

    Although a 140 U/kg dose of unfractionated heparin (UFH) was comparable with bivalirudin in terms of net clinical outcome in the Intracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment (ISAR-REACT) 3 trial, it was associated with a higher risk of bleeding. We designed this study to assess whether a reduction in the UFH dose from 140 to 100 U/kg is associated with improved net clinical outcome. A total of 2505 biomarker negative patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after clopidogrel pre-treatment received a single bolus of 100 U/kg UFH. The primary endpoint was net clinical outcome-a quadruple endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, urgent target-vessel revascularization within 30 days, or in-hospital REPLACE 2 defined major bleeding. The primary comparison was with the historical UFH group of ISAR-REACT 3 (2281 patients). In a second analysis, we checked for non-inferiority against the historical bivalirudin arm of ISAR-REACT 3 (2289 patients). The incidence of the primary endpoint was 7.3% in the lower UFH dose group compared with 8.7% in the higher UFH dose group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.00; P = 0.045]. The incidence of major bleeding was 3.6% in the lower UFH dose group and 4.6% in the higher UFH dose group (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.59-1.05; P = 0.11). The lower UFH dose met the criterion of non-inferiority compared with bivalirudin (P < 0.001). In biomarker negative patients undergoing PCI after clopidogrel loading, a reduced dose of 100 U/kg UFH provided net clinical benefit compared with the historical control of 140 U/kg UFH in the ISAR-REACT 3 trial. The benefit was mostly driven by reduction in bleeding. URL www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier NCT00735280.

  7. Perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery: a consensus document from Italian cardiological, surgical and anaesthesiological societies.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Roberta; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Visconti, Luigi Oltrona; Bramucci, Ezio; Castiglioni, Battistina; De Servi, Stefano; Lettieri, Corrado; Lettino, Maddalena; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Savonitto, Stefano; Trabattoni, Daniela; Capodanno, Davide; Buffoli, Francesca; Parolari, Alessandro; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Boni, Luigi; Biglioli, Federico; Valdatta, Luigi; Droghetti, Andrea; Bozzani, Antonio; Setacci, Carlo; Ravelli, Paolo; Crescini, Claudio; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Scarone, Pietro; Francetti, Luca; D'Angelo, Fabio; Gadda, Franco; Comel, Andrea; Salvi, Luca; Lorini, Luca; Antonelli, Massimo; Bovenzi, Francesco; Cremonesi, Alberto; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Guagliumi, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    Optimal perioperative antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery still remains poorly defined and a matter of debate among cardiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists. Surgery represents one of the most common reasons for premature antiplatelet therapy discontinuation, which is associated with a significant increase in mortality and major adverse cardiac events, in particular stent thrombosis. Clinical practice guidelines provide little support with regard to managing antiplatelet therapy in the perioperative phase in the case of patients with non-deferrable surgical interventions and/or high haemorrhagic risk. Moreover, a standard definition of ischaemic and haemorrhagic risk has never been determined. Finally, recommendations shared by cardiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists are lacking. The present consensus document provides practical recommendations on the perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing surgery. Cardiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists have contributed equally to its creation. On the basis of clinical and angiographic data, the individual thrombotic risk has been defined. All surgical interventions have been classified according to their inherent haemorrhagic risk. A consensus on the optimal antiplatelet regimen in the perioperative phase has been reached on the basis of the ischaemic and haemorrhagic risk. Aspirin should be continued perioperatively in the majority of surgical operations, whereas dual antiplatelet therapy should not be withdrawn for surgery in the case of low bleeding risk. In selected patients at high risk for both bleeding and ischaemic events, when oral antiplatelet therapy withdrawal is required, perioperative treatment with short-acting intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (tirofiban or eptifibatide) should be taken into consideration.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of everolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (from the SPIRIT-IV Trial).

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Vilain, Katherine; Durtschi, Amy J; Simonton, Charles A; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-15

    Although several drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been shown to be economically attractive compared to bare-metal stents in patients at moderate to high risk of restenosis, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative DES designs, especially second-generation DESs. We therefore performed an economic substudy alongside the SPIRIT-IV trial, in which 3,687 patients undergoing single or multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs; n = 2,458) or first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs; n = 1,229). Costs through 2 years of follow-up were assessed from the perspective of the United States health care system. The primary cost-effectiveness end point was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Over a 2-year period, use of EESs versus PESs led to a trend toward decreased overall repeat revascularization procedures (14.2 vs 16.2 per 100 subjects, p = 0.20) driven by a significant decrease in the number of target vessel revascularization procedures (8.2 vs 11.0 per 100 subjects, p = 0.02) but also a slight increase in the number of nontarget vessel revascularization procedures (6.0 vs 5.1 per 100 subjects, p = 0.37). Follow-up cardiovascular costs were decreased by $273/patient in the EES group (95% confidence interval for difference 1,048 less to 502 more, p = 0.49). Formal cost-effectiveness analysis based on these results demonstrated that the probability that EES was an economically attractive strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life year gained) was 85.7%. These findings demonstrate that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs, use of EESs is economically attractive compared to PESs with improved clinical outcomes and lower overall medical care costs at 2 years.

  9. [Peripheral perfusion in CAD patients with various-stage chronic heart failure undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Kamenskaia, O V; Klinkova, A S; Khabarov, D V

    Using the orthostatic test, we examined peripheral perfusion by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and transcutaneous oximetry in a total of 104 patients presenting with coronary artery disease and functional class II-IV chronic heart failure (CHF) prior to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and in the remote terms thereafter. Volumetric velocity of the microcirculatory blood flow (MCB) of the lower limbs was measured by means of LDF in perfusion units; partial oxygen pressure (TcPO2, mmHg) was registered by means of transcutaneous oximetry. The patients with CAD were subdivided into two groups as follows: Group One comprised patients with FC II CHF and Group Two included those with FC III-IV CHF. Prior to CABG according to the findings of LDF, the lowest level of MCB of the lower limbs was revealed in Group Two, being by 57.9% (42.5-61.3) less as compared with Group One (p=0.008). In Group Two patients as compared with Group One there was a larger proportion of patients with impaired reactivity of the peripheral microcirculatory bed during the orthostatic test in the form of: 1) a paradoxical reaction of the MCB both before CABG (60.6 versus 13.9%, p=0.00001) and in the remote terms after the operation (64.3 versus 16.2%, p=0.00001); 2) lack of the reaction of the MCB prior to the operation (19.7 versus 4.7%, p=0.02) and in the remote period after CABG (16.7 versus 2.7%, p=0.04). Group Two patients both before and after CABG were found to have a decrease (compared with the norm) in the TcPO2 parameters at rest, as well as lower reactivity of tissue metabolism of peripheral tissues during the orthostatic test. An initial decrease in the left ventricular output fraction of < 42% increases the chances of preserving the post-CABG decreased values of TcPO2 of less than 24 mm Hg (OR=3.1; 95% CI 1.1-6.8; p=0.003). Lack of the reaction of the MCB during the orthostatic test prior to CABG increases the chances for the development of surgically significant

  10. Outcomes of preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bandeali, Salman J; Kayani, Waleed T; Lee, Vei-Vei; Pan, Wei; Elayda, Mac Arthur A; Nambi, Vijay; Jneid, Hani M; Alam, Mahboob; Wilson, James M; Birnbaum, Yochai; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2012-10-01

    The association between preoperative use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remain controversial. Our aim was to study in-hospital outcomes after isolated CABG in patients on preoperative ACE inhibitors. A retrospective analysis of 8,889 patients who underwent isolated CABG from 2000 through 2011 was conducted. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of major adverse events (MAEs) defined as a composite of mortality, postoperative renal dysfunction, myocardial infarction, stroke, and atrial fibrillation during index hospitalization. The secondary outcome was the incidence of individual outcomes included in MAEs. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Of 8,889 patients, 3,983 (45%) were on preoperative ACE inhibitors and 4,906 (55%) were not. Overall incidence of MAEs was 38.1% (n = 1,518) in the ACE inhibitor group compared to 33.6% (n = 1,649) in the no-ACE inhibitor group. Preoperative use of ACE inhibitors was independently associated with MAEs (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.24), most of which was driven by a statistically significant increase in postoperative renal dysfunction (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.36) and atrial fibrillation (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.27). In-hospital mortality, postoperative myocardial infarction, and stroke were not significantly associated with preoperative ACE inhibitor use. Analyses performed after excluding patients with low ejection fractions yielded similar results. In conclusion, preoperative ACE inhibitor use was associated with an increased risk of MAEs after CABG, in particular postoperative renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation.

  11. Effect of milrinone on short term outcome of patients with myocardial dysfunction undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hadadzadeh, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Habib; Mostafavi Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof; Naderi, Nafiseh; Emami Meybodi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial dysfunction is a major complication in cardiac surgery that needs inotropic support. This study evaluates the effect of milrinone on patients with low ventricular ejection fraction undergoing off- pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB). The present study is designed to evaluate the effect of milrinone on myocardial dysfunction. Eighty patients with low ventricular ejection fraction (<35%), candidate for elective OPCAB, were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received milrinone (50 μg/kg) intravenously and another group received a saline as placebo followed by 24 hours infusion of each agent (0.5 μg/kg/min). Short outcome of patients such as hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction were variables evaluated. Serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, occurrence of arrhythmias and mean duration of mechanical ventilation were significantly lower in milrinone group (P<0.05). The mean post operative left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in milrinone group (P=0.031). There were no statistical significant differences between the two groups in terms of intra-aortic balloon pump, inotropic support requirement, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, duration of inotropic support, duration of intensive care unit stay, mortality and morbidity rate. Administration of milrinone in patients undergoing OPCAB with low ventricular ejection fraction is useful and effective.

  12. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure During Exercise Improves Walking Time in Patients Undergoing Inpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Pantoni, Camila Bianca Falasco; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Caruso, Flávia Cristina Rossi; Mezzalira, Daniel; Arena, Ross; Amaral-Neto, Othon; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used as an effective support to decrease the negative pulmonary effects of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, it is unknown whether CPAP can positively influence patients undergoing CABG during exercise. This study evaluated the effectiveness of CPAP on the first day of ambulation after CABG in patients undergoing inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Fifty-four patients after CABG surgery were randomly assigned to receive either inpatient CR and CPAP (CPG) or standard CR without CPAP (CG). Cardiac rehabilitation included walking and CPAP pressures were set between 10 to 12 cmH2O. Participants were assessed on the first day of walking at rest and during walking. Outcome measures included breathing pattern variables, exercise time in seconds (ETs), dyspnea/leg effort ratings, and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2). Twenty-seven patients (13 CPG vs 14 CG) completed the study. Compared with walking without noninvasive ventilation assistance, CPAP increased ETs by 43.4 seconds (P = .040) during walking, promoted better thoracoabdominal coordination, increased ventilation during walking by 12.5 L/min (P = .001), increased SpO2 values at the end of walking by 2.6% (P = .016), and reduced dyspnea ratings by 1 point (P = .008). Continuous positive airway pressure can positively influence exercise tolerance, ventilatory function, and breathing pattern in response to a single bout of exercise after CABG.

  13. Comparison of TIVA and Desflurane Added to a Subanaesthetic Dose of Propofol in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Evaluation of Haemodynamic and Stress Hormone Changes

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Tülin; Onk, Oruç Alper; Aksüt, Mehmet; Günay, Murat; Turkmen, Kultigin; Özensoy, Aynur; Yazıcı Ersoy, Çiğdem; Çoban, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Increased levels of stress hormones are associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aim. To compare total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol. Material and Methods. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. Fentanyl (3–5 mcg/kg/h) was started in both groups. Patients were divided into two groups. The PD group (n = 25) received 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) desflurane anaesthesia in addition to propofol infusion (2-3 mg/kg/h), while P group (n = 25) received propofol infusion (5-6 mg/kg/h) only. Biochemical data, cortisol, and insulin levels were measured preoperatively (T0), after initiation of CPB but before cross-clamping the aorta (T1), after removal of the cross-clamp (T2), and at the 24th postoperative hour (T3). Results. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure levels were significantly higher in PD group than those in P group in T1 and T2 measurements (p ≤ 0.05). CK-MB showed a significant decrease in group P (p ≤ 0.05). When we compared both groups, cortisol levels were significantly higher in PD group than P group (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion. Stress and haemodynamic responses were better controlled using TIVA than desflurane inhalation added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol in patients undergoing CABG. PMID:27547757

  14. Both PON1 Q192R and CYP2C19*2 influence platelet response to clopidogrel and ischemic events in Chinese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Huang, Xiaohong; Tang, Yong; Xie, Yuquan; Zhang, Yachen

    2015-01-01

    Clopidogrel nonresponsiveness increases the recurrence of cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Previous studies found that genetic variants such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C19 and PON1 may influence clopidogrel response, cause high platelet reactivity (HPR) and increase cardiovascular events. However, these studies were inconsistent and inconclusive, especially in the Eastern Asian population. In this study, we investigated the effects of genetic variants on clopidogrel response and clinical outcomes in Chinese patients undergoing PCI. A total of 336 acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing PCI were included, 53 (15.77%) of whom were categorized as HPR. Among the 10 SNPs studied (ABCB1, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP2C19*4, CYP2C19*17, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ITGB3, P2Y12 and PON1 Q192R), the CYP2C19*4 and P2Y12 variants were not found in our population. The PON1 192Q and CYP2C19*2 alleles were significantly higher in the HPR group compared with the normal platelet reactivity (NPR) group (P=0.033 and 0.038, respectively), while the other SNPs were not significantly different between the two groups. Platelet aggregation of the PON1 192Q allele carriers was significantly higher than that of non-carriers both at baseline and 1 month after PCI (P=0.010 and 0.024, respectively); this was the case for CYP2C19*2 allele carriers, as well (P=0.005 and 0.003, respectively). The risk of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) increased with the presence of the PON1 192Q and CYP2C19*2 alleles during 6-month follow-up (P=0.012 and 0.003, respectively). In conclusion, both the PON1 Q192R and CYP2C19*2 variants are associated with HPR and an increased risk of ischemic events in Chinese patients undergoing PCI.

  15. Impact of high loading dose of atorvastatin in diabetic patients with renal dysfunction undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Mohamed; Hamza, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of statin pretreatment in reducing the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been examined in some observational and randomized studies, yielding controversial results. This study sought to evaluate the role of atorvastatin in prevention of CIN in diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). 130 patients with mean glomerular filtration rate of 48.5 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m were prospectively enrolled, then randomly (double blind) assigned in 1:1 ratio to receive atorvastatin (80 mg daily for 48 h) or placebo. Serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate were measured preintervention, 72 h and 10 days thereafter. An increase in serum creatinine by >0.5 mg/dL (44.2 μmol/L) or >25% of baseline value was considered as CIN. Mean age of the study cohort was 56 ± 5 years (males: 62%). Mean serum creatinine level in the placebo group increased significantly 3 days after coronary intervention and declined on the 10th day to a level that did not differ significantly from the baseline level, but still higher. However, in atorvastatin group, mean serum creatinine level showed a nonsignificant rise on the third day and then decreased to a level close to the baseline one, on the 10th day. Incidence of CIN was 7.7% in atorvastatin group and 20% in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Atorvastatin dose of 80 mg per day for 48 h is associated with decreased incidence of CIN in diabetic patients with CKD undergoing PCI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Mitral valve repair is not always needed in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, J.E.; Jaarsma, W.; Kelder, J.C.; Morshuis, W.J.; Visser, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is defined as mitral regurgitation in the absence of intrinsic valvular abnormalities. We prospectively evaluated the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement (AVR), without additional mitral valve repair, on the degree of moderate or severe FMR. Study design and methods From a cohort of 2829 patients undergoing CABG and/or AVR in the St. Antonius Hospital, 67 patients were identified with moderate or severe FMR by transthoracic and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Results Two out of the 67 patients (3%) died perioperatively. During follow-up (3-18 months) mitral regurgitation decreased by one grade in 29 patients, by two grades in 28, by three grades in five patients and remained unchanged in one patient (p=0.0001). Of all patients, 85% had grade I mitral regurgitation or less. Grade II mitral regurgitation remained in nine patients with a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications. NYHA class improved from 3.1+0.5 to 1.4+0.4 (p=0.0001). Ejection fraction increased from 46 to 55% (p=0.0001). Overall, left atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions decreased significantly. In contrast, no decrease in dimensions was seen in patients with postoperative grade II mitral regurgitation. Conclusion FMR may improve significantly following CABG and/or AVR, although a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications may affect outcome. PMID:25696484

  17. Safety and Effectiveness of Bivalirudin in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Hamdi, Abdul Hafeez; Dali, Ahmad Fauzi; Mat Nuri, Thimarul Huda; Saleh, Muhammad Syafiq; Ajmi, Noor Nabila; Neoh, Chin Fen; Ming, Long Chiau; Abdullah, Amir Heberd; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that while bivalirudin exhibits similar efficacy with heparin, it offers several advantages over heparin, such as a better safety profile. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin use during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in the treatment of angina and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct from January 1980 to January 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bivalirudin to heparin during the course of PCI in patients with angina or ACS were included. Outcome measures included all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularisation, stent thrombosis, stroke, and major bleeding. The selection, quality assessment, and data extraction of the included trials were done independently by four authors, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 12 RCTs involving 44,088 subjects were included. Bivalirudin appeared to be non-superior compared to heparin in reducing all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularisation, and stroke. Bivalirudin appeared to be related to a higher risk of stent thrombosis when compared to heparin plus provisional use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) at day 30 (RR 1.94 [1.16, 3.24] p < 0.01). Overall, bivalirudin-based regimens present a lesser risk of major bleeding (RR 0.56 [0.44–0.71] p < 0.001), and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding (RR 0.56 [0.43–0.73]) compared with heparin-based regimens either with provisional or routine use of a GPI. However, the magnitude of TIMI major bleeding effect varied greatly (p < 0.001), depending on whether a GPI was provisionally used (RR 0.42 [0.34–0.52] p < 0.001) or routinely used (RR 0.60 [0.43 –0.83] p < 0.001), in the heparin arm. This meta

