Science.gov

Sample records for patients undergoing high

  1. Preoperative IABP in high risk patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Theologou, T; Field, M L

    2011-01-01

    A recent international consensus conference on the reduction in mortality in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care included intraoperative aortic balloon pump among the ancillary (i.e. non-surgical) drugs/techniques/strategies that might influence survival rates in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The consensus conferences state that "Pre-operative intraoperative aortic balloon pump might reduce 30-day mortality in elective high risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery unless specifically contraindicated". The authors of this "expert opinion" presents their insights into the use of the preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump and conclude that based on available limited randomized controlled trials and clinical experience preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump saves lives in unstable patients.

  2. Hospitalist-orthopedic co-management of high-risk patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction surgery.

    PubMed

    Pinzur, Michael S; Gurza, Edward; Kristopaitis, Theresa; Monson, Rebecca; Wall, Michael J; Porter, Anne; Davidson-Bell, Victoria; Rapp, Timothy

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of the hospitalist co-management model represents an opportunity to improve care by changing the system as it applies to a small group of patients. Eighty-six consecutive patients with multiple comorbidities were selectively enrolled in an academic medical center hospitalist-orthopedic surgery co-management patient care program. Patients were stratified by all patient refined diagnosis-related groups, severity of illness, and risk of mortality. Hospital length of stay, cost of care, in-hospital mortality, complications, and intensive care unit admissions were compared with a retrospectively constructed control group of 54 patients undergoing similar surgery during the period immediately preceding initiation of the program. The University Health System Consortium observed-to-expected ratio for hospital length of stay was 0.693 compared to 0.862 for the control group. The severity of illness and risk of mortality scores represented a relatively higher risk stratification in the study group. While the overall observed-to-expected cost of care remained virtually unchanged, the positive impact of the study model revealed an increased positive effect on the more severely affected severity of illness and risk of mortality patients. The results of this study suggest that a proactive, cooperative, co-management model for the perioperative management of high-risk patients undergoing complex surgery can improve the quality and efficiency metrics associated with the delivery of service to patients.

  3. The myocardial protective effect of dexmedetomidine in high-risk patients undergoing aortic vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Rabie; Zohry, Gomaa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine in high-risk patients undergoing aortic vascular surgery. Design: A randomized prospective study. Setting: Cairo University, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 patients undergoing aortic vascular surgery. Intervention: The patients were classified into two groups (n = 75). Group D: The patients received a loading dose of 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine over 15 min before induction and maintained as an infusion of 0.3 μg/kg/h to the end of the procedure. Group C: The patients received an equal volume of normal saline. The medication was prepared by the nursing staff and given to anesthetist blindly. Measurements: The monitors included the heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum troponin I level, end-tidal sevoflurane, and total dose of morphine in addition transthoracic echocardiography to the postoperative in cases with elevated serum troponin I level. Main Results: The dexmedetomidine decreased heart rate and minimized the changes in blood pressure compared to control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, it decreased the incidence of myocardial ischemia reflected by troponin I level, ECG changes, and the development of new regional wall motion abnormalities (P < 0.05). Dexmedetomidine decreased the requirement for nitroglycerin and norepinephrine compared to control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of hypotension and bradycardia was significantly higher with dexmedetomidine (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The dexmedetomidine is safe and effective in patients undergoing aortic vascular surgery. It decreases the changes in heart rate and blood pressure during the procedures. It provides cardiac protection in high-risk patients reflected by decreasing the incidence of myocardial ischemia and serum level of troponin. The main side effects of dexmedetomidine were hypotension and bradycardia. PMID:27716690

  4. Outcomes of preoperative weight loss in high-risk patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Still, Christopher D; Benotti, Peter; Wood, G Craig; Gerhard, Glenn S; Petrick, Anthony; Reed, Mary; Strodel, William

    2007-10-01

    Modest, preoperative weight loss will improve perioperative outcomes among high-risk, morbidly obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A prospective, longitudinal assessment of characteristics and outcomes of gastric bypass patients. All patients undergoing open or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity or its comorbid medical problems at Geisinger Medical Center in Danville, Pennsylvania, during a 3-year period from May 31, 2002, to February 24, 2006, were included in this analysis. Patients were required to participate in a standardized multidisciplinary preoperative program that encompasses medical, psychological, nutritional, and surgical interventions and education. In addition, patients were encouraged to achieve a 10% loss of excess body weight prior to surgical intervention. Of the 884 subjects, 425 (48%) lost more than 10% of their excess body weight prior to the operation. After surgery (mean follow-up, 12 months), this group was more likely to achieve 70% loss of excess body weight (P < .001). Those who lost more than 5% of excess body weight prior to surgery were statistically less likely to have a length of stay of greater than 4 days (P = .03). This study shows that high-risk morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery who are able to achieve a loss of 5% to 10% excess body weight prior to surgery have a higher probability of a shorter length of hospital stay and more rapid postoperative weight loss.

  5. The Meaning and Experience of Patients Undergoing Rectal High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Perez, Samara; Néron, Sylvain; Benc, Renata; Rosberger, Zeev; Vuong, Té

    2016-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a precise form of radiation therapy that targets cancerous tumors by directly applying the radiation source at the site or directly next to the tumor. Patients often experience but underreport pain and anxiety related to cancer treatments. At present, there is no research available concerning the pervasiveness and intensity of patients' pain and anxiety during rectal brachytherapy. The aim of this study was to examine patients' thoughts, emotions, coping strategies, physical sensations, and needs during rectal HDR brachytherapy treatment. Twenty-five patients with rectal cancer were interviewed using a semi-structured qualitative interview following the completion of their brachytherapy treatment delivered at a Montreal-based hospital in Quebec, Canada. The experiences of pain and discomfort varied greatly between patients and were linked to the meaning patients attributed to the treatment itself, sense of time, the body's lithotomic position, insertion of the treatment applicator, and the patients' sense of agency and empowerment during the procedure. Patients drew upon a variety of internal and external resources to help them cope with discomfort. Staff need to know about the variation in the physical and emotional experiences of patients undergoing this treatment. Clinical teams can tailor their procedural behavior (eg, using certain language, psychosocial interventions) according to patients' needs to increase patients' comfort and ultimately improve their experience of HDR rectal brachytherapy.

  6. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Rosario; Meoli, Ilernando; Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Bianco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  7. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Antonio; Perrotta, Fabio; Saverio Cerqua, Francesco; Montesano, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Lassandro, Francesco; Stefanelli, Francesco; Grella, Edoardo; Tafuri, Domenico; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT) and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk. Our observations indicate that PRP appear to reduce the mortality and morbidity risk in frail patients with concurrent lung function impairment undergoing thoracic surgery. PRP produced improvement of VO2 peak degree and pulmonary function resulting in reduced postoperative complications in high-risk patients from our cases. Our results indicate that a preoperative training program may improve postoperative clinical outcomes in fraillung cancer patients with impaired lung function prior to surgical resection.

  8. Renal Function Outcomes of High-risk Neuroblastoma Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Thomas H; Casey, Dana L; LaQuaglia, Michael P; Kushner, Brian H; Modak, Shakeel; Wolden, Suzanne L

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the renal function outcomes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for neuroblastoma. The clinical metrics of renal function were analyzed in patients undergoing radiation therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma from 2000 to 2015. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values before radiation therapy were compared with last available follow-up values and analyzed with the clinical circumstances, including follow-up length, age at primary irradiation, nephrectomy, and radiation technique. The creatinine clearance was estimated using the Shull method. With a median follow-up period of 3.5 years, none of the 266 patients studied developed a chronic renal insufficiency. For all patients, the creatinine level increased from 0.44 to 0.51 mg/dL and the BUN increased from 10.53 to 15.52 mg/dL. Three patients required antihypertensive medication. The patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy did not experience increased creatinine levels during the follow-up period; however, they had a reduced median follow-up length compared with patients treated with anteroposterior/posteroanterior beams (4.7 vs 3.3 years). A longer follow-up length was associated with an increased creatinine level. The preradiation therapy creatinine level increased with patient age, similar to that of the last follow-up creatinine level, suggesting that the changes in creatinine could likely be explained by physiologic increases associated with aging rather than radiation-induced renal damage. The creatinine clearance did not decrease in any circumstance. The present cohort had excellent renal outcomes after radiation therapy for neuroblastoma. No patient developed chronic renal insufficiency, and the small increases in BUN and creatinine we observed correlated, as expected, with increases in patient age. The results of the present study revealed a possible advantage for intensity modulated radiation therapy in preserving renal function; however, the follow

  9. Patients with single ventricle physiology undergoing noncardiac surgery are at high risk for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Brown, Morgan L; DiNardo, James A; Odegard, Kirsten C

    2015-08-01

    Patients with single ventricle physiology are at increased anesthetic risk when undergoing noncardiac surgery. To review the outcomes of anesthetics for patients with single ventricle physiology undergoing noncardiac surgery. This study is a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent a palliative procedure for single ventricle physiology between January 1, 2007 and January 31, 2014. Anesthetic and surgical records were reviewed for noncardiac operations that required sedation or general anesthesia. Any noncardiac operation occurring prior to completion of a bidirectional Glenn procedure was included. Diagnostic procedures, including cardiac catheterization, insertion of permanent pacemaker, and procedures performed in the ICU, were excluded. During the review period, 417 patients with single ventricle physiology had initial palliation. Of these, 70 patients (16.7%) underwent 102 anesthetics for 121 noncardiac procedures. The noncardiac procedures included line insertion (n = 23); minor surgical procedures such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or airway surgery (n = 38); or major surgical procedures including intra-abdominal and thoracic operations (n = 41). These interventions occurred on median day 60 of life (1-233 days). The procedures occurred most commonly in the operating room (n = 79, 77.5%). Patients' median weight was 3.4 kg (2.4-15 kg) at time of noncardiac intervention. In 102 anesthetics, 26 patients had an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy in situ, 57 patients underwent endotracheal intubation, and 19 patients had a natural or mask airway. An intravenous induction was performed in 77 anesthetics, an inhalational induction in 17, and a combination technique in 8. The median total anesthetic time was 126 min (14-594 min). In 22 anesthetics (21.6%), patients were on inotropic support upon arrival; an additional 24 patients required inotropic support (23.5%), of which dopamine was the most common medication. There were 10

  10. The Role of Potentially Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Stulberg, S. David; Puri, Lalit; Karp, Jennifer; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prIVCF in preventing PE in patients undergoing joint replacement surgery who are at high-risk for VTE. Materials and Methods In this prospective, IRB-approved study, prIVCF were placed in consecutive patients who met specific high-risk criteria (history of VTE or hypercoaguable state) prior to total joint arthroplasty. Patients were followed until the IVC filter was removed. Outcomes and complications were recorded per Society of Interventional Radiology guidelines. Results One hundred and nine potentially retrievable IVC filters were placed in 105 patients, who all subsequently underwent joint arthroplasty. One hundred eight IVC filters (98.9%) were retrieved successfully in a mean time of 44.1 days (range 13-183 days). There was 1 failed IVC filter retrieval attempt (0.9%) at 46 days post implantation. Two patients (1.9%) presented with recurrent PE and were successfully treated with anticoagulation prior to IVC filter retrieval. There were no fatalities from perioperative PE. In 1 patient (0.9%), a fractured filter leg had embolized during retrieval. Conclusion Potentially retrievable IVC filters are safe and effective for prophylaxis against PE in patients at high-risk for VTE undergoing joint arthroplasty. PMID:26816965

  11. Effect of a multimodal high intensity exercise intervention in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Morten; Andersen, Christina; Møller, Tom; Herrstedt, Jørn; Kronborg, Dorte; Baadsgaard, Marie T; Vistisen, Kirsten; Midtgaard, Julie; Christiansen, Birgitte; Stage, Maria; Kronborg, Morten T; Rørth, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a multimodal group exercise intervention, as an adjunct to conventional care, on fatigue, physical capacity, general wellbeing, physical activity, and quality of life in patients with cancer who were undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for advanced disease. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 269 patients with cancer; 73 men, 196 women, mean age 47 years (range 20-65) representing 21 diagnoses. Main exclusion criteria were brain or bone metastases. 235 patients completed follow-up. Intervention Supervised exercise comprising high intensity cardiovascular and resistance training, relaxation and body awareness training, massage, nine hours weekly for six weeks in addition to conventional care, compared with conventional care. Main outcome measures European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS SF-36), Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire, muscular strength (one repetition maximum), maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max). Statistical methods The general linear model was used for continuous outcome while analysis of associates between categorical outcomes was performed as analysis of marginal homogeneity in contingency tables. Results Adjusted for baseline score, disease, and demographic covariates, the intervention group showed an estimated improvement at six weeks for the primary outcome, fatigue, of −6.6 points (95% confidence interval −12.3 to −0.9, P=0.02; effect size=0.33, 0.04 to 0.61). Significant effects were seen on vitality (effect size 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.82), physical functioning (0.37, 0.09 to 0.65), role physical (0.37, 0.10 to 0.64), role emotional (0.32, 0.05 to 0.59), and mental health (0.28, 0.02 to 0.56) scores. Improvement was noted in physical capacity: estimated mean difference between groups for maximum oxygen consumption

  12. Low-dose cranial boost in high-risk adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Su, William; Thompson, Marcher; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Steinberg, Amir; Isola, Luis; Stock, Richard; Bakst, Richard L

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a predilection for CNS involvement. Patients with high-risk ALL are often managed with transplant using a radiation-based conditioning regimen. Historically, a high-dose prophylactic cranial boost (CB) of ≥12 Gy was given to reduce risk of central nervous system (CNS) recurrence. However, the use of CB has fallen out of favor because of toxicity concerns. In high-risk adults undergoing transplant at our institution, we have used a low-dose 6 Gy CB to reduce toxicity while conditioning adults with fully developed brains. The safety, efficacy, and utility of a low-dose CB in adults are poorly studied; herein, we report their outcomes and toxicity. We identified all high-risk ALL patients undergoing total body irradiation as part of their conditioning regimen. Those who received 6 Gy CB or no CB were included (55 total). Their charts were reviewed and statistical analyses were completed with R, version 2.15.2. In patients undergoing CB, 3-year CNS disease-free survival and overall survival were 94.7% and 62.7%. In those not undergoing CBs, survivals were 81.8% and 51.5%. Notably, within the CB cohort, patients without prior CNS involvement had no CNS failures. In contrast, in the non-CB cohort, there were 2 CNS failures in patients with no history of CNS involvement. In the CB cohort, the only notable acute toxicity was parotitis (2.8%). Late toxicity in the CB cohort included 1 instance of cataracts (2.8%) without any evidence of cognitive impairment or potential radiation induced secondary malignancy. A dose of 6 Gy CB is well-tolerated in the adult ALL population as part of a radiation-based conditioning regimen. Low-dose CB may be considered in adult patients with high-risk ALL without prior CNS involvement to reduce the likelihood of recurrence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Prophylactic inferior vena cava filters prevent pulmonary embolisms in high-risk patients undergoing major spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dazley, Justin M; Wain, Reese; Vellinga, Ryan M; Cohen, Benjamin; Agulnick, Marc A

    2012-06-01

    Clinical case series. To show the efficacy of prophylactic inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in preventing venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in high-risk patients undergoing major spinal surgery. Patients undergoing major spinal surgery are at increased risk for VTEs. Recent studies have shown IVC filters are effective in preventing clinically significant pulmonary embolism (PE), but have not documented the frequency of all emboli prevented. Patients undergoing major spinal surgery from 2006 to 2009, having IVC filters placed for VTE prophylaxis, were reviewed. Patients with 2 or more risk factors for VTE were included and their perioperative courses were reviewed for PE and device-related complications. Cavograms obtained at the time of attempted filter retrieval identified intercepted emboli. The rates of intercepted emboli and clinical PEs were compared with those of similar populations undergoing similar procedures. Approximately 17% of patients had entrapped thrombus present at attempted filter retrieval. An additional 17% of filters were unable to be retrieved due to change in position within the IVC. No patients experienced symptomatic PE. One patient developed a deep vein thrombus requiring pharmacologic treatment and another patient developed superficial phlebitis. There were no complications related to IVC filter use. These findings show that the decreased rate of PE observed in this and other series is likely because of the use of IVC filters, rather than sampling bias inherent when studying a relatively rare problem. The safety of IVC filters in this population is also confirmed. The observed rate of clinical PE is consistent with other published series. Emboli intercepted by filters may more accurately estimate clinically significant emboli prevented. Therefore, cavograms may prove to be a valuable method of assessing the efficacy of these devices in future studies.

  14. Outcomes of patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer of high-risk histologic subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sonika; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Sun, Charlotte C.; Nick, Alpa; dos Reis, Ricardo; Brown, Jubilee; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Introduction The most common types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous carcinoma, referred to here collectively as SA cervical cancer. Other types of cervical cancer, referred to here collectively as nonsquamous/nonadenocarcinoma (NSNA) cervical cancer, include neuroendocrine, small cell, clear cell, sarcomatoid, and serous tumors. Anecdotally, NSNA tumors seem to have a worse prognosis than their SA counterparts. We sought to determine whether patients with early-stage NSNA have a worse prognosis than those with early-stage SA cervical cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts of women with stage IA1-IB2 NSNA cervical cancer treated by radical hysterectomy and lymph node staging at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1990 to 2006. NSNA patients were matched 1:2 to patients with grade 3 SA lesions on the basis of stage, age at diagnosis, tumor size, and date of diagnosis. Results Eighteen patients with NSNA primary cervical cancer subtypes [neuroendocrine (n=7), small cell (5), clear cell (4), papillary serous (1), and sarcomatoid (1)] were matched to 36 patients with grade 3 SA lesions. There were no differences between the 2 groups in age, body mass index, clinical stage, or lesion size. The 2 groups also did not differ with respect to number of nodes resected, lymphovascular space invasion, margin status, lymph node metastasis, or adjuvant radiation therapy or chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 44 months, median progression-free and overall survivals had not been reached; however, both progression-free survival (p=0.018) and overall survival (p=0.028) were worse for the NSNA group. The 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 61.2% and 67.6%, respectively, for the NSNA group, compared to 90.1% and 88.3%, respectively, for the SA group. Conclusions Patients with early-stage NSNA cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy have a worse prognosis

  15. [Prophylactic Effectiveness of Vacuum-assisted Closure for High-risk Patients Undergoing Cardiovascular Surgery through Median Sternotomy].

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Ippei; Misawa, Yoshio; Uesugi, Satoshi; Sugaya, Akira; Akutsu, Hirohiko; Kurumisawa, Souki; Satoh, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Aizawa, Kei; Ohki, Shinichi; Kawahito, Koji

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure(VAC) therapy is mainly used for tissue defects. VAC therapy can remove exudate that could impair the healing process. We applied VAC therapy in patients considered at high risk of surgical site infection who underwent cardiovascular surgery via standard median sternotomy. Risk factors included advanced heart failure, obesity, diabetes mellitus, steroid administration, immunosuppressant administration, and chronic renal failure, etc. VAC therapy was used in 134 patients. Only 3 of these patients (2.2%) developed surgical site infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis;2 patients fully recovered after prolonged VAC therapy for 2 weeks, and the other required an additional sternal fixation after the sternal wires were removed for wound infection control. No patient developed infective mediastinitis. Prophylactic VAC therapy can reduce postoperative wound infection in high risk patients undergoing open heart surgery via full sternotomy.

  16. High C-Reactive Protein and Low Albumin Levels Predict High 30-Day Mortality in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrotomy

    PubMed Central

    Karasahin, Omer; Tasar, Pinar Tosun; Timur, Ozge; Binici, Dogan Nasir; Yilmaz, Tugba Kiper; Aslan, Adem; Sahin, Sevnaz

    2017-01-01

    Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy (PEG) enables long-term enteral feeding. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers that may guide the decision of whether to perform the elective procedure of PEG. Methods The medical records of all patients who underwent PEG in our hospital from 2010 to 2016 were screened retrospectively. Patients with mortality within a 30-day follow-up period and those without were compared using the Chi-square test, and continuous variables were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to demonstrate the ability of biomarkers to predict mortality; a cut-off point was determined and its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The Youden index was used to determine the cut-off point. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify PEG-related mortality risk factors and a Cox regression model was applied for risk characterization. Results A total of 120 patients who underwent PEG were evaluated in the study. The mean age was 67.00 ± 18.00 years. The most common indication for PEG was cerebrovascular disease, in 69 (57.5%) of the patients. Infection of the PEG site was most common within 14 days after PEG tube placement, occurring in 13 patients (10.3%). The mortality rate among patients with post-PEG infection was 68.2%, significantly higher than in patients without infection (P = 0.012). Thirty-four patients (28.3%) died within 30 days of undergoing PEG. CRP values ≥ 78.31 mg/L increased mortality by 8.756-fold, and albumin levels < 2.71 g/dL increased mortality by 2.255-fold. Conclusion Our results indicate that the presence of both high CRP level and low albumin level were associated with significantly higher rate of mortality (73.1%) in patients who underwent PEG. PMID:28725304

  17. Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges prevent oral mucositis in patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Atul; Tilak, TVSVGK; Bakhshi, Sameer; Raina, Vinod; Kumar, Lalit; Chaudhary, Surendra Pal; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Gupta, Ritu; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral mucositis is a common inflammatory complication in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and radiation followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lactobacillus brevis CD2 has been proven efficacious in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Methods This phase II study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of L. brevis CD2 lozenges in preventing oral mucositis in patients undergoing HSCT. Eligible patients received four to six lozenges of L. brevis CD2 per day, beginning from 4 to 7 days before initiation of chemotherapy and continuing until resolution of mucositis or till day +24. Results Of 31 patients enrolled, 7 (22.6%) patients did not develop any mucositis, 6 (19.4%) patients developed grade 1, 12 (38.7%) patients developed grade 2, 4 (12.9%) and 2 (6.5%) patients developed grade 3 and grade 4 mucositis, respectively. Median time to onset and for resolution of mucositis were 6 days and 8 days, respectively. No adverse events were reported with usage of study drug. However, one patient died of Klebsiella sepsis. Conclusion Promising results from the study encourage the use of L. brevis CD2 lozenges as a supportive care treatment option; however, a randomised, double-blind, multicentric trial in a larger population is warranted. Trials registration number NCT01480011 at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (Registered on Nov 04, 2011). PMID:28848667

  18. Effects of subcutaneous drain for the prevention of incisional SSI in high-risk patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Tabe, Yuichi; Yajima, Reina; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the risk of incisional surgical site infection (SSI) increases with obesity and that the most useful predictor of incisional SSI is the thickness of subcutaneous fat. Based on this finding, we have recently attempted a closure technique in surgery for the obese in which a subcutaneous drain is inserted for the prevention of incisional SSI. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of a subcutaneous drain for preventing incisional SSI in patients undergoing colorectal surgery who are at high risk for incisional SSI. Seventy-nine patients who underwent colorectal resection with high risk for incisional SSI, including patients with obesity (thick subcutaneous fat tissue, >20 mm) and those undergoing emergency operations, were enrolled in this study. The clinical features of these cases with or without a subcutaneous drain were reviewed, and statistical analysis was performed. In these high-risk cases, the overall incidence of incisional SSI was 27.8%. The incidences of incisional SSI in these cases with or without a subcutaneous drain were 14.3% and 38.6%, respectively. Our results suggest that subcutaneous drains are effective for preventing incisional SSI in patients with thick subcutaneous fat in colorectal surgery. Therefore, incisional SSI surveillance for obese patients should be performed separately, which should lead to a further reduction in incisional SSIs.

  19. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in stable patients undergoing pharmacological stress testing.

    PubMed

    Wongpraparut, Nattawut; Piyophirapong, Sudarat; Maneesai, Adisak; Sribhen, Kosit; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Pongakasira, Rungtiwa; White, Harvey D

    2015-05-01

    Acute changes in high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) are induced by myocardial ischemia during exercise stress testing, but there are no reports of pharmacological stress testing. The pattern of troponin release by myocardial ischemia-induced pharmacological stress testing differs according to the ischemic burden in stable patients. In total, 250 patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent pharmacological stress magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amount and degree of myocardial ischemia on MRI and ischemic outcomes at 6 months were determined. hs-TnT levels were measured at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after testing. The 6-month clinical outcome was prespecified. Fifty-one patients had moderate to severe myocardial ischemia (group A), and 199 patients had no or mild myocardial ischemia (group B). hs-TnT levels were significantly higher in group A than B at baseline (11 vs 8 pg/mL, P = 0.016) and at 1 hour (12 vs 8 pg/mL, P = 0.009) and 3 hours after testing (12 vs 9 pg/mL, P = 0.012). Baseline hs-TnT levels of ≥14 pg/mL showed a 43% sensitivity and 77% specificity in predicting moderate to severe ischemia by MRI (P = 0.03; area under the curve: 0.608, P = 0.017). Patients administered dobutamine had a higher acute change in hs-TnT levels 3 hours after testing than did those administered adenosine (21 vs 0 pg/mL, P < 0.001). There was a trend toward a higher incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with baseline hs-TnT levels of ≥14 pg/mL. hs-TnT levels are significantly higher in patients with moderate to severe than no or mild myocardial ischemia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hemodynamic monitoring and management of patients undergoing high-risk surgery: a survey among Chinese anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Zuo, Yunxia; Yang, Lei; Chung, Elena; Cannesson, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hemodynamic monitoring and optimization improve postoperative outcome during high-risk surgery. However, hemodynamic management practices among Chinese anesthesiologists are largely unknown. This study sought to evaluate the current intraoperative hemodynamic management practices for high-risk surgery patients in China. From September 2010 to November 2011, we surveyed anesthesiologists working in the operating rooms of 265 hospitals representing 28 Chinese provinces. All questionnaires were distributed to department chairs of anesthesiology or practicing anesthesiologists. Once completed, the 29-item questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Two hundred and 10 questionnaires from 265 hospitals in China were collected. We found that 91.4% of anesthesiologists monitored invasive arterial pressure, 82.9% monitored central venous pressure (CVP), 13.3% monitored cardiac output (CO), 10.5% monitored mixed venous saturation, and less than 2% monitored pulse pressure variation (PPV) or systolic pressure variation (SPV) during high-risk surgery. The majority (88%) of anesthesiologists relied on clinical experience as an indicator for volume expansion and more than 80% relied on blood pressure, CVP and urine output. Anesthesiologists in China do not own enough attention on hemodynamic parameters such as PPV, SPV and CO during fluid management in high-risk surgical patients. The lack of CO monitoring may be attributed largely to the limited access to technologies, the cost of the devices and the lack of education on how to use them. There is a need for improving access to these technologies as well as an opportunity to create guidelines and education for hemodynamic optimization in China. PMID:25332709

  1. Dopexamine has no additional benefit in high-risk patients receiving goal-directed fluid therapy undergoing major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon J; Yates, David; Wilson, R Jonathan T

    2011-01-01

    Dopexamine has been shown to reduce both mortality and morbidity in major surgery when it is used as part of a protocol to increase oxygen delivery in the perioperative period. A European multicenter study has examined the use of dopexamine in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery, showing a trend toward improved survival and reduced complications in high-risk patients when receiving low-dose dopexamine (0.5 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1)). A reduced oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT) has been shown to confer a significant risk of mortality in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and allows objective identification of a high-risk operative group. In this study, we assessed the effects of low-dose dopexamine on morbidity after major abdominal surgery in patients who were at increased risk by virtue of a reduced AT. Patients undergoing elective major colorectal or urological surgery who had an AT of <11 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) or an AT of 11 to 14 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) with a history of ischemic heart disease were recruited. Before surgery, a radial arterial cannula was placed and attached to an Edwards Lifesciences FloTrac/Vigileo system for measuring cardiac output. Patients were given a 250-mL bolus of Voluven (6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in 0.9% sodium chloride) until the stroke volume no longer increased by 10%, then received either dopexamine (0.5 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1)) or saline 0.9% for 24 hours. During surgery, fluid boluses of Voluven were given if the stroke volume variation was >10%. No crystalloid was given during surgery. A standardized postoperative fluid regime with Hartmann solution was prescribed at 1.5 mL · kg(-1) · h(-1) for 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was postoperative morbidity measured by the Postoperative Morbidity Survey. One hundred twenty-four patients were recruited over a 23-month period. The incidence of morbidity as measured by the Postoperative Morbidity Survey on day 5 was 55% in the control group

  2. Clinical and economic effectiveness of percutaneous ventricular assist devices for high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Atman P; Retzer, Elizabeth M; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D; Friant, Janet; Dill, Karin E; Thomas, Joseph L

    2015-03-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is taking a more prominent role in formalizing hospital treatment protocols and health-care coverage policies by having health-care providers consider the impact of new devices on costs and outcomes. CER balances the need for innovation with fiscal responsibility and evidence-based care. This study compared the clinical and economic impact of percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVAD) with intraaortic balloon pumps for high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study conducted a review of all comparative randomized control trials of the pVADS (Impella and TandemHeart) vs IABP for patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A retrospective analysis of the 2010 and 2011 Medicare MEDPAR data files was also performed to compare procedural costs and hospital length of stay (LOS). Readmission rates between the devices were also studied. Based on available trials, there is no significant clinical benefit with pVAD compared to IABP. Use of pVADs is associated with increased length of Intensive Care Unit stay and a total longer LOS. The incremental budget impact for pVADs was $33,957,839 for the United States hospital system (2010-2011). pVADs are not associated with improved clinical outcomes, reduced hospital length of stay, or reduced readmission rates. Management of high-risk PCI and cardiogenic shock patients with IABP is more cost effective than a routine use of pVADS. Use of IABP as initial therapy in high-risk PCI and cardiogenic shock patients may result in savings of up to $2.5 billion annually of incremental costs to the hospital system.

  3. Incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in high-risk patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Bodem, Jens Philipp; Kargus, Steffen; Eckstein, Stefanie; Saure, Daniel; Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2015-05-01

    As the most suitable approach for preventing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction is still under discussion, the present study evaluates the incidence of BRONJ after surgical tooth extraction using a standardized surgical protocol in combination with an adjuvant perioperative treatment setting in patients who are at high-risk for developing BRONJ. High-risk patients were defined as patients who received intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) due to a malignant disease. All teeth were removed using a standardized surgical protocol. The perioperative adjuvant treatment included intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis starting at least 24 h before surgery, a gastric feeding tube and mouth rinses with chlorhexidine (0.12%) three times a day. In the follow-up period patients were examined every 4 weeks for the development of BRONJ. Minimum follow-up was 12 weeks. In 61 patients a total number of 184 teeth were removed from 102 separate extraction sites. In eight patients (13.1%) BRONJ developed during the follow-up. A higher risk for developing BRONJ was found in patients where an additional osteotomy was necessary (21.4% vs. 8.0%; p = 0.0577), especially for an osteotomy of the mandible (33.3% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.0268). Parameters including duration of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, the use of a gastric feeding tube and the duration of intravenous BP therapy showed no statistical impact on the development of BRONJ. Furthermore, patients currently undergoing intravenous BP therapy showed no higher risk for BRONJ compared with patients who have paused or completed their intravenous BP therapy (p = 0.4232). This study presents a protocol for surgical tooth extraction in high-risk BP patients in combination with a perioperative adjuvant treatment setting, which reduced the risk for postoperative BRONJ to a minimum. However, the risk for BRONJ increases significantly if an additional osteotomy is necessary

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Imipenem/Cilastatin Burn Intensive Care Unit Patients Undergoing High-Dose Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Bradley A; Hudson, Joanna Q; Hill, David M; Swanson, Joseph M; Wood, G Christopher; Laizure, S Casey; Arnold-Ross, Angela; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Hickerson, William L

    2016-12-01

    High-dose continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is a continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) used frequently in patients with burns. However, antibiotic dosing is based on inference from studies assessing substantially different methods of CRRT. To address this knowledge gap for imipenem/cilastatin (I/C), we evaluated the systemic and extracorporeal clearances (CLs) of I/C in patients with burns undergoing high-dose CVVH. Prospective clinical pharmacokinetic study. Ten adult patients with burns receiving I/C for a documented infection and requiring high-dose CVVH were studied. Blood and effluent samples for analysis of I/C concentrations were collected for up to 6 hours after the I/C infusion for calculation of I/C total CL (CLTotal ), CL by CVVH (CLHF ), half-life during CVVH, volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss ), and the percentage of drug eliminated by CVVH. In this patient sample, the mean age was 50 ± 17 years, total body surface area burns was 23 ± 27%, and 80% were male. Nine patients were treated with high-dose CVVH for acute kidney injury and one patient for sepsis. The mean delivered CVVH dose was 52 ± 14 ml/kg/hour (range 32-74 ml/kg/hr). The imipenem CLHF was 3.27 ± 0.48 L/hour, which accounted for 23 ± 4% of the CLTotal (14.74 ± 4.75 L/hr). Cilastatin CLHF was 1.98 ± 0.56 L/hour, which accounted for 45 ± 19% of the CLTotal (5.16 + 2.44 L/hr). The imipenem and cilastatin half-lives were 1.77 ± 0.38 hours and 4.21 ± 2.31 hours, respectively. Imipenem and cilastatin Vdss were 35.1 ± 10.3 and 32.8 ± 13.8 L, respectively. Efficient removal of I/C by high-dose CVVH, a high overall clearance, and a high volume of distribution in burn intensive care unit patients undergoing this CRRT method warrant aggressive dosing to treat serious infections effectively depending on the infection site and/or pathogen. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  5. Goal-directed Therapy Improves the Outcome of High-risk Cardiac Patients Undergoing Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder Singh; Mehta, Yatin; Taneja, Sameer; Ravi, R; Hote, Milind P

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Material and Method: Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2), global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW), using FloTrac™, PreSep™, and EV-1000® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Result: Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. Conclusion: The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H) (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001) and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0.73 vs. 2.89

  6. Goal-directed therapy improves the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder Singh; Mehta, Yatin; Taneja, Sameer; Ravi, R; Hote, Milind P

    2017-01-01

    There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO 2 ), global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW), using FloTrac™ , PreSep™ , and EV-1000 ® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H) (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001) and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0.73 vs. 2.89 ± 0.68 h, P = 0.005) was also significantly lower

  7. High Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Prasugrel and Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Tobias; Booth, Jean; Tavlaki, Elli; Karathanos, Athanasios; Müller, Karin; Droppa, Michal; Gawaz, Meinrad; Yanez-Lopez, Monica; Davidson, Simon J.; Stables, Rod H.; Banya, Winston; Zaman, Azfar; Flather, Marcus; Dalby, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Background Prasugrel is more effective than clopidogrel in reducing platelet aggregation in acute coronary syndromes. Data available on prasugrel reloading in clopidogrel treated patients with high residual platelet reactivity (HRPR) i.e. poor responders, is limited. Objectives To determine the effects of prasugrel loading on platelet function in patients on clopidogrel and high platelet reactivity undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients Patients with ACS on clopidogrel who were scheduled for PCI found to have a platelet reactivity ≥40 AUC with the Multiplate Analyzer, i.e. “poor responders” were randomised to prasugrel (60 mg loading and 10 mg maintenance dose) or clopidogrel (600 mg reloading and 150 mg maintenance dose). The primary outcome measure was proportion of patients with platelet reactivity <40 AUC 4 hours after loading with study medication, and also at one hour (secondary outcome). 44 patients were enrolled and the study was terminated early as clopidogrel use decreased sharply due to introduction of newer P2Y12 inhibitors. Results At 4 hours after study medication 100% of patients treated with prasugrel compared to 91% of those treated with clopidogrel had platelet reactivity <40 AUC (p = 0.49), while at 1 hour the proportions were 95% and 64% respectively (p = 0.02). Mean platelet reactivity at 4 and 1 hours after study medication in prasugrel and clopidogrel groups respectively were 12 versus 22 (p = 0.005) and 19 versus 34 (p = 0.01) respectively. Conclusions Routine platelet function testing identifies patients with high residual platelet reactivity (“poor responders”) on clopidogrel. A strategy of prasugrel rather than clopidogrel reloading results in earlier and more sustained suppression of platelet reactivity. Future trials need to identify if this translates into clinical benefit. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01339026 PMID:26317618

  8. Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on kidney injury among high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zarbock, Alexander; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Wempe, Carola; Martens, Sven; Zahn, Peter K; Wolf, Britta; Goebel, Ulrich; Schwer, Christian I; Rosenberger, Peter; Haeberle, Helene; Görlich, Dennis; Kellum, John A; Meersch, Melanie

    2015-06-02

    No interventions have yet been identified to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury in the setting of cardiac surgery. To determine whether remote ischemic preconditioning reduces the rate and severity of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this multicenter trial, we enrolled 240 patients at high risk for acute kidney injury, as identified by a Cleveland Clinic Foundation score of 6 or higher, between August 2013 and June 2014 at 4 hospitals in Germany. We randomized them to receive remote ischemic preconditioning or sham remote ischemic preconditioning (control). All patients completed follow-up 30 days after surgery and were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Patients received either remote ischemic preconditioning (3 cycles of 5-minute ischemia and 5-minute reperfusion in one upper arm after induction of anesthesia) or sham remote ischemic preconditioning (control), both via blood pressure cuff inflation. The primary end point was the rate of acute kidney injury defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria within the first 72 hours after cardiac surgery. Secondary end points included use of renal replacement therapy, duration of intensive care unit stay, occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke, in-hospital and 30-day mortality, and change in acute kidney injury biomarkers. Acute kidney injury was significantly reduced with remote ischemic preconditioning (45 of 120 patients [37.5%]) compared with control (63 of 120 patients [52.5%]; absolute risk reduction, 15%; 95% CI, 2.56%-27.44%; P = .02). Fewer patients receiving remote ischemic preconditioning received renal replacement therapy (7 [5.8%] vs 19 [15.8%]; absolute risk reduction, 10%; 95% CI, 2.25%-17.75%; P = .01), and remote ischemic preconditioning reduced intensive care unit stay (3 days [interquartile range, 2-5]) vs 4 days (interquartile range, 2-7) (P = .04). There was no significant effect of remote ischemic

  9. High-dose weekly AmBisome antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Parinda; Vinks, Alexander; Filipovich, Alexandra; Vaughn, Gretchen; Fearing, Deborah; Sper, Christine; Davies, Stella

    2006-02-01

    Disseminated fungal infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The widespread use of prophylactic oral triazoles has limitations of poor absorption, interindividual variability in metabolism, and hepatic toxicity. AmBisome (amphotericin B liposomal complex) has a better safety profile than the parent drug amphotericin B and produces higher plasma and tissue concentrations. We hypothesized that once-weekly high-dose AmBisome therapy could provide adequate fungal prophylaxis for immunocompromised children undergoing HSCT. We performed a pharmacokinetic pilot study to determine whether once-weekly high-dose AmBisome administration would result in effective concentrations throughout the dosing interval. A total of 14 children (median age, 3 years, 1 month; range, 4.5 months-9 years, 9 months) undergoing HSCT received once-weekly intravenous AmBisome prophylaxis (10 mg/kg as a 2-hour infusion). Blood samples for pharmacokinetic measurements were drawn around the first and the fourth weekly doses. The concentration of non-lipid-complexed amphotericin in plasma was determined by a validated bioassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters after single doses and during steady state were calculated using standard noncompartmental methods. AmBisome was well tolerated at this dose. Complete pharmacokinetic profiles for weeks 1 and 4 were obtained in 12 patients. The half-life calculated in this pediatric population was shorter on average than reported in adults (45 hours vs 152 hours). The volume of distribution correlated best with body weight (R(2) = .55), and clearance was best predicted by initial serum creatinine level (R(2) = .19). Mean (+/- standard deviation) individual plasma trough concentrations were 0.23 (0.13) mg/L after single doses and 0.47 (0.41) mg/L after multiple doses. Mean steady-state area under the curve was higher at week 4 than after a single dose (P < .05). Single-dose and steady

  10. Prospective randomized controlled study of prophylaxis with cefamandole in high risk patients undergoing operations upon the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Cáinzos, M; Potel, J; Puente, J L

    1985-01-01

    In this study, 52 high risk patients who underwent operations upon the biliary tract were assigned to receive either antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment with antibiotics. Twenty-seven patients were given 2 grams of cefamandole intramuscularly 30 minutes before operation and 2 grams every eight hours for two days postoperatively. The remaining patients were in the control group and did not receive antibiotics. Surgical wounds were inspected daily by a surgeon while the patients were in the hospital and a follow-up revision was done four weeks after discharge from the hospital. Samples of exudate or pus were taken when the wound appeared infected and cultures of aerobic and anaerobic organism done. Chi-square affinity test with Yate's correction was used for statistical results; only p values more than or equal to 0.5 were considered significant. Seven patients (28 per cent) in the control group had complications develop postoperatively; seven surgical wound infections, one of which included a subphrenic abscess. Postoperatively, there were no septic complications in the group who received cefamandole as a prophylaxis. The incidence of infection was higher for females than males. The organisms most frequently isolated were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella; only in one instance was Clostridum sporogenes found. Polymicrobial infections accounted for 42.8 per cent of the infections. No incidences were reported with the use of cefamandole in those patients who were treated prophylactically. In view of these results, we believe that cefamandole is an ideal antibiotic to be used in the prophylactic treatment of infections of high risk patients who undergo operations upon the biliary tract.

  11. High Levels of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors 1 and 2 and Their Association with Mortality in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Axel C.; Carrero, Juan-Jesús; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bottai, Matteo; Barany, Peter; Larsson, Anders; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Circulating soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with CKD or diabetes, and with higher mortality. However, data in patients with end-stage renal disease are scarce. Therefore, we analyzed serum levels of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 and investigated their association with inflammatory markers and mortality in dialysis patients. Research Design and Methods This was a longitudinal cohort study of 207 prevalent patients (median age 66 years, 56% men) undergoing hemodialysis in Stockholm, Sweden. Demographics, clinical characteristics, including comorbidities and laboratory data, were obtained at baseline, together with prospective follow-up for mortality. Results The median sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels were 17,680 ng/l [95% confidence interval (CI) 17,023-18,337] and 24,450 ng/l (95% CI 23,721-25,179), respectively. During a follow-up of 31 months (interquartile range, 21-38), 77 patients died. There was no association between the levels of sTNFRs and mortality in Cox regression models, and no consistent trend towards higher or lower mortality was seen in Laplace regression models. sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels were highly associated with other inflammatory markers including interleukin-6, pentraxin 3 and TNF-α. Conclusions Prevalent hemodialysis patients have several-fold higher levels of sTNFRs compared to previous studies in CKD stage 4 patients. As no consistent association between TNFR and mortality was observed, clinical implications of measuring these receptors to predict outcome end-stage renal disease patients provide limited results. PMID:25999957

  12. Hemodynamic monitoring and management in patients undergoing high risk surgery: a survey among North American and European anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Cannesson, Maxime; Pestel, Gunther; Ricks, Cameron; Hoeft, Andreas; Perel, Azriel

    2011-08-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that perioperative hemodynamic optimization has the ability to improve postoperative outcome in high-risk surgical patients. All of these studies aimed at optimizing cardiac output and/or oxygen delivery in the perioperative period. We conducted a survey with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) to assess current hemodynamic management practices in patients undergoing high-risk surgery in Europe and in the United States. A survey including 33 specific questions was emailed to 2,500 randomly selected active members of the ASA and to active ESA members. Overall, 368 questionnaires were completed, 57.1% from ASA and 42.9% from ESA members. Cardiac output is monitored by only 34% of ASA and ESA respondents (P = 0.49) while central venous pressure is monitored by 73% of ASA respondents and 84% of ESA respondents (P < 0.01). Specifically, the pulmonary artery catheter is being used much more frequently in the US than in Europe in the setup of high-risk surgery (85.1% vs. 55.3% respectively, P < 0.001). Clinical experience, blood pressure, central venous pressure, and urine output are the most widely indicators of volume expansion. Finally, 86.5% of ASA respondents and 98.1% of ESA respondents believe that their current hemodynamic management could be improved. In conclusion, these results point to a considerable gap between the accumulating evidence about the benefits of perioperative hemodynamic optimization and the available technologies that may facilitate its clinical implementation, and clinical practices in both Europe and the United States.

  13. Hemodynamic monitoring and management in patients undergoing high risk surgery: a survey among North American and European anesthesiologists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have demonstrated that perioperative hemodynamic optimization has the ability to improve postoperative outcome in high-risk surgical patients. All of these studies aimed at optimizing cardiac output and/or oxygen delivery in the perioperative period. We conducted a survey with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) to assess current hemodynamic management practices in patients undergoing high-risk surgery in Europe and in the United States. Methods A survey including 33 specific questions was emailed to 2,500 randomly selected active members of the ASA and to active ESA members. Results Overall, 368 questionnaires were completed, 57.1% from ASA and 42.9% from ESA members. Cardiac output is monitored by only 34% of ASA and ESA respondents (P = 0.49) while central venous pressure is monitored by 73% of ASA respondents and 84% of ESA respondents (P < 0.01). Specifically, the pulmonary artery catheter is being used much more frequently in the US than in Europe in the setup of high-risk surgery (85.1% vs. 55.3% respectively, P < 0.001). Clinical experience, blood pressure, central venous pressure, and urine output are the most widely indicators of volume expansion. Finally, 86.5% of ASA respondents and 98.1% of ESA respondents believe that their current hemodynamic management could be improved. Conclusions In conclusion, these results point to a considerable gap between the accumulating evidence about the benefits of perioperative hemodynamic optimization and the available technologies that may facilitate its clinical implementation, and clinical practices in both Europe and the United States. PMID:21843353

  14. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery (Remote IMPACT): a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael; Whitlock, Richard; Garg, Amit X.; Légaré, Jean-François; Duncan, Andra E.; Zimmerman, Robert; Miller, Scott; Fremes, Stephen; Kieser, Teresa; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Chan, Matthew; Ho, Anthony; Nasr, Vivian; Vincent, Jessica; Ali, Imtiaz; Lavi, Ronit; Sessler, Daniel I.; Kramer, Robert; Gardner, Jeff; Syed, Summer; VanHelder, Tomas; Guyatt, Gordon; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Thabane, Lehana; Devereaux, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning is a simple therapy that may reduce cardiac and kidney injury. We undertook a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of this therapy on markers of heart and kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Methods: Patients at high risk of death within 30 days after cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to undergo remote ischemic preconditioning or a sham procedure after induction of anesthesia. The preconditioning therapy was three 5-minute cycles of thigh ischemia, with 5 minutes of reperfusion between cycles. The sham procedure was identical except that ischemia was not induced. The primary outcome was peak creatine kinase–myocardial band (CK-MB) within 24 hours after surgery (expressed as multiples of the upper limit of normal, with log transformation). The secondary outcome was change in creatinine level within 4 days after surgery (expressed as log-transformed micromoles per litre). Patient-important outcomes were assessed up to 6 months after randomization. Results: We randomly assigned 128 patients to remote ischemic preconditioning and 130 to the sham therapy. There were no significant differences in postoperative CK-MB (absolute mean difference 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.07 to 0.36) or creatinine (absolute mean difference 0.06, 95% CI −0.10 to 0.23). Other outcomes did not differ significantly for remote ischemic preconditioning relative to the sham therapy: for myocardial infarction, relative risk (RR) 1.35 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.17); for acute kidney injury, RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.78); for stroke, RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.34 to 3.07); and for death, RR 1.47 (95% CI 0.65 to 3.31). Interpretation: Remote ischemic precnditioning did not reduce myocardial or kidney injury during cardiac surgery. This type of therapy is unlikely to substantially improve patient-important outcomes in cardiac surgery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01071265. PMID:26668200

  15. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery (Remote IMPACT): a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael; Whitlock, Richard; Garg, Amit X; Légaré, Jean-François; Duncan, Andra E; Zimmerman, Robert; Miller, Scott; Fremes, Stephen; Kieser, Teresa; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Chan, Matthew; Ho, Anthony; Nasr, Vivian; Vincent, Jessica; Ali, Imtiaz; Lavi, Ronit; Sessler, Daniel I; Kramer, Robert; Gardner, Jeff; Syed, Summer; VanHelder, Tomas; Guyatt, Gordon; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Thabane, Lehana; Devereaux, P J

    2016-03-15

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is a simple therapy that may reduce cardiac and kidney injury. We undertook a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of this therapy on markers of heart and kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Patients at high risk of death within 30 days after cardiac surgery were randomly assigned to undergo remote ischemic preconditioning or a sham procedure after induction of anesthesia. The preconditioning therapy was three 5-minute cycles of thigh ischemia, with 5 minutes of reperfusion between cycles. The sham procedure was identical except that ischemia was not induced. The primary outcome was peak creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) within 24 hours after surgery (expressed as multiples of the upper limit of normal, with log transformation). The secondary outcome was change in creatinine level within 4 days after surgery (expressed as log-transformed micromoles per litre). Patient-important outcomes were assessed up to 6 months after randomization. We randomly assigned 128 patients to remote ischemic preconditioning and 130 to the sham therapy. There were no significant differences in postoperative CK-MB (absolute mean difference 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.07 to 0.36) or creatinine (absolute mean difference 0.06, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.23). Other outcomes did not differ significantly for remote ischemic preconditioning relative to the sham therapy: for myocardial infarction, relative risk (RR) 1.35 (95% CI 0.85 to 2.17); for acute kidney injury, RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.78); for stroke, RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.34 to 3.07); and for death, RR 1.47 (95% CI 0.65 to 3.31). Remote ischemic precnditioning did not reduce myocardial or kidney injury during cardiac surgery. This type of therapy is unlikely to substantially improve patient-important outcomes in cardiac surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01071265. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  16. [Optimization of preoperative hemoglobin levels in patients without anemia and/or patients who undergo surgery with high blood loss].

    PubMed

    Colomina, M J; Basora Macaya, M

    2015-06-01

    To minimize allogeneic blood transfusions (ABTs) during complex surgery and surgery with considerable blood loss risk, various blood-sparing techniques are needed (multimodal approach). All surgical patients should be assessed with sufficient time to optimize hemoglobin levels and iron reserves so that the established perioperative transfusion strategy is appropriate. Even if the patient does not have anemia, improving hemoglobin levels to reduce the risk of ABT is justified in some cases, especially those in which the patient refuses a transfusion. Treatment with iron and/or erythropoietic agents might also be justified for cases that need a significant autologous blood reserve to minimize ABT during surgery with considerable blood loss. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Postoperative High-Sensitivity Troponin Levels With Myocardial Injury and 30-Day Mortality Among Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, P J; Biccard, Bruce M; Sigamani, Alben; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Walsh, Michael; Abraham, Valsa; Pearse, Rupert; Wang, C Y; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Berwanger, Otavio; Villar, Juan Carlos; Malaga, German; Garg, Amit X; Chow, Clara K; Ackland, Gareth; Patel, Ameen; Borges, Flavia Kessler; Belley-Cote, Emilie P; Duceppe, Emmanuelle; Spence, Jessica; Tandon, Vikas; Williams, Colin; Sapsford, Robert J; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Tiboni, Maria; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Faruqui, Atiya; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Lamy, Andre; Whitlock, Richard; LeManach, Yannick; Roshanov, Pavel S; McGillion, Michael; Kavsak, Peter; McQueen, Matthew J; Thabane, Lehana; Rodseth, Reitze N; Buse, Giovanna A Lurati; Bhandari, Mohit; Garutti, Ignacia; Jacka, Michael J; Schünemann, Holger J; Cortes, Olga Lucía; Coriat, Pierre; Dvirnik, Nazari; Botto, Fernando; Pettit, Shirley; Jaffe, Allan S; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-04-25

    Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality). Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013. Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement. A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality. Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated

  18. Renoprotective effect of high periprocedural doses of oral N-acetylcysteine in patients scheduled to undergo a same-day angiography.

    PubMed

    Balderramo, Domingo C; Verdu, Mariano Badra; Ramacciotti, Constanza F; Cremona, Luis S; Lemos, Pablo A; Orías, Marcelo; Eduardo, Moreyra

    2004-01-01

    Few studies that have assessed the effect of abbreviated oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) regimens in radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (RCIN) yield mixed results. To evaluate the renoprotective effect of high periprocedural oral doses (HPOD) of NAC in patients with chronic renal impairment undergoing a same-day angiography. Sixty one patients with renal impaired function scheduled to undergo a same-day angiography were randomly assigned to NAC 1200 mg orally 3 hours before and 3 after the procedure, or a placebo. All patients received 0.9% saline intravenous. RCIN was defined as an increase in SCC > 0.5 mg/dl 48 hours after the procedure. The mean baseline SCC for all patients was 1.44 +/- 0.42 mg/dl. A significant difference in SCC change at 48 hours after the angiography was found (-0.07 mg/dl NAC, 0.09 mg/dl placebo, P = 0.04). RCIN occurred in 1 (3%) patient of NAC group and in 2 (7.1%) patients of placebo group (P = 0.59). Adverse effects were similar in both groups. In patients with mild renal impairment patients undergoing angiographic procedures, HPOD of NAC were more effective than placebo in preventing SCC change 48 hours. A non significant benefit in RCIN incidence was found.

  19. Lack of extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in high-risk patients undergoing major orthopaedic or major cancer surgery. Electronic Assessment of VTE Prophylaxis in High-Risk Surgical Patients at Discharge from Swiss Hospitals (ESSENTIAL).

    PubMed

    Kalka, Christoph; Spirk, David; Siebenrock, Klaus-Arno; Metzger, Urs; Tuor, Philipp; Sterzing, Daniel; Oehy, Kurt; Wondberg, Daniela; Mouhsine, El Yazid; Gautier, Emanuel; Kucher, Nils

    2009-07-01

    Extended pharmacological venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis beyond discharge is recommended for patients undergoing high-risk surgery. We prospectively investigated prophylaxis in 1,046 consecutive patients undergoing major orthopaedic (70%) or major cancer surgery (30%) in 14 Swiss hospitals. Appropriate in-hospital prophylaxis was used in 1,003 (96%) patients. At discharge, 638 (61%) patients received prescription for extended pharmacological prophylaxis: 564 (77%) after orthopaedic surgery, and 74 (23%) after cancer surgery (p < 0.001). Patients with knee replacement (94%), hip replacement (81%), major trauma (80%), and curative arthroscopy (73%) had the highest prescription rates for extended VTE prophylaxis; the lowest rates were found in patients undergoing major surgery for thoracic (7%), gastrointestinal (19%), and hepatobiliary (33%) cancer. The median duration of prescribed extended prophylaxis was longer in patients with orthopaedic surgery (32 days, interquartile range 14-40 days) than in patients with cancer surgery (23 days, interquartile range 11-30 days; p<0.001). Among the 278 patients with an extended prophylaxis order after hip replacement, knee replacement, or hip fracture surgery, 120 (43%) received a prescription for at least 35 days, and among the 74 patients with an extended prophylaxis order after major cancer surgery, 20 (27%) received a prescription for at least 28 days. In conclusion, approximately one quarter of the patients with major orthopaedic surgery and more than three quarters of the patients with major cancer surgery did not receive prescription for extended VTE prophylaxis. Future effort should focus on the improvement of extended VTE prophylaxis, particularly in patients undergoing major cancer surgery.

