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Sample records for patients undergoing immunotherapy

  1. Improvement of QOL and Immunological Function With Lentinula Edodes Mycelia in Patients Undergoing Cancer Immunotherapy: An Open Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Keishi; Itoh, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yasunobu

    2016-07-01

    Context • Combined treatment with an extract of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) and chemotherapy has been reported to improve quality of life (QOL) and immunological function in cancer patients. However, those effects have not been elucidated for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. Objective • The present study intended to investigate the effects of oral LEM on QOL and immunological function in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy. Design • The research team designed an open-label, single-armed pilot study. Setting • The study took place at Bio-Thera Clinic, a facility associated with Tokyo Women's Medical University in Tokyo, Japan. Participants • The participants were 10 cancer patients undergoing cancer immunotherapy at Bio-Thera Clinic. Intervention • The participants received either dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccine therapy or CD3-activated T-lymphocyte (CAT) therapy as immunotherapy. They received the immunotherapy only for the first 4 wk of the study, and then oral LEM (1800 mg/d) was added for the next 4 wk. Outcome Measures • Preintervention and at 4 and 8 wk after the start of the study, participants completed a QOL survey, and immunological parameters were measured. Results • Participants' QOL symptom scores increased (ie, worsened) by 5.1 ± 1.7 during the first 4 wk of treatment when they were receiving immunotherapy only, but it decreased (ie, improved) by -2.5 ± 1.6 during the next 4 wk when the immunotherapy was combined with the LEM, P < .05. The measurement of the immunological parameters during the 4 wk of immunotherapy combined with LEM showed that the amount of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced in the peripheral blood tended to increase as compared with that during the first 4 wk of immunotherapy only. The rise in IFN-γ was correlated with changes in several regulatory T cells (Tregs) (ie, forkhead box P3 [FOXP3]+/cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4]+ and transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]). Conclusions • The

  2. Identification of different tumor escape mechanisms in several metastases from a melanoma patient undergoing immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Rodríguez, Teresa; Del Campo, Ana; Paschen, Annette; Schadendorf, Dirk; Garrido, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of T cells selects the outgrowth of tumor cells that escape from immune surveillance by different strategies. The different mechanisms that interfere with immune recognition and limit vaccination efficiency are still poorly understood. We analysed six cell lines established from different metastases of melanoma patient UKRV-Mel-20 for specific characteristics known to have an impact on the tumor-T cell interaction: (1) alterations in the HLA class I phenotype, (2) expression of Fas/CD95, and (3) expression of specific cytokines and chemokines. One of the cell lines, UKRV-Mel-20f, exhibited an HLA class I haplotype loss and just this cell line was also characterised by the expression of Fas/CD95 and of relatively high levels of proinflammatory chemokines suggesting that the cytotoxic activity of tumor-infiltrating T cells might have selected the outgrowth of this tumor cell variant. All other cell lines analysed showed no alterations in HLA class I expression, but, in contrast to UKRV-Mel-20f, expressed much lower levels of Fas/CD95 and of proinflammatory chemokines and some of them produced high levels of immunosuppressive TGF-beta1. These results suggest that in patient UKRV-Mel-20, tumor cells interfere with T cell recognition by different strategies which might partially explain why this patient did not have a clinical response to an autologous tumor cell vaccine.

  3. NK cell expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors may determine relapse risk in older AML patients undergoing immunotherapy for remission maintenance.

    PubMed

    Martner, Anna; Rydström, Anna; Riise, Rebecca E; Aurelius, Johan; Brune, Mats; Foà, Robin; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Thorén, Fredrik B

    2015-12-15

    In a phase IV trial, eighty-four patients (age 18-79) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) received cycles of immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) to prevent relapse in the post-consolidation phase. Aspects of natural killer (NK) cell biology were analyzed before and during immunotherapy with focus on outcome in older patients. In younger (<60 years old, n = 37) and older patients (>60 years old, n = 47), treatment with HDC/IL-2 resulted in an expansion of CD56(bright) and CD16+ NK cells in blood along with an increased NK cell expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) NKp30 and NKp46. In older patients, a high expression of NKp30 or NKp46 on CD16+ NK cells before and during therapy predicted leukemia-free and overall survival. These results suggest that NK cell functions determine relapse risk and survival in older AML patients and point to biomarkers of efficacy in protocols for remission maintenance.

  4. HIV-1 evolution in patients undergoing immunotherapy with Tat, Rev, and Nef expressing dendritic cells followed by treatment interruption.

    PubMed

    de Goede, Anna L; van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Vrancken, Bram; Schutten, Martin; Allard, Sabine D; van Baalen, Carel A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Thielemans, Kris; Aerts, Joeri L; Keşmir, Can; Lemey, Philippe; Gruters, Rob A

    2013-11-13

    This study aimed to evaluate HIV sequence evolution in whole genes and in CD8 T-cell epitope regions following immunotherapy and subsequent analytical treatment interruption (ATI). A second objective of this study was to analyze associations between vaccine-specific immune responses and epitope mutation rates. HIV-1-infected patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) were subjected to immunotherapy by the administration of an autologous dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccine expressing Tat, Rev, and Nef and subsequent ATI. HIV-1 genes were amplified and sequenced from plasma RNA obtained before initiation of cART as well as during ATI. Control sequences for virus evolution in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals were obtained from the HIV Sequence Database (Los Alamos). CD8 T-cell epitope regions were defined based on literature data and prediction models. HIV-1-specific immune responses were evaluated to analyze their impact on sequence evolution. Viral sequence evolution in the tat, rev, and nef genes of vaccinated patients was similar to that of controls. The number of mutations observed inside and outside CD8 T-cell epitopes was comparable for vaccine-targeted and nontargeted proteins. We found no evidence for an impact of vaccine-induced or enhanced immune responses on the number of mutations inside or outside epitopes. Therapeutic vaccination of HIV-1-infected patients with a dendritic cell-based vaccine targeting Tat, Rev, and Nef did not affect virus evolution at the whole gene level nor at the CD8 T-cell epitope level.

  5. Patient adherence to allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Reisacher, William R; Visaya, Jiovani M

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on patient adherence to two different approaches to allergen-specific immunotherapy for allergic disease. Factors related to adherence in general, as well as the various methods used to measure adherence, will be discussed. Although a complex interaction of factors related to both the physician and the patient influence the adherence to a particular therapeutic regimen, effective communication between these two parties and the simplicity of the regimen are frequently noted to be of primary importance. Variability with respect to the definition of adherence, the method of measuring adherence, and the length of the measuring period has resulted in a wide range of adherence rates to allergy immunotherapy reported in the literature. Patients most often site inconvenience, side-effects, and poor efficacy as reasons for discontinuing allergy immunotherapy. Adherence to therapy not only improves individual patient outcomes, but also helps determine the best treatment modalities and reduces the burden of disease on society. As new methods of delivering immunotherapy are being developed, such as allergy immunotherapy tablets and oral mucosal immunotherapy, the factors associated with patient adherence should be carefully considered.

  6. Novel insights into immunotherapy for hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Jahan, Munira; Yoshida, Osamu; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The possible use of immunotherapy for hepatitis B has emerged for two major reasons: (1) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an immune-mediated pathological condition, and (2) commercially available antiviral drugs are of limited efficacy. Although various immunomodulatory agents have been used to treat patients with CHB during the last three decades, there is currently no consensus among physicians and hepatologists regarding the suitability of immunotherapy for patients with CHB. However, new insights into immunotherapy for CHB have emerged; these may facilitate design of effective and tolerable immunotherapy regimens for these patients. This review provides a comprehensive overview of immunotherapy for CHB.

  7. Efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy versus subcutaneous injection immunotherapy in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Saporta, Diego

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that Subcutaneous Injection Immunotherapy (SCIT) and Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) are both efficacious, there is not yet a significant amount of information regarding their comparative efficacy. In this paper, we performed a retrospective chart review and compared treatment results in two groups of patients (both with nasal allergies with or without asthma) that were treated either with SCIT or SLIT. Both treatment modalities were found to be of similar efficacy.

  8. Immunotherapy for invasive mold disease in severely immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Amar

    2013-07-01

    Response to systemic antifungal therapy alone remains disproportionately less satisfactory in immunosuppressed transplant and oncology patients. As insight in fungal immunopathogenesis forges ahead, interventions for boosting immune functions along with antimicrobial drugs has shown promise in preclinical experiments. The clinical experience with immunotherapy for invasive mold disease is limited. Most studies have involved small numbers of patients at a single institution or data collected retrospectively. An overview of various facts of immune modulatory drug intervention is presented, including major considerations in antifungal immunotherapy in immunosuppressed patients. Patients in whom immunotherapy is being considered must be critically evaluated to identify the underlying immune defects, including treatment-induced immunosuppression. Antifungal immunotherapy is appealing; however, before routine clinical use is recommended, well-designed prospective comparative clinical trials are urgently needed.

  9. [Satisfaction with immunotherapy in patients with advanced cancer].

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Fumika; Kotani, Junko; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Toru

    2015-04-01

    Patient satisfaction with cancer immunotherapy, which is not covered by health insurance in Japan, was evaluated among 65 patients with advanced cancer who had received immunotherapy in our hospital for 2 years. Satisfaction measures were based on patients' expectations for medical care, cost, and staff services, and involved a questionnaire consisting of 25 items. Results of the questionnaire analysis showed that most patients, who expected much of antigen-specific vaccination such as dendritic cells (DC) pulsed tumor-associated antigens, were dissatisfied with the high cost of private immunotherapy(i. e., not covered by medical insurance), and were unable to perceive the effectiveness of the treatment because there was no quantitative analysis of killer T cells induced by immunotherapy. Therefore, it is critically important for us to confirm the safety and efficiency of cancer immunotherapy, before introducing medical insurance for cancer patients in Japan. In addition, the quantitative measurement of killer T cells induced by DC peptide vaccines should be considered, to meet patients' expectations.

  10. Multiallergen-specific immunotherapy in polysensitized patients: where are we?

    PubMed

    Bahceciler, Nerin Nadir; Galip, Nilufer; Cobanoglu, Nazan

    2013-02-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy administered by the subcutaneous route was introduced a century ago and has been shown to be effective in the management of allergic rhinitis and asthma. More recently, the sublingual administration of allergen extracts has become popular, especially in European countries, and has also demonstrated efficacy in respiratory allergic diseases. Both modes of allergen administration during immunotherapy have been shown not only to reduce symptoms and the need for medication, but also to prevent the development of additional sensitivities in monosensitized patients, as well as asthma development in patients with allergic rhinitis, with a long-lasting effect after the completion of several years of treatment. Almost all of the well-designed and double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies evaluated treatment with single-allergen extracts. Therefore, most meta-analyses published to date evaluated immunotherapy with single allergen or extracts containing several cross-reactive allergens. As a result, in general, multiallergen immunotherapy in polysensitized patients (mixture of noncross-reactive allergens) is not recommended owing to lack of evidence. Although some guidelines have recommended against the use of multiallergen mixtures, allergists commonly use mixtures to which the patient is sensitive with the rationale that effective immunotherapy should include all major sensitivities. Literature on this subject is scarce in spite of the widespread use worldwide. Here, this issue will be extensively discussed based on currently available literature and future perspectives will also be explored.

  11. Selection of patients for sublingual versus subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée E S; Blaiss, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the sole treatment for IgE-mediated allergic diseases directed at the underlying mechanism. The two widely accepted administration routes are sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT). We reviewed how patients should best be selected for immunotherapy and how the optimal administration route can be defined. Before deciding SCIT or SLIT, appropriate selection of patients for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is mandatory. To be eligible for AIT, subjects must have a clear medical history of allergic disease, with exacerbation of symptoms on exposure to one or more allergens and a corresponding positive skin or in vitro test. Then the route of administration should be based on: published evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy (which varies per allergic disease and per allergen); mono- or multi-allergen immunotherapy, for SLIT multi-allergen immunotherapy was not effective; safety: adverse events with SLIT are more frequent, but less severe; and, costs and patient preferences, closely related to adherence issues. All these are discussed in the article.

  12. Immunotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma: a promising treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Lian, Zhouyang; Liang, Long; Chen, Wenbo; Luo, Xiaoning; Pei, Shufang; Mo, Xiaokai; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Wenhui; Ouyang, Fusheng; Guo, Baoliang; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC). A meta-analysis of single-arm trials is proposed to assess the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy for APC. Eighteen relevant studies involving 527 patients were identified. The pooled disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), and 1-year survival rate were estimated as 59.32%, 7.90 months, 4.25 months, and 30.12%, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the pooled OS, PFS, and 1-year survival rate were significantly higher for autologous activated lymphocyte therapy compared with peptide-based vaccine therapy (OS: 8.28 months vs. 7.40 months; PFS: 6.04 months vs. 3.86 months; 1-year survival rate: 37.17% vs. 19.74%). Another subgroup analysis demonstrated that the pooled endpoints were estimated as obviously higher for immunotherapy plus chemotherapy compared with immunotherapy alone (DCR: 62.51% vs. 47.63%; OS: 8.67 months vs. 4.91 months; PFS: 4.91 months vs. 3.34 months; 1-year survival rate: 32.32% vs. 21.43%). Of the included trials, seven trials reported no treatment related adverse events , five trials reported (16.6 3.9) % grade 3 adverse events and no grade 4 adverse events. In conclusion, immunotherapy is safe and effective in the treatment of APC. PMID:27992378

  13. Utility of component analyses in subjects undergoing sublingual immunotherapy for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Burk, C M; Kulis, M; Leung, N; Kim, E H; Burks, A W; Vickery, B P

    2016-02-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with peanut changes clinical and immune responses in most peanut-allergic individuals, but the response is highly variable. We sought to examine the component-specific effects of peanut SLIT and determine whether peanut component testing could predict the outcome of a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) after 12 months of peanut SLIT. We included 33 subjects who underwent peanut SLIT with a DBPCFC of 2500 mg of peanut protein performed after 12 months of therapy. Plasma samples from baseline and after 12 months of peanut SLIT were assayed using ImmunoCAP for IgE and IgG4 against whole peanut, Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8, and Ara h 9. Following 12 months of SLIT, 10 subjects (30%) passed the DBPCFC without symptoms and were considered desensitized. Subjects that failed the DBPCFC tolerated a median of 460 mg peanut protein (range: 10-1710 mg). The desensitized group had significantly lower baseline levels of IgE against peanut (median 40.8 vs. 231 kUA /L, P = 0.0082), Ara h 2 (median 17 vs. 113 kUA /L, P = 0.0082), and Ara h 3 (median 0.3 vs. 8.5 kUA /L, P = 0.0396). ROC curves indicated that baseline IgE against peanut and Ara h 2 were equally effective at discriminating between the two groups (AUC = 0.7957, P = 0.007752 for both). In this cohort of subjects undergoing SLIT for peanut allergy, lower baseline levels of IgE against Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and peanut were associated with successful desensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... T-cell therapy, see CAR T-Cell Therapy: Engineering Patients' Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers . Cytokines , ... Immune System to Treat Cancer CAR T Cells: Engineering Patients’ Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers With ...

  15. Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... CSF) Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Interferon Donor lymphocyte infusion Some blood cancer patients, especially those with chronic ... from an immune cell treatment called donor lymphocyte infusion. During this procedure, doctors transfer lymphocytes (a type ...

  16. Increased osteopontin levels in children undergoing venom immunotherapy may serve as a marker of clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Süleyman Tolga; Soyer, Ozge U; Sekerel, Bulent E; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Cavkaytar, Ozlem; Sahiner, Umit Murat; Sackesen, Cansin; Tuncer, Ayfer

    2014-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has its effect by modulating various mediators resulting in immune tolerance. The aim of this study was to measure changes in plasma osteopontin (OPN) and serum basal tryptase (sBT) levels over the course of 1 year of VIT in children with venom allergy. Children who suffered from a large local reaction (LLR) or a systemic reaction (SR) after insect stings were included along with control subjects. Measurements were performed before the initiation of VIT and 6 and 12 months after it had been started. A total of 58 children (24 with SR, 18 with LLR and 16 control subjects) with a median age of 9.5 years (range 6.7-12.8) were enrolled. The plasma OPN levels of patients with LLR [median 1,477 ng/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 1,123-1,772] were significantly higher than patients with SR (882 ng/ml, 579-1,086; p < 0.001) and healthy control subjects (1,015 ng/ml, 815-1,203; p = 0.002). A significant increase in plasma OPN levels in children was determined after the 1-year VIT. The sBT levels of children with SR (4.1 ng/ml, 3.6-5.8) were significantly higher than children with LLR (3.1 ng/ml, 2.5-4.0) and control subjects (3.0 ng/ml, 2.9-3.8; p = 0.001). There was no significant change in the sBT levels of the patients after the 1-year VIT. The results of our study showed higher baseline levels of OPN in children with LLR compared to control subjects and children with SR. In children with SR, OPN levels were increased after the 1-year VIT. Our results may suggest a possible association between OPN and successful VIT in children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis.

  18. Feline immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Ann M; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2006-08-01

    Feline allergen specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is considered to be a safe and effective treatment for feline atopy. ASIT is defined as the practice of administering gradually increasing quantities of an allergen extract to an allergic subject. The purpose of which is to reduce or eliminate the symptoms associated with subsequent exposures to the causative allergen. ASIT offers an effective and safe treatment option for cats. Reported success rates range for 60 to 78% in feline atopic patients. Additionally, the reported incidence of side effects in feline atopic patients undergoing ASIT is very low and mainly anecdotal.