  18. Safety and Effectiveness of Bivalirudin in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad Hamdi, Abdul Hafeez; Dali, Ahmad Fauzi; Mat Nuri, Thimarul Huda; Saleh, Muhammad Syafiq; Ajmi, Noor Nabila; Neoh, Chin Fen; Ming, Long Chiau; Abdullah, Amir Heberd; Khan, Tahir Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that while bivalirudin exhibits similar efficacy with heparin, it offers several advantages over heparin, such as a better safety profile. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin use during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in the treatment of angina and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct from January 1980 to January 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing bivalirudin to heparin during the course of PCI in patients with angina or ACS were included. Outcome measures included all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularisation, stent thrombosis, stroke, and major bleeding. The selection, quality assessment, and data extraction of the included trials were done independently by four authors, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 12 RCTs involving 44,088 subjects were included. Bivalirudin appeared to be non-superior compared to heparin in reducing all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularisation, and stroke. Bivalirudin appeared to be related to a higher risk of stent thrombosis when compared to heparin plus provisional use of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) at day 30 (RR 1.94 [1.16, 3.24] p < 0.01). Overall, bivalirudin-based regimens present a lesser risk of major bleeding (RR 0.56 [0.44-0.71] p < 0.001), and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding (RR 0.56 [0.43-0.73]) compared with heparin-based regimens either with provisional or routine use of a GPI. However, the magnitude of TIMI major bleeding effect varied greatly (p < 0.001), depending on whether a GPI was provisionally used (RR 0.42 [0.34-0.52] p < 0.001) or routinely used (RR 0.60 [0.43 -0.83] p < 0.001), in the heparin arm. This meta

  19. The Effect of Pre-Emptive Dexmedetomidine on the Incidence of Post-Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Jabbary Moghaddam, Morteza; Barkhori, Ali; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Hashemian, Morteza; Amir Mohajerani, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is pain that recurs or persists along a thoracotomy incision for at least two months following surgery. Dexmedetomidine (dex) is an α-2 agonist that also has analgesic, sedative-hypnotic, and sympatholytic properties. Objectives To determine the effect of pre-emptive dexmedetomidine on the incidence of PTPS in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients and Methods This randomized clinical trial enrolled 104 candidates for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and randomly assigned them to either a dex group or a control group. In the dex group, dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg/hour was infused from the initiation of anesthesia until postoperative extubation in the intensive-care unit. Two months after surgery, the patients were contacted by telephone and interviewed to determine the presence of pain at the thoracotomy scars. Results Fifty-four patients were placed in the control group, and 50 patients were assigned to the dex group. The age, sex, and body mass index were not significantly different between the two groups of study (P > 0.05). The incidence of PTPS was 11/50 (22%) patients in the dex group and 28/54 patients (52%) in the control group. A chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the incidence of PTPS after two months between the dex and control groups (P = 0.032). Conclusions PTPS is a common problem following CABG, and pre-emptive therapy with dex may decrease neuropathic pain. PMID:27660748

  20. Uncalibrated pulse power analysis fails to reliably measure cardiac output in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Broch, Ole; Renner, Jochen; Höcker, Jan; Gruenewald, Matthias; Meybohm, Patrick; Schöttler, Jan; Steinfath, Markus; Bein, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    Uncalibrated arterial pulse power analysis has been recently introduced for continuous monitoring of cardiac index (CI). The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of arterial pulse power analysis with intermittent transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Forty-two patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia, before and after CPB respectively. Each patient was monitored with the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system, a central venous line and the recently introduced LiDCO monitoring system. Haemodynamic variables included measurement of CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution (CITPTD) or CI derived by pulse power analysis (CIPP), before and after calibration (CIPPnon-cal., CIPPcal.). Percentage changes of CI (ΔCITPTD, ΔCIPPnon-cal./PPcal.) were calculated to analyse directional changes. Before CPB there was no significant correlation between CIPPnon-cal. and CITPTD (r2 = 0.04, P = 0.08) with a percentage error (PE) of 86%. Higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) values were significantly correlated with higher CIPPnon-cal. (r2 = 0.26, P < 0.0001). After CPB, CIPPcal. revealed a significant correlation compared with CITPTD (r2 = 0.77, P < 0.0001) with PE of 28%. Changes in CIPPcal. (ΔCIPPcal.) showed a correlation with changes in CITPTD (ΔCITPTD) only after CPB (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.005). Uncalibrated pulse power analysis was significantly influenced by MAP and was not able to reliably measure CI compared with TPTD. Calibration improved accuracy, but pulse power analysis was still not consistently interchangeable with TPTD. Only calibrated pulse power analysis was able to reliably track haemodynamic changes and trends.

  1. Uncalibrated pulse power analysis fails to reliably measure cardiac output in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Uncalibrated arterial pulse power analysis has been recently introduced for continuous monitoring of cardiac index (CI). The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of arterial pulse power analysis with intermittent transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Forty-two patients scheduled for elective coronary surgery were studied after induction of anaesthesia, before and after CPB respectively. Each patient was monitored with the pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) system, a central venous line and the recently introduced LiDCO monitoring system. Haemodynamic variables included measurement of CI derived by transpulmonary thermodilution (CITPTD) or CI derived by pulse power analysis (CIPP), before and after calibration (CIPPnon-cal., CIPPcal.). Percentage changes of CI (ΔCITPTD, ΔCIPPnon-cal./PPcal.) were calculated to analyse directional changes. Results Before CPB there was no significant correlation between CIPPnon-cal. and CITPTD (r2 = 0.04, P = 0.08) with a percentage error (PE) of 86%. Higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) values were significantly correlated with higher CIPPnon-cal. (r2 = 0.26, P < 0.0001). After CPB, CIPPcal. revealed a significant correlation compared with CITPTD (r2 = 0.77, P < 0.0001) with PE of 28%. Changes in CIPPcal. (ΔCIPPcal.) showed a correlation with changes in CITPTD (ΔCITPTD) only after CPB (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.005). Conclusions Uncalibrated pulse power analysis was significantly influenced by MAP and was not able to reliably measure CI compared with TPTD. Calibration improved accuracy, but pulse power analysis was still not consistently interchangeable with TPTD. Only calibrated pulse power analysis was able to reliably track haemodynamic changes and trends. PMID:21356060

  2. Cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baschet, Louise; Bourguignon, Sandrine; Marque, Sébastien; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Teiger, Emmanuel; Wilquin, Fanny; Levesque, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients requiring a percutaneous coronary intervention in France, using a recent meta-analysis including second-generation DES. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed in the French National Health Insurance setting. Effectiveness settings were taken from a meta-analysis of 117 762 patient-years with 76 randomised trials. The main effectiveness criterion was major cardiac event-free survival. Effectiveness and costs were modelled over a 5-year horizon using a three-state Markov model. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were calculated for a range of thresholds for willingness to pay per year without major cardiac event gain. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results Base case results demonstrated that DES are dominant over BMS, with an increase in event-free survival and a cost-reduction of €184, primarily due to a diminution of second revascularisations, and an absence of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis. These results are robust for uncertainty on one-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of €7000 per major cardiac event-free year gained, DES has a >95% probability of being cost-effective versus BMS. Conclusions Following DES price decrease, new-generation DES development and taking into account recent meta-analyses results, the DES can now be considered cost-effective regardless of selective indication in France, according to European recommendations. PMID:27621830

  3. ADMA predicts major adverse renal events in patients with mild renal impairment and/or diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Heunisch, Fabian; Chaykovska, Lyubov; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of our study was to evaluate serum ADMA concentration as a biomarker of an acute renal damage during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast medium (CM) application. Blood samples were obtained from 330 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment immediately before, 24 and 48 hours after the CM application for coronary angiography. The patients were followed for 90 days. The composite endpoints were major adverse renal events (MARE) defined as occurrence of death, initiation of dialysis, or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration. Overall, ADMA concentration in plasma increased after CM application, although, there was no differences between ADMA levels in patients with and without CIN. ADMA concentration 24 hours after the CM application was predictive for dialysis with a specificity of 0.889 and sensitivity of 0.653 at values higher than 0.71 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.854, 95% confidential interval: 0.767–0.941, P < 0.001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. 24 hours after the CM application, ADMA concentration in plasma was predictive for MARE with a specificity of 0.833 and sensitivity of 0.636 at a value of more than 0.70 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.750, 95% confidence interval: 0.602–0.897, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ADMA and anemia were significant predictors of MARE. Further analysis revealed that increased ADMA concentration in plasma was highly significant predictor of MARE in patients with CIN. Moreover, patients with CIN and MARE had the highest plasma ADMA levels 24 hours after CM exposure in our study

  4. ADMA predicts major adverse renal events in patients with mild renal impairment and/or diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Heunisch, Fabian; Chaykovska, Lyubov; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Kellner, Karl-Heinz; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide (NO)-synthase and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED plays an important role in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of our study was to evaluate serum ADMA concentration as a biomarker of an acute renal damage during the follow-up of 90 days after contrast medium (CM) application.Blood samples were obtained from 330 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus or mild renal impairment immediately before, 24 and 48 hours after the CM application for coronary angiography. The patients were followed for 90 days. The composite endpoints were major adverse renal events (MARE) defined as occurrence of death, initiation of dialysis, or a doubling of serum creatinine concentration.Overall, ADMA concentration in plasma increased after CM application, although, there was no differences between ADMA levels in patients with and without CIN. ADMA concentration 24 hours after the CM application was predictive for dialysis with a specificity of 0.889 and sensitivity of 0.653 at values higher than 0.71 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.854, 95% confidential interval: 0.767-0.941, P < 0.001). This association remained significant in multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for relevant factors of long-term renal outcome. 24 hours after the CM application, ADMA concentration in plasma was predictive for MARE with a specificity of 0.833 and sensitivity of 0.636 at a value of more than 0.70 μmol/L (area under the curve: 0.750, 95% confidence interval: 0.602-0.897, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that ADMA and anemia were significant predictors of MARE. Further analysis revealed that increased ADMA concentration in plasma was highly significant predictor of MARE in patients with CIN. Moreover, patients with CIN and MARE had the highest plasma ADMA levels 24 hours after CM exposure in our study cohort. The impact

  5. Comparison of Perioperative Thoracic Epidural Fentanyl with Bupivacaine and Intravenous Fentanyl for Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Amitabh Chanchal; Rajan, Sunil; Balachandran, Rakhi; Kumar, Lakshmi; Nair, Suresh Gangadharan

    2017-01-01

    Context: Two-thirds of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery report moderate to severe pain, particularly with ambulatory or respiratory effort. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the analgesic effect of perioperative thoracic epidural fentanyl with bupivacaine and intravenous fentanyl in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Settings and Design: The study was a prospective, randomized, nonblinded comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients coming under the American Society of Anesthesiologists Class III who were posted for CABG surgery were recruited in this study. The patients were randomized into one of two groups, higher thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) group receiving general anesthesia with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in the postoperative period, and intravenous fentanyl analgesia group receiving general anesthesia with fentanyl infusion in the postoperative period. The pain was assessed at 4 h after extubation when the patient was fully awake, then at 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 100 mg as rescue analgesia whenever visual analog scale score was 5 and above. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), sedation scores, and physiotherapy cooperation were also assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: The numerical data were analyzed using an independent t-test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Pain at rest and on cough was significantly lower in HTEA patients as compared to control group. Patients HTEA group got less frequent rescue analgesia than the control group. Physiotherapy cooperation was significantly better in HTEA patients at 4, 12, and 24 h postextubation. They also had significantly lower heart rate, MAP, and sedation scores. Conclusion: Perioperative TEA using fentanyl with bupivacaine provided optimal postoperative analgesia at rest and during coughing in patients following CABG surgery as compared to postoperative analgesia with

  6. Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Era of Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Min; Tripathy, Dipti Ranjan; Park, Sang Wook; Park, Bonil; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun-Won; Ahn, Sung-Gyun; Ahn, Min Soo; Kim, Jang-Young; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to be a major adverse predictor in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is expected that the use of newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) would improve clinical outcomes in these patients. We evaluated the impact of CKD on clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing PCI using newer-generation DES in a real-world setting. Subjects and Methods A total of 887 patients who underwent PCI with newer-generation DES and who had a history of DM or HbA1c >6.5% at the time of hospitalization were analyzed. These patients were divided into groups without CKD (n=549) and with CKD (n=338). Among survivors at discharge, a patient-oriented composite outcome (POCO) including all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization was evaluated, together with a device-oriented composite outcome (DOCO) including cardiac death, target vessel-related MI, and target lesion revascularization at a follow-up period of one year. Results The incidence of POCO (5.4% vs. 14.0%, log-rank p<0.001) and DOCO (1.1% vs. 4.1%, log-rank p<0.001) was higher in patients with CKD. According to multivariate analysis, which was adjusted for baseline differences in demographic, clinical, and angiographic factors, the presence of CKD was an independent predictor of POCO (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 3.12), but not of DOCO (HR 2.08, 95% CI: 0.69-6.28). Conclusion In DM patients, CKD is an independent and powerful predictor of patient-related outcomes, but not of device-related outcomes in the era of newer-generation DES. PMID:28382078

  7. Prasugrel Results in Higher Decrease in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Comparing to Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mandana; Chitsazan, Mitra; Salehi, Negar; Amin, Ahmad; Bidokhti, Arash Amin; Babaali, Nima; Bordbar, Armin; Hejrati, Maral; Moghadami, Samar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A growing body of clinical and laboratory evidence indicates that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we compared the effects of clopidogrel and prasugrel on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS The present randomized, double-blind clinical trial included 120 patients who underwent PCI. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to one of the two groups: 80 patients in the first group received clopidogrel (Plavix®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 300 and 75 mg daily, respectively) and 40 patients in the second group received prasugrel (Effient®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 60 and 10 mg, respectively) for 12 weeks. The hs-CRP levels between baseline and 12th week were compared. RESULTS Of the 120 patients, 69 patients (57.5%) were male. Pretreatment hs-CRP level was statistically comparable in clopidogrel (median, 15.10 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 9.62–23.75 mg/dL) and prasugrel groups (median, 18 mg/dL; IQR, 14.25–22 mg/dL; P = 0.06). Patients taking clopidogrel showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP level compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). Prasugrel administration also resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). A significant 73% overall reduction in the hs-CRP level was seen with prasugrel compared with 39% overall reduction in hs-CRP level with clopidogrel (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Prasugrel seems to be superior to clopidogrel in the reduction of hs-CRP in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27597810

  8. Predictors of common femoral artery access site complications in patients on oral anticoagulants and undergoing a coronary procedure

    PubMed Central

    Shammas, Nicolas W; Shammas, Gail A; Jones-Miller, Susan; Gumpert, Mileah Rose; Gumpert, Miranda Jade; Harb, Christine; Chammas, Majid Z; Shammas, W John; Khalafallah, Rommy A; Barzgari, Amy; Bou Dargham, Bassel; Daher, Ghassan E; Rachwan, Rayan Jo; Shammas, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether patients on oral anticoagulants (OAC) undergoing a procedure using common femoral artery access have higher adverse events when compared to patients who are not anticoagulated at the time of the procedure. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients who underwent a cardiac procedure at a tertiary medical center. Patients were considered (group A) fully or partially anticoagulated if they had an international normalized ratio (INR) ≥1.6 on the day of the procedure or were on warfarin or new OAC within 48 h and 24 h of the procedure, respectively. The nonanticoagulated group (group B) had an INR <1.6 or had stopped their warfarin and new OAC >48 h and >24 h preprocedure, respectively. The index primary end point of the study was defined as the composite end point of major bleeding, vascular complications, or cardiovascular-related death during index hospitalization. The 30-day primary end point was defined as the occurrence of the index primary end point and up to 30 days postprocedure. Results A total of 779 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 27 (3.5%) patients were in group A. The index primary end point was met in 11/779 (1.4%) patients. The 30-day primary composite end point was met in 18/779 (2.3%) patients. There was no difference in the primary end point at index between group A (1/27 [3.7%]) and group B (10/752 [1.3%]; P=0.3155) and no difference in the 30-day primary composite end point between group A (2/27 [7.4%]) and group B (16/752 [2.1%]; P=0.1313). Multivariable analysis showed that a low creatinine clearance (odds ratio [OR] =0.56; P=0.0200) and underweight patients (<60 kg; OR =3.94; P=0.0300) were independent predictors of the 30-day primary composite end point but not oral anticoagulation (P=0.1500). Conclusion Patients on OAC did not have higher 30-day major adverse events than those who were not anticoagulated at index procedure. PMID:28408835

  9. Impact of different clinical pathways on outcomes of patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the RAPID-AMI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Rui-Yan; Qiu, Jian-Ping; Jin, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Li; Liao, Min-Lei; Hu, Jian; Ding, Feng-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Sheng; Shen, Wei-Feng

    2009-03-20

    Current guidelines support primary percutaneous coronary intervention (primary PCI) as the first treatment of choice (as opposed to thrombolytic therapy) for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) especially when delivered within 12 hours of symptom onset. We aimed to evaluate the impact of different clinical pathways on reduction of reperfusion delay and subsequent improvement in outcomes in patients with STEMI. From November 2005 to November 2007, 546 consecutive patients with definite STEMI, who upon arrival at the emergency room were triaged to undergo primary PCI, were included. Of them, 271 patients were brought directly to catheterization laboratory (rapid group), and 275 patients were admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) or cardiac ward first, and then transferred to the catheterization laboratory (non-rapid group). Primary endpoint was door-to-balloon (D2B) time, and secondary endpoints included infarct size assessed by peak CK-MB level and rates of major cardiac adverse events (MACE) including death, reinfarction, or target-vessel revascularization during hospitalization and at 30-day clinical follow-up. Baseline clinical characteristics, angiographic features and procedural success rates were comparable between the two groups, except that more patients received glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors before angiography (84.0% and 77.1, P = 0.042) and had TIMI 3 flow in the culprit vessel at initial angiogram (17.1% and 9.2%, P = 0.007) in the non-rapid group. The D2B time was shortened ((108 +/- 44) minutes and (138 +/- 31) minutes, P < 0.0001), and number of patients with D2B time < 90 minutes was greater (22.6% and 10.9%, P < 0.0001) in the rapid group. The advantages associated with rapid intra-hospital transfer were enhanced if the patients presented to the hospital at regular hours. Peak CK-MB level was significantly reduced in the rapid group. In-hospital mortality (4.1% and 5.8%) and cumulative MACE rate (7

  10. Comparison of Iodixanol and Iopromide in Patients With Renal Insufficiency and Congestive Heart Failure Undergoing Coronary Angiography by Hemodynamic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Qian, Geng; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Dong, Wei; Cao, Feng; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the impact of contrast media (CM) with different osmolality on cardiac preload in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients with CKD and CHF were equally randomized to receive either iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) iodixanol or low-osmolar contrast media iopromide. We measured cardiac preload indexes by invasive hemodynamic monitoring before and after CM injection. Major adverse cardiac events postprocedures were recorded. Increase in extravascular lung water index was only seen in the iopromide group ( P < .001), while global end diastolic index and central venous pressure were all significantly increased from baseline in the both groups ( P < .001, respectively), and the increase in cardiac preload indexes was significantly greater in the iopromide group than in the iodixanol group ( P < 0.001). The overall incidence of acute heart failure was more frequently observed in the iopromide group ( P = 0.027). Low-osmolar contrast media iopromide significantly increased cardiac preload in patients with CKD and CHF undergoing cardiac catheterization procedures compared with IOCM iodixanol.