  20. Beneficial effect of preventative intra-aortic balloon pumping in high-risk patients undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass grafting-a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qingcheng; Xing, Jialin; Miao, Na; Zhao, Yanyan; Jia, Zaishen; Li, Jiawei; Chen, Yu; Gao, Quanxin; Liu, Anxin; Sun, Zhiquan; Liu, Xiaojun; Ji, Bingyang

    2009-08-01

    Although intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) has been used widely as a routine cardiac assist device for perioperative support in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the optimal timing for high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG using IABP is unknown. The purpose of this investigation is to compare preoperative and preventative IABP insertion with intraoperative or postoperative obligatory IABP insertion in high-risk patients undergoing first-time CABG. We reviewed our IABP patients' database from 2002 to 2007; there were 311 CABG patients who received IABP treatment perioperatively. Of 311 cases, 41 high-risk patients who had first-time on-pump or off-pump CABG (presenting with three or more of the following criteria: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 0.45, unstable angina, CABG combined with aneurysmectomy, or left main stenosis greater than 70%) entered the study. We compared perioperatively the clinical results of 20 patients who underwent preoperative IABP placement (Group 1) with 21 patients who had obligatory IABP placement intraoperatively or postoperatively during CABG (Group 2). There were no differences in preoperative risk factors, except left ventricular aneurysm resection, between the two groups. There were no differences in indications for high-risk patients between the two groups. The mean number of grafts was similar. There were no significant differences in the need for inotropes, or in cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and infective complications postoperatively. There were no IABP-related complications in either group. Major adverse cardiac event (severe hypotension and/or shock, myocardial infarction, and severe hemodynamic instability) was higher in Group 2 (14 [66.4%] vs. 1 [5%], P < 0.0001) during surgery. The time of IABP pumping in Group 1 was shorter than in Group 2 (72.5 +/- 28.9 h vs. 97.5 +/- 47.7 h, P < 0.05). The duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay in Group 1 was significantly shorter

  1. Outcomes and Cost Analysis in High-Risk Patients Undergoing Simultaneous Free Flap Breast Reconstruction and Gynecologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, Gabriel A; Wes, Ari M; Fischer, John P; Serletti, Joseph M; Wu, Liza C

    2015-11-01

    statistically significant difference in the average total cost when comparing the group of patients receiving prophylactic mastectomy/FFR/total abdominal hysterectomy and/or BSO versus the patients who did not have combined gynecologic procedures at the time of reconstruction ($22,994.52 vs $21,029.23, P = 0.0004). For the high-risk breast cancer patient, a combined mastectomy, free flap reconstruction, and gynecologic procedure represents an attractive and safe option.

  2. Efficacy and safety of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (MC-1) in high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the MEND-CABG II randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alexander, John H; Emery, Robert W; Carrier, Michel; Ellis, Stephen J; Mehta, Rajendra H; Hasselblad, Vic; Menasche, Philippe; Khalil, Ahmad; Cote, Robert; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Mack, Michael J; Schuler, Gerhard; Harrington, Robert A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-16

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is frequently performed and effective; however, perioperative complications related to ischemia-reperfusion injury, including myocardial infarction (MI), remain common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. MC-1, a naturally occurring pyridoxine metabolite and purinergic receptor antagonist, prevents cellular calcium overload and may reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Phase 2 trial data suggest that MC-1 may reduce death or MI in high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery. To assess the efficacy and safety of MC-1 administered immediately before and for 30 days after surgery in patients undergoing CABG surgery. The MC-1 to Eliminate Necrosis and Damage in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery II Trial, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with 3023 intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass enrolled between October 2006 and September 2007 at 130 sites in Canada, the United States, and Germany. Patients received either MC-1, 250 mg/d (n = 1519), or matching placebo (n = 1504) immediately before and for 30 days after CABG surgery. The primary efficacy outcome was cardiovascular death or nonfatal MI, defined as a creatine kinase (CK) MB fraction of at least 100 ng/mL or new Q waves through postoperative day 30. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 140 of 1510 patients (9.3%) in the MC-1 group and 133 of 1486 patients (9.0%) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.30; P = .76). All-cause mortality was higher among patients assigned to MC-1 than placebo at 4 days (1.0% vs 0.3%; P = .03) but was similar at 30 days (1.9% vs 1.5%; P = .44). There was no difference in the 8- to 24-hour CK-MB area under the curve between the MC-1 and placebo groups (median, 270 [interquartile range, 175-492] vs 268 [interquartile range, 170-456] hours x ng/mL; P = .11). In this population of intermediate- to high

  3. Cardiac conduction abnormalities in patients with breast cancer undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Yokozawa, T; Sawada, J; Takaue, Y; Togitani, K; Kawahigashi, N; Narabayashi, M; Takeyama, K; Tanosaki, R; Mineishi, S; Kobayashi, Y; Watanabe, T; Adachi, I; Tobinai, K

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac toxicities in 39 consecutive patients with breast cancer receiving high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with stem cell transplantation were reviewed. All 39 patients received various anthracycline-containing regimens in adjuvant settings and/or for metastatic disease before HDC. As a cytoreductive regimen, all received cyclophosphamide 2000 mg/m2 and thiotepa 200 mg/m2 for 3 consecutive days. No immediate fatal toxicities were observed, but one patient developed chronic congestive heart failure and two had transient left ventricular dysfunction. Pericardial effusion was observed in another three patients. ST-T abnormalities during HDC were observed in two patients and arrhythmias were observed in nine, four of which occurred during stem cell infusion (SCI). There were three atrial arrhythmias, two ventricular arrhythmias, and four atrioventricular (AV)-block episodes. Two patients developed advanced and complete AV-block with an asystolic pause. Notably, three patients experienced AV-block with uncontrolled vomiting. No relationship was observed between the cumulative dose of anthracycline and cardiac toxicities during HDC. These results suggest that abnormalities in the conduction system during HDC may be more frequent than previously reported. Vagal reflex secondary to emesis may play an important role in the development of AV-block. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 185-189.

  4. Prophylactic beta-blockade to prevent myocardial infarction perioperatively in high-risk patients who undergo general surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rebecca C; Pagliarello, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    The benefit of administering beta-adrenergic blocking agents perioperatively to surgical patients at high risk for myocardial ischemia has been demonstrated in several well-designed randomized controlled trials. These benefits have included a reduction in the incidence of myocardial complications and an improvement in overall survival for patients with evidence of or at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed a retrospective study at the Ottawa Civic Hospital to investigate the use of beta-blockers in the perioperative period for high-risk general surgery patients who underwent laparotomy and to explore the reasons for failure to prescribe or administer beta-blockers when indicated. All 236 general surgery patients over the age of 50 years who underwent laparotomy for major gastrointestinal surgery between Jan. 1, 2001, and Dec. 31, 2001, were assigned a cardiac risk classification using the risk stratification described by Mangano and colleagues. The perioperative prescription and administration of beta-blockers were noted as were the patient's heart rate and blood pressure parameters for the first postoperative week, in-hospital adverse cardiac events and death. Of the 143 patients classified as being at risk for CAD or having definite evidence of CAD, 87 (60.8%) did not receive beta-blockers perioperatively. Of those who did, 43 were previously on beta-blockers and 13 had them ordered preoperatively. Patients with definite CAD were significantly more likely than others to receive beta-blockers perioperatively (p < 0.001), as were patients seen by an anesthesiologist or an internist preoperatively (p < 0.001). Twenty (33%) of the 61 patients who were already taking beta-blockers preoperatively had them inappropriately discontinued postoperatively. Once prescribed by the physician, beta-blockers were administered by the nurses irrespective of nil par os status. The mean heart rate and blood pressure parameters for patients receiving beta

  5. [The clinical outcome and immune reconstitution in 45 advanced AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy for 12 months].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Gui-ren; Qiu, Zhi-feng; Li, Tai-sheng; Han, Yang; Xie, Jing; Zuo, Ling-yan; Ma, Xiao-jun; Liu, Zheng-yin; Wang, Ai-xia

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy and side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Chinese AIDS patients. 45 antiretroviral drug-naive AIDS patients were enrolled and divided into two groups by their baseline CD(4) count < 100/microl or > or = 100/microl. Clinical, virological and immunological outcomes as well as side effects were followed at baseline and at the end of month 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 after receiving HAART. Among the 45 HIV/AIDS patients included, by the end of 12 months of HAART, the plasma viral load (VL) got a mean reduction by 2.8 lg copies/ml, CD(4) count had a mean gain of 187/microl, among which the naive phenotype increased by 68/microl and the memory phenotype by 119/microl. The CD(4)(+)CD(28)(+) T cell percentage went up from (62.5 +/- 25.8)% to (82.6 +/- 15.6)% (P < 0.001); and there was a significant reduction of CD(8)(+) T-cell activation. In the 31 patients with their baseline CD(4) count < 100/microl, 11 had a VL < 50 copies/ml, and 14 had fluctuations in their VL; while in 14 patients with their baseline CD(4) count > or = 100/microl, 10 had a VL < 50 copies/ml and 2 had fluctuations in their VL, respectively, with statistic significance between the two groups. CD(4) count showed a bi-phase increase during HAART and there was significant positive correlation between the change of CD(4) count and plasma VL. Throughout the 12 months of HAART, 39 patients had gastrointestinal side effects, 15 peripheral neuritis, 3 hepatic lesions, 4 hematological side effects and 1 renal calculus. 9 patients had adjustment of their initial therapy because of side effects. Immune reconstitution as well as significant therapeutic effect was observed in advanced Chinese AIDS patients after HAART. Side effects were common during HAART, so close clinical attention is needed.

  6. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  7. Feasibility of Neoadjuvant Ad-REIC Gene Therapy in Patients with High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Hiromi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Sadahira, Takuya; Araki, Motoo; Ebara, Shin; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2015-12-01

    In a phase I/IIa study of in situ gene therapy using an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC), we assessed the inhibitory effects of cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP), in patients with high risk localized prostate cancer (PCa). After completing the therapeutic interventions with initially planned three escalating doses of 1.0 × 10(10) , 1.0 × 10(11) , and 1.0 × 10(12) viral particles (VP) in 1.0-1.2 mL (n = 3, 3, and 6), an additional higher dose of 3.0 × 10(12) VP in 3.6 mL (n = 6) was further studied. Patients with recurrence probability of 35% or more within 5 years after RP as calculated by Kattan's nomogram, were enrolled. They received two ultrasound-guided intratumoral injections at 2-week intervals, followed by RP 6 weeks after the second injection. Based on the findings of MRI and biopsy mapping, as a rule, one track injection to the most prominent cancer area was given to initial 12 patients and 3 track injections to multiple cancer areas in additional 6 patients. As compared to the former group, biochemical recurrence-free survival of the latter showed a significantly favorable outcome. Neoadjuvant Ad-REIC, mediating simultaneous induction of cancer selective apoptosis and augmentation of antitumor immunity, is a feasible approach in preventing cancer recurrence after RP. (199).

  8. Clinical outcomes and immune reconstitution in 103 advanced AIDS patients undergoing 12-month highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yi; Qiu, Zhi-feng; Li, Tai-sheng; Han, Yang; Zuo, Ling-yan; Xie, Jing; Ma, Xiao-jun; Liu, Zheng-yin; Wang, Ai-xia

    2006-10-20

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) produces profound suppression of HIV replication, substantial increase in CD4(+) T cells, and partial reconstitution of the immune system. However, the numbers of subjects were small in previous Chinese studies. This study evaluated the efficacy and side effects of HAART in Chinese advanced AIDS patients. One hundred and three antiretroviral drug naive AIDS patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups by their baseline CD4(+) count: < 100 cells/microl or > or = 100 cells/microl. Clinical, virological and immunological outcomes were monitored at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months during the course of treatment with HAART. One patient died and another was lost from the follow-up. For the remaining 101 HIV/AIDS patients at the 12th month during the HAART, the plasma viral load (VL) was reduced to (3.2 +/- 0.7) lg copies/ml, the CD4(+) count increased to (168 +/- 51) cells/microl [among which the naive phenotype (CD45RA(+)CD62L(+)) increased to (49 +/- 27) cells/microl and the memory phenotype (CD45RA(-)) increased to (119 +/- 55) cells/microl], and the percentage of CD4(+)CD28(+) cells increased. At the same time, there was a significant reduction of CD8(+) T cell activation. In the 69 patients with the baseline CD4(+) count < 100 cells/microl, 37 had a VL < 50 copies/ml; while in the 34 patients with the baseline CD4(+) count > or = 100 cells/microl, 25 had a VL < 50 copies/ml, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The CD4(+) T cell count showed a two-phase increase during HAART and a significant positive correlation was shown between the change of CD4(+) count and plasma VL. Over 12 months of HAART, 10 patients had gastrointestinal side effects, 13 peripheral neuritis, 7 hepatic lesions, 8 hematological side effects, 8 skin rashes, 10 lipodystrophy and 1 renal calculus. Immune reconstitution as well as the significantly improved clinical outcomes is observed in

  9. Intracoronary versus intravenous high-dose bolus plus maintenance administration of tirofiban in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Candemir, Basar; Kilickap, Mustafa; Ozcan, Ozgur Ulas; Kaya, Cansin Tulunay; Gerede, Menekse; Ozdemir, Aydan Ongun; Ozdol, Cagdas; Kumbasar, Deniz; Erol, Cetin

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to examine whether intracoronary high-dose bolus of tirofiban plus maintenance would result in improved clinical outcome in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in this pilot trial. A total of 56 patients were enrolled to receive either intracoronary high-dose bolus plus maintenance (n = 34) or intravenous high-dose bolus plus maintenance (n = 22) of tirofiban. Pre and post intervention TIMI flow grades, myocardial blush grades, peak CKMB and troponin levels, time to peak CKMB and troponin, time to 50% ST resolution and major composite adverse cardiac event rates at 30 days were recorded. Although incidence of major adverse cardiac events was not different, post intervention TIMI flow and TIMI blush grades, peak CKMB and troponin levels, and time to peak CKMB and time to peak troponin were significantly different, favoring intracoronary strategy. In conclusion, this regimen improved myocardial reperfusion and coronary flow, and reduced myocardial necrosis, but failed to improve clinical outcomes at 30 days.

  10. Prasugrel Results in Higher Decrease in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Comparing to Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mandana; Chitsazan, Mitra; Salehi, Negar; Amin, Ahmad; Bidokhti, Arash Amin; Babaali, Nima; Bordbar, Armin; Hejrati, Maral; Moghadami, Samar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A growing body of clinical and laboratory evidence indicates that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we compared the effects of clopidogrel and prasugrel on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS The present randomized, double-blind clinical trial included 120 patients who underwent PCI. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to one of the two groups: 80 patients in the first group received clopidogrel (Plavix®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 300 and 75 mg daily, respectively) and 40 patients in the second group received prasugrel (Effient®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 60 and 10 mg, respectively) for 12 weeks. The hs-CRP levels between baseline and 12th week were compared. RESULTS Of the 120 patients, 69 patients (57.5%) were male. Pretreatment hs-CRP level was statistically comparable in clopidogrel (median, 15.10 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 9.62–23.75 mg/dL) and prasugrel groups (median, 18 mg/dL; IQR, 14.25–22 mg/dL; P = 0.06). Patients taking clopidogrel showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP level compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). Prasugrel administration also resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). A significant 73% overall reduction in the hs-CRP level was seen with prasugrel compared with 39% overall reduction in hs-CRP level with clopidogrel (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Prasugrel seems to be superior to clopidogrel in the reduction of hs-CRP in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27597810

  11. Changes in posterior tibial slope angle in patients undergoing open-wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Omer; Yucel, Bulent; Mutlu, Serhat; Orman, Osman; Mutlu, Harun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, postoperative changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and clinical outcomes following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy were evaluated. This study included 39 knees (18 left, 21 right) of 35 patients (three male, 32 female; median age, 53 years; age range 37-64 years) with symptomatic isolated medial joint osteoarthritis who underwent open-wedge high tibial osteotomy and fixation with a Puddu plate. The patients were clinically assessed according to the Lysholm knee score, a visual analogue pain scale, and a patient satisfaction questionnaire. Radiological assessment was made according to the changes in the posterior tibial slope angle and the correlation between these changes and clinical signs. The median follow-up period was 11 years (range 7-14 years). Significant improvements were observed in the preoperative and postoperative clinical scores of the Lysholm knee scale, visual analogue pain scale, and patient satisfaction questionnaire (p < 0.05). Radiological assessment showed that the posterior tibial slope angle was significantly higher during the postoperative and follow-up periods (p  0.05). There was no correlation between the postoperative Lysholm scores and the increase in the posterior tibial slope angle (p = n.s.). We conclude that both the conventional Puddu plate design and its anteromedial plate placement are what increase the tibial slope after an opening-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy. Therefore, current new plate design may help preserve the posterior tibial slope angle. IV.

  12. Influence of high-dose intraoperative remifentanil with intravenous ibuprofen on postoperative morphine consumption in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chang-Hoon; Cho, Youn Joung; Hong, Deok Man; Jeon, Yunseok; Kim, Tae Kyong

    2016-12-01

    High-dose remifentanil during surgery paradoxically increases postoperative pain intensity and morphine consumption. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors decrease prostaglandin synthesis, thereby antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation, and may reduce hyperalgesia. This study was performed to evaluate whether postoperative morphine consumption increased following intraoperative continuous remifentanil infusion and whether this could be prevented by intravenous ibuprofen pretreatment. A randomized controlled study. Single university hospital, study period from September 2014 to March 2015. One hundred and twenty patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. After induction of anesthesia, patients received remifentanil target-controlled infusion (effect site concentration of 4 ng/mL or 1 ng/mL) with or without intravenous ibuprofen (800 mg). Postoperative cumulative total morphine consumption and pain intensity were assessed. Intraoperative remifentanil use in patients receiving high-dose remifentanil was more than 3-fold higher than that in patients receiving low-dose remifentanil (2666.8 ± 858.4 vs 872.0 ± 233.3 μg, respectively; P< .001). However, cumulative total morphine consumption at postoperative 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours did not differ among the groups. There were no differences among the groups in the self-administered analgesic dose by the patients using a controlled analgesia device, number of self-administration attempts, numerical rating scale for pain, or analgesic side effects. We found no influence on postoperative pain after high-dose remifentanil in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Addition of intravenous ibuprofen did not reduce postoperative morphine consumption or pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing MDCT--a pooled analysis of two randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2009-04-01

    The incidence of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) following intravenous (IV) CM administration of contrast media to renally impaired patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is not well characterized. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of CIN in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations and to compare the rates of CIN following the IV administration of low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM, iopamidol and iomeprol) and an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM, iodixanol). A total of 301 adult patients with moderate-to-severe renal failure received a similar IV contrast dose (40 gI). Serum creatinine (SCr) was measured at screening, baseline and 48-72 +/- 6 h after the MDCT examination. Primary CIN outcome was an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl (>or=44.2 micromol/l) from baseline. The CIN rates were 2.3% in the total population, 0.6% when GFR >40 ml/min, 4.6% when GFR <40 ml/min and 7.8% in patients with GFR <30 ml/min. The incidence of CIN was significantly higher after iodixanol than after LOCM (seven patients, 4.7% following IOCM, no CIN cases following the LOCM; p = 0.007). Significant differences in favor of the LOCM were also observed in patients with GFR <40 ml/min and GFR <30 ml/min. Following the IV administration of nonionic contrast agents in patients with moderate-to-severe renal insufficiency, the risk of significant CIN seems to be low. The IOCM iodixanol caused a higher rate of CIN than the LOCM iopamidol and iomeprol, especially in high-risk patients. Differences in osmolality between these LOCM and iodixanol do not play a role in the genesis of CIN.

  14. Impact of Conditioning Regimen on Outcomes for Patients with Lymphoma Undergoing High-Dose Therapy with Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Brent; Zhu, Xiaochun; Akpek, Görgün; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Artz, Andrew; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Ho, Vincent T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Olsson, Richard; Saber, Wael; McCarthy, Philip; Pasquini, Marcelo C.

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data to guide the choice of high-dose therapy (HDT) regimen prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We studied 4,917 patients (NHL n=3,905; HL n=1,012) who underwent AHCT from 1995-2008 using the most common HDT platforms: BEAM (n=1730), CBV (n=1853), BuCy (n=789), and TBI-containing (n=545). CBV was divided into CBVhigh and CBVlow based on BCNU dose. We analyzed the impact of regimen on development of idiopathic pulmonary syndrome (IPS), transplant-related mortality (TRM), progression free and overall survival (PFS and OS). The 1-year incidence of IPS was 3-6% and was highest in recipients of CBVhigh (HR 1.9) and TBI (HR 2.0) compared to BEAM. 1-year TRM was 4-8% and was similar between regimens. Among patients with NHL, there was a significant interaction between histology, HDT regimen, and outcome. Compared to BEAM, CBVlow (HR 0.63) was associated with lower mortality in follicular lymphoma (p<0.001), and CBVhigh (HR1.44) with higher mortality in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (p=0.001). For patients with HL, CBVhigh (HR1.54), CBVlow (HR1.53), BuCy (HR1.77) and TBI (HR 3.39) were associated with higher mortality compared to BEAM (p<0.001). The impact of specific AHCT regimen on post transplant survival is different depending on histology; therefore, further studies are required to define the best regimen for specific diseases. PMID:25687795

  15. Premature Progesterone Elevation Does Not Affect Pregnancy Outcome in High-Responder Patients Undergoing Short-Interval Coasting in IVF Cycles.

    PubMed

    Acet, Mustafa; Aktün, Lebriz Hale; Başaranoğlu, Serdar; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Tuba; Deregözü, Aysegul

    2015-11-30

    BACKGROUND We aimed to present the relationship between premature progesterone elevation (PPE) and clinical outcomes in high-responder patients who had a coasting period of <4 days in length due to their high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and who were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-agonist) protocol in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study was conducted at the University Hospital Assisted Reproductive Technology Center. The outcomes of 101 patients undergoing IVF- intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles who showed a high response to COH (estradiol >4000 pg/ml and/or >20 follicles each ≥10 mm in diameter and at least 20% ≥15 mm) and who were coasted for <4 days were evaluated. Number of oocytes, 2 pronuclei (PN) embryos, implantation rate, and live birth rate were measured. RESULTS The incidence of PPE was 32.6%. Compared with those without PPE, patients with PPE had a higher number of oocytes retrieved. Total mature and fertilized oocytes and the mean number of embryos transferred were not significantly different between groups. Live birth rates (41.9% vs. 38.7%) and implantation rates (26.5% vs. 23%) were also not significantly divergent in the PPE and non-PPE groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS P concentrations ≥1.3 ng/ml on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, designated in this study as PPE, does not appear to be related to adverse effects in terms of clinical outcomes in high-responder patients undergoing coasting <4 days due to their high risk of developing OHSS treated with a long-acting GnRH-a protocol in IVF-embryo transfer cycles.

  16. High frequency jet ventilation through a supraglottic airway device: a case series of patients undergoing extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Dhara, S S

    2009-12-01

    High frequency jet ventilation has been shown to be beneficial during extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy as it reduces urinary calculus movement which increases lithotripsy efficiency with better utilisation of shockwave energy and less patient exposure to tissue trauma. In all reports, sub-glottic high frequency jet ventilation was delivered through a tracheal tube or a jet catheter requiring paralysis and direct laryngoscopy. In this study, a simple method using supraglottic jet ventilation through a laryngeal mask attached to a circle absorber anaesthetic breathing system is described. The technique avoids the need for dense neuromuscular blockade for laryngoscopy and the potential complications associated with sub-glottic instrumentation and sub-glottic jet ventilation. The technique was successfully employed in a series of patients undergoing lithotripsy under general anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure.

  17. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  18. KRAS and GNAS Mutations in Pancreatic Juice Collected From the Duodenum of Patients at High Risk for Neoplasia Undergoing Endoscopic Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, James R.; Norris, Alexis L.; Sadakari, Yoshihiko; Debeljak, Marija; Borges, Michael; Harrington, Colleen; Lin, Elaine; Brant, Aaron; Barkley, Thomas; Almario, J. Alejandro; Topazian, Mark; Farrell, James; Syngal, Sapna; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Yu, Jun; Hruban, Ralph H.; Kanda, Mitsuro; Canto, Marcia Irene; Goggins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Pancreatic imaging can identify neoplastic cysts but not microscopic neoplasms. Mutation analysis of pancreatic fluid following secretin stimulation might identify microscopic neoplasias in the pancreatic duct system. We determined the prevalence of mutations in KRAS and GNAS genes in pancreatic juice from subjects undergoing endoscopic ultrasound for suspected pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, or pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS Secretin-stimulated juice samples were collected from the duodenum of 272 subjects enrolled in Cancer of the Pancreas Screening studies; 194 subjects were screened because of a family history of, or genetic predisposition to, pancreatic cancer and 78 were evaluated for pancreatic cancer (n=30) or other disorders (controls: pancreatic cysts, pancreatitis, or normal pancreata, n=48). Mutations were detected by digital high-resolution melt-curve analysis and pyrosequencing. The number of replicates containing a mutation determined the mutation score. RESULTS KRAS mutations were detected in pancreatic juice from larger percentages of subjects with pancreatic cancer (73%) or undergoing cancer screening (50%) than controls (19%) (P=.0005). A greater proportion of patients with pancreatic cancer had at least 1 KRAS mutation detected 3 or more times (47%) than screened subjects (21%) or controls (6%, P=.002). Among screened subjects, mutations in KRAS (but not GNAS) were found in similar percentages of patients with or without pancreatic cysts. However, a greater proportion of patients over 50 ys old had KRAS mutations (54.6%) than younger patients (36.3%) (P=.032); the older subjects also more mutations in KRAS (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS Mutations in KRAS are detected in pancreatic juice from the duodenum of 73% of patients with pancreatic cancer, and 50% of asymptomatic individuals with a high risk for pancreatic cancer. However, KRAS mutations are detected in pancreatic juice

  19. Preoperative intra-aortic counterpulsation in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials†.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Boening, Andreas; Jakob, Heinz; Langebartels, Georg; Markewitz, Andreas; Haake, Nils; Heringlake, Matthias; Trummer, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the results of previous studies, recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) failed to show a benefit of prophylactic aortic counterpulsation in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The present analysis aims to redefine the effects of this treatment modality in the light of this new evidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for full-text articles of RCTs in English or German. Assessments for eligibility, relevance, study validity and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently using prespecified criteria. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. A total of nine eligible RCTs with 1171 patients were identified: 577 patients were treated preoperatively with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and 594 patients served as controls. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for hospital mortality (22 hospital deaths in the intervention arm, 54 in the control group) was 0.381 (95% CI 0.230-0.629; P < 0.001). The pooled analyses of five RCTs including only patients undergoing isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (n[IABP] = 348, n[control] = 347) also showed a statistically significant improvement in mortality for preoperative IABP implantation (fixed-effects model: OR 0.267, 95% CI 0.129-0.552, P < 0.001). The pooled OR for hospital mortality from two randomized off-pump trials was 0.556 (fixed-effects model, 95% CI 0.207-1.493, P = 0.226). Preoperative aortic counterpulsation was associated with a significant reduction in low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in the total population (fixed-effects model: OR 0.330, 95% CI 0.214-0.508, P < 0.001) as well as in the subgroup of CAGB patients (fixed-effects model: OR 0.113, 95% CI 0.056-0.226, P < 0.001), whereas there was no benefit in the off-pump population (fixed-effects model: OR 0.555, 95% CI 0.209-1.474, P = 0.238). Preoperative IABP implantation was associated with a reduction of intensive care unit (ICU) stay in

  20. Nutrition assessment in patients undergoing liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Neha; Singh, Kalyani

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery performed on patients with end stage liver disease. Nutrition is an integral part of patient care, and protein-energy malnutrition is almost universally present in patients suffering from liver disease undergoing LT. Nutrition assessment of preliver transplant phase helps to make a good nutrition care plan for the patients. Nutrition status has been associated with various factors which are related to the success of liver transplant such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. To assess the nutritional status of preliver transplant patients, combinations of nutrition assessment methods should be used like subjective global assessment, Anthropometry mid arm-muscle circumference, Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and handgrip strength. PMID:25316978

  1. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  2. WT1-specific T-cell responses in high-risk multiple myeloma patients undergoing allogeneic T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusions

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Eleanor M.; Jungbluth, Achim A.; O'Reilly, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    While the emergence of WT1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (WT1-CTL) has been correlated with better relapse-free survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myeloid leukemias, little is known about the role of these cells in multiple myeloma (MM). We examined the significance of WT1-CTL responses in patients with relapsed MM and high-risk cytogenetics who were undergoing allogeneic T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloTCD-HSCT) followed by donor lymphocyte infusions. Of 24 patients evaluated, all exhibited WT1-CTL responses before allogeneic transplantation. These T-cell frequencies were universally correlated with pretransplantation disease load. Ten patients received low-dose donor lymphocyte infusions beginning 5 months after transplantation. All patients subsequently developed increments of WT1-CTL frequencies that were associated with reduction in specific myeloma markers, in the absence of graft-versus-host disease. Immunohistochemical analyses of WT1 and CD138 in bone marrow specimens demonstrated consistent coexpression within malignant plasma cells. WT1 expression in the bone marrow correlated with disease outcome. Our results suggest an association between the emergence of WT1-CTL and graft-versus-myeloma effect in patients treated for relapsed MM after alloTCD-HSCT and donor lymphocyte infusions, supporting the development of adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches using WT1-CTL in the treatment of MM (registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT01131169). PMID:23160468

  3. Peginesatide in patients with anemia undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven; Schiller, Brigitte; Locatelli, Francesco; Covic, Adrian C; Provenzano, Robert; Wiecek, Andrzej; Levin, Nathan W; Kaplan, Mark; Macdougall, Iain C; Francisco, Carol; Mayo, Martha R; Polu, Krishna R; Duliege, Anne-Marie; Besarab, Anatole

    2013-01-24

    Peginesatide, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), is a potential therapy for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We conducted two randomized, controlled, open-label studies (EMERALD 1 and EMERALD 2) involving patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular safety was evaluated by analysis of an adjudicated composite safety end point--death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious adverse events of congestive heart failure, unstable angina, or arrhythmia--with the use of pooled data from the two EMERALD studies and two studies involving patients not undergoing dialysis. In the EMERALD studies, 1608 patients received peginesatide once monthly or continued to receive epoetin one to three times a week, with the doses adjusted as necessary to maintain a hemoglobin level between 10.0 and 12.0 g per deciliter for 52 weeks or more. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from the baseline hemoglobin level to the mean level during the evaluation period; noninferiority was established if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was -1.0 g per deciliter or higher in the comparison of peginesatide with epoetin. The aim of evaluating the composite safety end point in the pooled cohort was to exclude a hazard ratio with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA of more than 1.3. In an analysis involving 693 patients from EMERALD 1 and 725 from EMERALD 2, peginesatide was noninferior to epoetin in maintaining hemoglobin levels (mean between-group difference, -0.15 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.30 to -0.01 in EMERALD 1; and 0.10 g per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26 in EMERALD 2). The hazard ratio for the composite safety end point was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.26) with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA in the four pooled studies (2591 patients) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17) in the EMERALD studies. The proportions of patients with adverse and serious

  4. Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    VIDAL, Eduardo Arevalo; RENDON, Francisco Abarca; ZAMBRANO, Trino Andrade; GARCÍA, Yudoco Andrade; VITERI, Mario Ferrin; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. Aim: To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Methods: Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Results: Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Conclusion: Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. PMID:27683770

  6. Postoperative vascular complications in unrecognised Obstructive Sleep apnoea (POSA) study protocol: an observational cohort study in moderate-to-high risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Matthew T V; Wang, Chew-Yin; Seet, Edwin; Tam, Stanley; Lai, Hou-Yee; Walker, Stuart; Short, Timothy G; Halliwell, Richard; Chung, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Emerging epidemiological data suggest that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general surgical population. Unfortunately, the majority of these patients are unrecognised and untreated at the time of surgery. There is substantial biological rationale to indicate that patients with unrecognised OSA are at a higher risk of postoperative vascular events. However, the extent of this morbidity is currently unknown. We have initated the postoperative vascular complications in the unrecognised obstructive sleep apnoea (POSA) study to determine the associations between OSA, nocturnal hypoxia and major postoperative vascular events in 1200 moderate-to-high risk patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Methods and analysis The POSA study is an international prospective observational cohort study. Using a type 3 portable sleep monitoring device and ambulatory oximetry, we will quantify the severity of OSA. The primary outcome is a composite of vascular death, myocardial infarction; non-fatal cardiac arrest; stroke; pulmonary embolism; congestive heart failure and new arrhythmia within 30 days of surgery. As of November 2013, we have recruited over 700 patients from nine centres in six countries. The mean age is 68 years, the mean body mass index is 27 kg/m2 and 55% of patients are men. 27.9% of patients have known coronary artery disease, over 76% have diabetes. The majority of patients underwent orthopaedic surgery (28%) and colorectal resection (18.5%). Ethics and dissemination The POSA study has received ethics approval from all study sites before patient recruitment. Informed consent will be obtained from all patients. The POSA study will determine the risk of unrecognised OSA in major non-cardiac surgery. We will publish these findings in peer-reviewed journals. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01494181 PMID:24413351

  7. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I; Leslie, Kate; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Kurz, Andrea; Villar, Juan Carlos; Sigamani, Alben; Biccard, Bruce M; Meyhoff, Christian S; Parlow, Joel L; Guyatt, Gordon; Robinson, Andrea; Garg, Amit X; Rodseth, Reitze N; Botto, Fernando; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Tiboni, Maria; Cook, Deborah; Kumar, Priya A; Forget, Patrice; Malaga, German; Fleischmann, Edith; Amir, Mohammed; Eikelboom, John; Mizera, Richard; Torres, David; Wang, C Y; VanHelder, Tomas; Paniagua, Pilar; Berwanger, Otavio; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Pasin, Laura; Le Manach, Yannick; Gao, Peggy; Pogue, Janice; Whitlock, Richard; Lamy, André; Kearon, Clive; Baigent, Colin; Chow, Clara; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-04-17

    There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum and for 7 days in the continuation stratum, after which patients resumed their regular aspirin regimen. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. The primary outcome occurred in 351 of 4998 patients (7.0%) in the aspirin group and in 355 of 5012 patients (7.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the aspirin group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.15; P=0.92). Major bleeding was more common in the aspirin group than in the placebo group (230 patients [4.6%] vs. 188 patients [3.8%]; hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01, to 1.49; P=0.04). The primary and secondary outcome results were similar in the two aspirin strata. Administration of aspirin before surgery and throughout the early postsurgical period had no significant effect on the rate of a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction but increased the risk of major bleeding. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; POISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01082874.).

  8. A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fluid loading in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery--the FOCCUS study.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Brian H; Campbell, Marion K; Stott, Stephen A; Elders, Andrew; Hernández, Rodolfo; Boyers, Dwayne; Norrie, John; Kinsella, John; Brittenden, Julie; Cook, Jonathan; Rae, Daniela; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Alcorn, David; Addison, Jennifer; Grant, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Fluid strategies may impact on patient outcomes in major elective surgery. We aimed to study the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-operative fluid loading in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery. This was a pragmatic, non-blinded, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial. We sought to recruit 128 consecutive high-risk surgical patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients underwent pre-operative fluid loading with 25 ml/kg of Ringer's solution in the six hours before surgery. The control group had no pre-operative fluid loading. The primary outcome was the number of hospital days after surgery with cost-effectiveness as a secondary outcome. A total of 111 patients were recruited within the study time frame in agreement with the funder. The median pre-operative fluid loading volume was 1,875 ml (IQR 1,375 to 2,025) in the fluid group compared to 0 (IQR 0 to 0) in controls with days in hospital after surgery 12.2 (SD 11.5) days compared to 17.4 (SD 20.0) and an adjusted mean difference of 5.5 days (median 2.2 days; 95% CI -0.44 to 11.44; P = 0.07). There was a reduction in adverse events in the fluid intervention group (P = 0.048) and no increase in fluid based complications. The intervention was less costly and more effective (adjusted average cost saving: £2,047; adjusted average gain in benefit: 0.0431 quality adjusted life year (QALY)) and has a high probability of being cost-effective. Pre-operative intravenous fluid loading leads to a non-significant reduction in hospital length of stay after high-risk major surgery and is likely to be cost-effective. Confirmatory work is required to determine whether these effects are reproducible, and to confirm whether this simple intervention could allow more cost-effective delivery of care. Prospective Clinical Trials, ISRCTN32188676.

  9. A cost and resource utilization analysis of micafungin bridging for hemato-oncological high-risk patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Sebastian M; Vehreschild, Maria J G T; Cornely, Oliver A; Franke, Bernd; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Kron, Florian; Scheid, Christoph; Vehreschild, Jörg J

    2015-06-01

    Intravenous bridging strategies increase exposure of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk hematological patients. The cost-effectiveness of such strategies has not been analyzed. A recent study compared the impact of oral posaconazole (POS) and oral posaconazole with intravenous micafungin bridging (POS-MIC) as prophylactic antifungal regimens in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (aSCT). Based on data from the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (CoCoNut), a health economic evaluation of direct treatment costs was performed to analyze the economic impact of micafungin bridging. Analysis was undertaken based on current guidelines for the German societal perspective with an annual discount rate of 5%, whereby indirect costs were disregarded due to the severity of the underlying disease. Sensitivity analysis of cost calculation with different discount rates was performed to improve robustness of our health economic evaluation. A retrospective case-control analysis of patients undergoing aSCT between 05/2006 and 07/2011 was performed; 106 patients each in the POS and POS-MIC group were included. In the POS and POS-MIC group, mean costs per patient for the treatment on bone marrow transplant ward were €27,228 (95% CI: €24,932-€29,525) vs. €27,894 (95% CI: €26,414-€29,375; P = 0.629), for diagnostic measures €2124 (95% CI: €1823-€2425) vs. €1269 (95% CI: €1168-€1370; P ≤ 0.001), for laboratory findings €10,612 (95% CI: €9681-€11,544) vs. €8836 (95% CI: €8198-€9475; P = 0.002), and for overall antifungal treatment €6105 (95% CI: €4703-€7508) vs. €6943 (95% CI: €5393-€8493; P = 0.428), resulting in mean overall costs per patient of €60,304 (95% CI: €53,969-€66,639) vs. €58,089 (95% CI: €51,736-64,442; P = 0.625). Our health economic evaluation shows micafungin bridging in aSCT patients did not result in excess cost. Higher acquisition costs of antifungal prophylaxis were balanced by a

  10. Clonidine in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, P J; Sessler, Daniel I; Leslie, Kate; Kurz, Andrea; Mrkobrada, Marko; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villar, Juan Carlos; Sigamani, Alben; Biccard, Bruce M; Meyhoff, Christian S; Parlow, Joel L; Guyatt, Gordon; Robinson, Andrea; Garg, Amit X; Rodseth, Reitze N; Botto, Fernando; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Tiboni, Maria; Cook, Deborah; Kumar, Priya A; Forget, Patrice; Malaga, German; Fleischmann, Edith; Amir, Mohammed; Eikelboom, John; Mizera, Richard; Torres, David; Wang, C Y; Vanhelder, Tomas; Paniagua, Pilar; Berwanger, Otavio; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Pasin, Laura; Le Manach, Yannick; Gao, Peggy; Pogue, Janice; Whitlock, Richard; Lamy, André; Kearon, Clive; Chow, Clara; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-04-17

    Marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system occurs during and after noncardiac surgery. Low-dose clonidine, which blunts central sympathetic outflow, may prevent perioperative myocardial infarction and death without inducing hemodynamic instability. We performed a blinded, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to allow separate evaluation of low-dose clonidine versus placebo and low-dose aspirin versus placebo in patients with, or at risk for, atherosclerotic disease who were undergoing noncardiac surgery. A total of 10,010 patients at 135 centers in 23 countries were enrolled. For the comparison of clonidine with placebo, patients were randomly assigned to receive clonidine (0.2 mg per day) or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued until 72 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. Clonidine, as compared with placebo, did not reduce the number of primary-outcome events (367 and 339, respectively; hazard ratio with clonidine, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.26; P=0.29). Myocardial infarction occurred in 329 patients (6.6%) assigned to clonidine and in 295 patients (5.9%) assigned to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.30; P=0.18). Significantly more patients in the clonidine group than in the placebo group had clinically important hypotension (2385 patients [47.6%] vs. 1854 patients [37.1%]; hazard ratio 1.32; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.40; P<0.001). Clonidine, as compared with placebo, was associated with an increased rate of nonfatal cardiac arrest (0.3% [16 patients] vs. 0.1% [5 patients]; hazard ratio, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.17 to 8.73; P=0.02). Administration of low-dose clonidine in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery did not reduce the rate of the composite outcome of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction; it did, however, increase the risk of clinically important hypotension and nonfatal cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes

  11. Association of Serum Pentraxin-3 and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein with the Extent of Coronary Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Vuković-Dejanović, Vesna; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Spasić, Slavica; Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Kalimanovska-Oštrić, Dimitra; Topalović, Mirko; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We compared factors of inflammation – high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and we explored their relationship with coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, we tested the usefulness of hsCRP and PTX3 in the risk assessment of coronary stenosis development and the diagnostic ability of these biomarkers to detect disease severity. Methods The study group consisted of 93 CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients were divided into CAD(0), representing subclinical stenosis, and CAD (1–3), representing significant stenosis in one, two or three vessels. Results We determined the concentration of lipid status parameters, hsCRP and PTX3. We found significantly lower PTX3 and hsCRP concentrations in CAD(0) than in CAD(1–3) group. Concentration of PTX3 showed an increasing trend with the increasing number of vessels affected. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the combinations of hsCRP and PTX3 with lipid parameters had useful accuracy for detecting CAD(1–3) patients (AUC=0.770, p<0.001). Conclusion PTX3 is a promising independent diagnostic marker for identifying patients with CAD, and a useful indicator of disease progression. In all the analyses PTX3 showed better performance than hsCRP. A combination of PTX3, hsCRP with the lipid status parameters provides risk stratification of the development of coronary stenosis and better classification than their individual application. PMID:28356853

  12. Postoperative High-Sensitivity Troponin and Its Association With 30-Day and 12-Month, All-Cause Mortality in Patients Undergoing On-Pump Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mauermann, Eckhard; Bolliger, Daniel; Fassl, Jens; Grapow, Martin; Seeberger, Esther E; Seeberger, Manfred D; Filipovic, Miodrag; Lurati Buse, Giovanna A L

    2017-10-01

    Troponin T is a predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery with most data examining fourth generational troponin T assays. We hypothesize that postoperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measured in increments of the upper limit of the norm independently predicts 30-day all-cause mortality. We included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery from February 2010 to March 2012 in a prospective cohort that measured hsTnT at 0600 of the first and second postoperative day. Our primary end point was 30-day, all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was 12-month, all-cause mortality in patients surviving the first 30 days. We divided hsTnT into 5 predetermined categorizes based on the upper limit of the norm (ULN). We used Cox regression to examine an association of hsTnT independent of the EuroSCORE II at both 30 days as well as at 12 months in patients surviving the first 30 days. We assessed the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the net reassignment improvement for examining the benefit of adding of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II for prognostication and restratification of 30-day, all-cause mortality. We included 1122 of 1155 eligible patients (75% male; mean age 66 ± 11 years). We observed 58 (5.2%) deaths at 30 days and another 35 (3.4%) deaths at 12 months in patients surviving 30 days. HsTnT categorized by ULN exhibited a graded response for the mortality. Furthermore, hsTnT remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.014-1.024] per 10-fold increase in ULN) as well as at 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.007-1.032]) in patients surviving the first 30 days. The addition of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II significantly increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (area under curve: 0.816 [95% confidence interval, 0.754-0.878] versus area under curve: 0.870 [95% confidence interval, 0.822-0.917], respectively; P

  13. The Duration of Impella 2.5 Circulatory Support and Length of Hospital Stay of Patients Undergoing High-risk Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Anusionwu, Obiora; Fischman, Daniel; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the impact of duration of Impella 2.5 support (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) on hospitalization of patients after high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There has been a continuous increase in prevalence of coronary artery disease with more patients needing PCI during acute myocardial infarction. Some of these patients have to undergo high-risk revascularization with circulatory support like the Impella 2.5 device. Methods This study was a single center retrospective study of patients admitted to our hospital who required Impella circulatory support during percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients’ medical records, cardiac catheterization laboratory and 2-D echocardiography reports were reviewed to ascertain left ventricular ejection fraction, duration of Impella support, Coronary Care Unit (CCU) days and the length of stay in the hospital. A P-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Over a 15-month period, we had 25 patients with 19 males and 6 females. Mean age of the patient cohort was 68 ± 10 years. Mean LVEF of the group was 32 ± 16%. Mean length of hospital stay was 8 ± 8 days and mean CCU stay was 4 ± 4 days. The Impella was successfully inserted in all cases with a median duration of support of 70 minutes (range, 4 - 5760 minutes). Bleeding complication occurred in 8%. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the duration of Impella support and hospital stay was 0.49 (P = 0.023) while it was 0.71 (P = 0.001) between Impella support duration and CCU days. Conclusions Our study suggests that there is a positive correlation between the duration of Impella 2.5 circulatory support and hospital stay and/or CCU days. The correlation seems to be stronger with CCU days.

  14. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Prasugrel, Ticagrelor, and Standard-Dose and High-Dose Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhchain; Singh, Mukesh; Grewal, Navsheen; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Authors aimed to compare efficacy and safety of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and standard-dose (SD) and high-dose (HD) clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched for studies comparing prasugrel, ticagrelor, SD and HD clopidogrel in patients undergoing PCI. Frequentist and Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed besides direct pairwise comparisons. Thirty trials, comprising 34,563 person-year data, were included. Prasugrel emerged as a best drug to prevent definite or probable stent thrombosis, followed by HD clopidogrel and ticagrelor, with SD clopidogrel being the worst. Myocardial infarction was least likely to be prevented by SD clopidogrel after PCI, and remaining 3 were superior to it with little difference among them. SD clopidogrel was least effective in preventing cardiovascular deaths after PCI. Prasugrel was most effective in preventing cardiovascular deaths, although having only small advantage over ticagrelor and HD clopidogrel. Ticagrelor reduced all-cause mortality by a small margin compared with rest of treatments. SD clopidogrel, followed by ticagrelor, resulted in significantly lower thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding complications compared with prasugrel. Analysis of any bleeding revealed similar trend. HD clopidogrel performed better than prasugrel in terms of bleeding complications. In conclusion, Prasugrel is likely most effective drug to prevent post-PCI ischemic events but at the expense of higher bleeding. Ticagrelor followed by HD clopidogrel seems to strike the right balance between efficacy and safety. HD clopidogrel can be considered as an alternative to newer P2Y12 inhibitors.

  15. Palonosetron has superior prophylactic antiemetic efficacy compared with ondansetron or ramosetron in high-risk patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Jeong-Yeon; Kim, Won Oak; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Hwang, Jai-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) continues to be a major problem, because PONV is associated with delayed recovery and prolonged hospital stay. Although the PONV guidelines recommended the use of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists as the first-line prophylactic agents in patients categorized as high-risk, there are few studies comparing the efficacies of ondansetron, ramosetron, and palonosetron. The aim of present study was to compare the prophylactic antiemetic efficacies of three 5HT3 receptor antagonists in high-risk patients after laparoscopic surgery. Methods In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial, 109 female nonsmokers scheduled for elective laparoscopic surgery were randomized to receive intravenous 4 mg ondansetron (n = 35), 0.3 mg ramosetron (n = 38), or 75 µg palonosetron (n = 36) before anesthesia. Fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia was administered for 48 h after surgery. Primary antiemetic efficacy variables were the incidence and severity of nausea, the frequency of emetic episodes during the first 48 h after surgery, and the need to use a rescue antiemetic medication. Results The overall incidence of nausea/retching/vomiting was lower in the palonosetron (22.2%/11.1%/5.6%) than in the ondansetron (77.1%/48.6%/28.6%) and ramosetron (60.5%/28.9%/18.4%) groups. The rescue antiemetic therapy was required less frequently in the palonosetron group than the other groups (P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the order of prophylactic efficacy in delaying the interval to use of a rescue emetic was palonosetron, ramosetron, and ondansetron. Conclusions Single-dose palonosetron is the prophylactic antiemetics of choice in high-risk patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. PMID:23814652

  16. A single, double lumen high-flow catheter for patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Experience at the National Cancer Institute in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkow, P; Téllez, O; Vázquez, C; Aguilar, C; Valencia, M; Barrera, L; Alferián, A; Zinser, J; Sobrevilla, P; Acosta, A; Texcocano, J; Vilar-Compte, D; Reynoso, E

    1997-11-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) requires a high-flow catheter for adequate cell collection by apheresis and long i.v. support, this is usually achieved by multiple catheters. We analyzed our experience with Mahurkar or Permacath for apheresis and long-term i.v. support in PBSCT, cared for exclusively by an i.v. therapy team. Fifty-six catheters were used in 53 patients that completed PBSCT (28 Permacath and 28 Mahurkar). In 10 patients (19%) the same catheter was used for multiple PBSCT. The average stay was 58.4 days (7-219), Permacath 76.8 days (14-219) and Mahurkar 42 days (7-106). The incidence of infectious complications was 2.2 x 1000 catheter-days (1.7 Permacath and 3.0 Mahurkar); during neutropenia it was 3.7 x 1000 cathether-days. The incidence of thrombosis was 0.9 x 1000 catheter-days. There was a total of seven infectious episodes (12.7%). Five (9%) were local and two were (3.6%) bacteremias. The microorganism most commonly isolated was Staphylococcus sp. (57%). Four catheters (7.1%) were removed because of complications: one thrombosis and three infections. Both catheters have proven useful and safe for long-lasting vascular access in patients undergoing PBSCT. No statistical difference was found in infectious and non-infectious complications between either catheters.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of a cardiac output-guided haemodynamic therapy algorithm in high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sadique, Zia; Harrison, David A; Grieve, Richard; Rowan, Kathryn M; Pearse, Rupert M

    2015-01-01

    The use of cardiac output monitoring to guide intra-venous fluid and inotropic therapies may improve peri-operative outcomes, but uncertainty exists regarding clinical effectiveness and robust cost-effectiveness evidence is lacking. The objective of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of peri-operative cardiac output-guided haemodynamic therapy versus usual care in high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. The study undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis using data from a multi-centre randomised trial that recruited patients from 17 hospitals in the United Kingdom. The trial compared cardiac output-guided, haemodynamic therapy algorithm for intra-venous fluid and inotrope (dopexamine) infusion during and 6 h following surgery, with usual care. Resource use and outcome data on 734 high-risk trial patients aged over 50 years undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery were used to report cost-effectiveness at 6 months and to project lifetime cost-effectiveness. The cost-effectiveness analysis used information on health-related quality of life (QoL) at randomisation, 30 days, and 6 months combined with information on vital status to report quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Each QALY was valued using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended threshold of willingness to pay (£20,000 per QALY) in conjunction with the costs of each group to report the incremental net monetary benefits (INB) of the treatment algorithm versus usual care. The mean [SD] quality of life at 30 days and 6 months was similar between the treatment groups (at 6 months, intervention group 0.73 [0.28] versus usual care group 0.71 [0.30]; mean gain 0.03 [95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.01 to 0.08]). At 6 months, survival, mean QALYs and mean healthcare costs (intervention group £8574 versus usual care group £8974) were also similar. At the cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY gained, the incremental net

  18. A comparison of outcomes involving highly cohesive, form-stable breast implants from two manufacturers in patients undergoing primary breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Mark L; Jewell, James L

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been reports of single-surgeon outcomes with highly cohesive, form-stable silicone gel implants in women undergoing primary breast augmentation, there has been only one study published that compares the outcomes between the Allergan 410 and the Mentor CPG devices. The goal of the study is to compare outcomes in each cohort and to determine if quality systems and processes would have an impact on lowering the surgical revision rate, as compared to published reports for round gel implants and form-stable implants. Patients selected for the study were required to meet predefined inclusion criteria and general indications for breast augmentation. All subjects were treated uniformly with extensive informed consent prior to surgery. The entire process of breast augmentation (patient assessment, informed consent, the surgical procedure itself and postoperative instructions) was identical between the two groups. Patients were not randomized, as the studies did not start at the same time. The process for management of each patient was based on adaptation of the Toyota Production System and Lean Manufacturing, with emphasis on achieving operational excellence in the use of planning templates for surgery, including accurate management of patient expectations regarding size outcome. Outcomes data included physical breast measurements, quality of life metrics, and patient/surgeon satisfaction assessment. Adverse events were compared against published data for breast implants. Follow-up ranged between 20-77 months (Allergan 410) and 16-77 months (Mentor CPG). The outcome data indicate that these devices produce natural-appearing breasts with extremely low aggregate reoperation rate (4.2%). Only 0.8% of the reoperations were attributable to surgeon-related factors. There were no reoperations to correct mismanaged size expectations during the course of each study. There were 13 pregnancies and no difficulties with lactation were reported. Rippling (lateral

  19. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce anxiety, claustrophobia, sedation and non-completion rates of patients undergoing high technology medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Munn, Zachary; Jordan, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, high technology medical imaging, such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), have seen significant increases in their use. A number of interventions have been developed with the aim of reducing anxiety, fear and claustrophobia prior to and during imaging. To determine the effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve the patient experience of high technology medical imaging. Any patients who have undergone high technology (MRI, CT, PET, Nuclear medicine and SPECT) imaging in a medical imaging department. Interventional scans were not considered for inclusion.Considered interventions were: MRI scanner designs, quieter machines, information, psychological support, anxiety reduction protocols, mock MRI, team training, prone scanning, audiovisual (AV) systems, cognitive behavioural therapies, fragrance administration, guided imagery, patient positioning devices and paediatric preparation booklets.Experimental and observational studies were included in the review.Primary patient outcomes:Secondary patient outcome measures included: SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive, three-step search strategy conducted during August to October 2011 aimed to find both published and unpublished English language studies across 14 major databases. No time restrictions. Retrieved papers were assessed by two independent reviewers prior to inclusion in the review using standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). Data was extracted from papers included in the review using the standardised data extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI. Quantitative data was, where possible pooled in statistical meta-analysis using JBI-MAStARI. All results were subject to double data entry. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered to be of suitable methodological

  20. Use of Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Craniotomies

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Nalini; Wagaskar, Vinayak; Kondwilkar, Bharati; Patil, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The neuroanaesthesia ensures stable perioperative cerebral haemodynamics, avoids sudden rise in intracranial pressure and prevents acute brain swelling. The clinical characteristics of dexmeditomidine make this intravenous agent a potentially attractive adjunct for neuroanaesthesia and in the neurological intensive care unit. Aim This study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative haemodynamic stability and to assess the intraoperative requirements of analgesic and other anaesthetic agents, and also to assess postoperative sedation, respiratory depression and any other side effects of dexmedetomidine as compared to placebo. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was done in 60 patients of either sex, age between 18 to 60 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) Grade I and II undergoing elective craniotomies under General Anaesthesia (GA) for intracranial Space Occupying Lesion (SOL). These 60 patients underwent thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. They were randomly divided into two groups, Group D (received Inj. Dexmedetomidine) and Group P (received Inj. Placebo). During bolus and infusion Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO2) was recorded at every five minutes interval for first 20 minute. Results The mean age in Group D was 39.5 years and in Group P was 40 years. The sex distribution in two groups was in Group D, 12 patients (40%) were females and 18 (60%) patients were males. While in Group P 10 (33.3%) were females and 20 (66.7%) patients were males. The two groups were comparable with respect to diagnosis and type of surgery of patients and difference was not statistically significant. The mean HR, the mean DBP and the mean MAP was lower in Group D as compared to Group P and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine

  1. Should patients undergoing a bronchoscopy be sedated?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; De-La-Rosa-Ramirez, I; Maldonado-Hernandez, A; Dominguez-Cherit, G

    2003-04-01

    The techniques, drugs and depth of sedation for flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is controversial, and several reports consider that the routine use of sedation is not a prerequisite. We evaluate whether the addition of sedation with propofol improves patient tolerance, compared to local anesthesic of the airway only. Eighteen patients with pneumonia undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy were included in a randomized, single blind, prospective controlled study. The non-sedation group received airway topical anesthesia, whereas the sedation group received topical anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. The degree of pain, cough, sensation of asphyxiation, degree of amnesia, global tolerance and acceptance of another bronchoscopy in the future were noted. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate and saturation of oxygen by pulse oximetry were also evaluated. The patients in sedation group had less cough (P < 0.05), pain (P < 0.01) and sensation of asphyxiation (P < 0.001). Global tolerance to the procedure was significantly better in the group under sedation (P < 0.01). These patients had total amnesia to the procedure (P < 0.0001), thus is more probable that will accept another bronchoscopy in the future (P < 0.01). There was a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure in the patients without sedation. There were no differences in oxygen saturation (P = 0.75). Our results show that if we administer propofol for sedation, in addition to local anesthesia of the airway, the tolerance to the procedure is much better. Also it appears that sedation with propofol is safe if we carefully select and monitor the patient.