  19. Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis in an infant undergoing milk oral immunotherapy - a case report.

    PubMed

    Morais Silva, P; Antunes, J; Chambel, M; Prates, S; Leiria Pinto, P

    2014-07-01

    Although the standard of care for cow's milk (CM) allergy is strict food avoidance, oral immunotherapy (OIT) is being widely investigated as an alternative management option in certain cases. Immediate adverse reactions to OIT have been described, but its long-term effects are much less often reported. We present the case of a girl diagnosed with IgE-mediated CM allergy that was proposed for our CM OIT protocol at the age of 3 years. The first sessions (dose escalation up to 5 ml) were well tolerated, however eight hours after her daily morning dose of 5 ml CM the child developed late episodes of vomiting. No other symptoms, particularly immediately after CM ingestion, were reported. These episodes became progressively worse and on the third day she presented mild dehydration and blood eosinophilia. After OIT interruption, a progressive clinical improvement was observed. An esophageal endoscopy was performed, showing signs of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with peak 20 eosinophils/hpf. After treatment with topical swallowed fluticasone (500 mcg bid) and a CM-free diet for 4 months, the child was asymptomatic and endoscopy and biopsy findings were normal.The long-term effects of milk OIT are still in part unknown. We hypothesize that eosinophilic esophagitis may have been a consequence of OIT in this case. The findings seem to indicate that food allergy may play a role in the pathogenesis of esophageal eosinophilia and stress the importance of a well programmed long-term follow-up of patients that have undergone milk OIT.

  20. Venom immunotherapy in patients with mastocytosis and hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    González-de-Olano, David; Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Vega, Arantza; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2011-05-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is typically suspected in patients with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). In recent years, the presence of clonal mast cells (MCs) in a subset of patients with systemic symptoms associated with MC activation in the absence of CM has been reported and termed monoclonal MC activation syndromes or clonal systemic MC activation syndromes. In these cases, bone marrow (BM) MC numbers are usually lower than in SM with CM, there are no detectable BM MC aggregates, and serum baseline tryptase is often <20 µg/l; thus, diagnosis of SM in these patients should be based on careful evaluation of other minor WHO criteria for SM in reference centers, where highly sensitive techniques for immunophenotypic analysis and investigation of KIT mutations on fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified BM MCs are routinely performed. The prevalence of hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) among SM patients is higher than among the normal population and it has been reported to be approximately 5%. In SM patients with IgE-mediated HVA, venom immunotherapy is safe and effective and it should be prescribed lifelong. Severe adverse reactions to hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy have been associated with increased serum baseline tryptase; however, presence of clonal MC has not been ruled out in most reports and thus both SM and clonal MC activation syndrome might be underdiagnosed in such patients. In fact, clonal BM MC appears to be a relevant risk factor for both HVA and severe reactions to venom immunotherapy, while the increase in serum baseline tryptase by itself should be considered as a powerful surrogate marker for anaphylaxis. The Spanish Network on Mastocytosis has developed a scoring system based on patient gender, the clinical symptoms observed during anaphylaxis and serum baseline tryptase to predict for the presence of both MC clonality and SM among individuals who suffer from anaphylaxis.

  1. Observations in immunotherapy of lymphoma and melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J W; Plenderleith, I H; Clements, D V; Landi, S

    1975-07-01

    Maintenance of remission solely by repeated BCG vaccinations in seven patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who had achieved a complete clinical remission with initial standard therapy has provided sufficient encouragement to begin a randomized clinical trial. In vitro lymphocyte responses to mitogens and PPD used as parameters of cell-mediated immunity have not proved to be of value in predicting early or late recurrence in six pre-trial and trial patients. Eight out of twenty-one patients with malignant melanoma have shown a satisfactory clinical response (10-34 months) to immunotherapy. Those who respond must show immunological reactivity to the stimulating agent, however the best clinical responses were not associated with the highest degrees of in vivo and in vitro sensitization. The skin reactivity and the in vitro lymphocyte response to PPD as well as a 2-3-fold increase in the appearance of colony-forming units in the peripheral blood following the intratumour injection of BCG or PPD are helpful in prognosis and management of these patients. All patients with malignant melanoma who presented with a PHA response less than 40% of normal made a poor response to immunotherapy. Autopsies performed on seven patients dying with extensive melanocarcinomatous disease failed to show any serious adverse toxic reactions or infections from oral and intratumour injections of BCG.

  2. A mathematical prognosis model for pancreatic cancer patients receiving immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefang; Xu, Jian-Xin

    2016-10-07

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer since it typically spreads rapidly and can seldom be detected in its early stage. Pancreatic cancer therapy is thus a challenging task, and appropriate prognosis or assessment for pancreatic cancer therapy is of critical importance. In this work, based on available clinical data in Niu et al. (2013) we develop a mathematical prognosis model that can predict the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients who receive immunotherapy. The mathematical model incorporates pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic stellate cells, three major classes of immune effector cells CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, helper T cells, and two major classes of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The proposed model describes the dynamic interaction between tumor and immune cells. In order for the model to be able to generate appropriate prognostic results for disease progression, the distribution and stability properties of equilibria in the mathematical model are computed and analysed in absence of treatments. In addition, numerical simulations for disease progression with or without treatments are performed. It turns out that the median overall survival associated with CIK immunotherapy is prolonged from 7 to 13months compared with the survival without treatment, this is consistent with the clinical data observed in Niu et al. (2013). The validity of the proposed mathematical prognosis model is thus verified. Our study confirms that immunotherapy offers a better prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients. As a direct extension of this work, various new therapy methods that are under exploration and clinical trials could be assessed or evaluated using the newly developed mathematical prognosis model.

  3. Clinical effects of laser immunotherapy on metastatic cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, Mark F.; Lam, Anh K.; Bahavar, Cody F.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials of late-stage breast cancer patients and late-stage melanoma patients treated by laser immunotherapy (LIT) have shown promising results. In a 2010 study of Li et al, eleven late-stage melanoma patients received LIT in one or multiple 6-week treatment cycles applied to a 200-cm2 treatment site, which usually contained multiple cutaneous metastases. Long-term, positive response was observed in six patients. All lesions in the treatment area of the patients responded to LIT, eight of which achieved complete local response (CLR). CLR was observed in the non-treatment site (regional) lesions in four patients. Five patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up. The probability of 12-month overall survival was 70%.2 In 2011, Li et al, treated ten late stage breast cancer patients with LIT.1 In 8 patients available for evaluation, the objective response rate was 62.5% and the clinical beneficial response rate was 75%.1 This review demonstrates that LIT is safe and well tolerated, so it can be easily applied on an outpatient basis and can be combined with other pharmaceutical modalities to improve the therapeutic response of metastatic cancers.

  4. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  5. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controled clinical trial of sublingual immunotherapy in natural rubber latex allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural rubber latex allergy is a common and unsolved health problem. Since the avoidance of exposure is very difficult, immunotherapy is strongly recommended, but before its use in patients, it is essential to prove the efficacy and safety of extracts. The aim of the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of latex sublingual immunotherapy in adult patients undergoing permanent latex avoidance. Methods Twenty-eight adult latex-allergic patients (5 males and 23 females), with mean age of 39 years (range 24-57) were randomized to receive a commercial latex-sublingual immunotherapy or placebo during one year, followed by another year of open, active therapy. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of first and second year of follow-up: skin prick test, gloves-use score, conjunctival challenge test, total and specific IgE, basophil activation test, and adverse reactions monitoring. Results No significant difference in any of the efficacy in vivo variables was observed between active and placebo groups at the end of the placebo-controlled phase, nor when each group was compared with their baseline values at the end of the two year-study. An improvement in the average percentage of basophils activated was observed. During the induction phase, 4 reactions in the active group and 5 in the placebo group were recorded. During the maintenance phase, two patients dropped out due to pruritus and to acute dermatitis respectively. Conclusion Further studies are needed to evaluate latex-sublingual immunotherapy, since efficacy could not be demonstrated in adult patients with avoidance of the allergen. Trial registration number ACTRN12611000543987 PMID:21827704

  6. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of sublingual immunotherapy in natural rubber latex allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Gastaminza, Gabriel; Algorta, Jaime; Uriel, Olga; Audicana, Maria T; Fernandez, Eduardo; Sanz, Maria L; Muñoz, Daniel

    2011-08-09

    Natural rubber latex allergy is a common and unsolved health problem. Since the avoidance of exposure is very difficult, immunotherapy is strongly recommended, but before its use in patients, it is essential to prove the efficacy and safety of extracts.The aim of the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of latex sublingual immunotherapy in adult patients undergoing permanent latex avoidance. Twenty-eight adult latex-allergic patients (5 males and 23 females), with mean age of 39 years (range 24-57) were randomized to receive a commercial latex-sublingual immunotherapy or placebo during one year, followed by another year of open, active therapy. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of first and second year of follow-up: skin prick test, gloves-use score, conjunctival challenge test, total and specific IgE, basophil activation test, and adverse reactions monitoring. No significant difference in any of the efficacy in vivo variables was observed between active and placebo groups at the end of the placebo-controlled phase, nor when each group was compared with their baseline values at the end of the two year-study. An improvement in the average percentage of basophils activated was observed. During the induction phase, 4 reactions in the active group and 5 in the placebo group were recorded. During the maintenance phase, two patients dropped out due to pruritus and to acute dermatitis respectively. Further studies are needed to evaluate latex-sublingual immunotherapy, since efficacy could not be demonstrated in adult patients with avoidance of the allergen. ACTRN12611000543987.

  7. Changes in patient quality of life during oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Rigbi, N Epstein; Goldberg, M R; Levy, M B; Nachshon, L; Golobov, K; Elizur, A

    2017-05-22

    Quality of life (QOL) is impaired in patients with food allergy and improves following oral immunotherapy (OIT). However, the treatment itself is prolonged and demanding. We examined changes in patient QOL during OIT for food allergy. The FAQLQ-PF was administered to children aged 4-12 years undergoing OIT for milk, peanut, or egg allergy, at the beginning and after 4 months of treatment. Patients were categorized as improved, unchanged, or diminished FAQLQ-PF (>0.5 point decrease, a change of ≤0.5 points, or >0.5 increase, respectively) and compared. Food-allergic patients not undergoing OIT served as controls. The Food Anxiety, Social and Dietary Limitation, and total FAQLQ-PF scores improved significantly during the study period (P=.001, P=.018, and P=.01, respectively) in treated but not in control patients, while the Emotional Impact did not. The change in the FAQLQ-PF was independent of the maximal tolerated dose at baseline or following four months of treatment, the pace of dose increase, or the number or severity of reactions experienced. The total FAQLQ-PF score was inversely associated with the score at baseline on multivariate analysis (regression coefficient=-0.56, P<.001). That was driven primarily by improvement in QOL scores in patients with high score (worse QOL) at baseline. Some patients with low FAQLQ-PF score (better QOL) at baseline deteriorated. QOL of patients with food allergy improves in some but deteriorates in others during OIT. Patients with impaired QOL at baseline improve significantly despite the treatment burden. Some patients with better QOL at baseline might deteriorate during OIT. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2010-05-01

    The veterinary oncology profession is uniquely able to contribute to the many advances that are imminent in immunotherapy. However, what works in a mouse will often not reflect the outcome in human patients with cancer. Therefore, comparative immunotherapy studies using veterinary patients may be better able to bridge murine and human studies. Many cancers in dogs and cats seem to be stronger models for their counterpart human tumors than presently available murine model systems. This author looks forward to the time when immunotherapy plays a significant role in the treatment and/or prevention of cancer in human and veterinary patients.

  9. [Selected clinical and laboratory tests during specific immunotherapy of patients hypersensitive to insect bites].

    PubMed

    Szymański, W; Kazberuk, M; Michalska, I; Chyrek-Borowska, S

    The study aimed at determining selected immunologic parameters of the cellular histamine secretion and skin reactivity in the group of 9 patients hypersensitive to insect poison with effective immunotherapy following 2 years of maintenance treatment. It has been shown that the continuation of the specific immunotherapy for 2 years maintains and even increases favourable changes in humoral and cellular immunity induced already in the early phase of desensitization. An assay of the specific IgE and IgG4, cellular histamine secretion, and skin reactivity is of value in monitoring specific allergy to insect poison immunotherapy.

  10. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  11. Nutrition assessment in patients undergoing liver transplant

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Neha; Singh, Kalyani

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a major surgery performed on patients with end stage liver disease. Nutrition is an integral part of patient care, and protein-energy malnutrition is almost universally present in patients suffering from liver disease undergoing LT. Nutrition assessment of preliver transplant phase helps to make a good nutrition care plan for the patients. Nutrition status has been associated with various factors which are related to the success of liver transplant such as morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. To assess the nutritional status of preliver transplant patients, combinations of nutrition assessment methods should be used like subjective global assessment, Anthropometry mid arm-muscle circumference, Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and handgrip strength. PMID:25316978

  12. Comparative analysis of cluster versus conventional immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qijun; Liu, Xuejun; Gao, Jinjian; Huang, Saiyu; Ni, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus standardized extract administered in conventional and cluster immunotherapy regiments for patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. A total of 60 patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis caused by dust mites were treated for 1 year with either conventional immunotherapy (n=30) or cluster immunotherapy (n=30). Nasal conjunctival symptoms and signs were assessed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the two regimens, and the incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions were also evaluated. The findings demonstrated that the cluster regimen reduced the duration between the initial and maintenance dose by >60%, and resulted in a significant improvement, as compared with the conventional regimen, after 6 weeks of observation (P<0.05). However, the incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions in the cluster regimen during the dose accumulation phase and the dose maintenance phase was not significantly different, as compared with the conventional immunotherapy regimen. These results suggest that cluster immunotherapy is efficacious and safe to treat patients who are clinically sensitive to dust mites. PMID:28352357

  13. Comparative analysis of cluster versus conventional immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qijun; Liu, Xuejun; Gao, Jinjian; Huang, Saiyu; Ni, Liyan

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus standardized extract administered in conventional and cluster immunotherapy regiments for patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. A total of 60 patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis caused by dust mites were treated for 1 year with either conventional immunotherapy (n=30) or cluster immunotherapy (n=30). Nasal conjunctival symptoms and signs were assessed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the two regimens, and the incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions were also evaluated. The findings demonstrated that the cluster regimen reduced the duration between the initial and maintenance dose by >60%, and resulted in a significant improvement, as compared with the conventional regimen, after 6 weeks of observation (P<0.05). However, the incidence of local and systemic adverse reactions in the cluster regimen during the dose accumulation phase and the dose maintenance phase was not significantly different, as compared with the conventional immunotherapy regimen. These results suggest that cluster immunotherapy is efficacious and safe to treat patients who are clinically sensitive to dust mites.

  14. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  15. Peginesatide in patients with anemia undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven; Schiller, Brigitte; Locatelli, Francesco; Covic, Adrian C; Provenzano, Robert; Wiecek, Andrzej; Levin, Nathan W; Kaplan, Mark; Macdougall, Iain C; Francisco, Carol; Mayo, Martha R; Polu, Krishna R; Duliege, Anne-Marie; Besarab, Anatole

    2013-01-24

    Peginesatide, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), is a potential therapy for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We conducted two randomized, controlled, open-label studies (EMERALD 1 and EMERALD 2) involving patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular safety was evaluated by analysis of an adjudicated composite safety end point--death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious adverse events of congestive heart failure, unstable angina, or arrhythmia--with the use of pooled data from the two EMERALD studies and two studies involving patients not undergoing dialysis. In the EMERALD studies, 1608 patients received peginesatide once monthly or continued to receive epoetin one to three times a week, with the doses adjusted as necessary to maintain a hemoglobin level between 10.0 and 12.0 g per deciliter for 52 weeks or more. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from the baseline hemoglobin level to the mean level during the evaluation period; noninferiority was established if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was -1.0 g per deciliter or higher in the comparison of peginesatide with epoetin. The aim of evaluating the composite safety end point in the pooled cohort was to exclude a hazard ratio with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA of more than 1.3. In an analysis involving 693 patients from EMERALD 1 and 725 from EMERALD 2, peginesatide was noninferior to epoetin in maintaining hemoglobin levels (mean between-group difference, -0.15 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.30 to -0.01 in EMERALD 1; and 0.10 g per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26 in EMERALD 2). The hazard ratio for the composite safety end point was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.26) with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA in the four pooled studies (2591 patients) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17) in the EMERALD studies. The proportions of patients with adverse and serious

  16. Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    VIDAL, Eduardo Arevalo; RENDON, Francisco Abarca; ZAMBRANO, Trino Andrade; GARCÍA, Yudoco Andrade; VITERI, Mario Ferrin; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. Aim: To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Methods: Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Results: Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Conclusion: Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. PMID:27683770

  18. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I; Leslie, Kate; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Kurz, Andrea; Villar, Juan Carlos; Sigamani, Alben; Biccard, Bruce M; Meyhoff, Christian S; Parlow, Joel L; Guyatt, Gordon; Robinson, Andrea; Garg, Amit X; Rodseth, Reitze N; Botto, Fernando; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Tiboni, Maria; Cook, Deborah; Kumar, Priya A; Forget, Patrice; Malaga, German; Fleischmann, Edith; Amir, Mohammed; Eikelboom, John; Mizera, Richard; Torres, David; Wang, C Y; VanHelder, Tomas; Paniagua, Pilar; Berwanger, Otavio; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Pasin, Laura; Le Manach, Yannick; Gao, Peggy; Pogue, Janice; Whitlock, Richard; Lamy, André; Kearon, Clive; Baigent, Colin; Chow, Clara; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-04-17

    There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum and for 7 days in the continuation stratum, after which patients resumed their regular aspirin regimen. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. The primary outcome occurred in 351 of 4998 patients (7.0%) in the aspirin group and in 355 of 5012 patients (7.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the aspirin group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.15; P=0.92). Major bleeding was more common in the aspirin group than in the placebo group (230 patients [4.6%] vs. 188 patients [3.8%]; hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01, to 1.49; P=0.04). The primary and secondary outcome results were similar in the two aspirin strata. Administration of aspirin before surgery and throughout the early postsurgical period had no significant effect on the rate of a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction but increased the risk of major bleeding. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; POISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01082874.).