  11. The relationship between Gensini score and ST-segment resolution in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zencirci, Aycan Esen; Zencirci, Ertugrul; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karakus, Gultekin; Ugurlucan, Murat; Gunduz, Sabahattin; Ozden, Kivilcim; Erdem, Aysun; Karadeniz, Fatma; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Erer, Hatice; Sayar, Nurten; Eren, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of patients with myocardial infarction are primarily determined by the successful restoration of myocardial reperfusion and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. To investigate the predictive value of Gensini score on ST-segment resolution (STR) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The present study prospectively included 114 consecutive patients (mean age 54 ± 10 years, 15 women) with STEMI who underwent successful pPCI. Sum of ST-segment elevation amount in millimetres was obtained before angioplasty and 60 min after pPCI. ΣSTR < 50% was accepted as a ECG sign of no-reflow phenomenon. Thrombus grading was calculated according to the results of coronary angiography, and Gensini score (GS-pPCI) was calculated after pPCI without incorporating culprit lesion. Patients were divided into two groups according to STR: those with STR(-), and those with STR(+). Patients were also analysed according to the infarct-related artery. GS-pPCI was significantly higher in patients with STR(-) (10.1 ± 11.8 vs. 22 ± 18.6, p = 0.005). GS-pPCI was inversely correlated with STR (r = -0.287, p = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, patients in the STR(-) group with culprit lesion in left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery also showed higher GS-pPCI (10.9 ± 13.5 vs. 23.5 ± 21.3, p = 0.03 and 9.6 ± 8.7 vs. 24.1 ± 21, p = 0.04, respectively). High thrombus burden was also observed more frequently in patients with STR(-) (68% vs. 43%, p = 0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that GS-pPCI and high thrombus burden independently predicted inadequate STR (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.12, p = 0.001 and OR 3.28, 95% CI1.11-9.72, p = 0.03, respectively). GS-pPCI and high thrombus burden play an important role in predicting inadequate STR in patients with STEMI treated with pPCI.

  12. Renal function and effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Although statin therapy is essential for secondary cardiovascular prevention, the therapeutic effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) after coronary revascularization has not been fully elucidated. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2, 14,706 patients who underwent first coronary revascularization were divided into 4 strata based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or status of hemodialysis (HD). Patients in each stratum were further divided into 2 groups based on statin therapy at discharge: non-CKD stratum (eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 8,959 patients (statin, n = 4,747; no statin, n = 4,212); mild CKD stratum (eGFR ≥30 to <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 4,567 patients (statin, n = 2,135; no statin, n = 2,432); severe CKD stratum (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 608 patients (statin, n = 229; no statin, n = 379); and HD stratum, 572 patients (statin, n = 117; no statin, n = 455). Median follow-up duration was 956 days (interquartile range 699 to 1,245). Adjusted risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stoke) was significantly lower in the statin group than in the no-statin group in the non-CKD (hazard ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.95, p = 0.01) and mild CKD (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.56 to 0.84, p = 0.0002) strata. However, a significant association of statin therapy and lower risk for MACEs was not seen in the severe CKD (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.38, p = 0.65) and HD (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.69, p = 0.87) strata. In conclusion, statin therapy was associated with significantly lower risk for MACEs in patients with non-CKD and mild CKD undergoing coronary revascularization. However, therapeutic benefits of statins were not apparent in patients with severe CKD and HD.

  13. Impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on platelet function tests and coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kaikita, Koichi; Ono, Takamichi; Iwashita, Satomi; Nakayama, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Horio, Eiji; Nakamura, Shinichi; Tsujita, Kenichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nakao, Koichi; Oshima, Shuichi; Sugiyama, Seigo; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    Carriers of the reduced-function CYP2C19 allele receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel exhibit diminished platelet inhibition and an increased risk of events. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CYP2C19 gene variants on platelet function tests and coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This prospective, observational, multicenter study enrolled 104 consecutive Japanese patients undergoing elective PCI. We examined the CYP2C19 genotype, platelet function tests, the levels of coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers and the serum levels of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) before, immediately after and one, two and 28 days after PCI. A total of 68 (65%) of the 104 enrolled patients were carriers of the CYP2C19 reducedfunction allele. On-clopidogrel platelet aggregation (PA), measured using light transmittance aggregometry and the VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 system, and the platelet reactivity index (PRI) were significantly higher at all time points in the carriers than in the noncarriers (p<0.05), whereas there were no differences in the levels of the coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers or serum hs-TnT. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses identified on-clopidogrel PA and PRI as being significant predictors of carriers of the CYP2C19 reduced-function allele. The present study suggests that platelet function tests, but not coagulation, inflammatory or cardiac biomarkers, are useful for identifying carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function gene variants and monitoring the efficacy of DAPT in patients undergoing elective PCI.

  14. Changes in serum magnesium concentration after use of a proton pump inhibitor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Ho; Lee, Sun-hyo; Lee, Ji-Sung; Shin, Won-Yong; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Yang, Jong-Oh; Lee, Eun-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Although cross-sectional studies have suggested a relationship between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and hypomagnesemia, no large-scale cohort study has been conducted to date. Here, we examined the changes in serum magnesium levels in response to PPI use. We hypothesized that PPI use might change the serum magnesium concentration. Methods Of the 2,892 patients hospitalized for percutaneous coronary intervention between January 2007 and May 2012, 1,076 patients with normal baseline (1.6–2.5 mg/dL) and follow-up serum magnesium concentrations were enrolled. These patients were divided into two groups: the PPI group and the control group. Results The mean follow-up period was 9.51 ± 2.94 months. The incidence of hypomagnesemia (< 1.6 mg/dL) was 0.4% (3/834) in the PPI group and 0.4% (1/242) in the control group (P = 0.904). The change in magnesium levels did not differ between the two groups, and this result was maintained in the analysis of covariance after adjusting for confounding factors (P = 0.381). Moreover, magnesium levels did not significantly differ between the long-term (duration of use ≥ 12 months, n = 71) and short-term PPI groups (duration of use < 12 months, n = 763), and the control group (n = 242; P = 0.620). The effect of PPI use on change in serum magnesium concentration was affected by the use of multiple diuretics (−0.01 ± 0.25 mg/dL; P = 0.025), although a single diuretic use with PPI did not alter the change in magnesium level (0.12 ± 0.27 mg/dL). Conclusion Changes in magnesium levels might be subtle after PPI use in patients with normal baseline magnesium values. PMID:26484029

  15. Clinical utility of new bleeding criteria: a prospective study of evaluation for the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition of bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Seo, Jeong-Min; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Kyungil; Kim, Young-Dae

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the new bleeding criteria, proposed by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC), compared with the old criteria for determining the action of physicians in contact with bleeding events, after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The BARC criteria were independently associated with an increased risk of 1-year mortality after PCI, and provided a predictive value, in regard to 1-year mortality. The standardized bleeding definitions will be expected to help the physician to correctly analyze the bleeding events, to select an optimal treatment, and to objectively compare the results of multiple trials and registries. All the patients undergoing PCI from June to September 2012 were prospectively enrolled. Patients who experienced a bleeding event were further classified, based on three different bleeding severity criteria: BARC, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI), and Global Use of Strategies To Open coronary arteries (GUSTO). The primary outcome was the occurrence of bleeding events requiring interruption of antiplatelet therapy (IAT) by physicians. A total of 376 consecutive patients were included in this study. Total bleeding events occurred in 46 patients (12.2%). BARC type ≥2 bleeding occurred in 30 patients (8.0%); however, TIMI major or minor bleeding, and GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 6 (1.6%) and 11 patients (2.9%), respectively. Of the 46 patients, 28 (60.9% of patients) required IAT. On receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, bleeding defined BARC type ≥2 effectively predicted IAT, with a sensitivity of 89.3%, and a specificity of 98.5% (p<0.001), compared with TIMI (sensitivity, 21.4%; specificity, 100%; p<0.001), and GUSTO (sensitivity, 39.3%; specificity, 100%; p<0.001). Compared with TIMI and GUSTO, the BARC definition may be a more useful tool for the detection of bleeding with clinical relevance, for patients undergoing PCI. Copyright

  16. Emotional processes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgeries with extracorporeal circulation in view of selected indicators of the inflammatory condition.

    PubMed

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Pielok, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin; Samborska, Regina

    2015-01-09

    The aim of this study was to describe positive and negative emotions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries with extracorporeal circulation and the correlations between emotions and basic indicators of the inflammatory condition: C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, body temperature, and leukocyte count. Standardized tools were used to select 52 patients (aged 47-63 years, 6 women--11.5% and 46 men--88.5%) without dementia or depression. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to examine positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X1 and X2) was used to examine the anxiety level. The patients underwent CABG surgery according to a common anesthesia protocol and for 5 consecutive days they were observed in the ward, where selected indicators of the inflammatory condition were monitored. A detailed description of the results of examinations of emotions was presented. The patients with low PA-trait level, high NA-trait level, and high anxiety-trait level (STAI X2) exhibited statistically significantly higher body temperatures than the other patients in the postoperative period. The patients with high NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1) had statistically significantly lower CRP levels in the postoperative period than the patients with low NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1). Patients undergoing CABG operations express both positive and negative affects. The changes in the inflammatory markers are expressed mostly by CRP concentration. There exist relationships between the result of tests assessing emotions and the markers of the inflammatory condition.

  17. Emotional Processes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgeries with Extracorporeal Circulation in View of Selected Indicators of the Inflammatory Condition

    PubMed Central

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Pielok, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin; Samborska, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe positive and negative emotions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries with extracorporeal circulation and the correlations between emotions and basic indicators of the inflammatory condition: C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, body temperature, and leukocyte count. Material/Methods Standardized tools were used to select 52 patients (aged 47–63 years, 6 women – 11.5% and 46 men – 88.5%) without dementia or depression. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to examine positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X1 and X2) was used to examine the anxiety level. The patients underwent CABG surgery according to a common anesthesia protocol and for 5 consecutive days they were observed in the ward, where selected indicators of the inflammatory condition were monitored. Results A detailed description of the results of examinations of emotions was presented. The patients with low PA-trait level, high NA-trait level, and high anxiety-trait level (STAI X2) exhibited statistically significantly higher body temperatures than the other patients in the postoperative period. The patients with high NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1) had statistically significantly lower CRP levels in the postoperative period than the patients with low NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1). Conclusions Patients undergoing CABG operations express both positive and negative affects. The changes in the inflammatory markers are expressed mostly by CRP concentration. There exist relationships between the result of tests assessing emotions and the markers of the inflammatory condition. PMID:25573296

  18. Frontal planar QRS/T angle can be a prognostic factor in the early postoperative period of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Kubilay; Celik, Murat; Gokoglan, Yalcin; Kadan, Murat; Kaya, Erkan; Doganci, Suat; Yildirim, Vedat; Demirkilic, Ufuk

    2014-12-01

    Wide QRS/T angle reflects the ventricular repolarization heterogeneity and has been found in association with cardiac morbidity and mortality in various study populations. However, literature data about the availability of QRS/T angle in patients undergoing cardiac surgery has not yet been available. A total of 157 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were included in this study. A preoperative 12-lead ECG was obtained one day before surgical procedure. The absolute difference between the frontal QRS wave axes and T-wave axes was defined as frontal planar QRS/T angle. Afterwards, patients were divided into two groups according to their frontal planar QRS/T angle (the cut-off value as 90°). Group 1 consisted of 109 patients with frontal planar QRS/T angle of <90, and the remaining 48 patients with frontal planar QRS/T angle 90 were placed into group 2. Mean EuroSCORE was much higher in group 2. There were significant differences for positive inotropic agent usage (27.5% for group 1 versus 58.3% for group 2, P < .001) and the prevalence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (11.9% for group 1 versus 31.2% for group 2, P = .004) between the two groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, used to determine the independent predictors of positive inotropic usage in the early postoperative period, only frontal planar QRS/T angle (OR: 0.989, 95% CI: 0.981-0.997, P = .008) and EuroSCORE (OR: 0.792, 95% CI: 0.646-0.971, P = .025) were found to be statistically significant. We found that frontal planar QRS/T angle might be an important preoperative parameter in predicting the need for inotropic drugs in the early postoperative period following coronary artery bypass surgery.

  19. Data feedback reduces door-to-balloon time in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeng-Feng; Hsu, Shun-Yi; Wu, Semon; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Chang, Heng-Chia; Liu, Chih-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Li; Ho, Yao-Tsan; Weng, Shu-Li; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend a goal of door-to-balloon (D2B) time < 90 min for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aim to prospectively determine the effect of data feedback on D2B time and its seven individual components in primary PCI. From December 7, 2007, to June 2, 2009, 116 consecutive patients with STEMI who received PCI within 12 h of symptom onset were enrolled, including 56 patients before and 60 patients after the implementation of data feedback on July 28, 2008. The proportion of patients treated within 90 min increased from 26.8 to 55.0% (p = 0.002). On multivariable analyses, data feedback (OR 5.3, p = 0.003), known coronary artery disease (OR 5.6, p = 0.043), regular hours presentation (OR 3.3, p = 0.048), and arrival by transfer (OR 14.0, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of a D2B time less than 90 min. Median D2B time decreased from 112 min before data feedback to 87 min after data feedback (p < 0.001). The most significant decrease occurred in median door-to-ECG (11 vs. 3 min, p < 0.001), consult-to-cardiologist (5 vs. 3 min, p < 0.001), and puncture-to-balloon (21 vs. 17 min, p = 0.004) time. Data feedback to the emergency department and catheterization laboratory staff decreases D2B time in primary PCI. This simple approach may be the best first step to decrease D2B time in hospitals that are still striving to achieve the goal of D2B time < 90 min.

  20. Effect of adding postoperative noninvasive ventilation to usual care to prevent pulmonary complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Al Jaaly, Emad; Fiorentino, Francesca; Reeves, Barnaby C; Ind, Philip W; Angelini, Gianni D; Kemp, Scott; Shiner, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    We compared the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation with bilevel positive airway pressure added to usual care versus usual care alone in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We performed a 2-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was time until fit for discharge. Secondary outcomes were partial pressure of carbon dioxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, atelectasis, adverse events, duration of intensive care stay, and actual postoperative stay. A total of 129 patients were randomly allocated to bilevel positive airway pressure (66) or usual care (63). Three patients allocated to bilevel positive airway pressure withdrew. The median duration of bilevel positive airway pressure was 16 hours (interquartile range, 11-19). The median duration of hospital stay until fit for discharge was 5 days for the bilevel positive airway pressure group (interquartile range, 4-6) and 6 days for the usual care group (interquartile range, 5-7; hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.31; P = .019). There was no significant difference in duration of intensive care, actual postoperative stay, and mean percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second on day 3. Mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly reduced 1 hour after bilevel positive airway pressure application, but there was no overall difference between the groups up to 24 hours. Basal atelectasis occurred in 15 patients (24%) in the usual care group and 2 patients (3%) in the bilevel positive airway pressure group. Overall, 30% of patients in the bilevel positive airway pressure group experienced an adverse event compared with 59% in the usual care group. Among patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of bilevel positive airway pressure at extubation reduced the recovery time. Supported by trained staff, more than 75% of all patients allocated to bilevel positive airway pressure tolerated it for more

  1. Comparison of on-treatment platelet reactivity between triple antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol and standard dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary interventions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Hemang B; Shah, Tejaskumar; Patel, Parthavkumar; Albalbissi, Kais; Molnar, Janos; Coffey, Brandon; Khosla, Sandeep; Ramu, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    The recent literature has shown that triple antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol in addition to the standard dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel may reduce platelet reactivity and improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of triple antiplatelet therapy and dual antiplatelet therapy in regard to on-treatment platelet reactivity. Nine studies (n = 2179) comparing on-treatment platelet reactivity between dual antiplatelet therapy (n = 1193) and triple antiplatelet therapy (n = 986) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were included. Primary end points were P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) and platelet reactivity index (PRI). Secondary end points were platelet aggregation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) 5 and 20 µmol/L and P2Y12% inhibition. Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed and 2-sided α error <.05 was considered as a level of significance. Compared to dual antiplatelet therapy, triple antiplatelet therapy had significantly lower maximum platelet aggregation with ADP 5 µmol/L (MD: -14.4, CI: -21.6 to -7.2, P < .001) and 20 µmol/L (MD: -14.9, CI: -22.9 to -6.8, P < .001), significantly lower PRUs (MD: -45, CI: -59.4 to -30.6, P < .001) and PRI (MD: -26, CI: -36.8 to -15.2, P < .001), and significantly higher P2Y12% inhibition (MD: 18.5, CI: 2.3 to 34.6, P = .025). Addition of cilostazol to conventional dual antiplatelet therapy significantly lowers platelet reactivity and may explain a decrease in thromboembolic events following coronary intervention; however, additional studies evaluating clinical outcomes will be helpful to determine the benefit of triple antiplatelet therapy.

  2. Six-minute walk test as a tool for assessing the quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Vanessa Cristina; Palhares, Luciana Campanatti; de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo Martins; Silveira Filho, Lindemberg Mota; Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre de Souza; Severino, Elaine Soraya Barbosa de Oliveira; Lavagnoli, Carlos Fernando Ramos; Petrucci, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    To assess the quality of life in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization using the six-minute walk test. Prospective observational study with patients who undergoing CABG. The clinical variables, the sixminute walk test, and the SF-36 test were recorded. The patients were assessed at the preoperative time and at 2 months of postoperative period. According their six-minute walk test results, the patients were divided into two groups: group walked more than 350 meters (> 350 meters Group) and the group walked less than 350 meters (< 350 meters Group) at the preoperative time. Eight-seven patients were included. Age was comparable in both groups (59 ± 9.5 years vs. 61 ± 9.3 years; respectively, P = 0.24). The group walked > 350 meters distance was higher than the < 350 meters group after 2 months of operation (436 ± 78 meters vs. 348 ± 87 meters; P <0.01). The quality of life was lower in the < 350 meters group compared to the > 350 meters group in the preoperative period in the following domains: functional capabilities, limitations due to physical aspects, overall health feelings, vitality, and social aspects. Quality of life improved after two months in both groups. The six-minute walk test at the preoperative time is associated with the quality of life after two months of coronary artery bypass grafting. In overall, quality of life has improved in all patients. The improvement in the quality of life was greater in those patients who walked distances lower than 350 meters at the preoperative time.