  2. Screening for spinal stenosis in achondroplastic patients undergoing limb lengthening.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, James A; Devalia, Kailash L; Moras, Prem; Pagdin, Jonathan; Jones, Stanley; Mcmullan, John

    2014-03-01

    The need for a screening programme for spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia undergoing limb lengthening was identified in a tertiary limb reconstruction service. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening would identify the 'at risk' group. A total of 26 achondroplastic patients underwent our screening programme. Canal diameters were measured by MRI. Neurosurgical interventions were recorded. Of the patients, 13 had severe foramen magnum narrowing. Six patients required single or multiple surgical decompressions. We identified female sex, delayed milestones and a tight cervicomedullary junction as high risks. We stress upon the importance of developing a nationalized screening programme with guidelines to identify a high-risk group.

  3. Inhibition of platelet function by abciximab or high-dose tirofiban in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    van Werkum, J.W.; Gerritsen, W.B.M.; Kelder, J.C.; Hackeng, C.M.; Ernst, S.M.; Deneer, V.H.M.; Suttorp, M.J.; Rensing, B.J.W.M.; Plokker, H.W.M.; ten Berg, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI, few data exist on the magnitude of platelet activation, aggregation and dosing of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors. Methods Sixty STEMI patients were randomised to abciximab, to high-dose tirofiban or to no additional GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment. Platelet activation (P-selectin expression) was measured using flow cytometry and the level of inhibition of platelet aggregation was assessed using the Plateletworks assay. Additionally, the PFA-100 with the collagen/adenosine-diphosphate cartridge (CADP) was used to compare the levels of platelet inhibition. All measurements were performed at baseline (T0), immediately after (T1), 30 minutes (T2), 60 minutes (T3) and 120 minutes (T4) after primary PCI. Results The level of platelet activation in both GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor treated groups was significantly lower compared with the control group at all time points after primary PCI (p=0.04). Also the administration of the currently recommended dose of abciximab resulted in significantly lower levels of inhibition of aggregation compared with high-dose tirofiban (p<0.0001). In addition, the CADP closure times were significantly prolonged in both GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor treated groups compared with the control group at time points T1 (p=0.006) and T4 (p<0.0001). Conclusion The administration of high-dose tirofiban resulted in a significantly higher inhibition of platelet aggregation compared with the currently recommended dose of abciximab. Large clinical trials are needed to assess whether this laboratory superiority of high-dose tirofiban translates into higher clinical efficacy. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:375-81.18176639) PMID:18176639

  4. A comparison of pre-operative comorbidities and post-operative outcomes among patients undergoing laparoscopic nissen fundoplication at high- and low-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Varban, Oliver Adrian; McCoy, Thomas P; Westcott, Carl

    2011-07-01

    Commonly cited data promoting laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) as safe and efficacious are typically published by single centers, affiliated with teaching institutions with a high volume of cases, but LNF is not universally performed at these hospitals. The purpose of this study is to assess where these procedures are being done and to compare pre-operative comorbidities and post-operative outcomes between high-and low-volume centers using a state-wide inpatient database. This is a retrospective study using data from the North Carolina Hospital Association Patient Data System. Selected patients include adults (>17 years old) that have undergone laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease as an inpatient from 2005 to 2008. Patients that underwent operative management for emergent purposes or had associated diagnoses of esophageal cancer or achalasia were excluded from the study. High-volume centers were defined as institutions that performed ten or more LNFs per year averaged over a period of 4 years. Comparative statistics were performed on comorbidities and complications between high- and low-volume centers. A total of 1,019 patients underwent LNF for GERD in North Carolina between 2005 and 2008 in the inpatient setting. High-volume centers performed 530 LNFs (52%) while low-volume centers performed 489 LNFs (48%). Patients at high-volume centers were older (median 52.5 years old vs. 49.0 years old, p = 0.019), had a higher incidence of diabetes (13.4% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.026), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (5.1% vs. 2.0 %, p = 0.015), hyperlipidemia (9.6% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.004), and cystic fibrosis (2.8% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.03). Patients with a history of transplantation were also more likely to undergo LNF at a high-volume center (15.8% vs. 1.6%, p < 0.0001). There were no deaths among the two groups and also no difference between median length of stay (2.7 days for high-volume center vs. 2.6

  5. High Spinal Anesthesia Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Aortic Valve Replacement: Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Trevor W R; Kowalski, Stephen; Falk, Kelsey; Maguire, Doug; Freed, Darren H; HayGlass, Kent T

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery induces many physiologic changes including major inflammatory and sympathetic nervous system responses. Here, we conducted a single-centre pilot study to generate hypotheses on the potential immune impact of adding high spinal anaesthesia to general anaesthesia during cardiac surgery in adults. We hypothesized that this strategy, previously shown to blunt the sympathetic response and improve pain management, could reduce the undesirable systemic inflammatory responses caused by cardiac surgery. This prospective randomized unblinded pilot study was conducted on 14 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement secondary to severe aortic stenosis. The primary outcome measures examined longitudinally were serum pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1b, CCL2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TNF-RII, IL-1Ra), acute phase protein (CRP, PTX3) and cardiovascular risk (sST2) biomarkers. The kinetics of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarker was determined following surgery. All pro-inflammatory and acute phase reactant biomarker responses induced by surgical stress were indistinguishable in intensity and duration between control groups and those who also received high spinal anaesthesia. Conversely, IL-10 levels were markedly elevated in both intensity and duration in the group receiving high spinal anesthesia (p = 0.005). This hypothesis generating pilot study suggests that high spinal anesthesia can alter the net inflammatory response that results from cardiac surgery. In appropriately selected populations, this may add incremental benefit by dampening the net systemic inflammatory response during the week following surgery. Larger population studies, powered to assess immune, physiologic and clinical outcomes in both acute and longer term settings, will be required to better assess potential benefits of incorporating high spinal anesthesia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00348920.

  6. High Spinal Anesthesia Enhances Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Aortic Valve Replacement: Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Trevor W. R.; Kowalski, Stephen; Falk, Kelsey; Maguire, Doug; Freed, Darren H.; HayGlass, Kent T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery induces many physiologic changes including major inflammatory and sympathetic nervous system responses. Here, we conducted a single-centre pilot study to generate hypotheses on the potential immune impact of adding high spinal anaesthesia to general anaesthesia during cardiac surgery in adults. We hypothesized that this strategy, previously shown to blunt the sympathetic response and improve pain management, could reduce the undesirable systemic inflammatory responses caused by cardiac surgery. Methods This prospective randomized unblinded pilot study was conducted on 14 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement secondary to severe aortic stenosis. The primary outcome measures examined longitudinally were serum pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1b, CCL2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TNF-RII, IL-1Ra), acute phase protein (CRP, PTX3) and cardiovascular risk (sST2) biomarkers. Results The kinetics of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarker was determined following surgery. All pro-inflammatory and acute phase reactant biomarker responses induced by surgical stress were indistinguishable in intensity and duration between control groups and those who also received high spinal anaesthesia. Conversely, IL-10 levels were markedly elevated in both intensity and duration in the group receiving high spinal anesthesia (p = 0.005). Conclusions This hypothesis generating pilot study suggests that high spinal anesthesia can alter the net inflammatory response that results from cardiac surgery. In appropriately selected populations, this may add incremental benefit by dampening the net systemic inflammatory response during the week following surgery. Larger population studies, powered to assess immune, physiologic and clinical outcomes in both acute and longer term settings, will be required to better assess potential benefits of incorporating high spinal anesthesia. Trial Registration Clinical

  7. Atorvastatin for high-risk statin-naïve patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: The Lowering the Risk of Operative Complications Using Atorvastatin Loading Dose (LOAD) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Berwanger, Otavio; de Barros E Silva, Pedro G M; Barbosa, Roberto Ramos; Precoma, Dalton Bertolim; Figueiredo, Estêvão Lanna; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Kruel, Cleber Dario Pinto; Alboim, Carolina; Almeida, Adail Paixão; Dracoulakis, Marianna Deway Andrade; Filho, Hugo Vargas; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Maia, Lília Nigro; de Oliveira Filho, João Bosco; Saraiva, Jose Francisco Kerr; Soares, Rafael M; Damiani, Lucas; Paisani, Denise; Kodama, Alessandra A; Gonzales, Beatriz; Ikeoka, Dimas T; Devereaux, Philip J; Lopes, Renato D

    2017-02-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that statins may prevent major perioperative vascular complications. We randomized 648 statin-naïve patients who were scheduled for noncardiac surgery and were at risk for a major vascular complication. Patients were randomized to a loading dose of atorvastatin or placebo (80 mg anytime within 18hours before surgery), followed by a maintenance dose of 40 mg (or placebo), started at least 12hours after the surgery, and then 40 mg/d (or placebo) for 7days. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, and stroke at 30days. The primary outcome was observed in 54 (16.6%) of 326 patients in the atorvastatin group and 59 (18.7%) of 316 patients in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.60-1.26, P=.46). No significant effect was observed on the 30-day secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (4.3% vs 4.1%, respectively; HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.53-2.47, P=.74), nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.4% vs 4.4%, respectively; HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.35-1.68, P=.50), myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (13.2% vs 16.5%; HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1.19, P=.26), and stroke (0.9% vs 0%, P=.25). In contrast to the prior observational and trial data, the LOAD trial has neutral results and did not demonstrate a reduction in major cardiovascular complications after a short-term perioperative course of statin in statin-naïve patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. We demonstrated, however, that a large multicenter blinded perioperative statin trial for high-risk statin-naïve patients is feasible and should be done to definitely establish the efficacy and safety of statin in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on the Efficacy of Multimedia Informed Consent for Patients Scheduled to Undergo Green-Light High-Performance System Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Dong Yeub; Choi, Woo Suk; Song, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia informed consent (IC) presentation on the understanding and satisfaction of patients who were scheduled to receive 120-W green-light high-performance system photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP). Materials and Methods A multimedia IC (M-IC) presentation for HPS-PVP was developed. Forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia who were scheduled to undergo HPS-PVP were prospectively randomized to a conventional written IC group (W-IC group, n=20) or the M-IC group (n=20). The allocated IC was obtained by one certified urologist, followed by a 15-question test (maximum score, 15) to evaluate objective understanding, and questionnaires on subjective understanding (range, 0~10) and satisfaction (range, 0~10) using a visual analogue scale. Results Demographic characteristics, including age and the highest level of education, did not significantly differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in scores reflecting the objective understanding of HPS-PVP (9.9±2.3 vs. 10.6±2.8, p=0.332) or in subjective understanding scores (7.5±2.1 vs. 8.6±1.7, p=0.122); however, the M-IC group showed higher satisfaction scores than the W-IC group (7.4±1.7 vs. 8.4±1.5, p=0.033). After adjusting for age and educational level, the M-IC group still had significantly higher satisfaction scores. Conclusions M-IC did not enhance the objective knowledge of patients regarding this surgical procedure. However, it improved the satisfaction of patients with the IC process itself. PMID:27169129

  9. Interaction Effects of Acute Kidney Injury, Acute Respiratory Failure, and Sepsis on 30-Day Postoperative Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Intraabdominal General Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory failure, and sepsis are distinct but related pathophysiologic processes. We hypothesized that these 3 processes may interact to synergistically increase the risk of short-term perioperative mortality in patients undergoing high-risk intraabdominal general surgery procedures. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study of data (2005-2011) from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a high-quality surgical outcomes data set. High-risk procedures were those with a risk of AKI, acute respiratory failure, or sepsis greater than the average risk in all intraabdominal general surgery procedures. The effects of AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis on 30-day mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Additive interactions were assessed with the relative excess risk due to interaction. Of 217,994 patients, AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis developed in 1.3%, 3.7%, and 6.8%, respectively. The 30-day mortality risk with sepsis, acute respiratory failure, and AKI were 11.4%, 24.1%, and 25.1%, respectively, compared with 0.85% without these complications. The adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for a single complication (versus no complication) on mortality were 7.24 (6.46-8.11), 10.8 (8.56-13.6), and 14.2 (12.8-15.7) for sepsis, AKI, and acute respiratory failure, respectively. For 2 complications, the adjusted hazard ratios were 30.8 (28.0-33.9), 42.6 (34.3-52.9), and 65.2 (53.9-78.8) for acute respiratory failure/sepsis, AKI/sepsis, and acute respiratory failure/AKI, respectively. Finally, the adjusted hazard ratio for all 3 complications was 105 (92.8-118). Positive additive interactions, indicating synergism, were found for each combination of 2 complications. The relative excess risk due to interaction for all 3 complications was not statistically significant. In high-risk general surgery patients, the development of AKI

  10. Predicting blood transfusion in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Crispin; Boddy, Alex P; Fukuta, Junaid; Groom, William D; Streets, Christopher G

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate predictors of allogenic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing minimal invasive oesophagectomy at a tertiary high volume centre for oesophago-gastric surgery. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing minimal access oesophagectomy in our department between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they required a blood transfusion at any time during their index admission. Factors that have been shown to influence perioperative blood transfusion requirements in major surgery were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of patient and perioperative characteristics on transfusion requirements during the index admission. A total of 80 patients underwent minimal access oesophagectomy, of which 61 patients had a laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy and 19 patients had a minimal invasive oesophagectomy. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 28 patients at any time during hospital admission. On binary logistic regression analysis, a lower preoperative haemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), suffering a significant complication (p < 0.005) and laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of blood transfusion requirements. It has been reported that requirement for blood transfusion can affect long-term outcomes in oesophageal cancer resection. Two factors which could be addressed preoperatively; haemoglobin concentration and type of oesophageal resection, may be valuable in predicting blood transfusions in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Our analysis revealed that preoperative haemoglobin concentration, occurrence of significant complications and type of minimal access oesophagectomy predicted blood transfusion requirements in the patient population examined. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High rates of venous thromboembolic events in patients undergoing systemic therapy for urothelial carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishna, Ajay; Longo, Thomas A; Fantony, Joseph J; Doshi, Uma; Harrison, Michael R; Van Noord, Megan; Inman, Brant A

    2016-09-01

    Patients undergoing systemic therapy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The objective of the current study was to determine the rate of VTE events in patients undergoing systemic therapy for UC and assess factors affecting this rate. This study was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42015025774). We searched Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Web of Science libraries through August 2014. As per PRISMA guidelines, 2 reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts. Disagreements were arbitrated by a third reviewer. After full text review, data were abstracted and pooled using a random effects model. Authors were contacted for clarification of data. To determine VTE risk factors, subgroup analyses and meta-regression were conducted. We identified 3,635 publications in the initial search, of which 410 met inclusion criteria for full text review. Of these, we were able to obtain data on the outcome of interest for 62 publications. A total of 5,082 patients, of which 77% were male, underwent systemic therapy for UC, with 373 VTE events. The proportion of patients who had had prior surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation was 55%, 25%, and 9%, respectively. Fixed effects and random effects models were used to estimate the VTE rate, yielding event rates of 6.7% and 5.4%, respectively. VTE occurs frequently in patients undergoing systemic therapy for UC. The VTE rate was affected by the country of origin, history of radiation, as well as by the systemic treatment class. The study was limited by the incomplete reporting of all variables of interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients undergoing dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Weibert, R T

    1992-10-01

    The literature on dental surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulants is reviewed, and methods of managing anticoagulant therapy to minimize the risk of complications are discussed. Although blood loss during and after oral surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulant drugs can be substantial, research indicates that most bleeding incidents are not serious and can be controlled by local measures. Studies of 241 anticoagulant-treated patients undergoing more than 500 dental extractions during the 1950s and 1960s showed that only 9 had postoperative bleeding. More recent studies indicate that continued anticoagulation can increase the frequency of prolonged bleeding and delay wound healing. An antifibrinolytic mouthwash containing tranexamic acid can effectively suppress postoperative bleeding. Gelatin sponges, oxidized cellulose, and microcrystalline collagen are other useful hemostatic agents. A reduction in the intensity of anticoagulation therapy has been recommended; the prothrombin time should be measured shortly before the procedure in such patients. In many patients the duration of subtherapeutic anticoagulation must be minimized to reduce the possibility of thromboembolism. An option for high-risk patients is to switch them to heparin. Each patient must be evaluated individually, and the level of risk of the dental procedure and the risk of thromboembolism should be taken into account. In patients taking oral anticoagulants who must undergo dental surgery, careful control of the intensity of anticoagulation and improved methods of local hemostasis can minimize the risk of hemorrhagic complications and thromboembolism.

  13. Evaluation of neopterin levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Asci, Ali; Baydar, Terken; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Dolgun, Anil; Sahin, Gonul

    2010-04-01

    Neopterin is a diagnostic or a prognostic biomarker for several pathologies including renal diseases. However, the association between neopterin status and causative main reasons such as diabetes and hypertension for renal disease remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate neopterin levels in diabetes and hypertension patients treated with/without hemodialysis. According to primary renal disorders, the patients undergoing hemodialysis were classified into 4 groups as diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, reflux nephropathy or interstitial nephritis, and others. The controls consisted of healthy subjects, hypertensive subjects, and diabetic individuals without any renal disorder. In the study, both urinary and serum neopterin levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis therapy (n=71). The effects of the duration of hemodialysis and treatment of erythropoietin and/or iron on neopterin levels were also evaluated. Neopterin levels were found to be higher in hemodialysis patients than in the healthy controls (P<0.05). A significant difference in neopterin levels was also found between diabetic control patients and diabetic nephropathy patients (P<0.05). A similar significant difference was detected in neopterin levels between hypertensive patients with/without nephropathy (P<0.05). Neopterin may be an early critical marker for progression of nephropathy in diabetic and hypertensive patients in early stages.

  14. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  15. The role of eptifibatide in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zeymer, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the binding of ligands to activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and, therefore, prevent the formation of platelet thrombi. They have been extensively studied in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Eptifibatide, one of the approved GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, is a small heptapeptide that is highly selective and rapidly dissociates from its receptor after cessation of therapy. In clinical studies, concomitant administration of eptifibatide in patients undergoing elective PCI reduced thrombotic complications in the IMPACT-II (Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Prevent Coronary Thrombosis II) and ESPRIT (Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy) trials. In the PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy) trial, which included 10,948 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, eptifibatide significantly reduced the primary end point of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days compared with placebo. In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), eptifibatide has been studied as adjunct to primary PCI and improved epicardial flow and tissue reperfusion. Studies are now evaluating eptifibatide in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and a planned early invasive strategy in the EARLY-ACS (Eptifibatide Administration prior to Diagnostic Catherization and Revascularization to Limit Myocardial Necrosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial and in patients with primary PCI for STEMI in comparison to abciximab in the EVA-AMI (Eptifibatide versus Abciximab in Primary PCI for Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial. After the completion of these trials, the value of etifibatide in patients undergoing PCI in different indications can be determined.

  16. Knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing EMG examinations.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Mauro; Aretini, Alessandro; Greco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing the procedure. In one year, 1,586 consecutive patients (mean age 56 years; 58.8% women) were admitted to two EMG labs to undergo EMG for the first time. The patients found to be "informed" about the how an EMG examination is performed and about the purpose of EMG numbered 448 (28.2%), while those found to be "informed" only about the manner of its execution or only about its purpose numbered 161 (10.2%) and 151 (9.5%), respectively. The remaining 826 (52.1%) patients had either no information, or the information they had was very poor or incorrect (this was particularly true if they had been consulting websites). Being "informed" was associated with level of education (high), type of referring physician (specialist) and with an appropriate referral diagnosis specified in the EMG request. The quality of patient information on EMG was found to be very poor and could be improved. Physicians referring patients for EMG examinations, especially general practitioners, should assume primary responsibility for patient education and counseling in this field.

  17. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder; Mehta, Yatin

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP) through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI) monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation <10%; in addition to the control group parameters such as CVP 6–8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 90–105 mmHg, normal ABG values, oxygen saturation, hematocrit value >30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025), hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0

  18. Cangrelor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: the BRIDGE study.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Michele D; Manoukian, Steven V

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes, drug-eluting stents and those at high risk for thromboembolic events has been well established in a number of well-designed randomized controlled studies. Current research in this area has focused on the development of novel antiplatelet agents for clinical use. The BRIDGE trial evaluated the use of cangrelor as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients receiving extended DAPT. The BRIDGE trial results confirm the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in this population. This study is novel as it attempts to address the lapse in thienopyridine therapy required for many surgical and invasive procedures. The future of antiplatelet agents, particularly cangrelor, must also focus on bridging for high-risk patients undergoing noncoronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures. Overall, the BRIDGE trial represents a significant advance for patients appropriate for long-term DAPT.

  19. HIGH BODY MASS INDEX AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: RESULTS OF A CROSS-SECTIONAL EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN A PRIVATE HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Andrea Z; Victor, Elivane S; Vidal Campregher, Paulo; Piovacari, Silvia M F; Bernardo Barban, Juliana S; Pedreira, Wilson L; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2015-12-01

    nutritional status before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) affects prognosis: better nourished patients have shorter time to engraftment, while malnutrition is associated with increase of mortality rates, complications, medical costs, poor quality of life and hospitalization stay. Furthermore, underweight patients have increased risk of death in the early post- HSCT period, and non-relapse mortality is greater for those who are extremely underweight, overweight and obese. Obesity is associated with treatment-related toxicity, higher incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus- host disease (GVHD), infections and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of patients undergoing HSCT between 2007-2013 in a private hospital, by calculating the body mass index (BMI), to verify the prevalence of any nutritional imbalances, especially obesity. in this retrospective study, based on medical records, we analyzed data from all patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases who underwent HSCT from January 2007 to February 2014 in the Hematology- Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Center at a large, tertiary referral center in Brazil. a total of 257 cases were treated in the period and analyzed, of which 79% were aged up to 65 years old. Among these, 56% were overweight or obese. We observed a higher prevalence of obesity in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The mean BMI of the total sample was 26.4 kg/m2. BMI was significantly different between genders, with higher prevalence of overweight among men (P < 0.001). differently from other studies, our investigation has shown low rates of underweight and more overweight and obesity rates in men and elderly patients undergoing HSCT. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahdi; Faraoni, David

    2015-07-26

    Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions, anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. For these reasons, the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia, prevent excessive blood loss, and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions, several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications, dosage, and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects, some high-risk patients (e.g., symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade, a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  1. Is prophylactic cholecystectomy useful in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass?

    PubMed

    Guadalajara, Héctor; Sanz Baro, Raquel; Pascual, Isabel; Blesa, Isabel; Rotundo, Grevelyn Sosa; López, Jose María Gil; Corripio, Ramón; Vesperinas, Gregorio; Sancho, Luis García; Montes, Jose Antonio Rodríguez

    2006-07-01

    Obesity constitutes a clear risk factor for cholelithiasis, especially if it is associated with a rapid weight loss, as is the case of patients following bariatric surgery. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is indicated in biliopancreatic diversions due to the high incidence of postoperative cholelithiasis. However, there is no agreement on gastric bypass. This study was conducted to establish the incidence of cholecystopathy demonstrated by histology and to assess the indication for prophylactic cholecystectomy in a systematic way on patients undergoing gastric bypass. The evaluation is based on 100 consecutive morbidly obese patients undergoing open gastric bypass surgery with concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy. Variables studied were: age, gender, body mass index, preoperative ultrasound and the anatomopathologic analysis of the gallbladder that was removed. Of the 100 patients who took part in the trial, 11 had had a previous cholecystectomy. Among the 89 patients remaining, preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of cholelithiasis was 16.8%, and the actual postoperative incidence was 24.7%. Other histologic alterations were: cholesterolosis 46.1%, chronic unspecified cholecystitis 22.5%, and granulomatous cholecystitis 1.1%. The total incidence of cholecystopathy was 93.3%. The morbi-mortality related to cholecystectomy was 0%. Based on these results and given the absence of morbidity, we believe that prophylactic cholecystectomy is suitable during open gastric bypass.

  2. Perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867

  3. [The role of pre-transplant debulking treatment in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Jordan; Damaj, Gandhi; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remains unsatisfactory. Variable success in the correction of blood cytopenias, reduction of the proportion of marrow myeloblasts, and normalization of cytogenetics has been achieved with a variety of treatment strategies, including the use of immunosuppressive drugs, differentiating agents, conventional chemotherapy, and hypomethylating agents (HMAs) However, in general, responses have not been complete and have been of limited duration; prolongation of survival, if achieved, on average has been in the range of months. Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains the only approach with curative potential for patients with higher risk/advanced MDS. Yet, despite the beneficial effects of allo-SCT, post-transplant relapse is a major cause of failure. Debulking prior to transplant treatment in patients with MDS is a matter of debate. The achievement of complete remission (CR) before allo-SCT improves post-transplantation outcome, although it is not clear whether this reflects the selection of patients with more responsive disease or is related to a reduction in disease burden. Higher CR rates in patients with MDS are obtained with induction chemotherapy (ICT) than with hypomethylating agents (HMAs), although HMAs may be active in patients with complex karyotypes in whom ICT almost invariably fails. Furthermore, HMAs have a good toxicity profile compared with ICT and may therefore be considered especially in older patients and in patients with comorbidities. However, all interventions aimed at reducing disease burden before allo-SCT expose patients to the risk of complications, which may prevent them from undergoing transplantation. Therefore, up-front allo-SCT is an option, particularly for patients with life-threatening cytopenias. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, the main therapeutic approaches are discussed in this review.

  4. [Optimal dose of bivalirudin in dialysis patients at high risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: case report].

    PubMed

    Notarangelo, Maria Francesca; Coppini, Lucia; Bontardelli, Federico; Boffetti, Francesca; Vignali, Luigi; Ardissino, Diego

    2013-02-01

    Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for use in patients with or at risk for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The efficacy of bivalirudin has been well documented in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention, but there are only few data on its use in chronic dialysis-dependent patients. Bivalirudin is mainly eliminated enzymatically (80%) and to a lesser extent renally (20%). Nevertheless, in patients with chronic kidney disease a substantial increase in coagulation time and bleeding complications has been reported. Therefore, dosage adjustments may be necessary in patients with renal impairment. Dosing and monitoring recommendations in dialysis patients have not yet been established. We describe the case of a 77-year-old man with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome complicated by heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure requiring dialysis treatment. During percutaneous coronary intervention, anticoagulant therapy with bivalirudin was administered at non-standard doses, though already documented in the literature.

  5. Impact of high loading dose of atorvastatin in diabetic patients with renal dysfunction undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Mohamed; Hamza, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of statin pretreatment in reducing the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been examined in some observational and randomized studies, yielding controversial results. This study sought to evaluate the role of atorvastatin in prevention of CIN in diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD), undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). 130 patients with mean glomerular filtration rate of 48.5 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m were prospectively enrolled, then randomly (double blind) assigned in 1:1 ratio to receive atorvastatin (80 mg daily for 48 h) or placebo. Serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate were measured preintervention, 72 h and 10 days thereafter. An increase in serum creatinine by >0.5 mg/dL (44.2 μmol/L) or >25% of baseline value was considered as CIN. Mean age of the study cohort was 56 ± 5 years (males: 62%). Mean serum creatinine level in the placebo group increased significantly 3 days after coronary intervention and declined on the 10th day to a level that did not differ significantly from the baseline level, but still higher. However, in atorvastatin group, mean serum creatinine level showed a nonsignificant rise on the third day and then decreased to a level close to the baseline one, on the 10th day. Incidence of CIN was 7.7% in atorvastatin group and 20% in the placebo group (P < 0.05). Atorvastatin dose of 80 mg per day for 48 h is associated with decreased incidence of CIN in diabetic patients with CKD undergoing PCI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Preoperative Optimization of the Heart Failure Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Maxime; Liszkowski, Mark; Ducharme, Anique

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers. Levels of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) provide additional prognostic value and therefore should be measured. In addition, individual patient's risk should be objectively assessed using standard formulas such as the EuroSCORE-II or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores, which are simple and validated for various cardiac surgeries, including left ventricular assist device implantation. When patients are identified as high risk, preoperative hemodynamic optimization might be achieved with the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and hemodynamic-based tailored therapy. Finally, a prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump might be considered in certain circumstances to decrease morbidity and even mortality, like in some high risk heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery, whereas routine preoperative inotropes are not recommended and should be reserved for patients in shock, except maybe for levosimendan.

  7. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  8. Relationship of Postprandial Nonesterified Fatty Acids, Adipokines, and Insulin Across Gender in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Positive Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guijing; Thomas-Geevarghese, Asha; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Raghavan, Subhashree; Minolfo, Robert; Ormsby, Bernard; Karmally, Wahida; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Albu, Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Metabolic derangements are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive subjects undergoing antiretroviral therapy, but little is known about postprandial conditions. Methods We investigated the relationship between leptin, adiponectin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin in response to a day-long meal pattern and evaluated gender differences in HIV-positive men (n = 12) and women (n = 13) undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Results For both men and women, a significant decrease in postprandial NEFA levels was observed following breakfast (0.53 vs. 0.22 mmol/L, P < 0.001, baseline and at 3 hours, respectively), whereas day-long postprandial leptin and adiponectin levels showed small nonsignificant oscillations. In contrast to NEFA and adiponectin, postprandial leptin levels were significantly higher among women compared to men (P < 0.05). Postprandial NEFA levels correlated positively with fasting insulin levels (r2 = 0.25, P = 0.016), and the postbreakfast decrease in NEFA levels correlated significantly with the postbreakfast increase in insulin levels (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.038). No significant association between postprandial adipokines and insulin was observed. Conclusions In HAART-treated, HIV-infected men and women, levels of NEFA, but not adipokines, showed significant postprandial variation. Furthermore, food intake resulted in significant NEFA suppression in proportion to the food-stimulated insulin increase. PMID:19320559

  9. Quality of Life in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Vlachou, Eugenia; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2017-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, it is expected that 60% of all cases of cancer will be detected in elderly patients in the next two decades. Cancer treatment for older persons is complicated by a number of factors, thus negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate quality of life in elderly cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study was descriptive and non-experimental. It was conducted in one large hospital in a major city of Northern Greece. The sample was convenience comprising 53 elderly cancer patients undergoing cycle 3 chemotherapy. The data was collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale and included questions related to demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of participants were men (n = 27, 50.9%) who were married (n = 32, 79.5%). Their mean age was 70.07 ± 3.60. Almost half of the sample (n = 30, 56.6%) had colon cancer. There was a statistical significant difference between men and women pertaining to physical wellbeing (p = 0.004) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). When comparing each subscale with the patients' marital status it was found that there was a statistical difference with respect to social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029), functional wellbeing (p = 0.09) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). Moreover, the type of cancer affected overall quality of life (p < 0.001) and social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029). These findings call attention to quality of life and its related factors in elderly cancer patients. It is highly recommended to envisage measures for improving quality of life in this group of cancer patients.

  10. Distribution characteristics of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Boros, L; Cacek, T; Pine, R B; Battaglia, A C

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis is described. Significant characteristics of our patient included lymphoma with liver involvement, tumor lysis syndrome, renal and hepatic failure. Combination chemotherapy consisted of mitoxantrone, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. Mitoxantrone plasma samples were obtained prior to dosing and at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, and 12 h after the intravenous infusion of a 17-mg dose over 20 min. Serum concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration versus time curve was consistent with a three-compartment model. However, rebounds in serum drug concentrations were detected during the last portion of dialysis and after its completion. The gamma elimination half-life could not be determined due to the continued detection of rebounds in drug concentrations throughout the postdialysis sampling period. The alpha and beta distribution phases did not appear to be affected by hemodialysis. The peak mitoxantrone concentration fell within the reported range. Mitoxantrone does not appear to be eliminated by hemodialysis, and dose adjustments are not needed in patients undergoing this procedure.

  11. Antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary stenting

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, J.M.; van Werkum, J.W.; Heestermans, A.A.C.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Hautvast, R.M.A.; den Heijer, P.; de Boer, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation after coronary stenting is essential to prevent stent thrombosis. Drug-eluting stents, which are the preferred therapy, may be associated with a higher tendency for stent thrombosis. Methods Patients who underwent coronary stent placement and presented with late stent thrombosis are described. Results Eight patients with stent thrombosis are presented. Early discontinuation of the antithrombotic medication is associated with the occurrence of these complications. Conclusion Long-term antithrombotic therapy seems essential to prevent stent thrombosis, especially for patients treated with drug-eluting stents. PMID:25696663

  12. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  13. Prospective evaluation of clinical outcomes in all-comer high-risk patients with aortic valve stenosis undergoing medical treatment, transcatheter or surgical aortic valve implantation following heart team assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Christophe; Coosemans, Mark; Rega, Filip; Poortmans, Gert; Belmans, Ann; Adriaenssens, Tom; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Goetschalckx, Kaatje; Desmet, Walter; Janssens, Stefan; Meyns, Bart; Herijgers, Paul

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been proposed as a treatment alternative for patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) at high or prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aimed to assess real-world outcomes after treatment according to the decisions of the multidisciplinary heart team. METHODS At a tertiary centre, all high-risk patients referred between 1 March 2008 and 31 October 2011 for symptomatic AS were screened and planned to undergo AVR, TAVI or medical treatment. We report clinical outcomes as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium. RESULTS Of 163 high-risk patients, those selected for AVR had lower logistic EuroSCORE and STS scores when compared with TAVI or medical treatment (median [interquartile range] 18 [12–26]; 26 [17–36]; 21 [14–32]% (P = 0.015) and 6.5 [5.1–10.7]; 7.6 [5.8–10.5]; 7.6 [6.1–15.7]% (P = 0.056)). All-cause mortalities at 1 year in 35, 73 and 55 patients effectively undergoing AVR, TAVI and medical treatment were 20, 21 and 38%, respectively (P = 0.051). Cardiovascular death and major stroke occurred in 9, 8 and 33% (P < 0.001) and 6, 4 and 2% (P = 0.62), respectively. For patients undergoing valve implantation, device success was 91 and 92% for AVR and TAVI, respectively. The combined safety endpoint at 30 days was in favour of TAVI (29%) vs AVR (63%) (P = 0.001). In contrast, the combined efficacy endpoint at 1 year tended to be more favourable for AVR (10 vs 24% for TAVI, P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS Patients who are less suitable for AVR can be treated safely and effectively with TAVI with similar outcomes when compared with patients with a lower-risk profile undergoing AVR. Patients with TAVI or AVR have better survival than those undergoing medical treatment only. PMID:23702465

  14. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  15. Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Pastromas, Georgios Spiliopoulos, Stavros Katsanos, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Athanasios Kitrou, Panagiotis Karnabatidis, Dimitrios Siablis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical significance of platelet responsiveness in patients receiving clopidogrel after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients receiving antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 75 mg after infrainguinal angioplasty or stenting and who presented to our department during routine follow-up. Clopidogrel responsiveness was tested using the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay. Patients with residual platelet reactivity units (PRU) {>=} 235 were considered as nonresponders (NR group NR), whereas patients with PRU < 235 were considered as normal (responders [group R]). Primary end points were incidence of resistance to clopidogrel and target limb reintervention (TLR)-free survival, whereas secondary end points included limb salvage rates and the identification of any independent predictors influencing clinical outcomes. Results: In total, 113 consecutive patients (mean age 69 {+-} 8 years) with 139 limbs were enrolled. After clopidogrel responsiveness analysis, 61 patients (53.9 %) with 73 limbs (52.5 %) were assigned to group R and 52 patients (46.1 %) with 66 limbs (47.5 %) to group NR. Mean follow-up interval was 27.7 {+-} 22.9 months (range 3-95). Diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia, and renal disease were associated with clopidogrel resistance (Fisher's exact test; p < 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, TLR-free survival was significantly superior in group R compared with group NR (20.7 vs. 1.9 %, respectively, at 7-year follow-up; p = 0.001), whereas resistance to clopidogrel was identified as the only independent predictor of decreased TLR-free survival (hazard rate 0.536, 95 % confidence interval 0.31-0.90; p = 0.01). Cumulative TLR rate was significantly increased in group NR compared with group R (71.2 % [52 of 73] vs. 31.8 % [21 of 66], respectively; p < 0.001). Limb salvage was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance was related with

  16. The Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps on Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Revascularization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Stenting Era

    PubMed Central

    Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Tong-Wen; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Guan, Fang-Xia; Liu, Zi-Qi; Zhang, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) have generally been used for patients undergoing high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization. However, there is still insufficient evidence to determine whether they can improve outcomes in reperfusion therapy patients, mainly by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study was designed to determine the difference between high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization with and without IABPs on mortality, by performing a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials of the current era. Methods Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Unpublished data were obtained from the investigators. Randomized clinical trials of IABP and non-IABP in high-risk coronary revascularization procedures (PCI or CABG) were included. In the case of PCI procedures, stents should be used in more than 80% of patients. Numbers of events at the short-term and long-term follow-up were extracted. Results A total of 12 randomized trials enrolling 2155 patients were included. IABPs did not significantly decrease short-term mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI, 0.42–1.01), or long-term mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.47–1.35), with low heterogeneity across the studies. The findings remained stable in patients with acute myocardial infarction with or without cardiogenic shock. But in high-risk CABG patients, IABP was associated with reduced mortality (71 events in 846 patients; RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25–0.67). Conclusion In patients undergoing high-risk coronary revascularization, IABP did not significantly decrease mortality. But high-risk CABG patients may be benefit from IABP. Rigorous criteria should be applied to the use of IABPs. PMID:26784578

  17. Respiratory infections in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina

    2014-09-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern.

  18. Coagulation management in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Görlinger, Klaus; Bergmann, Lars; Dirkmann, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support therapy remains high and is associated with bad outcomes and increased costs. The need for anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy varies widely between different pulsatile and non-pulsatile ventricular-assist devices (VADs) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) systems. Therefore, a unique anticoagulation protocol cannot be recommended. Notably, most thrombo-embolic complications occur despite values of conventional coagulation tests being within the targeted range. This is due to the fact that conventional coagulation tests such as international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelet count cannot detect hyper- or hypofibrinolysis, hypercoagulability due to tissue factor expression on circulating cells or increased clot firmness, and platelet aggregation as well as response to anti-platelet drugs. By contrast, point-of-care (POC) whole blood viscoelastic tests (thromboelastometry/-graphy) and platelet function tests (impedance or turbidimetric aggregometry) reflect in detail the haemostatic status of patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support therapy and the efficacy of their anticoagulation and antiaggregation therapy. Therefore, monitoring of haemostasis using POC thromboelastometry/-graphy and platelet function analysis is recommended during mechanical circulatory support therapy to reduce the risk of bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications. Notably, these haemostatic tests should be performed repeatedly during mechanical circulatory support therapy since thrombin generation, clot firmness and platelet response may change significantly over time with a high inter- and intra-individual variability. Furthermore, coagulation management can be hampered in non-pulsatile VADs by acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and in general by acquired factor XIII deficiency as well as by heparin

  19. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing electrophysiological device surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural

  20. Anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Fauchier, L; Pellegrin, C; Clementy, N; Saint Etienne, C; Banerjee, A; Naudin, D; Angoulvant, D

    2013-09-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stent implantation, the optimal antithrombotic strategy is unclear. We evaluated whether use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) was associated with any benefit in morbidity or mortality in patients with AF, high risk of thromboembolism (TE) (CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2) and coronary stent implantation. Among 8,962 unselected patients with AF seen between 2000 and 2010, a total of 2,709 (30%) had coronary artery disease and 417/2,709 (15%) underwent stent implantation while having CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2. During follow-up (median=650 days), all TE, bleeding episodes, and major adverse cardiac events (i.e. death, acute myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation) were recorded. At discharge, 97/417 patients (23%) received OAC, which was more likely to be prescribed in patients with permanent AF and in those treated for elective stent implantation. The incidence of outcome event rates was not significantly different in patients treated and those not treated with OAC. However, in multivariate analysis, the lack of OAC at discharge was independently associated with increased risk of death/stroke/systemic TE (relative risk [RR] =2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.67, p=0.04), with older age (RR =1.12, 1.04-1.20, p=0.003), heart failure (RR =3.26, 1.18-9.01, p=0.02), and history of stroke (RR =18.87, 3.11-111.11, p=0.001). In conclusion, in patients with AF and high thromboembolic risk after stent implantation, use of OAC was independently associated with decreased risk of subsequent death/stroke/systemic TE, suggesting that OAC should be systematically used in this patient population.

  1. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  2. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilarta, Cristiane F; Unger, Marianna D; Dos Reis, Luciene M; Dominguez, Wagner V; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R; Hernandez, Mariel J; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population.

  3. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vilarta, Cristiane F.; Unger, Marianna D.; dos Reis, Luciene M.; Dominguez, Wagner V.; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M.; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R.; Hernandez, Mariel J.; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. METHODS: We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population. PMID:28793001

  4. Radiostereometric analysis study of tantalum compared with titanium acetabular cups and highly cross-linked compared with conventional liners in young patients undergoing total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ayers, David C; Greene, Meridith; Snyder, Benjamin; Aubin, Michelle; Drew, Jacob; Bragdon, Charles

    2015-04-15

    Radiostereometric analysis provides highly precise measurements of component micromotion relative to the bone that is otherwise undetectable by routine radiographs. This study compared, at a minimum of five years following surgery, the micromotion of tantalum and titanium acetabular cups and femoral head penetration in highly cross-linked polyethylene liners and conventional (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) liners in active patients who had undergone total hip replacement. This institutional review board-approved prospective, randomized, blinded study involved forty-six patients. Patients were randomized into one of four cohorts according to both acetabular cup and polyethylene liner. Patients received either a cementless cup with a titanium mesh surface or a tantalum trabecular surface and either a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner or an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liner. Radiostereometric analysis examinations and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity, and Harris hip scores were obtained preoperatively, postoperatively, at six months, and annually thereafter. All patients had significant improvement (p < 0.05) in Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, WOMAC, UCLA activity, and Harris hip scores postoperatively. On radiostereometric analysis examination, highly cross-linked polyethylene liners showed significantly less median femoral head penetration at five years (p < 0.05). Steady-state wear rates from one year to five years were 0.04 mm per year for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liners and 0.004 mm per year for highly cross-linked polyethylene liners. At the five-year follow-up, the median migration (and standard error) was 0.05 ± 0.20 mm proximally for titanium cups and 0.21 ± 0.05 mm for tantalum cups. In this young population who had undergone total hip replacement, radiostereometric

  5. Radiostereometric Analysis Study of Tantalum Compared with Titanium Acetabular Cups and Highly Cross-Linked Compared with Conventional Liners in Young Patients Undergoing Total Hip Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, David C.; Greene, Meridith; Snyder, Benjamin; Aubin, Michelle; Drew, Jacob; Bragdon, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiostereometric analysis provides highly precise measurements of component micromotion relative to the bone that is otherwise undetectable by routine radiographs. This study compared, at a minimum of five years following surgery, the micromotion of tantalum and titanium acetabular cups and femoral head penetration in highly cross-linked polyethylene liners and conventional (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) liners in active patients who had undergone total hip replacement. Methods: This institutional review board-approved prospective, randomized, blinded study involved forty-six patients. Patients were randomized into one of four cohorts according to both acetabular cup and polyethylene liner. Patients received either a cementless cup with a titanium mesh surface or a tantalum trabecular surface and either a highly cross-linked polyethylene liner or an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liner. Radiostereometric analysis examinations and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity, and Harris hip scores were obtained preoperatively, postoperatively, at six months, and annually thereafter. Results: All patients had significant improvement (p < 0.05) in Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, WOMAC, UCLA activity, and Harris hip scores postoperatively. On radiostereometric analysis examination, highly cross-linked polyethylene liners showed significantly less median femoral head penetration at five years (p < 0.05). Steady-state wear rates from one year to five years were 0.04 mm per year for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liners and 0.004 mm per year for highly cross-linked polyethylene liners. At the five-year follow-up, the median migration (and standard error) was 0.05 ± 0.20 mm proximally for titanium cups and 0.21 ± 0.05 mm for tantalum cups. Conclusions: In this young population who had undergone

  6. "Wet diapers--dry patients": an effective dressing for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Atul; Bhargava, Amit; Funk, Len; Copeland, Stephen; Levy, Ofer

    2005-02-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is very commonly associated with postoperative leakage of irrigation fluid. This causes apprehension to patients and their relatives and leads to frequent change of dressings. We describe a simple and effective diaper dressing for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. It is highly absorbent, cost-effective, and easy to apply. We have used this dressing successfully in more than 1,500 shoulder arthroscopies over the last 3 years with no adverse reaction.

  7. Predictors of overall satisfaction of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Pinkert, Uwe; Ahmad, Tahera; Schäfer, Christof; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Franz, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Reporting the experiences and satisfaction of patients, as well as their quality of care scores is an emerging recommendation in health care systems. Many aspects of patients' experience determine their overall satisfaction. The aim of this evaluation was to define the main factors contributing to the satisfaction of patients undergoing radiotherapy in an outpatient setting. A total of 1,710 patients with a histologically proven cancer, who were treated in our department between 2012 and 2014, were recruited for this prospective evaluation. At the end of therapy, each patient was asked to grade the skills and the care provided by radiation therapists, physicians, and physician's assistants, as well as the overall satisfaction during therapy. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which parameters had the greatest influence on overall satisfaction. Overall satisfaction with the provided care was high with a mean satisfaction score of 1.4. Significant correlations were found between overall satisfaction and each of the following survey items: courtesy, protection of privacy, professional skills and care provided by the radiation therapists and physicians, accuracy of provided information, and cleanliness. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that courteous behavior and the protection of privacy were the strongest predictors for overall satisfaction (P<0.001), followed by care and skills of physicians and radiation therapists. Patients suffering from head and neck cancer expressed lower overall satisfaction. Based on our prospectively acquired data, we were able to identify and confirm key factors for patient satisfaction in an outpatient radiooncological cancer center. From these results, we conclude that patients want most importantly to be treated with courtesy, protection of privacy and care.

  8. Does High-Dose Cytarabine Cause More Fungal Infection in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Consolidation Therapy: A Multicenter, Prospective, Observational Study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Hu, Jiong; Sun, Yuqian; Huang, He; Chen, Jing; Li, Jianyong; Ma, Jun; Li, Juan; Liang, Yingmin; Wang, Jianmin; Li, Yan; Yu, Kang; Hu, Jianda; Jin, Jie; Wang, Chun; Wu, Depei; Xiao, Yang; Huang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) remains as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Here, we report the subgroup analysis of China Assessment of Antifungal Therapy in Haematological Disease (CAESAR) study to evaluate the risk of IFI in patients with AML in 1st remission receiving high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) as consolidation. A total of 638 patients with AML in 1st complete remission were selected from the database. Among them, 130 patients received HiDAC alone with total dose of 2-3 g/m(2) × 6 while 508 patients received multiple-agent combination chemotherapy (multiagent chemo group). The patients' characteristics were generally not different but more patients in HiDAC group had peripherally inserted central catheter (61.5% vs 44.5%, P = 0.002). The median duration of neutropenia was 8.0 days in both HiDAC (2-20) and multiagent chemo group (2-28). Number of patients with prolonged neutropenia (>14 days) tended to be more in multiagent chemo group but not significant different (16.3% vs 8.8%, respectively). There was no significant difference between 2 groups in persistent neutropenic fever (40.8% vs 33.1%), antifungal treatment (11.5% vs 11.4%), and incidence of proven/probable IFI (4 probable in HiDAC vs 1 proven/4 probable in multiagent chemo, P = 0.35) or possible IFI. As to the clinical outcome in terms of duration of hospitalization and death in remission, there was a trend of shorter duration of hospitalization in HiDAC (19 days, 3-70) compare to multiagent chemo group (21 days, 1-367, P = 0.057) while no death documented in HiDAC group and only 2 patients died in the multiagent chemo group (0.4%). As to risk factors associated with IFI in all 638 patients, there was a trend of more IFI in patients with severe neutropenia (3.0%, P = 0.089) and previous history of IFI (3.85%, P = 0.086) while the antifungal prophylaxis was not associated significantly reduced IFI. Overall

  9. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; P<0.00001) and 39% relative reduction in MACE (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45–0.83; P = 0.002). The benefit of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin

  10. Finding the Optimal Conditioning Regimen for Relapsed/Refractory Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Comparison of BEAM and High-Dose ICE

    PubMed Central

    Esbah, Onur; Tekgündüz, Emre; Şirinoğlu Demiriz, Itır; Civriz Bozdağ, Sinem; Kaya, Ali; Tetik, Ayşegül; Kayıkçı, Ömür; Durgun, Gamze; Kocubaba, Şerife; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT) is a well-defined treatment modality for relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL). Although there are several options in terms of conditioning regimens before AHCT, no one treatment is accepted as a standard of care. This study aimed to compare different conditioning regimens for the treatment of NHL and HL.
 Materials and Methods: Medical records of 62 patients who had undergone AHCT following BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan) and high-dose ICE (hICE; ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) conditioning regimens were analyzed retrospectively and compared in terms of efficacy and adverse effects.
 Results: The study included a total of 29 and 33 patients diagnosed with relapsed/refractory NHL and HL, respectively. Patients received BEAM (n=37) or hICE (n=25) regimens for conditioning. One-year overall survival was 73±6% in all patients. One-year overall survival was 71±8% and 74±9% in the BEAM and hICE groups, respectively (p=0.86). The incidences of nausea/vomiting (grade ≥2) (84% vs. 44.7%; p=0.04) and mucositis (grade ≥2) (13% vs. 3%; p=0.002) were higher in the hICE group compared to the BEAM group. In addition, we witnessed significantly more hepatotoxicity of grade ≥2 (40% vs. 2.7%; p<0.005) and nephrotoxicity of grade ≥2 (48% vs. 2.7%; p<0.005) among patients who received hICE. Significantly more patients (n=4; 25%) in the hICE group experienced veno-occlusive disease (VOD) compared to the BEAM arm, where no patients developed VOD (p=0.01). Conclusion: There was no difference in terms of overall survival between the BEAM and hICE groups. We observed significantly more adverse effects among patients treated with hICE. The BEAM regimen seems to be superior to hICE in terms of toxicity profile with comparable efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory NHL and HL. PMID:26377357

  11. Clinical safety of bivalirudin in patients undergoing carotid stenting.

    PubMed

    Cogar, Bryan D; Wayangankar, Siddharth A; Abu-Fadel, Mazen; Hennebry, Thomas A; Ghani, Mohammad K; Kipperman, Robert M; Chrysant, George S

    2012-05-01

    Prior to June 2011, carotid artery stenting (CAS) had been limited to patients deemed high risk for surgical revascularization due to medical or anatomic reasons. Intraprocedural anticoagulation for CAS has traditionally been carried out with unfractionated heparin (UFH). The direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin has emerged as a possible alternative choice for anticoagulation in this patient population. In patients undergoing coronary interventions, bivalirudin has been shown in large prospective analysis to reduce major adverse events and hemorrhagic complications (TIMI major bleeding rates, 0.6%-3.1%; TIMI minor bleeding rates, 1.3%-3.7%). As of now, the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin for use during carotid stenting has not been rigorously evaluated. To date, the published evidence in favor of bivalirudin for CAS exists in small retrospective analyses and two prospective studies. We present a retrospective analysis of 331 patients with a total of 365 carotid artery lesions undergoing CAS between February 2007 and September 2010. The procedures were performed by five experienced operators from four separate sites within the same metropolitan area. Patients were included who received bivalirudin as the anticoagulation strategy and underwent CAS. The primary endpoints of the study were 30-day incidence of death, stroke, TIMI major bleeding (defined as ≥5 g/dL Hgb drop or intracranial hemorrhage), TIMI minor bleeding (defined as ≥3 g/dL Hgb drop), and blood transfusion. All data were collected by retrospective chart review. A total of 365 CAS procedures were performed. There were no deaths, strokes, or TIMI major bleeds. There was a 2.19% incidence of TIMI minor bleeding (8/365) and a 1.64% rate of blood transfusion (6/365). In our patient population, the major endpoints of stroke, death, MI, major and minor bleeding rates were well within those previously reported overall for carotid artery revascularization. Hence, we conclude that bivalirudin may be safe

  12. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    Morote, J; Ropero, J; Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is the leading cause of death in patients with prostate cancer (PC), metabolic syndrome (MS) being related to it. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in patients with CP undergoing androgen suppression (AS). We performed a retrospective study of cases and controls that included 159 patients. The study group was made up of 53 patients with PC undergoing SA for a period exceeding 12 months. The control group was formed by 53 patients with PC at the time of diagnosis and 53 patients with negative prostate biopsy. All patients were evaluated for presence of MS according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Prevalence of MS in patients without PC was 32.1% and in those with non-treated PC 35.8%, P = .324. In patients with PC undergoing AS, prevalence of MS was 50.9%, P < .001. When AS duration was less than 36 months, prevalence of MS was 44.0% and when greater than 36 months 57.1%, P < .001. Waist circumference and hyperglycemia were the two MS components that significantly increased. AS and its duration were independent predictors factors for the development of MS. Continuous AS therapy increases the prevalence of MS and especially waist circumference and hyperglycemia. Development of MS increases according to AS duration. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. General Anaesthesia Protocols for Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aravind; Lal, Chandar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. PMID:28417028

  14. Postoperative sepsis prediction in patients undergoing major cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sood, Akshay; Abdollah, Firas; Sammon, Jesse D; Arora, Nivedita; Weeks, Matthew; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2017-03-01

    Cancer patients are at increased risk for postoperative sepsis. However, studies addressing the issue are lacking. We sought to identify preoperative and intraoperative predictors of 30-d sepsis after major cancer surgery (MCS) and derive a postoperative sepsis risk stratification tool. Patients undergoing one of nine MCSs (gastrointestinal, urological, gynecologic, or pulmonary) were identified within the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005-2011, n = 69,169). Multivariable adjusted analyses (MVA) were performed to identify the predictors of postoperative sepsis. A composite sepsis risk score (CSRS) was constructed using the regression coefficients of predictors significant on MVA. The score was stratified into low, intermediate, and high risk, and its predictive accuracy for sepsis, septic shock, and mortality was assessed using the area under the curve analysis. Overall, 4.3% (n = 2954) of patients developed postoperative sepsis. In MVA, Black race (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, P = 0.002), preoperative hematocrit <30 (OR = 1.40, P = 0.022), cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular comorbidities (P < 0.010), American Society of Anesthesiologists score >3 (P < 0.05), operative time (OR = 1.002, P < 0.001), surgical approach (OR = 1.81, P < 0.001), and procedure type (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of postoperative sepsis. CSRS demonstrated favorable accuracy in predicting postoperative sepsis, septic shock, and mortality (area under the curve 0.72, 0.75, and 0.74, respectively). Furthermore, CSRS risk stratification demonstrated high concordance with sepsis rates, 1.3% in low-risk patients versus 9.7% in high-risk patients. Similarly, 30-d mortality rate varied from 0.5% to 5.5% (10-fold difference) in low-risk patients versus high-risk patients. Our study identifies the major risk factors for 30-d sepsis after MCS. These risk factors have been converted into a simple, accurate bedside sepsis risk

  15. Use and Effectiveness of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps Among Patients Undergoing High Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights from the NCDR®

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeptha P.; Rathore, Saif S.; Wang, Yongfei; Chen, Jersey; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background IABPs are frequently used to provide hemodynamic support during high risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but clinical evidence to support their use is mixed. We examined hospital variation in IABP use among high risk PCI patients, and determined the association of IABP use on mortality in this population. Methods and Results We analyzed data submitted to the CathPCI Registry® between January 2005 and December 2007. High risk PCI was defined as having at least one of the following features: unprotected left main artery as the target vessel, cardiogenic shock, severely depressed left ventricular function, or ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Hospitals were categorized into quartiles by their proportional use of IABP. We examined differences in in-hospital mortality across hospital quartiles using a hierarchical logistic regression model to adjust for differences in patient and hospital characteristics across hospital quartiles of IABP use. IABPs were used in 18,990 (10.5%) of 181,599 high risk PCIs. Proportional use of IABP varied significantly across hospital quartiles: Q1: 0.0%–6.5%; Q2: 6.6% to 9.2%; Q3: 9.3% to 14.1%; and Q4: 14.2% to 40.0%. In multivariable analysis, after adjustment for differences in patient and hospital characteristics, in-hospital mortality was comparable across quartiles of hospital IABP usage (Q1: Ref; Q2: Odds Ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.99–1.24; Q3: OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.15; Q4: OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.94–1.18). Conclusion IABP use varied significantly across hospitals for high risk PCI. However, this variation in IABP use was not associated with differences in in-hospital mortality. PMID:22147887

  16. Preoperative expectations and values of patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Leach, Brian C; Wheless, Lee; Lang, Pearon G; Cook, Joel

    2011-03-01

    Dermatologists have championed Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for its unsurpassed treatment success for skin cancers, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, and tissue-sparing quality. It is unclear whether patients undergoing MMS also value these characteristics. To evaluate patients' preoperative expectations of MMS and identify the factors that may influence such expectations The study prospectively recruited participants who were newly diagnosed with skin cancer and referred for MMS. A questionnaire listing the characteristics of MMS was given to the participants asking them to score the importance of each characteristic on a 10-point scale. The participants were also asked to provide information regarding their gender, age, subjective health status, education level, family annual income, and their referral source On average, participants placed the highest value, in descending order, on a treatment that yielded the highest cure rate, reconstruction initiation only after complete tumor removal, and the surgeon being a skin cancer specialist. Overall, participants placed high values on characteristics of MMS that dermatologists have long esteemed. Our data corroborate that MMS is a valuable procedure that meets the expectations not just of physicians, but also of patients. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  17. Management of sickle cell disease in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Todd C; Carter, Michael V; Patel, Rina K; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Lin, Sophie Z; Magruder, Jonathan Trent; Grimm, Joshua C; Cameron, Duke E; Baumgartner, William A; Mandal, Kaushik

    2017-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting inherited hemoglobinopathy that poses inherent risk for surgical complications following cardiac operations. In this review, we discuss preoperative considerations, intraoperative decision-making, and postoperative strategies to optimize the care of a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing cardiac surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281

  19. [Access to somatic care for patients undergoing psychiatric treatment].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    In France, there is no across-the-board formal connection between psychiatric and somatic treatment and the somatic care of patients undergoing psychiatric treatment remains very heterogeneous and inadequate. Despite some attempts at providing structure, it is the place of the physician which must be examined and optimised.