  19. Clinical and Immunological Changes of Immunotherapy in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Caraballo, Jorge Mario; Cardona Villa, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunotherapy has proven to be an useful tool in the management of allergic respiratory diseases; however, little has been studied in atopic dermatitis. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and immunological impact of immunotherapy with mites allergen extracts in atopic dermatitis. Methods. Patients with atopic dermatitis were assigned with computer-generated randomization to either of the following groups: (a) controls received only topical treatment with steroids and/or tacrolimus and (b) actively treated patients received topical treatment plus immunotherapy. Levels of serum total IgE, mites-specific IgE and IgG4 were assessed at study start and after one year of immunotherapy. Results. 31 patients in the active group and 29 in the control group completed the study. Symptoms and medication scores were significantly reduced in the active group after six months. Three patients in the control group showed new sensitizations to mites, while 3 patients in the active group showed neosensitization to shrimp with negative oral food challenge. We observed significant increase of mites-specific IgG4 levels in active group. Conclusion. Specific allergen immunotherapy induced a tolerogenic IgG4 response to mite allergens associated with favorable clinical effects in atopic dermatitis patients. PMID:23724240

  20. Clonidine in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, P J; Sessler, Daniel I; Leslie, Kate; Kurz, Andrea; Mrkobrada, Marko; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villar, Juan Carlos; Sigamani, Alben; Biccard, Bruce M; Meyhoff, Christian S; Parlow, Joel L; Guyatt, Gordon; Robinson, Andrea; Garg, Amit X; Rodseth, Reitze N; Botto, Fernando; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Tiboni, Maria; Cook, Deborah; Kumar, Priya A; Forget, Patrice; Malaga, German; Fleischmann, Edith; Amir, Mohammed; Eikelboom, John; Mizera, Richard; Torres, David; Wang, C Y; Vanhelder, Tomas; Paniagua, Pilar; Berwanger, Otavio; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Pasin, Laura; Le Manach, Yannick; Gao, Peggy; Pogue, Janice; Whitlock, Richard; Lamy, André; Kearon, Clive; Chow, Clara; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-04-17

    Marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system occurs during and after noncardiac surgery. Low-dose clonidine, which blunts central sympathetic outflow, may prevent perioperative myocardial infarction and death without inducing hemodynamic instability. We performed a blinded, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to allow separate evaluation of low-dose clonidine versus placebo and low-dose aspirin versus placebo in patients with, or at risk for, atherosclerotic disease who were undergoing noncardiac surgery. A total of 10,010 patients at 135 centers in 23 countries were enrolled. For the comparison of clonidine with placebo, patients were randomly assigned to receive clonidine (0.2 mg per day) or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued until 72 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. Clonidine, as compared with placebo, did not reduce the number of primary-outcome events (367 and 339, respectively; hazard ratio with clonidine, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.26; P=0.29). Myocardial infarction occurred in 329 patients (6.6%) assigned to clonidine and in 295 patients (5.9%) assigned to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.30; P=0.18). Significantly more patients in the clonidine group than in the placebo group had clinically important hypotension (2385 patients [47.6%] vs. 1854 patients [37.1%]; hazard ratio 1.32; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.40; P<0.001). Clonidine, as compared with placebo, was associated with an increased rate of nonfatal cardiac arrest (0.3% [16 patients] vs. 0.1% [5 patients]; hazard ratio, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.17 to 8.73; P=0.02). Administration of low-dose clonidine in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery did not reduce the rate of the composite outcome of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction; it did, however, increase the risk of clinically important hypotension and nonfatal cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes

  1. Use of Dexmedetomidine in Patients Undergoing Craniotomies

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Nalini; Wagaskar, Vinayak; Kondwilkar, Bharati; Patil, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The neuroanaesthesia ensures stable perioperative cerebral haemodynamics, avoids sudden rise in intracranial pressure and prevents acute brain swelling. The clinical characteristics of dexmeditomidine make this intravenous agent a potentially attractive adjunct for neuroanaesthesia and in the neurological intensive care unit. Aim This study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative haemodynamic stability and to assess the intraoperative requirements of analgesic and other anaesthetic agents, and also to assess postoperative sedation, respiratory depression and any other side effects of dexmedetomidine as compared to placebo. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was done in 60 patients of either sex, age between 18 to 60 years and American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA) Grade I and II undergoing elective craniotomies under General Anaesthesia (GA) for intracranial Space Occupying Lesion (SOL). These 60 patients underwent thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. They were randomly divided into two groups, Group D (received Inj. Dexmedetomidine) and Group P (received Inj. Placebo). During bolus and infusion Heart Rate (HR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Peripheral oxygen saturation (SPO2) was recorded at every five minutes interval for first 20 minute. Results The mean age in Group D was 39.5 years and in Group P was 40 years. The sex distribution in two groups was in Group D, 12 patients (40%) were females and 18 (60%) patients were males. While in Group P 10 (33.3%) were females and 20 (66.7%) patients were males. The two groups were comparable with respect to diagnosis and type of surgery of patients and difference was not statistically significant. The mean HR, the mean DBP and the mean MAP was lower in Group D as compared to Group P and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine

  2. Should patients undergoing a bronchoscopy be sedated?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; De-La-Rosa-Ramirez, I; Maldonado-Hernandez, A; Dominguez-Cherit, G

    2003-04-01

    The techniques, drugs and depth of sedation for flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is controversial, and several reports consider that the routine use of sedation is not a prerequisite. We evaluate whether the addition of sedation with propofol improves patient tolerance, compared to local anesthesic of the airway only. Eighteen patients with pneumonia undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy were included in a randomized, single blind, prospective controlled study. The non-sedation group received airway topical anesthesia, whereas the sedation group received topical anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. The degree of pain, cough, sensation of asphyxiation, degree of amnesia, global tolerance and acceptance of another bronchoscopy in the future were noted. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate and saturation of oxygen by pulse oximetry were also evaluated. The patients in sedation group had less cough (P < 0.05), pain (P < 0.01) and sensation of asphyxiation (P < 0.001). Global tolerance to the procedure was significantly better in the group under sedation (P < 0.01). These patients had total amnesia to the procedure (P < 0.0001), thus is more probable that will accept another bronchoscopy in the future (P < 0.01). There was a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure in the patients without sedation. There were no differences in oxygen saturation (P = 0.75). Our results show that if we administer propofol for sedation, in addition to local anesthesia of the airway, the tolerance to the procedure is much better. Also it appears that sedation with propofol is safe if we carefully select and monitor the patient.

  3. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy in Patients 55 Years and Older: Results and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Baptistella, Eduardo; Maniglia, Sergio; Malucelli, Diego Augusto; Rispoli, Daniel; Pruner de Silva, Thanara; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Becker, Renata Vecentin; Bernardi, Gustavo; Dranka, Daniela; Ferraz, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Over the years the immune system suffers many morphologic and functional alterations, which result in a peak of function in puberty and a gradual decrease in the elderly. Aim Treat patients 55 years or older with allergic rhinitis with immunotherapy and then analyze the response to allergens. Materials and Methods From June 2009 to July 2010, 104 charts of patients 55 years or older with allergic complaints were evaluated. The patients were selected by anamnesis, physical examination, and otorhinolaryngologic exam. The patients had cutaneous test for mites before and after 1 year of sublingual specific immunotherapy. The cutaneous response was classified as negative (absent), light, moderate, or severe. Results Before vaccination, 42 (40.4%) patients were classified as having a severe form of allergy and 62 (59.6%) as having a moderate allergy. After the specific therapy, 40 (38.4%) patients were classified as negative (absent), 37 (35.6%) as light, 19 (18.3%) as moderate, and 8 (7.7%) as severe responses. Conclusion Immunotherapy, a desensitization technique, is indicated in cases which patients cannot avoid the exposure to allergens and in situations where pharmacologic therapy is not ideal. Specific immunotherapy to treat the allergic rhinitis in elderly patients was efficient and had no collateral effects, and in addition to the clinical benefit, improvement in the cutaneous test could also be observed. PMID:25992039

  4. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    PubMed

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients' and their family's quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  5. Dendritic cell immunotherapy versus bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent malignant glioma patients: a survival gain analysis

    PubMed Central

    Artene, Stefan-Alexandru; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Hartley, Richard; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Daianu, Oana; Brindusa, Corina; Alexandru, Oana; Tataranu, Ligia Gabriela; Purcaru, Stefana Oana; Dricu, Anica

    2016-01-01

    Background The bevacizumab and irinotecan protocol is considered a standard treatment regimen for recurrent malignant glioma. Recent advances in immunotherapy have hinted that vaccination with dendritic cells could become an alternative salvage therapy for the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma. Methods A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Embase in order to identify studies with patients receiving bevacizumab plus irinotecan or dendritic cell therapy for recurrent malignant gliomas. The data obtained from these studies were used to perform a systematic review and survival gain analysis. Results Fourteen clinical studies with patients receiving either bevacizumab plus irinotecan or dendritic cell vaccination were identified. Seven studies followed patients that received bevacizumab plus irinotecan (302 patients) and seven studies included patients that received dendritic cell immunotherapy (80 patients). For the patients who received bevacizumab plus irinotecan, the mean reported median overall survival was 7.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.84–10.16) months. For the patients who received dendritic cell immunotherapy, the mean reported median overall survival was 17.9 (95% CI 11.34–24.46) months. For irinotecan + bevacizumab group, the mean survival gain was −0.02±2.00, while that for the dendritic cell immunotherapy group was −0.01±4.54. Conclusion For patients with recurrent malignant gliomas, dendritic cell immunotherapy treatment does not have a significantly different effect when compared with bevacizumab and irinotecan in terms of survival gain (P=0.535) and does not improve weighted survival gain (P=0.620). PMID:27877052

  6. Safety of Accelerated Schedules of Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy with House Dust Mite Extract in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Sung, Joon-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Choi, Gil-Soon

    2011-01-01

    The safety of accelerated schedules of allergen immunotherapy (ASAI) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) has been reported but there are little data on the safety of ASAI for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the safety of ASAI in patients with AD. Sixty patients with AD and 18 patients with BA sensitized to house dust mites (HDM) were studied. A maximum maintenance dose of HDM extract, adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, was administered to patients by subcutaneous injection with either a 3-day protocol (rush immunotherapy) or 1-day protocol (ultra-rush immunotherapy). Systemic reactions were observed 4 of 15 patients (26.7%) with AD during rush immunotherapy, 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) with AD during ultra-rush immunotherapy, and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with BA during rush immunotherapy (P > 0.05). No severe or near fatal systemic reactions occurred in 78 subjects of this study. Systemic reactions developed within 4 hr after administration of the maximum allergen dose in 20 of 21 patients (95.2%) with AD and BA who showed systemic reactions during rush or ultra-rush immunotherapy. In conclusion, ASAI was safe and well tolerated in patients with AD. ASAI can be a useful therapeutic option for AD. PMID:21935270

  7. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success. PMID:28243068

  8. Are tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes protagonists or background actors in patient selection for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Zito Marino, Federica; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Rossi, Giulio; Staibano, Stefania; Montella, Marco; Russo, Daniela; Alfano, Roberto; Morabito, Alessandro; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato

    2017-06-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently observed in several tumors, reflecting the dynamic process of '"cancer immunoediting"'. Prognostic and predictive values of TILs have been demonstrated in different cancers, proving their pivotal role in clinical outcome. In recent years, new therapies targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors, especially CTLA-4 and PD-1/PDL-1 pathways, have been introduced into clinical practice. In this context, TILs may even have a possible utility as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy response. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the most relevant knowledge related to TILs. This includes their prognostic and predictive significance in various types of tumour and the recent findings about their potential role in the cancer immunotherapy. Expert opinion: TILs evaluation could lead to a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy effectiveness in several cancer types. Furthermore, typing of TILs subpopulation could have clinical relevance in patient selection for treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However further studies are still needed.

  9. Response to immunotherapy in a patient with Landau-Kleffner syndrome and GRIN2A mutation.

    PubMed

    Fainberg, Nina; Harper, Amy; Tchapyjnikov, Dmitry; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2016-03-01

    Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) has been demonstrated in the past to respond to immunotherapy. Recently, some cases of LKS have been shown to be secondary to glutamate receptor (GRIN2A) mutations. Whether such cases respond to immunotherapy is not known. Here, we present the case of a 3-year-old boy with LKS found to have a GRIN2A heterozygous missense mutation, whose clinical symptoms and EEG responded to a course of combination oral steroids and monthly infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin. He then relapsed after discontinuation of this therapy, and responded again after a second course of intravenous immunoglobulin. We conclude that immunotherapy should be considered as a therapeutic option in patients with LKS who are also found to harbour GRIN2A mutations.

  10. Is Adjuvant Cellular Immunotherapy Essential after TACE-Predominant Minimally-Invasive Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma? A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Studies Including 1774 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Jiachang; Wang, Tao; Tang, Xiaoyin; Cui, Dan; Qian, Qijun; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cellular immunotherapy has appeared to be a promising modality for the treatment of malignant tumor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cellular immunotherapy combined with minimally invasive therapy. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library through March 2016 for relevant studies. Short-term efficacy (the disease control rate, the control rate of quality life and the AFP descent rate) and long-term efficacy (overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rate) were compared as the major outcome measures. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results A total of 1174 references in 3 databases were found of which 19 individual studies with 1774 HCC patients enrolled in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that cellular immunotherapy combined with minimally-invasive treatment significantly improved the measures of short-term response (the disease control rate (OR = 5.91, P = 0.007), the control rate of quality lift (OR = 3.38, P = 0.003) and the AFP descent rate (OR = 4.48, P = 0.02)). Also higher 6-month PFS (OR = 2.78, P = 0.05), ≥12-month PFS (OR = 3.56, P<0.00001) rate and 6-month OS (OR = 2.81, P = 0.0009), 12-month OS (OR = 3.05, P<0.00001) and 24-month OS (OR = 3.52, P<0.0001) rate were observed in patients undergoing cellular immunotherapy. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that cellular immunotherapy is a feasible adjuvant treatment that could be beneficial for the improvement of the clinical outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after minimally invasive treatment, including short-term response and long-term survival. PMID:28006010

  11. Specific immunotherapy in ovarian cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Soroush; Zoghi, Samaneh; Khalili, Nastaran; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Emens, Leisha A; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Several approaches of active and passive immunotherapy for EOC have been studied. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy in patients with EOC. We found 4524 references in seven databases and we included ten controlled clinical trials with 2285 patients with EOC reporting five active immunotherapeutic agents and three passive immunotherapies. Meta-analysis of six studies showed that overall there was not any significant difference in overall survival and recurrence-free survival between patients undergoing specific immunotherapy and those in control group. Most of the studies we evaluated reported a positive outcome from treatment with specific immunotherapy, although this was not significant.

  12. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  13. Genetic instability and increased mutational load: which diagnostic tool best direct patients with cancer to immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Colombino, Maria; Cossu, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Botti, Gerardo; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2017-01-21

    The occurrence of high rates of somatic mutations in cancer is believed to correspond to increased frequency of neo-epitope formation and tumor immunogenicity. Thus, classification of patients with cancer according to degree a somatic hyper-mutational status could be proposed as a predictive biomarker of responsiveness to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss the suitable and reliable tests easily adoptable in clinical practice to assess somatic mutational status in patients with advanced cancer.