  3. Relationship between Pre-Procedural Serum Lipid Profile and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Maadani, Mohsen; Abdi, Seifollah; Parchami-Ghazaee, Sepideh; Alizadeh, Keivan; Fathi, Hosein; Musavi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Along with technological progress in coronary intervention, periprocedural complications and adverse outcomes have markedly improved, yet perioperative myocardial injury is a frequent complication during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is strongly associated with post-procedural cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological researchers have defined lipid and lipoproteins abnormality as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Although several studies focus on identification the correlation between the changes of lipid profile levels and ischemic markers, there is a little information about the role of lipid profile disturbance as a predictor of periprocedural myocardial injuries. Objectives: This study aimed to observe the relationship between lipid profile levels and the post-procedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective PCI. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 138 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of coronary artery disease who underwent PCI. Of a total 138, 35 patients had cardiac biomarker elevation, more than 3 × ULN, post-procedurally. The control group (n = 103), without cardiac enzyme rising after PCI were randomly chosen three times the number of patients with increased cardiac enzymes more than three times the ULN. Samples for serum lipid parameters [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL)] were collected after 12-14 fasting hours immediately pre-procedurally. The samples for CPK-MB were collected at 8, 16, and 24 hours post procedurally. Results: Although the mean level of TC, LDL-C and TG was higher in patients with CPK-MB more than 3×ULN post procedurally, differences were insignificant. Among different lipid parameters, only the mean level of VLDL showed a considerable association with myocardial injury

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Post Procedural Creatine Kinase, MB Form can Predict Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Selective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed

    Maadani, Mohsen; Parchami-Ghazaee, Sepideh; Barati, Ghodratollah; Soltani, Monireh; Amiri, Elahe; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Heidarali, Mona

    2014-02-01

    Measuring cardiac markers in blood has been the main strategy for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction for nearly 50 years. Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) has been demonstrated to be a highly specific marker. The present study aimed to assess the role of CK-MB changes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to predict one year outcomes of this procedure. This cohort study was conducted on 138 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease who underwent PCI. Sixty-nine patients who had a CK-MB elevation ≥ 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) post procedurally were considered as group I and 69 patients without cardiac enzyme rise after PCI were considered as the control group (group II). The composite end point of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during one year was assessed by telephone follow-up or presentation at clinical visiting, and compared between the two groups. The MACE was defined as the appearance of at least one of the following events: mortality, repeated revascularization procedures, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular events. Although one year mortality in the group I was 4 (5.8%), about two times greater than the other group 2 (2.9%), the difference was not significantly discrepant (P = 0.57). Moreover, 8 (11.6%) of patients in group I experienced one year MACE, while this rate in the other group was 4 (5.8%), with insignificant difference (P = 0.22). In group I, one case experienced coronary artery bypass surgery, one, exhibited cerebrovascular disease and one reported ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), while two patients in the other group were suspicious of having non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and candidates for repeated PCI. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased post-procedural CK-MB ≥ 3 times UNL could not predict long-term MACE in patients who underwent selective PCI. Area under the curve (AUC) for predicting one year MACE was 0.593 (95% CI: 0.397 - 0

  5. Cangrelor With and Without Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Harrington, Robert A; Stone, Gregg W; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Gibson, C Michael; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Menozzi, Alberto; Prats, Jayne; Elkin, Steven; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; White, Harvey D; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-17

    Cangrelor, an intravenous, reversible P2Y12 antagonist, is approved for use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cangrelor compared with clopidogrel in subgroups that did and did not receive glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPIs). This pooled, patient-level analysis of the 3 CHAMPION (Cangrelor versus Standard Therapy to Achieve Optimal Management of Platelet Inhibition) trials analyzed all randomized patients who underwent PCI and received the study drug (n = 24,902). Only bailout/rescue GPI use was permitted, except in CHAMPION PCI, in which routine or bailout/rescue GPI use was at the site investigator's discretion. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 h after randomization. Overall, 3,173 patients (12.7%) received a GPI, most commonly eptifibatide (69.4%). Despite variation in indications for GPIs, baseline characteristics were well balanced between the cangrelor and clopidogrel arms in subsets receiving and not receiving GPIs. Rates of the primary composite endpoint were lower with cangrelor compared with clopidogrel in patients who did (4.9% vs. 6.5%; odds ratio [OR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55 to 1.01) or did not receive a GPI (3.6% vs. 4.4%; OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.94; Pint = 0.55). Cangrelor did not increase the primary safety endpoint, GUSTO-defined severe/life-threatening bleeding, in patients who did (0.4% vs. 0.5%; OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.99) or did not receive GPIs (0.2% vs. 0.1%; OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 0.80 to 3.04; Pint = 0.21). GPI use was associated with increased risk of bleeding in both treatment arms. Cangrelor's efficacy in reducing ischemic complications in patients undergoing PCI was maintained irrespective of GPI administration. GPI use was associated with substantially higher bleeding rates, regardless of the

  6. Beneficial effect of preventative intra-aortic balloon pumping in high-risk patients undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass grafting-a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qingcheng; Xing, Jialin; Miao, Na; Zhao, Yanyan; Jia, Zaishen; Li, Jiawei; Chen, Yu; Gao, Quanxin; Liu, Anxin; Sun, Zhiquan; Liu, Xiaojun; Ji, Bingyang

    2009-08-01

    Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) has been used widely as a routine cardiac assist device for perioperative support in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the optimal timing for high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG using IABP is unknown. The purpose of this investigation is to compare preoperative and preventative IABP insertion with intraoperative or postoperative obligatory IABP insertion in high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG. We reviewed our IABP patients' database from 2002 to 2007; there were 311 CABG patients who received IABP treatment perioperatively. Of 311 cases, 41 high-risk patients who had first-time on-pump or off-pump CABG (presenting with three or more of the following criteria: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 0.45, unstable angina, CABG combined with aneurysmectomy, or left main stenosis greater than 70%) entered the study. We compared perioperatively the clinical results of 20 patients who underwent preoperative IABP placement (Group 1) with 21 patients who had obligatory IABP placement intraoperatively or postoperatively during CABG (Group 2). There were no differences in preoperative risk factors, except left ventricular aneurysm resection, between the two groups. There were no differences in indications for high-risk patients between the two groups. The mean number of grafts was similar. There were no significant differences in the need for inotropes, or in cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and infective complications postoperatively. There were no IABP-related complications in either group. Major adverse cardiac event (severe hypotension and/or shock, myocardial infarction, and severe hemodynamic instability) was higher in Group 2 (14 [66.4%] vs. 1 [5%], P < 0.0001) during surgery. The time of IABP pumping in Group 1 was shorter than in Group 2 (72.5 +/- 28.9 h vs. 97.5 +/- 47.7 h, P < 0.05). The duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay in Group 1 was significantly shorter

  7. Cost analysis of bivalirudin versus reference anticoagulants without GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome in routine clinical practice. Pompidou registry.

    PubMed

    Puymirat, E; Cohen, S; Védrenne, G; Caruba, T; Sabatier, B; Danchin, N; Durand, E

    2013-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown improved short-term bleeding outcomes for bivalirudin compared to other anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study analyzed the cost/efficacy profile of bivalirudin-based anticoagulation strategy versus non bivalirudin-based anticoagulant strategy without use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in routine clinical practice. From January 2009 to December 2010, 216 patients who underwent PCI for ACS at hospital Georges-Pompidou without GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors were studied. Of these patients, 24 (11%) received bivalirudin and 192 (88%) received others anticoagulants (mainly unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin). Ischemic events and bleeding or transfusion were slightly lower in bivalirudin group (0 vs. 4.2%, P=0.60 and 4.2 vs. 8.9%, P=0.70, respectively). In spite of a higher cost of the medication, the overall cost of the bivalirudin strategy was slightly lower (9167±3688 € vs. 14,016±14,749 €, P=0.23), in relation with a shorter average duration of the hospital stay. In conclusion, in this limited, single-center, population of patients with ACS, the clinical efficacy and safety of bivalirudin appeared at least as good as that of reference anticoagulants in real world clinical practice, with no increase in overall costs.

  8. ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway as an Alternative to Standard Endotracheal Tube in Securing Upper Airway in the Patients Undergoing Beating-heart Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kalpana

    2017-01-01

    Background: ProSeal laryngeal mask airways (PLMAs) are routinely used after failed tracheal intubation as airway rescue, facilitating tracheal intubation by acting as a conduit and to secure airway during emergencies. In long duration surgeries, use of endotracheal tube (ETT) is associated with various hemodynamic complications, which are minimally affected during PLMA use. However, except for few studies, there are no significant data available that promote the use of laryngeal mask during cardiac surgery. This prospective study was conducted with the objective of demonstrating the advantages of PLMA over ETT in the patients undergoing beating-heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methodology: This prospective, interventional study was carried out in 200 patients who underwent beating-heart CABG. Patients were randomized in equal numbers to either ETT group or PLMA group, and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were observed at different time points. Results: Patients in PLMA group had mean systolic blood pressure 126.10 ± 5.31 mmHg compared to the patients of ETT group 143.75 ± 6.02 mmHg. Pulse rate in the PLMA group was less (74.52 ± 10.79 per min) (P < 0.05) compared to ETT group (81.72 ± 9.8). Thus, hemodynamic changes were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PLMA than in ETT group. Respiratory parameters such as oxygen saturation, pressure CO2 (pCO2), peak airway pressure, and lung compliance were similar to ETT group at all evaluation times. The incidence of adverse events was also lower in PLMA group. Conclusion: In experience hand, PLMA offers advantages over the ETT in airway management in the patients undergoing beating-heart CABG. PMID:28074798

  9. Renal toxicity evaluation and comparison between visipaque (iodixanol) and hexabrix (ioxaglate) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography: the RECOVER study: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sang-Ho; Youn, Tae-Jin; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Park, Jin-Shik; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Cho, Young-Seok; Chung, Woo-Young; Joo, Gwon-Wook; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Mook; Park, Young-Bae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2006-09-05

    This study sought to compare the nephrotoxicity of iodixanol and ioxaglate in patients with renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography. Iodixanol, a nonionic, dimeric, iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM), may be less nephrotoxic than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in high-risk patients. In a prospective, randomized trial in 300 adults with creatinine clearance (CrCl) < or =60 ml/min, patients received either iodixanol or ioxaglate and underwent coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary end point was the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) (an increase in serum creatinine [SCr] > or =25% or > or =0.5 mg/dl [> or =44.2 mumol/l]). The incidence of CIN in patients with severe renal impairment at baseline (CrCl <30 ml/min) or diabetes and in those receiving large doses (> or =140 ml) of contrast medium was also determined. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower with iodixanol (7.9%) than with ioxaglate (17.0%; p = 0.021), corresponding to an odds ratio (OR) of CIN of 0.415 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.194 to 0.889) for iodixanol. The incidence of CIN was also significantly lower with iodixanol in patients with severe renal impairment (p = 0.023) or concomitant diabetes (p = 0.041), or in patients given > or =140 ml of contrast media (p = 0.038). Multivariate analysis identified use of ioxaglate (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.11 to 6.33, p = 0.028), baseline SCr, mg/dl (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.85, p = 0.038), and left ventricular ejection fraction, % (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99, p = 0.019) as independent risk factors for CIN. The IOCM iodixanol was significantly less nephrotoxic than ioxaglate, an ionic, dimeric LOCM. (The RECOVER Trial; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00247325).

  10. Comparison of Time Trends of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Framingham Risk Score Between Patients With and Without Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Intervention Over the Last 17 Years: From the Mayo Clinic Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Li, Jing; Lennon, Ryan J; Delacroix, Sinny; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lerman, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate cardiovascular disease risk factor (cvRF) profiles and compare their trends over 17 years in patients with and without acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Time trends of cvRF are different between ACS and non-ACS patients. This study was a time-trend analysis from 1994 to 2010 within the Mayo Clinic PCI registry. Outcome measures were incidence and prevalence of cvRF, including the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), at the time of admission for PCI. Age of non-ACS patients was higher than that of ACS patients, and age distribution slightly shifted toward older age in both groups (P for trend <0.001). There was no difference in FRS between the 2 groups; however, 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (%) remained higher in non-ACS than in ACS patients, decreasing over time. Diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in non-ACS patients, but total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in ACS patients, with an improving trend over time. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and history of hypercholesterolemia were higher in non-ACS patients, increasing over time. Smoking did not change over time. Use of most medications increased over time in both groups. Most cvRFs and their time trends exhibited statistically significant differences between ACS and non-ACS patients, except systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and history of myocardial infarction. A new risk-factor profile assessment may be needed for stratification of PCI patients according to ACS and non-ACS status. Clinical and public-health interventions should consider different approaches to ACS and non-ACS patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. All-cause mortality benefit of coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy in patients without known coronary artery disease undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography: results from CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter Registry)

    PubMed Central

    Min, James K.; Berman, Daniel S.; Dunning, Allison; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Plank, Fabian; Raff, Gilbert; Villines, Todd; Labounty, Troy M.; Shaw, Leslee J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To date, the therapeutic benefit of revascularization vs. medical therapy for stable individuals undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) based upon coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) findings has not been examined. Methods and results We examined 15 223 patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA from eight sites and six countries who were followed for median 2.1 years (interquartile range 1.4–3.3 years) for an endpoint of all-cause mortality. Obstructive CAD by CCTA was defined as a ≥50% luminal diameter stenosis in a major coronary artery. Patients were categorized as having high-risk CAD vs. non-high-risk CAD, with the former including patients with at least obstructive two-vessel CAD with proximal left anterior descending artery involvement, three-vessel CAD, and left main CAD. Death occurred in 185 (1.2%) patients. Patients were categorized into two treatment groups: revascularization (n = 1103; 2.2% mortality) and medical therapy (n = 14 120, 1.1% mortality). To account for non-randomized referral to revascularization, we created a propensity score developed by logistic regression to identify variables that influenced the decision to refer to revascularization. Within this model (C index 0.92, χ2 = 1248, P < 0.0001), obstructive CAD was the most influential factor for referral, followed by an interaction of obstructive CAD with pre-test likelihood of CAD (P = 0.0344). Within CCTA CAD groups, rates of revascularization increased from 3.8% for non-high-risk CAD to 51.2% high-risk CAD. In multivariable models, when compared with medical therapy, revascularization was associated with a survival advantage for patients with high-risk CAD [hazards ratio (HR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.83], with no difference in survival for patients with non-high-risk CAD (HR 3.24, 95% CI 0.76–13.89) (P-value for interaction = 0.03). Conclusion In an intermediate-term follow-up, coronary revascularization is

  12. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Miraldi, Fabio; Frati, Giacomo; Macrina, Francesco; Toscano, Michele

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis >70% receiving a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). From January 2004 to December 2009, 185 patients with unilateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis >70%, candidates for CABG, were randomized into two groups. In group A, 94 patients received a CABG with previous or simultaneous CEA. In group B, 91 patients underwent CABG, followed by CEA. All patients underwent preoperative helical computed tomography scans, excluding significant atheroma of the ascending aorta or aortic arch. Baseline characteristics of the patients, type of coronary artery lesion, and preoperative myocardial function were comparable in the two groups. In group A, all patients underwent CEA under general anesthesia with the systematic use of a carotid shunt, and 79 patients had a combined procedure and 15 underwent CEA a few days before CABG. In group B, all patients underwent CEA, 1 to 3 months after CABG, also under general anesthesia and with systematic carotid shunting. Two patients (one in each group) died of cardiac failure in the postoperative period. Operative mortality was 1.0% in group A and 1.1% in group B (P = .98). No strokes occurred in group A vs seven ipsilateral ischemic strokes in group B, including three immediate postoperative strokes and four late strokes, at 39, 50, 58, and 66 days, after CABG. These late strokes occurred in patients for whom CEA was further delayed due to an incomplete sternal wound healing or because of completion of a cardiac rehabilitation program. The 90-day stroke and death rate was 1.0% (one of 94) in group A and 8.8% (eight of 91) in group B (odds ratio [OR], 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.91; P = .02). Logistic regression analysis showed that only delayed CEA (OR, 14.2; 95% CI, 1.32-152.0; P = .03) and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .004) reliably predicted

  13. The Impact of Renal Dysfunction on the Long Term Clinical Outcomes of Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in the Drug-Eluting Stent Era

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Background Limited data are available regarding the association between renal dysfunction and clinical outcomes in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. Methods Between March 2003 and December 2010, 2,181 diabetic patients were enrolled in a single-center registry. We divided diabetic patients into a renal dysfunction group (n = 518) and a non-renal dysfunction group (n = 1,663) according to a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Propensity score matching analysis was also performed. The primary outcome was cardiac death. Results The median follow-up duration was 48 months. The rate of cardiac death was higher in the renal dysfunction group than in the non-renal dysfunction group (14.3% vs. 3.0%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.47 to 5.35, p<0.001). Similarly, the incidence of stent thrombosis was significantly higher in the renal dysfunction group than in the non-renal dysfunction group (4.1% vs. 1.4%, adjusted HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.02 to 3.56, p = 0.04). After 1:1 propensity score matching (502 pairs), patients with renal dysfunction still had a higher rate of cardiac death (13.3% vs. 4.8%, HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.38, p<0.001) although there was no significant difference in the rate of stent thrombosis (4.0% vs. 2.8%, HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.69, p = 0.47). Conclusions Renal dysfunction is associated with long-term mortality for diabetic patients undergoing PCI in the DES era. PMID:26731526

  14. The effect of cyclosporin-A on peri-operative myocardial injury in adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hausenloy, DJ; Kunst, G; Boston-Griffiths, E; Kolvekar, S; Chaubey, S; John, L; Desai, J; Yellon, DM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cyclosporin-A (CsA) has been reported to reduce myocardial infarct size in both the experimental and clinical settings. This protective effect is dependent on its ability to prevent the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a critical determinant of cell death in the setting of acute ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Whether CsA can reduce the extent of peri-operative myocardial injury (PMI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is unknown, and is investigated in this randomised controlled clinical trial. Methods 78 adult patients undergoing elective CABG surgery were randomised to receive either an intravenous bolus of CsA (2.5 mg/kg) or placebo administered after induction of anaesthesia and prior to sternotomy. PMI was assessed by measuring serum cardiac enzymes, troponin T (cTnT) and CK-MB at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. Results There was no significant difference in mean peak cTnT levels between control (n=43) and CsA treatment (n=40) patients (0.56±0.06 ng/mL with control vs 0.35±0.05 ng/mL with CsA; p=0.07). However, in higher-risk patients with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, there was a significant reduction in PMI with CsA therapy (p=0.049), with a reduced postoperative cTnT rise by 0.03 ng/mL for every 10 min, when compared with control. Conclusions In patients with longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, a single intravenous bolus of CsA administered prior to CABG surgery reduced the extent of PMI. PMID:24488610