  20. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  1. Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio as a new prognostic marker in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Çanga, Yiğit; Özcan, Kazım Serhan; İpek, Göktürk; Güngör, Barış; Onuk, Tolga; Durmuş, Gündüz; Öz, Ahmet; Karaca, Mehmet; Bolca, Osman

    2016-02-01

    Monocyte count to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has recently emerged as an indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress in the literature. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of MHR in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 513 patients who were hospitalized with diagnosis of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and treated with primary PCI were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical data, admission laboratory parameters, and MHR values were recorded. Inhospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality were reported as the clinical outcomes. Twenty-six patients (5%) died, and MACE was observed in 86 patients (17%) during hospital follow-up. Patients were categorized in 3 groups according to tertiles of admission MHR. The rates of inhospital mortality and MACE were significantly higher in tertile 3 group compared to tertile 1 group (10% vs 1%, 27% vs 11%; P < .01 and P < .01). In multivariate regression analysis, age, sex, presence of Killip 3 or 4, left ventricular ejection fraction, troponin I, C-reactive protein, and increased MHR levels (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05; P < .01) independently predicted inhospital mortality; age, presence of Killip 3 or 4, troponin I, and increased MHR levels (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.04; P < .01) independently predicted MACE. Admission MHR values were found to be independently correlated with inhospital MACE and mortality after primary PCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional status of patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yasushi; Ikeda, Naoki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Kadota, Yoshihisa; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ohno, Yuko; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2012-04-01

    Impaired nutrition is an important predictor of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients, and preoperative chemoradiotherapy increases the risk of such complications. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of an immune-enhancing diet on nutritional status in patients undergoing lung resection after chemoradiotherapy. We compared the preoperative nutritional status in 15 patients with lung cancer undergoing lung resection without chemoradiotherapy and 15 who had chemoradiotherapy. Body mass index and lymphocyte counts were lower in patients who had chemoradiotherapy. Although there was no difference in the rate of postoperative morbidity between groups, the chemoradiotherapy patients were more likely to have severe complications postoperatively. After chemoradiotherapy in 12 patients, 6 received oral Impact for 5 days, and 6 had a conventional diet before surgery. Oral intake of Impact for 5 days before surgery modified the decrease in transferrin and lymphocytes after the operation. Preoperative immunonutrition may improve the perioperative nutritional status after induction chemoradiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, and reduce the severity of postoperative complications. These potential benefits need to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.

  3. High-intensity training and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non-small-cell lung cancer undergoing lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Francesco; Meoli, Ilernando; Cobuccio, Raffaele; Curcio, Carlo; Amore, Dario; Casazza, Dino; Tracey, Maura; Rocco, Gaetano

    2013-10-01

    Peak VO2, as measure of physical performance is central to a correct preoperative evaluation in patients with both non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because it is closely related both to operability criteria and the rate of postoperative complications. Strategies to improve peak VO2, as a preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP), should be considered favourably in these patients. In order to clarify the role of pulmonary rehabilitation, we have evaluated the effects of 3-week preoperative high-intensity training on physical performance and respiratory function in a group of patients with both NSCLC and COPD who underwent lobectomy. We studied 40 patients with both NSCLC and COPD, age < 75 years, TNM stages I-II, who underwent lobectomy. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (R and S): Group R underwent an intensive preoperative PRP, while Group S underwent only lobectomy. We evaluated peak VO2 in all patients at Time 0 (T0), after PRP/before surgery in Group R/S (T1) and 60 days after surgery, respectively, in both groups (T2). There was no difference between groups in peak VO2 at T0, while a significant difference was observed both at T1 and T2. In Group R, peak VO2 improves significantly from T0 to T1: 14.9 ± 2.3-17.8 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min ± standard deviation (SD), P < 0.001 (64.5 ± 16.5-76.1 ± 14.9% predicted ± SD, P < 0.05) and deteriorates from T1 to T2: 17.8 ± 2.1-15.1 ± 2.4, P < 0.001 (76.1 ± 14.9-64.6 ± 15.5, P < 0.05), reverting to a similar value to that at T0, while in Group S peak VO2 did not change from T0 to T1 and significantly deteriorates from T1 to T2: 14.5 ± 1.2-11.4 ± 1.2 ml/kg/min ± SD, P < 0.00001 (60.6 ± 8.4-47.4 ± 6.9% predicted ± SD, P < 0.00001). PRP was a valid preoperative strategy to improve physical performance in patients with both NSCLC and COPD and this advantage was also maintained after surgery.

  4. Impact of environmental particulate matter and peritoneal dialysis-related infection in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chan, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Jiun

    2014-11-01

    In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), PD-related infection is a major cause of PD failure and hospital admission. Good air quality is required when dialysate exchange or exit site wound care is performed. To our knowledge, investigation of air pollution as a factor for PD-related infection in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. This study aimed to assess the effect of environmental particulate matter (PM) and other important risk factors on 1-year PD-related infection in patients undergoing PD.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD were recruited in this 1-year retrospective observational study. Differences in environmental PMs (PM10 and PM2.5) were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The patients undergoing PD were categorized into 2 groups according to PM2.5 exposure: high (n = 61) and low (n = 114). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze 1-year PD-related infection.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD (50 men and 125 women) were enrolled. Thirty-five patients had PD-related infection within 1 year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high environmental PM2.5 exposure (hazard ratio (HR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03-3.91]; P = .04) and female sex (HR: 2.77, 95% CI [1.07-7.19]; P = .03) were risk factors for 1-year PD-related infection.Patients undergoing PD with high environmental PM2.5 exposure had a higher 1-year PD-related infection rate than that in those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with PD-related infection in such patients.

  5. Latent Q fever endocarditis in patients undergoing routine valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Grisoli, Dominique; Million, Matthieu; Edouard, Sophie; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by a fastidious bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. A recent major outbreak of which in the Netherlands will most likely lead to the emergence of hundreds of cases of C. burnetii endocarditis during the next decade. Patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery may carry undiagnosed Q fever endocarditis with possible disastrous outcomes, and hence may benefit from a screening strategy. The study aim was to evaluate the frequency of unsuspected latent Q fever endocarditis in patients undergoing routine valve surgery. At the present authors' institution, all resected cardiac valves/prostheses are examined routinely histologically, microbiologically and on a molecular biological basis, in addition to serological testing for fastidious microorganisms. A retrospective review was conducted of data relating to all patients who had unsuspected Q fever endocarditis that had been diagnosed after routine valve/prosthesis replacement/repair between 2000 and 2013 at the authors' institution. Among 6,401 patients undergoing valve surgery, postoperative examinations of the explanted valves/prostheses led to an unexpected diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in 14 cases (0.2%), who subsequently underwent appropriate medical treatments. Only two of the patients (14%) had intraoperative findings suggestive of endocarditis. On serological analysis of the blood samples, 11 patients (79%) presented an evocative Phase I IgG antibody titer > or =800. Valvular tissue-sample analyses yielded positive cultures and PCR in the same 13 patients (93%), whereas pathological and immunohistochemical examinations alone were suggestive of endocarditis in only seven Cases (50%). This screening strategy led to an unexpected diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in 0.2% of patients undergoing routine valve surgery, who received subsequent appropriate antibiotic therapy. Systematic serological analysis should be mandatory before performing heart valve surgery in countries where C

  6. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  7. Italian daily platelet transfusion practice for haematological patients undergoing high dose chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation: a survey by the GIMEMA Haemostasis and Thrombosis Working Party

    PubMed Central

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Castaman, Giancarlo; Falanga, Anna; Santoro, Rita; Napolitano, Mariasanta; Storti, Sergio; Veneri, Dino; Basso, Marco; Candiotto, Laura; Tassinari, Cristina; Federici, Augusto B.; De Stefano, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background Following high-dose chemotherapy/bone marrow transplantation, patients are routinely, prophylactically transfused with platelet concentrates (PC) if they have a platelet count ≤10×109/L or higher in the presence of risk factors for bleeding. However, whether such transfusions are necessary in clinically stable patients with no bleeding, or whether a therapeutic transfusion strategy could be sufficient and safe, is still debated. Materials and methods The GIMEMA Haemostasis and Thrombosis Working Party sent a questionnaire to Italian haematology departments to survey several aspects of daily platelet transfusion practice, such as the cut-off platelet count for transfusion, the evaluation of refractoriness and the type of PC administered. Results The questionnaire was answered by 18 out of 31 centres (58%). A total of 23,162 PC were transfused in 2,396 patients in 2013. The vast majority of centres (95%) transfused PC according to Italian and international guidelines; only a few transfused always at platelet counts ≤20×109/L. The broad agreement on platelet count cut-off for transfusion (≤10×109/L) was not confirmed when the World Health Organization (WHO) bleeding score was considered: only a third of centres (33%) used transfusions as recommended when the bleeding grade was ≥2. Platelet refractoriness was poorly monitored and most centres (89%) evaluated, mostly empirically (67%), response to transfusion only 24 hours later. Thirty percent of centres transfused platelets in asymptomatic refractory patients. Discussion Although most Italian haematology departments transfuse PC according to Italian and international guidelines, our survey shows that in routine daily practice physicians do not comply closely with the WHO recommendations on platelet transfusions and monitoring platelet refractoriness. This causes excessive platelet transfusions, with a resulting increase of costs and waste of public health resources. PMID:27416570

  8. Sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - a review.

    PubMed

    Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna Ewa; Sokolowski, Jacek; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    Sinusitis is a common morbidity in general population, however little is known about its occurrence in severely immunocompromised patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature concerning sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An electronic database search was performed with the objective of identifying all original trials examining sinusitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The search was limited to English-language publications. Twenty five studies, published between 1985 and 2015 were identified, none of them being a randomized clinical trial. They reported on 31-955 patients, discussing different issues i.e. value of pretransplant sinonasal evaluation and its impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality, treatment, risk factors analysis. Results from analyzed studies yielded inconsistent results. Nevertheless, some recommendations for good practice could be made. First, it seems advisable to screen all patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with Computed Tomography (CT) prior to procedure. Second, patients with symptoms of sinusitis should be treated before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), preferably with conservative medical approach. Third, patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be monitored closely for sinusitis, especially in the early period after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of high lipoprotein(a) levels on in-stent restenosis and long-term clinical outcomes of angina pectoris patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents in Asian population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Choi, Byoung-Geol; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Ung; Seo, Hong-Seog; Kim, Eung-Ju; Na, Jin-Oh; Choi, Cheol-Ung; Kim, Jin-Won; Lim, Hong-Euy; Park, Chang-Gyu; Oh, Dong-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known to be associated with cardiovascular complications and atherothrombotic properties in general populations. However, it has not been examined whether Lp(a) levels are able to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). A total of 595 consecutive patients with angina pectoris who underwent elective PCI with DES were enrolled from 2004 to 2010. The patients were divided into two groups according to the levels of Lp(a): Lp(a) < 50 mg/dL (n = 485 patients), and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL (n = 111 patients). The 6-9-month angiographic outcomes and 3-year cumulative major clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. Binary restenosis occurred in 26 of 133 lesions (19.8%) in the high Lp(a) group and 43 of 550 lesions (7.9%) in the low Lp(a) group (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the reference vessel diameter, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lesion length, and Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL were predictors of binary restenosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, Lp(a) > 50 mg/dL was significantly associated with the 3-year adverse clinical outcomes including any myocardial infarction, revascularization (target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR)), TLR-major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), TVR-MACE, and All-MACEs. In our study, high Lp(a) level ≥ 50 mg/dL in angina pectoris patients undergoing elective PCI with DES was significantly associated with binary restenosis and 3-year adverse clinical outcomes in an Asian population.

  10. A Nomogram to Predict Recurrence and Survival of High-Risk Patients Undergoing Sublobar Resection for Lung Cancer: An Analysis of a Multicenter Prospective Study (ACOSOG Z4032).

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael S; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Landreneau, Rodney; Nichols, Francis; Foster, Nathan R; DiPetrillo, Thomas A; Meyers, Bryan; Heron, Dwight E; Jones, David R; Tan, Angelina D; Starnes, Sandra; Putnam, Joe B; Fernando, Hiran C

    2016-07-01

    Individualized prediction of outcomes may help with therapy decisions for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We developed a nomogram by analyzing 17 clinical factors and outcomes from a randomized study of sublobar resection for non-small cell lung cancer in high-risk operable patients. The study compared sublobar resection alone with sublobar resection with brachytherapy. There were no differences in primary and secondary outcomes between the study arms, and they were therefore combined for this analysis. The clinical factors of interest (considered as continuous variables) were assessed in a univariate Cox proportional hazards model for significance at the 0.10 level for their impact on overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and any recurrence-free survival (RFS). The final multivariable model was developed using a stepwise model selection. Of 212 patients, 173 had complete data on all 17 risk factors. Median follow-up was 4.94 years (range, 0.04 to 6.22). The 5-year OS, LRFS, and RFS were 58.4%, 53.2%, and 47.4%, respectively. Age, baseline percent diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide, and maximum tumor diameter were significant predictors for OS, LRFS, and RFS in the multivariable model. Nomograms were subsequently developed for predicting 5-year OS, LRFS, and RFS. Age, baseline percent diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide, and maximum tumor diameter significantly predicted outcomes after sublobar resection. Such nomograms may be helpful for treatment planning in early stage non-small cell lung cancer and to guide future studies. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinal Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Noah L; Edwards, Charles C; Brown, Charles H; Ledford, Emily C; Dean, Clayton L; Lin, Charles; Edwards, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Spinal anesthesia is increasingly viewed as a reasonable alternative to general anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery. However, the results of spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression and combined decompression and fusion procedures are limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience using spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. A retrospective review was conducted using a prospectively collected database of consecutive lumbar spine surgeries performed under spinal anesthesia in patients 70 years or older at a single center between December 2013 and October 2015. A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 27 patients (48%) underwent lumbar decompression and 29 patients (52%) underwent combined decompression and fusion procedures. Mean operative time was 101 minutes (range, 30-210 minutes), and mean operative blood loss was 187 mL (range, 20-700 mL). Mean maximum inpatient postoperative visual analog scale score was 6.2 (range, 1-10). Nausea occurred in 21% (12 of 56) of the patients. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days (range, 1-6 days). No mortality, stroke, permanent loss of function, or pulmonary embolism occurred. None of the cases required conversion to general anesthesia. All of the patients were ambulatory on either the day of the surgery or the next morning. These results demonstrate that spinal anesthesia is a viable method of anesthesia for patients 70 years and older undergoing lumbar spine surgery. They also demonstrate the safety of this method for patients older than 84 years and for surgeries lasting up to 3½ hours. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e317-e322.].

  12. Experience with daptomycin daily dosing in ICU patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Preiswerk, B; Rudiger, A; Fehr, J; Corti, N

    2013-04-01

    For critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), daptomycin dosing recommendations are scarce. We, therefore, retrospectively assessed routinely measured daptomycin plasma concentrations, daptomycin dose administered and microbiological data in 11 critically ill patients with Gram-positive infections that had received daptomycin once daily. The retrospective analysis included critically ill patients treated at the intensive care unit (ICU) who had daptomycin plasma concentrations measured. Daptomycin dose ranged from 3 to 8 mg/kg/q24 h in patients undergoing CRRT (n = 7) and 6 to 10 mg/kg/q24 h in patients without CRRT (n = 4). Peak and trough concentrations showed a high intra- and inter-patient variability in both groups, independent of the dosage per kg body weight. No drug accumulation was detected in CRRT patients with once-daily daptomycin dosing. Causative pathogens were Enterococcus faecium (n = 6), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) and unknown in one patient. Microbiological eradication was successful in 8 of 11 patients. Two of three patients with unsuccessful microbiological eradication and fatal outcome had an Enterococcus faecium infection. In critically ill patients undergoing CRRT, daptomycin exposure with once-daily dosing was similar to ICU patients with normal renal function, but lower compared to healthy volunteers. Our data suggest that daptomycin once-daily dosing is appropriate in patients undergoing CRRT.

  13. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery. Since it has been proven that piracetam is cerebroprotective in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, we investigated the effects of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery were randomized to the piracetam or placebo group in a double-blind study. Patients received 12 g of piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on day 3, postoperatively. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after the surgery, we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 67 years were enrolled into the study. The mean duration of CPB was 110 minutes. Preoperative clinical parameters and overall cognitive functions were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (piracetam: preoperative 0.19 ± 0.97 vs. postoperative -0.97 ± 1.38, p <0.0005 and placebo: preoperative -0.14 ± 0.98 vs. postoperative -1.35 ± 1.23, p <0.0005). Patients taking piracetam did not perform better than those taking placebo, and both groups had the same decline of overall cognitive function (p = 0.955). Piracetam had no cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Unlike the patients who underwent coronary surgery, piracetam did not reduce the early postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in heart valve patients.

  14. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Tierens, Anne; Caers, Jo; Binsfeld, Marilene; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Trøseid, Anne-Marie Siebke; Wang, Junbai; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Hetland, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients) or placebo (21 patients). Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021. PMID:25664323

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-based mushroom extract AndoSan in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: a randomized, double blinded clinical study.

    PubMed

    Tangen, Jon-Magnus; Tierens, Anne; Caers, Jo; Binsfeld, Marilene; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Trøseid, Anne-Marie Siebke; Wang, Junbai; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland; Hetland, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients) or placebo (21 patients). Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  16. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-08-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic.

  17. Unexplained hemolysis in patients undergoing ECMO: beware of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Venado, A; Wille, K; Belott, S C; Diaz-Guzman, E

    2015-09-01

    Hemolysis is a common complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent monitoring of markers of hemolysis is performed at ECMO centers. We report two cases of spurious hemolysis caused by hypertriglyceridemia in patients undergoing ECMO support. Critically ill patients, including those receiving ECMO, may be at risk of developing medication-induced hypertriglyceridemia. The interference of lipids with the measurement of plasma free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, should be recognized. Our cases highlight the importance of investigating hypertriglyceridemia as part of the assessment of unexplained hemolysis in patients supported with ECMO.

  18. Aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and health-related quality of life in women at high risk undergoing prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Isern, A E; Tengrup, I; Loman, N; Olsson, H; Ringberg, A

    2008-10-01

    Prophylactic mastectomy is an effective risk-reducing option in women with hereditary increased risk of breast cancer. It may be combined with immediate reconstruction, with the intention of improving aesthetic outcome and health-related quality of life. Sixty-one women underwent prophylactic mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction in Malmö, Sweden, between 1995 and 2003. Forty women underwent bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Ten of these had a previous breast cancer diagnosis. Twenty-one women underwent contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction after a previous breast cancer. Fifty-four of the women (89%) were evaluated clinically for aesthetic results and complications. Patient satisfaction and quality of life were evaluated with one study-specific and two standardised health-related questionnaires administered at time of clinical follow-up. Median follow-up time was 42 months (range 7-99 months). The position of the reconstructed breasts was judged as satisfactory in 77% of breasts. Symmetry in relation to the midline was adequate in 89% of breasts. A capsular contracture grade III according to Baker and indentation tonometry was observed in 1% of breasts (1/104). The complication rate was 18% (7% early and 11% late). Secondary corrections were carried out in 11% of breasts. The study-specific questionnaire revealed a high degree of satisfaction. No woman regretted the procedure, and all women would have chosen the same type of surgery again. An age-stratified comparison of Swedish women using the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36) questionnaire was carried out for this study. The study population scores were high, suggesting that prophylactic mastectomy and immediate reconstruction on both physical and psychological issues in this retrospective study had no negative effect. Also, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) questionnaire did not suggest any increased anxiety or

  19. Prosthetic Joint Infections in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenjing; Paul, Deborah; Kemp, Thomas; Elfar, John

    2017-03-01

    Little information is available regarding the rate of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) in patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR) without antibiotic prophylaxis. Hand surgeons should be aware of patients' history of arthroplasty. All patients who underwent CTR at our institution between 2012 and 2014 were identified and their charts were reviewed to identify those who had a history of total hip, knee, and/or shoulder arthroplasty. Further chart review consisted of identifying a history of PJI, use of perioperative antibiotics, and surgeon awareness of prior arthroplasty. Two hundred seventy-five CTR surgeries were performed in patients who had previously undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA). There were no PJIs in any group of patients (P = 0.01). Hand surgeon awareness of the presence of an arthroplasty history had no discernable effect on the choice to use antibiotics. There was a 0% rate of PJI in our series of patients with a history of TJA who underwent CTR. Overall hand surgeon awareness of TJA status was poor or poorly documented. Routine prophylactic antibiotics may not be indicated in patients undergoing CTR, even with the presence of a prosthetic joint. IV.

  20. Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

  1. Maintaining perioperative normothermia in the patient undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Lavenia; Baysinger, Curtis L

    2012-07-01

    Anesthesia and surgery interfere with normal thermoregulation, and nearly all patients will become hypothermic unless compensatory measures are used. Preoperative patient warming and intraoperative methods using forced air and warmed intravenous fluids are important methods for maintaining patient's core temperature during the perioperative period. The benefits of maintaining normothermia include reductions in postoperative wound infection, the risk of perioperative coagulopathy, and myocardial ischemia. These advantages, demonstrated in patients undergoing general surgery, would be expected in patients undergoing gynecological surgery but have not been specifically studied in that population. Few studies have examined the maternal and neonatal effects of hypothermia after cesarean delivery. The results conflict as to the effectiveness of maternal warming techniques used to prevent it and the effects on neonatal temperature and acid-base status at delivery. Large prospective studies will be required to show significant effects on rates of maternal wound infection after cesarean delivery. European and American national obstetrical organizations have not published recommendations regarding the perioperative thermal regulation for cesarean delivery. We review the physiology of thermal regulation and perioperative thermal management in surgical patients and the literature that has examined perioperative maternal warming for cesarean delivery.

  2. [Has ketamine preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy?].

    PubMed

    Karaman, Semra; Kocabaş, Seden; Zincircioğlu, Ciler; Firat, Vicdan

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if preemptive use of the NMDA receptor antogonist ketamine decreases postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hystrectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for total abdominal hysterectomy were included in this study after the approval of the ethic committee, and the patients were randomly classified into three groups. After standart general anaesthesia, before or after incision patients received bolus saline or ketamine. Group S received only saline while Group Kpre received ketamine 0.4 mg/kg before incision and saline after incision, and Group Kpost received saline before incision and 0.4 mg/kg ketamine after incision. Postoperatif analgesia was maintained with i.v. PCA morphine. Pain scores were assessed with Vizüal Analog Scale (VAS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) at 1., 2, 3., 4., 8., 12. ve 24. hours postoperatively. First analgesic requirement time, morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to VAS / VRS scores, the time for first analgesic dose, and morphine consumption ( p>0.05). Patients in Group S had significantly lower sedation scores than either of the ketamine treated groups ( p<0.05). In conclusion, a single dose of ketamin had no preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, but further investigation is needed for different operation types and dose regimens.

  3. Outcomes are Worse in US Patients Undergoing Surgery on Weekends Compared With Weekdays.

    PubMed

    Glance, Laurent G; Osler, Turner; Li, Yue; Lustik, Stewart J; Eaton, Michael P; Dutton, Richard P; Dick, Andrew W

    2016-06-01

    Increasing surgical access to previously underserved populations in the United States may require a major expansion of the use of operating rooms on weekends to take advantage of unused capacity. Although the so-called weekend effect for surgery has been described in other countries, it is unknown whether US patients undergoing moderate-to-high risk surgery on weekends are more likely to experience worse outcomes than patients undergoing surgery on weekdays. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing surgery on weekends are more likely to die or experience a major complication compared with patients undergoing surgery on a weekday. Using all-payer data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 305,853 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery, colorectal surgery, open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, and lower extremity revascularization. We compared in-hospital mortality and major complications for weekday versus weekend surgery using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After controlling for patient risk and surgery type, weekend elective surgery [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.26-4.49; P<0.001] and weekend urgent surgery (AOR=2.11; 95% CI, 1.68-2.66; P<0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death compared with weekday surgery. Weekend elective (AOR=1.58; 95% CI, 1.29-1.93; P<0.001) and weekend urgent surgery (AOR=1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.82; P<0.001) were also associated with a higher risk of major complications compared with weekday surgery. Patients undergoing nonemergent major cardiac and noncardiac surgery on the weekends have a clinically significantly increased risk of death and major complications compared with patients undergoing surgery on weekdays. These findings should prompt decision makers to seek to better understand factors, such physician and nurse staffing, which may contribute to the weekend effect.

  4. Preoperative Medical Testing in Medicare Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine L.; Lin, Grace A.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Clay, Theodore H.; Boscardin, W. John; Gelb, Adrian W.; Maze, Mervyn; Gropper, Michael A.; Dudley, R. Adams

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routine preoperative testing is not recommended for patients undergoing cataract surgery, because testing neither decreases adverse events nor improves outcomes. We sought to assess adherence to this guideline, estimate expenditures from potentially unnecessary testing, and identify patient and health care system characteristics associated with potentially unnecessary testing. METHODS Using an observational cohort of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery in 2011, we determined the prevalence and cost of preoperative testing in the month before surgery. We compared the prevalence of preoperative testing and office visits with the mean percentage of beneficiaries who underwent tests and had office visits during the preceding 11 months. Using multivariate hierarchical analyses, we examined the relationship between preoperative testing and characteristics of patients, health system characteristics, surgical setting, care team, and occurrence of a preoperative office visit. RESULTS Of 440,857 patients, 53% had at least one preoperative test in the month before surgery. Expenditures on testing during that month were $4.8 million higher and expenditures on office visits $12.4 million higher (42% and 78% higher, respectively) than the mean monthly expenditures during the preceding 11 months. Testing varied widely among ophthalmologists; 36% of ophthalmologists ordered preoperative tests for more than 75% of their patients. A patient’s probability of undergoing testing was associated mainly with the ophthalmologist who managed the preoperative evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative testing before cataract surgery occurred frequently and was more strongly associated with provider practice patterns than with patient characteristics. (Funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and the Grove Foundation.) PMID:25875258

  5. [Blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Wen; Hua, Rui; Zhou, Yao; Li, Hong; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2017-07-20

    To explore the incidence and risk factors of blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 2378 patients who were pregnant following embryo transfer at our center from January, 2012 to December, 2015, including cases of early pregnancy losses and simultaneous live births. The cases with early pregnancy losses were divided into embryonic pregnancy and blighted ovum groups based on the presence or absence of an embryonic pole before dilation and curettage. The clinical data of the 3 groups were analyzed for comparisons of the maternal age, paternal age, BMI, AFC, basal FSH, bFSH/bLH, duration of infertility, Gn dosage, Gn days, serum estradiol on the day of HCG administration, endometrium thickness, number of oocyte retrieved, proportion of high-quality embryos transferred, serum β-HCG value on the 10th to 14th days of embryo transfer, infertility type and miscarriage times. The incidences of blighted ovum were compared between cases with different cycles, embryo stages, infertile factors and methods of fertilization. Maternal age and paternal age, BMI, duration of infertility, infertility type and miscarriage times differed significantly between cases with blighted ovum and those with live births. Serum β-HCG level was the lowest in blighted ovum group followed by embryonic pregnancy group and then by live birth group. Blastocyst transfer was associated with a significantly higher incidence of blighted ovum as compared with cleavage embryo transfer (11.6% vs 5.6%, P=0.000). No significant difference was found in the other parameters among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age, β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer were risk factors of blighted ovum. Advanced maternal age, low β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer may increase the risk of blighted ovum possibly in association with gene imprinting errors during the early stage of

  6. Renal and Gastrointestinal Considerations in Patients Undergoing Elective Orthopaedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pyrko, Peter; Parvizi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    To minimize perioperative complications after elective orthopaedic procedures, patients may undergo preoperative medical optimization, which includes an assessment of their renal function and gastrointestinal system. The gastrointestinal and renal systems are complex, and their proper optimization in the preoperative period can influence the success of any procedure. Several factors, including a thorough evaluation and screening, with particular emphasis on anemia and its renal and gastrointestinal causes; the management of medications that are metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys; and careful attention to the patient's nutritional status, can prevent complications and reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost of care after elective orthopaedic procedures.

  7. Short communication: oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART including efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Aquino-García, S I; Rivas, M A; Ceballos-Salobreña, A; Acosta-Gio, A E; Gaitán-Cepeda, L A

    2008-06-01

    Oral lesions (OL) have an important prognostic value for HIV/AIDS patients. However, the behavior of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz (HAART/EFV) has not been documented. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV and to compare it with the prevalence of OL in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI). Seventy-three HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment for at least for 6 months at "La Raza" Medical Center's Internal Medicine Unit (IMSS, Mexico City) were included. To detect OL, a detailed examination of oral soft tissues was performed in each patient. Patient records recorded gender, seropositivity time, route of contagion, antiretroviral therapy type and duration, CD4 lymphocyte count/ml, and viral load. Two groups were formed: 38 patients receiving HAART/EFV [two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTI) plus efavirenz] and 35 patients receiving HAART/PI (two NARTIs plus one PI). OL prevalence was established in each study group. The Chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05(IC95%)). OL prevalence in the HAART/EFV group (32%) was lower (p < 0.007) than in the HAART/PI group (63%). Candidosis was the most prevalent OL in both groups. Herpes labialis, HIV-associated necrotizing periodontitis, xerostomia, hairy leukoplakia, and nonspecific oral sores were identified. The highest prevalence for all OL was found in the HAART/PI group. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV show a lower prevalence of oral lesions than patients undergoing HAART/PI.

  8. [Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in carrier patients undergoing joint arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Barbero Allende, José M; Romanyk Cabrera, Juan; Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Vallés Purroy, Alfonso; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Agudo López, Rosa; Gete García, Luis; López Álvarez, Joaquín

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication with serious repercussions and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether decolonization of S.aureus carriers helps to reduce the incidence of PJI by S.aureus. An S.aureus screening test was performed on nasal carriers in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty between January and December 2011. Patients with a positive test were treated with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine soap 5 days. The incidence of PJI was compared with patients undergoing the same surgery between January and December 2010. A total of 393 joint replacements were performed in 391 patients from the control group, with 416 joint replacements being performed in the intervention group. Colonization study was performed in 382 patients (91.8%), of which 102 were positive (26.7%) and treated. There was 2 PJI due S.aureus compared with 9 in the control group (0.5% vs 2.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 2.3, P=.04). In our study, the detection of colonization and eradication of S.aureus carriers achieved a significant decrease in PJI due to S.aureus compared to a historical group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Perioperative physiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important component of the perioperative period of lung resection surgery. A systematic review was conducted to assess evidence for the effectiveness of different physiotherapy interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection surgery. Online literature databases [Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, PEDro and CINAHL] were searched up until June 2013. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, compared 2 or more perioperative physiotherapy interventions or compared one intervention with no intervention, included only patients undergoing pulmonary resection for lung cancer and assessed at least 2 or more of the following variables: functional capacity parameters, postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Eight studies were selected for inclusion in this review. They included a total of 599 patients. Seven of the studies were identified as having a low risk of bias. Two studies assessed preoperative interventions, 4 postoperative interventions and the remaining 2 investigated the efficacy of interventions that were started preoperatively and then continued after surgery. The substantial heterogeneity in the interventions across the studies meant that it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. The most important finding of this systematic review is that presurgical interventions based on moderate-intense aerobic exercise in patients undergoing lung resection for lung cancer improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative morbidity, whereas interventions performed only during the postoperative period do not seem to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Nevertheless, no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Further research into the efficacy and effectiveness of perioperative respiratory physiotherapy in

  10. Preprocedural statin use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kenaan, Mohamad; Seth, Milan; Aronow, Herbert D; Naoum, Joseph; Wunderly, Douglas; Mitchiner, James; Moscucci, Mauro; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-07-01

    Earlier studies suggest that administering statins prior to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) is associated with lower risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction and contrast-induced nephropathy. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend routine use of statins prior to PCI. It is unclear how commonly this recommendation is followed in clinical practice and what its effect on outcomes is. We evaluated the incidence and in-hospital outcomes associated with statin pretreatment among patients undergoing PCI and enrolled in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry at 44 hospitals in Michigan between January 2010 and December 2012. Propensity and exact matching were used to adjust for the nonrandom use of statins prior to PCI. Long-term mortality was assessed in a subset of patients who were linked to Medicare data. Our study population was comprised of 80,493 patients of whom 26,547 (33 %) did not receive statins prior to undergoing PCI. When compared to statin receivers, nonreceivers had lower rates of prior cardiovascular disease. In the matched analysis, absence of statin use prior to PCI was associated with a similar rate of in-hospital mortality (0.43% vs 0.42%, odds ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.70-1.42, P = .98) and periprocedural myocardial infarction (2.34% vs 2.10%, odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.32, P = .11) compared to statin receivers. Likewise, no difference in the rate of coronary artery bypass grafting, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or contrast-induced nephropathy was observed. There was no association between pre-PCI use of statins and long-term survival among the subset of included Medicare patients (hazard ratio = 1.0, P = .96). A significant number of patients undergo PCI without statin pretreatment, but this is not associated with in-hospital major complications or long-term mortality. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment response evaluation with (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (18)F-NaF PET/CT in multiple myeloma patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Hillengass, J; Goldschmidt, H; Wagner, B; Haberkorn, U; Kopka, K; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined use of the radiotracers (18)F-FDG and (18)F-NaF in treatment response evaluation of a group of multiple myeloma (MM) patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) by means of static (whole-body) and dynamic PET/CT (dPET/CT). Thirty-four patients with primary, previously untreated MM scheduled for treatment with HDT followed by ASCT were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent PET/CT scanning with (18)F-FDG and (18)F-NaF before and after therapy. Treatment response by means of PET/CT was assessed according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1999 criteria. The evaluation of dPET/CT studies was based on qualitative evaluation, semi-quantitative (SUV) calculation, and quantitative analysis based on two-tissue compartment modelling and a non-compartmental approach leading to the extraction of fractal dimension (FD). An analysis was possible in 29 patients: three with clinical complete response (CR) and 26 with non-CR (13 patients near complete response-nCR, four patients very good partial response-VGPR, nine patients partial response-PR). After treatment, (18)F-FDG PET/CT was negative in 14/29 patients and positive in 15/29 patients, showing a sensitivity of 57.5 % and a specificity of 100 %. According to the EORTC 1999 criteria, (18)F-FDG PET/CT-based treatment response revealed CR in 14 patients ((18)F-FDG PET/CT CR), PR in 11 patients ((18)F-FDG PET/CT PR) and progressive disease in four patients ((18)F-FDG PET/CT PD). In terms of (18)F-NaF PET/CT, 4/29 patients (13.8 %) had a negative baseline scan, thus failed to depict MM. Regarding the patients for which a direct lesion-to-lesion comparison was feasible, (18)F-NaF PET/CT depicted 56 of the 129 (18)F-FDG positive lesions (43 %). Follow-up (18)F-NaF PET/CT showed persistence of 81.5 % of the baseline (18)F-NaF positive MM lesions after treatment, despite the

  12. Genetic basis of familial dilated cardiomyopathy patients undergoing heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Sofia; Ruiz-Cano, Maria J; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan Ramón; Jurado, Alfonso; Salas, Clara; Gomez-Diaz, Iria; Padron-Barthe, Laura; Grillo, Jose Javier; Vilches, Carlos; Segovia, Javier; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequent cause of heart transplantation (HTx). The genetic basis of DCM among patients undergoing HTx has been poorly characterized. We sought to determine the genetic basis of familial DCM HTx and to establish the yield of modern next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in this setting. Fifty-two heart-transplanted patients due to familial DCM underwent NGS genetic evaluation with a panel of 126 genes related to cardiac conditions (59 associated with DCM). Genetic variants were initially classified as pathogenic mutations or as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Final pathogenicity status was determined by familial cosegregation studies. Initially, 24 pathogenic mutations were found in 21 patients (40%); 25 patients (48%) carried 19 VUS and 6 (12%) did not show any genetic variant. Familial evaluation of 220 relatives from 36 of the 46 families with genetic variants confirmed pathogenicity in 14 patients and allowed reclassification of VUS as pathogenic in 17 patients, and as non-pathogenic in 3 cases. At the end of the study, the DCM-causing mutation was identified in 38 patients (73%) and 5 patients (10%) harbored only VUS. No genetic variants were identified in 9 cases (17%). The genetic spectrum of familial DCM patients undergoing HTx is heterogeneous and involves multiple genes. NGS technology plus detailed familial studies allow identification of causative mutations in the vast majority of familial DCM cases. Detailed familial studies remain critical to determine the pathogenicity of underlying genetic defects in a substantial number of cases. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Goodman, William G; Herzog, Charles A; Kubo, Yumi; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mix, T Christian H; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Wheeler, David C; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-12-27

    Disorders of mineral metabolism, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, are thought to contribute to extraskeletal (including vascular) calcification among patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been hypothesized that treatment with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet might reduce the risk of death or nonfatal cardiovascular events in such patients. In this clinical trial, we randomly assigned 3883 patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (median level of intact parathyroid hormone, 693 pg per milliliter [10th to 90th percentile, 363 to 1694]) who were undergoing hemodialysis to receive either cinacalcet or placebo. All patients were eligible to receive conventional therapy, including phosphate binders, vitamin D sterols, or both. The patients were followed for up to 64 months. The primary composite end point was the time until death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or a peripheral vascular event. The primary analysis was performed on the basis of the intention-to-treat principle. The median duration of study-drug exposure was 21.2 months in the cinacalcet group, versus 17.5 months in the placebo group. The primary composite end point was reached in 938 of 1948 patients (48.2%) in the cinacalcet group and 952 of 1935 patients (49.2%) in the placebo group (relative hazard in the cinacalcet group vs. the placebo group, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.02; P=0.11). Hypocalcemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were significantly more frequent in patients receiving cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not significantly reduce the risk of death or major cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing dialysis. (Funded by Amgen; EVOLVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345839.).

  14. Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) scoring system could provide preoperative advice on whether to undergo laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer patients with a high physiological risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ao; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Liu, Ningbo; Huang, Fei; Li, Weidong; Liu, Tong; Fu, Weihua

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery had been widely used for colorectal cancer patient and showed a favorable outcome on the postoperative morbidity rate. We attempted to evaluate physiological status of patients by mean of Estimation of physiologic ability and surgical stress (E-PASS) system and to analyze the difference variation of postoperative morbidity rate of open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery in patients with different physiological status.In total 550 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery treatment were included. E-PASS and some conventional scoring systems were reviewed to examine their mortality prediction ability. The preoperative risk score (PRS) in the E-PASS system was used to evaluate the physiological status of patients. The difference of postoperative morbidity rate between open and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgeries was analyzed respectively in patients with different physiological status.E-PASS had better prediction ability than other conventional scoring systems in colorectal cancer surgeries. Postoperative morbidities were developed in 143 patients. The parameters in the E-PASS system had positive correlations with postoperative morbidity. The overall postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries was lower than open surgeries (19.61% and 28.46%), but the postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries increased more significantly than in open surgery as PRS increased. When PRS was more than 0.7, the postoperative morbidity rate of laparoscopic surgeries would exceed the postoperative morbidity rate of open surgeries.The E-PASS system was capable to evaluate the physiological and surgical risk of colorectal cancer surgery. PRS could assist preoperative decision-making on the surgical method. Colorectal cancer patients who were assessed with a low physiological risk by PRS would be safe to undergo laparoscopic surgery. On the contrary, surgeons should make decisions prudently on the operation method for

  15. Respiratory management of the obese patient undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Luke E.; Murphy, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    As a reflection of the increasing global incidence of obesity, there has been a corresponding rise in the proportion of obese patients undergoing major surgery. This review reports the physiological effect of these changes in body composition on the respiratory system and discusses the clinical approach required to maximize safety and minimize the risk to the patient. The changes in respiratory system compliance and lung volumes, which can adversely affect pulmonary gas exchange, combined with upper airways obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing need to be considered carefully in the peri-operative period. Indeed, these challenges in the obese patient have led to a clear focus on the clinical management strategy and development of peri-operative pathways, including pre-operative risk assessment, patient positioning at induction and under anesthesia, modified approach to intraoperative ventilation and the peri-operative use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure. PMID:26101653

  16. [Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata Cristina Schmidt; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to classify oral mucositis according to the Common Toxicity Criterion (CTC) international parameters in head and neck tumor patients simultaneously treated with radio and chemotherapy, and characterize a patient profile in our area, observing the individuals' habits, tumor characteristics, treatment protocol and acute reaction intensity. Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous 66 to 70 Gy megavoltage radiotherapy and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Weekly evaluations of the degree of mucositis were perfoemed according to CTC, a four-degree ordinal scale; 36% of all patients and 100% of those with diabetes discontinued treatment due to mucositis, showing that this pathology contributes to the severity of mucositis.

  17. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  18. Targeted spontaneous reporting of suspected renal toxicity in patients undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy in two public health facilities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ndagije, Helen; Nambasa, Victoria; Namagala, Elizabeth; Nassali, Huldah; Kajungu, Dan; Sematiko, Gordon; Olsson, Sten; Pal, Shanthi

    2015-04-01

    Although the national HIV control programme in Uganda has a well-established system for monitoring disease progression and treatment outcomes, monitoring of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is inadequate. In order to address under-reporting of ADRs, the National Pharmacovigilance Centre, in collaboration with the HIV control programme, piloted a targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) system as a complementary method to traditional spontaneous reporting. From April 2012 to March 2014, all cases of suspected renal toxicity in 10,225 patients on tenofovir-based regimens were monitored in the regional pharmacovigilance centres of Masaka and Mbale. The identification of renal toxicity was performed using serum creatinine, urinalysis, and other signs and symptoms of kidney injury. There was one suspected renal toxicity reported for every 200 patients on a tenofovir-based regimen. Some of the serious reactions reported were death in two cases and bone demineralisation in five patients. Most of patients had been on treatment for 2 years. Those that had been on tenofovir for more than 4 years had raised serum creatinine levels, emphasising the importance of monitoring for the risk of renal damage for longer. We also found that the reporting rate of suspected ADRs for all medicines in the two sites increased almost fivefold during the implementation period. Although the occurrence of suspected tenofovir renal toxicity of HIV patients is low, there is need to monitor those at risk so as to prevent irreversible kidney injury. TSR can complement spontaneous reporting for collecting safety data on particular drugs and increase ADR reporting rates.

  19. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.

  20. Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mirra, M; Di Maio, M; Vitulano, G; Prota, C; Polito, MV; Poto, S; Pierro, L; Piscione, F

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, occurring in 1-2% of overall population, involving more than 6 millions of European people. It is associated to a reduced quality of life and an increased morbidity and mortality. The Framingham study showed the link between angina and AF. The same risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity promote both AF and coronary artery disease (CAD). About 1/4 of AF patients develop a CAD and, in this setting, about 1/5 undergoes a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In patients with both AF and CAD, the optimal medical strategy is challenging and it is still debated in cardiological community, since patients treated by dual (two antiplatelets drugs ore one antiplatelets drug and an oral anticoagulant drug) or triple therapy (two antiplatelets drugs and an oral anticoagulant drug) are exposed to divergent risk of bleeding or thromboembolic and ischemic complications. Aim of this paper is to focus the attention on the different problems arising from the presence of AF in patients undergoing PCI, such as the risk of stroke, bleeding and stent thrombosis. PMID:24809033

  1. Postpolypectomy bleeding in patients undergoing colonoscopy on uninterrupted clopidogrel therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Mehta, Nilesh; Murthy, Uma K; Kaul, Vivek; Arif, Asma; Newman, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    The risk of postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB) in patients undergoing colonoscopy on uninterrupted clopidogrel therapy has not been established. To assess the PPB rate and outcome and identify risk factors associated with PPB in patients taking clopidogrel. Single-center, retrospective study. Demographics, clinical parameters, polyp characteristics, polypectomy techniques, and postpolypectomy events in the groups were compared by univariate analysis. Stepwise logistic regression analyses identified independent risk factors associated with PPB. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. A total of 142 patients (375 polypectomies) taking clopidogrel (cases) and 1243 patients (3226 polypectomies) not taking clopidogrel (controls). None. Postpolypectomy bleeding, hospitalization, and mortality. The immediate (intraprocedural) bleeding rate was similar in the 2 groups (2.1% vs 2.1%). Delayed (postprocedural) PPB rate was higher in the group taking clopidogrel (3.5% vs 1.0%, P = .02). Delayed bleeding of significance requiring hospitalization and transfusion/intervention was also higher in patients taking clopidogrel (2.1% vs 0.4%, P = .04). The length of hospital stay and interventions for PPB were comparable between the 2 groups. There was no mortality. Concomitant use of clopidogrel and aspirin/other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.5) and the number of polyps removed (OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4) were the only significant risk factors associated with PPB. Clopidogrel alone was not an independent risk factor for PPB. Retrospective study and small number of patients with PPB. The PPB rate is significantly higher in patients undergoing polypectomy while taking clopidogrel and concomitant aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; however, the risk is small and the outcome is favorable. Routine cessation of clopidogrel in patients before colonoscopy/polypectomy is not necessary. 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby

  2. Association between ambient carbon monoxide and secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondiabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major disorder in patients with chronic renal disease with or without dialysis. Air pollution has been confirmed as being associated with increased incidence of human morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, investigating air pollution as a dialysis-unrelated factor for SHPT in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. We developed this study to assess the effect of air pollution and other important risk factors on SHPT in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We recruited a total of 141 patients who did not have diabetes mellitus, were nonsmokers, and were undergoing PD in this cross-sectional study. We analyzed the difference in air quality based on the patients' living areas. We estimated demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutant, and dialysis-related data based on this cross-sectional study. Subgroup analysis of the relationship between air pollutants and the clinical variables and having or not having hyperparathyroidism (HPT) (intact parathyroid hormone level ≥180 pg/dL) was also performed. A total of 141 patients undergoing PD (30 men and 111 women) were enrolled in the study. Sixty-eight patients had SHPT. In a binary logistic regression, high environmental CO exposure (odds ratio [OR] 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-7.28; P=0.005), serum phosphate levels (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.37; P=0.005), hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.29-10.94; P=0.015), and use of calcitriol (OR 8.25, 95% CI 3.43-19.85; P<0.001) were positively associated with SHPT. The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated the presence of an association between environmental CO exposure and SHPT in patients undergoing PD who did not have diabetes mellitus. Therefore, poor environmental air quality may be a risk factor for deterioration of SHPT in patients undergoing PD.

  3. Anxiety of patients undergoing CT imaging-an underestimated problem?

    PubMed

    Heyer, Christoph M; Thüring, Johannes; Lemburg, Stefan P; Kreddig, Nina; Hasenbring, Monika; Dohna, Martha; Nicolas, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Prospective evaluation of anxiety in patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) imaging using a standardized state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-S) and identification of possible risk factors. During a 9-month interval, patients undergoing CT were questioned using STAI-S. Additionally, 10 questions concerning specific procedure-related features (claustrophobia, radiation, administration of contrast, and so forth) were added. Moreover, sex, age, admitting subspecialty, organ region, reason for imaging, and prior imaging studies were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test and linear regression analysis; significance level was set to 5%. Of 6122 patients, 825 patients undergoing CT (14%) were included (67% men; average age, 54 ± 17 years). Average STAI was 42 ± 10 with women (45 ± 11 vs. 41 ± 10; P < .001) and patients who received intravenous contrast (43 ± 10 vs. 42 ± 11; P = .021) showing significantly higher anxiety levels compared to those without contrast. Patients with investigations of their extremities (41 ± 11 vs. 43 ± 10; P = .020) and trauma patients (41 ± 11 vs. 43 ± 10; P = .006) revealed significantly lower STAI results. Patients who had never received a CT scan before showed significantly greater STAI-S values than those with repeat studies (42 ± 10 vs. 41 ± 11; P = .036). Females had greater fears concerning examination results (P < .001), radiation exposure (P = .032), administration of contrast (P = .014), and claustrophobia (P < .001). Patients with known malignancies had a significantly higher level of anxiety concerning their CT results (P = .002). Anxiety does not only occur before MRI but also occur before CT. Its sources are manifold and include communication of CT results, administration of contrast agents, radiation exposure, and claustrophobia. In this setting, women seemed to be more receptive than men. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass burgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Kirilova, Kremena; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the cerebroprotective effect of piracetam on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients scheduled for elective, primary and isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomised either to piracetam or placebo group. The study was performed in a double blind fashion. Patients received either 12 g piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total number of 120 patients were enrolled into the study. Preoperative overall cognitive function were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed a deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (placebo-pre: -0.06+/-0.99 vs placebo-post: -1.38+/-1.11; p<0.0005 and piracetam-pre: 0.06+/-1.02 vs piracetam-post: -0.65+/-0.93; p<0.0005). However, the piracetam patients performed significantly better compared to the placebo patients after the operation and had a less decline of overall cognitive function (p<0.0005). Piracetam has a cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. It reduces an early postoperative substantial decline of neuropsychological abilities.

  5. Oral Health Status of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Head and Neck Oncology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ciaran; Killough, Simon; Markey, Neill; Winning, Lewis; McKenna, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to collect data on the oral health status of patients undergoing treatment for head and neck oncology across Northern Ireland. Data were collected on all patients referred to the Northern Ireland Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Oncology Team for discussion and treatment planning. Each patient underwent pre-treatment dental assessment in the Centre for Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, between June 2013 and November 2014. Data were collected from clinical oral examinations supplemented with intra-oral radiographs. During the course of the study 96 patients were assessed and the levels of dental disease observed in this cohort were high. On clinical examination 43% were diagnosed with caries and 46% with periodontal disease. Ten patients were completely edentate. The disease profile of this patient group presents significant challenges to dental services tasked with rendering patients dentally fit prior to undergoing oncology treatment.

  6. Beyond Adding Years to Life: Health-related Quality-of-life and Functional Outcomes in Patients with Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis at High Surgical Risk Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Marcus-André; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Elhmidi, Yacine; Piazza, Nicolo; Voss, Bernhard; Lange, Ruediger; Krane, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most frequent acquired valvular heart disease in western industrialized countries and its prevalence considerably increases with age. Once becoming symptomatic severe AVS has a very poor prognosis. Progressive and rapid symptom deterioration leads to an impairment of functional status and compromised healthrelated quality-of-life (HrQoL) simultaneously. Until recently, surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) has been the only effective treatment option for improving symptoms and prolonging survival. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) emerged as an alternative treatment modality for those patients with severe symptomatic AVS in whom the risk for SAVR is considered prohibitive or too high. TAVR has gained clinical acceptance with almost startling rapidity and has even quickly become the standard of care for the treatment of appropriately selected individuals with inoperable AVS during recent years. Typically, patients currently referred for and treated by TAVR are elderly with a concomitant variable spectrum of multiple comorbidities, disabilities and limited life expectancy. Beyond mortality and morbidity, the assessment of HrQoL is of paramount importance not only to guide patient-centered clinical decision-making but also to judge this new treatment modality. As per current evidence, TAVR significantly improves HrQoL in high-surgical risk patients with severe AVS with sustained effects up to two years when compared with optimal medical care and demonstrates comparable benefits relative to SAVR. Along with a provision of a detailed overview of the current literature regarding functional and HrQoL outcomes in patients undergoing TAVR, this review article addresses specific considerations of the HrQoL aspect in the elderly patient and finally outlines the implications of HrQoL outcomes for medico-economic deliberations. PMID:24313648

  7. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L. Objective To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Results Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose (B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug (B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval (B = −2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15–20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10–14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. Conclusions The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15–20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27826151

  8. Immediate hemodynamic response to furosemide in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, R E; Messerli, F H; deCarvalho, J G; Husserl, F E

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of furosemide on cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with end-stage renal failure, we studied ten patients undergoing hemodialysis three times a week. Arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output (indocyanine green dye) were measured in triplicate; total peripheral resistance and central blood volume were calculated by standard formulas. Hemodynamics were determined at baseline and 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) bolus injection of furosemide 60 mg. Furosemide produced a decrease in central blood volume of -13% +/- 2.2% from pretreatment values (P less than .01) that was most pronounced five minutes after injection, together with a fall in cardiac output (from 6.76 +/- 0.59 to 6.17 +/- 0.52 L/min, P less than .10). Stroke volume decreased with a maximum fall occurring after 15 minutes (from 84 +/- 7 to 79 +/- 7 mL/min, P less than .05), and total peripheral resistance increased (from 15.8 +/- 2.1 to 17.8 +/- 2.3 units, P less than .05) after furosemide. Arterial pressure and heart rate did not change. The decrease in central blood volume reflects a shift of the total blood volume from the cardiopulmonary circulation to the periphery, suggesting dilation of the peripheral venous bed. Thus, even in patients undergoing hemodialysis, furosemide acutely decreases left ventricular preload by venous dilation and should therefore prove to be beneficial in acute volume overload.