  14. Rush immunotherapy for wasp venom allergy seems safe and effective in patients with mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Verburg, M; Oldhoff, J M; Klemans, R J B; Lahey-de Boer, A; de Bruin-Weller, M S; Röckmann, H; Sanders, C; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Pasmans, S G M A; Knulst, A C

    2015-11-01

    Patients with mastocytosis and wasp venom allergy (WA) may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). However, fatal insect sting reactions have been described in mastocytosis patients despite previous immunotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of (rush) VIT in patients with mastocytosis and WA. We describe nine patients with cutaneous mastocytosis and WA who received VIT. Cutaneous mastocytosis was confirmed by histopathology and systemic mastocytosis was diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. VIT was given according to a rush protocol. Given the difference in safety and efficacy of VIT in patients with WA and honeybee venom allergy, we reviewed the literature for VIT with the focus on WA patients with mastocytosis and addressed the difference between patients with cutaneous versus systemic mastocytosis. Nine patients had WA and mastocytosis, of whom six had cutaneous mastocytosis, two combined cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis and one systemic mastocytosis. All patients received rush IT with wasp venom. Most patients had only mild local side effects, with no systemic side effects during the course of VIT. One patient had a systemic reaction upon injection on one occasion, during the updosing phase, with dyspnoea and hypotension, but responded well to treatment. Immunotherapy was continued after temporary dose adjustment without problems. Two patients with a previous anaphylactic reaction were re-stung, without any systemic effects. VIT is safe in cutaneous mastocytosis patients with WA, while caution has to be made in case of systemic mastocytosis. VIT was effective in the patients who were re-stung.

  15. Developing Precision Immunotherapies - Annual Plan

    Cancer.gov

    Despite remarkable progress, cancer immunotherapies can be toxic to some patients. Learn how NCI-funded research will extend the benefits of immunotherapy to more patients through biomarker research and collaboration.

  16. Tolerated sting challenge in patients on Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy improves health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Koschel, D S; Schmies, M; Weber, C Nink; Höffken, G; Balck, F

    2014-01-01

    Sting challenge with a live insect remains the best test for proving the efficacy of immunotherapy in Hymenoptera allergy. We studied the impact of tolerated sting challenge on quality of life. In this prospective study, data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by consenting patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy on venom immunotherapy before and after a sting challenge. The study population comprised 100 adult patients (82 with yellow jacket allergy and 18 with honeybee allergy) who participated between September 2009 and November 2010. After the sting challenge, the score on the Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire revealed a statistically significant improvement (mean [SD] change, 0.73 [0.98]; P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94). This improvement was independent of the patients' gender and age and the severity of the initial anaphylactic reaction. A statistically significant improvement was documented in 2 subgroups of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (physical functioning, mean change, -5.78 [25.23]; P = .038; 95% CI, -11.22 to -0.34; vitality, mean change -4.29 [12.49]; P =.002; 95% CI, -7.02 to -1.57). Sting challenge results in a significant improvement in disease-specific quality of life and subgroups of general quality of life in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom receiving established venom immunotherapy.

  17. Tumor-specific Immunotherapy Targeting the EGFRvIII Mutation in Patients with Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, John H.; Archer, Gary E.; Mitchell, Duane A.; Heimberger, Amy B.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant gliomas (MGs) fail to target tumor cells exclusively, such that their efficacy is ultimately limited by non-specific toxicity. Immunologic targeting of tumor-specific gene mutations, however, may allow more precise eradication of neoplastic cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a consistent tumor-specific mutation that is widely expressed in MGs and other neoplasms. This mutation encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that enhances tumorgenicity and migration and confers radiation and chemotherapeutic resistance. This in-frame deletion mutation splits a codon resulting in the creation of a novel glycine at the fusion junction between normally distant parts of the molecule and producing a sequence rearrangement which creates a tumor-specific epitope for cellular or humoral immunotherapy in patients with MGs. We have previously shown that vaccination with a peptide that spans the EGFRvIII fusion junction is an efficacious immunotherapy in syngeneic murine models, but patients with MGs have a profound immunosuppression that may inhibit the ability of antigen presenting cells (APCs), even those generated ex vivo, to induce EGFRvIII-specific immune responses. In this report, we summarize our results in humans targeting this mutation in two consecutive and one multi-institutional Phase II immunotherapy trials. These trials demonstrated that vaccines targeting EGFRvIII are capable of inducing potent T- and B-cell immunity in these patients, and an unexpectedly long survival time. Most importantly, vaccines targeting EGFRvIII were universally successful at eliminating tumor cells expressing the targeted antigen without any evidence of symptomatic collateral toxicity. These studies establish the tumor-specific EGFRvIII mutation as a novel target for humoral- and cell-mediated immunotherapy in a variety of cancers. The recurrence of EGFRvIII-negative tumors in our patients, however, highlights the

  18. Validation of the first treatment-specific questionnaire for the assessment of patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in allergic patients: the ESPIA questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Justicia, José Luis; Cardona, Victoria; Guardia, Pedro; Ojeda, Pedro; Olaguíbel, José María; Vega, José María; Vidal, Carmen; Baró, Eva; García, Mario Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Satisfaction with treatment is a patient-reported outcome shown to be associated with the patient's health-related decisions and treatment-related behavior, thereby influencing the chances of successful treatment, and is especially relevant in long-term treatment, such as allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). We sought to assess the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction Scale for Patients Receiving Allergen Immunotherapy (ESPIA) questionnaire so as to determine the satisfaction of patients receiving AIT treatment. An observational, longitudinal, multicenter study was performed on patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) undergoing AIT treatment. Sociodemographic, clinical, and patient-centered health outcomes data were gathered at the study visits. Feasibility, reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the prevalidated version of the ESPIA questionnaire were assessed. Four hundred twenty-nine patients were included (52.2% women, 33.6 years of age, 54.5% of the cases with intermittent AR and 62.5% with moderate AR). Low levels of missing items and ceiling/floor effects were found for the overall score of the ESPIA questionnaire. The overall Cronbach α value and intraclass correlation coefficient were 0.90 and 0.92, respectively. The overall score for the ESPIA questionnaire was strongly associated with months receiving AIT, AR type and intensity, presence of conjunctivitis, self-perceived health status, effect of AR on daily life, and expectations about the AIT treatment. The pattern of correlations obtained with other patient-centered health outcomes was consistent with expectations. The ESPIA questionnaire also showed good sensitivity to change for improved health status. The ESPIA questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with respect to AIT treatment presented satisfactory psychometric properties for its use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single venom-based immunotherapy effectively protects patients with double positive tests to honey bee and Vespula venom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Referring to individuals with reactivity to honey bee and Vespula venom in diagnostic tests, the umbrella terms “double sensitization” or “double positivity” cover patients with true clinical double allergy and those allergic to a single venom with asymptomatic sensitization to the other. There is no international consensus on whether immunotherapy regimens should generally include both venoms in double sensitized patients. Objective We investigated the long-term outcome of single venom-based immunotherapy with regard to potential risk factors for treatment failure and specifically compared the risk of relapse in mono sensitized and double sensitized patients. Methods Re-sting data were obtained from 635 patients who had completed at least 3 years of immunotherapy between 1988 and 2008. The adequate venom for immunotherapy was selected using an algorithm based on clinical details and the results of diagnostic tests. Results Of 635 patients, 351 (55.3%) were double sensitized to both venoms. The overall re-exposure rate to Hymenoptera stings during and after immunotherapy was 62.4%; the relapse rate was 7.1% (6.0% in mono sensitized, 7.8% in double sensitized patients). Recurring anaphylaxis was statistically less severe than the index sting reaction (P = 0.004). Double sensitization was not significantly related to relapsing anaphylaxis (P = 0.56), but there was a tendency towards an increased risk of relapse in a subgroup of patients with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests (P = 0.15). Conclusions Single venom-based immunotherapy over 3 to 5 years effectively and long-lastingly protects the vast majority of both mono sensitized and double sensitized Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Double venom immunotherapy is indicated in clinically double allergic patients reporting systemic reactions to stings of both Hymenoptera and in those with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests who have not reliably identified the

  20. Accelerated immunotherapy schedules.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Christopher W

    2013-08-01

    Rush and cluster immunotherapy schedules are accelerated immunotherapy build-up schedules. A cluster immunotherapy schedule involves the patient receiving several allergen injections (generally 2-4) sequentially in a single day of treatment on nonconsecutive days. The maintenance dose is generally reached in 4-8 weeks. In rush immunotherapy protocols, higher doses are administered at 15- to 60-min intervals over a 1- to 3-day period until the maintenance dose is achieved. This review will serve as an update for accelerated immunotherapy schedules. The review will include recent investigations demonstrating the safety of cluster schedules in atopic dermatitis, pediatric patients, and inhalant allergen mixtures and an accelerated protocol utilizing an infusion pump for allergen delivery. There has also been further elucidation on the immunological changes which occur during accelerated immunotherapy. Finally, new studies analyzing systemic reaction risk factors are discussed.

  1. Safety, tolerability and clinical efficacy of ultra-rush sublingual immunotherapy among patients suffering from allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, R; Parasuramalu, B G; Chandregowda, B V; Gangaboraiah

    2014-01-01

    Conventional immunotherapy for allergy with 3-5 years of treatment period has poor compliance. Ultra-rush sublingual immunotherapy with a shorter period of treatment can have better compliance. There are very few studies on ultra-rush sublingual immunotherapy all over the world. (1) To determine allergen sensitivity among allergic rhinitis patients. (2) To assess safety, tolerability and clinical efficacy of ultra-rush sublingual immunotherapy. The present study was conducted in Allergy clinic, KIMS Hospital & Research Centre, Bangalore, India from January 2010 to June 2011. After obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 40 allergic rhinitis patients (according to ARIA guidelines) in the 18-60 years age group who were positive for aeroallergens in skin prick test were recruited for ultra-rush sublingual immunotherapy (20min initial phase and 4-month maintenance phase) and followed for 8 months with symptom and treatment diary. Out of 40 patients, the majority, 36 (90.00%) patients were sensitive to house dust mites. Six patients had seven immediate adverse reactions and seven patients had eight delayed adverse reactions. All subsided without medication or with symptomatic oral medications. All patients tolerated ultra-rush SLIT and there was significant decrease in both symptom-score and treatment received in these patients. Ultra-rush SLIT regimen has excellent safety, tolerability and clinical efficacy among allergic rhinitis patients. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the quality of life of patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis after immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Cegła, Bernadeta; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the quality of life of Polish patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis before the implementation and after 30–36 months of immunotherapy. Material and methods Two hundred patients have been involved in the study: 101 with allergic asthma and 99 with pollinosis. In order to collect research material, the Polish versions of AQLQ (Asthma Quality of Life) and RQLQ (Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life) questionnaires have been used. The self-administered questionnaires concerned such data as age, sex and the patients’ subjective evaluation of their quality of life. Results The average increase in quality of life of patients with asthma was 0.84 and of patients with allergic rhinitis – 1.50. A hypothesis was made that changes of quality of life in each examined group differed significantly. A test for two fractions showed that for patients with asthma it was 7.74 and for patients with allergic rhinitis – 10.38. A statistical analysis showed no such relation in the group of patients with asthma (coefficient of correlation = 0.08) and a slight correlation in the group of patients with allergic rhinitis (coefficient of correlation = 0.20). Applied tests did not show any significant differences, which means that an average increase in quality of life does not depend on sex and age of both examined groups. Conclusions On the basis of the research conducted among patients before and after a 3-year period of immunotherapy, the following conclusions have been drawn: 1) immunotherapy significantly improves the objective quality of life in both groups; 2) a slight correlation has been identified between the objective and subjective dimension of quality of life amongst patients with asthma, what contributes to a better quality of life; 3) in both study groups, no significant relationship between gender or age and improvement in quality of life has been noted; 4) immunotherapy, from the point of view of the improvement of quality of life, is a valuable

  3. Antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing coronary stenting

    PubMed Central

    ten Berg, J.M.; van Werkum, J.W.; Heestermans, A.A.C.M.; Jaarsma, W.; Hautvast, R.M.A.; den Heijer, P.; de Boer, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation after coronary stenting is essential to prevent stent thrombosis. Drug-eluting stents, which are the preferred therapy, may be associated with a higher tendency for stent thrombosis. Methods Patients who underwent coronary stent placement and presented with late stent thrombosis are described. Results Eight patients with stent thrombosis are presented. Early discontinuation of the antithrombotic medication is associated with the occurrence of these complications. Conclusion Long-term antithrombotic therapy seems essential to prevent stent thrombosis, especially for patients treated with drug-eluting stents. PMID:25696663

  4. Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Pastromas, Georgios Spiliopoulos, Stavros Katsanos, Konstantinos Diamantopoulos, Athanasios Kitrou, Panagiotis Karnabatidis, Dimitrios Siablis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical significance of platelet responsiveness in patients receiving clopidogrel after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients receiving antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 75 mg after infrainguinal angioplasty or stenting and who presented to our department during routine follow-up. Clopidogrel responsiveness was tested using the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay. Patients with residual platelet reactivity units (PRU) {>=} 235 were considered as nonresponders (NR group NR), whereas patients with PRU < 235 were considered as normal (responders [group R]). Primary end points were incidence of resistance to clopidogrel and target limb reintervention (TLR)-free survival, whereas secondary end points included limb salvage rates and the identification of any independent predictors influencing clinical outcomes. Results: In total, 113 consecutive patients (mean age 69 {+-} 8 years) with 139 limbs were enrolled. After clopidogrel responsiveness analysis, 61 patients (53.9 %) with 73 limbs (52.5 %) were assigned to group R and 52 patients (46.1 %) with 66 limbs (47.5 %) to group NR. Mean follow-up interval was 27.7 {+-} 22.9 months (range 3-95). Diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia, and renal disease were associated with clopidogrel resistance (Fisher's exact test; p < 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, TLR-free survival was significantly superior in group R compared with group NR (20.7 vs. 1.9 %, respectively, at 7-year follow-up; p = 0.001), whereas resistance to clopidogrel was identified as the only independent predictor of decreased TLR-free survival (hazard rate 0.536, 95 % confidence interval 0.31-0.90; p = 0.01). Cumulative TLR rate was significantly increased in group NR compared with group R (71.2 % [52 of 73] vs. 31.8 % [21 of 66], respectively; p < 0.001). Limb salvage was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance was related with

  5. Immunotherapy in patients with less than complete response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Necozione, Stefano; Bisegna, Roberta; Bratta, Massimo; Rea, Silvio

    2009-02-01

    Patients with metastatic solid tumors (MST) with less than a complete response to chemotherapy (L-CR), a depressed immune system and elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) lack defined treatment options. The primary endpoint evaluated in this study was whether interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 13-cisretinoic acid (RA) treatment reduced VEGF and improved immune function in such patients. Secondary endpoints were objective response, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). One hundred consecutive MST patients with L-CR and a mean serum VEGF of 421.0 pg/mm3 were enrolled. Patients self-administered subcutaneous IL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU/day, and oral RA 0.5 mg/kg/day x 5 days/week for 2 cycles of 3 weeks/month for 1 year and continued until progression. After a median follow-up of 78 months, a statistically significant VEGF decrease and improvements in lymphocyte, NK, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were observed. Twenty-four patients were converted to a CR; their 5-year RFS and OS rates were each 96%. No WHO grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Administration of IL-2/RA to this patient population produced a significant decrease in VEGF, improvement of prognostically relevant immunological parameters, and durable response in 25% of patients.

  6. Respiratory infections in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rello, Jordi; Lisboa, Thiago; Koulenti, Despoina

    2014-09-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections in mechanically ventilated patients are a frequent cause of antibiotic treatment in intensive-care units. These infections present as severe sepsis or septic shock with respiratory dysfunction in intubated patients. Purulent respiratory secretions are needed for diagnosis, but distinguishing between pneumonia and tracheobronchitis is not easy. Both presentations are associated with longlasting mechanical ventilation and extended intensive-care unit stay, providing a rationale for antibiotic treatment initiation. Differentiation of colonisers from true pathogens is difficult, and microbiological data show Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be of great concern because of clinical outcomes and therapeutic challenges. Key management issues include identification of the pathogen, choice of initial empirical antibiotic, and decisions with regard to the resolution pattern.

  7. Clinical efficacy and compliance of sublingual immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu-E; Mao, Jing-Ran; Sang, Yue-chan; Li, Wen-Xiu

    2014-05-01

    The oral route for administration of allergen immunotherapy has been explored since the 1900s. We attempted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and investigate related factors influencing the patients' compliance. A total of 107 patients with AD were randomized to receive either D. farinae drops plus pharmacotherapy (treatment group, n = 58) or only pharmacotherapy (control group, n = 49). Patients' compliance, the total effective rate, daily drug scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, and IgG4 level were compared respectively between two groups at different time points. Twenty-three cases have withdrawn from the study. The total effective rate in the treatment group (77.78%) was significantly higher than the control group (53.85%) (P < 0.05). The treatment group was significantly reduced in daily drug scores and VAS scores compared with the control group at 12 months follow-up. Meanwhile, at the end of therapy, a significant difference was found in the change in average daily drug scores (difference from 1 month) between two groups (P < 0.01); The treatment group evidently had a higher level of serum-specific IgG4 than the control group at 6 and 12 month of treatment (P < 0.05). Dermatophagoides farinae drops are a safe and effective SLIT for patients with AD, which was proven to reduce the need for medicine. In addition, SLIT could induce a tolerogenic IgG4 response to mite allergen correlated with favorable clinical efficacy. Standardization of specific immunotherapy is essential to ensure therapeutic efficacy and compliance. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Quality-of-life outcomes in patients who underwent subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy in a real-world clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Schwanke, Theresa; Carragee, Eugene; Bremberg, Maria; Reisacher, William R

    2017-09-01

    To compare changes in quality of life (QOL) that resulted from sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in a real-world clinical setting. SLIT is established as a viable alternative to SCIT for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Although comparative trials are increasingly available, few studies have examined QOL outcomes between these two treatments. One hundred and five participants who underwent immunotherapy for airborne allergies were enrolled in this prospective, single-center study. Forty participants completed the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) at initiation of therapy, after 6 months, and after 1 year of therapy. Only patients with complete time points were included in the ultimate analysis. Twenty-nine of these participants underwent SCIT and 11 underwent SLIT. The effects of age, sex, and asthma history were also examined. The participants in both groups demonstrated improvements in QOL regarding allergic rhinoconjunctivitis over the study period. However, the change in the RQLQ score from both baseline to 6 months and baseline to 1 year was only statistically significant in the SCIT group (p = 0.002, 6 months and 1 year). The participants in the SCIT group also demonstrated statistically significant improvement from baseline to 1 year in the specific domains of practical and emotional functioning, nasal symptoms, non-nasal/eye symptoms, and sleep. After 1 year, both SCIT and SLIT demonstrated a minimally important difference from baseline in the overall RQLQ score. Age <35 years in the SCIT group had a significant positive impact on QOL improvement (p = 0.038). Although improvements in QOL were noted in both groups, changes in overall scores and the majority of domains only achieved statistical significance in the SCIT group. A small study population and difficulties adhering to immunotherapy dosing schedules in the SLIT group may be contributing factors.