  15. Efficacy of electroacupuncture pretreatment for myocardial injury in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A randomized clinical trial with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liang, Dong; Wang, Feng; Li, Weijie; Han, Yaling; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yaning; Xin, Weichuan; Zhou, Baili; Sun, Dongdong; Cao, Feng; Xiong, Lize

    2015-09-01

    Electroacupuncture pretreatment (EAP) safely protects the heart from ischemic injury, however, the efficacy of EAP for periprocedural myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether EAP prior to PCI reduces post-PCI myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). 388 patients (≥ 18 years old) with CAD, undergoing elective PCI were enrolled and randomized, out of those 204 went through the whole trial. EAP was conducted by 30-minute electrical stimulation through 4 electrodes attached to the Antiguan (PC6) and Ximen (PC4) acupoints in the forearm bilaterally 1-2h prior to PCI. The control group had sham electrodes but no electrical stimulation. The primary end point was the incidence of myocardial infarction type 4a (MI4a) based on serum cTnI values at 24h after PCI. The secondary end points included post-procedural cardiac function and the major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular event (MACCE) rate. EAP prior to PCI significantly reduced the incidence of MI4a (serum cTnI≥0.20 ng/mL) 24h post-PCI compared to the control group (P=0.004). The echocardiography at 6 months after PCI revealed significant improvement in cardiac function in the EAP group compared with the control group. The MACCE rate was significantly decreased in the EAP group at 24 month follow-up compared to the control group (P=0.0157). Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that EAP was associated with decreased likelihood of MACCE (odds ratio 0.327, 95% CI 0.140-0.767, P=0.010). EAP prior to PCI significantly reduced cTnI release and protected patients with CAD from subsequent myocardial injury after PCI procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospective study of the impact of diabetes mellitus newly diagnosed by glycated hemoglobin on outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Tailakh, Muhammad Abu; Friger, Michael; Zahger, Doron; Sidi, Aviel; Mazor-Dray, Efrat; Novack, Victor

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) newly diagnosed by elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its association with 1-year clinical outcomes. We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients undergoing PCI (2011-2013). HbA1c levels were assessed during the index hospitalization and newly diagnosed DM was defined as HbA1c≥6.5% in the absence of the previous diagnosis. The primary outcome was MACCE (Major Adverse Cerebro- and Cardiovascular Events) defined as death, stroke, PCI or acute myocardial infarction at 1year. Diabetes was previously diagnosed in 391 (34%) patients (DM group), 221 (19%) had newly diagnosed DM based on the HbA1c level and 539 (47%) did not have diabetes (Non-DM). In DM group HbA1c was 7.80±1.36% as compared with 7.62±1.30% in patients with newly diagnosed DM (p<0.001). These patients were younger (62.0±11.3years) compared to DM (67.9±10.4years) and non-DM (63.7±13.0) patients, p<0.001. 1-year MACCE rates were 14.8%, 19.5% and 27.96% in the non-DM, newly diagnosed DM and DM groups, respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that compared to non-DM, the adjusted one-year hazard ratios for MACCE were 1.75 and 1.40 in patients with known DM and newly diagnosed DM, respectively (p<0.05 for both). Newly diagnosed DM based on peri-procedural HbA1c is common and associated with increased short and long term risk for adverse outcomes. Our results may warrant routine screening for DM in all patients undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with and without utilization of pulmonary artery catheter-generated data.

    PubMed

    Djaiani, George; Karski, Jacek; Yudin, Mark; Hynninen, Maria; Fedorko, Ludwik; Carroll, Jo; Poonawala, Humara; Cheng, Davy

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) quantitative data requirements for modifying patient management during and after elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A prospective observational clinical trial. University tertiary referral center. Two hundred patients undergoing elective CABG surgery. Attending anesthesiologist and surgeon were blinded to PAC numeric values. These data could be revealed in the presence of at least 2 of the following criteria: (1) systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, (2) central venous pressure >15 mmHg, (3) urine output <0.5 mL/kg/h, (4) pH <7.35/HCO(3) <18 mmol/L, (5) SaO(2) <95%/F(I)O(2) >80%, and (6) ST changes +/- 2 mm if the empiric treatment failed to restore normal hemodynamics within 10 minutes. All patients were classified into either blinded or unblinded PAC groups. PAC data were unblinded in 46 (23%) patients. Preliminary diagnosis was confirmed in 28 (14%), and treatment was modified in 18 (9%) of these patients. Four (2%) patients were given additional fluid challenges, 10 (5%) patients received a combination of fluid challenges and inotropic support, 3 (1.5%) patients were started on vasoconstrictors, and 1 (0.5%) patient required insertion of an intra-aortic balloon pump. Patients in the unblinded PAC group had a higher prevalence of perioperative myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and inotropic support; longer intubation times; and increased intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay. This study confirmed the contention that insertion of a PAC can be safely delayed until the clinical need arises either in the operating room or in the ICU after elective CABG surgery.

  18. Meta-analysis of prospective randomized controlled trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yuichi J; Nakra, Navin C; Fox, John T; Kanei, Yumiko

    2012-03-01

    Abciximab is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor that has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An earlier study reported better efficacy with intracoronary (IC) compared to intravenous (IV) administration, but this finding has not been duplicated in other studies, thus leaving a great deal of uncertainty as to the most efficacious route of administration. To investigate if IC abciximab compared to IV administration decreases mortality and major adverse cardiac events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo pPCI, a meta-analysis was performed consisting only of prospective randomized controlled trials. Subgroup analysis was performed to investigate the source of difference in efficacy between the 2 strategies. A meta-analysis of 4 trials including 1,148 subjects revealed that IC abciximab significantly reduced mortality compared to IV administration (1.5% vs 3.6%, odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.95, p = 0.04). Major adverse cardiac events were also reduced in a subgroup in which <30% of patients received aspiration thrombectomy (6.1% vs 16.2%, odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.61, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, the totality of the data available from relatively small but high-quality studies shows a significant mortality reduction associated using IC abciximab for pPCI compared to IV abciximab. IC abciximab in the setting of pPCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction may be beneficial for patients with higher risk profiles.

  19. Pre-test probability of obstructive coronary stenosis in patients undergoing coronary CT angiography: Comparative performance of the modified diamond-Forrester algorithm versus methods incorporating cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António Miguel; Marques, Hugo; Tralhão, António; Santos, Miguel Borges; Santos, Ana Rita; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Dores, Hélder; Carvalho, Maria Salomé; Madeira, Sérgio; Machado, Francisco Pereira; Cardim, Nuno; de Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of the Modified Diamond-Forrester (MDF) method to assess the pre-test likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to compare the performance of the MDF method with two contemporary algorithms derived from multicenter trials that additionally incorporate cardiovascular risk factors: the calculator-based 'CAD Consortium 2' method, and the integer-based CONFIRM score. We assessed 1069 consecutive patients without known CAD undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for stable chest pain. Obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of coronary stenosis ≥50% on 64-slice dual-source CT. The three methods were assessed for calibration, discrimination, net reclassification, and changes in proposed downstream testing based upon calculated pre-test likelihoods. The observed prevalence of obstructive CAD was 13.8% (n=147). Overestimations of the likelihood of obstructive CAD were 140.1%, 9.8%, and 18.8%, respectively, for the MDF, CAD Consortium 2 and CONFIRM methods. The CAD Consortium 2 showed greater discriminative power than the MDF method, with a C-statistic of 0.73 vs. 0.70 (p<0.001), while the CONFIRM score did not (C-statistic 0.71, p=0.492). Reclassification of pre-test likelihood using the 'CAD Consortium 2' or CONFIRM scores resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 0.19 and 0.18, respectively, which would change the diagnostic strategy in approximately half of the patients. Newer risk factor-encompassing models allow for a more precise estimation of pre-test probabilities of obstructive CAD than the guideline-recommended MDF method. Adoption of these scores may improve disease prediction and change the diagnostic pathway in a significant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Chronic Total Occlusion in a Noninfarct-related Artery on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ping; Zhao, Ying; Li, Hui; Tang, Guo-Dong; Ai, Hu; Zheng, Nai-Xin; Liu, Jing-Hua; Sun, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), encountering with chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a noninfarct-related artery (IRA) is not a rare situation. Limited information on the impact of CTO on clinical outcomes in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI has raised more concerns. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent CTO in a non-IRA on the clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. In the present prospective study, 555 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent early primary PCI from January 2010 to December 2013 were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups: no CTO and CTO. Data on 12 months follow-up was obtained from 449 patients. The primary endpoint was the composite of hospitalization from angina, reinfarction, heart failure, or re-revascularization, and cardiac death at 12 months follow-up. Of the 555 patients, 75 (13.5%) had CTO in a non-IRA. Compared with patients in no CTO group, more patients in CTO group had hypertension (62.7% vs 46.5%, P = 0.009), diabetes (49.3% vs 35.0%, P = 0.024), and 3-vessel disease (52.0% vs 32.3%, P = 0.001). Patients with CTO had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (40.1% ± 16.8% vs 54.3% ± 12.1%, P = 0.038), more presented with cardiogenic shock on admission (13.3% vs 4.8%, P = 0.008), compared with patients without CTO. Complete revascularization (CR) was less achieved in CTO group than in no CTO group (33.3% vs 49.1%, P = 0.013). The 12-month cardiac mortality rate was 14.5% versus 6.2% (P = 0.039), the incidence of 12-month primary endpoint was 38.7% versus 21.2% (P = 0.003) for CTO and no CTO group, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that after correction for baseline differences, CTO in a non-IRA (hazard ratio 4.183, 95% confidence interval 1.940–6.019, P = 0.001), cardiogenic shock on admission (hazard

  1. Difference in patient profiles and outcomes in Japanese versus American patients undergoing coronary revascularization (collaborative study by CREDO-Kyoto and the Texas Heart Institute Research Database).

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, Shun; Kimura, Takeshi; Goto, Masashi; Lee, Vei-Vei; Elayda, Macarthur; Furukawa, Yutaka; Fukushima, Masanori; Komeda, Masashi; Sakata, Ryuuzou; Willerson, James T; Wilson, James M; Kita, Toru

    2010-06-15

    Although coronary revascularization is common in both Japan and the United States (US), no direct comparison has been performed to demonstrate differences in the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients in these 2 countries. We analyzed the preprocedural, in-hospital, and long-term data from the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome registry (Kyoto, Japan) and the Texas Heart Institute Research Database (Houston, Texas) of 16,100 patients who had undergone elective, initial percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. The Japanese procedures were performed from 2000 to 2002 (n = 8,871, follow-up period 3.5 years, interquartile range 2.6 to 4.3) and the US procedures from 1999 to 2003 (n = 7,229, follow-up period 5.2 years, interquartile range 3.8 to 6.5). The Japanese patients tended to be older (mean age 67.2 vs 62.7 years; p <0.001), to smoke (52.9% vs 46.0%; p <0.001), and to have diabetes (39.2% vs 31.0%; p <0.001) and stroke (16.4% vs 5.0%; p <0.001). The US patients were more obese (body mass index 23.7 vs 29.3 kg/m(2); p <0.001), with greater rates of systemic atherosclerotic disease. Both groups had a similar in-hospital mortality rate (Japanese patients 0.9% vs US patients 1.1%; p = 0.19) and crude long-term mortality rate (Japanese patients 27.7/1,000 person-years, US patients 28.2/1,000 person-years; p = 0.35). After adjustment for known predictors, the US group had greater long-term mortality than the Japanese group (hazard ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.50 to 1.95; p <0.001). This finding was consistent among all high-risk subgroups. In conclusion, the 2 registries showed similar crude outcomes but important differences in patient risk factors such as obesity. In the adjusted analysis, the Japanese patients had better outcomes than did the US patients. Additional study is needed to assess the effect of ethnic and risk factor variations on coronary artery disease.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of targeting patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for therapy with bivalirudin versus heparin monotherapy according to predicted risk of bleeding.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Marso, Steven P; Rao, Sunil V; Messenger, John; Chan, Paul S; House, John; Kennedy, Kevin; Robertus, Katherine; Cohen, David J; Mahoney, Elizabeth M

    2010-07-01

    Although bivalirudin compared with unfractionated heparin with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduces bleeding and hospitalization costs in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), little is known about the economic impact of bivalirudin versus heparin alone and at what threshold of procedural bleeding risk bivalirudin would be considered cost-effective. A validated model was used to predict risk of major bleeding for 81,628 National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) CathPCI Registry patients from 2004 to 2006 who received unfractionated heparin only. Costs were derived from multiple sources including wholesale acquisition costs (for drugs) and single-center data (for PCI-related complications). Based on ISAR-REACT 3, we assumed that bivalirudin would reduce the risk of major bleeding by 33% compared with unfractionated heparin alone. A Markov model was used to estimate lost life expectancy associated with a major bleed. Major bleeding was predicted to occur in 2.2% of patients. Bivalirudin for all patients was estimated to increase costs by $571 per patient, yielding cost-effectiveness ratios of $287,473 per bleeding event averted and $1,173,360 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Bivalirudin was cost saving for patients with a predicted bleeding risk >20% (0.16% of CathPCI population). At willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50K and $100K per quality-adjusted life-year gained, bivalirudin was cost-effective for patients with a bleeding risk > or = 8% (2.5% patients) and > or = 5% (7.9% patients), respectively. This decision-analytic modeling study demonstrates that for patients undergoing PCI, substitution of bivalirudin for unfractionated heparin monotherapy is projected to increase costs for virtually all patients and would be considered cost-effective for only a minority of patients with a high bleeding risk. From a policy standpoint, studies such as this, aimed at identifying the appropriate risk threshold for initiating treatment

  3. Postoperative pulmonary function in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients undergoing early tracheal extubation: a comparison between short-term mechanical ventilation and early extubation.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Donna J; Kowalski, Stephen E; Hamilton, G Andrew; Meyers, Michael P; Serrette, Carl; Duke, Peter C

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of a short period of mechanical ventilation (3 hours) versus immediate extubation (within 1 hour of surgery) on pulmonary function, gas exchange, and pulmonary complications after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Prospective randomized study. University teaching hospital. Thirty-five patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were randomized into 2 groups. Patients in group I were extubated as soon as possible after surgery. Patients in group II were ventilated for a minimum of 3 hours after surgery. Patients in both groups were extubated only after achieving predetermined extubation criteria. Patients who did not meet the criteria for extubation within the predetermined set time limit (90 minutes in group I and 6 hours in group II) were withdrawn from the study. Pulmonary function tests (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, total lung capacity, functional residual capacity), arterial blood gases, and chest radiographs were done preoperatively and postoperatively. Pulmonary complications were recorded. Demographic data were similar between groups. The mean time to extubation in group I was 45.7 plus minus 27.6 minutes and in group II was 201.4 plus minus 21 minutes (p < 0.01). Two patients in group I and 1 patient in group II did not meet the extubation criteria within the predetermined set time limit and were excluded from the study. In both groups, there was a significant decline in pulmonary function but no differences between groups at 24 or 72 hours after surgery. There were no differences between groups in blood gases, atelectasis scores, or pulmonary complications. The data suggest that extending mechanical ventilation after CABG surgery does not affect pulmonary function. Provided that routine extubation criteria are met, patients can be safely extubated early (within 1 hour) after major cardiac surgery without concerns of further pulmonary derangement. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights

  4. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness of adjunctive devices in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention of native vessels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), dislodgement of atherothrombotic material from coronary lesions can result in distal embolization, and may lead to increased major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality. We sought to systematically review the comparative effectiveness of adjunctive devices to remove thrombi or protect against distal embolization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI of native vessels. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of Medline, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science (January 1996-March 2011), http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, abstracts from major cardiology meetings, TCTMD, and CardioSource Plus. Two investigators independently screened citations and extracted data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of adjunctive devices plus PCI to PCI alone, evaluated patients with STEMI, enrolled a population with 95% of target lesion(s) in native vessels, and reported data on at least one pre-specified outcome. Quality was graded as good, fair or poor and the strength of evidence was rated as high, moderate, low or insufficient. Disagreement was resolved through consensus. Results 37 trials met inclusion criteria. At the maximal duration of follow-up, catheter aspiration devices plus PCI significantly decreased the risk of MACE by 27% compared to PCI alone. Catheter aspiration devices also significantly increased the achievement of ST-segment resolution by 49%, myocardial blush grade of 3 (MBG-3) by 39%, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 3 flow by 8%, while reducing the risk of distal embolization by 44%, no reflow by 48% and coronary dissection by 70% versus standard PCI alone. In a majority of trials, the use of catheter aspiration devices increased procedural time upon qualitative assessment. Distal filter embolic protection devices significantly increased the risk of target revascularization by 39% although the

  5. Comparison of the Complications between Left Side and Right Side Subclavian Vein Catheter Placement in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarbiat, Masoud; Manafi, Babak; Davoudi, Maryam; Totonchi, Ziae

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous subclavian vein catheterization is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to compare left and right subclavian vein catheter placement via the infraclavicular approach in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. This prospective, randomized clinical trial was performed in193 patients. The technique applied for cannulation was infraclavicular approach for both the right and the left sides. Subclavian vein of other side was attempted only when catheterization at initial side was unsuccessful at two attempts. The success and complication rates were compared for the two sides. On193 patients, catheterization attempts were performed. Overall 177 catheterizations (91.7%) were successful during the first attempt, 105 (92.1%) on the right side and 72 (91.1%) on the left side. There was no significant difference between success rate and side of catheterization. Malposition of the catheter tip on the right side (9.6%) was significantly more than the left side (0%) (P= 0.003). The differences in other complications on two sides were statistically insignificant. Compared with the right side, insertion of the cannula on the left side resulted in fewer catheter tip misplacements. Incidence of cannulation failure and other complications were similar on both sides.

  6. The head-down tilt position decreases vasopressor requirement during hypotension following induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and valvular heart surgeries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae wan; Kim, Hyun J; Lee, Jung-Man; Kim, Jun H; Hong, Deok M; Jeon, Yunseok; Roh, Young-Jin; Lim, Young J; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have failed to demonstrate that the head-down tilt position confers benefits in hypovolaemic hypotensive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemodynamic effect and vasopressor use by this position in hypotensive patients after the induction of general anaesthesia. This prospective randomised study involved 98 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery and 40 patients (40.1%) developed hypotension after anaesthesia induction. Upon occurrence of hypotension, patients were randomly allocated to the supine (n = 19) or head-down tilt (n = 21) groups (15° head-down tilt position). Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index and stroke volume index were recorded at 1-min interval for 10 min from the occurrence of hypotension. Vasopressors were administered to treat hypotension in both groups. No haemodynamic difference was observed between the supine and head-down tilt groups except for SBP changes from baseline at 1 min (-3.98 ± 6.31 vs. 1.84 ± 8.25%, P = 0.004) and 2 min (1.51 ± 14.34 vs. 9.37 ± 10.57%, P = 0.032). The number of vasopressor administrations and percentage of the patients requiring vasopressors in the supine group were greater than that in the head-down tilt group [median 1 (range 1-5) vs. median 0 (range 0-2), P = 0.002, 19/19 (100%) vs. 10/21 (47.6%), P < 0.001]. The head-down tilt position in hypotensive patients following anaesthesia induction reduced vasopressor requirement by almost one third. Minimal haemodynamic effect may be caused by different vasopressor administrations. This result suggests that the head-down tilt position may enable more stable anaesthesia induction in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft or valvular heart surgeries.