  9. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-01-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic. PMID:19209255

  10. Resistance to Clopidogrel among Iranian Patients Undergoing Angioplasty Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Kobarfard, Farzad; Safi, Olia; Sheibani, Kourosh; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the resistance to standard dosage of clopidogrel among Iranian patients following percutaneous coronary intervention measured by platelet aggregation test. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Imam Hussein Medical center, Tehran, Iran, who were under treatment with aspirin, but had no history of clopidogrel usage, entered the study. Patients received standard dosage of clopidogrel (Plavix®, Sanofi, France, 600 mg loading dose and 75 mg/day afterward). Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmission aggregometer. The response to the drug was categorized as complete resistance (platelet aggregation decreased less than 10%), intermediate resistance (platelet aggregation decreased between 10 to 30%) and complete response (platelet aggregation decreased to 30% or more). All patients were evaluated for major adverse cardio vascular events one month after the angioplasty based on MACE criteria by phone contact. Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 59 ± 13 entered the study. Sixty-five percent of patients showed complete response to clopidogrel (95% CI: 45% to 81%), 22% showed intermediate resistance (95% CI: 10-41%) and 13% showed complete resistance (95% CI: 4-30%). One month after the angioplasty, no major adverse cardiovascular event was recorded. Based on our findings, it seems that there is no major difference between Iranian population and other studies regarding the resistance to clopidogrel. Due to the limited number of participants in our study, further investigations with higher number of patients are recommended to more precisely calculate the percentage of resistance among Iranian patients. PMID:24250685

  11. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Kaminogo, Makio; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    Randomised trials have shown the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol to prevent secondary ischaemic stroke. Recently, cilostazol has been reported to prevent the development and/or recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), which can potentially prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. Herein, we examined the impact of prior antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol on the incidence of cardioembolic stroke, which had not been fully investigated. Using the multicenter retrospective study of stroke risk in antithrombotic therapy (RESTATE) database, we analysed consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke under single antiplatelet therapy. We evaluated the characteristics of ischaemic stroke based on the type of antiplatelet agent used: aspirin, ticlopidine/clopidogrel or cilostazol. Of 1069 consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke during antithrombotic therapy from January to December 2012, 615 patients received single antiplatelet therapy (293 and 322 cases of primary and secondary strokes, respectively). Interestingly, the percentage of cardioembolic infarction was significantly lower in patients taking cilostazol compared with other agents. Multivariate regression analysis found that age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, P = 0.0029), serum creatinine (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0198), aspirin (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00-3.22, P = 0.0486), cilostazol (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.03-0.73, P = 0.0125), and smoking (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.16-2.94, P = 0.0102) were independently associated with cardioembolic stroke. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. This could be a novel strategy for cardioembolic stroke prevention potentially by affecting cardiac remodelling, in contrast to secondary anticoagulant therapy.

  12. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 μg/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1μg/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  13. Incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment1

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marilia Aparecida Carvalho; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the self-esteem of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: descriptive analytical cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Around 156 patients that attended an oncology unit of a mid-sized hospital participated in the study. Results: we found a higher frequency of patients with high self-esteem, but some of them showed average or low self-esteem. The scale showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.746, by considering its acceptable internal consistency for the evaluated items. No independent variables showed significant associations with self-esteem. Conclusion: the cancer patients evaluated have presented high self-esteem; thus, it becomes crucial for nursing to plan the assistance of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments, which enables actions and strategies that meet their physical and psychosocial conditions, aiming to maintain and rehabilitate these people's emotional aspects. PMID:26625999

  15. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  16. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  17. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    PubMed

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  18. Perioperative Risk in Patients With Epilepsy Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Couch, Cory G; Menendez, Mariano E; Barnes, C Lowry

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsies is a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life threatening, and disabling to more benign, but little is known about its impact in the perioperative arthroplasty setting. We sought to determine whether epileptic patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) would be at increased risk for in-hospital complications and death, prolonged stay, and nonroutine discharge. Using discharge records from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011), we identified 6,054,344 patients undergoing elective primary TJA, of whom 31,865 (0.5%) were identified as having epilepsy. Comparisons of perioperative outcomes were performed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. Patients with epilepsy were associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-2.62) and morbidity, including (in decreasing order of magnitude of effect estimate): mechanical ventilation (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.56-1.94), induced mental disorder (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.56-1.85), stroke (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.23-2.15), pneumonia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.49), and ileus or gastrointestinal events (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). Epilepsy was associated with higher risk for blood transfusion (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.27-1.33), prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.17), and nonroutine discharge (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.50-1.58). We found no association with inpatient thromboembolic events, acute renal failure, and myocardial infarction. Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk for early postoperative complications (especially mechanical ventilation, induced mental disorder, and stroke) and resource utilization after elective joint arthroplasty. Greater awareness of epilepsy and its health consequences may contribute to improvements in the perioperative management of TJA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy and safety of mechanical hemodynamic support in patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention with or without cardiogenic shock: Bayesian approach network meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Myung; Park, Jonghanne; Kang, Jeehoon; Jeon, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Ji-hyun; Lee, Sang Eun; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Yang, Han-Mo; Park, Kyung Woo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Studies have reported conflicting results regarding efficacy of mechanical hemodynamic support using intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) or percutaneous ventricular assisted device (pVAD) in patients undergoing high-risk PCI. We performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis comparing the safety and efficacy of mechanical hemodynamic support devices and medical therapy (MT). RCTs comparing overall mortality of IABP versus MT or IABP versus pVAD in high-risk PCI populations were included. The primary endpoint was overall mortality, using the longest available follow-up in each study. This analysis included 2843 patients from 13 trials. In network meta-analysis, overall survival benefit was not significant with IABP (RR 0.84, 95% CrI 0.56-1.24) or pVAD (RR 0.95, 95% CrI 0.42-2.06), compared with MT. IABP or pVAD also did not show early survival benefit compared with MT. In terms of bleeding, pVAD was the worst (versus IABP: RR 29.4, 95% CrI 5.99-221.0; versus MT: RR 41.7, 95% CrI 8.19-330.0), which was mainly driven by the higher incidence of bleeding in the ECMO and TandemHeart, while IABP was worse than MT (RR 1.41, 95% CrI 1.01-2.08). The incidence of acute limb ischemia or vascular complication was not different between treatment groups. In this meta-analysis, routine elective use of IABP or pVAD did not reduce mortality, while it increased bleeding, compared with MT in high-risk PCI population or even in the patients with cardiogenic shock. Thoughtful selection of appropriate patients and balancing the risk and benefit should be the prerequisites to the use of mechanical hemodynamic support devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative autologous plateletpheresis in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Akhlesh S; Tempe, Deepak K; Banerjee, Amit; Hegde, Radhesh; Cooper, Andrea; Khanna, S K

    2003-07-01

    Blood conservation is an important aspect of care provided to the patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It is even more important in patients with anticipated prolonged CPB, redo cardiac surgery, patients having negative blood group and in patients undergoing emergency cardiac surgery. In prolonged CPB the blood is subjected to more destruction of important coagulation factors, in redo surgery the separation of adhesions leads to increased bleeding and difficulty in achieving the haemostasis and in patients with negative blood group and emergency operations, the availability of sufficient blood can be a problem. Harvesting the autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be a useful method of blood conservation in these patients. The above four categories of patients were prospectively studied, using either autologous whole blood donation or autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) harvest in the immediate pre-bypass period. Forty two patients were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups of 21 each, control group (Group I) in which one unit of whole blood was withdrawn, and PRP group (Group II) where autologous plateletpheresis was utilised. After reversal of heparin, autologous whole blood was transfused in the control group and autologous PRP was transfused in the PRP group. The chest tube drainage and the requirement of homologous blood and blood products were recorded. Average PRP harvest was 643.33 +/- 133.51 mL in PRP group and the mean whole blood donation was 333.75 +/- 79.58 mL in the control group. Demographic, preoperative and intra operative data showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The PRP group patients drained 26.44% less (p<0.001) and required 38.5% less homologous blood and blood products (p<0.05), in the postoperative period. Haemoglobin levels on day zero (day of operation) and day three were statistically not different between the two groups. We conclude

  1. High-Speed Videoendoscopic Analysis of Relationships Between Cepstral-Based Acoustic Measures and Voice Production Mechanisms in Patients Undergoing Phonomicrosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Friedman, Aaron D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is increased interest in using cepstral-based acoustic measures for objective clinical voice assessment because of their apparent advantages over more time-honored methods, but there is a paucity of information about how these newer measures relate to underlying phonatory mechanisms. Methods We investigated the relationships between the acoustic cepstral peak magnitude (CPM) and high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV)–based measures of vocal fold phonatory function in 20 subjects who underwent phonomicrosurgery for vocal fold lesions. Acoustic and imaging data were acquired during sustained vowel phonation before and after surgery. Results The changes in the measures between presurgical and postsurgical assessments showed that the CPM correlated significantly with an HSV-based measure combining fundamental frequency deviation and average speed quotient (r = 0.70; p < 0.001) in a multiple linear regression, and that the variation in the CPM could also be attributed to tradingrelationships between the HSV-based measures of vibratory phase asymmetry and glottal closure. Conclusions These initial results demonstrate that the clinical utility of cepstral-based measures can be enhanced by a better understanding of how these acoustic measures relate to underlying phonatory mechanisms. The CPM seems to integrate information about aperiodicity in vocal fold vibration, the relative speed of glottal closure, and estimates of glottal noise generation. PMID:22724281

  2. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  3. [Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing robotic mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Gao, Changqing; Xiao, Cangsong; Yang, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiali; Shen, Yansong

    2012-12-01

    To retrospectively assess the value of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during robotic mitral valve (MV) replacement. Intraoperative TEE was performed in 21 patients undergoing robotic MV replacement for severe rheumatic mitral stenosis between November 2008 and December 2010. During the procedure, TEE was performed to document the mechanism of rheumatic mitral stenosis (leaflet thickening and calcification, commissural fusion or chordal fusion) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During the establishment of peripheral CPB, TEE was used to guide the placement of the cannulae in the inferior vena cava (IVC), superior vena cava (SVC), and ascending aorta (AAO). After weaning from CPB, TEE was performed to evaluate the effect of the procedure. Accuracy of TEE was 100% for rheumatic mitral stenosis. All the cannuli in the SVC, IVC and AAO were located in the correct position. In all patients, TEE confirmed successful procedure. TEE is useful in the assessment of robotic MV replacement.

  4. Incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Westling, Agneta; Bergqvist, David; Boström, Annika; Karacagil, Sadettin; Gustavsson, Sven

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after surgery for morbid obesity. The series comprised 116 consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The median age and body mass index were 35 years (range 19-59 years) and 42 kg/m2 (range 32-68 kg/m2), respectively. The patients were examined with duplex ultrasonography pre- and postoperatively. No patient had any symptoms or signs of DVT postoperatively, and ultrasonography showed no signs of thrombosis in iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins in any of the patients. Two patients (1.7%) had a thrombus in the peroneal vein of one leg. Repeated ultrasonographic investigation after 1 week showed complete resolution of both. One patient with a previously unknown activated protein C resistance had an angiographically confirmed minor pulmonary embolus. The incidence of venous thromboembolism after obesity surgery seems to be low, and obesity as a risk factor for thromboembolic disease might have been overestimated in the past.

  5. Predicting Infected Bile Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, Shannon L.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Patel, Aalpen; Freiman, David B.; Soulen, Michael C.; Stavropoulos, S. William; Clark, Timothy W.I.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Patients may not achieve a clinical benefit after percutaneous cholecystostomy due to the inherent difficulty in identifying patients who truly have infected gallbladders. We attempted to identify imaging and biochemical parameters which would help to predict which patients have infected gallbladders. Methods. A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy for clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis in whom bile culture results were available. Multiple imaging and biochemical variables were examined alone and in combination as predictors of infected bile, using logistic regression. Results. Of the 52 patients, 25 (48%) had infected bile. Organisms cultured included Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Citrobacter and Candida. No biochemical parameters were significantly predictive of infected bile; white blood cell count >15,000 was weakly associated with greater odds of infected bile (odds ratio 2.0, p = NS). The presence of gallstones, sludge, gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid by ultrasound or CT were not predictive of infected bile, alone or in combination, although a trend was observed among patients with CT findings of acute cholecystitis toward a higher 30-day mortality. Radionuclide scans were performed in 31% of patients; all were positive and 66% of these patients had infected bile. Since no patient who underwent a radionuclide scan had a negative study, this variable could not be entered into the regression model due to collinearity. Conclusion. No single CT or ultrasound imaging variable was predictive of infected bile, and only a weak association of white blood cell count with infected bile was seen. No other biochemical parameters had any association with infected bile. The ability of radionuclide scanning to predict infected bile was higher than that of ultrasound or CT. This study illustrates the continued challenge to identify bacterial cholecystitis

  6. A Phase IIb, Multicenter, Open-Label, Safety, and Efficacy Study of High-Dose, Propylene Glycol-Free Melphalan Hydrochloride for Injection (EVOMELA) for Myeloablative Conditioning in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hari, Parameswaran; Aljitawi, Omar S; Arce-Lara, Carlos; Nath, Rajneesh; Callander, Natalie; Bhat, Gajanan; Allen, Lee F; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith

    2015-12-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) after high-dose melphalan conditioning is considered a standard of care procedure for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Current formulations of melphalan (eg, Alkeran for Injection [melphalan hydrochloride]; GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA) have marginal solubility and limited chemical stability upon reconstitution. Alkeran requires the use of propylene glycol as a co-solvent, which itself has been reported to cause such complications as metabolic/renal dysfunction and arrhythmias. EVOMELA (propylene glycol-free melphalan HCl; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) is a new i.v. melphalan formulation that incorporates Captisol (Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA), a specially modified cyclodextrin that improves the solubility and stability of melphalan and eliminates the need for propylene glycol. This new formulation has been shown to be bioequivalent to Alkeran. EVOMELA (200 mg/m(2)) was administered as 2 doses of 100 mg/m(2) each in a phase IIb, open-label, multicenter study to confirm its safety and efficacy as a high-dose conditioning regimen for patients with MM undergoing ASCT. At 5 centers, 61 patients (26 women) with a median age of 62 years (range, 32-73) were enrolled. All patients achieved myeloablation with a median time of 5 days post-ASCT, and all successfully achieved neutrophil and platelet engraftment with median times of 12 days post-ASCT and 13 days post-ASCT, respectively; treatment-related mortality on day 100 was 0%. Overall response rate (according to independent, blinded review) was high (100%), with an overall complete response rate of 21% (13% stringent complete response; 8% complete response) and overall partial response rate of 79% (61% very good partial response; 18% partial response). The incidence of grade 3 mucositis and stomatitis was low (10% and 5%, respectively) with no grade 4 mucositis or stomatitis reported (graded according to National

  7. Incidental adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for stricturing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083

  8. Paravertebral block versus thoracic epidural for patients undergoing thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Joyce H Y; Gates, Simon; Naidu, Babu V; Wilson, Matthew J A; Gao Smith, Fang

    2016-02-21

    Operations on structures in the chest (usually the lungs) involve cutting between the ribs (thoracotomy). Severe post-thoracotomy pain can result from pleural (lung lining) and muscular damage, costovertebral joint (ribcage) disruption and intercostal nerve (nerves that run along the ribs) damage during surgery. Poor pain relief after surgery can impede recovery and increase the risks of developing complications such as lung collapse, chest infections and blood clots due to ineffective breathing and clearing of secretions. Effective management of acute pain following thoracotomy may prevent these complications and reduce the likelihood of developing chronic pain. A multi-modal approach to analgesia is widely employed by thoracic anaesthetists using a combination of regional anaesthetic blockade and systemic analgesia, with both non-opioid and opioid medications and local anaesthesia blockade.There is some evidence that blocking the nerves as they emerge from the spinal column (paravertebral block, PVB) may be associated with a lower risk of major complications in thoracic surgery but the majority of thoracic anaesthetists still prefer to use a thoracic epidural blockade (TEB) as analgesia for their patients undergoing thoracotomy. In order to bring about a change in practice, anaesthetists need a review that evaluates the risk of all major complications associated with thoracic epidural and paravertebral block in thoracotomy. To compare the two regional techniques of TEB and PVB in adults undergoing elective thoracotomy with respect to:1. analgesic efficacy;2. the incidence of major complications (including mortality);3. the incidence of minor complications;4. length of hospital stay;5. cost effectiveness. We searched for studies in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via Ovid (1966 to 16 October 2013); EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 16 October 2013); CINAHL via EBSCO host (1982 to 16 October 2013); and reference lists of

  9. Value of extended warming in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasfie, Tarik J; Barber, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative temperature management is imperative for positive surgical outcomes. This study assessed the clinical and wellbeing benefits of extending normothermia by using a portable warming gown. A total of 94 patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. They were randomized pre-operatively to either a portable warming gown or the standard warming procedure. The warming gown stayed with patients from pre-op to operating room to postrecovery room discharge. Core temperature was tracked throughout the study. Patients also provided responses to a satisfaction and comfort status survey. The change in average core temperature did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.23). A nonsignificant 48% relative decrease in hypothermic events was observed for the extended warming group (P = 0.12). Patients receiving the warming gown were more likely to report always having their temperature controlled (P = 0.04) and significantly less likely to request additional blankets for comfort (P = 0.006). Clinical outcomes and satisfaction were improved for patients with extended warming.

  10. Prediction of cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.

  11. Could intradialytic nutrition improve refractory anaemia in patients undergoing haemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ahmad F; Moeen, Sawsan M; Labiqe, Mohammed O; Saleh, Medhat A

    2017-09-01

    This prospective randomised study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) therapy in malnourished patients with refractory anaemia. Forty patients who were malnourished with a BMI not greater than 23 (17-23) kg/m(2) , undergoing regular HD were included. Of those, 20 patients received 500-1000 ml of IDPN at a rate of 250-300 ml/h at each HD session three days per week for six consecutive months. The other 20 patients did not receive IDPN infusion. The malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and haematological parameters were recorded at baseline and after three and six months. Mean haemoglobin levels, BMI and serum albumin were significantly increased while MIS was significantly decreased after the 3rd and 6th months of IDPN. IDPN has a good role in improving refractory anaemia by significantly increasing haemoglobin levels, body weight, and serum albumin levels. The intervention also significantly decreases the MIS of patients. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  12. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  13. Short-Term High-Dose Vitamin E to Prevent Contrast Medium-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Elective Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Yousef; Khademvatani, Kamal; Rahimi, Behzad; Khoshfetrat, Mehran; Arjmand, Nasim; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir-Hossein

    2016-03-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of acquired renal impairment. The effects of antioxidants have been conflicting regarding the prevention of CIAKI. We performed a study of vitamin E use to decrease CIAKI in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. In a placebo-controlled randomized trial at 2 centers in Iran, 300 patients with chronic kidney disease-defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)-were randomized 1:1 to receive 0.9% saline infusion 12 hours prior to and after intervention combined with 600 mg vitamin E 12 hours before plus 400 mg vitamin E 2 hours before coronary angiography or to receive placebo. The primary end point was the development of CIAKI, defined as an increase ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% in serum creatinine that peaked within 72 hours. Based on an intention-to-treat analysis, CIAKI developed in 10 (6.7%) and 21 (14.1%) patients in the vitamin E and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.037). Change in white blood cell count from baseline to peak value was greater in the vitamin E group compared with the placebo group (-500 [-1500 to 200] versus 100 [-900 to 600]×10(3)/mL, P=0.001). In multivariate analysis, vitamin E (odds ratio 0.408, 95% CI 0.170-0.982, P=0.045) and baseline Mehran score (odds ratio 1.257, 95% CI 1.007-1.569; P=0.043) predicted CIAKI. Prophylactic short-term high-dose vitamin E combined with 0.9% saline infusion is superior to placebo for prevention of CIAKI in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT02070679. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Wildfeuer, A; Müller, V; Springsklee, M; Sonntag, H G

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, were investigated in 16 patients undergoing prosthetic cardiac valve insertion. The combination of 2 g of ampicillin and 1 g of sulbactam was administered as perioperative prophylaxis intravenously over 3 to 6 days. Several serum pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for the two drugs after three intravenous doses were given to patients following surgery. The half-lives of elimination of ampicillin and sulbactam were 79 +/- 4.9 and 88 +/- 5.9 min, the volumes of distribution were 15.6 +/- 1.4 and 17.7 +/- 1.2 liters/70 kg, and the total plasma clearances were 144.4 +/- 14.5 and 147.2 +/- 14.5 ml/min, respectively. The peak concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum were calculated to be 134.3 +/- 1.3 and 58.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Ampicillin and sulbactam rapidly penetrated from the blood into various tissues collected during heart surgery, such as sternum, pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The concentrations of ampicillin in tissue ranged from 17.8 +/- 9.9 to 50 +/- 29.5 micrograms/g, and those of sulbactam in tissue ranged from 8.8 +/- 6.2 to 19.6 +/- 10.1 micrograms/g. The concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and tissue also apparently exceeded the MICs against most beta-lactamase-producing bacteria usually involved in postoperative wound infections and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The ratio of the two compounds was approximately 2:1 in serum and in the various tissues affected by the operation. The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and investigated tissues suggest that the combination of the two beta-lactams will be effective in the perioperative prophylaxis of patients undergoing heart surgery. PMID:1952846

  15. [Assessment of nutritional status and selection of nutritional support route in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-chun

    2012-05-01

    Nutritional risk and malnutrition was significantly higher in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery as compared to patients in other surgical departments, especially in elder patients, which would directly impact on the efficacy, cost and prognosis. Nutritional screening and assessment should be performed within 24-48 hours after admission. Patients at high risk of malnutrition should be planned with early nutrition support. The best nutrition route should be determined to improve the outcomes of surgery and nutritional support, reduce the complications, length of hospital stay and healthcare costs, and improve the quality of life in patients.

  16. Multiple Testing, Cumulative Radiation Dose, and Clinical Indications in Patients Undergoing Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Weiner, Shepard D.; Bernheim, Adam; Kulon, Michal; Bokhari, Sabahat; Johnson, Lynne L.; Moses, Jeffrey W.; Balter, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is the single medical test with the highest radiation burden to the US population. While many patients undergoing MPI receive repeat MPI testing, or additional procedures involving ionizing radiation, no data are available characterizing their total longitudinal radiation burden and relating radiation burden with reasons for testing. Objective To characterize procedure counts, cumulative estimated effective doses of radiation, and clinical indications, for patients undergoing MPI. Design, Setting, Patients Retrospective cohort study evaluating, for 1097 consecutive patients undergoing index MPI during the first 100 days of 2006 at Columbia University Medical Center, all preceding medical imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation undergone beginning October 1988, and all subsequent procedures through June 2008, at that center. Main Outcome Measures Cumulative estimated effective dose of radiation, number of procedures involving radiation, and indications for testing. Results Patients underwent a median (interquartile range, mean) of 15 (6–32, 23.9) procedures involving radiation exposure; 4 (2–8, 6.5) were high-dose (≥3 mSv, i.e. one year's background radiation), including 1 (1–2, 1.8) MPI studies per patient. 31% of patients received cumulative estimated effective dose from all medical sources >100mSv. Multiple MPIs were performed in 39% of patients, for whom cumulative estimated effective dose was 121 (81–189, 149) mSv. Men and whites had higher cumulative estimated effective doses, and there was a trend towards men being more likely to undergo multiple MPIs than women (40.8% vs. 36.6%, Odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.69). Over 80% of initial and 90% of repeat MPI exams were performed in patients with known cardiac disease or symptoms consistent with it. Conclusion In this institution, multiple testing with MPI was very common, and in many patients associated with very high cumulative

  17. [Effects of video information in patients undergoing coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Philippe, F; Meney, M; Larrazet, F; Ben Abderrazak, F; Dibie, A; Meziane, T; Folliguet, T; Delahousse, P; Lemoine, J F; Laborde, F

    2006-02-01

    informed consent is a fundamental and legal obligation for each interventional cardiologist. The effect of consent form describing risks of invasive procedure on anxiety is controversial. This trial was aimed to assess the added value of video information to the standard informed consent process. 200 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled. The first one hundred were assigned to conventional education conducted by the physician (no video group) and the second one hundred had consent obtained in the conventional manner assisted by video information (video group). The outcome variables for this comparison consisted of a standard anxiety score (Spielberger Statement Anxiety Inventory questionnary) plus hemodynamics measurements of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained at baseline and immediately after written informed consent In addition, before discharge, patients graded the tolerability and satisfaction on a 4-point scale. The groups were similar with regard to their baseline characteristics and anxity score (37+23 vs 37+23). Patients who had not had prior experience of catheterization had higher baseline anxiety than those who had prior angiography (45 + 22 vs 31 + 20; p = 0.027). Patients who watched the video were significantly less anxious after informed consent (28 + 21 vs 34 + 22; p = 0.048) and had a significantly lower heart rate (65 + 10 vs 71 + 12; p = 0.03). The benefits of video information were especially prominent in those with higher anxiety scores at baseline (score after 45 + 24 vs 57 + 26; p = 0.046). Tolerability were higher in the video group compared with no video group (98% vs 86%; p = 0.003). Finally, satisfaction of information for informed consent process was higher in video group than in no video group (99% vs 76%; p = 0.001). a video information decreased anxiety level after written informed consent and improved tolerability and satisfaction scales in patients undergoing coronary angiography

  18. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-03-19

    Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. Results A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate

  19. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LIFE QUALITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963

  20. Determinants of Compliance Behaviours among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yoke Mun; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hii, Sing Ziunn

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods This was a cross-sectional study which employed purposive sampling design. A total of 188 respondents were recruited from 14 dialysis centres in Malaysia between 2008–2011. Self-reported compliance behaviours and biochemical measurements were used as evaluation tools. Results Compliance rates of dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis were 27.7%, 24.5%, 66.5% and 91.0%, respectively. Younger, male, working patients and those with longer duration on hemodialysis were found more likely to be non-compliant. Lacks of adequate knowledge, inadequate self-efficacy skills, forgetfulness and financial constraints were the major perceived barriers towards better compliance to fluid, dietary, medication and dialysis, respectively. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should recognise the factors hindering compliance from the patients' perspective while assisting them with appropriate skills in making necessary changes possible. PMID:22870215

  1. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N; Schedlowski, M; Schürmeyer, T H; Becker, H

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music.

  2. The impact of nutritional status on the outcome of Indian patients undergoing neurosurgical shunt surgery.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Mukerji, Gaurav; Dixit, Anupam; Manshani, Novin; Yadav, Y R

    2007-11-01

    Undernutrition is common in surgical patients, is frequently unrecognised and is strongly associated with adverse outcomes such as high rates of complications and mortality, worsening functional status and prolonged hospitalisation. Owing to the associated infection and symptoms such as repeated vomiting, a high prevalence of undernutrition is expected in hydrocephalus patients, which may contribute to their poor surgical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of preoperative nutritional status on the outcome of Indian patients with hydrocephalus undergoing neurosurgical shunt surgery. One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients undergoing scheduled hydrocephalus shunt surgery were studied prospectively. All patients underwent nutritional screening according to different parameters prior to surgery. The patients were classified into normally nourished and undernourished groups. The undernourished group was further subdivided into moderately and severely undernourished. The surgical outcome was compared between these groups. A high prevalence (53%) of undernutrition was observed in these patients. Postoperative complications such as shunt infection (P = 0.0023), shunt revision (P = 0.0074) and mortality (P = 0.0003) were significantly more common in undernourished patients compared with normally nourished patients. Serum albumin emerged as the most significant independent predictor of postoperative mortality. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of undernutrition in hydrocephalus patients in India and its adverse influence on the outcome of shunt surgery. Early preoperative nutritional status screening and its optimisation may decrease the morbidity and mortality of shunt surgery for hydrocephalus.

  3. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  4. Evaluation of the risk factors associated with high-dose chemotherapy-induced dysgeusia in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: possible usefulness of cryotherapy in dysgeusia prevention.

    PubMed

    Okada, Naoto; Hanafusa, Takeshi; Abe, Shinji; Sato, Chiemi; Nakamura, Toshimi; Teraoka, Kazuhiko; Abe, Masahiro; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    Dysgeusia is one of the sporadic adverse effects induced by chemotherapy, but it remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to retrospectively identify the risk factors related with dysgeusia in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Forty-eight patients with myeloma or lymphoma undergoing AHSCT were enrolled in this study. Data regarding dysgeusia and symptoms were collected by interviews conducted by medical workers. Patient characteristics and unfavorable effects induced by dysgeusia were obtained from medical records and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors related with dysgeusia. Of the 48 patients, 20 (42 %) had dysgeusia after AHSCT. The total period of parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration and period of decreased oral intake in the dysgeusia group were statistically longer than those in the non-dysgeusia group. Multivariate analyses revealed that oral mucositis (odds ratio: 30.3; p < 0.01) and the type of chemotherapy prior to AHSCT (odds ratio: 6.56; p < 0.05) were independent risk factors, while oral cryotherapy was the independent suppressive factor of dysgeusia (odds ratio: 0.14; p < 0.05). Our study showed that dysgeusia after AHSCT led to the decrease in oral intake and extended the TPN administration period. Moreover, MEAM or LEED chemotherapy and oral mucositis were independent risk factors for dysgeusia in patients undergoing AHSCT, while oral cryotherapy was an independent suppressive factor for dysgeusia. Therefore, oral cryotherapy should be implemented into the regimen of supportive care management in patients undergoing AHSCT.

  5. Postoperative urinary retention in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Altschul, David; Kobets, Andrew; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jada, Ajit; Nasser, Rani; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza; Houten, John

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common problem leading to morbidity and an increased hospital stay. There are limited data regarding its baseline incidence in patients undergoing spinal surgery and the risk factors with which it may be associated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POUR in elective spine surgery patients and determine the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery and had been prospectively monitored for POUR during an 18-month period. Collected data included operative positioning, surgery duration, volume of intraoperative fluid, length of hospital stay, and patient characteristics such as age, sex, and medical comorbidities. Dialysis patients or those with complete urinary retention preoperatively were excluded from analysis. RESULTS Of the 397 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 35 (8.8%) developed POUR. An increased incidence of POUR was noted in those who underwent posterior lumbar surgery, those with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), those with chronic constipation or prior urinary retention, and those using a patient-controlled analgesia pump postoperatively. An increased incidence of POUR was seen with a longer operative time but not with intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. A significant relationship between the female sex and POUR was noted after controlling for BPH, yet there was no association between POUR and diabetes or intraoperative instrumentation. Postoperative retention significantly prolonged the hospital stay. Three patients developed epidural hematomas necessitating operative reexploration, and while they experienced POUR, they also developed the full constellation of cauda equina syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Awareness of the risk factors for POUR may be useful in perioperative Foley catheter management and in identifying patients who need particular

  6. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Myoinositol Improves Embryo Development in PCOS Patients Undergoing ICSI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of myoinositol, in a court of 217 PCOS women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), on pregnancy rate, embryo development, estradiol, and progesterone concentration in blood serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in follicular fluid. Concerning the court of patient, 112 (groups I and II) out of 217 were PCOS women, whereas group III consisted of healthy subjects (not PCOS). Group I patients were treated with 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI, whereas group II patients received 4000 mg of myoinositol and 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI. Group II revealed a shorter embryo/blastocyst development period between microinjection and 5-cell stage compared to group I. The difference in SOD concentration between groups I and II and between groups II and III was statistically significant. In group II, 34.62% of pregnancies were obtained, whereas in group I this number reached 20% (NS). Myoinositol increased embryo development dynamics and accelerated blastocyst stage reaching time; however, no effect was shown on clinical pregnancy. Furthermore, it restored SOD concentration, lowered in PCOS women, but did not exert any effect on CAT concentration. PMID:27777587

  8. Current Practice and Recommendation for Presurgical Cardiac Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, P. Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing major noncardiac surgery justifies guidelines concerning preoperative cardiac evaluation. This is compounded by increasing chances for a volatile perioperative period if the underlying cardiac problems are left uncorrected prior to major noncardiac surgeries. Preoperative cardiac evaluation requires the clinician to assess the patient's probability to have CAD, severity and stability of CAD, placing these in perspective regarding the likelihood of a perioperative cardiac complication based on the planned surgical procedure. Coronary events like new onset ischemia, infarction, or revascularization, induce a high-risk period of 6 weeks, and an intermediate-risk period of 3 months before performing noncardiac surgery. This delay is unwarranted in cases where surgery is the mainstay of treatment. The objective of this review is to offer a comprehensive algorithm in the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and highlight the importance of myocardial perfusion imaging in risk stratifying these patients. PMID:25191106

  9. Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Burden, Sorrel; Todd, Chris; Hill, James; Lal, Simon

    2012-11-14

    Post-operative management in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is becoming well established with 'Enhanced Recovery After Surgery' protocols starting 24 hours prior to surgery with carbohydrate loading and early oral or enteral feeding given to patients the first day following surgery. However, whether or not nutritional intervention should be initiated earlier in the preoperative period remains unclear. Poor pre-operative nutritional status has been linked consistently to an increase in post-operative complications and poorer surgical outcome. To review the literature on preoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery (GI). The searches were initially run in March 2011 and subsequently updated in February 2012. Databases including all EBM Reviews (Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA and NHSEED) MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, British Nursing Index Archive using OvidSP were included and a search was run on each database separately after which duplicates were excluded. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials that evaluated pre-operative nutritional support in GI surgical participants using a nutritional formula delivered by a parenteral, enteral or oral route. The primary outcomes included post-operative complications and length of hospital stay. Two observers screened the abstracts for inclusion in the review and performed data extraction. Bias was assessed for each of the included studies using the bias assessment tables in the Cochrane Software Review Manager (version 5.1, Cochrane Collaboration). The trials were analysed using risk ratios with Mantel-Haenszel in fixed effects methods displayed with heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were undertaken on trials evaluating immune enhancing (IE) nutrition, standard oral supplements, enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN) which were administered pre-operatively.Study characteristics were summarised in tables. Dichotomous and ratio data were entered into meta-analyses for

  10. Role of concomitant tricuspid surgery in moderate functional tricuspid regurgitation in patients undergoing left heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Wells, Francis; Nashef, Samer; Nair, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is frequently present in patients undergoing aortic, and particularly mitral valve, surgery. Untreated FTR may lead to right heart failure. Reoperative cardiac surgery for late FTR is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, severe FTR has emerged as a Class I indication for concomitant tricuspid valve surgery in patients undergoing left valve surgery. Concomitant tricuspid valve surgery during left heart valve surgery to address moderate and mild FTR is controversial. This review addresses this issue and proposes an algorithm for the treatment of FTR in patients undergoing left heart valve surgery.

  11. Halitosis in obese patients and those undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Dupim Souza, Ana Carolina; Franco, Carolina F; Pataro, André L; Guerra, Tadeu; de Oliveira Costa, Fernando; da Costa, José Eustáquio

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing bariatric surgery often complain of bad breath. However, the relationship between bariatric surgery and halitosis is relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the occurrence of halitosis among patients before and after a specific type of bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and its relationship with the tongue coating index, plaque index, and salivary flow rate. A total of 62 patients with good oral health and in treatment for obesity at the walk-in clinic of Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were selected. Of this sample, 31 were bariatric surgery candidates (control group) and 31 had already undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (case group). After completing a questionnaire, all patients underwent an oral clinical examination. Halitosis was measured using an organoleptic scale and a portable sulfide monitor. The Spearman correlation demonstrated a strong positive relation between the organoleptic rates and the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds determined using the sulfide monitor (rs = .58; P = .0001). No difference was found in the prevalence of halitosis between the 2 groups (P = .48). Only the salivary flow rate was significantly reduced in the control group compared with the case group (P = .02). In the case group, the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds correlated negatively with the salivary flow rate (P = .04) and positively with the tongue coating index (P = .005). The tongue coating index was significantly increased in those patients who did not brush the tongue (P < .04) and who had had episodes of vomiting (P = .02). These data suggest that no significant association exists between halitosis and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, they do highlight the possible effect of this surgery on the oral cavity. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Insulin pump therapy in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Adrienne A; Boyle, Mary E; Seifert, Karen M; Beer, Karen A; Apsey, Heidi A; Schlinkert, Richard T; Stearns, Joshua D; Cook, Curtiss B

    2012-01-01

    To assess perioperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus who were being treated with insulin pump therapy. We reviewed records for documentation of insulin pump status and glucose monitoring during preoperative, intraoperative, and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) phases of surgery. Thirty-five patients (21 men) with insulin pumps underwent surgical procedures between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Mean age was 56 years, mean diabetes duration was 31 years, and mean duration of insulin pump therapy was 7 years. All patients were white, and 29 had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Of the 50 surgical procedures performed during the study period, 16 were orthopedic, 9 were general surgical, 7 were urologic, and 7 were kidney transplant operations; the remaining 11 procedures were in other surgical specialties. The mean (± standard deviation) time in the preoperative area was 118 ± 75 minutes, mean intraoperative time was 177 ± 102 minutes, and mean PACU time was 170 ± 78 minutes. Of the 50 procedures, status of pump use was documented in 32 cases in the preoperative area, 14 cases intraoperatively, and 30 cases in the PACU. Glucose values were recorded in 47 cases preoperatively, 30 cases intraoperatively, and 48 cases in the PACU. Results showed inconsistent documentation of pump use and glucose monitoring throughout the perioperative period, even for patients with prolonged anesthesia and recovery times. It was often unclear whether the pump was in place and operational during the intraoperative period. Guidelines should be developed for management of insulin pump-treated patients who are to undergo surgery.

  13. The burden of bowel preparations in patients undergoing elective colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    El Reda, Zeinab D; Harb, Ali H; Abou Fadel, Carla G; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Abou Mrad, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate bowel preparation is an important quality measure for optimal colonoscopy. Aims The aim of this article is to study the burden of bowel preparations by examining seven specific variables (hunger, taste, volume, sleep, social, work, and adverse events (AEs)). Methods Ambulatory patients undergoing elective colonoscopy completed a questionnaire regarding their experience with the prescribed preparation. The seven study variables were graded using a numerical scale of 0–10 (best to worst). A score >6 was considered to indicate a significant impact and used as primary outcome. Patients were also asked to grade in descending order what they perceived as the worst aspect of the preparation. Results A total of 216 patients completed the survey. Preparations consisted of split-dose sodium picosulfate (SPS) (n = 49), split-dose 4 l PEG ± menthol (n = 49), full-dose PEG (n = 68), and 2 l split-dose PEG + ascorbic acid (n = 50). Except for work and AEs, all variables were considered to have a negative impact by >20% of patients (range 20.4–34.2). SPS was superior to PEG regimens in taste (4.1% vs. 35.9%) and volume (0% vs. 44.9%) (p < 0.05 for both) but inferior for hunger (30.6% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.09). The addition of menthol to PEG significantly improved taste (22.4% vs. 41.5%; p = 0.02). Sleep disturbances were most common with SPS and least with split-dose PEG (30.6% vs. 17.4%; p < 0.05). Overall, patients ranked volume, taste, and hunger as most burdensome. Conclusions The burden of bowel preparation is substantial. An informed personalized choice of preparation may improve adherence, tolerability and colon cleansing. PMID:27087962

  14. Oral surgery in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Vicente Barrero, Mario; Knezevic, Milan; Tapia Martín, Manuel; Viejo Llorente, Aurora; Orengo Valverde, Juan Carlos; García Jiménez, Francisco; López Pérez, Omar; Domínguez Sarmiento, Sergio; Díaz Cremades, Jose Manuel; Castellano Reyes, Juan

    2002-01-01

    There is an evident need for procedural protocol for oral surgery patients who undergo oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) because of: 1) the possible severity of complications and 2) the growing demand for OAT, which in some cases may be as much as 8% of the oral surgery patients that are referred to the hospital from primary care centers. In this study, the authors define the parameters for creating a proto- col applicable to this group of patients. The conclusion is that it is not necessary to suspend OAT before surgery; rather, these procedures should be performed under multidisciplinary medical control. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to perform oral surgery on OAT patients, without having to sus- pend treatment beforehand. A longitudinal study was performed in OAT patients that required some type of oral surgical procedures. After an INR control, the patient underwent surgery and afterwards the patient was given tranexamic acid as a mouth rinse. Postoperative hemorrhage was classified as slight when it lasted less than 5 minutes, moderate when it lasted longer than five minutes, and severe when it required blood transfusion. The study was performed over a 5-year period (1996-2000), by the maxillofacial surgery department. In that time period, 125 patients with OAT were treated; 90 of them were males and 35 were females. Tooth extraction was per- formed in 229 sessions and a total of 367 teeth were extracted, with an average of 1.6% per session. With regards to postoperative hemorrahage, it was slight in 210 cases (91.7%), moderate in 18 (7.9%) and severe only in one case (0.4%). All the variables were compared and no statistically significant differences were found. We believe that OAT should not be suspended before oral surgery, but it surgery should be performed under multidisciplinary control-especially in the case of the elderly (over 65) or with those patients that have other concomitant illnesses such as renal insufficiency or anemia or other

  15. Dexmedetomidine in Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunguang; Chi, Meiying; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Zongwang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both dexmedetomidine and sufentanil modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet no human studies are available on their combination for analgesia during the first 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. This CONSORT-prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Ninety women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 equal groups that received sufentanil (Group C; 0.02 μg/kg/h), sufentanil plus dexmedetomidine (Group D1; 0.02 μg/kg/h, each), or sufentanil (0.02 μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) (Group D2) for 72 hours after surgery in this double-blinded, randomized study. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative sufentanil consumption, whereas the secondary outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), requirement of narcotic drugs during the operation, level of sedation, Bruggrmann comfort scale, and concerning adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil consumption was significantly lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C during the observation period (P < 0.05), but lower in Group D2 than in Group D1 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery (P < 0.05). The heart rate after intubation and incision was lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C (P < 0.05). On arrival at the recovery room, Groups D1 and D2 had lower mean blood pressure than Group C (P < 0.05). The intraoperative requirement of sevoflurane was 30% lesser in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C. The sedation levels were greater in Groups D1 and D2 during the first hour (P < 0.05). Compared with Groups C and D1, Group D2 showed lower levels of the overall incidence of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05). Among the tested PCA options, the addition of dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) and sufentanil (0

  16. [Panniculitis in patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Feki, Nabil Bel; Khanfir, Monia Smiti; Ghorbel, Imed Ben; Said, Fatma; Houman, Mohamed Habib

    2016-01-01

    Panniculitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM). The appearance of panniculitis during treatment with methotrexate (MTX) is exceptional and has only been described in 3 cases. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman suffering from DM since 1997 who was treated with corticosteroids showing favorable clinical and biological evolution. When a relapse occurred 2 years later, she was treated with higher-dose of corticosteroids in combination with a 7,5 mg weekly dose of methotrexate. The evolution was rapidly favorable. Eighteen months later, the patient had multiple subcutaneous nodules on limbs and buttocks. Anatomopathological examination showed panniculitis. There was no evidence supporting progression in DM. Prednisone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/kg/day, always in combination with MTX, without any clear signs of improvement. MTX treatment was stopped and the cutaneous lesions completely disappeared in 2 months without any relapse. This objective response lasted for 42 months. Our observation is particular given the occurrence of panniculitis in a patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate and illustrates the difficulties in the diagnosis. This entity must be known despite its exceptional nature since cutting off MTX treatment generally induces the disappearance of subcutaneous nodules.

  17. A neurophysiological study of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M V; Ertekin, C; Larsson, L E; Pedersen, K

    1989-01-01

    24 men suffering from localized prostatic cancer undergoing radical retropubic nerve-sparing prostatectomy were investigated by the following electrophysiological methods: Bulbocavernosus reflexes elicited from the penile skin or the posterior urethra, sensory thresholds in the posterior urethra, cerebral evoked potentials after stimulation of the pudendal nerve or the posterior urethra. 15 men were examined 4-33 months postoperatively only, 5 men were examined only preoperatively and 4 men were examined both pre- and postoperatively. 10 men suffering from minor problems due to benign prostatic hyperplasia served as controls. In patients with localized cancer of the prostate, the findings did not differ from those in the control group. In the operated group the findings were pathological in a large proportion of the patients, indicating injuries both to nervous pathways running through the pelvic nerve plexus and in the pudendal nerve. The conclusions were: Localized cancer of the prostate has minimal or no risk at all of impaired functioning in the pelvic nervous pathways. Radical retropubic prostatectomy may in some cases be undertaken without any objective evidence of injury to these nervous pathways, but is often followed by findings indicating such injury. The dorsal nerve of the penis may be affected by the operation. Transcranial stimulation of the motor cortex is a useful method in the evaluation of prolonged or absent bulbocavernosus reflexes.

  18. Preoperative laxity in osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideo; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kiga, Hiroshi; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A preoperative quantitative evaluation of soft tissues is helpful for planning total knee arthroplasty, in addition to the conventional clinical examinations involved in moving the knee manually. We evaluated preoperative coronal laxity with osteoarthritis in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty by applying a force of 150 N with an arthrometer. We examined a consecutive series of 120 knees in 102 patients. The median laxity was 0° in abduction and 8° in adduction. The femorotibial angle on non-weight-bearing standard anteroposterior radiographs was 180° and correlated with both abduction (r = −0.244, p = 0.007) and adduction (r = 0.205, p = 0.025) laxity. The results of a regression analysis suggested that the femorotibial angle is helpful for estimating both laxities. Considering the many reports on how to obtain well-balanced soft tissues, stress radiographs might help to improve the preoperative planning for gaining the optimal laxity deemed appropriate by surgeons. PMID:17938923

  19. Asymmetry of Inframammary Folds in Patients Undergoing Augmentation Mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Yeslev, Max; Braun, Stephane A; Maxwell, G Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Variation in the anatomical position of the inframammary fold (IMF) in women remains poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of asymmetry between IMF locations on the chest wall of women undergoing breast augmentation and to determine breast measurements associated with IMF asymmetry. Three-dimensional imaging analysis of the breasts was performed in 111 women with micromastia, using the Vectra Imaging System(TM). The following measurements were recorded: vertical distance between right and left IMF (inter-fold distance), vertical distance between nipples (inter-nipple distance), and difference between projection of right and left breasts in anterior-posterior direction. Asymmetry between the right and left IMF positions was found in the majority of patients (95.4%), with symmetry only found in 5 patients (4.6%). In the majority of patients (60.3%), the right IMF was located inferior to the left IMF with median inter-fold distance 0.4 cm (range, 0.1, 2.1 cm). In 39 patients (35.1%), the left IMF was located inferior to the right with median inter-fold distance 0.4 cm (range, 0.1, 1.7 cm). There was strong correlation between the degree of asymmetry of IMF and asymmetry of nipple areola complex (NAC) positions (r = 0.687, P < .01). The majority of women with micromastia demonstrate asymmetry of the IMF, which correlates with asymmetry of NAC location. The authors propose a classification system based on most commonly observed IMF locations as types I (right IMF inferior to left), type II (left IMF inferior to right) and type III (both IMF located on the same level). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Diagnostic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. RISK OF SEVERE AND REFRACTORY POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING DIEP FLAP BREAST RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    MANAHAN, MICHELE A.; BASDAG, BASAK; KALMAR, CHRISTOPHER L.; SHRIDHARANI, SACHIN M.; MAGARAKIS, MICHAEL; JACOBS, LISA K.; THOMSEN, ROBERT W.; ROSSON, GEDGE D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are commonly feared after general anesthesia and can impact results. The primary aim of our study was to examine incidence and severity of PONV by investigating complete response, or absence of PONV, to prophylaxis used in patients undergoing DIEP flaps. Our secondary aims were definition of the magnitude of risk, state of the art of interventions, clinical sequelae of PONV, and interaction between these variables, specifically for DIEP patients. Methods A retrospective chart review occurred for 29 patients undergoing DIEP flap breast reconstruction from September 2007 to February 2008. We assessed known patient and procedure-specific risks for PONV after DIEPs, prophylactic antiemetic regimens, incidence, and severity of PONV, postoperative antiemetic rescues, and effects of risks and treatments on symptoms. Results Three or more established risks existed in all patients, with up to seven risks per patient. Although 90% of patients received diverse prophylaxis, 76% of patients experienced PONV, and 66% experienced its severe form, emesis. Early PONV (73%) was frequent; symptoms were long lasting (average 20 hours for nausea and emesis); and multiple rescue medications were frequently required (55% for nausea, 58% for emesis). Length of surgery and nonsmoking statistically significantly impacted PONV. Conclusion We identify previously undocumented high risks for PONV in DIEP patients. High frequency, severity, and refractoriness of PONV occur despite standard prophylaxis. Plastic surgeons and anesthesiologists should further investigate methods to optimize PONV prophylaxis and treatment in DIEP flap patients. PMID:24038427

  1. Performance of bleeding risk-prediction scores in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Puurunen, Marja; Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Karjalainen, Pasi; Vikman, Saila; Niemelä, Matti; Lahtela, Heli; Lip, Gregory Y H; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2014-06-15

    The hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, and drugs/alcohol (HAS-BLED); anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation (ATRIA); modified Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (mOBRI); and reduction of atherothrombosis for continued health (REACH) schemes are validated bleeding risk-prediction tools, but their predictive performance in patients with AF receiving multiple antithrombotic drugs after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We sought to compare the predictive performance of bleeding risk-estimation tools in a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing PCI. Management of patients with AF undergoing coronary artery stenting is a multicenter European prospective registry enrolling patients with AF undergoing PCI. We calculated HAS-BLED, ATRIA, mOBRI, and REACH bleeding risk-prediction scores and assessed the rate of bleeding complications as defined by Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 12 months follow-up in 929 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. Increasing age, femoral access site, and previous peptic ulcer were independent determinants of bleeding. Low bleeding risk scores as determined by HAS-BLED 0 to 2, ATRIA 0 to 3, mOBRI 0, and REACH 0 to 10 were detected in 23.7%, 73.0%, 7.8%, and 5.7% of patients of the cohort, respectively. No significant differences were detected in the rates of any bleeding or major bleeding events for low versus intermediate/high scores with each risk-prediction tool. In conclusion, the performance of ATRIA, HAS-BLED, mOBRI, and REACH scores in predicting bleeding complications in this high-risk patient subset was useless.

  2. Increased arterial pressure is not predictive of haemodynamic instability in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Lentschener, C; Gaujoux, S; Thillois, J M; Duboc, D; Bertherat, J; Ozier, Y; Dousset, B

    2009-04-01

    Pre-operative hypotensive drugs are assumed to have dramatically decreased operative mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing phaeochromocytoma removal only in non-controlled studies. We evaluated the predictive value of pre-operative high systolic arterial pressure (SAP) on intra- and post-operative haemodynamic instability, in 96 patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Ninety-six consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Pre-operative SAP was not systematically normalised, provided that increased SAP was clinically tolerated. Intravenous nicardipine, esmolol and norepinephrine were intraoperatively titrated to treat SAP increase >150 mmHg, tachycardia >90-110/min, arrhythmia or SAP decrease under 90 mmHg, respectively. Volume expanders were not systematically administered. Patients with increased and normal pre-operative SAP were compared with respect to (a) nicardipine, esmolol and norepinephrine requirement, (b) highest intraoperative SAP and heat rate, (c) lowest intraoperative SAP, (d) duration of surgery and (e) norepinephrine requirement following tumour removal. Groups did not differ significantly with respect to data defined as being indicative of perioperative haemodynamic instability (all P values>0.05). As previously demonstrated, in patients undergoing phaeochromocytoma removal, perioperative haemodynamic changes are mainly due to catecholamine release during tumour manipulation, and to the decrease in catecholamine level following tumour removal. Whether pre-operative hypotensive drugs are likely to alter these changes remains questionable. For most patients scheduled for laparoscopic phaeochromocytoma removal, surgery can be carried out without systematic pre-operative arterial pressure normalisation.

  3. Renal insufficiency predicts mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubian, Arezou; Ge, Phillip; Tolan, Amy; Saltmarsh, Guy; Kaji, Amy H; Neville, Angela L; Bricker, Scott; De Virgilio, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Clinical predictors of perioperative mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients and factors associated with mortality. A retrospective review of patients 65 years of age or older undergoing emergent general surgery at a public teaching hospital was performed over a 7-year period. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, laboratory studies, perioperative morbidities, and mortality. Descriptive statistics and predictors of morbidity and mortality are described. The mean age was 74 years. Indications for surgery included small bowel obstruction (24%), diverticulitis (20%), perforated viscous (16%), and large bowel obstruction (9%). The overall complication rate was 41 per cent with six cardiac complications (14%) and seven perioperative (16%) deaths. Mean admission serum creatinine was significantly higher in patients who died (3.6 vs 1.5 mg/dL, P = 0.004). Mortality for patients with an admission serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dL was 42 per cent (5 of 12) compared with 3 per cent (2 of 32) for those 2.0 mg/dL or less (OR, 10.7; CI, 1.7 to 67; P = 0.01). Morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergency surgery remains high with the most significant predictor of mortality being the presence of renal insufficiency on admission.