  9. Monitoring of antibodies in patients on immunotherapy with insect venoms by immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, R

    1987-01-01

    A rapid nitrocellulose immunoblotting procedure based upon electrophoretic transfer has been used to monitor patient specific IgE and IgG antibodies before and after specific Hymenoptera insect venom therapy. The patients followed a conventional schedule for immunotherapy with Pharmalgen bee and yellow jacket venoms. The allergenic profiles of the patients before and after treatment were qualitatively similar in many patients, but some showed decreased IgE binding after treatment. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in specific IgG antibodies directed towards phospholipase and hyaluronidase in the bee-venom-treated patients and towards antigen 5, phospholipase and hyaluronidase in the patients treated with yellow jacket venom. The immunoblotting is very useful for a rapid evaluation of patient specific antibody patterns without the prior isolation of allergens.

  10. Opportunistic infections in patients treated with immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kyi, Chrisann; Hellmann, Matthew D; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chapman, Paul B; Postow, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Immunomodulatory antibodies that enhance the immune system to fight cancer are revolutionizing the treatment of patients with an expanding variety of malignancies. There is a unique spectrum of side effects associated with immunomodulatory antibodies, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which include colitis and hepatitis among others. The treatment of refractory or severe irAEs can occasionally require significant immunosuppression, involving steroids or tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, placing these patients at risk for infections. We present the first reported case to our knowledge of an opportunistic infection in a patient treated with an immunomodulatory antibody. As the use of immunomodulatory antibodies expands and more patients develop irAEs that require treatment with immunosuppression, recognition of the potential for opportunistic infections in this emerging patient population will be critical. Prospective trials are needed to define the optimal immunosuppressive management of irAEs and determine whether prophylactic antiviral, antibacterial, or antifungal therapies are beneficial in this unique population.

  11. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  12. Effect of sublingual immunotherapy on level of cytokines in PBMCs of patients with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongxi; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the possible mechanism of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the treatment of allergic asthma. Forty asthma patients allergic to dust mite were enrolled. They received SLIT with dermatophagoides farinae (Der. f) drops for one year. Thirty healthy subjects served as controls. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined in allergic asthma patients before and after the SLIT as well as the healthy subjects. The results showed that the level of IL-4 was substantially increased and that of IFN-γ remarkably decreased in the patients before the SLIT as compared with those in the healthy subjects (P<0.05). After the SLIT, the level of IL-4 was significantly reduced and that of IFN-γ elevated in these allergic asthma patients. It was concluded that sublingual immunotherapy is effective for patients with allergic asthma. And it may work by regulating the balance of Th1/Th2 through changing the expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ in PBMCs.

  13. Patient knowledge, perceptions, expectations and satisfaction on allergen-specific immunotherapy: a survey.

    PubMed

    Baiardini, Ilaria; Puggioni, Francesca; Menoni, Stefania; Boot, Johan Diderik; Diamant, Zuzana; Braido, Fulvio; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2013-03-01

    Assessing patient's perspective provides useful information enabling a customized approach which has been advocated by current guidelines. In this multicentre cross-sectional study we evaluated personal viewpoints on allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) in patients treated with subcutaneous (SCIT) or sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy. A survey of 28 questions assessing patient's knowledge, perceptions, expectations and satisfaction was developed by an expert panel and was applied by physicians from allergology centres in patients with respiratory allergy treated with SIT. Treating physicians independently reported their satisfaction level regarding SIT for each patient. Fully completed surveys from 434 patients (55.3% male; 66.7% poly-sensitized, 74% SLIT) were analysed. Mean duration of SIT was 2.5 years with different allergens. Most patients acquired their SIT knowledge from their physician (95%) and consequently, their physicians' opinion in their choice to start with SIT was important. Most patients perceived SIT to be safe and easy to integrate into their daily routine. The main motivations for SIT were its supposed potential to alter the course of the disease (45.7%), less need of (28.2%), or dissatisfaction with current pharmacotherapy (19.3%). Both patients' and physicians' satisfaction was high (VAS-scores 74/100 and 78/100, respectively) and showed a significant correlation (SCIT: r=0.612; SLIT: r=0.608). No major difference was found in patients' answers based on the level of education. In this real life study evaluating different aspects of patient's perspective on SIT, the majority of patients had an adequate level of knowledge, perceptions, expectations and satisfaction about SIT, which corresponded well with the physician's perceptions and satisfaction. Our data warrant the use of patient's perspectives on chronic SIT treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in adults: item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation

    PubMed Central

    Justícia, Jose Luis; Baró, Eva; Cardona, Victoria; Guardia, Pedro; Ojeda, Pedro; Olaguíbel, José Maria; Vega, José Maria; Vidal, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergy, so ensuring good adherence to SIT is fundamental. Up until now there has not existed an instrument specifically developed to measure patient satisfaction with SIT, although its assessment could help us to comprehend better and improve treatment adherence and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adult patient satisfaction with SIT. Methods: Items were generated from a literature review, focus groups with allergic adult patients undergoing SIT, and a meeting with experts. Potential items were administered to allergic patients undergoing SIT in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Item reduction was based on quantitative and qualitative criteria. A preliminary assessment of feasibility, reliability, and validity of the retained items was performed. Results: An initial pool of 70 items was administered to 257 patients undergoing SIT. Fifty-four items were eliminated resulting in a provisional instrument with 16 items. Factor analysis yielded four factors that were identified as perceived efficacy, activities and environment, cost-benefit balance, and overall satisfaction, explaining 74.8% of variance. Ceiling and floor effects were negligible for overall score. Overall score was associated with the type and intensity of symptoms. Conclusion: This is the first attempt to develop a satisfaction with SIT measure from the perspective of the allergic patient, and evidence has been found in favor of its reliability and validity. PMID:21660106

  15. Development of a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with allergen-specific immunotherapy in adults: item generation, item reduction, and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Justícia, Jose Luis; Baró, Eva; Cardona, Victoria; Guardia, Pedro; Ojeda, Pedro; Olaguíbel, José Maria; Vega, José Maria; Vidal, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment capable of modifying the natural course of allergy, so ensuring good adherence to SIT is fundamental. Up until now there has not existed an instrument specifically developed to measure patient satisfaction with SIT, although its assessment could help us to comprehend better and improve treatment adherence and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adult patient satisfaction with SIT. Items were generated from a literature review, focus groups with allergic adult patients undergoing SIT, and a meeting with experts. Potential items were administered to allergic patients undergoing SIT in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Item reduction was based on quantitative and qualitative criteria. A preliminary assessment of feasibility, reliability, and validity of the retained items was performed. An initial pool of 70 items was administered to 257 patients undergoing SIT. Fifty-four items were eliminated resulting in a provisional instrument with 16 items. Factor analysis yielded four factors that were identified as perceived efficacy, activities and environment, cost-benefit balance, and overall satisfaction, explaining 74.8% of variance. Ceiling and floor effects were negligible for overall score. Overall score was associated with the type and intensity of symptoms. This is the first attempt to develop a satisfaction with SIT measure from the perspective of the allergic patient, and evidence has been found in favor of its reliability and validity.

  16. Toxicity management of immunotherapy for patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Gogas, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma offering improved responses and significant survival benefit. These agents are now approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, squamous and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and kidney cancer, while they are now being investigated in a range of other malignancies. In addition, another anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (atezolizumab) was recently approved for urothelial cancer. Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody and the anti-PD-1 agents nivolumab and pembrolizumab have followed large clinical development programs, therefore, information regarding their safety and toxicity profile is readily available. Unique toxicities have been observed, which stem from and relate to the immune activation by these agents and are thus termed as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Clinicians and patients should be aware of this different toxicity profile, so as to promptly recognize, identify and manage symptoms related to irAEs. Indeed, clinical experience has shown that these immune events, when they are early recognized and timely managed, are mostly reversible otherwise they can evoke severe or even life-threatening situations. Several recommendations and guidelines have been developed for the management of irAEs and algorithms have been published based primarily on our knowledge from the ipilimumab trials. PMID:27563659

  17. Sublingual versus subcutaneous immunotherapy: patient adherence at a large German allergy center

    PubMed Central

    Lemberg, Marie-Luise; Berk, Till; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Kasche, Elena-Manja; Mösges, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Background Many placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective therapy for treating allergies. Both commonly used routes, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), require high patient adherence to be successful. In the literature, numbers describing adherence vary widely; this investigation compares these two routes of therapy directly. Methods All data were retrieved from the patient data management system of a center for dermatology, specific allergology, and environmental medicine in Germany. All 330 patients (aged 13–89 years) included in this study had commenced AIT between 2003 and 2011, thus allowing a full 3-year AIT cycle to be considered for each investigated patient. Results In this specific center, SCIT was prescribed to 62.7% and SLIT to 37.3% of all included patients. The total dropout rate of the whole patient cohort was 34.8%. Overall, SLIT patients showed a higher dropout rate (39.0%) than did SCIT patients (32.4%); however, the difference between these groups was not significant. Also, no significant difference between the overall dropout rates for men and for women was observed. A Kaplan–Meier curve of the patient collective showed a remarkably high dropout rate for the first year of therapy. Conclusion The analysis presented in this single-center study shows that most patients who discontinue AIT do so during the first year of therapy. Patients seem likely to finish the 3-year therapy cycle if they manage to adhere to treatment throughout the first year. Strategies for preventing nonadherence in AIT, therefore, need to be developed and standardized in future investigations. PMID:28115832

  18. Immunotherapy and patients treated for cancer with microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Colle, Raphaël; Cohen, Romain; Cochereau, Delphine; Duval, Alex; Lascols, Olivier; Lopez-Trabada, Daniel; Afchain, Pauline; Trouilloud, Isabelle; Parc, Yann; Lefevre, Jérémie H; Fléjou, Jean-François; Svrcek, Magali; André, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a tumor phenotype linked to somatic or germline (Lynch syndrome) inactivating alterations of DNA mismatch repair genes. A broad spectrum of neoplasms exhibits MSI phenotype, mainly colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and gastric cancer. MSI tumors are characterized by dense immune infiltration and high load of tumor neo-antigens. Growing evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition for patients treated for MSI solid tumors. We present a comprehensive overview of MSI phenotype, its biological landscape and current diagnostic methods. Then we focus on MSI as a predictive biomarker of response to immune checkpoint inhibition in the context of colorectal cancer and non-colorectal tumors. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Life quality of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and chemo-immunotherapy--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kröger, M J; Menzel, T; Gschwend, J E; Bergmann, L

    1999-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for 2-3% of all malignant tumors in adults. Due to the indolent course of disease and the few signs and symptoms in early stages the majority of patients presents with metastatic disease when diagnosed. The aims of systemic therapy of RCC are therefore palliative. Recent research shows the key role of immune mechanisms in the course of RCC. The therapeutic use of cytokines, mainly interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-alpha (IFN) results in improvement of remission rates. To date it is unknown to what extent multiple cycles of chemo-immunotherapy alter the life quality (LQ) of patients with metastatic RCC. We monitored life quality during therapy in a three-armed protocol with interferon-alpha 2a, interleukin-2, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), isotretinoin (ISO) and vinblastin (VBL). Life quality was impaired by two factors: response to chemo-immunotherapy and therapy side effects. A steep decrease of LQ-scores was seen in week 1 of therapy, LQ improved then for patients with stable disease (SD) and partial remission (PR) but not for those with progressive disease (PD).

  20. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    Morote, J; Ropero, J; Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is the leading cause of death in patients with prostate cancer (PC), metabolic syndrome (MS) being related to it. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in patients with CP undergoing androgen suppression (AS). We performed a retrospective study of cases and controls that included 159 patients. The study group was made up of 53 patients with PC undergoing SA for a period exceeding 12 months. The control group was formed by 53 patients with PC at the time of diagnosis and 53 patients with negative prostate biopsy. All patients were evaluated for presence of MS according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Prevalence of MS in patients without PC was 32.1% and in those with non-treated PC 35.8%, P = .324. In patients with PC undergoing AS, prevalence of MS was 50.9%, P < .001. When AS duration was less than 36 months, prevalence of MS was 44.0% and when greater than 36 months 57.1%, P < .001. Waist circumference and hyperglycemia were the two MS components that significantly increased. AS and its duration were independent predictors factors for the development of MS. Continuous AS therapy increases the prevalence of MS and especially waist circumference and hyperglycemia. Development of MS increases according to AS duration. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. General Anaesthesia Protocols for Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aravind; Lal, Chandar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. PMID:28417028

  2. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Cancer.gov

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  3. Utility of an immunotherapy trial in evaluating patients with presumed autoimmune epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Toledano, M; Britton, J W; McKeon, A; Shin, C; Lennon, V A; Quek, A M L; So, E; Worrell, G A; Cascino, G D; Klein, C J; Lagerlund, T D; Wirrell, E C; Nickels, K C; Pittock, S J

    2014-05-06

    To evaluate a trial of immunotherapy as an aid to diagnosis in suspected autoimmune epilepsy. We reviewed the charts of 110 patients seen at our autoimmune neurology clinic with seizures as a chief complaint. Twenty-nine patients met the following inclusion criteria: (1) autoimmune epilepsy suspected based on the presence of ≥ 1 neural autoantibody (n = 23), personal or family history or physical stigmata of autoimmunity, and frequent or medically intractable seizures; and (2) initiated a 6- to 12-week trial of IV methylprednisolone (IVMP), IV immune globulin (IVIg), or both. Patients were defined as responders if there was a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency. Eighteen patients (62%) responded, of whom 10 (34%) became seizure-free; 52% improved with the first agent. Of those receiving a second agent after not responding to the first, 43% improved. A favorable response correlated with shorter interval between symptom onset and treatment initiation (median 9.5 vs 22 months; p = 0.048). Responders included 14/16 (87.5%) patients with antibodies to plasma membrane antigens, 2/6 (33%) patients seropositive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies, and 2/6 (33%) patients without detectable antibodies. Of 13 responders followed for more than 6 months after initiating long-term oral immunosuppression, response was sustained in 11 (85%). These retrospective findings justify consideration of a trial of immunotherapy in patients with suspected autoimmune epilepsy. This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with suspected autoimmune epilepsy, IVMP, IVIg, or both improve seizure control.

  4. The detection of neural autoantibodies in patients with antiepileptic-drug-resistant epilepsy predicts response to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Iorio, R; Assenza, G; Tombini, M; Colicchio, G; Della Marca, G; Benvenga, A; Damato, V; Rossini, P M; Vollono, C; Plantone, D; Marti, A; Batocchi, A P; Evoli, A

    2015-01-01

    The detection of antibodies binding neural antigens in patients with epilepsy has led to the definition of 'autoimmune epilepsy'. Patients with neural antibodies not responding to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may benefit from immunotherapy. Aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of autoantibodies specific to neural antigens in patients with epilepsy and their response to immunotherapy. Eighty-one patients and 75 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in the study. Two groups of patients were included: 39 patients with epilepsy and other neurological symptoms and/or autoimmune diseases responsive to AEDs (group 1) and 42 patients with AED-resistant epilepsy (group 2). Patients' serum and cerebrospinal fluid were evaluated for the presence of autoantibodies directed to neural antigens by indirect immunofluorescence on frozen sections of mouse brain, cell-based assays and a radioimmunoassay. Patients with AED-resistant epilepsy and neural autoantibodies were treated with immunotherapy and the main outcome measure was the reduction in seizure frequency. Neural autoantibodies were detected in 22% of patients (18/81), mostly from the AED-resistant epilepsy group (P = 0.003), but not in HS. Indirect immunofluorescence on mouse brain revealed antibodies binding to unclassified antigens in 10 patients. Twelve patients received immunotherapy and nine (75%) achieved >50% reduction in seizure frequency. A significant proportion of patients with AED-resistant epilepsy harbor neural-specific autoantibodies. The detection of these antibodies, especially of those binding to synaptic antigens, may predict a favorable response to immunotherapy, thus overcoming AED resistance. © 2014 EAN.