  7. Interdependence between osteoprotegerin and active von Willebrand factor in long-term cardiovascular mortality prediction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta; Lang, Irene M; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Roest, Mark; Jilma, Bernd

    2017-08-30

    The interdependence of the predictive accuracy of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels for long-term cardiovascular outcomes has not been investigated so far. This was a prospective observational cohort study in 361 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Baseline levels of OPG, vWF, active vWF (act vWF) and ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RICO) were measured. Cardiovascular mortality was recorded over a median of five years. OPG concentrations >3.7 µg/ml emerged as the strongest predictor of cardiovascular (CV) death: 30 % of patients died during the five-year follow-up in this group, as compared to 10 % in patients with OPG ≤3.7 µg/ml (p<0.001). Act vWF had a significant prognostic impact on CV mortality when OPG levels were low (≤3.7 µg/ml): patients with act vWF concentration >1 µg/ml died in 14 %, whereas those with act vWF values ≤1 µg/ml had a mortality rate of 1 % (p=0.015). We stratified patients into three groups: high OPG, low OPG/high act vWF and low OPG/low act vWF. Patients with high OPG values had a 13-fold higher risk for CV death than those with low OPG/low act vWF concentrations (adj. HR: 12.6; 95 %CI: 1.7-94.7; p=0.014), and a two-fold higher risk as compared to those patients with low OPG/high act vWF concentrations (adj. HR: 2.0; 95 %CI: 1.1-3.7; p=0.03) in the adjusted Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, elevated OPG at the time of PCI was a strong independent predictor of five-years cardiovascular mortality, whereas act vWF had a significant prognostic impact on CV mortality when OPG levels were low.

  8. Optimal medical therapy improves clinical outcomes in patients undergoing revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting: insights from the Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial at the 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Holmes, David R; Morice, Marie-Claude; Mack, Michael J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Feldman, Ted; Stahle, Elizabeth; Escaned, Javier; Banning, Adrian P; Gunn, Julian P; Colombo, Antonio; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Mohr, Friedrich W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-04-07

    There is a paucity of data on the use of optimal medical therapy (OMT) in patients with complex coronary artery disease undergoing revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and its long-term prognostic significance. The Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial is a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial of patients (n=1800) with complex coronary disease randomized to revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG. Detailed drug history was collected for all patients at discharge and at the 1-month, 6-month, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year follow-ups. OMT was defined as the combination of at least 1 antiplatelet drug, statin, β-blocker, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker. Five-year clinical outcomes were stratified by OMT and non-OMT. OMT was underused in patients treated with coronary revascularization, especially CABG. OMT was an independent predictor of survival. OMT was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.85; P=0.002) and composite end point of death/myocardial infarction/stroke (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.92; P=0.007) at the 5-year follow-up. The treatment effect with OMT (36% relative reduction in mortality over 5 years) was greater than the treatment effect of revascularization strategy (26% relative reduction in mortality with CABG versus percutaneous coronary intervention over 5 years). On stratified analysis, all the components of OMT were important for reducing adverse outcomes regardless of revascularization strategy. The use of OMT remains low in patients with complex coronary disease requiring coronary intervention with percutaneous coronary intervention and even lower in patients treated with CABG. Lack of OMT is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Targeted strategies to improve OMT use

  9. The impact of surgical left atrial appendage amputation/ligation on stroke prevention in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Endo, Daisuke; Kato, Tomoko S; Iwamura, Tai; Oishi, Atsumi; Yokoyama, Yasutaka; Kuwaki, Kenji; Inaba, Hirotaka; Amano, Atsushi

    2016-11-09

    Stroke is a major adverse event in patients developing atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery. Surgical left atrial appendage amputation/ligation (LAA-A/L) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) is routinely performed in our institution. We analyzed 578 consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, male 82%) undergoing OPCAB with or without concomitant LAA-A/L from 2011 to 2014 at our institution in a prospective observational manner. The safety and efficacy of the concomitant LAA-A/L on preventing early (<30 days) and overall postoperative stroke were examined. A total of 193 patients (33.4%) underwent LAA-A/L, consisting of amputation in 154 and ligation in 39 patients (80 and 20% of the cases, respectively). Preoperative characteristics, operative time, requirement of blood transfusion, and 30-day mortality were not significantly different between those with and without LAA-A/L. The incidences of postoperative AF and early and overall stroke were not significantly different between the groups in the analysis based on a total cohort. In a subanalysis of patients without LAA-A/L, early and overall stroke occurred more frequently in those developing postoperative AF than those without AF (2.8 vs. 0%; p = 0.005, 6.2 vs. 1.5%; p = 0.017, respectively), while in patients receiving LAA-A/L, stroke incidences did not differ between those with and without AF. Multivariate logistic regression showed postoperative AF without LAA-A/L as the only independent positive predictor of overall stroke (OR 3.69, p = 0.03). Concomitant LAA-A/L with OPCAB can safely prevent postoperative stroke occurrence in case patients develop AF, the most common arrhythmia associated with stroke.

  10. Use of clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dewilde, Willem J M; Oirbans, Tom; Verheugt, Freek W A; Kelder, Johannes C; De Smet, Bart J G L; Herrman, Jean-Paul; Adriaenssens, Tom; Vrolix, Mathias; Heestermans, Antonius A C M; Vis, Marije M; Tijsen, Jan G P; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2013-03-30

    If percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is required in patients taking oral anticoagulants, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel is indicated, but such triple therapy increases the risk of serious bleeding. We investigated the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel alone compared with clopidogrel plus aspirin. We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial in 15 centres in Belgium and the Netherlands. From November, 2008, to November, 2011, adults receiving oral anticoagulants and undergoing PCI were assigned clopidogrel alone (double therapy) or clopidogrel plus aspirin (triple therapy). The primary outcome was any bleeding episode within 1 year of PCI, assessed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00769938. 573 patients were enrolled and 1-year data were available for 279 (98·2%) patients assigned double therapy and 284 (98·3%) assigned triple therapy. Mean ages were 70·3 (SD 7·0) years and 69·5 (8·0) years, respectively. Bleeding episodes were seen in 54 (19·4%) patients receiving double therapy and in 126 (44·4%) receiving triple therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·36, 95% CI 0·26-0·50, p<0·0001). In the double-therapy group, six (2·2%) patients had multiple bleeding events, compared with 34 (12·0%) in the triple-therapy group. 11 (3·9%) patients receiving double therapy required at least one blood transfusion, compared with 27 (9·5%) patients in the triple-therapy group (odds ratio from Kaplan-Meier curve 0·39, 95% CI 0·17-0·84, p=0·011). Use of clopiogrel without aspirin was associated with a significant reduction in bleeding complications and no increase in the rate of thrombotic events. Antonius Ziekenhuis Foundation, Strect Foundation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of admission creatinine level on clinical outcomes of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Rui-yan; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Jian-sheng; Hu, Jian; Yang, Zheng-kun; Zhang, Xian; Zheng, Ai-fang; Shen, Wei-feng

    2008-12-05

    Prognosis of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and renal dysfunction (RD) who received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been fully investigated in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of admission serum creatinine level on short-term outcomes in patients with acute STEMI undergoing DES-based primary PCI. Primary PCI with DES implantation was attempted in 619 consecutive STEMI patients within 12 hours of symptom onset. Among them, 86 patients had a serum creatinine level > or = 115 micromol/L on admission (RD group), and the remaining 533 patients had normal renal function (non-RD group). The primary endpoint was 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including death, non-fatal reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization), and the secondary endpoint was subacute stent thrombosis. Patients in the RD group were older than those in the non-RD group. There are more female patients in the RD group and they had a history of hypertension, myocardial infarction and revascularization. The occurrence rates of Killip class > or = 2 (29.1% vs 18.6%, P = 0.02) and multi-vessel (62.8% vs 44.5%, P = 0.001) and triple vessel disease (32.6% vs 18.2%, P = 0.002), in-hospital mortality (9.3% vs 3.8%, P = 0.03), and MACE rate during hospitalization (17.4% vs 7.7%, P = 0.006) were higher in the RD group than those in the non-RD group. At a 30-day clinical follow-up, the MACE-free survival rate was significantly reduced in the RD group (76.7% vs 89.9%, P = 0.0003). Angiographic stent thrombosis occurred in 3 (3.5%) and 7 (1.3%) of patients in the RD group and non-RD group, respectively (P = 0.15). Multivariate analysis revealed that the serum creatinine level > or = 115 micromol/L on admission was an independent predictor for MACE rate at a 30-day follow-up (Hazard ratio (HR) 3.31, 95% CI 1.19 - 9.18, P < 0.001). Despite similar prevalence of stent thrombosis at a 30-day clinical follow

  12. Genetic and non-genetic factors responsible for antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in Japanese patients undergoing coronary stent implantation: an algorithm to predict on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Miura, Go; Ariyoshi, Noritaka; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Iwata, Yo; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Ishii, Itsuko

    2014-10-01

    Antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel appear to be affected by various factors including genetic polymorphism. So far, there has been little information about the response of clopidogrel in Asians, whose prevalence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) allele is high. We investigated background and clinical factors affecting on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Japanese patients undergoing coronary stent implantation (n=114). In univariate analysis, antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel in a steady state were associated with not only CYP2C19 genotypes but also several factors including dyslipidemia. In addition, we developed an algorithm that can estimate P2Y12 Reaction Units (PRU) in a steady state by multiple regression analysis and evaluated the adequacy of the algorithm by the Akaike Information Criterion. We revealed several factors influencing on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Japanese patients. We also succeeded in developing an algorithm that estimates PRU in a steady state, although it is uncertain whether the algorithm can be applied to other populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Prasugrel, Ticagrelor, and Standard-Dose and High-Dose Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhchain; Singh, Mukesh; Grewal, Navsheen; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Authors aimed to compare efficacy and safety of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and standard-dose (SD) and high-dose (HD) clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies comparing prasugrel, ticagrelor, SD and HD clopidogrel in patients undergoing PCI. Frequentist and Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed besides direct pairwise comparisons. Thirty trials, comprising 34,563 person-year data, were included. Prasugrel emerged as a best drug to prevent definite or probable stent thrombosis, followed by HD clopidogrel and ticagrelor, with SD clopidogrel being the worst. Myocardial infarction was least likely to be prevented by SD clopidogrel after PCI, and remaining 3 were superior to it with little difference among them. SD clopidogrel was least effective in preventing cardiovascular deaths after PCI. Prasugrel was most effective in preventing cardiovascular deaths, although having only small advantage over ticagrelor and HD clopidogrel. Ticagrelor reduced all-cause mortality by a small margin compared with rest of treatments. SD clopidogrel, followed by ticagrelor, resulted in significantly lower thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding complications compared with prasugrel. Analysis of any bleeding revealed similar trend. HD clopidogrel performed better than prasugrel in terms of bleeding complications. In conclusion, Prasugrel is likely most effective drug to prevent post-PCI ischemic events but at the expense of higher bleeding. Ticagrelor followed by HD clopidogrel seems to strike the right balance between efficacy and safety. HD clopidogrel can be considered as an alternative to newer P2Y12 inhibitors.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: five-year follow-up of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Howard J; Rodriguez, Rosendo; Wozny, Denise; Dupuis, Jean-Yves; Rubens, Fraser D; Bryson, Gregory L; Wells, George

    2007-05-01

    In a randomized trial of 223 patients undergoing coronary artery surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, we have reported a neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia. To determine whether the beneficial effect of mild hypothermia was long-lasting, we repeated the psychometric tests in 131 patients after 5 years. Patients were cooled to 32 degrees C during aortic crossclamping and then randomized to rewarming to either 34 degrees C or 37 degrees C, with no further rewarming until arrival in intensive care unit. Cognitive function was measured preoperatively and 1 week and 5 years postoperatively with a battery of 11 psychometric tests interrogating verbal memory, attention, and psychomotor speed and dexterity. Patients who had greater cognitive decline 1 week after surgery showed poorer performance 5 years later. The magnitude of cognitive decline over 5 years was modest. The incidence of deficits defined as a 1 standard deviation [SD] decline in at least 1 of 3 factors was not different between temperature groups. Fewer patients in the hypothermic group had deficits that persisted over the 5 years, but this difference did not attain statistical significance (RR = 0.64, P = .16). The effect of surgery on cognitive function observed early after surgery is an important predictor of cognitive performance 5 years later. Although there was evidence of a neuroprotective effect of mild hypothermia early after surgery in the original cohort, the results after 5 years were inconclusive. In general, the magnitude of cognitive changes over 5 years was modest. We believe that further trials investigating the efficacy of mild hypothermia in patients having cardiac surgery are warranted.

  15. Indications, algorithms, and outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Yerokun, Babatunde A.; Williams, Judson B.; Gaca, Jeffrey; Smith, Peter K.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), guideline recommendations and treatment pathways focus on revascularization for definitive treatment if the patient is an appropriate candidate. Despite the widespread use of revascularization for NSTE-ACS, most patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention, whereas a minority of patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Focusing specifically on the USA, the contemporary utilization, preoperative and perioperative considerations, and outcomes of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting have not been comprehensively reviewed. PMID:26945187

  16. Randomized trial of complete versus lesion-only revascularization in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI and multivessel disease: the CvLPRIT trial.

    PubMed

    Gershlick, Anthony H; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J; Greenwood, John P; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L; Kelion, Andrew D; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P

    2015-03-17

    The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (≤ 3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the IRA. In such patients, inpatient total revascularization

  17. The Effect of Desmopressin on the Amount of Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery with a Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pump After Taking Anti-Platelet Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mirmansoori, Ali; Farzi, Farnoush; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Imantalab, Vali; mohammadzadeh, Ali; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghazanfar Tehran, Samaneh; Nemati, Maryam; Dehghan, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common surgical intervention at the end-stages of coronary artery occlusion disease. Despite the effectiveness of CABG, it may have particular complications, such as bleeding during and after surgery. So far, there have been many drugs used to reduce bleeding. Objectives This study aimed at investigating the effects of desmopressin on the amount of bleeding in patients undergoing CABG with a cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPBP) who were taking anti-platelet medicine. Methods One hundred patients scheduled for elective CABG with a CPBP were included in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial study. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group received desmopressin (40 μg) and the other group received a placebo (isotonic saline). Seven patients were excluded from the study, and 47 and 46 patients participated in the desmopressin and control groups, respectively. The methods of monitoring and the anesthetic techniques were similar in both groups, and all surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Variables including age, gender, pump time, aortic clamp time, duration of surgery, complications (e.g., nausea and vomiting, blood pressure changes), the necessity to receive blood products, and coagulation tests (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, and bleeding time) were assessed. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS software version 17. Results There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, gender, pump time, clamp time, duration of surgery, complications, and the changes in hemoglobin and coagulation test measurements (P > 0.05). No significant difference was noted between the groups regarding the rate of bleeding after surgery (359.3 ± 266.2 in group D vs. 406.3 ± 341.6 in group P (control group); P = 0.208). However, the platelet changes after surgery in both groups were significantly different. The analysis

  18. Randomized Trial of Complete Versus Lesion-Only Revascularization in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI and Multivessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, Anthony H.; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J.; Greenwood, John P.; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J.; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L.; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L.; Kelion, Andrew D.; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. Objectives CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. Methods After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (≤3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Results Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. Conclusions In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the

  19. Independent association between symptom onset time and infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Karim D; Nijsten, Maarten W; Wieringa, Wouter G; Ottervanger, Jan P; Holmes, David R; Hillege, Hans L; van 't Hof, Arnoud W; Lipsic, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have reported on circadian variation in infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Controversy remains as to whether this finding indicates circadian dependence of myocardial tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury or that it can simply be explained by confounding factors such as baseline profile and ischemic time. We assessed the clinical impact and independent association between symptom onset time and infarct size, accounting for possible subgroup differences. From a multicenter registry, 6799 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2004 and 2010 were included. Infarct size was measured using peak creatine kinase (CK). Infarct size exhibited circadian variation with largest infarct size in patients with symptom onset around 03:00 at night (estimated peak CK 1322 U/l; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1217-1436) and smallest infarct size around 11:00 in the morning (estimated peak CK 1071 U/l; 95% CI: 1001-1146; relative reduction 19%; p = 0.001). Circadian variation in infarct size followed an inverse pattern in patients with prior myocardial infarction (p-interaction <0.001) and prior PCI (p-interaction = 0.006), although the later did not persist in multivariable analysis. Symptom onset time remained associated with infarct size after accounting for these interactions and adjusting for baseline characteristics and ischemic time. Symptom onset time did not predict one-year mortality (p = 0.081). In conclusion, there is substantial circadian variation in infarct size, which cannot be fully explained by variations in baseline profile or ischemic time. Our results lend support to the hypothesis of circadian myocardial ischemic tolerance and suggest a different mechanism in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

  20. Relationship between depression and health-related quality of life in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a MOTIV-CABG substudy.

    PubMed

    Perrotti, Andréa; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Durst, Camille; Monaco, Francesco; Vandel, Pierre; Monnet, Elisabeth; Chocron, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    Depression is associated with higher risk of death and major adverse cardiac events among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study aimed to investigate the impact of preoperative depression on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over the first 12 postoperative months. Patients were the participants in the MOTIV-CABG study that was a single-center, non-stratified, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 4 trial, conducted between January 2006 and February 2012 at University Hospital, Besançon, France. The effect of preoperative depression (measured using the Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) on changes in SF-36 component summary scores [mental (MCS) and physical (PCS)] over time was tested using a generalized linear model for repeated measures. The presence of depression was defined as a BDI score >3. There were 359 patients in this study: 217 (60.4 %) had no preoperative depression, and 142 (39.6 %) had preoperative depression. During follow-up, the MCS and PCS scores increased in both groups. The improvement was of smaller magnitude in the group of patients depressed baseline as compared to those with no depression (difference in LSM = -7.45, p < 10(-3), for MCS, and -6.80, p < 10(-3), for PCS). Preoperative depression has a negative impact on HRQoL improvement during postoperative follow-up after CABG. It seems important to detect depression before CABG to begin antidepressant therapy and improve patients' HRQoL.