  4. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leser, Laura; Lanckohr, Christian; Wempe, Carola; Ellger, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysregulations of blood glucose (BG) are associated with adverse outcome in critical illness; controlling BG to target appears to improve outcome. Since BG-control is challenging in daily intensive care practice BG-control remains poor especially in patients with rapidly fluctuating BG. To improve BG-control and to avoid deleterious hypoglycemia, automated online-measurement tools are advocated. We thus evaluated the point-accuracy of the subcutaneous Sentrino® Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGM, Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, California) in patients undergoing extracorporeal cardiac life support (ECLS) for cardiogenic shock. Methods Management of BG was performed according to institute’s standard aiming at BG-levels between 100–145 mg/dl. CGM-values were recorded without taking measures into therapeutic account. Point-accuracy in comparison to intermittent BG-measurement by the ABL-blood-gas analyzer was determined. Results CGM (n = 25 patients) correlated significantly with ABL-values (r = 0.733, p<0.001). Mean error from standard was 15.0 mg/dl (11.9%). 44.2% of the readings were outside a 15% range around ABL-values. In one of 635 paired data-points, ABL revealed hypoglycemia (BG 32 mg/dl) whereas CGM did not show hypoglycemic values (132mg/dl). Conclusions CGM reveals minimally invasive BG-values in critically ill adults with dynamically impaired tissue perfusion. Because of potential deviations from standard, CGM-readings must be interpreted with caution in specific ICU-populations. PMID:26963806

  5. Pre-transplantation novel agent induction predicts progression-free survival for patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis undergoing high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Andrew J; Klippel, Zandra K; Stevenson, Philip A; Hyun, Teresa S; Tuazon, Sherilyn; Becker, Pamela S; Green, Damian J; Holmberg, Leona A; Coffey, David G; Gopal, Ajay K; Libby, Edward N

    2016-12-01

    High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) is an effective treatment modality for immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis; however, its application remains restricted to patients with good performance status and limited organ involvement. In recent years, the paradigm for AL amyloidosis has changed with the introduction of novel agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs). We hypothesized that use of novel agent induction regimens has improved outcomes for patients with AL amyloidosis undergoing HDM/SCT at our center. All patients with AL amyloidosis, age ≥18 years who underwent HDM/SCT between 2001 and 2014 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington Medical Center were included in this study. Any regimen administered within 6 months prior to HDM/SCT including an IMiD or a PI was considered a novel induction regimen. Use of induction regimen was evaluated in a Cox proportional hazard model for association with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Forty-five patients with AL amyloidosis underwent HDM/SCT. The median age was 57.2 years (range 39-74.4), 15 (33.3%) were women. The median number of organs involved was 2 (range 1-5), with 20 patients having only 1 (44.4%), 10 patients having 2 (22.2%), and 15 patients (33.3%) having ≥ 3 organs involved. Novel agent induction regimens were used prior to HDM/SCT in 21 patients (46.7%); these comprised PI in 13/21 (57.1%), IMiD alone in 6/21 (28.6%), PI and cyclophosphamide (CyBorD) in 3/21 (14.3%), and IMiD and PI in 3/21 (14.3%). Use of a novel agent induction regimen was associated with improved, but not OS. The 3-year PFS for patients who received a novel agent induction was 79%, while for those who did not was 53% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.317, p = 0.048). The 3-year OS for patients who received novel agent induction regimens was 95%, while for those who did not was 71% (HR = 0

  6. Effect of High-Dose Statin Pretreatment on the Incidence of Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Grading the Evidence Through a Cumulative Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, ChuanNan; Cong, HongLiang; Liu, YuJie; Zhang, Ying; Liu, XianFeng; Zhang, Hao; Ren, ZhiJing

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have showed that high-dose statin pretreatment could reduce the incidence of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, previous analyses have not performed reliable grading of evidence. In previous analyses, it supposed that the high-dose statin pretreatment was effective in reduction of the rate of PMI. In this analysis, we evaluated the effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on the reduction of rate of PMI based on a cumulative meta-analysis and grading of evidence. We assembled the relevant published randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of high-dose statin pretreatment prior to PCI. We evaluated the risk of PMI by a cumulative meta-analysis, with subgroups stratified by clinical classifications and different statin histories, and we conducted explicit grading of evidence. High-dose statin pretreatment caused a 55% reduction in PMI through this cumulative meta-analysis of 23 RCTs (odds ratio [OR]: 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.54). The effect of high-dose statin pretreatment was significant for the stable angina subgroup (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.32-0.56), ACS subgroup (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.64), and the mixed presentation subgroup (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36-0.70). In different statin therapy histories, high-dose statin pretreatment reduced incidence of PMI 55% in the statin-naive subgroup (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.36-0.56) and 54% in the low-dose statin subgroup (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.32-0.66). The GRADE system indicated that the overall evidence quality was moderate. This finding may strengthen the confidence in any recommendations. High-dose statin pretreatment can reduce the rate of PMI, irrespective of either the clinical presentation or previous statin-treatment history. Importantly, the overall GRADE evidence quality was moderate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Contact dermatitis in patients undergoing serial intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Veramme, Jolien; de Zaeytijd, Julie; Lambert, Jo; Lapeere, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) medication, injected intravitreally, is currently the standard of care in patients with different retinal pathologies. Since its introduction in 2006, an increasing number of patients have undergone this procedure in Ghent University Hospital. Strikingly, more patients were diagnosed with contact dermatitis caused by ophthalmic products used during intravitreal injection procedure. To identify which of the substances used during intravitreal injection is most likely to cause contact dermatitis. Sixteen patients who developed a burning and stinging sensation and swelling of the eyelids after intravitreal injection were tested. All patients were patch tested with the Belgian baseline series, as well as a cosmetic, a pharmaceutical and an ophthalmic series, including the different eye drops used during the intravitreal injection procedure. Fourteen of 16 patients reacted to at least one of the substances used during the injection procedure. Nine patients reacted to phenylephrine (56%), 5 to iso-Betadine(®) ophthalmic solution (31%), and 3 patients to sodium metabisulfite (16%). The most common causal allergen was phenylephrine, being positive in 56% of patients. Patients most likely become sensitized because of the high frequency of usage of phenylephrine during repeated intravitreal injections and follow-up consultations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of Fatigue in End Stage Renal Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zyga, Sofia; Alikari, Victoria; Sachlas, Athanasios; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Stathoulis, John; Panoutsopoulos, Georgios; Georgopoulou, Maria; Theophilou, Paraskeui; Lavdaniti, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fatigue is a common symptom referred by many patients undergoing hemodialysis. Fatigue is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and is an important predictor for survival of hemodialysis patients. Aim: To assess the levels of fatigue and demographic factors affecting it among patients with End Stage Renal Disease undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: This quantitative study was carried out in two Dialysis Units of Hospitals in Athens Region. Between January 2015 and June 2015, 129 hemodialysis patients completed the Greek Version of the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS). Demographic data of patients was recorded. For the statistical analysis IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 was used. Results: The mean FAS score was 24.99. 49 patients (38.0%) were non fatigued, 61 patients (47.3%) were fatigued, and 19 patients (13.7%) were extremely fatigued. Higher levels of fatigue were reported among hemodialysis patients residing in urban areas, in those with low educational level and unemployed. Conclusion: The findings of this study can be used in the assessment of fatigue and early identification of high-risk patients (especially of the unemployed, those who occupy with domestic works, those with low educational level and of urban citizens). Use of this knowledge by hemodialysis nurses may lead to a better understanding of the factors of fatigue in ESRD, which in turn may lead to a more effective treatment. PMID:26843728

  9. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ≥ 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7-6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women; systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 85 mmHg; and A1c ≥ 5.7% or on therapy]. Mean age was 67 years, median body mass index was 28.2 kg/m(2) and 39% had known DM. Of those without known DM, 8.3% and 58.5% met A1c criteria for DM and for prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Perioperative outcomes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Ashwat; Khanna, Ashish; Randhawa, Mandeep Singh; Cywinski, Jacek; Saager, Leif; Thamilarasan, Maran; Lever, Harry M; Desai, Milind Y

    2016-10-15

    Due to their unique pathophysiological profile, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) undergoing non-cardiac surgery require additional attention to perioperative management. We sought to compare perioperative outcomes of patients with HCM undergoing non-cardiac surgery with a matched group patients without HCM. This observational cohort study conducted at a tertiary care centre included patients with HCM (n=92, age 67 years, 54% men) undergoing intermediate-risk and high-risk non-cardiac surgeries between 1/2007 and 12/2013 (excluding <18 years, prior septal myectomy/alcohol ablation, low-risk surgery) who were 1:2 matched (based on age, gender, type and time of non-cardiac surgery) with patients without HCM (n=184, median age 65 years, 53% men). A composite endpoint (30-day postoperative death, myocardial infarction, stroke, in-hospital decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) and rehospitalisation within 30 days) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) were recorded. There was a significantly lower incidence of intraoperative hypotension/tachycardia in patients with HCM versus those without HCM (p<0.001). At 30 days postoperatively, 42 (15%) patients had composite events. Rates of 30-day death, MI or stroke were very low in patients with HCM (5%). However, a significantly higher proportion of patients with HCM met the composite endpoint versus patients without HCM (20 (22%) vs 22 (12%), p=0.03), driven by decompensated CHF. On logistic regression, HCM, high-risk non-cardiac surgery, high anaesthesia risk score and intraoperative duration of hypotension were independently associated with 30-day composite events (p<0.05). Patients with HCM undergoing high-risk and intermediate-risk non-cardiac surgeries have a low perioperative event rate, at an experienced centre. However, they have a higher risk of composite events versus matched patients without HCM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  11. Does rectal indomethacin eliminate the need for prophylactic pancreatic stent placement in patients undergoing high-risk ERCP? Post hoc efficacy and cost-benefit analyses using prospective clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Elmunzer, B Joseph; Higgins, Peter D R; Saini, Sameer D; Scheiman, James M; Parker, Robert A; Chak, Amitabh; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Mosler, Patrick; Hayward, Rodney A; Elta, Grace H; Korsnes, Sheryl J; Schmidt, Suzette E; Sherman, Stuart; Lehman, Glen A; Fogel, Evan L

    2013-03-01

    A recent large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that rectal indomethacin administration is effective in addition to pancreatic stent placement (PSP) for preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk cases. We performed a post hoc analysis of this RCT to explore whether rectal indomethacin can replace PSP in the prevention of PEP and to estimate the potential cost savings of such an approach. We retrospectively classified RCT subjects into four prevention groups: (1) no prophylaxis, (2) PSP alone, (3) rectal indomethacin alone, and (4) the combination of PSP and indomethacin. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for imbalances in the prevalence of risk factors for PEP between the groups. Based on these adjusted PEP rates, we conducted an economic analysis comparing the costs associated with PEP prevention strategies employing rectal indomethacin alone, PSP alone, or the combination of both. After adjusting for risk using two different logistic regression models, rectal indomethacin alone appeared to be more effective for preventing PEP than no prophylaxis, PSP alone, and the combination of indomethacin and PSP. Economic analysis revealed that indomethacin alone was a cost-saving strategy in 96% of Monte Carlo trials. A prevention strategy employing rectal indomethacin alone could save approximately $150 million annually in the United States compared with a strategy of PSP alone, and $85 million compared with a strategy of indomethacin and PSP. This hypothesis-generating study suggests that prophylactic rectal indomethacin could replace PSP in patients undergoing high-risk ERCP, potentially improving clinical outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. A RCT comparing rectal indomethacin alone vs. indomethacin plus PSP is needed.

  12. Does Rectal Indomethacin Eliminate the Need for Prophylactic Pancreatic Stent Placement in Patients Undergoing High-Risk ERCP? Post hoc Efficacy and Cost-Benefit Analyses Using Prospective Clinical Trial Data

    PubMed Central

    Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Higgins, Peter D.R.; Saini, Sameer D.; Scheiman, James M.; Parker, Robert A.; Chak, Amitabh; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Mosler, Patrick; Hayward, Rodney A.; Elta, Grace H.; Korsnes, Sheryl J.; Schmidt, Suzette E.; Sherman, Stuart; Lehman, Glen A.; Fogel, Evan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A recent large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that rectal indomethacin administration is effective in addition to pancreatic stent placement (PSP) for preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk cases. We performed a post hoc analysis of this RCT to explore whether rectal indomethacin can replace PSP in the prevention of PEP and to estimate the potential cost savings of such an approach. METHODS We retrospectively classified RCT subjects into four prevention groups: (1) no prophylaxis, (2) PSP alone, (3) rectal indomethacin alone, and (4) the combination of PSP and indomethacin. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for imbalances in the prevalence of risk factors for PEP between the groups. Based on these adjusted PEP rates, we conducted an economic analysis comparing the costs associated with PEP prevention strategies employing rectal indomethacin alone, PSP alone, or the combination of both. RESULTS After adjusting for risk using two different logistic regression models, rectal indomethacin alone appeared to be more effective for preventing PEP than no prophylaxis, PSP alone, and the combination of indomethacin and PSP. Economic analysis revealed that indomethacin alone was a cost-saving strategy in 96% of Monte Carlo trials. A prevention strategy employing rectal indomethacin alone could save approximately $150 million annually in the United States compared with a strategy of PSP alone, and $85 million compared with a strategy of indomethacin and PSP. CONCLUSIONS This hypothesis-generating study suggests that prophylactic rectal indomethacin could replace PSP in patients undergoing high-risk ERCP, potentially improving clinical outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. A RCT comparing rectal indomethacin alone vs. indomethacin plus PSP is needed. PMID:23295278

  13. Nutritional issues in peritoneal dialysis patients: how do they differ from that of patients undergoing hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2013-05-01

    It is important to understand the unique aspects vis-à-vis protein-energy wasting for patients undergoing PD. As a result of obligatory protein losses with the therapy, the serum albumin levels of patients undergoing PD are lower, as is the threshold serum albumin at which the risk for death is increased. Consequently, it is prudent to consider a lower threshold for serum albumin for the diagnosis of protein-energy wasting for patients undergoing PD. Likewise, it is important to consider the energy intake from obligatory nutrient absorption in the form of carbohydrates when estimating total energy intake (diet and dialysate) when evaluating patients for protein-energy wasting. The continuous nature of PD also has important therapeutic implications for protein-energy wasting. Such patients are more likely to have a complete correction of metabolic acidosis, and glucose absorption from the peritoneal dialysate has a protein-sparing effect, allowing some patients to maintain neutral nitrogen balances in the face of suboptimal protein intake. In contrast, clinical trials of amino-acid-based PD solutions have not met expectations and cannot be recommended for routine use for treatment of protein-energy wasting. In conclusion, it is important to consider these unique nutritional considerations when providing care to patients undergoing PD. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa; de Melo, Thiago Araújo; Neves, Daniela; Luna, Julianne; Esquivel, Mateus Souza; Guimarães, André Raimundo França; Borges, Daniel Lago; Petto, Jefferson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. Objective To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. Results 50 patients, 27 (54%) males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073) and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031). Conclusion We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:27556313

  15. Functional Assessments in Patients Undergoing Radial Forearm Flap Following Hemiglossectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangru; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Shu

    2016-03-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the functional outcomes following radial forearm free-flap reconstruction with a focus on radiotherapy. A 2-year prospective study was performed. A total of 47 patients were enrolled finally. They were asked to complete the swallowing, chewing, speech domains of the University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. Swallowing capacity was apparently affected after surgery, but no patients reported there was chokes cough during eating, the mean score was 51.1 (SD: 21.3). Most patients (70.2%) presented their articulation was good enough for everyday life, and the mean score was 60.0 (SD: 21.1). As for chewing, only 7 (14.9%) patients complained there was negative effect, and the mean score was as high as 92.6 (SD: 18.0). Compared to patients with surgery only, patients with postoperative radiotherapy only had significantly worse swallowing and speech capacity. Compared with patients with postoperative radiotherapy only, patients with both preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy tended to have better swallowing and speech. No significant differences were found between chewing and radiotherapy. In most patients, the results of swallowing, speech, and chewing are favorable. Postoperative radiotherapy has an apparent impact on functional impairment, but preoperative tends to preserve the original tongue function.

  16. Responsive measures to prehabilitation in patients undergoing bowel resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Jun; Mayo, Nancy E; Carli, Franco; Montgomery, David L; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2009-02-01

    Surgical patients often show physiological and metabolic distress, muscle weakness, and long hospital stays. Physical conditioning might help recovery. We attempted to identify the most responsive measure of aerobic fitness from a four-week pre-surgical aerobic exercise program (prehabilitation) in patients undergoing major bowel resection. Twenty-one subjects randomized two to one (exercise: control) scheduled for colorectal surgery. Fourteen subjects [Body Mass Index (BMI) = 27 +/- 6 kg/m(2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) = 22 +/- 10 ml/kg/min] underwent 3.8 +/- 1.2 weeks (27 +/- 8 sessions) of progressive, structured pre-surgical aerobic exercise training at 40 to 65% of heart rate reserve (%HRR). Peak power output was the only maximal measure that was responsive to training [26 +/- 27%, Effects Size (ES) = 0.24; Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 1.05; p < 0.05]. For the submaximal measures, heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise was most responsive to training (decrease by 13% +/- 15%, ES = -0.24; SRM = -0.57; and 7% +/- 6%, ES = -0.40; SRM -0.97; p < 0.05) at an exercise intensity of 76 +/- 47 W. There was no change to maximal or submaximal measures in the control group. The distance walked over six minutes improved in both groups (by approximately 30 m), but the effect size and t-statistic were higher in the exercise group. Heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise, and peak power output are the most responsive measures to four weeks of prehabilitation in subjects with low initial fitness.

  17. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  18. Acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Presta, Piera; Saturno, Laura; Fuiano, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery ranges from 7.7% to 28.1% in different studies, probably in relation to the criteria adopted to define AKI. AKI markedly increases mortality risk. However, despite the development of less invasive techniques, cardiac surgery remains the first option in many conditions such as severe coronary artery disease, valve diseases and complex interventions. The risk of postsurgery AKI can be reduced by adopting less invasive approaches, such as off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but these options cannot be employed in all cases. Thus, since traditional cardiac surgery remains the only option in many cases, it is important to adopt strategies helping the clinician to prevent AKI or diagnose it early. Old age, preprocedural chronic kidney disease, obesity, some comorbidities, wide pulse pressure and some pharmacological regimens represent risk factors for postsurgery AKI and mortality. Important intraoperative factor are use and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative efforts should be aimed toward maximizing cardiac output, avoiding drugs vasoconstricting the renal artery, providing adequate crystalloid infusion and alkalinizing urine. Fluid management should not be based on the measurements for cardiac filling pressures, which are mostly unreliable in these patients. Novel biomarkers such as cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 and human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin have been found to change earlier than creatinine, particularly when measured in combination, so their use in clinical practice can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of AKI. The occurrence of oliguria despite adequate cardiovascular therapy can be managed with furosemide, possibly using continuous infusion, or renal replacement therapy.

  19. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin; Bizos, Damon; O'Farrell, Peter

    2010-10-06

    (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.11), bacteriaemia (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.78), and pancreatitis (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.00). In random-effects meta-analyses, only the effect on bacteriaemia remained significant. Overall mortality was not reduced (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.32 to 5.44). If one selects patients in whom the ERCP resolved the biliary obstruction at the first procedure, there seem to be no significant benefit in using prophylactic antibiotics to prevent cholangitis (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.69, only three trials). Prophylactic antibiotics reduce bacteriaemia and seem to prevent cholangitis and septicaemia in patients undergoing elective ERCP. In the subgroup of patients with uncomplicated ERCP, the effect of antibiotics may be less evident. Further research is required to determine whether antibiotics can be given during or after an ERCP if it becomes apparent that biliary obstruction cannot be relieved during that procedure.

  20. Examination of the anxiety level in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Çürük, Gülsüm N; Tekinsoy Kartın, Pınar; Yüceler Kaçmaz, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of anxiety in patients with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The research was carried out at a university's Heart Hospital, echocardiography laboratory between the dates of January-October 2014. Data were collected with Patient Identification Form, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. The level of state and trait anxiety was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Signed forms of consent for the study were obtained from patients after the ethics committee approval. Descriptive statistics, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical data analysis. The study included 102 patients who were admitted to the cardiology department for TEE. The mean age of the patients was 44.12±16.86 years and 52.9% were men. About 46.5% of them graduated from primary school, 74.5% were married, and 52.0% has moderate income. Approximately half the patients reported that they had received information for TEE. State anxiety scores of patients ranged from 31 to 66 (mean±SD; 46.7±8.7), and their trait anxiety scores ranged from 28 to 52 (mean±SD; 44.4±4.3). Low educational level, female gender, and hospitalized patients' state anxiety point were very high and statistically significant. Anxiety level should be determined in this patients, and appropriate nursing care should be done for high anxiety score patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program in Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Junjie; Szatmary, Peter; Huang, Wei; de la Iglesia-Garcia, Daniel; Nunes, Quentin M.; Xia, Qing; Hu, Weiming; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xubao; Raraty, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    -regression analysis. Our study suggested that ERAS was as safe as CPC and improved recovery of patients undergoing PD, thus reducing in-hospital costs. General adoption of ERAS protocols during PD should be recommended. PMID:27149448

  2. Impact of preoperative defecation pattern on postoperative constipation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Iyigun, Emine; Ayhan, Hatice; Demircapar, Aslı; Tastan, Sevinc

    2017-02-01

    To analyse the impact of preoperative defecation pattern on postoperative defecation pattern for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Constipation is a neglected problem that occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Descriptive study. The study sample comprised 102 patients who underwent cardiac surgery. A Descriptive Information Form, Rome III Diagnostic Criteria, Constipation Severity Instrument, Postoperative Defecation Pattern Evaluation Form and Bristol Stool Form Scale were used for data collection and analysis. The Constipation Severity Instrument scores of just over one-third (37·2%) of the patients who were constipated prior to surgery were higher compared to those who were not constipated. Following cardiac surgery, 39·2% of patients developed constipation and 80% of these patients were constipated prior to cardiac surgery. The findings indicate a significantly high relationship between preoperative and postoperative defecation pattern (r = 0·71, p < 0·001). Preoperative defecation pattern is a determining factor for the development of postoperative constipation for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. During the preoperative period, clinical nurses may evaluate the patients' defecation patterns using valid and reliable scales and follow the defecation of the patients, especially patients with defecation problems, during the postoperative period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clearance and synthesis rates of beta 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis and in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Floege, J.; Bartsch, A.; Schulze, M.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M.; Smeby, L.C. )

    1991-08-01

    Retention of {beta} 2-microglobulin in patients undergoing hemodialysis is associated with a {beta} 2-microglobulin-derived amyloidosis. Removal of {beta} 2-microglobulin by renal replacement therapy has been proposed for the prevention of this amyloidosis. Currently, however, data on the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in patients undergoing hemodialysis are scarce, and consequently it remains speculative how much removal would be necessary to counterbalance synthesis. The plasma kinetics of iodine 131-labeled {beta} 2-microglobulin were therefore examined in 11 patients with anuria who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Five healthy persons served as controls. Kinetic modeling of the plasma curves showed that the data fitted a two-pool model (r2 greater than 0.96) consisting of a rapid 2 to 4 hour distribution phase followed by a less steep curve, described by the plasma (metabolic) clearance (Clp). Synthetic rates were calculated from Clp and the {beta} 2-microglobulin steady state plasma concentration (plus {beta} 2-microglobulin removal during hemodialysis in the case of high flux hemodialysis). The results showed a significantly higher Clp in normal controls as compared with patients undergoing hemodialysis (65.5 {plus minus} 12.8 ml/min (mean {plus minus} SD) versus 3.4 {plus minus} 0.7 ml/min). In contrast, the {beta} 2-microglobulin synthesis rate in the patient group (3.10 {plus minus} 0.79 mg/kg/day) was not significantly different from that of normal controls (2.40 {plus minus} 0.67 mg/kg/day), which was due to markedly elevated {beta} 2-microglobulin plasma concentrations in the patients (37.6 {plus minus} 14.1 mg/L vs 1.92 {plus minus} 0.27 mg/L). These findings suggest that the presence of end-stage renal disease does not have a significant impact on the beta 2-microglobulin generation rate.

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: preventive strategies and key recommendations.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Shounak; Soriano, Jose; Louie Cruz, Allan; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2013-01-01

    Advances in bariatric surgery have brought about a paradigm shift in the management of obesity, with benefits extending beyond weight loss. However, nutritional deficiencies are an inherent problem in the postoperative period and often require lifelong supplementation. Vitamin B12, also referred to as cobalamin, is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies affecting this population. This review explores the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and provides an overview of the effectiveness of various available vitamin B12 formulations. To identify the relevant literature, a systematic review of MEDLINE was conducted from the earliest dates through September 2012 for English-language articles describing the prevention and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Intramuscular vitamin B12 continues to be the gold standard of therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially in symptomatic patients. In select patients with asymptomatic vitamin B12 deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), high-dose oral cyanocobalamin should be given a consideration, especially when there are concerns with the adherence to intramuscular therapy or if compliance comes into question. Unlike patients post-RYGB, those undergoing restrictive procedures such as gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy may be maintained postoperatively on a lower-dose daily vitamin B12 supplementation. Efficacy data of nasal and sublingual routes for maintenance therapy is currently awaited. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery must be continuously educated on proper nutrition, the risk of developing significant vitamin B12 deficiency, and the role of supplements in avoiding catastrophic consequences. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The management of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation: in-hospital-data from the Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting study.

    PubMed

    Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lahtela, Heli; Valencia, Josè; Karjalainen, Pasi P; Weber, Michael; Laine, Mika; Kirchhof, Paulus; Niemelä, Matti; Vikman, Saila; Buerke, Michael; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2013-12-01

    Current recommendations on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent (PCI-S) essentially derive from small, single-center, retrospective datasets. To obtain larger and better quality data, we carried out the prospective, multicenter Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting (AFCAS) study. Therefore, consecutive patients with history of or ongoing AF undergoing PCI-S were enrolled, and occurrence of adverse ischemic and bleeding events recorded during 12 months follow-up. In this article, we report the in-hospital observations. Out of the 963 patients, in the majority of cases (49.1%) AF was permanent. The associated risk of stroke, as defined by a CHADS2 -score ≥2, was in 70% of patients moderate to high. Upon enrollment in the registry, 69.3% of patients were on VKA therapy. Overall occurrence of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events was 4.5% (cardiovascular death 1.9%, urgent revascularization in 1.5%, and stroke/arterial thromboembolism in 0.6%). Bleeding complications occurred in 7.1% of patients, being severe in 2.5%. In a logistic regression analysis, no risk factor was independently associated with bleeding events, whereas Clopidogrel treatment decreased and female gender/treatment with gpIIb/IIIa-antagonists, respectively increased the risk for the combined ischemic endpoint. The majority of AF patients undergoing PCI-S are at high stroke risk, and therefore VKA treatment should not be withdrawn and combined anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment is warranted. Current management appears largely in accordance with current recommendations, whereby accounting for the limited occurrence of in-hospital adverse ischemic and bleeding events.

  6. Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-09-26

    Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared

  7. Glycated Albumin Predicts Long-term Survival in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chien-Lin; Ma, Wen-Ya; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Liu, Yueh-Min; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients with advanced renal dysfunction undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, glycated albumin (GA) levels may be more representative of blood glucose levels than hemoglobin A1C levels. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of GA levels on long-term survival in hemodialysis patients. Methods: A total of 176 patients with a mean age of 68.2 years were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 51.0 months. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was utilized to determine the optimal cutoff value. We examined the cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier estimates and the influence of known survival factors with the multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression model. Results: In the whole patient group, cumulative survival in the low GA group was better than in the high GA group (p=0.030), with more prominence in those aged <70 years (p=0.029). In subgroup analysis, both diabetic (DM) and non-DM patients with low GA had a better cumulative survival compared with those with high GA. The risk of mortality increased by 3.0% for each 1% increase in serum GA level in all patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusions: In addition to serving as a glycemic control marker, GA levels may be useful for evaluating the risk of death in both DM and non-DM patients on hemodialysis. PMID:27226780

  8. A systematic review of sleep disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Nina Teixeira; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Nacif, Sergio Roberto; Silva, Anderson Soares; Peixoto, Roger Andre Oliveira; Urbano, Giovanni Julioti; Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Santos, Israel Reis; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on sleep disorders in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD). [Subjects and Methods] Two independent reviewers performed a computer-assisted search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS, and BIREME Virtual Health Library medical databases from their inception to November 2015. [Results] One thousand one hundred twenty-six articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if they were not in English, the patients did not undergo HD, or the studies were not cross-sectional or clinical trials. After reading the full text, a further 300 studies were excluded because they did not use polysomnography. The remaining 18 studies with ESRD patients undergoing HD comprised 8 clinical trials and 10 cross-sectional studies. This systematic review followed the criteria outlined by the PRISMA declaration. [Conclusion] In this systematic review, a high prevalence of sleep disorders was observed in ESRD, including sleep-disordered breathing. This knowledge may enable health professionals to devise new strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve their quality of life. PMID:27512289

  9. Mucositis and salivary antioxidants in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Marcelo A.; López, María M.; Linares, Jorge A.; Jarchum, Gustavo; Wietz, Fernando M.; Finkelberg, Ana B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: High doses of chemotherapy generate DNA damage in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to evaluate the local defensive effectiveness of the patient undergoing BMT, the concentrations of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and uric acid (UA) were measured in saliva. Study Design: Basal saliva samples were collected from 20 patients undergoing BMT at the Oncology Department, Sanatorio Allende (Córdoba), in the stages: initial, prior to conditioning therapy (I); middle: 7 to 10 days after BMT (M) and final stage, 30 days after discharge from isolation (F). SOD levels were determined using a RANDOX kit (RANSOD superoxide dismutase manual), and for uric acid enzymatic UOD / PAP spectrophotometric method, ( Trinder Color Kit , Wiener Lab) was used. Results: 85% of the patients developed oral mucositis. SOD concentration in the M stage was significantly higher (p<0.01) compared with stage I, and it reversed in stage F. UA concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in stage M compared with stage I, and in stage F it recovered the initial values. Conclusions: SOD increase in stage M coincided with the appearance of mucositis, which could be interpreted as a defensive mechanism of saliva against oxidative stress produced by chemotherapy. UA decrease in stage M would favour the development of higher degrees of mucositis. Key words:Bone marrow transplantation, mucositis, superoxide dismutase, uric acid. PMID:24608218

  10. Microparticles in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Wernly, Bernhard; Goebel, Bjoern; Foerster, Martin; Edlinger, Christoph; Lauten, Alexander

    2016-08-03

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent form of acquired valvular heart disease. AS is known to entail endothelial dysfunction caused by increased mechanical shear stress leading to elevated circulatory levels of microparticles. Endothelial and platelet microparticles (EMP and PMP) are small vesicles that originate from activated cells and thrombocytes. We sought to evaluate whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure would elicit effects on circulating EMP and PMP. 92 patients undergoing TAVI procedure for severe AS were included in this study. Samples were obtained at each visit before TAVI, 1 week post-procedure and at 1, 3 and after 6 months after TAVI and were evaluated using flow cytometry. A 12 month clinical follow-up was also performed. CD62E+ EMP concentration before TAVI was 21.11 % (±6.6 % SD) and declined to 20.99 % (±6.8 % SD) after 1 week, to 16.63 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 1 month, to 17.08 % (±4.6 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 3 months and to 15.94 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 6 months. CD31+/CD42b-, CD31+/Annexin+/- EMP remained unchanged. CD31+/CD41b+ PMP evidenced a slight, but statistically significant increase after TAVI and remained elevated during the entire follow-up. Apart from a procedure-related improvement in echocardiographic parameters, TAVI procedure led also to a decline in CD62E+ EMP. The reduction in pressure gradients with less hemodynamic shear stress seems also to have beneficially affected endothelial homeostasis.

  11. The use of lipid-lowering therapy for secondary prevention in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jessica M; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Genus, Uchenwa; Dzavik, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent literature suggests that lipid-lowering therapy may have an early beneficial effect among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because the therapy decreases cardiac mortality, morbidity and possibly restenosis. OBJECTIVE The primary objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of PCI patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy at a large, tertiary-care referral centre. METHODS Patients undergoing a first PCI between August 2000 and August 2002 with corresponding inpatient medication information were included in the study. Patient demographics, procedural variables, and lipid-lowering and other evidence-based cardiac medication data were collected. A multiple logistical regression model was constructed to evaluate the factors associated with the use of lipid-lowering therapy. RESULTS Of the 3254 cases included in the analyses, 52% were elective, 44% were urgent or salvage, and 4% were emergent. The mean patient age was 63 years, and 73% of patients were male. Over 76% of patients were receiving lipid-lowering therapy at the time of PCI. Patient use of other medications was as follows: acetylsalicylic acid in 96%, beta-blocker in 80% and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in 59%. In the multiple regression analysis, variables significantly associated with lipid-lowering therapy use included hypercholesterolemia, beta-blocker use, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, case urgency, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, age and sex. CONCLUSION Lipid-lowering therapy use rates exceeded those previously reported in the literature. Women and patients undergoing elective procedures appear to be treated less often with lipid-lowering therapy. There remains an opportunity to further optimize use in this high-risk cohort at time of PCI. PMID:16639478

  12. Untreated Mitral Regurgitation Does Not Affect Survival of Elderly Patients Undergoing TAVI.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Shuli; Fink, Daniel; Butnaru, Adi; Balkin, Jonathan; Almagor, Yaron; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    The study aim was to examine the impact of concomitant significant mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). TAVI has become an acceptable mode of treatment for high-surgical risk patients with aortic stenosis (AS) requiring valve replacement. A significant number of patients have concomitant MR which cannot be addressed by TAVI alone, and therefore may not be considered candidates for this procedure. A comparison was conducted of results obtained from patients undergoing TAVI with or without MR. Between 2008 and 2013, a total of 164 patients (mean age 81 ± 8 years) underwent TAVI at the authors' institution. Of these patients, 87 (53%) had MR of moderate or greater degree. The groups were similar with respect to age, gender, presence of congestive heart failure, left ventricular function and co-morbid conditions. The logistic EuroSCORE was higher in the MR group (p = 0.02). Procedural (30-day) mortality was 12% (n = 19) and similar between groups. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed the overall survival at three years to be 68% and 76% for the MR and non-MR groups, respectively (p = 0.6). By Cox regression, age (p = 0.007) and peripheral vascular disease (p = 0.03) were the only predictors of late survival. Regression of MR was seen in patients with functional MR. Neither the presence of MR nor residual MR emerged as predictors of late mortality. In elderly patients undergoing TAVI the presence of MR does not impact survival. TAVI should not be withheld from this group of patients because of concomitant MR.

  13. Factors affecting acute pain perception and analgesics consumption in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Paola; Lai, Carlo; Perilli, Valter; Sacco, Teresa; Modesti, Cristina; Raffaelli, Marco; Sollazzi, Liliana

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies performed in non-obese patients undergoing elective surgery have revealed that psychological factors may affect postoperative analgesic requirements. The aim of this observational prospective study was to investigate the extent to which psychopathological dimensions, including anxiety, depression and alexithymia, may influence postoperative pain intensity and analgesics consumption using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. 120 patients, aged 18-60years, with an ASA physical status I-II, undergoing gastric bypass were enrolled. Anxiety and depression Hamilton scales, and Toronto Alexithymia scale, were administered to patients on the day before surgery. General anesthesia was standardized. After awakening, a PCA pump with intravenous tramadol was immediately made available for a 36-hour postoperative analgesia. Visual analog scale at rest (VASr) and after coughing (VASi), and effective PCA requests number were postoperatively recorded. Pearson's correlations, Anova analyses and multiple linear regression were used for statistical purpose. Positive correlations were found between anxiety, depression, alexithymia and all pain indicators (p<0.01). Analyses of variance showed that anxious (p<0.001), depressed (p<0.001) and alexithymic (p<0.05) patients had high pain indicators. VASr and VASi were predicted by anxiety and depression (p<0.05), but not by alexithymia; effective PCA requests number was predicted by anxiety, depression and alexithymia (p<0.001). Obese patients with high depression, anxiety and alexithymia levels rated their pain as more intense and required a larger amount of tramadol. Pain perception intensity was predicted by anxiety and depression but not by alexithymia, whereas analgesics consumption was predicted by all the investigated psychopathological dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A survey of physiotherapeutic provision for patients undergoing thoracic surgery in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P; Reeve, J; Dromard, S; Singh, S; Steyn, R S; Naidu, B

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of physiotherapeutic provision for patients undergoing open thoracotomy and lung surgery in the U.K. Timing of physiotherapy, modalities used and factors influencing practice were also investigated. Survey. Tertiary centres performing thoracic surgery. Forty U.K. centres were identified, and senior physiotherapists were invited to participate. A postal survey was distributed to identified centres in August 2008, with further follow-up of non-responders. This was adapted from a similar study conducted in Australia and New Zealand. Thirty-one responses were received (78%). Pre-operative physiotherapy was provided by 87% of respondents: 10% provided physiotherapy for all patients and 77% only provided physiotherapy for high-risk patients. Pre-operative pulmonary rehabilitation was reported in 13% of centres. Postoperative physiotherapeutic assessment was undertaken routinely by 97% of respondents: 81% provided physiotherapy to all patients, and 16% only provided physiotherapy when a specific problem was identified. The treatments given were relatively standardised. The provision of physiotherapy following hospital discharge was generally very sparse. This study provides a guide for physiotherapists working with patients undergoing thoracic surgery to use to compare their current practices. Postoperative physiotherapy is provided extensively to UK patients undergoing open thoracotomy. However, pre-operative provision is more variable and is mainly provided for high-risk patients. Despite the subsequent publication of pre- and postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation studies, UK physiotherapy practice remained similar to that reported in Australia and New Zealand. Further research in this field is necessary to investigate the role of pre-operative physiotherapy, the role of pre- and postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, and the effectiveness of routine postoperative physiotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  15. [Efficacy of parenteral glutamine in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Oliva García, J G; Pereyra-García Castro, F; Suárez Llanos, J P; Ríos Rull, P; Breña Atienza, J; Palacio Abizanda, J E

    2012-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) represents a high metabolic stress. Glutamine has proven to be effective in severe catabolic states, although there are controversial studies. To assess the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy supplemented with glutamine on the occurrence of mucositis and mean hospital stay in patients submitted to ABMT. Retrospective study of patients submitted to ABMT between 2006 and 2009. In 2008, one vial of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (20 g) was added by protocol to the PN formulations of these patients. Thirteen clinical charts since that date (glutamine group) and 13 previous charts (control group) were randomly selected (n = 26). We compared the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in both groups. In the subgroup of glutamine-treated patients, we compare the glutamine dose in the patients developing some degree of mucositis with that of those not having this complication. Mean hospital stay: 27.8 ± 7.4 days (control group) vs. 20.3 ± 5.3 days (glutamine group) (p = 0.01). The severity of mucositis was lower in the glutaminetreated group (p = 0.02). The weight-adjusted dose of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the patients not developing mucositis was higher than in the other ones (0.32 vs. 0.24 g/kg/day; p = 0.02). Glutamine supplementation reduces the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in patients submitted to autologous bone marrow transplantation. The degree of mucositis is lower in the subgroup of patients receiving higher doses of glutamine.

  16. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  17. Clinical and prognostic implications of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Pablo; Moreno, Raúl; Calvo, Luis; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; Galeote, Guillermo; Sánchez-Recalde, Angel; López-Fernández, Teresa; Garcia-Blas, Sergio; Iglesias, Diego; Riera, Luis; Moreno-Gómez, Isidro; Mesa, Jose María; Plaza, Ignacio; Ayala, Rocio; Gonzalez, Rosa; López-Sendón, José-Luis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study a cohort of consecutive patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare the outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients vs patients in sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing TAVI in our hospital were included. The AF group comprised patients in AF at the time of TAVI or with history of AF, and were compared with the SR group. Procedural, echocardiographic and follow-up variables were compared. Likewise, the CHA2DS2-VASC stroke risk score and HAS-BLED bleeding risk score and antithrombotic treatment at discharge in AF patients were compared with that in SR patients. RESULTS: From a total of 34 patients undergoing TAVI, 17 (50%) were allocated to the AF group, of whom 15 (88%) were under chronic oral anticoagulation. Patients in the AF group were similar to those in the SR group except for a trend (P = 0.07) for a higher logistic EuroSCORE (28% vs 19%), and a higher prevalence of hypertension (82% vs 53%) and chronic renal failure (17% vs 0%). Risk of both stroke and bleeding was high in the AF group (mean CHA2DS2-VASC 4.3, mean HAS-BLED 2.9). In the AF group, treatment at discharge included chronic oral anticoagulation in all except one case, and in association with an antiplatelet drug in 57% of patients. During a mean follow-up of 11 mo (maximum 32), there were only two strokes, none of them during the peri-procedural period: one in the AF group at 30 mo and one in the SR group at 3 mo. There were no statistical differences in procedural success, and clinical outcome (survival at 1 year 81% vs 74% in AF and SR groups, respectively, P = NS). CONCLUSION: Patients in AF undergoing TAVI show a trend to a higher surgical risk. However, in our cohort, patients in AF did not have a higher stroke rate compared to the SR group, and the prognosis was similar in both groups. PMID:22279599

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Ampicillin/Sulbactam in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury undergoing Extended Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Johan M.; Broll, Michael; Kaever, Volkhard; Burhenne, Heike; Hafer, Carsten; Clajus, Christian; Knitsch, Wolfgang; Burkhardt, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The fixed antibacterial combination of ampicillin and sulbactam is frequently used for various infections. Intact kidneys eliminate approximately 71% of ampicillin and 78% of sulbactam. Patients on thrice-weekly low-flux hemodialysis exhibit an ampicillin t1/2 of 2.3 hours on and 17.4 hours off dialysis. Despite its frequent use in intensive care units, there are no available dosing recommendations for patients with AKI undergoing renal replacement therapy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin/sulbactam in critically ill patients with AKI undergoing extended dialysis (ED) and to establish a dosing recommendation for this treatment method. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twelve critically ill patients with anuric AKI being treated with ED were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, observational pharmacokinetic study. Pharmacokinetics after a single dose of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) was obtained in 12 patients. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics after 4 days of twice-daily ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) was obtained in three patients. Results The mean dialyzer clearance for ampicillin/sulbactam was 80.1±7.7/83.3±12.1 ml/min. The t1/2 of ampicillin and sulbactam in patients with AKI undergoing ED were 2.8±0.8 hours and 3.5±1.5 hours, respectively. There was no significant accumulation using a twice-daily dosage of 2 g/1 g ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusions Our data suggest that in patients treated with ED using a high-flux dialyzer (polysulphone, 1.3 m2; blood and dialysate flow, 160 ml/min; treatment time, 480 minutes), a twice-daily dosing schedule of at least 2 g/1 g ampicillin/sulbactam, with one dose given after ED, should be used to avoid underdosing. PMID:22223613

  19. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B. )

    1990-06-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken.

  20. Patient Outcomes and Factors Associated with Healing in Calciphylaxis Patients Undergoing Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Norman; Wojcik, Susan M; Heyboer, Marvin

    2015-12-01

    Calcific uremic arteriolopathy, also known as calciphylaxis, is a rare syndrome of small vessel calcification of unknown etiology causing painful, violaceous skin lesions that progress to form chronic non-healing ulcers and gangrene. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of these ulcers. However, due to paucity of cases, there is limited data on the clinical benefit of HBOT and identifying factors associated with healing. The purpose of this study was to determine patient outcomes and factors associated with healing in patients with calciphylaxis undergoing HBOT. A retrospective chart review was completed on patients who were diagnosed with calciphylaxis and had hyperbaric medicine consultation between May 2012 and January 2016. Clinical outcomes, demographics, risk factors, laboratory values, wound distribution, and HBOT profiles were collected and analyzed. We identified 8 patients. Out of 8 patients consulted for calciphylaxis, five were consented and underwent HBOT (2 males and 3 females). All had coexisting ESRD and Diabetes. All males were able to tolerate being in the chamber and received therapeutic treatments (at least 20 HBOT) with complete resolution of ulcers. HBOT was discontinued in one female due to an inconsistent biopsy report and two others due to death secondary to septic shock or respiratory arrest and severe uremia. Calciphylaxis is a devastating disease with a high mortality rate. Our results demonstrated a positive response to HBOT especially when receiving at least 20 treatments. A majority of calciphylaxis cases are females and indeed female gender has been cited as a risk factor for this disease. However, current literature has not conferred a relationship between gender nor the number of HBOT received and outcomes. Our results showed that males had a more favorable outcome provided they received at least twenty HBOT. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate these outcomes.

  1. Scoring System Prognostic of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Malone, Adriana K.; Valcárcel, David; Grunwald, Michael R.; Bacher, Ulrike; Hamilton, Betty; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Saad, Ayman; Cutler, Corey; Warlick, Erica; Reshef, Ran; Wirk, Baldeep Mona; Sabloff, Mitchell; Fasan, Omotayo; Gerds, Aaron; Marks, David; Olsson, Richard; Wood, William Allen; Costa, Luciano J.; Miller, Alan M.; Cortes, Jorge; Daly, Andrew; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L.; Kamble, Rammurti; Rizzieri, David A.; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Gale, Robert Peter; William, Basem; Litzow, Mark; Wiernik, Peter H.; Liesveld, Jane; Savani, Bipin N.; Vij, Ravi; Ustun, Celalettin; Copelan, Edward; Popat, Uday; Kalaycio, Matt; Maziarz, Richard; Alyea, Edwin; Sobecks, Ron; Pavletic, Steven; Tallman, Martin; Saber, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a system prognostic of outcome in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients and Methods We examined 2,133 patients with MDS undergoing HLA-matched (n = 1,728) or -mismatched (n = 405) allo HCT from 2000 to 2012. We used a Cox multivariable model to identify factors prognostic of mortality in a training subset (n = 1,151) of the HLA-matched cohort. A weighted score using these factors was assigned to the remaining patients undergoing HLA-matched allo HCT (validation cohort; n = 577) as well as to patients undergoing HLA-mismatched allo HCT. Results Blood blasts greater than 3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.85), platelets 50 × 109/L or less at transplantation (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), Karnofsky performance status less than 90% (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), comprehensive cytogenetic risk score of poor or very poor (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80), and age 30 to 49 years (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.35) were associated with increased hazard of death and assigned 1 point in the scoring system. Monosomal karyotype (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45) and age 50 years or older (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.83) were assigned 2 points. The 3-year overall survival after transplantation in patients with low (0 to 1 points), intermediate (2 to 3), high (4 to 5) and very high (≥ 6) scores was 71% (95% CI, 58% to 85%), 49% (95% CI, 42% to 56%), 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%), and 25% (95% CI, 4% to 46%), respectively (P < .001). Increasing score was predictive of increased relapse (P < .001) and treatment-related mortality (P < .001) in the HLA-matched set and relapse (P < .001) in the HLA-mismatched cohort. Conclusion The proposed system is prognostic of outcome in patients undergoing HLA-matched and -mismatched allo HCT for MDS. PMID:27044940

  2. Do patients undergoing MitraClip implantation require routine ICU admission?

    PubMed

    Di Prima, Ambra L; Covello, Daniel R; Franco, Annalisa; Gerli, Chiara; Lembo, Rosalba; Denti, Paolo; Godino, Cosmo; Taramasso, Maurizio; Maisano, Francesco; Pappalardo, Federico

    2014-12-01

    Because of its reduced invasiveness, MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) therapy usually is reserved for patients with extreme left ventricular dysfunction or severe comorbidity contraindicating surgery. The appropriate post-procedural care in this high-risk population is yet to be defined. In this study, the postoperative course of such patients is reported, focusing on early complications and need for intensive care unit (ICU) management. A retrospective analysis of patients with severe mitral regurgitation undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system in the authors institution was performed. One hundred thirty patients underwent MitraClip implantation between 2008 and 2012. At the end of the procedure, all patients were admitted to the ICU. Median ICU stay was 0.98 (0.82-1.87) days. Median mechanical ventilation time was 9.5 (6.8-14.1) hours. One hundred one patients (78%) required inotropic support and 13 patients (10%) suffered cardiogenic shock and required intra-aortic balloon pump support. No patient died during the procedure, but 3 patients died in the ICU. Three postoperative course profiles were identified: Fast-track, overnight stay, and critical illness. Twenty-four patients (18.5%) had an uneventful postoperative course, 89 patients (68.5%) suffered minor complications, and 17 patients (13.1%) required intensive care management and organ support. Preoperative serum creatinine (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; p = 0.014), cardiogenic shock (OR 34,8; p = 0.002), ventricular tachycardia (OR 2.8; p = 0.03), and intra procedural inotropes (OR 4; p = 0.001) were correlated with a complicated postoperative course. A large number of patients undergoing MitraClip could be managed with a fast-track ICU course; however, it still is difficult to predict the postoperative course based on preoperative characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of visual and audiovisual distraction on pain and anxiety among patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiaolian, Jiang; Xiaolin, Li; Lan, Zhou Hui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effects of visual and audiovisual distraction on pain, anxiety, and procedure tolerance among patients undergoing colonoscopy. A prospective, randomized, controlled design was used with 180 consecutive patients who underwent colonoscopy. Subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Group A received visual distraction, Group B received audiovisual distraction, Group C with routine care. Outcome variables included pain, anxiety, and willingness to undergo colonoscopy again if the procedure was to be repeated. No significant difference was found on the pain scores of the 3 groups. However, when groups A and B were further divided into groups A1, A2, A3 (low-, middle-, high-involvement groups), and B1, B2, B3 (low-, middle-, high-involvement groups) according to the level of distraction involvement, significant differences in pain scores were found between 7 groups (A1 and A3, A2 and A3, A1 and B3, A2 and B3, A3 and C, B1 and B3, B3 and C). The pain score of Group A3 was significantly lower than those of groups A1, A2, and C, and the pain score of Group B3 was significantly lower than those of groups B1 and C. The reduction of anxiety levels after procedure was insignificant between the 2 intervention groups and control group. The rates of willingness to undergo colonoscopy again if the procedure was to be repeated of the 2 intervention groups were significantly higher than that of the control group. Visual and audiovisual distraction is effective in promoting pain control for patients undergoing colonoscopy and improving their tolerance of the procedure.

  4. Inter-individual differences in cytokine release in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Roth-Isigkeit, A; Hasselbach, L; Ocklitz, E; Brückner, S; Ros, A; Gehring, H; Schmucker, P; Rink, L; Seyfarth, M

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) leads to a systemic inflammatory response with secretion of cytokines (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and sIL-2R). The objective of the following study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo cytokine responses and white blood cell counts (WBC) of patients with high versus low cytokine secretion after a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure. Twenty male patients undergoing elective CABG surgery with CPB under general anaesthesia were enrolled in the study. On the day of surgery (postoperatively), serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher in patients of the high IL-6 level group compared to the respective values in the patient group with low IL-6 levels. The inter-individual differences in IL-6 release in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB were accompanied by differences in the release of other cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and sIL-2R. To understand whether genetic background plays a role in influencing cytokine plasma levels under surgical stress, we examined the distribution of polymorphic elements within the promoter regions of the TNF-α and IL-6 genes, and determined their genotype regarding the BAT2 gene and TNF-β intron polymorphisms. Our preliminary data suggests that regulatory polymorphisms in or near the TNF locus, more precisely the allele set 140/150 of the BAT2 microsatellite marker combined with the G allele at −308 of the TNF-α gene, could be one of the genetic constructions providing for a less sensitive response to various stimuli. Our results suggest: (1) close relationships between cytokine release in the postoperative period, and (2) inter-individually varying patterns of cytokine release in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CPB. PMID:11472429

  5. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Liberal Vs Restricted Perioperative Fluid Management in Patients Undergoing Pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Florence; Brennan, Murray F; Allen, Peter J; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Kingham, T Peter; D'Angelica, Michael; Fischer, Mary E; Gonen, Mithat; Zhang, Hao; Jarnagin, William R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine, by a prospective randomized controlled trial, the influence of liberal (LIB) vs restricted (RES) perioperative fluid administration on morbidity following pancreatectomy. Randomized controlled trials in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery have challenged the historical use of LIB fluid administration, suggesting that a more restricted regimen may be associated with fewer postoperative complications. Patients scheduled to undergo pancreatic resection were consented for randomization to a LIB (n = 164) or RES (n = 166) perioperative fluid regimen. Sample size was designed with 80% power to decrease Grade 3 complications from 35% to 21%. Between July 2009 and July 2015, we randomized 330 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, n = 218), central (n = 16), or distal pancreatectomy (DP, n = 96). Patients were equally distributed for all demographic and intraoperative characteristics. Intraoperatively, LIB patients received crystalloid 12 mL/kg/h and RES patients 6 mL/kg/h. Cumulative crystalloid given (median, range, mL) days 0 to 3 was LIB: 12,252 (6600 to 21,365), RES 7808 (2700 to 16,274) P < 0.0001. Sixty-day mortality was 2 of 330 (0.6%). Median operative time for PD was 227 minutes (105 to 462) and DP 150 (44 to 323). Grade 3 complications occurred in 20% of LIB and 27% of RES patients (P = 0.6). Median length of stay was 7 and 5 days for PD and DP, respectively, in both arms. In a high volume institution, major perioperative complications from pancreatic resection were not significantly influenced by fluid regimens that differed approximately 1.6-fold.

  6. Cardiac troponin T in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John V; Watson, Robert E; Jaffe, Allan S; Dalzell, Connie; Acker, Nancy; Felmlee, Joel P; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Cha, Yong-Mei; Friedman, Paul A; Kapa, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been safely performed in many patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) using institution-specific protocols. A potential risk of MRI is myocardial heating and cardiac injury, which might be detectable with cardiac Troponin (cTn). We evaluated this in patients with CIEDs undergoing MRI. Prospective data were collected from 2008 to the present in patients with CIEDs undergoing clinically indicated MRI performed under institutional protocol. Cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) levels were drawn both before and 24–36 h after the procedure. The collective data were retrospectively analyzed. MRI exams (n=512) were performed in 398 patients. Of these, there were 348 unique scans with cTnT recorded before and after MRI (median age 68, IQ 56–78; 62%men). cTnT did not significantly change for the group as a whole (0.00±0.056). There were 22 (6.3 %) exams with cTnT change ≥0.002 ng/mL following MRI (range 0.01–0.09 ng/mL). There were no clinically significant events in these patients directly attributable to MR. There were no significant changes in pacing threshold or impedance in the group with elevated cardiac biomarkers. There are very few situations where myocardial injury as detected by cTnT in patients undergoing MRI with CIEDs could be detected. No adverse clinical events or functional changes of the device were noted, even in those with increases in cTnT. Our experience supports that MRI can be performed safely for appropriately selected patients under close clinical observation. Proactive monitoring with the present iteration of cardiac biomarkers appears to be of limited utility, but prospective monitoring with high sensitivity assays may be able to detect subclinical myocardial damage.

  7. [Management of aortic stenosis in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Labbé, Vincent; Ederhy, Stéphane; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Cohen, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis (valve area <1cm(2) or 0.6cm(2)/m(2) body surface area, and maximum jet velocity ≥4m/sec, and mean aortic pressure gradient ≥40mmHg) undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with symptoms (dyspnoea, angina, syncope, or heart failure). Before any surgery, clinical assessment should search for signs of aortic stenosis which justifies echocardiographic examination, particularly in the elderly. A systematic rest echocardiography with searching aortic stenosis should be considered in patients undergoing high risk surgery. The key points of pre-operative cardiac risk assessment are: assessment of the severity of aortic stenosis, measurement of the functional capacity, evaluation of the left ventricular systolic function, search of associated coronary artery disease, estimate of the surgical risk of cardiac events, and achievement of risk indices. In symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, only urgent non-cardiac surgery should be performed under careful haemodynamic monitoring. Aortic valve replacement should be considered before elective non-cardiac surgery. In asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, aortic valve replacement should be considered before non-cardiac high risk surgery. Non-cardiac surgery at low/intermediate risk can be performed provided an adapted anaesthetic technique.