  5. Autologous anticancer antigen preparation for specific immunotherapy in advanced cancer patients. A phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Slanetz, C A; McCollester, D L; Kanor, S

    1982-01-01

    A phase I clinical trial was performed to detect adverse reactions in far advanced cancer patients treated with a unique specific cancer immunotherapy. The vaccines consisted of autologous tumor cell membranes and manganese phosphate gel. From 133 patients admitted into the trial, 95 vaccine batches were made. No batch was toxic in animals. One batch was bacteriologically contaminated. Sufficient patients survived or complied to receive 32 complete and 23 partial courses for a total of 707 SC and ID injections. Minor swelling and occasional minimal pain occurred at injection sites. There were two possible vaccine-related systemic reactions but no evidence of tumor transplantation, tumor acceleration, sepsis or autoimmune disease. Subjective and objective improvement occurred in a number of patients. The vaccines are safe. Their efficacy must be determined. The value of ID vaccine skin testing and the unexpectedly little bacteriological contamination require further study.

  6. Management of sickle cell disease in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Todd C; Carter, Michael V; Patel, Rina K; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Lin, Sophie Z; Magruder, Jonathan Trent; Grimm, Joshua C; Cameron, Duke E; Baumgartner, William A; Mandal, Kaushik

    2017-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting inherited hemoglobinopathy that poses inherent risk for surgical complications following cardiac operations. In this review, we discuss preoperative considerations, intraoperative decision-making, and postoperative strategies to optimize the care of a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing cardiac surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281

  8. [Access to somatic care for patients undergoing psychiatric treatment].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    In France, there is no across-the-board formal connection between psychiatric and somatic treatment and the somatic care of patients undergoing psychiatric treatment remains very heterogeneous and inadequate. Despite some attempts at providing structure, it is the place of the physician which must be examined and optimised.

  9. Nutritional status of patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Yasushi; Ikeda, Naoki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Kadota, Yoshihisa; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ohno, Yuko; Ohta, Mitsunori

    2012-04-01

    Impaired nutrition is an important predictor of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients, and preoperative chemoradiotherapy increases the risk of such complications. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of an immune-enhancing diet on nutritional status in patients undergoing lung resection after chemoradiotherapy. We compared the preoperative nutritional status in 15 patients with lung cancer undergoing lung resection without chemoradiotherapy and 15 who had chemoradiotherapy. Body mass index and lymphocyte counts were lower in patients who had chemoradiotherapy. Although there was no difference in the rate of postoperative morbidity between groups, the chemoradiotherapy patients were more likely to have severe complications postoperatively. After chemoradiotherapy in 12 patients, 6 received oral Impact for 5 days, and 6 had a conventional diet before surgery. Oral intake of Impact for 5 days before surgery modified the decrease in transferrin and lymphocytes after the operation. Preoperative immunonutrition may improve the perioperative nutritional status after induction chemoradiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, and reduce the severity of postoperative complications. These potential benefits need to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.

  10. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  11. Cancer Immunotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  12. Latent Q fever endocarditis in patients undergoing routine valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Grisoli, Dominique; Million, Matthieu; Edouard, Sophie; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by a fastidious bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. A recent major outbreak of which in the Netherlands will most likely lead to the emergence of hundreds of cases of C. burnetii endocarditis during the next decade. Patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery may carry undiagnosed Q fever endocarditis with possible disastrous outcomes, and hence may benefit from a screening strategy. The study aim was to evaluate the frequency of unsuspected latent Q fever endocarditis in patients undergoing routine valve surgery. At the present authors' institution, all resected cardiac valves/prostheses are examined routinely histologically, microbiologically and on a molecular biological basis, in addition to serological testing for fastidious microorganisms. A retrospective review was conducted of data relating to all patients who had unsuspected Q fever endocarditis that had been diagnosed after routine valve/prosthesis replacement/repair between 2000 and 2013 at the authors' institution. Among 6,401 patients undergoing valve surgery, postoperative examinations of the explanted valves/prostheses led to an unexpected diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in 14 cases (0.2%), who subsequently underwent appropriate medical treatments. Only two of the patients (14%) had intraoperative findings suggestive of endocarditis. On serological analysis of the blood samples, 11 patients (79%) presented an evocative Phase I IgG antibody titer > or =800. Valvular tissue-sample analyses yielded positive cultures and PCR in the same 13 patients (93%), whereas pathological and immunohistochemical examinations alone were suggestive of endocarditis in only seven Cases (50%). This screening strategy led to an unexpected diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in 0.2% of patients undergoing routine valve surgery, who received subsequent appropriate antibiotic therapy. Systematic serological analysis should be mandatory before performing heart valve surgery in countries where C

  13. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  14. Sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - a review.

    PubMed

    Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna Ewa; Sokolowski, Jacek; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    Sinusitis is a common morbidity in general population, however little is known about its occurrence in severely immunocompromised patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature concerning sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An electronic database search was performed with the objective of identifying all original trials examining sinusitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The search was limited to English-language publications. Twenty five studies, published between 1985 and 2015 were identified, none of them being a randomized clinical trial. They reported on 31-955 patients, discussing different issues i.e. value of pretransplant sinonasal evaluation and its impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality, treatment, risk factors analysis. Results from analyzed studies yielded inconsistent results. Nevertheless, some recommendations for good practice could be made. First, it seems advisable to screen all patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with Computed Tomography (CT) prior to procedure. Second, patients with symptoms of sinusitis should be treated before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), preferably with conservative medical approach. Third, patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be monitored closely for sinusitis, especially in the early period after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. High immunosuppressive burden in cancer patients: a major hurdle for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Suresh Gopi; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2016-07-01

    A bottleneck for immunotherapy of cancer is the immunosuppressive microenvironment in which the tumor cells are located. Regardless of the fact that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells can be generated in patients by active immunization or adoptive transfer, these T cells do not readily translate to tumor cell killing in vivo. The immune regulatory mechanism that prevents autoimmunity may be harnessed by tumor cells for the evasion of immune destruction. Regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint receptors are the major components of the immune system acting in concert with causing the subversion of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment. This redundant immunosuppressive network may pose an impediment to efficacious immunotherapy, thus facilitating tumor progression. Cancer progression clearly documents the failure of immune control over relentless growth of tumor cells. Detailed knowledge of each of these factors responsible for creating an immunosuppressive shield to protect tumor cells from immune destruction is essential for the development of novel immune-based therapeutic interventions of cancer. Multipronged targeted depletion of these suppressor cells may restore production of granzyme B by CD8(+) T cells and increase the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells.

  16. Innate and lymphocytic response of birch-allergic patients before and after sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guida, Giuseppe; Boita, Monica; Scirelli, Tiziana; Bommarito, Luisa; Heffler, Enrico; Badiu, Iuliana; Bellone, Graziella; Mietta, Sabrina; Mistrello, Gianni; Rolla, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Functional imbalance in Th1/Th2 cell response toward allergens is a recognized hallmark of allergic patients and a major role of dendritic cells (DCs) in redirecting T-cell phenotypes after specific immunotherapy has been suggested. This study investigates the proliferative and cytokine responses of T cells cocultured with monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) after allergen stimulation in birch-allergic patients compared with controls and investigates whether sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) could change the DC-driven immune response. T cells were stimulated with the major birch pollen allergen (nBet v1) and MoDCs from eight birch-allergic patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and eight nonallergic controls. Proliferation and cytokine production were measured before and after one course of SLIT with birch allergoid. Significantly lower levels of proinflammatory (IL-1beta, p = 0.027; IL-6, p = 0.030; TNF-alpha, p = 0.019) and Th1 (interferon gamma, p = 0.032; IL-12, p = 0.05) cytokines were measured in supernatants of T cells and MoDCs cultures from allergic patients compared with nonallergic controls. After SLIT, significant increase in IL-12 (p = 0.039), IL-1beta (p = 0.040), IL-6 (p = 0.041), TNF-α (p = 0.048), and IL-10 (p = 0.048) and significant decrease in IL-13 (p = 0.001) were observed. MoDCs/T-cell cocultures, pulsed with the specific allergen, produced lower quantities of proinflammatory and Th1 cytokines in allergic patients compared with healthy subjects, suggesting an allergen-specific impairment of natural immunity and Th1 immune response. A single course of SLIT was able to enhance allergen-specific innate immunity and to modify lymphocyte response, promoting Th1 and T-cell regulatory activity.

  17. Prolonged effect of allergen sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Andrzej; Starczewska-Dymek, Liwia; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    The prolonged effect of allergen immunotherapy is unknown, especially in older patients. To analyze the 3-year effect of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) to house dust mites in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. Forty-seven elderly patients (65.78 ± 4.89 years old) underwent SLIT to house dust mites and were monitored for 3 years and compared with a placebo group. SLIT was performed with the use of oral Staloral 300 SR Der p and Der f 50/50% extract (Stallergens Greer, London, United Kingdom) or placebo. Symptoms and medication score, represented by the average adjusted symptom score (AAdSS), serum level of immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Der p 1, and Der p 2, and quality of life, were assessed immediately after SLIT and 3 years later. The AAdSS was significantly decreased after SLIT, and the level remained low during the 3 years after SLIT compared with placebo. Serum-specific IgG4 against D pteronyssinus, D farinae, Der p 1, and Der p 2 increased during the SLIT trial in the study group. For the 3 years of observation after SLIT, there were no significant changes of specific IgG4 levels against the analyzed allergens compared with results just after SLIT. Quality of life based on the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score was significantly decreased in patients who received SLIT, from 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.79) to 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.67-1.07; P < .05) compared with 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.55-1.04) 3 years after SLIT. The prolonged positive effect after SLIT to house dust mites was observed in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. Further trials are needed to confirm this effect. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01605760. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preoperative IABP in high risk patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Theologou, T; Field, M L

    2011-01-01

    A recent international consensus conference on the reduction in mortality in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care included intraoperative aortic balloon pump among the ancillary (i.e. non-surgical) drugs/techniques/strategies that might influence survival rates in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The consensus conferences state that "Pre-operative intraoperative aortic balloon pump might reduce 30-day mortality in elective high risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery unless specifically contraindicated". The authors of this "expert opinion" presents their insights into the use of the preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump and conclude that based on available limited randomized controlled trials and clinical experience preoperative intraoperative aortic balloon pump saves lives in unstable patients.

  19. Accelerated immunotherapy schedules and premedication.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Christopher W; Cox, Linda

    2011-05-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy is divided into a buildup and a maintenance phase. Accelerated immunotherapy has the advantage of a reduced number of office visits. Rush and cluster immunotherapy schedules are the most common accelerated schedules used in the United States. A cluster immunotherapy schedule involves the patient receiving several allergen injections sequentially in a single day of treatment on nonconsecutive days. The maintenance dose is reached in 4 to 8 weeks. In rush immunotherapy protocols, higher doses are administered at intervals of 15 to 60 minutes in a period of 1 to 3 days until the maintenance dose is achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting blood transfusion in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Crispin; Boddy, Alex P; Fukuta, Junaid; Groom, William D; Streets, Christopher G

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate predictors of allogenic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing minimal invasive oesophagectomy at a tertiary high volume centre for oesophago-gastric surgery. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing minimal access oesophagectomy in our department between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they required a blood transfusion at any time during their index admission. Factors that have been shown to influence perioperative blood transfusion requirements in major surgery were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of patient and perioperative characteristics on transfusion requirements during the index admission. A total of 80 patients underwent minimal access oesophagectomy, of which 61 patients had a laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy and 19 patients had a minimal invasive oesophagectomy. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 28 patients at any time during hospital admission. On binary logistic regression analysis, a lower preoperative haemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), suffering a significant complication (p < 0.005) and laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of blood transfusion requirements. It has been reported that requirement for blood transfusion can affect long-term outcomes in oesophageal cancer resection. Two factors which could be addressed preoperatively; haemoglobin concentration and type of oesophageal resection, may be valuable in predicting blood transfusions in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Our analysis revealed that preoperative haemoglobin concentration, occurrence of significant complications and type of minimal access oesophagectomy predicted blood transfusion requirements in the patient population examined. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spinal Anesthesia in Elderly Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Noah L; Edwards, Charles C; Brown, Charles H; Ledford, Emily C; Dean, Clayton L; Lin, Charles; Edwards, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Spinal anesthesia is increasingly viewed as a reasonable alternative to general anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery. However, the results of spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression and combined decompression and fusion procedures are limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience using spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. A retrospective review was conducted using a prospectively collected database of consecutive lumbar spine surgeries performed under spinal anesthesia in patients 70 years or older at a single center between December 2013 and October 2015. A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 27 patients (48%) underwent lumbar decompression and 29 patients (52%) underwent combined decompression and fusion procedures. Mean operative time was 101 minutes (range, 30-210 minutes), and mean operative blood loss was 187 mL (range, 20-700 mL). Mean maximum inpatient postoperative visual analog scale score was 6.2 (range, 1-10). Nausea occurred in 21% (12 of 56) of the patients. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days (range, 1-6 days). No mortality, stroke, permanent loss of function, or pulmonary embolism occurred. None of the cases required conversion to general anesthesia. All of the patients were ambulatory on either the day of the surgery or the next morning. These results demonstrate that spinal anesthesia is a viable method of anesthesia for patients 70 years and older undergoing lumbar spine surgery. They also demonstrate the safety of this method for patients older than 84 years and for surgeries lasting up to 3½ hours. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e317-e322.].

  2. Regulatory T-cells are possible effect prediction markers of immunotherapy for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wada, Junji; Yamasaki, Akio; Nagai, Shuntaro; Yanai, Kousuke; Fuchino, Kouta; Kameda, Chizu; Tanaka, Haruo; Koga, Kenichiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masao; Katano, Mitsuo; Morisaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    We previously showed that a combination therapy with tumor cell-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and activated lymphocytes was well tolerated in patients with disseminated carcinomas. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that regulatory T-cells (Tregs), a unique population of CD4+ T-cells, are increased in patients with several advanced malignancies and prevent cell-mediated immune responses against tumors. However, reports analyzing the relationship between the Tregs population and the effects of immunotherapy are extremely rare. In the present study, 22 patients received an intravenous injection of DC-activated lymphocytes (DAK) and/or a subcutaneous injection of tumor-pulsed DCs (DC vaccine) every 2 to 4 weeks. The Tregs were defined based on their expression of CD4, CD25 and FOXP3, a transcription factor. Most CD4+CD25high T-cells expressed FOXP3. Therefore, CD4+CD25high T-cells were evaluated as Tregs in the present study. As reported previously, the percentage of Tregs (% Tregs) among total CD4+ T-cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly higher for advanced cancer patients than for healthy volunteers. When the patients were divided into three groups according to their survival time, i.e. 12 short-survival patients, 4 medium-survival patients and 6 long-survival patients, the % Tregs of the long-survival patients before the therapy was significantly lower than that of the short-survival patients (p=0.026). The % Tregs decreased after the therapy, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. When the patients were divided into a high group (>4.99%: 7 patients) and a low group (<4.99%: 15 patients) according to their % Tregs before the therapy, the survival times of the two groups differed significantly (p=0.0034). These data suggest that the % Tregs among the PBMCs might be used as an effect prediction factor of immunotherapy for patients with advanced cancer.

  3. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery. Since it has been proven that piracetam is cerebroprotective in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, we investigated the effects of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery were randomized to the piracetam or placebo group in a double-blind study. Patients received 12 g of piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on day 3, postoperatively. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after the surgery, we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 67 years were enrolled into the study. The mean duration of CPB was 110 minutes. Preoperative clinical parameters and overall cognitive functions were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (piracetam: preoperative 0.19 ± 0.97 vs. postoperative -0.97 ± 1.38, p <0.0005 and placebo: preoperative -0.14 ± 0.98 vs. postoperative -1.35 ± 1.23, p <0.0005). Patients taking piracetam did not perform better than those taking placebo, and both groups had the same decline of overall cognitive function (p = 0.955). Piracetam had no cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Unlike the patients who underwent coronary surgery, piracetam did not reduce the early postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in heart valve patients.

  4. Outcome survey of insect venom allergic patients with venom immunotherapy in a rural population.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Alexander; Boerzsoenyi, Julia; Babilas, Philipp; Landthaler, Michael; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus

    2008-04-01

    Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis is a frightening event that affects physical and psychical functioning. Retrospective survey of 182 Hymenoptera venom allergic patients living in a rural area using a questionnaire targeting on patients' satisfaction during therapy, fear of anaphylactic recurrences and changes in lifestyle before and after venom immunotherapy (VIT). Additionally, patients' self-assessment of quality of life, daily outdoor time and re-sting rate were recorded. 146 patients returned the questionnaire (58.9% male, 41.1% female, 25.3% honey bee allergic, 67.8% wasp allergic, 41.1% re-sting rate, mean follow-up time 6.5 years). Measurement of the parameters fear, satisfaction and changes in lifestyle revealed a significant improvement after VIT. This correlated with the patients'self-assessment of quality of life,when 89.7% declared an improvement after VIT. Although the improvement was higher in patients with re-stings, also patients without re-stings clearly benefited from VIT. Interestingly, females were significantly more affected by Hymenoptera venom allergy than males,whereas both genders showed a similar improvement after VIT. Patients with Hymenoptera venom sting allergy significantly benefit from VIT in regard to both biological and psychological outcome. VIT should still be provided to all Hymenoptera venom allergic patients as standard of care.