  1. Frequency and Effects of Excess Dosing of Anticoagulants in Patients ≤55 Years of Age with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (From the VIRGO Study)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aakriti; Chui, Philip; Zhou, Shengfan; Spertus, John A.; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy; Lee, Ike; D’ Onofrio, Gail; Lichtman, Judith H.; Alexander, Karen P.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Curtis, Jeptha P.

    2015-01-01

    Excess dosing of anticoagulant agents has been linked to increased risk of bleeding after PCI for women as compared with men, but these studies have largely included older patients. We sought to determine the prevalence and sex-based differences of excess dosing of anticoagulants including glycoprotein inhibitors (GPIs), bivalirudin and unfractionated heparin (UFH), in young patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and to examine its association with bleeding. Among 2076 patients enrolled in the Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young AMI Patients (VIRGO) study who underwent PCI, we abstracted doses of UFH, bivalirudin and GPIs administered during PCI from the medical records. At least 47.2% received at least one excess dose of an anticoagulant, which did not differ by sex. We used logistic regression to determine the predictors of excess dosing and the association of excess dosing with bleeding. In multivariable analysis, only lower body weight and younger age were significant predictors of excess dosing. Bleeding was higher in young women who received excess dosing versus those who did not (9.3% vs. 6.0%, P=0.03); but was comparable among men (5.2% vs. 5.9%, P=0.69) in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, there was a trend to an association between excess dosing and bleeding [OR, 1.33; 95% CI 0.92–1.91]; although not statistically significant. In conclusion, approximately half of the patients received excess dosing of anticoagulant drugs during PCI, which did not vary based upon sex. There was a trend towards an association between excess dosing and increased bleeding, although not statistically significant. PMID:25937348

  2. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on clinical evolution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, according to serum levels of zinc.

    PubMed

    Matos, A C; Souza, G G; Moreira, V; Ramalho, A

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A and zinc are powerful antioxidants with synergy between them, thus protecting the organism against oxidative stress during the pre and postoperative periods. Our aim was to investigate the evolution clinical in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting while receiving vitamin A supplements according to their zinc nutritional status. They were randomly divided into two groups (2:1): Control group (G1 = 60); and Supplemented group (G2 = 30) and subdivided according to the nutritional status of zinc. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, zinc and levels of malondialdehyde were measured prior to (T0) and on the 21st day (T1) following surgery. After surgery, was found a significant difference between G1 and G2 when comparing retinol (G1 = 38.7 ± 17.1 μg/dL and G2 = 62.1 ± 20.3 μg/dL; p < 0.001) and β-carotene (G1 = 12.3 ± 5.7 μg/dL and G2 = 53.5 ± 20.9 μg/dL; p < 0.001) in the patients with adequate concentrations of zinc. Analyzing the evolution clinical, operative mortality was 8.33% in G1 and 3.33% in G2. Hospitalization time significantly smaller in the G2 was found in the patients who had adequate concentrations of zinc (p = 0.001), as well as time in the intensive care unit both in those with adequate and inadequate levels of zinc (p = 0.047; p = 0.039). Such results may indicate that vitamin A supplementation may have a positive impact in combating the oxidative stress to which these patients are exposed above all in patients with adequate levels of zinc.

  3. Prognostic impact of alkaline phosphatase measured at time of presentation in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Moon, Jeonggeun; Park, Hyun Woo; Jang, Ho-Jun; Park, Sang-Don; Kwon, Sung Woo; Suh, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Background Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in several subgroups of patients due to its promotion of vascular calcification. However, the prognostic impact of serum ALP level in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a relatively low calcification burden has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the association of ALP level measured at time of presentation on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 1178 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry and classified into tertiles by ALP level (<64, 65–82, or >83 IU/L). The primary study outcome was a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Results Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10–39 months). The incidence of MACCE significantly increased as ALP level increased, that is, for the <64, 65–82, and >83 IU/L tertiles incidences were 8.7%, 11.7%, and 15.7%, respectively; p for trend = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACCE in the middle and highest tertiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.01–2.81) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.48–4.09), respectively, as compared with the lowest ALP tertile. Conclusions Elevated ALP level at presentation, but within the higher limit of normal, was found to be independently associated with higher risk of MACCE after primary PCI in patients with STEMI. PMID:28182682

  4. Development of a concept for a personalized approach in the perioperative antiplatelet therapy administration/discontinuation management based on multiple electrode aggregometry in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Mate; Milicic, Davor; White, Alexandra; Boban, Marko; Mihaljevic, Martina Zrno; Piljic, Dragan; Rotim, Ante; Buca, Ante; Mihalj, Mario; Biocina, Bojan

    2015-10-01

    In patients undergoing coronary artery surgery, improvements in clinical outcomes currently rely on continued refinements of the surgical technique and modulation of adjuvant pharmacotherapy. Despite medical and technological advances, negligible rate of bleeding and ischemic events still persist necessitating further improvements in patient management. Platelet function testing (PFT) might play an important role in meticulous balancing between the risk of bleeding and thrombotic events. A suitable balance can be achieved by implementing a personalized, PFT based approach in antiplatelet therapy (APT) administration/discontinuation management. Despite emerging evidence on the widespread variability in platelet inhibitory response to APT, numerous PFT devices and heterogeneity in reporting study results hamper pooling of the evidence which in turn results with a lack of consensus in "on treatment" platelet reactivity associated with ischemic and bleeding events in perioperative phase. The literature on multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate(®); Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in coronary artery disease patients was reviewed systematically. Based on the evidence evaluating the relationship between "drug specific" PFT and bleeding or adverse ischemic events, we sought to define therapeutic window for the most commonly administered antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin (ASPI test) and adenosine-diphosphate receptor blockers (ADP test). Preoperatively, APT administration was primarily focused to avoid bleeding complications. ASPI test value of 20 AUC and ADP test value of <73 AUC were set as cut-off values that delineate bleeding tendency. Postoperatively, "therapeutic window" was set to avoid both bleeding and adverse ischemic events. Therapeutic ranges were as follows: 20 AUC < ASPItest ≤ 30 AUC and 19AUC < ADP ≤ 46AUC, respectively. This is the first attempt to define PFT based "therapeutic window" according to, perioperative APT administration

  5. Morphine Post-Conditioning Effect on QT Dispersion in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Anterior Descending Cardiac Artery: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Ali; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Bagheri, Ramin Khameneh; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Golnezhad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    QT dispersion is the difference between the maximum and minimum QTc interval in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Some researchers have demonstrated the effects of an increase of QT-d in STEMI and its reduction with successful therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphine post-conditioning effect on the QT dispersion in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on anterior descending cardiac artery. This cohort study was conducted on STEMI patients admitted to the Hospital of Imam Reza (AS), Mashhad, Iran, from March 2015 to February 2016 who were undergoing primary angioplasty on the anterior descending cardiac artery. The patients were divided into two groups based on the intake or non-intake of morphine (5 mg morphine for the period of 30 minutes prior to PCI). Parameters, including age, gender, history of diabetes, and blood pressure as well as admission and 24 hours after PCI ejection fraction (EF) and QT-d, were recorded in all patients and compared between the two intervention and control groups. Independent and paired t-tests and chi-square test were used to compare the qualitative and quantitative data between the two groups using SPSS version 19 software. The present research was performed on 77 patients (61 males) with mean age of 58.71±11.84 years in the two groups of morphine consumption before PCI (n=46) and control (n=31). No statistical difference was found among the groups in age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and onset of symptoms until primary PCI. Admission electrocardiogram QT-d value in the positive exposure group showed no significant difference with the control group, but QT-d value at 24 hours after PCI was lower in the positive exposure group than in the control group (morphine versus control: 40.32±6.98 versus 59.64±8.89; p=0.000). QT-d value 24 hours after PCI compared with the admission QT-d value was significantly reduced in both groups. The mean decrease of admission QT-d relative to

  6. Morphine Post-Conditioning Effect on QT Dispersion in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Anterior Descending Cardiac Artery: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Ali; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Sajjadi, Seyed Sajed; Bagheri, Ramin Khameneh; Ebdali, Reyhaneh Takalloo; Golnezhad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction QT dispersion is the difference between the maximum and minimum QTc interval in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Some researchers have demonstrated the effects of an increase of QT-d in STEMI and its reduction with successful therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphine post-conditioning effect on the QT dispersion in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on anterior descending cardiac artery. Methods This cohort study was conducted on STEMI patients admitted to the Hospital of Imam Reza (AS), Mashhad, Iran, from March 2015 to February 2016 who were undergoing primary angioplasty on the anterior descending cardiac artery. The patients were divided into two groups based on the intake or non-intake of morphine (5 mg morphine for the period of 30 minutes prior to PCI). Parameters, including age, gender, history of diabetes, and blood pressure as well as admission and 24 hours after PCI ejection fraction (EF) and QT-d, were recorded in all patients and compared between the two intervention and control groups. Independent and paired t-tests and chi-square test were used to compare the qualitative and quantitative data between the two groups using SPSS version 19 software. Results The present research was performed on 77 patients (61 males) with mean age of 58.71±11.84 years in the two groups of morphine consumption before PCI (n=46) and control (n=31). No statistical difference was found among the groups in age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and onset of symptoms until primary PCI. Admission electrocardiogram QT-d value in the positive exposure group showed no significant difference with the control group, but QT-d value at 24 hours after PCI was lower in the positive exposure group than in the control group (morphine versus control: 40.32±6.98 versus 59.64±8.89; p=0.000). QT-d value 24 hours after PCI compared with the admission QT-d value was significantly reduced in both groups. The mean decrease of

  7. The prognostic value of admission red cell distribution width-to-platelet ratio in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Akgul, Ozgur; Erturk, Mehmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Akkaya, Emre; Bulut, Umit; Yildirim, Aydin

    2015-10-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of variation in the size of circulating red blood cells. Recent studies have reported a strong independent relation between elevated RDW and short- and long-term prognosis in various disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between admission RDW-to-platelet ratio (RPR) and in-hospital and long-term prognosis in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 470 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of STEMI who underwent primary PCI were included in this prospective study. The patients were divided into two groups based on their admission RPR: high (>0.061) RPR group and low (≤0.061) RPR group. The patients were followed for adverse clinical outcomes in-hospital and for up to one year after discharge. In-hospital cardiovascular mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), advanced heart failure and cardiogenic shock were significantly higher in the high RPR group (p<0.05). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality, MACE, fatal reinfarction, advanced heart failure, and rehospitalization for cardiac cause were more frequent in the high RPR group in one-year follow-up (p<0.05). High RPR was found to be a significant independent predictor of one-year cardiovascular mortality in multivariate analysis (p=0.003, OR: 3.106, 95% CI: 1.456-6.623). RPR is an inexpensive and readily available biomarker that provides an additional level of risk stratification beyond that provided by conventional risk parameters in predicting long-term MACE and cardiovascular mortality in STEMI. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical benefit of low molecular weight heparin for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sun; Her, Sung-Ho; Baek, Ju Yeal; Park, Mahn-Won; Kim, Hyoung Doo; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Young keun; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jim; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2010-11-01

    The efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with low dose unfractionated heparin (UFH) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with or without glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitor compared to UFH with or without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor has not been elucidated. Between October 2005 and July 2007, 2,535 patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) were assigned to either of two groups: a group with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=476) or a group without Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (n=2,059). These groups were further subdivided according to the use of LMWH with low dose UFH (n=219) or UFH alone (n=257). The primary end points were cardiac death or myocardial infarction during the 30 days after the registration. The primary end point occurred in 4.1% (9/219) of patients managed with LMWH during PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor and 10.8% (28/257) of patients managed with UFH and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (odds ratio [OR], 0.290; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.132-0.634; P=0.006). Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) with major bleeding was observed in LMHW and UFH with Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor (1/219 [0.5%] vs 1/257 [0.4%], P=1.00). For patients with STEMI managed with a primary PCI and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitor, LMWH is more beneficial than UFH.

  9. Patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting exhibit poor pre-operative intakes of fruit, vegetables, dietary fibre, fish and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Núñez, B; van den Hurk, G H A M; de Vries, J H M; Mariani, M A; de Jongste, M J L; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2015-05-14

    CHD may ensue from chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Diet is a modifiable risk factor for both, and its optimisation may reduce post-operative mortality, atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline. In the present study, we investigated the usual dietary intakes of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), emphasising on food groups and nutrients with putative roles in the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. From November 2012 to April 2013, we approached ninety-three consecutive patients (80% men) undergoing elective CABG. Of these, fifty-five were finally included (84% men, median age 69 years; range 46-84 years). The median BMI was 27 (range 18-36) kg/m(2). The dietary intake items were fruits (median 181 g/d; range 0-433 g/d), vegetables (median 115 g/d; range 0-303 g/d), dietary fibre (median 22 g/d; range 9-45 g/d), EPA+DHA (median 0.14 g/d; range 0.01-1.06 g/d), vitamin D (median 4.9 μg/d; range 1.9-11.2 μg/d), saturated fat (median 13.1% of energy (E%); range 9-23 E%) and linoleic acid (LA; median 6.3 E%; range 1.9-11.3 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes below recommendations were 62% (fruits; recommendation 200 g/d), 87 % (vegetables; recommendation 150-200 g/d), 73% (dietary fibre; recommendation 30-45 g/d), 91% (EPA+DHA; recommendation 0.45 g/d), 98% (vitamin D; recommendation 10-20 μg/d) and 13% (LA; recommendation 5-10 E%). The percentages of patients with dietary intakes above recommendations were 95% (saturated fat; recommendation < 10 E%) and 7% (LA). The dietary intakes of patients proved comparable with the average nutritional intake of the age- and sex-matched healthy Dutch population. These unbalanced pre-operative diets may put them at risk of unfavourable surgical outcomes, since they promote a pro-inflammatory state. We conclude that there is an urgent need for intervention trials aiming at rapid improvement of their diets to reduce peri-operative risks.

  10. Administration of lidocaine to prevent cognitive deficit in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and valve plasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Habibi, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Valiollah; Nouraei, Seyed Mahmood

    2017-02-01

    The administration of lidocaine to maintain cognitive function following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve plasty is a controversial concept in terms of its effectiveness. We performed a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of treatment with lidocaine in preventing the occurrence of cognitive deficit after cardiac surgery. Area covered: To review the current literature on the subject, we searched the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library database (up to May 2015) and compiled a list of retrieved articles. Our final review includes only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared lidocaine to a control (placebo) following CABG and valve plasty. Statistical analysis of the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to determine the overall effectiveness of lidocaine for the prevention of cognitive deficit with both procedures. The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to pool data of the outcomes of cognitive deficit occurrence into fixed-effect model meta-analyses. Five RCTs were included in this study, with a total of 688 patients. Perioperative administration of lidocaine in patients undergoing cardiac surgery reduced occurrence of cognitive deficit (OR 0.583 [95% CI 0.438-0.777]; Z = -3.680; P = 0.00; I(2) = 52%). No significant difference in the early occurrence of cognitive deficit was revealed in patients after cardiac surgery (OR 0.909 [95% CI 0.600-1.376]; Z = -0.451; P = 0.652; I(2) = 11%). Expert commentary: Cognitive deficit associated with cardiac surgery is a common postoperative event. Lidocaine is contributed to a significantly reduced occurrence of cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficit management is recommended.

  11. Association of Door-to-Balloon Time and Mortality in Patients ≥65 Years With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Saif S.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Wang, Yongfei; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Havranek, Edward P; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2009-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients receive primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 90 minutes of admission, although there is conflicting data regarding the relationship between time to treatment and mortality in these patients. We used logistic regression analyses employing fractional polynomial model to evaluate the association between door-to-balloon time and one-year mortality in STEMI patients age ≥65 years undergoing primary PCI in 1994–96 (n=1,932). Median door-to-balloon time was 128 minutes (interquartile range 92–178, 24.2% treated within 90 minutes). Overall one-year mortality was 21.1%. Longer door-to-balloon times were associated with higher one-year mortality in a continuous, nonlinear fashion (30 minutes 10.9%, 60 minutes 13.6%, 90 minutes 16.5%, 120 minutes 19.5%, 150 minutes 22.5%, 180 minutes 25.3%, 210 minutes 27.9%). The nature of the association between door-to-balloon time and one-year mortality was best modeled by a second-degree fractional polynomial (P<0.001). Findings were similar after multivariable adjustment as any increase in door-to-balloon time was associated with successive increases in patients’ one-year mortality (30 minutes 8.8%, 60 minutes 12.9%, 90 minutes 16.6%, 120 minutes 19.9%, 150 minutes 22.9%, 180 minutes 25.5%, 210 minutes 27.7%). In conclusion, any delay in primary PCI is associated with increased one-year mortality, suggesting efforts should focus on reducing time to treatment as much as possible, even among those centers currently providing primary PCI within 90 minutes. PMID:19840562

  12. Twelve-month outcome of patients with an established indication for oral anticoagulation undergoing coronary artery stenting and stratified by the baseline risk of bleeding: Insights from the Warfarin and Coronary Stenting (War-Stent) Registry.

    PubMed

    Rubboli, Andrea; Saia, Francesco; Sciahbasi, Alessandro; Leone, Antonio M; Palmieri, Cataldo; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Calabrò, Paolo; Bordoni, Barbara; Piccalò, Giacomo; Franco, Nicoletta; Nicolino, Annamaria; Magnavacchi, Paolo; Vignali, Luigi; Mameli, Stefano; Dallago, Michele; Maggiolini, Stefano; Steffanon, Luigi; Piovaccari, Giancarlo; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the outcome of patients with an established indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing coronary stent implantation (PCI-S) and stratified by the baseline risk of bleeding. The database of the prospective, multicentre, observational WAR-STENT registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00722319) was analyzed and patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, mechanical heart valve, prior cardiac embolism, intra-cardiac thrombus and recent venous thromboembolism who were treated with either triple (warfarin, aspirin and clopidogrel) or dual (warfarin and clopidogrel) or dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) therapy, identified. Patients were then sorted into two groups at non-low and low risk of bleeding, as defined by an ATRIA score >3 and ≤3 respectively, and compared regarding major adverse cardiac and vascular events (MACVE) and bleeding. At 12-month follow up, MACVE were comparable in the two groups, whereas total, major and minor bleeding, as well as combined MACVE and total bleeding, were significantly more frequent in the non-low bleeding risk group. Upon Cox univariate and multivariable analysis, non-low bleeding risk category confirmed as an independent predictor of major bleeding. The choice of antithrombotic therapy however, appeared not to be influenced by the bleeding risk category at baseline. In patients with an established indication for OAC undergoing PCI-S, non-low bleeding risk category is the most potent independent predictor of major bleeding. Stratification of the bleeding risk at baseline should therefore be regarded as an indispensable process to be carried out before selection of the antithrombotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: comparison between vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation assay and multiple electrode aggregometry.