  8. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Doger, Cihan; Kahveci, Kadriye; Ornek, Dilsen; But, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Mustafa; Gokcinar, Derya; Katar, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, n = 30) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, n = 30). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:27413741

  9. Effects of Low-Flow Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Pulmonary Functions in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Doger, Cihan; Kahveci, Kadriye; Ornek, Dilsen; But, Abdulkadir; Aksoy, Mustafa; Gokcinar, Derya; Katar, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary functions in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classes I and II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to two study groups: high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group H, n = 30) and low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group (Group L, n = 30). The fresh gas flow rate was of 4 L/min in high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group and 1 L/min in low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia group. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and 2, 8, and 24 hours after surgery. Results. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of HR, MABP, SpO2, and ETCO2. Pulmonary function test results were similar in both groups at all measurement times. Conclusions. The effects of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia on pulmonary functions are comparable to high-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  10. Retreatment Rates Among Endometriosis Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy or Laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Du, Ella Xiaoyan; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Haley, Jane C

    2017-06-01

    Hysterectomy and laparoscopy are the two most common surgical options used to treat women with endometriosis, yet the disease may still recur. This study aimed to determine the long-term retreatment rates among endometriosis patients in the United States who received either hysterectomy or laparoscopy. Patients aged 18-49 years with endometriosis who underwent hysterectomy or laparoscopy were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan claims database (2004-2013). The retreatment rate up to 8 years after the initial surgery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The relative risk of retreatment among patients with hysterectomy versus laparoscopy was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 24,915 patients with endometriosis who underwent hysterectomy and 37,308 patients with endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy were identified. The estimated retreatment rates were 3.3%, 4.7%, and 5.4% in the 2nd, 5th, and 8th year following hysterectomy, respectively, while the rates following laparoscopy were 15.8%, 27.5%, and 35.2%, respectively. The hazard ratio of retreatment was 0.157 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.146-0.169) comparing hysterectomy to laparoscopy. In the sensitivity analysis, which expanded the definition of retreatment by including medical treatments, the retreatment rate increased by a factor of 11-14 for the hysterectomy cohort and by a factor of 2-4 for the laparoscopy cohort, and the hazard ratio of retreatment rate for hysterectomy versus laparoscopy was 0.490 (95% CI: 0.477-0.502). Our study results indicated that the disease retreatment rate after laparoscopy is high among patients with endometriosis; even hysterectomy does not guarantee freedom from retreatment.

  11. Sternal wrapping for the prevention of sternal morbidity in elderly osteoporotic patients undergoing median sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Kirbas, Ahmet; Celik, Sezai; Gurer, Onur; Yildiz, Yahya; Isik, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a major risk factor for sternum-related morbidity after median sternotomy, is quite prevalent among the elderly. In this prospective study, we investigated the potential of sternal protection by use of the "sternal wrapping method" in elderly osteoporotic patients who were undergoing median sternotomy.For this study, we chose 100 elderly osteoporotic patients who were scheduled to undergo median sternotomy. During surgery, we wrapped the sternal edges with polyvinyl chloride tubing in 50 patients (group 1) and omitted the sternal wrapping in the remaining 50 patients (group 2). We then compared the groups with regard to postoperative pain, bleeding, early and late sternum-related morbidity, sternal fractures, and duration of hospitalization.Sternal wrapping was associated with fewer sternal fractures, less chest pain, and shorter hospital stays. Overall sternal morbidity was significantly less common among patients with sternal wrapping (4% vs. 20%, P = 0.03); however, the difference in individual rates for early and late dehiscence or deep sternal infection did not reach statistical significance.Sternal wrapping using polyvinyl chloride tubes provides mechanical protection and, apparently, less postoperative chest pain and shorter hospitalizations. Probably, it reduces sternum-related complications, particularly in high-risk patients. Its benefits, however, should be confirmed in larger studies.

  12. Tapered stems one-third proximally coated have higher complication rates than cylindrical two-third coated stems in patients with high hip dislocation undergoing total hip arthroplasty with step-cut shortening osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ozden, V Emre; Dikmen, G; Beksac, B; Tozun, I Remzi

    2017-06-01

    The results of cementless stems in total hip arthroplasty (THA) done because of congenital dislocation with step-cut osteotomy is not well known, particularly the influence of the design and the role of extent of porous coating. Therefore we performed a retrospective study to evaluate the mid to long-term results THA performed with a single type acetabular component and different geometry and fixation type stems with ceramic bearings in the setting of step-cut subtrochanteric osteotomy in high hip dislocated (HHD) patients. We asked if the stem type affect the outcomes in terms of (1) intra and postoperative complication rates (2) radiographic outcomes (3) prosthesis survival in step-cut subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy. The type of the stem, whether cylindrical or tapered does not affect the outcome if the femoral canal fit and fill is obtained and the step-cut femoral shortening osteotomy is primarily fixed. Forty-five hips in 35 patients with a mean follow up of 10 years (range, 7-14 years) were evaluated. The single type cementless cup was placed at the level of the true acetabulum, a step-cut shortening femoral osteotomy was performed and reconstruction was performed with two different types of tapered stem in twenty-two hips (Synergy™ and Image™ proximally coated, Smith and Nephew, Menphis, TN, USA) and one type of cylindrical stem (Echelon™ with 2/3 coated, Smith and Nephew, Menphis, TN, USA) in twenty-three hips. Harris hip scores (HHS) and a University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scores were calculated for all patients and successive X-rays were evaluated regarding component loosening and osteolysis, along with complications related to bearing, step-cut osteotomy and stem types. Forty-one hips (91%) had good and excellent clinical outcome according to HHS. The mean UCLA activity scores improved from 3.2±0.6 points (range, 2-4) preoperatively to 6.3 points±0.5 (range, 5-7) at the latest follow-up. The mean femoral shortening was 36

  13. Scoring System Prognostic of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Brian C; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Malone, Adriana K; Valcárcel, David; Grunwald, Michael R; Bacher, Ulrike; Hamilton, Betty; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Saad, Ayman; Cutler, Corey; Warlick, Erica; Reshef, Ran; Wirk, Baldeep Mona; Sabloff, Mitchell; Fasan, Omotayo; Gerds, Aaron; Marks, David; Olsson, Richard; Wood, William Allen; Costa, Luciano J; Miller, Alan M; Cortes, Jorge; Daly, Andrew; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Kamble, Rammurti; Rizzieri, David A; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Gale, Robert Peter; William, Basem; Litzow, Mark; Wiernik, Peter H; Liesveld, Jane; Savani, Bipin N; Vij, Ravi; Ustun, Celalettin; Copelan, Edward; Popat, Uday; Kalaycio, Matt; Maziarz, Richard; Alyea, Edwin; Sobecks, Ron; Pavletic, Steven; Tallman, Martin; Saber, Wael

    2016-06-01

    To develop a system prognostic of outcome in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We examined 2,133 patients with MDS undergoing HLA-matched (n = 1,728) or -mismatched (n = 405) allo HCT from 2000 to 2012. We used a Cox multivariable model to identify factors prognostic of mortality in a training subset (n = 1,151) of the HLA-matched cohort. A weighted score using these factors was assigned to the remaining patients undergoing HLA-matched allo HCT (validation cohort; n = 577) as well as to patients undergoing HLA-mismatched allo HCT. Blood blasts greater than 3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.85), platelets 50 × 10(9)/L or less at transplantation (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), Karnofsky performance status less than 90% (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), comprehensive cytogenetic risk score of poor or very poor (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80), and age 30 to 49 years (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.35) were associated with increased hazard of death and assigned 1 point in the scoring system. Monosomal karyotype (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45) and age 50 years or older (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.83) were assigned 2 points. The 3-year overall survival after transplantation in patients with low (0 to 1 points), intermediate (2 to 3), high (4 to 5) and very high (≥ 6) scores was 71% (95% CI, 58% to 85%), 49% (95% CI, 42% to 56%), 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%), and 25% (95% CI, 4% to 46%), respectively (P < .001). Increasing score was predictive of increased relapse (P < .001) and treatment-related mortality (P < .001) in the HLA-matched set and relapse (P < .001) in the HLA-mismatched cohort. The proposed system is prognostic of outcome in patients undergoing HLA-matched and -mismatched allo HCT for MDS. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Entecavir and hepatitis B immune globulin in patients undergoing liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Perrillo, Robert; Buti, Maria; Durand, Francois; Charlton, Michael; Gadano, Adrian; Cantisani, Guido; Loong, Che-Chuan; Brown, Kimberly; Hu, Wenhua; Lopez-Talavera, Juan Carlos; Llamoso, Cyril

    2013-08-01

    For patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease, the current standard of care for preventing reinfection of the allograft is nucleoside analogue therapy combined with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG). Entecavir has demonstrated high efficacy and a favorable safety profile for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment, but data for patients undergoing HBV-related LT are limited. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of entecavir combined with various HBIG regimens after CHB-related LT. In this phase 3b, single-arm, open-label study, 65 patients undergoing LT for CHB-related liver disease with an HBV DNA load <172 IU/mL at LT received entecavir (1.0 mg daily) for 72 weeks after LT. The primary endpoint was the proportion of evaluable patients (treated for ≥4 weeks) with virological recurrence (HBV DNA level ≥50 IU/mL) through week 72. Concomitant HBIG therapy was received by 64 of the 65 enrolled patients, and 44% of these patients received high-dose HBIG (any HBIG dose in the specified interval ≥10,000 IU). Through week 72, all 61 patients evaluable for the efficacy analysis had undetectable HBV DNA. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of patients without hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) recurrence at week 72 was 0.9655. Two patients experienced a reappearance of HBsAg, but both remained HBV DNA(-) until the last follow-up. The frequency and nature of adverse events were consistent with those expected for this patient population. Serum creatinine increments ≥0.3 mg/dL and ≥0.5 mg/dL occurred in 62% and 39% of the patients, respectively, and all of these patients received calcineurin inhibitor therapy. In conclusion, in this population of patients treated with entecavir after CHB-related LT, entecavir was well tolerated and effective in maintaining viral suppression, even in individuals who experienced a reappearance of HBsAg.

  15. Treatment of Hepatitis C in Patients Undergoing Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Kohtaro; Lim, Joseph K

    2016-09-28

    With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments. In this study, we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations. Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically. Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works, of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review. The quality of data was low; only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials. Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically. Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals. Severe adverse effects and death were rare. Data on all-oral regimens were sparse, but in the most robust study, rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41). Efficacy and safety of interferon-containing regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals; however, there were few interventional trials. The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias. While firm conclusions are challenging, given the dearth of high-quality studies, our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective. The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects. Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in

  16. Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyung-Min; Han, Jun; Jin, Dong San; Suh, Hyunseok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Won, Ye-Yeon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among patients who underwent orthopedic surgery (OS). A total of 222 patients were reviewed immediately after or prior to OS. In the control group, 364 patients from outpatient departments (OPDs) who did not have any OS were enrolled. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze body composition. Skeletal muscle mass was adjusted for height squared, total body weight, and height and fat mass (residuals). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 25.0 kg/m(2). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the OS group was 25.7%, 44.1%, and 26.6%, respectively, according to the 3 different criteria. The prevalence was significantly lower in the OPD group (6.0%, 33.1%, and 14.8%, respectively). The highest rates of sarcopenia with height-adjusted definition were seen in patients with a femoral neck fracture. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with sarcopenia were male gender, older age, and lower BMI (odds ratio [OR]: 28.38, 1.03, and 1.83, respectively) when muscle mass was adjusted for height, whereas male gender, older age, and higher BMI were associated with sarcopenia (OR: 1.04, 2.57, and 1.83, respectively) when adjusted for weight. When residuals were used as a cutoff, decreased BMI and total hip bone mineral density (0.1 g/cm(2)) were independent risk factors associated with sarcopenia (OR: 1.09 and 1.05). The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity ranged from 1.8% to 21.2%. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of sarcopenia among OS patients.

  17. Nutritional markers in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Dewar, D; Soyibo, A K; Barton, E N

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status in patients on chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica using the Subjective Global Assessment tool and to correlate this with measured serum nutritional biomarkers, and also to identify nutritional biomarkers that can be used to assess nutritional status of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two hundred and nine consecutive patients on haemodialysis were selected from dialysis centres in Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, St. Catherine and Manchester Jamaica. The nutritional status of each participant was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment tool in an interview performed by the researcher. Serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, highly sensitive complement reactive protein (hsCRP) and total fasting cholesterol were determined from a single serum sample. Only patients with ESRD were selected. Patients with acute renal failure or those with ESRD who were admitted in the previous two weeks were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained prior to interview and obtaining blood samples. Of the total participants, 54.5% (n=114) were male and 45.5% (n=95) female. The mean age for males was 51.9 years and females 47.6 years. Diabetes was documented as the most common cause of chronic renal disease and was found in 29.7%, hypertension in 24.4% and chronic glomerulonephritis in 22% of the participants. Approximately 80% of the study population had moderate malnutrition. There was a significant association between moderate malnutrition and a diagnosis of ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, p = 0.03. Being on haemodialysis for < or = six months was significantly associated with moderate malnutrition p = 0.002. Also associated with moderate malnutrition were presence of an arteriovenous (AV) fistula (p = 0.01), serum albumin of < 40 g/L (OR 3.68, p = 0.001), pre-dialysis creatinine of <880 micromol/L (p = 0.02) and cholesterol < 3.9 mmol/L (p = 0.04). Highly sensitive

  18. Use of PROMIS for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, S. Blake; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) consists of question banks for health domains through computer adaptive testing (CAT). Hypothesis: For patients with glenohumeral arthritis, (1) there would be high correlation between traditional patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and the PROMIS upper extremity item bank (PROMIS UE) and PROMIS physical function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT), and (2) PROMIS PF CAT would not demonstrate ceiling effects. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Sixty-one patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis were included. Each patient completed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, Marx Shoulder Activity Scale, Short Form–36 physical function scale (SF-36 PF), EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, PROMIS PF CAT, and the PROMIS UE. Correlation was defined as high (>0.7), moderate (0.4-0.6), or weak (0.2-0.3). Significant floor and ceiling effects were present if more than 15% of individuals scored the lowest or highest possible total score on any PRO. Results: The PROMIS PF demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF (r = 0.81, P < .0001) and good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.62, P < .0001), EQ-5D (r = 0.64, P < .001), and WOOS index (r = 0.51, P < .01). The PROMIS PF demonstrated low correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.29, P = .02). The PROMIS UE demonstrated good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.55, P < .0001), SF-36 (r = 0.53, P < .01), EQ-5D (r = 0.48, P < .01), and WOOS (r = 0.34, P <.01), and poor correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.06, P = .62). There were no ceiling or floor effects observed. The mean number of items administered by the PROMIS PRO was 4. Conclusion: These data suggest that for a patient population with operative shoulder osteoarthritis, PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT may be valid alternative PROs. Additionally, PROMIS PF CAT offers a decreased

  19. Use of PROMIS for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, S Blake; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2017-09-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) consists of question banks for health domains through computer adaptive testing (CAT). For patients with glenohumeral arthritis, (1) there would be high correlation between traditional patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and the PROMIS upper extremity item bank (PROMIS UE) and PROMIS physical function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT), and (2) PROMIS PF CAT would not demonstrate ceiling effects. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-one patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis were included. Each patient completed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, Marx Shoulder Activity Scale, Short Form-36 physical function scale (SF-36 PF), EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, PROMIS PF CAT, and the PROMIS UE. Correlation was defined as high (>0.7), moderate (0.4-0.6), or weak (0.2-0.3). Significant floor and ceiling effects were present if more than 15% of individuals scored the lowest or highest possible total score on any PRO. The PROMIS PF demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF (r = 0.81, P < .0001) and good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.62, P < .0001), EQ-5D (r = 0.64, P < .001), and WOOS index (r = 0.51, P < .01). The PROMIS PF demonstrated low correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.29, P = .02). The PROMIS UE demonstrated good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.55, P < .0001), SF-36 (r = 0.53, P < .01), EQ-5D (r = 0.48, P < .01), and WOOS (r = 0.34, P <.01), and poor correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.06, P = .62). There were no ceiling or floor effects observed. The mean number of items administered by the PROMIS PRO was 4. These data suggest that for a patient population with operative shoulder osteoarthritis, PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT may be valid alternative PROs. Additionally, PROMIS PF CAT offers a decreased question burden with no ceiling effects.

  20. Impact of body mass index on outcomes of 48281 patients undergoing first time cadaveric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Hurton, Scott; Cwinn, Matthew; Molinari, Michele

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate possible disparities in perioperative morbidity and mortality among different body mass index (BMI) groups and to simulate the impact that these differences might have had on the cohort of patients undergoing cadaveric liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: All adult recipients undergoing first time LT for benign conditions and receiving a whole graft from brain-dead donors were selected from the united network of organ sharing registry. From January 1994 to June 2013, 48281 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria and were stratified by their BMI. The hypothesis that abnormal BMIs were independent predictors of inferior outcomes was tested with univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: In comparison to normal weight recipients, underweight and morbidly obese recipients had increased 90-d mortality (adjusted OR = 1.737; 95%CI: 1.185-2.548, P = 0.005) (adjusted OR = 1.956; 95%CI: 1.473-2.597, P = 0.000) respectively and inferior patients’ survivals (adjusted HR = 1.265; 95%CI: 1.096-1.461, P = 0.000) (adjusted HR = 1.157; 95%CI: 1.031-1.299, P = 0.013) respectively. Overall, patients’ 5-year survival were 73.9% for normal-weight, 71.1% for underweight, 74.0% for overweight, 74.4% for class I obese, 75.0% for class II obese and 71.5% for class III obese recipients. Analysis of hypothetical exclusion of underweight and morbidly obese patients from the pool of potential LT candidates would have improved the overall survival of the entire cohort by 2.7% (95%CI: 2.5%-3.6%). CONCLUSION: Selected morbidly obese patients undergoing LT for benign conditions had 5-year survival rates clinically comparable to normal weight recipients. Impact analysis showed that exclusion of high-risk recipients (underweight and morbid obese patients) would not significantly improve the overall survival of the entire cohort of patients requiring LT. PMID:27358781

  1. Malnutrition risk predicts surgical outcomes in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations: Results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Judy W C; Wu, Arthur H W; Lee, Michelle W K; Lau, So-ying; Lam, Pui-shan; Lau, Wai-shan; Kwok, Sam S S; Kwan, Rosa Y H; Lam, Cheuk-fan; Tam, Chun-kit; Lee, Suk-on

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations are at risk of malnutrition which may increase the chance of adverse surgical outcomes. This prospective study aimed at correlating nutritional status of patients having gastrointestinal operations with their short-term surgical outcomes captured by a territory-wide Surgical Outcomes Monitoring and Improvement Program. The preoperative malnutrition risk of Chinese adult patients undergoing elective/emergency ultra-major/major gastrointestinal operations in two surgical departments over a 12-month period were assessed by Chinese version of Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. Their perioperative risk factors and clinical outcomes, including length of hospital stay, mortality and morbidity, were retrieved from the above mentioned program. Correlation of malnutrition risk with clinical outcomes was assessed by logistic regression analysis after controlling for known confounders. 943 patients (58% male; mean age 65.9 ± 14.8 years) underwent gastrointestinal operations (40.3% emergency operation; 52.7% ultra-major procedures; 66.9% bowel resections) had analyzable data. 15.8% and 17.1% of patients were at medium and high risk of malnutrition, respectively. Malnutrition risk score according to the screening tool was an independent predictor of length of hospital stay, 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality and minor medical complications. Similar correlations were found for various sub-scores of malnutrition risk. Weight loss sub-score was predictive of 30-day mortality, 60-day mortality and minor medical complications. Body mass index was predictive of mortality (30- and 60- day) whereas the acute disease sub-score was predictive of length of hospital stay. Preoperative malnutrition was an important predictor of poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Prognostic implications of bundle branch block in patients undergoing primary coronary angioplasty in the stent era.

    PubMed

    Vivas, David; Pérez-Vizcayno, María Jose; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Bañuelos, Camino; Escaned, Javier; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; De Agustín, Jose Alberto; Núñez-Gil, Ivan; González-Ferrer, Juan Jose; Macaya, Carlos; Alfonso, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The presence of bundle branch block (BBB) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction has been associated with a poor outcome. However, the implications of BBB in patients undergoing primary angioplasty in the stent era are poorly established. Furthermore, the prognostic implications of BBB type (right vs left and previous vs transient or persistent) remain unknown. We analyzed the data from 913 consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty. All clinical, electrocardiographic, and angiographic data were prospectively collected. The median follow-up period was 19 months. The primary end point was the combined outcome of death and reinfarction. BBB was documented in 140 patients (15%). Right BBB (RBBB) was present in 119 patients (13%) and was previous in 27 (23%), persistent in 45 (38%), and transient in 47 (39%). Left BBB (LBBB) was present in 21 patients (2%) and was previous in 8 (38%), persistent in 9 (43%), and transient in 4 (19%). Patients with BBB were older, and more frequently had diabetes, anterior infarctions, a greater Killip class, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and greater mortality (all p <0.005) than patients without BBB. The short- and long-term primary outcome occurred more frequently in patients with persistent RBBB/LBBB than in those with previous or transient RBBB/LBBB. On multivariate analysis, persistent RBBB/LBBB emerged as an independent predictor of death and reinfarction. In conclusion, in patients undergoing primary angioplasty in the stent era, BBB is associated with poor short- and long-term prognosis. This risk appears to be particularly high among patients with persistent BBB. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inappropriate use of antibiotics in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, John; Langsjoen, Jessica; Sharadin, Cynthia; Kuehl, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    We retrospectively examined prophylactic antibiotic use and documentation of wound classification in patients having gynecologic surgery at a tertiary hospital. Of the 326 cases reviewed, 175 (54%) received prophylactic antibiotics when not indicated according to guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Antibiotic administration varied significantly (P < 0.02) among the different types of surgery, being given in 82% of laparoscopic cases, 35% of nonobstetrical dilation and curettage and operative hysteroscopy procedures, and 51% of open abdominal procedures. There were no recorded episodes of anaphylaxis or pseudomembranous colitis. In conclusion, antibiotic use is high among gynecologic surgeons at a tertiary hospital, but this use was unnecessary. PMID:28127125

  4. Respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Leonard J; Noone, Peadar G

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterised by chronic respiratory infections associated with bronchiectasis. Lung transplantation has helped to extend the lives of patients with cystic fibrosis who have advanced lung disease. However, persistent, recurrent, and newly acquired infections can be problematic. Classic cystic fibrosis-associated organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are generally manageable post-transplantation, and are associated with favourable outcomes. Burkholderia cenocepacia poses particular challenges, although other Burkholderia species are less problematic. Despite concerns about non-tuberculous mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium abscessus, post-transplantation survival has not been definitively shown to be less than average in patients with these infections. Fungal species can be prevalent before and after transplantation and are associated with high morbidity, so should be treated aggressively. Appropriate viral screening and antiviral prophylaxis are necessary to prevent infection with and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus and their associated complications. Awareness of drug pharmacokinetics and interactions in cystic fibrosis is crucial to prevent toxic effects and subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic drug dosing. With the large range of potential infectious organisms in patients with cystic fibrosis, infection control in hospital and outpatient settings is important. Despite its complexity, lung transplantation in the cystic fibrosis population is safe, with good outcomes if the clinician is aware of all the potential pathogens and remains vigilant by means of surveillance and proactive treatment.

  5. Proactive enteral tube feeding in pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Nancy; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lange, Beverly J; Tan, Kay-See; Sandler, Eric S; Rogers, Paul C; Womer, Richard B; Pietsch, John B; Rheingold, Susan R

    2014-02-01

    To determine feasibility and safety of proactive enteral tube feeding (ETF) in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors, myeloid leukemia or high-risk solid tumors were eligible. Subjects agreeing to start ETF before cycle 2 chemotherapy were considered proactive participants (PPs). Those who declined could enroll as chart collection receiving nutritional standard of care. Nutritional status was assessed using standard anthropometric measurements. Episodes of infection and toxicity related to ETF were documented from diagnosis to end of therapy. A descriptive comparison between PPs and controls was conducted. One hundred four eligible patients were identified; 69 enrolled (20 PPs and 49 controls). At diagnosis, 17% of all subjects were underweight and 26% overweight. Barriers to enrollment included physician, subject and/or family refusal, and inability to initiate ETF prior to cycle 2 of chemotherapy. Toxicity of ETF was minimal, but higher percentage of subjects in the proactive group had episodes of infection than controls. Thirty-nine percent of controls eventually started ETF and were twice as likely to receive parenteral nutrition. PPs experienced less weight loss at ETF initiation than controls receiving ETF and were the only group to demonstrate improved nutritional status at end of study. Proactive ETF is feasible in children with cancer and results in improved nutritional status at end of therapy. Episodes of infection in this study are concerning; therefore, a larger randomized trial is required to further delineate infectious risks and toxicities that may be mitigated by improved nutritional status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Educational Needs of Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Crystal; Saryeddine, Tina; Davis, Aileen M.; Flannery, John F.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Levy, Charissa; Mahomed, Nizar

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and total knee replacement surgery. Methods: A qualitative research design using a semi-standardized interviewing method was employed. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants, who were eligible if they were scheduled to undergo total hip or total knee replacement or had undergone total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. A comparative contrast method of analysis was used. Results: Of 22 potential participants who were approached, 15 participated. Five were booked for upcoming total hip or total knee replacement and 10 had undergone at least one total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. Several themes related to specific educational needs and factors affecting educational needs, including access, preoperative phase, surgery and medical recovery, rehabilitation process and functional recovery, fears, and expectations counterbalanced with responsibility, emerged from the interviews. Conclusions: Educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and knee replacement surgery encompass a broad range of topics, confirming the importance of offering an all-inclusive information package regarding total hip and total knee replacement. PMID:21629598

  7. The pharmacokinetics of propofol in ICU patients undergoing long-term sedation.

    PubMed

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Wiczling, Paweł; Przybyłowski, Krzysztof; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Trojanowska, Iwona; Paterska, Marta; Matysiak, Jan; Kokot, Zenon; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Bienert, Agnieszka

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of propofol in ICU patients undergoing long-term sedation and to assess the influence of routinely collected covariates on the PK parameters. Propofol concentration-time profiles were collected from 29 patients. Non-linear mixed-effects modelling in NONMEM 7.2 was used to analyse the observed data. The propofol pharmacokinetics was best described with a three-compartment disposition model. Non-parametric bootstrap and a visual predictive check were used to evaluate the adequacy of the developed model to describe the observations. The typical value of the propofol clearance (1.46 l/min) approximated the hepatic blood flow. The volume of distribution at steady state was high and was equal to 955.1 l, which is consistent with other studies involving propofol in ICU patients. There was no statistically significant covariate relationship between PK parameters and opioid type, SOFA score on the day of admission, APACHE II, predicted death rate, reason for ICU admission (sepsis, trauma or surgery), gender, body weight, age, infusion duration and C-reactive protein concentration. The population PK model was developed successfully to describe the time-course of propofol concentration in ICU patients undergoing prolonged sedation. Despite a very heterogeneous group of patients, consistent PK profiles were observed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Spinal anesthesia reduces postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, O; Matin, N; Heidari, A; Tabatabaie, A; Hadaegh, A; Yazdanynejad, S; Tabatabaie, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high spinal anesthesia on postoperative delirium in opium dependent patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital on a population of 60 opium dependent patients undergoing CABG surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia protocol. One group were given general anesthesia (GA Group), the other group additionally received intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine (SGA Group). Postoperative delirium (POD) was defined as the main outcome of interest. Incidence of POD was significantly higher in patients of GA Group as compared with those in SGA Group (47% and 17% for GA and SGA respectively; P-value = 0.01). Time to extubation was on average 2.2 h shorter in SGA than in GA (7.1 h and 9.3 h respectively, P-value < 0.001). Intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine reduced the risk of POD after CABG in a population of opium dependent patients.

  9. An Inexpensive, Point-of-Care Urine Test for Bladder Cancer in Patients Undergoing Hematuria Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Abhinav P; Theisen, Kathryn M; Correa, Andres; Meyyappan, Thiagarajan; Apfel, Abraham; Sun, Tao; Tarin, Tatum V; Little, Steven R

    2017-09-08

    Although hematuria (blood in urine) is the most common symptom of bladder cancer, 70-98% of hematuria cases are benign. These hematuria patients unnecessarily undergo costly, invasive, and expensive evaluation for bladder cancer. Therefore, there remains a need for noninvasive office-based tests that can rapidly and reliably rule out bladder cancer in patients undergoing hematuria evaluation. Herein, a clinical assay for matrix metalloproteinases ("Ammps") is presented, which generates a visual signal based on the collagenase activity (in urine of patients) on the Ammps substrates. Ammps substrates are generated by crosslinking gelatin with Fe(II) chelated alginate nanoparticles, which precipitate in urine samples. The cleavage of gelatin-conjugated alginate (Fe(II)) nanoparticles by collagenases generates free-floating alginate (Fe(II)) nanoparticles that participate in Fenton's reaction to generate a visual signal. In a pilot study of 88 patients, Ammps had 100% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% for diagnosing bladder cancer. This high NPV can be useful in ruling out bladder cancer in patients referred for hematuria evaluation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High platelet counts increase metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Ge, Ning-Ling; Xu, Xin; Le, Fan; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests platelets play critical roles in tumor metastasis. Moreover, the role of platelets in metastasis is partially correlated with inflammation. However, evidence regarding the contribution of platelets to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis is lacking. This study investigated the association between platelets and metastatic risk in HCC. We used huge HCC (diameter over 10 cm), a tumor subgroup with a strong inflammatory background, as a model to evaluate the potential predictive role of platelets and platelet-related biomarkers for metastasis in HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. A logistic regression model was used to analyze risk factors for metastasis. Patients with huge HCC (n = 178) were enrolled, and 24.7% (44/178) of patients had remote metastases after treatment. Univariate analyses showed high platelet counts (P = 0.012), pretreatment platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (pre-PLR) of 100 or more (P = 0.018) and post-PLR of 100 or more (P = 0.013) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed high platelet counts (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.074-4.443; P = 0.031) and platelet-related biomarkers were independent risk factors for HCC metastasis. Particularly, the risk of metastasis in patients with high post-PLR values was significantly greater than patients with low post-PLR values. For tumor response and survival, patients with high platelet counts had faster disease progression (P = 0.002) and worse survival (P < 0.0001). High platelet counts increase the extrahepatic metastasis risk of huge HCC undergoing chemoembolization, which supply clinical verification of the association between high platelet counts and HCC metastasis. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. Treatment of Hepatitis C in Patients Undergoing Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ooka, Kohtaro; Lim, Joseph K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients—most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases—could stand to benefit from these treatments. In this study, we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations. Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically. Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works, of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review. The quality of data was low; only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials. Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically. Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals. Severe adverse effects and death were rare. Data on all-oral regimens were sparse, but in the most robust study, rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41). Efficacy and safety of interferon-containing regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals; however, there were few interventional trials. The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias. While firm conclusions are challenging, given the dearth of high-quality studies, our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective. The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects. Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in

  12. Levels of circulating neopterin in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid stenting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Wang, Hui-Ting; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Shu-Feng; Huang, Chi-Ren; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    The association between an elevated serum neopterin level and the development of coronary artery complex lesions has been extensively assessed; however, the correlation between the serum neopterin level and the development of carotid artery stenosis has seldom been reported. This study tested whether this biomarker is increased in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis(≥70%) undergoing carotid artery(CA) stenting and investigated independent predictors of an increased circulating neopterin level. Fifty patients with severe CA stenosis(CAS) undergoing CA stenting were consecutively enrolled in this study from January 2009 through December 2011. The serum neopterin levels of age- and gender-matched acute ischemic stroke(AIS) patients(n=120) and control subjects(CS)(n=33) were also measured. A blood sample was prospectively collected from each patient in the catheterization room. The serum levels of neopterin were significantly higher in the CAS patients than in the AIS patients or CS and significantly higher in the AIS patients than in the CS(all p<0.001). An analysis of the variables of 170 patients(CAS+AIS) demonstrated that age, a previous history of stroke and severe CAS were significantly correlated with an increased serum level of neopterin(all p<0.005). A multivariate binary logistic regression analysis of the severe CAS patients(n=50) demonstrated that age and the creatinine level were independent predictors of a high neopterin level(neopterin level ≥16.52 ng/dL, i.e., according to the median value of neopterin)(all p<0.05). The circulating neopterin levels are significantly higher in patients with severe CAS than in those with AIS. The presence of CAS, age and the creatinine level were significantly correlated with an increased serum neopterin level.

  13. Hospital volume influences outcome in patients undergoing pancreatic resection for cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Mulvihill, S J

    1996-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only possibly curative treatment of malignant pancreatic neoplasms, but major pancreatic resection for cancer is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between hospital volume and outcome in patients undergoing pancreatic resection for malignancy in California. Data were obtained from reports submitted to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development by all California hospitals from 1990 through 1994. Patient abstracts were analyzed for each of 1,705 patients who underwent major pancreatic resection for malignancy. Of the 298 reporting hospitals, 88% treated fewer than 2 patients per year; these low-volume centers treated the majority of patients. High-volume providers had significantly decreased operative mortality, complication-associated mortality, patient resource use, and total charges and were more likely than low-volume centers to discharge patients to home. These differences were not accounted for by patient mix. This study supports the concept of regionalizing high risk procedures in general surgery, such as major pancreatic resection for cancer. PMID:8993200

  14. Psychopathological profile and prevalence of dual pathology on patients with alcoholic dependence undergoing outpatient treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Carretero, Miguel A; Novalbos-Ruiz, José P; Robles-Martínez, María; Jordán-Quintero, María A; O'Ferrall-González, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Assess the prevalence of dual pathology in patients with alcohol dependence and describe the psychopathological profile of mental disorders, impulsiveness, ADHD presence and craving. It is a cross-sectional study about dual pathology, carried out on 102 patients undergoing outpatient treatment. The presence of dual pathology is established by means of the MINI-5 interview and the MCMI-III test; DSM-IV being used as the alcohol abuse criteria. Impulsiveness, ADHD presence, craving and quality of life were measured through SIS, ASRSv1, MACS and SF-36. The prevalence of dual pathology ranges from 45.1% to 80.4% according to MCMI-III and MINI-5, respectively. The most frequent pathologies are current major depressive episodes, followed by current generalized anxiety disorders, suicide risk and current dysthymia disorders; 73.2% of dual patients present a moderate and intense global score according to MACS, 56.1% got a meaningful score in impulsiveness according to SIS and 41.5% has highly consistent symptoms with ADHD. As regards quality of life, 53.7% of the sample had bad mental health. In the case of dual patients consuming other substances, 30% had a history of bipolar disorders and 10% had a high suicide risk. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with alcohol dependence undergoing outpatient treatment varies depending on the detection method, MINI being the one identifying a greater number of cases. More than half of dual patients present impulsive behavior, a bad mental health state and high craving levels. Special attention should be paid to dual patients consuming other substances.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of ertapenem in critically ill patients with acute renal failure undergoing extended daily dialysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Olaf; Hafer, Carsten; Langhoff, Anita; Kaever, Volkhard; Kumar, Vipul; Welte, Tobias; Haller, Hermann; Fliser, Danilo; Kielstein, Jan T

    2009-01-01

    Extended (daily) dialysis (EDD) is an increasingly popular mode of renal replacement therapy in the ICU (intensive care unit) as it combines the advantages of intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), i.e. excellent detoxification accompanied by cardiovascular tolerability. The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics (PK) of ertapenem, the newest carbapenem with once-daily dosing, in critically ill patients with anuric acute renal failure (ARF) undergoing EDD. In a single-centre, prospective, open-label study six ICU patients with ARF undergoing EDD were treated with 1 g ertapenem given as a single intravenous dose. EDD was performed using a high-flux dialyzer (polysulphone, 1.3 m(2)). Blood and dialysate flow were 160 mL/min, and the length of treatment was 480 min. Plasma samples were collected at different time-points up to 24 h after medication. Drug concentrations were determined by a validated LC-MS method. Free drug concentrations were estimated using a two-class binding site equation. After a single dose of 1000 mg free ertapenem, protein-unbound plasma concentrations exceeded a MIC(90) value of 2 mg/L for >20 h after dosing. The clearance of the tested dialyzer was 38.5 +/- 14.2 mL/min. In contrast to patients undergoing regular IHD, in which a dose reduction is required, our data suggest that in patients treated with EDD a standard dose of ertapenem (1 g/day), i.e. dose for patients without renal failure, is required to maintain adequate plasma drug levels.

  16. Red cell distribution width in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Verde, Pablo E; Veulemanns, Verena; Kahlstadt, Lisa; Wolff, Georg; Erkens, Ralf; Westenfeld, Ralf; Navarese, Eliano P; Merx, Marc W; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of red blood cell distribution width on outcome in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: In a retrospective single center cohort study we determined the impact of baseline red cell distribution width (RDW) and anemia on outcome in 376 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI. All patients were discussed in the institutional heart team and declined for surgical aortic valve replacement due to high operative risk. Collected data included patient characteristics, imaging findings, periprocedural in hospital data, laboratory results and follow up data. Blood samples for hematology and biochemistry analysis were taken from every patient before and at fixed intervals up to 72 h after TAVI including blood count and creatinine. Descriptive statistics were used for patient’s characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for time to event outcomes. A recursive partitioning regression and classification was used to investigate the association between potential risk factors and outcome variables. RESULTS: Mean age in our study population was 81 ± 6.1 years. Anemia was prevalent in 63.6% (n = 239) of our patients. Age and creatinine were identified as risk factors for anemia. In our study population, anemia per se did influence 30-d mortality but did not predict longterm mortality. In contrast, a RDW > 14% showed to be highly predictable for a reduced short- and longterm survival in patients with aortic valve disease after TAVI procedure. CONCLUSION: Age and kidney function determine the degree of anemia. The anisocytosis of red blood cells in anemic patients supplements prognostic information in addition to that derived from the WHO-based definition of anemia. PMID:26981217

  17. High incidence of activating TERT promoter mutations in meningiomas undergoing malignant progression.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, Stéphane; Nault, Jean C; Mallet, Maxime; Henin, Dominique; Rossi, Jessica Z; Kalamarides, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines three grades, predictive of the risk of recurrence. These tumors can relapse frequently and sometimes undergo malignant transformation. Maintenance of telomere length is a key process in malignant progression, and mutations in TERT promoter have recently been identified in various types of cancer. We sequenced the TERT promoter in 85 meningiomas from 73 patients. We found a high incidence of TERT promoter mutations in patients with meningiomas undergoing malignant histological progression (28%, n = 5/18 patients). In this subset of patients with histological progression, TERT promoter mutations were found in both the lowest and the highest grade tumors, and in both NF2-mutated and nonmutated samples. In contrast, one mutation was identified in 35 meningiomas without recurrence or progression, belonging to various histological grades. This sample was an aggressive meningioma in a patient who died shortly after surgery. Interestingly, tumors showing relapse without histological progression were not mutated for TERT promoter (n = 20). Finally, TERT promoter mutations were associated with a marked increase in TERT expression. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are pivotal genetic alterations involved in malignant progression of meningiomas and could be used as a biomarker to identify meningiomas at risk of malignant transformation. © 2013 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  19. Sleep apnoea and unscheduled re-admission in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang-Ping; Kofidis, Theodoros; Chan, Siew-Pang; Ong, Thun-How; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2015-09-01

    Although it has been recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor, data on sleep apnoea screening before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence, predictors and effects of sleep apnoea on re-admission in patients undergoing CABG. We prospectively recruited 152 patients to undergo an overnight sleep study before CABG. Sleep apnoea was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index of ≥15 events per hour. Data on unscheduled re-admission due to cardiovascular events were collected. Among the 138 patients who completed the sleep study, sleep apnoea was diagnosed in 69 (50%). The patients who had sleep apnoea had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.029), a larger left atrial diameter (p = 0.014) and a larger left ventricular end-systolic dimension (p = 0.019) than those who did not. Angiographic SYNTAX and Gensini scores were similar in patients with and without sleep apnoea. The generalised structural equation model revealed that hypertension, a high body mass index and chronic renal failure were independent predictors of sleep apnoea (p < 0.05). After an average follow-up of 6 ± 3 months, 12 patients with sleep apnoea (17.3%) and three patients without sleep apnoea (4.3%) were involved in unscheduled re-admission. Patients with sleep apnoea were almost five times more likely to have an unscheduled re-admission due to cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio: 4.63, 95% CI: 1.24-17.31, p = 0.023) than those without sleep apnoea. Sleep apnoea was prevalent and predictive of unscheduled re-admissions in patients scheduled for CABG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  1. The perioperative management of patients with left ventricular assist devices undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Barbara, David W; Wetzel, David R; Pulido, Juan N; Pershing, Bryan S; Park, Soon J; Stulak, John M; Zietlow, Scott P; Morris, David S; Boilson, Barry A; Mauermann, William J

    2013-07-01

    To describe the perioperative management of patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) who require general anesthesia while undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS) at a single, large tertiary referral center. Electronic medical records from September 2, 2005, through May 31, 2012, were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the perioperative management and outcomes in LVAD patients undergoing NCS. Patients were included only if they required a general anesthetic and had previously been discharged from the hospital after initial LVAD implantation. Thirty-three patients with LVADs underwent general anesthesia for 67 noncardiac operations. The mean ± SD time from LVAD implantation to NCS was 317 ± 349 days. All but 1 patient had axial flow LVADs. Anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents were present within 7 days before NCS in 49 procedures (73%) and reversed in 32 of 49 (65%). No perioperative thrombotic complications related to anticoagulation or antiplatelet reversal were noted. Red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma, and platelet transfusions were administered during 10, 6, and 4 operations, respectively. The only intraoperative complication was surgical bleeding. Postoperative complications were present in 12 patients after NCS and were mainly composed of bleeding. Three patients died within 30 days of NCS, with the causes of death not attributed to NCS. Patients with LVAD safely underwent NCS in a multidisciplinary setting that included preoperative optimization by cardiologists familiar with LVADs when feasible. Anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents were present preoperatively in most patients with LVADs and were safely reversed when necessary for NCS. The relatively high occurrence of postoperative bleeding is consistent with previous series. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Topics and structure in preoperative nursing consultations with patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Monica E; Öhlén, Joakim; Friberg, Febe; Hydén, Lars-Christer; Carlsson, Eva

    2016-11-08

    The preoperative education, which occurs in preoperative patient consultations, is an important part of the surgical nurse's profession. These consultations may be the building blocks of a partnership that facilitates communication between patient and nurse. The aim of the study was to describe topics and structure and documentation in preoperative nursing consultations with patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. The study was based on analysis of consultations between seven patients and nurses at a Swedish university hospital. The preplanned preoperative consultations were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The structure of the consultations was described in terms of phases and the text was analysed according to a manifest content analysis RESULTS: The consultations were structured on an agenda that was used variously and communicating different topics in an equally varied manner. Seven main topics were found: Health status, Preparation before surgery, Discovery, Tumour, Operation, Symptoms and Recovery after surgery. The topic structure disclosed a high number of subtopics. The main topics 'Discovery', 'Tumour' and 'Symptoms' were only raised by patients and occupied only 11% of the discursive space. Documentation was sparse and included mainly task-oriented procedures rather than patients' worries and concerns. There was no clear structure regarding preoperative consultation purpose and content. Using closed questions instead of open is a hindrance of developing a dialogue and thus patient participation. Preoperative consultation practice needs to be strengthened to include explicit communication of the consultations' purpose and agenda, with nurses actively discussing and responding to patients' concerns and sensitive issues. The results of the study facilitate the development of methods and structure to support person-centred communication where the patient is given space to get help with the difficult issues he/she may have when undergoing

  3. Sarcopenia is a predictor of outcomes in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Karvellas, Constantine J; Baracos, Vickie; Williams, David C; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2014-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, the number of very elderly patients (age ≥80 years) undergoing emergency operations is increasing. Evaluating patient-specific risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality in the acute care surgery setting is crucial to improving outcomes. We hypothesize that sarcopenia, a severe depletion of skeletal muscles, is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. A total of 170 patients older than the age of 80 underwent emergency surgery between 2008 and 2010 at a tertiary care facility; 100 of these patients had abdominal computed tomography images within 30 days of the operation that were adequate for the assessment of sarcopenia. The impact of sarcopenia on the operative outcomes was evaluated using both univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean patient age was 84 years, with an in-hospital mortality of 18%. Sarcopenia was present in 73% of patients. More sarcopenic patients had postoperative complications (45% sarcopenic versus 15% nonsarcopenic, P = .005) and more died in hospital (23 vs 4%, P = .037). There were no differences in duration of stay or requirement for intensive care unit postoperatively. After we controlled for confounding factors, increasing skeletal muscle index (per incremental cm(2)/m(2)) was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio ∼0.834, 95% confidence interval 0.731-0.952, P = .007) in multivariate analysis. Sarcopenia was independently predictive of greater complication rates, discharge disposition, and in-hospital mortality in the very elderly emergency surgery population. Using sarcopenia as an objective tool to identify high-risk patients would be beneficial in developing tailored preventative strategies and potentially resource allocation in the future. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-operative anxiety, depression and psychiatric support in patients undergoing hysterectomy: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Raza, Nahal; Waqas, Ahmed; Jamal, Mehak

    2015-04-01

    Hysterectomy is a frequently performed gynaecological procedure in Pakistan. This surgical procedure is a very stressful event for Pakistani women suffering from severe gynecological diseases and complications. It is also associated with a high incidence of anxiety and depression. Several studies in the West have reported an improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients undergoing hysterectomy. But this situation might be different in low resource countries like Pakistan where it is usually associated with myths, life threatening complications and obstetric abnormalities. Psychiatric support for these women is almost non-existent in general surgical settings.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of cefepime in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pfeffer, M; Zaccardelli, D; Dukes, G M; Mattern, W; Pittman, K A; Hak, L J

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefepime were studied in 10 male patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy. Five patients received a single 1,000-mg dose and the other five received a single 2,000-mg dose; all doses were given as 30-min intravenous infusions. Serial plasma, urine, and peritoneal dialysate samples were collected; and the concentrations of cefepime in these fluids were measured over 72 h by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The peak concentrations in plasma and the areas under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve for the 2,000-mg dose group were twice as high as those observed for the 1,000-mg dose group. The elimination half-life of cefepime was about 18 h and was independent of the dose. The steady-state volume of distribution was about 22 liters, and values for the 1,000- and 2,000-mg doses were not significantly different. The values for total body clearance and peritoneal dialysis clearance were about 15 and 4 ml/min, respectively. No dose dependency was observed for the clearance estimates. Over the 72-h sampling period, about 26% of the dose was excreted intact into the peritoneal dialysis fluid. For 48 h postdose, mean concentrations of cefepime in dialysate at the end of each dialysis interval exceeded the reported MICs for 90% of the isolates (MIC90s) for bacteria which commonly cause peritonitis resulting from continuous peritoneal dialysis. A parenteral dose of 1,000 or 2,000 mg of cefepime every 48 h would maintain the antibiotic levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid above the MIC90s for the most susceptible bacteria for the treatment of systemic and intraperitoneal infections [corrected]. PMID:1510432

  6. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hortal, Javier; Muñoz, Patricia; Cuerpo, Gregorio; Litvan, Hector; Rosseel, Peter M; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Patients undergoing major heart surgery (MHS) represent a special subpopulation at risk for nosocomial infections. Postoperative infection is the main non-cardiac complication after MHS and has been clearly related to increased morbidity, use of hospital resources and mortality. Our aim was to determine the incidence, aetiology, risk factors and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients who have undergone MHS in Europe. Methods Our study was a prospective study of patients undergoing MHS in Europe who developed suspicion of VAP. During a one-month period, participating units submitted a protocol of all patients admitted to their units who had undergone MHS. Results Overall, 25 hospitals in eight different European countries participated in the study. The number of patients intervened for MHS was 986. Fifteen patients were excluded because of protocol violations. One or more nosocomial infections were detected in 43 (4.4%) patients. VAP was the most frequent nosocomial infection (2.1%; 13.9 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation). The microorganisms responsible for VAP in this study were: Enterobacteriaceae (45%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and a range of other microorganisms. We identified the following significant independent risk factors for VAP: ascending aorta surgery (odds ratio (OR) = 6.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69 to 22.89), number of blood units transfused (OR = 1.08 per unit transfused; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.13) and need for re-intervention (OR = 6.65; 95% CI = 2.10 to 21.01). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP than in patients without VAP (23 days versus 2 days). Death was significantly more frequent (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP (35% versus 2.3%). Conclusions Patients undergoing aortic surgery and those with complicated post-intervention courses, requiring multiple

  7. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hortal, Javier; Muñoz, Patricia; Cuerpo, Gregorio; Litvan, Hector; Rosseel, Peter M; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Patients undergoing major heart surgery (MHS) represent a special subpopulation at risk for nosocomial infections. Postoperative infection is the main non-cardiac complication after MHS and has been clearly related to increased morbidity, use of hospital resources and mortality. Our aim was to determine the incidence, aetiology, risk factors and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients who have undergone MHS in Europe. Our study was a prospective study of patients undergoing MHS in Europe who developed suspicion of VAP. During a one-month period, participating units submitted a protocol of all patients admitted to their units who had undergone MHS. Overall, 25 hospitals in eight different European countries participated in the study. The number of patients intervened for MHS was 986. Fifteen patients were excluded because of protocol violations. One or more nosocomial infections were detected in 43 (4.4%) patients. VAP was the most frequent nosocomial infection (2.1%; 13.9 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation). The microorganisms responsible for VAP in this study were: Enterobacteriaceae (45%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and a range of other microorganisms. We identified the following significant independent risk factors for VAP: ascending aorta surgery (odds ratio (OR) = 6.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69 to 22.89), number of blood units transfused (OR = 1.08 per unit transfused; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.13) and need for re-intervention (OR = 6.65; 95% CI = 2.10 to 21.01). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP than in patients without VAP (23 days versus 2 days). Death was significantly more frequent (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP (35% versus 2.3%). Patients undergoing aortic surgery and those with complicated post-intervention courses, requiring multiple transfusions or re-intervention, constitute a high

  8. Effect of Verbal Empathy and Touch on Anxiety Relief in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy: Can Empathy Reduce Patients' Anxiety?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy usually experience anxiety before and during the procedure. We performed this study to investigate whether verbal empathy and intentional touch from a bronchoscopist could reduce anxiety in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy. We conducted a prospective randomized trial in a university-affiliated hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: a control group, a verbal empathy group, or a verbal empathy and touch group. The staff pulmonologist performing bronchoscopy expressed verbal empathy and used touch by speaking to the patient (using predefined short statements) and making eye contact, and by laying his/her left hand on the patient's right shoulder. We assessed the level of patient anxiety with a visual analog scale before and after the intervention. Participants were 267 patients with a median age of 65 years; 62.2% were men. Although there were no differences in changes in anxiety between the three groups, subgroup analysis of the visual analog scale including participants with higher baseline anxiety (empathy and touch group participants with anxiety ≥60 mm; empathy group and empathy and touch group participants with anxiety ≥70 mm) showed a larger reduction in anxiety than the control group. Verbal empathy and touch given by a bronchoscopist before bronchoscopy reduced anxiety in patients with high baseline anxiety levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of palifermin to prevent mucositis among patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nooka, Ajay K; Johnson, Heather R; Kaufman, Jonathan L; Flowers, Christopher R; Langston, Amelia; Steuer, Conor; Graiser, Michael; Ali, Zahir; Shah, Nishi N; Rangaraju, Sravanti; Nickleach, Dana; Gao, Jingjing; Lonial, Sagar; Waller, Edmund K

    2014-06-01

    Trials have shown benefits of palifermin in reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning regimens. Similar outcome data are lacking for patients receiving non-TBI-based regimens. We performed a retrospective evaluation on the pharmacoeconomic benefit of palifermin in the setting of non-TBI-based conditioning and autologous HSCT. Between January 2002 and December 2010, 524 patients undergoing autologous HSCT for myeloma (melphalan 200 mg/m²) and lymphoma (high-dose busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide) as preparative regimen were analyzed. Use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was significantly lower in the palifermin-treated groups (myeloma: 13% versus 53%, P < .001; lymphoma: 46% versus 68%, P < .001). Median total transplant charges were significantly higher in the palifermin-treated group, after controlling for inflation (myeloma: $167,820 versus $143,200, P < .001; lymphoma: $168,570 versus $148,590, P < .001). Palifermin treatment was not associated with a difference in days to neutrophil engraftment, length of stay, and overall survival and was associated with an additional cost of $5.5K (myeloma) and $14K (lymphoma) per day of PCA avoided. Future studies are suggested to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of palifermin compared with other symptomatic treatments to reduce transplant toxicity using validated measures for pain and quality of life.

  10. Value-based Clinical Quality Improvement (CQI) for Patients Undergoing Abdominal Wall Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Bradley; Ramshaw, Bruce; Forman, Brandie

    2015-05-01

    Patients with complex ventral/incisional hernias often undergo an abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). These operations have a high cost of care and often result in a long hospital stay and high complication rates. Using the principles of clinical quality improvement (CQI), several attempts at process improvement were implemented in one hernia program over a 3-year period. For consecutive cases of patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction, process improvement attempts included the use of a long-term resorbable synthetic mesh (TIGR® Resorbable Matrix, Novus Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden) in place of a biologic mesh, the use of the transversus abdominis release approach in place of an open or endoscopic component separation (external oblique release) technique, and the use of a preoperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block using a long-acting local anesthetic (Exparel®, Pacira Pharmaceutical, Parsippany, NJ) as a part of perioperative multi-modal pain management and an enhanced recovery program. After over 60 cases, improvement in materials costs and postoperative outcomes were documented. No mesh-related complications occurred and no mesh removal was required. In this real-world, value-based application of CQI, several attempts at process improvement led to decreased costs and improved outcomes for patients who underwent abdominal wall reconstruction for complex ventral/incisional hernias. Value-based CQI could be a tool for improved health care value globally.

  11. Microvolt T-wave alternans in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Khoueiry, G; Abdallah, M; Shariff, M; Kowalski, M; Lafferty, J

    2015-01-01

    We designed a prospective observational study targeting a selective population of patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting with normal systolic function. In this study we looked at the prevalence of pre-operative microvolt T-wave alternans and if it predicts atrial fibrillation after surgery. The inclusion criteria included all patients referred to the cardiothoracic outpatient clinic for elective bypass, who can perform aerobic exercise, with a recent exercise stress test exercising at least to 85% of the maximal predicted heart rate (220 - age) and with non-limiting chest pain at maximal exercise. Twenty patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria between May 2008 and February 2010. The hospital course of those patients was followed, and in-hospital events were recorded. Nine out twenty (45%) of patients had a non-negative microvolt T-wave alternans tracing. Six patients (30%) developed new onset atrial fibrillation post surgery. Patients with non-negative microvolt level T-wave alternans are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation post coronary artery bypass grafting then patients with negative microvolt level T-wave alternans (p=0.05). This pilot study provides the first clinical evidence that patients with ischemic heart disease and normal systolic function have a high prevalence of abnormal microvolt T-wave alternans and might be at higher risk of sudden cardiac death. In addition our results show that microvolt level T-wave alternans predicts post coronary artery bypass grafting new onset atrial fibrillation.

  12. Malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas in patients undergoing adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Rotta, José Marcus; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2017-03-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGG) comprise nearly 15-20 % of all central nervous system glial tumors. Several factors have been recognized as playing role in LGG malignant transformation (MT). A breakthrough analysis of a multidisciplinary group pointed that temozolomide may play a role in MT of LGGs. We analyzed the prevalence of MT in LGG patients submitted to adjuvant therapy (AT). We analyzed the medical charts of 43 patients with LGG submitted to surgery or biopsy and attending at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), consecutively diagnosed from 1995 to 2013. 43 patients (24 women and 19 men) were evaluated, with mean age of 45.3 years. According to histology, 30 were astrocytomas (70 %), 12 (27 %) were oligodendrogliomas, and 1 (3 %) were mixed glioma. Mean follow-up time was 4.2 years with the standard deviation of 2.1. Twenty-eight patients did not receive adjuvant therapy and 15 received adjuvant therapy. From 43 patients with complete follow-up, 21 (48 %) experienced malignant transformation. Among such patients, nine were users of AT. Forty-eight percent of patients presented MT, being 60 % in the AT group and 42.8 % without AT. Our analysis revealed a high prevalence of MT in patients undergoing AT, higher than in patients without AT.