  5. Screening for spinal stenosis in achondroplastic patients undergoing limb lengthening.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, James A; Devalia, Kailash L; Moras, Prem; Pagdin, Jonathan; Jones, Stanley; Mcmullan, John

    2014-03-01

    The need for a screening programme for spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia undergoing limb lengthening was identified in a tertiary limb reconstruction service. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether screening would identify the 'at risk' group. A total of 26 achondroplastic patients underwent our screening programme. Canal diameters were measured by MRI. Neurosurgical interventions were recorded. Of the patients, 13 had severe foramen magnum narrowing. Six patients required single or multiple surgical decompressions. We identified female sex, delayed milestones and a tight cervicomedullary junction as high risks. We stress upon the importance of developing a nationalized screening programme with guidelines to identify a high-risk group.

  6. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-08-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic.

  7. Unexplained hemolysis in patients undergoing ECMO: beware of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Venado, A; Wille, K; Belott, S C; Diaz-Guzman, E

    2015-09-01

    Hemolysis is a common complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent monitoring of markers of hemolysis is performed at ECMO centers. We report two cases of spurious hemolysis caused by hypertriglyceridemia in patients undergoing ECMO support. Critically ill patients, including those receiving ECMO, may be at risk of developing medication-induced hypertriglyceridemia. The interference of lipids with the measurement of plasma free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, should be recognized. Our cases highlight the importance of investigating hypertriglyceridemia as part of the assessment of unexplained hemolysis in patients supported with ECMO.

  8. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients undergoing dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Weibert, R T

    1992-10-01

    The literature on dental surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulants is reviewed, and methods of managing anticoagulant therapy to minimize the risk of complications are discussed. Although blood loss during and after oral surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulant drugs can be substantial, research indicates that most bleeding incidents are not serious and can be controlled by local measures. Studies of 241 anticoagulant-treated patients undergoing more than 500 dental extractions during the 1950s and 1960s showed that only 9 had postoperative bleeding. More recent studies indicate that continued anticoagulation can increase the frequency of prolonged bleeding and delay wound healing. An antifibrinolytic mouthwash containing tranexamic acid can effectively suppress postoperative bleeding. Gelatin sponges, oxidized cellulose, and microcrystalline collagen are other useful hemostatic agents. A reduction in the intensity of anticoagulation therapy has been recommended; the prothrombin time should be measured shortly before the procedure in such patients. In many patients the duration of subtherapeutic anticoagulation must be minimized to reduce the possibility of thromboembolism. An option for high-risk patients is to switch them to heparin. Each patient must be evaluated individually, and the level of risk of the dental procedure and the risk of thromboembolism should be taken into account. In patients taking oral anticoagulants who must undergo dental surgery, careful control of the intensity of anticoagulation and improved methods of local hemostasis can minimize the risk of hemorrhagic complications and thromboembolism.

  9. Evaluation of neopterin levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Asci, Ali; Baydar, Terken; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Dolgun, Anil; Sahin, Gonul

    2010-04-01

    Neopterin is a diagnostic or a prognostic biomarker for several pathologies including renal diseases. However, the association between neopterin status and causative main reasons such as diabetes and hypertension for renal disease remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate neopterin levels in diabetes and hypertension patients treated with/without hemodialysis. According to primary renal disorders, the patients undergoing hemodialysis were classified into 4 groups as diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, reflux nephropathy or interstitial nephritis, and others. The controls consisted of healthy subjects, hypertensive subjects, and diabetic individuals without any renal disorder. In the study, both urinary and serum neopterin levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay in patients undergoing regular hemodialysis therapy (n=71). The effects of the duration of hemodialysis and treatment of erythropoietin and/or iron on neopterin levels were also evaluated. Neopterin levels were found to be higher in hemodialysis patients than in the healthy controls (P<0.05). A significant difference in neopterin levels was also found between diabetic control patients and diabetic nephropathy patients (P<0.05). A similar significant difference was detected in neopterin levels between hypertensive patients with/without nephropathy (P<0.05). Neopterin may be an early critical marker for progression of nephropathy in diabetic and hypertensive patients in early stages.

  10. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  11. Patient education programme on immunotherapy in multiple sclerosis (PEPIMS): a controlled rater-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Köpke, S; Kasper, J; Flachenecker, P; Meißner, H; Brandt, A; Hauptmann, B; Bender, G; Backhus, I; Rahn, A C; Pöttgen, J; Vettorazzi, E; Heesen, C

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a multi-component evidence-based education programme on disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis. Controlled trial with two consecutive patient cohorts and a gap of two months between cohorts. Three neurological rehabilitation centres. Patients with multiple sclerosis within rehabilitation. Control group (CG) participants were recruited and received standard information. Two months later, intervention group (IG) participants were recruited and received a six-hour nurse-led interactive group education programme consisting of two parts and a comprehensive information brochure. Primary endpoint was "informed choice", comprising of adequate risk knowledge in combination with congruency between attitude towards immunotherapy and actual immunotherapy uptake. Further outcomes comprised risk knowledge, decision autonomy, anxiety and depression, self-efficacy, and fatigue. A total of 156 patients were included (IG=75, CG=81). The intervention led to significantly more participants with informed choice (IG: 47% vs. CG: 23%, P=0.004). The rate of persons with adequate risk knowledge was significantly higher in the IG two weeks after the intervention (IG: 54% vs. CG: 31%, P=0.007), but not after six months (IG: 48% vs. CG: 31%, P=0.058). No significant differences were shown for positive attitude towards disease modifying therapy (IG: 62% vs. CG: 71%, P=0.29) and for disease modifying therapy status after six months (IG: 61.5% vs CG: 68.6%, P=0.39). Also no differences were found for autonomy preferences and decisional conflict after six months. Delivering evidence-based information on multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies within a rehabilitation setting led to a marked increase of informed choices.

  12. Clinical and immunological correlates of pre-co-seasonal sublingual immunotherapy with birch monomeric allergoid in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Burastero, S E; Mistrello, G; Paolucci, C; Breda, D; Roncarolo, D; Zanotta, S; Falagiani, P

    2009-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy is safe and efficacious in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis. The clinical and biological efficacy of modified allergens (allergoids) has not been fully clarified. We investigated in birch allergic patients the effect of a pre-co-seasonal sublingual immunotherapy regimen with a modified allergen extract on clinical parameters and on T cell proliferation and regulatory cytokine production (IL-10, TGF-beta). We found that during the birch pollen season symptoms and drug usage scores were 30 and 40 percent improved, respectively, in treated versus control subjects (p<0.0001 for both comparisons) whereas well days were 23.5 (33 percent) versus 16.9 (23 percent) (p=0.0024), respectively. Bet v 1 allergen specific proliferation decreased (p = 0.0010), whereas IL-10 transcription increased (p=0.0010) in treated, but not in control patients. Moreover, TGF-beta transcription was increased, although not significantly (p=0.066), following immunotherapy. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy with modified allergen in birch-allergic subjects was safe, clinically efficacious and associated with the reduction of allergen-specific proliferation and with the increased production of the IL-10 regulatory cytokine.

  13. Prosthetic Joint Infections in Patients Undergoing Carpal Tunnel Release.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenjing; Paul, Deborah; Kemp, Thomas; Elfar, John

    2017-03-01

    Little information is available regarding the rate of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) in patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR) without antibiotic prophylaxis. Hand surgeons should be aware of patients' history of arthroplasty. All patients who underwent CTR at our institution between 2012 and 2014 were identified and their charts were reviewed to identify those who had a history of total hip, knee, and/or shoulder arthroplasty. Further chart review consisted of identifying a history of PJI, use of perioperative antibiotics, and surgeon awareness of prior arthroplasty. Two hundred seventy-five CTR surgeries were performed in patients who had previously undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA). There were no PJIs in any group of patients (P = 0.01). Hand surgeon awareness of the presence of an arthroplasty history had no discernable effect on the choice to use antibiotics. There was a 0% rate of PJI in our series of patients with a history of TJA who underwent CTR. Overall hand surgeon awareness of TJA status was poor or poorly documented. Routine prophylactic antibiotics may not be indicated in patients undergoing CTR, even with the presence of a prosthetic joint. IV.

  14. Knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing EMG examinations.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Mauro; Aretini, Alessandro; Greco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing the procedure. In one year, 1,586 consecutive patients (mean age 56 years; 58.8% women) were admitted to two EMG labs to undergo EMG for the first time. The patients found to be "informed" about the how an EMG examination is performed and about the purpose of EMG numbered 448 (28.2%), while those found to be "informed" only about the manner of its execution or only about its purpose numbered 161 (10.2%) and 151 (9.5%), respectively. The remaining 826 (52.1%) patients had either no information, or the information they had was very poor or incorrect (this was particularly true if they had been consulting websites). Being "informed" was associated with level of education (high), type of referring physician (specialist) and with an appropriate referral diagnosis specified in the EMG request. The quality of patient information on EMG was found to be very poor and could be improved. Physicians referring patients for EMG examinations, especially general practitioners, should assume primary responsibility for patient education and counseling in this field.

  15. Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

  16. The role of eptifibatide in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zeymer, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists inhibit the binding of ligands to activated platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors and, therefore, prevent the formation of platelet thrombi. They have been extensively studied in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Eptifibatide, one of the approved GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, is a small heptapeptide that is highly selective and rapidly dissociates from its receptor after cessation of therapy. In clinical studies, concomitant administration of eptifibatide in patients undergoing elective PCI reduced thrombotic complications in the IMPACT-II (Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Prevent Coronary Thrombosis II) and ESPRIT (Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy) trials. In the PURSUIT (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy) trial, which included 10,948 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, eptifibatide significantly reduced the primary end point of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction at 30 days compared with placebo. In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), eptifibatide has been studied as adjunct to primary PCI and improved epicardial flow and tissue reperfusion. Studies are now evaluating eptifibatide in high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and a planned early invasive strategy in the EARLY-ACS (Eptifibatide Administration prior to Diagnostic Catherization and Revascularization to Limit Myocardial Necrosis in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial and in patients with primary PCI for STEMI in comparison to abciximab in the EVA-AMI (Eptifibatide versus Abciximab in Primary PCI for Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial. After the completion of these trials, the value of etifibatide in patients undergoing PCI in different indications can be determined.

  17. Maintaining perioperative normothermia in the patient undergoing cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Lavenia; Baysinger, Curtis L

    2012-07-01

    Anesthesia and surgery interfere with normal thermoregulation, and nearly all patients will become hypothermic unless compensatory measures are used. Preoperative patient warming and intraoperative methods using forced air and warmed intravenous fluids are important methods for maintaining patient's core temperature during the perioperative period. The benefits of maintaining normothermia include reductions in postoperative wound infection, the risk of perioperative coagulopathy, and myocardial ischemia. These advantages, demonstrated in patients undergoing general surgery, would be expected in patients undergoing gynecological surgery but have not been specifically studied in that population. Few studies have examined the maternal and neonatal effects of hypothermia after cesarean delivery. The results conflict as to the effectiveness of maternal warming techniques used to prevent it and the effects on neonatal temperature and acid-base status at delivery. Large prospective studies will be required to show significant effects on rates of maternal wound infection after cesarean delivery. European and American national obstetrical organizations have not published recommendations regarding the perioperative thermal regulation for cesarean delivery. We review the physiology of thermal regulation and perioperative thermal management in surgical patients and the literature that has examined perioperative maternal warming for cesarean delivery.

  18. [Has ketamine preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy?].

    PubMed

    Karaman, Semra; Kocabaş, Seden; Zincircioğlu, Ciler; Firat, Vicdan

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if preemptive use of the NMDA receptor antogonist ketamine decreases postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominal hystrectomy. A total of 60 patients admitted for total abdominal hysterectomy were included in this study after the approval of the ethic committee, and the patients were randomly classified into three groups. After standart general anaesthesia, before or after incision patients received bolus saline or ketamine. Group S received only saline while Group Kpre received ketamine 0.4 mg/kg before incision and saline after incision, and Group Kpost received saline before incision and 0.4 mg/kg ketamine after incision. Postoperatif analgesia was maintained with i.v. PCA morphine. Pain scores were assessed with Vizüal Analog Scale (VAS), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) at 1., 2, 3., 4., 8., 12. ve 24. hours postoperatively. First analgesic requirement time, morphine consumption and side effects were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to VAS / VRS scores, the time for first analgesic dose, and morphine consumption ( p>0.05). Patients in Group S had significantly lower sedation scores than either of the ketamine treated groups ( p<0.05). In conclusion, a single dose of ketamin had no preemptive analgesic effect in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, but further investigation is needed for different operation types and dose regimens.

  19. Preoperative Medical Testing in Medicare Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine L.; Lin, Grace A.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Clay, Theodore H.; Boscardin, W. John; Gelb, Adrian W.; Maze, Mervyn; Gropper, Michael A.; Dudley, R. Adams

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routine preoperative testing is not recommended for patients undergoing cataract surgery, because testing neither decreases adverse events nor improves outcomes. We sought to assess adherence to this guideline, estimate expenditures from potentially unnecessary testing, and identify patient and health care system characteristics associated with potentially unnecessary testing. METHODS Using an observational cohort of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery in 2011, we determined the prevalence and cost of preoperative testing in the month before surgery. We compared the prevalence of preoperative testing and office visits with the mean percentage of beneficiaries who underwent tests and had office visits during the preceding 11 months. Using multivariate hierarchical analyses, we examined the relationship between preoperative testing and characteristics of patients, health system characteristics, surgical setting, care team, and occurrence of a preoperative office visit. RESULTS Of 440,857 patients, 53% had at least one preoperative test in the month before surgery. Expenditures on testing during that month were $4.8 million higher and expenditures on office visits $12.4 million higher (42% and 78% higher, respectively) than the mean monthly expenditures during the preceding 11 months. Testing varied widely among ophthalmologists; 36% of ophthalmologists ordered preoperative tests for more than 75% of their patients. A patient’s probability of undergoing testing was associated mainly with the ophthalmologist who managed the preoperative evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative testing before cataract surgery occurred frequently and was more strongly associated with provider practice patterns than with patient characteristics. (Funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and the Grove Foundation.) PMID:25875258

  20. Renal and Gastrointestinal Considerations in Patients Undergoing Elective Orthopaedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pyrko, Peter; Parvizi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    To minimize perioperative complications after elective orthopaedic procedures, patients may undergo preoperative medical optimization, which includes an assessment of their renal function and gastrointestinal system. The gastrointestinal and renal systems are complex, and their proper optimization in the preoperative period can influence the success of any procedure. Several factors, including a thorough evaluation and screening, with particular emphasis on anemia and its renal and gastrointestinal causes; the management of medications that are metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys; and careful attention to the patient's nutritional status, can prevent complications and reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost of care after elective orthopaedic procedures.

  1. Predictive and Prognostic Clinical Variables in Cancer Patients Treated With Adenoviral Oncolytic Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Kristian; Liikanen, Ilkka; Koski, Anniina; Heiskanen, Raita; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Otto; Oksanen, Minna; Grönberg-Vähä-Koskela, Susanna; Hemminki, Kari; Joensuu, Timo; Hemminki, Akseli

    2016-08-01

    The development of oncolytic viruses has recently made great progress towards being available to cancer patients. With the breakthrough into clinics, it is crucial to analyze the existing clinical experience and use it as a basis for treatment improvements. Here, we report clinical data from 290 patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Using clinical variables and treatment characteristics, we constructed statistical models with regard to treatment response and overall survival (OS). Additionally, we investigated effects of neutralizing antibodies, tumor burden, and peripheral blood leucocyte counts on these outcomes. We found the absence of liver metastases to correlate with an improved rate of disease control (P = 0.021). In multivariate evaluation, patients treated with viruses coding for immunostimulatory granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor were linked to better prognosis (hazard ratio (HR) 0.378, P < 0.001), as well as women with any cancer type (HR 0.694, P = 0.017). In multivariate analysis for imaging response, patients treated via intraperitoneal injection were more likely to achieve disease control (odds ratio (OR) 3.246, P = 0.027). Patients with low neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio before treatment had significantly longer OS (P < 0.001). These findings could explain some of the variation seen in treatment outcomes after virotherapy. Furthermore, the results offer hypotheses for treatment optimization and patient selection in oncolytic adenovirus immunotherapy.

  2. [Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in carrier patients undergoing joint arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Barbero Allende, José M; Romanyk Cabrera, Juan; Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Vallés Purroy, Alfonso; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Agudo López, Rosa; Gete García, Luis; López Álvarez, Joaquín

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication with serious repercussions and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether decolonization of S.aureus carriers helps to reduce the incidence of PJI by S.aureus. An S.aureus screening test was performed on nasal carriers in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty between January and December 2011. Patients with a positive test were treated with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine soap 5 days. The incidence of PJI was compared with patients undergoing the same surgery between January and December 2010. A total of 393 joint replacements were performed in 391 patients from the control group, with 416 joint replacements being performed in the intervention group. Colonization study was performed in 382 patients (91.8%), of which 102 were positive (26.7%) and treated. There was 2 PJI due S.aureus compared with 9 in the control group (0.5% vs 2.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 2.3, P=.04). In our study, the detection of colonization and eradication of S.aureus carriers achieved a significant decrease in PJI due to S.aureus compared to a historical group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Is prophylactic cholecystectomy useful in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass?