    PubMed

    Danese, E; Fava, C; Beltrame, F; Tavella, D; Calabria, S; Benati, M; Gelati, M; Gottardo, R; Tagliaro, F; Guidi, G C; Cattaneo, M; Minuz, P

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: The reliability of platelet tests as markers of the variable bioavailability of clopidogrel is not yet defined. Kinetics of clopidogrel active metabolite (CAM) and platelet response were studied in ischemic heart disease. CAM plasma maximum concentration (Cmax ) predicted vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP-P). Timely performed VASP-P, not an aggregation-based test, may be a surrogate for clopidogrel bioavailability. The high inter-individual variability in the inhibition of platelet function by clopidogrel is mostly explained by high variability in its transformation to an active metabolite (CAM). Objective We investigated the relations between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CAM by comparing two methods of platelet function. We enrolled 14 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or inducible myocardial ischemia. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel and CAM, phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP-P), expressed as a platelet reactivity index (PRI) and whole-blood platelet aggregation (multiple electrode aggregometer, MEA) were measured before and after a 600-mg clopidogrel loading dose (nine time-points) and before and after 75-mg maintenance doses on days 2, 7 and 30. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel and CAM were highly variable. CAM reached maximal concentration (Cmax ) (median, 110.8 nm; range, 41.9-484.8) 0.5-2 h after the loading dose. A sigmoid dose-response curve defined the relations between CAMCmax and PRI after 3 to 24 h (IC50 , 459.6 nm; 95% confidence interval, 453.4-465.7; R(2) = 0.82). PRI was unchanged from baseline in patients with the lowest CAMCmax (< 83 nm, n = 7), indicating low sensitivity of VASP-P. PRI values were also predicted by CAMCmax at days 2, 7 and 30. Platelet aggregation measured by MEA did not show significant relations with either PRI or with CAM pharmacokinetics at any time-point. After 600 mg clopidogrel

  14. Resolution of left ventricular postinfarction thrombi in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention using rivaroxaban in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) thrombus is usually seen in situations with reduced LV function, and is mostly seen in patients with large anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Most embolic events, in patients with LV thrombus formation, occur within the first 3–4 months, thus the recommendations regarding the duration of anticoagulant therapy. According to guidelines, an oral vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, is being used as an anticoagulant for this period. Novel oral anticoagulants were found to be either non-inferior or superior compared with warfarin in prevention of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. However, the data about their role in the management of LV thrombus are limited to case reports. Here, we report on the dissolution of LV apical thrombus in 3 patients with anterior ST-elevation MI receiving dual antiplatelet therapy and rivaroxaban on a reduced dose for 3 months. PMID:27797850

  15. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Elbadawi, Ayman; Elgendy, Islam Y; Megaly, Michael; Ha, Le Dung; Mahmoud, Karim; Alotaki, Erfan; Ogunbayo, Gbolahan O; Baig, Basarat; Abuzaid, A S; Saad, Marwan; Depta, Jeremiah P

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors via intracoronary (IC) route versus the intravenous (IV) route are not well known. We conducted this meta-analysis of randomized trials evaluating the role of IC versus IV glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The analysis included 14 trials with a total of 3,754 patients. The primary outcome of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) had no statistically significant difference between the IC and the IV groups (relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51 to 1.10). Subgroup analysis showed that short-term MACE (i.e., ≤3 months) was reduced in the IC compared with the IV group; however, long-term MACE (>3 months) was not. IC group was superior in achievement of post-procedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11), myocardial blush grade II to III (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.23), ST-segment resolution rates (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.29; p = 0.01), and improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (standardized mean difference = 4.32, 95% CI 0.91 to 7.74). There was a trend for lower stent thrombosis with IC route (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.03). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in all-cause mortality, re-infarction, and major bleeding. In conclusion, despite lack of significant difference in overall MACE outcome, IC glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors may improve short -term MACE, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3 flow, myocardial blush grade II- to III rates, ST-segment resolution, and left ventricular ejection fraction compared with the IV route. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hereditary spherocytosis in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass--a case report.

    PubMed

    Spegar, J; Riha, H; Kotulak, T; Vanek, T

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically determined abnormality of red blood cells. It is the most common cause of inherited haemolysis in Europe and North America within the Caucasian population. We document a patient who underwent an aortocoronary bypass procedure on cardiopulmonary bypass. In view of the uncertain tolerance of the abnormal red cells in hereditary spherocytosis to cardiopulmonary bypass, we reviewed the patient's chart and analyzed recorded values of these parameters: free plasma haemoglobin, renal parameters, cystatin C, bilirubin, liver tests, urine samples. From the results, we can see that slight haemolysis-elevated bilirubin in the blood sample and elevated bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine sample occurred on the first postoperative day. The levels of these parameters slowly decreased during the next postoperative days. There was no real clinical effect of this haemolysis on renal functions.

  17. Comparison of outcomes of patients with painless versus painful ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Yeong; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Young Keun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Hong, Taek Jong; Choi, Dong Hoon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Chung, Wook Sung; Jang, Yang Soo; Cho, Seung Yun; Rha, Seung Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Seung Jung

    2012-02-01

    There are few data available on the prognosis of painless ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of painless STEMI. We analyzed the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) study, which enrolled 7,288 patients with STEMI (61.8 ± 12.8 years old, 74% men; painless STEMI group, n = 763; painful STEMI group, n = 6,525). End points were in-hospital mortality and 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Patients with painless STEMI were older and more likely to be women, nonsmokers, diabetic, and normolipidemic and to have a higher Killip class. The painless group had more in-hospital deaths (5.9% vs 3.6%, p = 0.026) and 1-year MACEs (26% vs 19%, p = 0.002). In Cox proportional hazards analysis, hypotension (hazard ratio [HR] 4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41 to 13.78, p = 0.011), low left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 3.12, 95% CI 1.21 to 8.07, p = 0.019), and a high Killip class (HR 3.48, 95% CI 1.19 to 10.22, p = 0.023) were independent predictors of 1-year MACEs in patients with painless STEMI. In conclusion, painless STEMI was associated with more adverse outcomes than painful STEMI and late detection may have contributed significantly to total ischemic burden. These results warrant more investigations for methodologic development in the diagnosis of silent ischemia and painless STEMI.

  18. Increased coronary artery disease severity in black women undergoing coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Griffin, William F; Anderson, Ethan J; Davies, Stephen W; Landrine, Hope; O'Neal, Jason B; Shiue, Kristin Y; Kindell, Linda C; Bruce Ferguson, T; Randolph Chitwood, W; Kypson, Alan P

    2015-02-01

    Race and sex disparities are believed to play an important role in heart disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between race, sex, and number of diseased vessels at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and subsequent postoperative outcomes. The 13,774 patients undergoing first-time, isolated CABG between 1992 and 2011 were included. Trend in the number of diseased vessels between black and white patients, stratified by sex, were analyzed using a Cochran-Armitage trend test. Models were adjusted for age, procedural status (elective vs. nonelective), and payor type (private vs. nonprivate insurance). Black female CABG patients presented with an increasingly greater number of diseased vessels than white female CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.0021). A similar trend was not observed between black and white male CABG patients (adjusted P(trend) = 0.18). Black female CABG patients were also more likely to have longer intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay than other race-sex groups.Our findings suggest that black female CABG patients have more advanced coronary artery disease than white female CABG patients. Further research is needed to determine the benefit of targeted preventive care and preoperative workup for this high-risk group.

  19. Efficacy of Adenosine in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qijun; Yang, Bo; Guo, Yi; Zheng, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Whether adenosine offers cardioprotective effects when used as an adjunctive therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial.To evaluate, via meta-analysis, the efficacy of adenosine in patients with AMI undergoing PCI.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.RCTs of patients with AMI undergoing primary PCI, comparing adenosine treatment and placebo groups and reporting mortality, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade, myocardial blush grade (MBG), re-infarction, left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), ST-segment elevation resolution (STR), recurrent angina, or heart failure (HF).Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane guidelines and publication bias by Egger's test. For studies reported in multiple publications, the most complete publication was used. Arms using different dosing schedules were merged. Mean differences (MDs) or risk ratios (RRs) were determined.Data were extracted from 15 RCTs involving 1736 patients. Compared with placebo, adenosine therapy was associated with fewer occurrences of heart failure (RR: 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.97, P[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.03) and no-reflow (TIMI flow grade <3, RR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.85, P[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.003; MBG[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0-1, RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.98, P[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.03), more occurrences of STR (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31, P[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]<[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.00001), but no overall improvement of LVEF (MD: 2.29, 95% CI: -0.09 to 4.67, P[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]=[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]0.06). Adenosine improved LVEF in the intravenous subgroup and the regular-dose intracoronary (IC) subgroup (0.24-2.25[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]mg) compared with placebo (MD: 2.68, 95

  20. Model-based causal closed-loop approach to the estimate of baroreflex sensitivity during propofol anesthesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Bassani, Tito; Marchi, Andrea; Pistuddi, Valeria; Ranucci, Marco

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac baroreflex is a fundamental component of the cardiovascular control. The continuous assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) from spontaneous heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variations during general anesthesia provides relevant information about cardiovascular regulation in physiological conditions. Unfortunately, several difficulties including unknown HP-SAP causal relations, negligible SAP changes, small BRS values, and confounding influences due to mechanical ventilation prevent BRS monitoring from HP and SAP variabilities during general anesthesia. We applied a model-based causal closed-loop approach aiming at BRS assessment during propofol anesthesia in 34 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We found the following: 1) traditional time and frequency domain approaches (i.e., baroreflex sequence, cross-correlation, spectral, and transfer function techniques) exhibited irremediable methodological limitations preventing the assessment of the BRS decrease during propofol anesthesia; 2) Granger causality approach proved that the methodological caveats were linked to the decreased presence of bidirectional closed-loop HP-SAP interactions and to the increased incidence of the HP-SAP uncoupling; 3) our model-based closed-loop approach detected the significant BRS decrease during propofol anesthesia as a likely result of accounting for the influences of mechanical ventilation and causal HP-SAP interactions; and 4) the model-based closed-loop approach found also a diminished gain of the relation from HP to SAP linked to vasodilatation and reduced ventricular contractility during propofol anesthesia. The proposed model-based causal closed-loop approach is more effective than traditional approaches in monitoring cardiovascular control during propofol anesthesia and indicates an overall depression of the HP-SAP closed-loop regulation.

  1. High Spinal Anesthesia Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Aortic Valve Replacement: Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Trevor W R; Kowalski, Stephen; Falk, Kelsey; Maguire, Doug; Freed, Darren H; HayGlass, Kent T

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery induces many physiologic changes including major inflammatory and sympathetic nervous system responses. Here, we conducted a single-centre pilot study to generate hypotheses on the potential immune impact of adding high spinal anaesthesia to general anaesthesia during cardiac surgery in adults. We hypothesized that this strategy, previously shown to blunt the sympathetic response and improve pain management, could reduce the undesirable systemic inflammatory responses caused by cardiac surgery. This prospective randomized unblinded pilot study was conducted on 14 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement secondary to severe aortic stenosis. The primary outcome measures examined longitudinally were serum pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1b, CCL2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TNF-RII, IL-1Ra), acute phase protein (CRP, PTX3) and cardiovascular risk (sST2) biomarkers. The kinetics of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarker was determined following surgery. All pro-inflammatory and acute phase reactant biomarker responses induced by surgical stress were indistinguishable in intensity and duration between control groups and those who also received high spinal anaesthesia. Conversely, IL-10 levels were markedly elevated in both intensity and duration in the group receiving high spinal anesthesia (p = 0.005). This hypothesis generating pilot study suggests that high spinal anesthesia can alter the net inflammatory response that results from cardiac surgery. In appropriately selected populations, this may add incremental benefit by dampening the net systemic inflammatory response during the week following surgery. Larger population studies, powered to assess immune, physiologic and clinical outcomes in both acute and longer term settings, will be required to better assess potential benefits of incorporating high spinal anesthesia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00348920.

  2. High Spinal Anesthesia Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Aortic Valve Replacement: Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Trevor W. R.; Kowalski, Stephen; Falk, Kelsey; Maguire, Doug; Freed, Darren H.; HayGlass, Kent T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery induces many physiologic changes including major inflammatory and sympathetic nervous system responses. Here, we conducted a single-centre pilot study to generate hypotheses on the potential immune impact of adding high spinal anaesthesia to general anaesthesia during cardiac surgery in adults. We hypothesized that this strategy, previously shown to blunt the sympathetic response and improve pain management, could reduce the undesirable systemic inflammatory responses caused by cardiac surgery. Methods This prospective randomized unblinded pilot study was conducted on 14 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement secondary to severe aortic stenosis. The primary outcome measures examined longitudinally were serum pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1b, CCL2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TNF-RII, IL-1Ra), acute phase protein (CRP, PTX3) and cardiovascular risk (sST2) biomarkers. Results The kinetics of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarker was determined following surgery. All pro-inflammatory and acute phase reactant biomarker responses induced by surgical stress were indistinguishable in intensity and duration between control groups and those who also received high spinal anaesthesia. Conversely, IL-10 levels were markedly elevated in both intensity and duration in the group receiving high spinal anesthesia (p = 0.005). Conclusions This hypothesis generating pilot study suggests that high spinal anesthesia can alter the net inflammatory response that results from cardiac surgery. In appropriately selected populations, this may add incremental benefit by dampening the net systemic inflammatory response during the week following surgery. Larger population studies, powered to assess immune, physiologic and clinical outcomes in both acute and longer term settings, will be required to better assess potential benefits of incorporating high spinal anesthesia. Trial Registration Clinical

  3. The effect of continuous low dose methylprednisolone infusion on inflammatory parameters in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Abbas; Shafiee, Akbar; Salehi Omran, Abbas; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Shirzad, Mahmood; Barkhordari, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    This trial was performed to determine if a continuous low-dose infusion of methylprednisolone is as effective as its bolus of high-dose in reducing inflammatory response. The study was single-center, double-blinded randomized clinical trial and performed in a surgical intensive care unit of an academic hospital. In this study, 72 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were assigned to receive either a methylprednisolone loading dose (1mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion (2mg/Kg/24 hours for 1 day) (low-dose regime) or a single dose of methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg) before cardiopulmonary bypass (high dose regime). Serum concentrations of IL-6 and C- reactive protein (CRP) were measured preoperatively and 6, 24 and 48 hours after surgery, and serum creatinine was measured before the operation and 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. The measurements were then compared between the groups to evaluate the efficacy of each regimen. The basic characteristics and measurements were not different between the study groups. There was no significant difference in IL-6 and CRP elevation (P=0.52 and P=0.46, respectively). Early outcomes such as the length of stay in the intensive care unit, intubation time, changes in serum creatinine and blood glucose levels, inotropic support, insulin requirements, and rate of infection were also similar in both groups. A continuous low dose infusion of methylprednisolone was as effective as a single high dose methylprednisolone in reducing the inflammatory response after CABG with extracorporeal circulation with no significant difference in the postoperative measurements and outcomes.

  4. Prayer Sign as a Marker of Increased Ventilatory Hours, Length of Intensive Care Unit and Hospital Stay in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Tanveer Singh; Kaur, Parminder; Manjunatha, N

    2017-01-01

    Context: Various predictors have been used to predict diabetic patients who are likely to have increased ventilatory hours and an increased length of stay (LOS) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) as well as in the hospital after undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, for example, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). The authors propose a simple bed-side test, i.e., the prayer sign to predict increased ventilatory hours and increased length of ICU and hospital stay. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess whether any association exists between a positive prayer sign and increased ventilatory hours, length of ICU and hospital stay after CABG surgery in diabetic patients. Settings and Design: This prospective observational study was conducted in a 650-bedded tertiary cardiac center. Subjects and Methods: A total of 501 diabetic patients were recruited in the study over a period of 1 year. Group P consisted of 121 patients with prayer sign positive, whereas Group N consisted of 380 patients with prayer sign negative. HbA1c levels, ventilatory hours, LOS in the postoperative ICU and hospital were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare the data. Results: The mean HbA1c levels in Group P were 8.01 ± 2.28% as compared to 6.52 ± 2.46% in Group N (P < 0.0001). The mean ventilatory hours in Group P were 9.52 ± 6.46 h, and in Group N were 7.42 ± 8.01 h (P = 0.013). Whereas, the mean length of ICU stay and hospital stay in Group P was 156.42 ± 32.66 h (6.51 ± 1.36 days) and 197.36 ± 32.46 h (8.22 ± 1.35 days), respectively, it was 121.12 ± 29.48 h (5.04 ± 1.22 days) and 178.52 ± 28.52 h (7.43 ± 1.18 days) in Group N (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: A positive prayer sign is a useful bedside test for predicting increased ventilatory hours and increased length of ICU and hospital stay after CABG surgery. PMID:28074803

  5. Quality of life in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention--radial versus femoral access (from the OCEAN RACE Trial).

    PubMed

    Koltowski, Lukasz; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria; Filipiak, Krzysztof Jerzy; Kochman, Janusz; Golicki, Dominik; Pietrasik, Arkadiusz; Huczek, Zenon; Balsam, Pawel; Scibisz, Anna; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2014-08-15

    Numerous studies have compared transradial (TR) versus transfemoral (TF) access for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. These studies have focused on clinical efficacy and safety; yet little is known about the effect of the vessel access on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In the present study, patients were randomly assigned to TR (n = 52) or TF (n = 51) access groups. Generic (EQ-5D-3L) and cardiac-specific (Quality of Life Index and MacNew) tools were used to assess HRQoL before PCI and 2 hours and 4 days after PCI. Baseline HRQoL was comparable in both groups and improved after PCI. The mean ± SD EQ-5D-3L health utility score 2 hours after PCI was 0.46 ± 0.291 and was higher in the TR group (TR: 0.60 ± 0.299 versus TF: 0.32 ± 0.283, p <0.001). Patients in the TR group reported fewer problems with mobility (TR: 71.7% vs TF: 94.4%, p <0.01) and self-care (TR: 62.5% vs TF: 97.2%, p <0.001). At day 4, fewer patients reported problems with anxiety and/or depression in the TR group than in the TF group (TR: 42.9% vs TF: 75.0%, p <0.001); no differences between groups in other measures were observed (Quality of Life Index and MacNew). The N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide levels were inversely correlated with EQ-5D-3L visual analog scale (r = -0.348, p <0.05) and EQ-5D-3L health utility score (r = -0.322, p <0.05). There was a correlation between in-hospital mortality and 2 MacNew domains: physical (r = -0.329, p <0.05) and emotional (r = -0.374, p <0.01). In conclusion, radial access should be the preferred approach in patients with ST-se