  13. Dipyridamole thallium imaging may not be a reliable screening test for coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Underwood, D.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Dipyridamole thallium imaging has been proposed for cardiac risk stratification in patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery. The purpose of this study was to define the benefit of this investigation in routine preoperative evaluation of these patients. The outcome of 86 patients undergoing vascular surgery procedures was examined in light of preoperative clinical assessment and dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging (DST). Fifty-one patients (59%) were considered at high risk on clinical grounds, and 22 patients (26%) had perfusion defects. Ten patients suffered a perioperative coronary event, including unstable angina, myocardial infarction, or cardiac death. Seven of the patients with such events were among the 51 clinically high-risk subjects (14%). Three perioperative events occurred in the group of 19 patients with positive DST images who underwent surgery (16%), but the DST test failed to identify 7 patients who suffered coronary events. The frequency of abnormal thallium imaging was similar to the prevalence of angiographically significant coronary disease reported previously at this center, but considerably less than the rate of abnormal thallium imaging in past studies of vascular surgery patients. The application of the test to a low to moderate risk population is probably responsible for its lower predictive accuracy for coronary events. DST is not an ideal routine noninvasive technique for risk stratification in patients undergoing vascular surgery.

  14. Nurse led Patient Education Programme for patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of patients undergoing lung resection for primary or suspected primary lung cancer in the UK due to improved staging techniques, dedicated thoracic surgeons and other initiatives such as preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation. This has had an impact on local healthcare resources requiring new ways of delivering thoracic surgical services. When considering service changes, patient reported outcomes are pivotal in terms of ensuring that the experience of care is enhanced and may include elements such as involving patients in their care, reducing the length of inpatient stay and reducing postoperative complications. The implementation of a thoracic surgical Patient Education Programme (PEP) has the potential to address these measures and improve the psychological and physical wellbeing of patients who require a lung resection. It may also assist in their care as an inpatient and to enhance recovery after surgery both in the short and long term. PMID:25984358

  15. Factors Associated with Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing an Ambulatory Hand Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Young Hak; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Nam, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing ambulatory surgery under general anesthesia experience considerable levels of postoperative nausea and vomiting (N/V) after their discharge. However, those complications have not been thoroughly investigated in hand surgery patients yet. We investigated factors associated with postoperative N/V in patients undergoing an ambulatory hand surgery under general anesthesia and determined whether patients' satisfaction with this setting is associated with postoperative N/V levels. Methods We prospectively evaluated 200 consecutive patients who underwent ambulatory hand surgeries under general anesthesia to assess their postoperative N/V visual analogue scale (VAS) levels during the first 24 hours after surgery and their satisfaction with an ambulatory surgery setting. Potential predictors of postoperative N/V were; age, sex, body mass index, smoking behavior, a history of postoperative N/V after previous anesthesia or motion sickness, preoperative anxiety level and the duration time of anesthesia. We conducted multivariate analyses to identify factors associated with postoperative N/V levels. We also conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the N/V levels are associated with the patients' satisfaction with this setting. Here, potential predictors for satisfaction were sex, age, postoperative pain and N/V. Results Postoperative N/V were associated with a non-smoking history, a history of motion sickness and a high level of preoperative anxiety. Twenty-two patients (11%) were dissatisfied with the ambulatory setting and this dissatisfaction was independently associated with moderate (VAS 4-7) and high (VAS 8-10) levels of postoperative N/V and with a high level (VAS 8-10) of postoperative pain. Conclusions Although most of the patients were satisfied with the ambulatory surgery setting, moderate to high levels of N/V were associated with dissatisfaction of patients with this setting, suggesting a need for

  16. Clinical characteristics of patients undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction by choice and by randomization.

    PubMed

    Zembala, Marian; Michler, Robert E; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Huynh, Thao; She, Lilin; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Hill, James A; Jandova, Ruzena; Dagenais, Francois; Peterson, Eric D; Jones, Robert H

    2010-08-03

    The aim of this study was to confirm the generalizability of the conclusions of the STICH (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) trial. Surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) added to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) did not decrease death or cardiac hospitalization in STICH patients randomized to CABG with (n = 501) or without (n = 499) SVR. Baseline clinical characteristics of 1,000 STICH SVR hypothesis patients and 1,036 STICH-eligible Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Cardiac Database patients undergoing CABG plus SVR were entered into a multivariate model equation to predict a mortality that placed these 2,036 patients in 1 of 32 risk at randomization (RAR) groups. The number of patients in each RAR group profiled the risk of STICH treatment arms and of STICH and STS STICH-eligible patients. That 85% of the 1,000 STICH patients known to have no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 treatment arms shared the same RAR group suggests that the RAR methodology has sufficient accuracy to compare RAR profiles of STICH and STS patients. RAR group was shared by 1,522 of 2,036 STICH and STS STICH-eligible patients (75%) who underwent CABG plus SVR. Differences in baseline characteristics responsible for more low-risk STICH patients and more high-risk STS patients were modest. Cox proportional hazard ratios of 1,000 STICH patients in 3 RAR groups suggested by STICH and STS RAR differences showed no differential treatment effect on survival across the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. The STICH conclusion of no benefit from adding SVR to CABG applies to a broad spectrum of CABG-eligible patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. (Comparison of Surgical and Medical Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease; NCT00023595). Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dialysis headache in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Stojimirovic, Biljana; Milinkovic, Marija; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Trbojevic-Stankovic, Jasna; Maric, Ivko; Milic, Miodrag; Andric, Branislav; Nikic, Petar

    2015-03-01

    Headache is among most frequently encountered neurological symptom during hemodialysis (HD), but still under investigated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of dialysis headache (DH) in HD and PD patients. A total of 409 patients (91 on PD and 318 on HD) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, designed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Classification of Headache Disorders from 2004. Patients with DH underwent a thorough neurological examination. DH was reported by 21 (6.6%) HD patients and 0 PD patients. PD patients had significantly lower serum sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, urea and creatinine, calcium-phosphate product, and diastolic blood pressure than HD patients. HD patients had significantly lower hemoglobin compared to PD patients. Primary renal disease was mostly parenchymal in HD patients, and vascular in PD patients. DH appeared more frequently in men, mostly during the third hour of HD. It lasted less than four hours, was bilateral, non-pulsating and without associated symptoms. Biochemical alterations may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DH. Specific features of DH might contribute to better understanding of this secondary headache disorder.

  18. Distribution and variability of esophageal eosinophilia in patients undergoing upper endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Evan S; Speck, Olga; Woodward, Kimberly; Covey, Shannon; Rusin, Spencer; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Woosley, John T

    2015-03-01

    The variability of eosinophilic infiltrates in eosinophilic esophagitis is not well described. This study aimed to determine the distribution of esophageal eosinophilia and the utility of histologic cut-points for eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosis in subjects undergoing endoscopy. We performed a prospective study of adults undergoing outpatient endoscopy. Research protocol esophageal biopsies were obtained from all subjects. Incident cases of eosinophilic esophagitis were diagnosed per consensus guidelines. Biopsies were interpreted following a validated protocol, and maximum eosinophil counts (eosinophils per high-power field; eos/hpf) were determined. Histologic analyses were performed on a per-patient, per-biopsy, and per-hpf basis. There were 213 patients, yielding 923 esophageal biopsies with 4588 hpfs. Overall, 48 patients (23%), 165 biopsy fragments (18%), and 449 hpfs (10%) had ≥15 eos/hpf; most subjects had no or low levels of eosinophils. In the eosinophilic esophagitis cases, 119 biopsy fragments (63%) and 332 hpfs (36%) had ≥15 eos/hpf. There was a mean 104-fold difference between the lowest and highest hpf eosinophil count for the eosinophilic esophagitis patients; 85% of the biopsies from eosinophilic esophagitis cases also had at least one hpf with <15 eos/hpf. The cut-point of 15 eos/hpf had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96% for diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. In conclusion, most patients have little to no esophageal eosinophilia. In patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, there was marked variability in the eosinophil counts by biopsy and by hpf within a given biopsy. Additionally, the 15 eos/hpf cut-point was highly sensitive and specific for eosinophilic esophagitis. Multiple esophageal biopsies from different locations should be obtained to optimize eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosis.

  19. Association of restless legs syndrome with oxidative stress and inflammation in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Terumi; Abe, Masanori; Mizuno, Mari; Yamazaki, Toshio; Suzuki, Hiroko; Moriuchi, Masari; Oikawa, Osamu; Okawa, Erina; Ando, Hideyuki; Okada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common comorbidity in patients undergoing hemodialysis, but clinical factors predictive of RLS risk and severity have not been identified. The aims of this multicenter cross-sectional study were to document RLS prevalence and severity in patients undergoing hemodialysis and to identify associated risk factors. One-hundred and fifty-nine stable patients on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled (113 men, 46 women; mean age: 68 ± 11 years; mean duration of dialysis: 54 ± 60 months). Diagnosis of RLS was based on the criteria proposed by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG), and RLS severity was assessed using the IRLSSG Severity Scale. Potential factors associated with RLS and IRLSSG Severity Scale score were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RLS affected 22% of the study population. The RLS subgroup had a significantly longer duration of hemodialysis and higher cardiothoracic ratio compared to the non-RLS subgroup. The RLS subgroup also had significantly higher serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, ferritin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and a significantly lower transferrin saturation level compared to the non-RLS subgroup, suggesting a chronic inflammatory state and associated oxidative stress in comorbid patients. Serum 8-OHdG level was an independent risk factor for high IRLSSG Severity Scale score. This study confirms the high prevalence of RLS among hemodialysis patients and identifies the oxidative stress marker serum 8-OHdG as a significant independent predictor of RLS severity. Further studies are needed to identify detailed risk factors and the pathophysiological role of oxidative stress in RLS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of dental anxiety in patients undergoing dentoalveolar surgery with laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Faysal; Cavus, Onur; Kaya, Alper; Sener, Cem B

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental anxiety in patients undergoing apicectomy procedures performed with conventional instruments or an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Twenty-eight patients undergoing apicectomy were divided into two groups; roots were removed with an Er:YAG laser in group A (n=14) and with conventional instruments in group B (n=14). All patients completed preoperative State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) and postoperative questionnaires. Although state anxiety, trait anxiety, and postoperative questionnaire scores were lower in patients undergoing Er:YAG laser treatment than in those treated with conventional instruments, the differences were not statistically significant. Surgical instruments affect the anxiety levels of dental patients. Even with the STAI scores being lower for patients treated with Er:YAG, use of the Er:YAG laser alone cannot contribute to the resolution of dental anxiety. A patient's individual condition is the major factor influencing that patient's anxiety level.

  1. Importance of colonoscopy in patients undergoing endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Kei; Doyama, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Takeda, Yasuhito; Ota, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Kunihiro; Matsunaga, Kazuhiro; Tsuji, Shigetsugu; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Katayanagi, Kazuyoshi; Kurumaya, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to clarify the frequency of colorectal neoplasm (CRN) complicating superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the need for colonoscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 101 patients who had undergone initial endoscopic resection (ER) for superficial ESCC. Control group participants were age- and sex-matched asymptomatic subjects screened at our hospital over the same period of time. Advanced adenoma was defined as an adenoma ≥10 mm, with villous features, or high-grade dysplasia. Advanced CRN referred to advanced adenoma or cancer. We measured the incidence of advanced CRN in superficial ESCC and controls, and we compared the characteristics of superficial ESCC patients with and without advanced CRN. Results In the superficial ESCC group, advanced CRNs were found in 17 patients (16.8%). A history of smoking alone was found to be a significant risk factor of advanced CRN [odds ratio 6.02 (95% CI 1.30-27.8), P=0.005]. Conclusion The frequency of synchronous advanced CRN is high in superficial ESCC patients subjected to ER. Colonoscopy should be highly considered for most patients who undergo ER for superficial ESCC with a history of smoking, and is recommended even in superficial ESCC patients. PMID:27366032

  2. Fractionated stem cell infusions for patients with plasma cell myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Landau, Heather; Wood, Kevin; Chung, David J; Koehne, Guenther; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Hassoun, Hani; Lesokhin, Alexander; Hoover, Elizabeth; Zheng, Junting; Devlin, Sean M; Giralt, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a phase II trial investigating the impact of fractionated hematopoietic cell infusions on engraftment kinetics and symptom burden in patients with plasma cell myeloma (PCM) undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT). We hypothesized that multiple hematopoietic cell infusions would reduce duration of neutropenia and enhance immune recovery resulting in a better tolerated procedure. Twenty-six patients received high-dose melphalan followed by multiple cell infusions (Days 0, +2, +4, +6) and were compared to PCM patients (N = 77) who received high-dose melphalan and a single infusion (Day 0) (concurrent control group). The primary endpoint was number of days with ANC <500K/mcL. Symptom burden was assessed using the MSK-modified MD Anderson Symptom Inventory. Median duration of neutropenia was similar in study (4 days, range 3-5) and control patients (4 days, range 3-9) (p = 0.654). There was no significant difference in the number of red cell or platelet transfusions, days of fever, diarrhea, antibiotics, number of documented infections, or length of admission. Symptom burden surveys showed that AHCT was well-tolerated in both study and control patients. We conclude that fractionated stem cell infusions following high-dose melphalan do not enhance engraftment kinetics or significantly alter patients' clinical course following AHCT in PCM.

  3. Zinc Supplementation Alters Plasma Aluminum and Selenium Status of Patients Undergoing Dialysis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chih-Hung; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng W.; Wang, Chia-Liang

    2013-01-01

    End stage renal disease patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at risk for abnormal concentrations of certain essential and non-essential trace metals and high oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on plasma aluminum (Al) and selenium (Se) concentrations and oxidative stress in chronic dialysis patients. Zn-deficient patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to plasma Al concentrations (HA group, Al > 50 μg/L; and MA group, Al > 30 to ≤ 50 μg/L). All patients received daily oral Zn supplements for two months. Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals did not receive Zn supplement. Clinical variables were assessed before, at one month, and after the supplementation period. Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly lower baseline plasma Se concentrations and higher oxidative stress status. After two-month Zn treatment, these patients had higher plasma Zn and Se concentrations, reduced plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress. Furthermore, increased plasma Zn concentrations were related to the concentrations of Al, Se, oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activities. In conclusion, Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress and improves Se status in long-term dialysis patients. PMID:23609777

  4. Zinc supplementation alters plasma aluminum and selenium status of patients undergoing dialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chih-Hung; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng W; Wang, Chia-Liang

    2013-04-22

    End stage renal disease patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at risk for abnormal concentrations of certain essential and non-essential trace metals and high oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on plasma aluminum (Al) and selenium (Se) concentrations and oxidative stress in chronic dialysis patients. Zn-deficient patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to plasma Al concentrations (HA group, Al > 50 g/L; and MA group, Al > 30 to ≤ 50 g/L). All patients received daily oral Zn supplements for two months. Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals did not receive Zn supplement. Clinical variables were assessed before, at one month, and after the supplementation period. Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly lower baseline plasma Se concentrations and higher oxidative stress status. After two-month Zn treatment, these patients had higher plasma Zn and Se concentrations, reduced plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress. Furthermore, increased plasma Zn concentrations were related to the concentrations of Al, Se, oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activities. In conclusion, Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress and improves Se status in long-term dialysis patients.

  5. Soluble CD40 Ligand in Aspirin-Treated Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Gremmel, Thomas; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) is mainly generated by cleavage of CD40L from the surface of activated platelets, and therefore considered a platelet activation marker. Although the predictive value of sCD40L for ischemic events has been demonstrated in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), studies on the association of sCD40L with cardiovascular outcomes in lower risk populations yielded heterogeneous results. We therefore sought to investigate factors influencing sCD40L levels, and the predictive value of sCD40L for long-term ischemic events in unselected, aspirin-treated patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. sCD40L was determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 682 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Two-year follow-up data were obtained from 562 patients. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel was associated with significantly lower levels of sCD40L and lower platelet surface expressions of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa compared to aspirin monotherapy (all p≤0.01). Hypertension was linked to lower plasma concentrations of sCD40L, whereas female sex, increasing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hematocrit were associated with higher sCD40L concentrations (all p<0.05). sCD40L levels were similar in patients without and with the primary endpoint in the overall study population (p = 0.4). Likewise, sCD40L levels did not differ significantly between patients without and with the secondary endpoints (both p≥0.4). Similar results were obtained when only patients with angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (n = 459), stent implantation (n = 205) or ACS (n = 125) were analyzed. The adjustment for differences in patient characteristics by multivariate regression analyses did not change the results. ROC curve analyses did not reveal cut-off values for sCD40L for the prediction of the primary or secondary endpoints. In conclusion, plasma sCD40L levels are

  6. Phonatory characteristics of patients undergoing thyroidectomy without laryngeal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, K H; Kim, Y K

    1997-10-01

    Complications that arise after thyroid surgery may be associated with infection, hemorrhage, hormonal problems, and laryngeal nerve injury. Voice alteration after thyroidectomy is usually caused by recurrent or superior laryngeal nerve injury. This voice dysfunction may also be associated with laryngotracheal fixation with impairment of vertical movement or by temporary malfunction of the strap muscles after surgery. In this study, we evaluated the voice function phonetically before and after thyroidectomy in 54 patients, although function of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves was normal. During surgery, the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves were identified and protected, and after surgery electromyographic testing of the cricothyroid muscle was performed. Typical voice symptoms after surgery were easy fatigue during phonation and difficulty with high pitch and singing voice. Acoustic analysis revealed that the phonation time and fundamental frequency were not changed after surgery, but the speaking fundamental frequency, range of speaking fundamental frequency, and vocal range were significantly diminished after surgery. These data allowed us to suggest that the cause of voice dysfunction is not seen in neural lesions, but in a disturbance of the extralaryngeal skeleton. These voice changes emphasize the importance of the extralaryngeal mechanism for pitch control.

  7. EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    ASSEF, Maurício Saab; MELO, Tiago Torres; ARAKI, Osvaldo; MARIONI, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Treatment is multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment is a consistent resource in severe obesity. The indication of preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in asymptomatic patients is controversial; however, most studies recommend its implementation in all patients. Aim: To analyze endoscopic performance in patients who were in preoperative for bariatric surgery and compare them with control group. Method: A series of 35 obese patients in preoperative period for bariatric surgery compared with a control group of 30 patients submitted to upper endoscopy. There were analyzed clinical and endoscopic data. Results: The mean age of the group of patients was 43.54 years. Most individuals in the group of patients were female with median BMI of 47.26kg/m2and in control group 24.21 kg/m2. The majority of patients were asymptomatic. Upper endoscopy was altered in 81.25% of asymptomatic patients. Endoscopic findings in the patient group were 57.1% resulting from peptic ulcer disease and 34.3% associated with GERD. The analysis of endoscopic findings in patients showed no significant difference in relation of the control group. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 60% in patients. Conclusion: It is recommended that the upper endoscopy should be made in all patients in the preoperative bariatric surgery period, although the degree of obesity is not related to a greater number of endoscopic findings. Obese patients do not have more endoscopic findings that non-obese individuals. PMID:26537272

  8. More patients should undergo surgery after sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, Anne Kathrine Wewer; Kjaer, Daniel Willy

    2014-12-28

    To assess the outcome of patients treated conservatively vs surgically during their first admission for sigmoid volvulus. We conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients admitted to Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1996 and 2011 for their first incidence of sigmoid volvulus. The condition was diagnosed by radiography, sigmoidoscopy or surgery. Patients treated with surgery underwent either a sigmoid resection or a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC). Conservatively treated patients were managed without surgery. Data was recorded into a Microsoft Access database and calculations were performed with Microsoft Excel. Kaplan-Meier plotting and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) testing were performed using GraphPad Prism software. Mortality was defined as death within 30 d after intervention or surgery. Among the total 61 patients, 4 underwent emergency surgery, 55 underwent endoscopy, 1 experienced resolution of the volvulus after contrast enema, and 1 died without treatment because of large bowel perforation. Following emergency treatment, 28 patients underwent sigmoid resection (semi-elective n = 18; elective n = 10). Two patients who were unfit for surgery underwent PEC and both died, 1 after 36 d and the other after 9 mo, respectively. The remaining 26 patients were managed conservatively without sigmoid resection. Patients treated conservatively on their first admission had a poorer survival rate than patients treated surgically on their first admission (95%CI: 3.67-14.37, P = 0.036). Sixty-three percent of the 26 conservatively treated patients had not experienced a recurrence 3 mo after treatment, but that number dropped to 24% 2 years after treatment. Eight of the 14 patients with recurrence after conservative treatment had surgery with no 30-d mortality. Surgically-treated sigmoid volvulus patients had a higher long-term survival rate than conservatively managed patients, indicating a benefit of surgical resection or PEC insertion if feasible.

  9. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Incidental visceral and renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Bageacu, S; Cerisier, A; Isaaz, K; Nourissat, A; Barral, X; Favre, J-P

    2011-03-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between incidentally discovered mesenteric artery stenosis, renal artery stenosis (RAS) and coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. We performed a prospective analysis of consecutive patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterisation. Abdominal aortograms in lateral and antero-posterior view were obtained to assess arterial stenosis of the coeliac axis, superior mesenteric artery and renal arteries. Significant arterial stenosis was defined as a narrowing of at least 50% compared with the normal artery. Demographic data and cardiovascular risk factors were analysed. The prevalence of visceral artery stenosis (VAS) was 63/450 (14%) including 48/450 (10.6%) cases of coeliac axis stenosis and 15/450 (3.3%) cases of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Female sex (p = 0.01), older age (p = 0.03) and the presence of coronary artery disease (p = 0.05) were significant predictors for the presence of VAS in univariate analysis. The determinants for VAS in multivariate analysis were female sex and three-vessel coronary artery disease, while two- and three-vessel coronary artery disease was significant for RAS. Screening for VAS and RAS in female patients older than 60 years with more than two diseased coronary segments could have a high diagnostic value. Copyright © 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous Heparin Versus Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin as Thromboprophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Robin S.; Geerts, William H.; Sniderman, Kenneth W.; Greenwood, Celia; Gregoire, Roger C.; Taylor, Brian M.; Silverman, Richard E.; Atkinson, Kenneth G.; Burnstein, Marcus; Marshall, John C.; Burul, Claude J.; Anderson, David R.; Ross, Theodore; Wilson, Stephanie R.; Barton, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness and safety of low-dose unfractionated heparin and a low-molecular-weight heparin as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after colorectal surgery. Methods In a multicenter, double-blind trial, patients undergoing resection of part or all of the colon or rectum were randomized to receive, by subcutaneous injection, either calcium heparin 5,000 units every 8 hours or enoxaparin 40 mg once daily (plus two additional saline injections). Deep vein thrombosis was assessed by routine bilateral contrast venography performed between postoperative day 5 and 9, or earlier if clinically suspected. Results Nine hundred thirty-six randomized patients completed the protocol and had an adequate outcome assessment. The venous thromboembolism rates were the same in both groups. There were no deaths from pulmonary embolism or bleeding complications. Although the proportion of all bleeding events in the enoxaparin group was significantly greater than in the low-dose heparin group, the rates of major bleeding and reoperation for bleeding were not significantly different. Conclusions Both heparin 5,000 units subcutaneously every 8 hours and enoxaparin 40 mg subcutaneously once daily provide highly effective and safe prophylaxis for patients undergoing colorectal surgery. However, given the current differences in cost, prophylaxis with low-dose heparin remains the preferred method at present. PMID:11224634

  12. The frequency of cardiac arrests in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Odegard, Kirsten C; Bergersen, Lisa; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Clark, Laura; Shukla, Avinash; Wypij, David; Laussen, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization for patients with congenital heart disease has shifted from diagnostic to predominantly interventional procedures because of advances in catheter-based technologies. Children undergoing therapeutic catheterization may be at higher risk of adverse events, and the purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of cardiac arrest (CA) in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac catheterization at a large pediatric tertiary referral center. All CAs from January 2004 through December 2009 occurring in the cardiac catheterization laboratory were reviewed. A CA was defined as an event in which cessation of circulation required chest compressions. Procedure, patient, practitioner, and system-related factors were examined. Over the study period, during 7289 catheterization procedures, 70 procedures were associated with a CA (0.96 [99% confidence interval, 0.7-1.3] per 100 procedures); 48 events (69%) were successfully resuscitated to a perfusing rhythm, 18 events (26%) resulted in need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 4 events (6%) resulted in unsuccessful resuscitation. Sudden onset of cardiac arrhythmia led to CA during 38 events (54%). The duration of resuscitation after CA was ≤11 minutes in 71%. Occurrence of CA was associated with interventional procedures (P < 0.001) and younger age (P < 0.001). A change in systems for scheduling and communication of cases was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of CA (1.5% vs 0.7%; P = 0.002). The incidence of CA in children undergoing cardiac catheterization is high compared with pediatric noncardiac surgery. Procedural and system factors were associated with occurrence of CA in this cohort. These issues highlight the need for close communication, anticipation, and preparation.

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Patients Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Reconstruction by Choice and by Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, Marian; Michler, Robert E.; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Huynh, Thao; She, Lilin; Lubiszewska, Barbara; Hill, James A.; Jandova, Ruzena; Dagenais, Francois; Peterson, Eric D.; Jones, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To confirm generalizability of Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial conclusions. Background Surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) added to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) did not decrease death or cardiac hospitalization in STICH patients randomized to CABG with (N = 501) or without (N = 499) SVR. Methods Baseline clinical characteristics of 1000 STICH SVR hypothesis patients and 1036 STICH-eligible Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS) National Cardiac Database patients undergoing CABG+SVR were entered into a multivariable model equation to predict a mortality that placed these 2036 patients in one of 32 risk at randomization (RAR) groups. Numbers of patients in each RAR profiled risk of STICH treatment arms and of STICH and STS STICH-eligible patients. Results That 85% of the 1000 STICH patients known to have no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two treatment arms shared the same RAR group suggests RAR methodology has sufficient accuracy to compare RAR profiles of STICH and STS patients. RAR group was shared by 1522 (75%) of 2036 STICH and STS STICH-eligible CABG+SVR patients. Differences in baseline characteristics responsible for more low-risk STICH and more high-risk STS patients were modest. Cox proportional hazard ratios of 1000 STICH patients in three RAR groupings suggested by STICH and STS RAR differences showed no differential treatment effect on survival across the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groupings. Conclusion The STICH conclusion of no benefit from adding SVR to CABG applies to a broad spectrum of CABG-eligible ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. PMID:20670761

  14. [Bladder drainage in patients undergoing the Pereyra surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Villagrán, R; Escobar-Del Barco, L; Villalobos-Acosta, S; Kunhardt-Rasch, J; Delgado-Urdapilleta, J

    1996-07-01

    Postoperative acute urinary retention was evaluated in the patients who underwent Pereyra procedure. Comparison of suprapubic and urethral catheterization. Between January 1994 and July 1995, fifty two patients with urinary stress incontinence underwent Pereyra procedure, 31 female patient with suprapubic drainage (cistofix Ch 15) and 17 urethral catherization with a latex foley catheter. Sponatneous micturition and urinary retention was evaluated until the catheter was removed. Mean age was 43.8 years (32 a 66), the duration of suprapubic vesical drainage with suprapubic catheter were 3 days in 58.6% of the patients, and more than 3 days in 41.29%. Recatheterizacion in the patients with urethral drainage was more frequent. Urinary retention after 7 days was present in 23.99% with suprapubic vesical drainage and 28.5% with urethral catheter. Recatheterization is more frequent in patients with urethral catheter.

  15. Management of oral anticoagulation in patients undergoing minor dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Alaali, Yathreb; Barnes, Geoffrey D; Froehlich, James B; Kaatz, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Approximately 4.2 million patients in the United States are taking warfarin, making it the 11th most prescribed drug. Warfarin is primarily used for treatment of venous thromboembolic disease and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and mechanical heart valves. Dentists frequently encounter anticoagulated patients and are faced with management decisions in these patients who require dental procedures. Observational studies suggest the risk of thrombosis if anticoagulation is suspended during dental procedures is higher than the risk of bleeding if anticoagulation is not suspended. Several groups now offer guidelines that recommend most minor dental procedures should be performed while on therapeutic warfarin. The recent approval of several new oral anticoagulants has introduced greater complexity to the management of the anticoagulated patient, and this narrative review will discuss current guidelines, the scientific underpinnings of the guidelines, and offer some practical suggestions for patients that are receiving the new agents.

  16. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  17. Risk index for peri-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing open intracranial neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, F; Pizzichetta, F; Fiorani, L; Paoloni, F P; Delfini, R; Rosa, G

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation and the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing elective or emergency intracranial neurosurgical procedures and the relation to survival and neurological outcome at 6-months follow-up compared to patients with sinus rhythm. A total of 2020 patients were enrolled; 1540 patients underwent elective procedures and 480 underwent emergency procedures. Prevalence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation was 3.7% in elective and 7.2% in emergency procedures (p = 0.0012). In patients undergoing elective cerebral procedures with pre-operative atrial fibrillation, compared to patients with sinus rhythm, 6-month neurological outcome and survival rate are similar. In patients undergoing emergency neurosurgical cerebral procedures, the presence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation is related to an increased risk of poor neurological outcome but with similar survival rate.

  18. Intravenous sedation in 200 geriatric patients undergoing office oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R L; Smith, P B

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred geriatric patients ranging from age 65 to 92 yr (mean age 72 yr) were evaluated for office oral surgery and intravenous sedation. Surgical time ranged from 6 to 129 min. Monitored anesthesia care was utilized for the administration of fentanyl, midazolam or diazepam, and methohexital. No serious complications were seen and no patients were hospitalized.

  19. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  20. Effect of diabetes on peritoneal function assessed by personal dialysis capacity test in patients undergoing CAPD.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Imai, Hirokazu; Kawanishi, Hideki; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Minakuchi, Jun; Kumon, Shinichi; Watanabe, Syuichi; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Ishii, Takeo; Kawahara, Toshihiko; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2002-11-01

    We evaluated differences in individual peritoneal membrane transport function and nutritional status in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and nondiabetic (non-DM) patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We used a newly developed peritoneal function test, personal dialysis capacity, in 88 patients (44 DM and 44 non-DM) on CAPD for 1 to 210 months. Sex, age, past history of peritonitis, and duration of CAPD were matched in DM and non-DM patients. Serum albumin (mean +/- SEM) was lower in DM compared with non-DM patients: 3.0 +/- 0.1 g/dL (30 +/- 1 g/L) versus 3.5 +/- 0.1 g/dL (35 +/- 1 g/L), P < 0.001. Peritoneal area and dialysis protein loss were greater in DM versus non-DM patients. In multiple linear regression analysis, the only independent predictor of serum albumin in patients with DM was dialysis protein loss. In contrast, age, past history of peritonitis, duration of CAPD, caloric intake, protein nitrogen appearance and protein catabolic rate, and residual renal function did not correlate with serum albumin in DM patients. In non-DM patients, age, duration of CAPD, and past history of peritonitis, but not dialysis protein loss, were independent predictors of serum albumin. There was a significant correlation in DM patients, but not in non-DM CAPD patients, between dialysis protein loss and urinary excretion of protein (r = 0.866, P = 0.0005). In this multicenter study, peritoneal membrane transport and peritoneal protein permeability were significantly higher in DM than in non-DM patients. Hypoproteinemia in DM patients is attributable to the high permeability of the peritoneal membrane undergoing CAPD. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  1. Depression and hopelessness in Turkish patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevban; Celebioglu, Ayda; Tezel, Ayfer

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of depression and hopelessness of patients receiving chemotherapy. Through knowledge of the levels of hopelessness and depression in such patients, this study could contribute to the planning of nursing interventions. The study involved 101 patients with cancer who presented to the outpatient unit of a medical oncology clinic to receive outpatient chemotherapy between January and March 2006. Data on the patients' sociodemographic features, as well as their scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory, were obtained. The patients' mean total depression score was 16.0 +/- 8.3 and their mean hopelessness score was 6.9 +/- 3.4. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and hopelessness. The results indicated that depression and hopelessness were strongly and positively correlated.

  2. Weight and patients' decision to undergo cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    King-Shier, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mather, Charles; Sandham, Sarah; Seneviratne, Cydnee; Maitland, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Obese patients are less likely to have cardiac surgery than normal weight patients. This could be due to physician or patient decision-making. We undertook a qualitative descriptive study to explore the influence of obesity on patients' decision-making to have cardiac surgery. Forty-seven people referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were theoretically sampled. Twelve people had declined cardiac surgery. Participants underwent in-depth interviews aimed at exploring their decision-making process. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Though patients' weight did not play a role in their decision, their relationship with their cardiologist/surgeon, the rapidity and orchestration of the diagnosis and treatment, appraisal of risks and benefits, previous experience with other illness or others who had cardiac surgery, and openness to other alternatives had an impact. It is possible that there is a lack of comfort or acknowledgment by all parties in discussing the influence of weight on CABG surgery risks.

  3. Painless neutropenic enterocolitis in a patient undergoing chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, E.J.; Bishop, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Case Description A 60-year-old man developed painless neutropenic enterocolitis after induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia. The patient had recurrent fever while neutropenic, without experiencing abdominal pain or tenderness on physical examination. His diagnosis was delayed by the fact that he had no localizing symptoms. Discussion Neutropenic enterocolitis is a common complication, generally occurring in patients who are severely neutropenic; the condition presents with fever and abdominal pain. No cases of painless neutropenic enterocolitis have yet been reported. Review of the literature shows that patients can develop this condition in the absence of fever and, sometimes, neutropenia. Furthermore, few comprehensive studies or reviews have investigated the utility of computed tomography imaging in identifying a source for abdominal pain in neutropenic patients with fever. Summary Many potential causes of febrile neutropenia should be considered in chemotherapy patients. PMID:27803612

  4. [Patients facing with the decision to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Bobbio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common procedure to treat coronary artery stenoses. Several studies had demonstrated that PCI does not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction when performed to patients with stable angina. However it has been observed that most patients believe that PCI will reduce their risk for death and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, cardiologists generally acknowledge the limitation of PCI according to the current literature.Cardiologists' decision to refer a patient to PCI is based on factors other then perceived benefits such as fear of missing a needed procedure, defensive medicine, desire of demonstrating their professional competence, vested professional and economic interests, accomplish patient expectation, the so called oculo-stenotic reflex, when a lesion is dilated regardless the clinical indication. Patients' misleading perception of harm and benefits of a procedure is mainly related to the cognitive dissonance, when individuals tend to reduce the conflict of an uncomfortable decision adopting information, which are likely to reduce their discomfort. Furthermore, patients believe that doing more means doing better, that technologic intervention are better than pharmacological treatment that in turn are better than doing nothing. Finally, they assume that a procedure is really effective since their physician suggested it.It should be emphasized that physicians and patients do not communicate successfully about key decision and how little we know about patient understanding of the factors that influence important medical care decisions. Although considerable attention is given to facilitating informed consent, patients' perceived benefits of elective PCI do not match existing evidence, as they overestimated both the benefits and urgency of their procedures. These findings suggest that an even greater effort at patient education is needed prior to elective PCI to facilitate fully informed decision-making.

  5. Prospective Functional Voice Assessment in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shaha, Ashok R.; Orlikoff, Robert F.; Nissan, Aviram; Kornak, Mary-Frances; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Boyle, Jay O.; Shah, Jatin P.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kraus, Dennis H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze voice function before and after thyroidectomy for patients with normal preoperative voice using a standardized multidimensional voice assessment protocol. Summary Background Data The natural history of post-thyroidectomy voice disturbances for patients with preserved laryngeal nerve function has not been systematically studied and characterized with the intent of using the data for postoperative voice rehabilitation. Methods During a prospective single-arm study, patients with normal voice underwent functional voice testing using a standardized voice grading scale and a battery of acoustic, aerodynamic, glottographic, and videostroboscopic tests before, 1 week after, and 3 months after thyroidectomy. Differences in observed sample means were evaluated using analysis of covariance or t test; categorical data was analyzed using the Fisher exact or chi-square test. Results Fifty-four patients were enrolled; 50 and 46 were evaluable at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. No patient developed recurrent laryngeal nerve injury; one had superior laryngeal nerve injury. Fifteen (30%) patients reported early subjective voice change and seven (14%) reported late (3-month) subjective voice change. Forty-two (84%) patients had significant objective change in at least one voice parameter. Six (12%) had significant alterations in more than three voice measures, of which four (67%) were symptomatic, whereas 25% with three or fewer objective changes had symptoms. Patients with persistent voice change at 3 months had an increased likelihood of multiple (more than three) early objective changes (43% vs. 7%). Early maximum phonational frequency range and vocal jitter changes from baseline were significantly associated with voice symptoms at 3 months. Conclusions Early vocal symptoms are common following thyroidectomy and persist in 14% of patients. Multiple (more than three) objective voice changes correlate with early and late postoperative symptoms. Alterations

  6. Thyroid function in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, Angela; Grani, Giorgio; Romanzi, Daniela; Del Sordo, Marianna; Bianchini, Marta; Aragona, Alessia; Tranquilli, Daniela; Aragona, Cesare

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid disease is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women during reproductive age. A link between thyroid and assisted reproduction outcome is debated. Serum TSH levels, number and scoring of oocytes and embryos, and number of clinical pregnancies were retrospectively recorded in 164 women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) at an University-based fertility center, to evaluate the outcome of the first steps of assisted reproduction (ovarian stimulation, oocyte pickup and fertilization, embryo transfer and implantation) in relation to thyroid function and autoimmunity. No significant relationship was found between TSH and all parameters, except clinical pregnancy rate (22.3% in TSH ≤ 2.5 group versus 8.9% in TSH > 2.5 mUI/L group; P = 0.045). No pregnancy occurred in women with anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies, while pregnancy occurred in 23.9% of cycles without autoimmunity (P = 0.02). Further studies must be conducted in order to shed light on the link between infertility and thyroid dysfunction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin <12 g/dL], haematinics and length of hospital stay) was analysed on 400 hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, p<0.0001) respectively. In the elective general surgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis p<0.0001, ferritin <30 p<0.0001. Mean length of stay (days) was increased in the anaemic compared to in the non-anaemic group (2.7 vs. 1.9) and patients who were anaemic immediately post-operatively, also had an increased length of stay (2.7 vs. 1.9), p<0.05. Absolute iron deficiency was more common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.

  8. The Impact of Sexual Abuse in Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Melianthe P. J.; Keller, Josbert J.; de Vries, Lieke; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Nicolai, Jan J.; Hardwick, James C. H.; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Elzevier, Henk W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual abuse has been linked to strong effects on gastrointestinal health. Colonoscopy can provoke intense emotional reactions in patients with a sexual abuse history and may lead to avoidance of endoscopic procedures. Objective To determine whether care around colonoscopy needs adjustment for patients with sexual abuse experience, thereby exploring targets for the improvement of care around colonoscopic procedures. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to patients (n = 1419) from two centers within 11 months after colonoscopy. Differences in experience of the colonoscopy between patients with and without a sexual abuse history were assessed and patients' views regarding physicians' inquiry about sexual abuse and care around endoscopic procedures were obtained. Results A total of 768 questionnaires were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual abuse was 3.9% in male and 9.5% in female patients. Patients born in a non-western country reported more sexual abuse (14.9%) than those born in a western country (6.3%; p = 0.008). Discomfort during colonoscopy was indicated on a scale from 0 to 10, mean distress score of patients with sexual abuse was 4.8(±3.47) compared to 3.5(±3.11) in patients without a sexual abuse history (p = 0.007). Abdominal pain was a predictor for higher distress during colonoscopy (β = −0.019 (SE = 0.008); p = 0.02, as well as the number of complaints indicated as reason for colonoscopy (β = 0.738 (SE = 0.276); p = 0.008). Of patients with sexual abuse experience, 53.8% believed gastroenterologists should ask about it, 43.4% said deeper sedation during colonoscopy would diminish the distress. Conclusions Sexual abuse is prevalent in patients presenting for colonoscopy. Patients with a sexual abuse history experience more distress during the procedure and indicate that extra attention around and during colonoscopy may diminish this distress. PMID:24454784

  9. Crystalloid administration among patients undergoing liver surgery: Defining patient- and provider-level variation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuhree; Ejaz, Aslam; Gani, Faiz; Wasey, Jack O; Xu, Li; Frank, Steven M; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-02-01

    Fluid administration among patients undergoing liver resection is a key aspect of perioperative care. We sought to examine practice patterns of crystalloid administration, as well as potential factors associated with receipt of crystalloid fluids. Patients who underwent liver resection between 2010 and 2014 were identified. Data on clinicopathologic variables, operative details, and perioperative fluid administration were collected and analyzed using univariable and multivariable analyses; variation in practice of crystalloid administration was presented as coefficient of variation (COV). Among 487 patients, median crystalloid administered at the time of surgery was 4,000 mL. After adjusting for body size and operative duration, median corrected crystalloid was 30.0 mL kg(-1) m(2) h(-1), corresponding with a COV of 35%. Patients who received <30 mL kg(-1) m(2) h(-1) crystalloids were more likely to be younger (58 vs 60 years), white (79% vs 74%), and have a higher body mass index (BMI; 28.2 vs 25.4 kg/m(2); all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, increasing Charlson comorbidity index, BMI, estimated blood loss, and each additional hour of surgery were all associated with increased crystalloid administration (all P < .05). Corrected crystalloid administration varied among providers with a corrected COV ranging from 14% to 61%. When overall variation in crystalloid administration was assessed, 80% of the variation occurred at the patient level, and 20% occurred at the provider level (surgeon, 3% vs anesthesiologist, 17%). There was wide variability in crystalloid administration among patients undergoing liver resection. Although the majority of variation was attributable to patient factors, a large amount of residual variation was attributable to provider-level differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrospective analysis of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Simondsen, Katherine A; Reed, Michael P; Mably, Mary S; Zhang, Yang; Longo, Walter L

    2013-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant are at a high risk for infection-related mortality in the immediate post-transplantation phase. Prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone is now recommended to reduce this risk with the stipulation that surveillance for increased fluoroquinolone resistance Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea be conducted. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 48 patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and received a fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis and 48 patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant who did not receive a fluoroquinolone for prophylaxis. All patients received the same standard antifungal, antiviral and anti-pneumocystis prophylaxis. Patients receiving fluoroquinolone prophylaxis had a lower incidence of febrile neutropenia than those not receiving prophylaxis, though the difference was not found to be statistically significant (83% vs. 67%, p = 0.098). Similar non-significant improvements in the number of positive cultures recovered during an episode of febrile neutropenia and antimicrobial days were noted. No significant increase in fluoroquinolone resistance, Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, or in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections were noted. Our single institution experience with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients supports continuation of this practice. Expansion to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients may be appropriate based on guideline recommendations and our institution-specific experience with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis.

  11. Screening for a renovascular etiology in hypertensive patients undergoing myocardial scintigraphy: differential renal thallium-201 uptake.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, G A; Mattar, A G; Bhargava, R; Powe, J E; Driedger, A A

    1990-06-01

    In hypertensive patients with target organ damage the search for possible etiologic factors may be particularly relevant. To evaluate renal symmetry, differential renal uptake of thallium-201 was quantified on renal images at 30 mins to 3 h after tracer injection in 112 hypertensive patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for chest pain. In some patients, renal angiographic status was known at the time of thallium-201 scintigraphy (n = 10), or disease was highly suspected (failed angioplasty, n = 6); the remainder (n = 96) were 'screened' for renovascular disease by renal thallium-201 imaging; 32 normotensive patients with no history of renal disease served as controls. Validation of thallium-201 renal imaging was obtained in a total of 17 hypertensive patients who had correlating contrast angiography, confirming eight cases of unilateral or asymmetric bilateral renovascular disease. Renography with technetium-99m DTPA was performed in 28 patients; differential renal function according to this modality correlated well with differential renal uptake of thallium-201 (r = 0.98). Of the screened hypertensives, eight had marked asymmetry of differential renal uptake and eight had possibly significant asymmetry. Renal thallium-201 imaging provided the first evidence of asymmetric renal perfusion in four cases subsequently confirmed by abdominal angiography. In addition, four post angioplasty cases had persistent or progressive asymmetry of renal perfusion disclosed by this technique. Thus, ancillary renal imaging with thallium-201 can be used to identify hypertensive patients who should be considered for renal angiographic evaluation.

  12. Factors determining discharge destination for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sharareh, Behnam; Le, Natasha B; Hoang, Melinda T; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2014-07-01

    Discharge destination to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) plays an important role in healthcare costs. The pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative factors of 50 consecutive patients discharged to an SNF following TJA were compared to that of 50 consecutive patients discharged to home. Patients discharged to SNFs had slower pre-operative Get Up and Go scores (TGUG), lower pre-operative EQ-5D scores, higher ASA scores, increased hospital length of stay, increased self-reported post-operative pain, and decreased physical therapy achievements. We believe that the results of this study indicate that patients who get discharged to SNFs fit a certain criteria and this may be used to guide post-operative discharge destination during pre-operative planning, which can help lower costs while helping decrease the length of inpatient stay.

  13. [Nursing care in patients undergoing radiological surgery. A case report].

    PubMed

    Armero-Barranco, David; Ruiz-Mateos, María; Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Bernal-Páez, Fernando Luis

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old man with medical diagnoses of long-standing diabetes mellitus, chronic ischemia of the lower limbs and intermittent claudication, for which the patient had been treated with minimally invasive radiological surgery. On arrival at the radiology unit, the patient had nursing diagnoses of anxiety and fear. Intraoperatively, the client had nursing diagnoses of pain, urine retention and infection risk. At discharge, a collaboration problem was detected and hemorrhagic risk. The patient received individualized nursing care. Interventions were planned following the nursing intervention classification (NIC) and the expected results for these interventions followed the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) taxonomy. The application of an appropriate nursing care plan contributes to making the patient's hospital stay easier, more comfortable and less traumatic.

  14. Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Transplant Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Van Bakel, Adrian B.; Brand, Timothy M.; Ravenel, James G.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Silvestri, Gerard A.; Judson, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the association between hemodynamic parameters of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLA) in heart transplantation (HT) candidates and the effect of HT on MLA. We also described the results of lymph node (LN) biopsies of MLA in the patients. Methods: Patients who underwent HT evaluation over an 8-year period and had chest CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. Data collected included LN sizes pre-HT and post-HT, echocardiographic measurements, radionuclide-derived ejection fraction, and right-sided heart catheterization hemodynamics. MLA was defined as LNs > 1 cm in smallest dimension. Results: Of 118 patients, 53 patients had MLA. MLA had weak statistically significant correlations with elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation (TR), right atrial pressure (RAP), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Thirty-six patients with MLA underwent HT, and nine of the 36 had post-HT chest CT scans. All nine patients showed a decrease in LN size post-HT (mean LN diameter pre-HT = 1.16 ± 0.137 cm, post-HT = 0.75 ± 0.32 cm). Seven of 53 patients with MLA underwent biopsies. Four had benign LNs, one had sarcoidosis, and two had lung cancer. Conclusions: MPAP, MR, TR, RAP, and PCWP had weak statistically significant correlations with MLA. HT led to regression of MLA in patients who underwent CT scans post-HT, implying that MLA is related to CHF. However, we also identified clinically important causes of MLA; therefore, biopsy should be considered if enlarged LNs fail to regress after maximal medical management of CHF. PMID:20966040

  15. Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Li-Na; Shi, Hon-Yi; Wang, Tsai-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Ying; Lee, King-Teh

    2011-07-01

    This large-scale prospective cohort study of a Taiwan population applied generalized estimating equations to evaluate predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after open cholecystectomy (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures performed between February 2007 and November 2008. The Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 were used in a preoperative assessment and in 3(rd) month and 6(th) month postoperative assessments of 38 OC and 259 LC patients. The HRQOL of the cholecystectomy patients were significantly improved at 3 months and 6 months postsurgery (p<0.05). At 3 months postsurgery, HRQOL improvement was significantly larger in LC patients than in OC patients. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and health care quality were also significantly related to HRQOL improvement (p<0.05). Additionally, after controlling for related variables, preoperative health status was significantly and positively associated with each subscale of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 throughout the 6 months (p<0.05). Patients should be advised that their postoperative HRQOL may depend not only on their postoperative health care but also on their preoperative functional status.

  16. Oral manifestation and salivary changes in renal patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sargolzaie, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc. were recorded in the information collection form. The data was analyzed using T-test and chi-square, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The mean salivary urea level and pH value in the patient group were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to salivary calcium. Halitosis, xerostomia, and increased calculus were the most prevalent manifestations, and gum bleeding was the least prevalent among the patients. Conclusions Advanced chronic renal insufficiency can increase salivary urea level, pH value, halitosis, xerostomia, and calculus formation, and may cause pale mucosa. Key words:Renal dialysis, biomarkers, oral manifestation, saliva. PMID:28210437

  17. Oral manifestation and salivary changes in renal patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Marieh; Farhad-Mollashahi, Leila; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sargolzaie, Fahimeh

    2017-02-01

    Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc. were recorded in the information collection form. The data was analyzed using T-test and chi-square, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant. The mean salivary urea level and pH value in the patient group were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to salivary calcium. Halitosis, xerostomia, and increased calculus were the most prevalent manifestations, and gum bleeding was the least prevalent among the patients. Advanced chronic renal insufficiency can increase salivary urea level, pH value, halitosis, xerostomia, and calculus formation, and may cause pale mucosa. Key words:Renal dialysis, biomarkers, oral manifestation, saliva.

  18. The prevalence of moderate mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Wierup, Per; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Egeblad, Henrik; Scherstén, Henrik; Kimblad, Per-Ola; Bech-Hansen, Odd; Roijer, Anders; Nilsson, Folke; Nielsen, Per Hostrup; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Mølgaard, Henning

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in the contemporary CABG population. We also aimed to correlate the effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) of any regurgitant mitral valve in patients with coronary artery disease with the semiquantitative integrated scale of IMR. From March 15 through June 15, 2006, 510 consecutive CABG patients in three tertiary centres were included in the study. All patients showing any sign of mitral regurgitation (MR) at the referring hospital underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic estimation of the degree of MR using the integrated scale (1-4) and ERO. IMR was found in 141 patients (28%). The prevalence of moderate 2+ or worse IMR was 4% (95% CI; 2.5-6.1%) and the ERO corresponding to 2+ IMR or more ranged from 5 to 30 mm(2). Fourteen patients had an ERO between 15-30 mm(2). According to our study, patients with moderate IMR, defined as an ERO between 15-30 mm(2), account for only 2.7% (95% CI; 1.5-4.7%) of a non-emergency CABG population.

  19. Patterns and Timing of Initial Relapse in Patients Subsequently Undergoing Transplantation for Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Biswas, Tithi; Liesveld, Jane L.; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Phillips, Gordon L.; Constine, Louis S.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the patterns and timing of initial recurrence in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) who subsequently underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation to enhance our understanding of the natural history of this disease and its modern treatment strategies and to direct approaches to disease surveillance. Methods and Materials: The records of 69 patients with HL who had undergone high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in our center between May 1992 and June 2006 were analyzed. The initial diagnosis had been made between April 1982 and January 2005 at a median patient age of 33 years (range, 19-65). The patients were segregated according to the initial stage (Stage I-II vs. III-IV). Results: Early-stage HL patients developed a relapse at a median of 2.1 years (range, 0.5-10.3), with 91% of relapses at the initial disease site, 71% of which (65% overall) were only in previously involved sites. Advanced-stage HL patients developed a relapse at a median of 1.5 years (range, 0.6-10.5), with 97% at the initial site, 71% of which (69% overall) were only in previously involved sites. Single-site relapses occurred in 47% of early- vs. 26% of advanced-stage patients, and extranodal relapses occurred in 12% of early- vs. 31% of advanced-stage patients. Conclusions: Almost all patients with HL who develop relapse and subsequently undergo high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation initially developed recurrence in previously involved disease sites. Early-stage HL relapses often occurred in single sites, and advanced-stage disease relapses were more likely in multiple and extranodal sites. The interval to recurrence was brief, suggesting that the frequency of screening should be the greatest in the early post-therapy years.

  20. Vitamin D status in dark-skinned patients undergoing hemodialysis in a continually sunny country.

    PubMed

    Foucan, Lydia; Ducros, Jacques; Merault, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency is common in end-stage renal disease. Seasonal and ethnic differences in vitD status have been reported previously. We hypothesized that vitD status in Afro-Caribbean patients on hemodialysis (HD) living in a country with a constant sunny climate would be better than that in African-American HD patients living in countries with a winter season. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 152 Afro-Caribbean HD patients in a dialysis center located in Guadeloupe. We evaluated the prevalence of vitD insufficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels below 30 ng/mL, compared with those results previously reported in African-American HD patients (88%). Prevalence of vitD insufficiency was 60% and thus lower than that in the African-American patients considered as the reference population (p<0.001). In our diabetic patients, this prevalence was 72.4%. Globally, 9.2% of patients had 25(OH)D below 15 ng/mL. Alfacalcidol therapy was prescribed in 29%. Mean 25(OH)D levels were higher in treated than in untreated patients (32 vs. 27 ng/mL; p=0.009). Patients with vitD insufficiency had dyslipidemia and diabetes more frequently. No significant differences were found between patients with and without vitD insufficiency for serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH). In untreated patients, no significant correlation was found between 25(OH)D and PTH levels. Prevalence of vitD insufficiency in Afro-Caribbean HD patients was lower than that previously reported in African Americans undergoing HD in the United States. This finding may be due to the constantly sunny weather with a high intensity of UVB radiation in Guadeloupe.

  1. The effect of recommended Azkar on anxiety, stress, and depression in families of patients undergoing open heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour-Rabori, Roghayeh; Nematollahi, Monirosadat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Admission of a family member to hospital would cause stress on other family members also. One of the most stressful treatment interventions imposing high level of anxiety to the families of patients is when the patients are undergoing a surgery, especially a cardiac surgery. So, we decided to investigate whether recommended Azkar could reduce stress, anxiety, and depression in families of the patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study conducted on 120 immediate relatives of patients undergoing a cardiac surgery. Families of patients undergoing open heart surgery were randomly divided into two groups of study and control. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS 21) questionnaires were completed by both groups. Then, some explanations about how to use recommended prayers were given to the study group, and an hour later, the questionnaires were completed again. The data were analyzed by SPSS. P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Stress, anxiety, and depression showed a significant difference in the study group before and after intervention. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of anxiety, stress, and depression in the study and control groups after intervention. Conclusions: Findings of the present study showed that recommended religious prayers can significantly reduce anxiety, depression, and stress of families of the patients undergoing open heart surgery. PMID:24949060

  2. Risk Assessment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Population of Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stierer, Tracey L.; Wright, Christopher; George, Anu; Thompson, Richard E.; Wu, Christopher L.; Collop, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aims of this study were to: (a) assess the prevalence of diagnosed OSA and symptoms of undiagnosed OSA in a cohort of ambulatory surgical patients, and (b) characterize the frequency of postoperative complications in outpatients with a diagnosis of or a propensity to OSA. Methods: Patients presenting for ambulatory surgery completed a self-administered questionnaire. Using a previously validated prediction model, the probability for OSA was determined. Patients with ≥ 70% propensities were considered to b