    PubMed

    Guadalajara, Héctor; Sanz Baro, Raquel; Pascual, Isabel; Blesa, Isabel; Rotundo, Grevelyn Sosa; López, Jose María Gil; Corripio, Ramón; Vesperinas, Gregorio; Sancho, Luis García; Montes, Jose Antonio Rodríguez

    2006-07-01

    Obesity constitutes a clear risk factor for cholelithiasis, especially if it is associated with a rapid weight loss, as is the case of patients following bariatric surgery. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is indicated in biliopancreatic diversions due to the high incidence of postoperative cholelithiasis. However, there is no agreement on gastric bypass. This study was conducted to establish the incidence of cholecystopathy demonstrated by histology and to assess the indication for prophylactic cholecystectomy in a systematic way on patients undergoing gastric bypass. The evaluation is based on 100 consecutive morbidly obese patients undergoing open gastric bypass surgery with concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy. Variables studied were: age, gender, body mass index, preoperative ultrasound and the anatomopathologic analysis of the gallbladder that was removed. Of the 100 patients who took part in the trial, 11 had had a previous cholecystectomy. Among the 89 patients remaining, preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of cholelithiasis was 16.8%, and the actual postoperative incidence was 24.7%. Other histologic alterations were: cholesterolosis 46.1%, chronic unspecified cholecystitis 22.5%, and granulomatous cholecystitis 1.1%. The total incidence of cholecystopathy was 93.3%. The morbi-mortality related to cholecystectomy was 0%. Based on these results and given the absence of morbidity, we believe that prophylactic cholecystectomy is suitable during open gastric bypass.

  4. Perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867

  5. Perioperative physiotherapy in patients undergoing lung cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Lascurain-Aguirrebena, Ion; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapy is considered an important component of the perioperative period of lung resection surgery. A systematic review was conducted to assess evidence for the effectiveness of different physiotherapy interventions in patients undergoing lung cancer resection surgery. Online literature databases [Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, PEDro and CINAHL] were searched up until June 2013. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, compared 2 or more perioperative physiotherapy interventions or compared one intervention with no intervention, included only patients undergoing pulmonary resection for lung cancer and assessed at least 2 or more of the following variables: functional capacity parameters, postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Reviews and meta-analyses were excluded. Eight studies were selected for inclusion in this review. They included a total of 599 patients. Seven of the studies were identified as having a low risk of bias. Two studies assessed preoperative interventions, 4 postoperative interventions and the remaining 2 investigated the efficacy of interventions that were started preoperatively and then continued after surgery. The substantial heterogeneity in the interventions across the studies meant that it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis. The most important finding of this systematic review is that presurgical interventions based on moderate-intense aerobic exercise in patients undergoing lung resection for lung cancer improve functional capacity and reduce postoperative morbidity, whereas interventions performed only during the postoperative period do not seem to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications or length of hospital stay. Nevertheless, no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the heterogeneity of the studies included. Further research into the efficacy and effectiveness of perioperative respiratory physiotherapy in

  6. Preprocedural statin use in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kenaan, Mohamad; Seth, Milan; Aronow, Herbert D; Naoum, Joseph; Wunderly, Douglas; Mitchiner, James; Moscucci, Mauro; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2014-07-01

    Earlier studies suggest that administering statins prior to percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) is associated with lower risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction and contrast-induced nephropathy. Current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend routine use of statins prior to PCI. It is unclear how commonly this recommendation is followed in clinical practice and what its effect on outcomes is. We evaluated the incidence and in-hospital outcomes associated with statin pretreatment among patients undergoing PCI and enrolled in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry at 44 hospitals in Michigan between January 2010 and December 2012. Propensity and exact matching were used to adjust for the nonrandom use of statins prior to PCI. Long-term mortality was assessed in a subset of patients who were linked to Medicare data. Our study population was comprised of 80,493 patients of whom 26,547 (33 %) did not receive statins prior to undergoing PCI. When compared to statin receivers, nonreceivers had lower rates of prior cardiovascular disease. In the matched analysis, absence of statin use prior to PCI was associated with a similar rate of in-hospital mortality (0.43% vs 0.42%, odds ratio 1.00, 95% CI 0.70-1.42, P = .98) and periprocedural myocardial infarction (2.34% vs 2.10%, odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.32, P = .11) compared to statin receivers. Likewise, no difference in the rate of coronary artery bypass grafting, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or contrast-induced nephropathy was observed. There was no association between pre-PCI use of statins and long-term survival among the subset of included Medicare patients (hazard ratio = 1.0, P = .96). A significant number of patients undergo PCI without statin pretreatment, but this is not associated with in-hospital major complications or long-term mortality. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic basis of familial dilated cardiomyopathy patients undergoing heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Sofia; Ruiz-Cano, Maria J; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan Ramón; Jurado, Alfonso; Salas, Clara; Gomez-Diaz, Iria; Padron-Barthe, Laura; Grillo, Jose Javier; Vilches, Carlos; Segovia, Javier; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most frequent cause of heart transplantation (HTx). The genetic basis of DCM among patients undergoing HTx has been poorly characterized. We sought to determine the genetic basis of familial DCM HTx and to establish the yield of modern next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in this setting. Fifty-two heart-transplanted patients due to familial DCM underwent NGS genetic evaluation with a panel of 126 genes related to cardiac conditions (59 associated with DCM). Genetic variants were initially classified as pathogenic mutations or as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Final pathogenicity status was determined by familial cosegregation studies. Initially, 24 pathogenic mutations were found in 21 patients (40%); 25 patients (48%) carried 19 VUS and 6 (12%) did not show any genetic variant. Familial evaluation of 220 relatives from 36 of the 46 families with genetic variants confirmed pathogenicity in 14 patients and allowed reclassification of VUS as pathogenic in 17 patients, and as non-pathogenic in 3 cases. At the end of the study, the DCM-causing mutation was identified in 38 patients (73%) and 5 patients (10%) harbored only VUS. No genetic variants were identified in 9 cases (17%). The genetic spectrum of familial DCM patients undergoing HTx is heterogeneous and involves multiple genes. NGS technology plus detailed familial studies allow identification of causative mutations in the vast majority of familial DCM cases. Detailed familial studies remain critical to determine the pathogenicity of underlying genetic defects in a substantial number of cases. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Goodman, William G; Herzog, Charles A; Kubo, Yumi; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mix, T Christian H; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Wheeler, David C; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-12-27

    Disorders of mineral metabolism, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, are thought to contribute to extraskeletal (including vascular) calcification among patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been hypothesized that treatment with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet might reduce the risk of death or nonfatal cardiovascular events in such patients. In this clinical trial, we randomly assigned 3883 patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (median level of intact parathyroid hormone, 693 pg per milliliter [10th to 90th percentile, 363 to 1694]) who were undergoing hemodialysis to receive either cinacalcet or placebo. All patients were eligible to receive conventional therapy, including phosphate binders, vitamin D sterols, or both. The patients were followed for up to 64 months. The primary composite end point was the time until death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or a peripheral vascular event. The primary analysis was performed on the basis of the intention-to-treat principle. The median duration of study-drug exposure was 21.2 months in the cinacalcet group, versus 17.5 months in the placebo group. The primary composite end point was reached in 938 of 1948 patients (48.2%) in the cinacalcet group and 952 of 1935 patients (49.2%) in the placebo group (relative hazard in the cinacalcet group vs. the placebo group, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.02; P=0.11). Hypocalcemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were significantly more frequent in patients receiving cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not significantly reduce the risk of death or major cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing dialysis. (Funded by Amgen; EVOLVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345839.).

  9. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bin Lan, B; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  10. Clinical Efficacy of Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Eun; Kwon, Byul; Cho, Su-Mi; Ahn, Areum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The clinical usefulness of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) is still controversial. We analyzed the clinical efficacy of SCIT in patients with AD and the clinical characteristics of patients showing a favorable clinical response to the treatment. Materials and Methods Two hundred and fifty one patients with AD sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated by SCIT using HDM extract. The clinical severity of AD was measured using the standardized clinical severity scoring system for AD (SCORAD) at baseline and 12 months. A favorable clinical response to SCIT was defined as a decrease in SCORAD value at 12 months greater than 50% compared to baseline value. Severe AD was defined as a baseline SCORAD value above 50. Results A favorable clinical response to SCIT was observed in 73.6% of patients. The proportion of patients showing a favorable clinical response to SCIT was significantly higher in patients with severe AD (90.6%) than patients with mild to moderated AD (63.7%) (p<0.001). Patients with severe AD showing a favorable clinical response had a significantly shorter duration of AD (12.3±8.5 years; mean±SD) than patients with severe AD showing no significant clinical response (20.6±10.9 years) (p<0.05) at baseline. Conclusion SCIT could be a clinically useful therapeutic option for patients with severe AD sensitized to HDM. Early initiation of SCIT might provide a favorable clinical outcome in patients with severe AD sensitized to HDM. PMID:27593870

  11. Effectiveness of Specific Sublingual Immunotherapy in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    You, Hyang-Suk; Yang, Min-Young; Kim, Gun-Wook; Cho, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Won-Jeong; Mun, Je-Ho; Song, Margaret; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2017-01-01

    Background Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with house dust mites (HDM) preparation has recently been proven to be beneficial for treating allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, there has been no report regarding the efficacy and safety of SLIT in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective We intended to investigate the efficacy and safety of SLIT in Korean patients with AD. Methods A total of 34 patients with AD and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-proven HDM sensitization (Class ≥3) were recruited. Eczema area and severity index (EASI) score, total serum IgE level, specific IgE assays to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and adverse effects were recorded during follow-up. "Responder" was defined as a patient with ≥30% improvement in EASI score after SLIT. Results Twenty-three patients continued SLIT for 12 months or more, whereas 3 patients (8.8%) dropped out because of exacerbation of dermatitis, and 8 patients (23.5%) were lost to follow-up. The average duration of SLIT treatment was 22.4 months (range, 12~32 months). EASI scores reduced significantly after 6 months of treatment (p<0.05) compared with those at baseline. A total of 18 patients were determined to be responders to SLIT after 6 months. Total and specific IgE serum levels did not significantly reduce after SLIT. No patients experienced serious adverse events, with the exception of two patients who developed transient lip and tongue swelling. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that SLIT with HDM extracts is effective and tolerable in Korean patients with AD. Further controlled long-term trials are required to reinforce the current results. PMID:28223739

  12. Respiratory management of the obese patient undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Luke E.; Murphy, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    As a reflection of the increasing global incidence of obesity, there has been a corresponding rise in the proportion of obese patients undergoing major surgery. This review reports the physiological effect of these changes in body composition on the respiratory system and discusses the clinical approach required to maximize safety and minimize the risk to the patient. The changes in respiratory system compliance and lung volumes, which can adversely affect pulmonary gas exchange, combined with upper airways obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing need to be considered carefully in the peri-operative period. Indeed, these challenges in the obese patient have led to a clear focus on the clinical management strategy and development of peri-operative pathways, including pre-operative risk assessment, patient positioning at induction and under anesthesia, modified approach to intraoperative ventilation and the peri-operative use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure. PMID:26101653

  13. [Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata Cristina Schmidt; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to classify oral mucositis according to the Common Toxicity Criterion (CTC) international parameters in head and neck tumor patients simultaneously treated with radio and chemotherapy, and characterize a patient profile in our area, observing the individuals' habits, tumor characteristics, treatment protocol and acute reaction intensity. Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous 66 to 70 Gy megavoltage radiotherapy and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Weekly evaluations of the degree of mucositis were perfoemed according to CTC, a four-degree ordinal scale; 36% of all patients and 100% of those with diabetes discontinued treatment due to mucositis, showing that this pathology contributes to the severity of mucositis.

  14. Cangrelor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: the BRIDGE study.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Michele D; Manoukian, Steven V

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes, drug-eluting stents and those at high risk for thromboembolic events has been well established in a number of well-designed randomized controlled studies. Current research in this area has focused on the development of novel antiplatelet agents for clinical use. The BRIDGE trial evaluated the use of cangrelor as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients receiving extended DAPT. The BRIDGE trial results confirm the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in this population. This study is novel as it attempts to address the lapse in thienopyridine therapy required for many surgical and invasive procedures. The future of antiplatelet agents, particularly cangrelor, must also focus on bridging for high-risk patients undergoing noncoronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures. Overall, the BRIDGE trial represents a significant advance for patients appropriate for long-term DAPT.

  15. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  16. Hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mahdi; Faraoni, David

    2015-07-26

    Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions, anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. For these reasons, the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia, prevent excessive blood loss, and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions, several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications, dosage, and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects, some high-risk patients (e.g., symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade, a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  17. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D

    2015-03-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.

  18. Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mirra, M; Di Maio, M; Vitulano, G; Prota, C; Polito, MV; Poto, S; Pierro, L; Piscione, F

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, occurring in 1-2% of overall population, involving more than 6 millions of European people. It is associated to a reduced quality of life and an increased morbidity and mortality. The Framingham study showed the link between angina and AF. The same risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity promote both AF and coronary artery disease (CAD). About 1/4 of AF patients develop a CAD and, in this setting, about 1/5 undergoes a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In patients with both AF and CAD, the optimal medical strategy is challenging and it is still debated in cardiological community, since patients treated by dual (two antiplatelets drugs ore one antiplatelets drug and an oral anticoagulant drug) or triple therapy (two antiplatelets drugs and an oral anticoagulant drug) are exposed to divergent risk of bleeding or thromboembolic and ischemic complications. Aim of this paper is to focus the attention on the different problems arising from the presence of AF in patients undergoing PCI, such as the risk of stroke, bleeding and stent thrombosis. PMID:24809033

  19. Postpolypectomy bleeding in patients undergoing colonoscopy on uninterrupted clopidogrel therapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Mehta, Nilesh; Murthy, Uma K; Kaul, Vivek; Arif, Asma; Newman, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    The risk of postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB) in patients undergoing colonoscopy on uninterrupted clopidogrel therapy has not been established. To assess the PPB rate and outcome and identify risk factors associated with PPB in patients taking clopidogrel. Single-center, retrospective study. Demographics, clinical parameters, polyp characteristics, polypectomy techniques, and postpolypectomy events in the groups were compared by univariate analysis. Stepwise logistic regression analyses identified independent risk factors associated with PPB. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. A total of 142 patients (375 polypectomies) taking clopidogrel (cases) and 1243 patients (3226 polypectomies) not taking clopidogrel (controls). None. Postpolypectomy bleeding, hospitalization, and mortality. The immediate (intraprocedural) bleeding rate was similar in the 2 groups (2.1% vs 2.1%). Delayed (postprocedural) PPB rate was higher in the group taking clopidogrel (3.5% vs 1.0%, P = .02). Delayed bleeding of significance requiring hospitalization and transfusion/intervention was also higher in patients taking clopidogrel (2.1% vs 0.4%, P = .04). The length of hospital stay and interventions for PPB were comparable between the 2 groups. There was no mortality. Concomitant use of clopidogrel and aspirin/other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.5) and the number of polyps removed (OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4) were the only significant risk factors associated with PPB. Clopidogrel alone was not an independent risk factor for PPB. Retrospective study and small number of patients with PPB. The PPB rate is significantly higher in patients undergoing polypectomy while taking clopidogrel and concomitant aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; however, the risk is small and the outcome is favorable. Routine cessation of clopidogrel in patients before colonoscopy/polypectomy is not necessary. 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby

  20. Anxiety of patients undergoing CT imaging-an underestimated problem?

    PubMed

    Heyer, Christoph M; Thüring, Johannes; Lemburg, Stefan P; Kreddig, Nina; Hasenbring, Monika; Dohna, Martha; Nicolas, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Prospective evaluation of anxiety in patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) imaging using a standardized state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-S) and identification of possible risk factors. During a 9-month interval, patients undergoing CT were questioned using STAI-S. Additionally, 10 questions concerning specific procedure-related features (claustrophobia, radiation, administration of contrast, and so forth) were added. Moreover, sex, age, admitting subspecialty, organ region, reason for imaging, and prior imaging studies were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test and linear regression analysis; significance level was set to 5%. Of 6122 patients, 825 patients undergoing CT (14%) were included (67% men; average age, 54 ± 17 years). Average STAI was 42 ± 10 with women (45 ± 11 vs. 41 ± 10; P < .001) and patients who received intravenous contrast (43 ± 10 vs. 42 ± 11; P = .021) showing significantly higher anxiety levels compared to those without contrast. Patients with investigations of their extremities (41 ± 11 vs. 43 ± 10; P = .020) and trauma patients (41 ± 11 vs. 43 ± 10; P = .006) revealed significantly lower STAI results. Patients who had never received a CT scan before showed significantly greater STAI-S values than those with repeat studies (42 ± 10 vs. 41 ± 11; P = .036). Females had greater fears concerning examination results (P < .001), radiation exposure (P = .032), administration of contrast (P = .014), and claustrophobia (P < .001). Patients with known malignancies had a significantly higher level of anxiety concerning their CT results (P = .002). Anxiety does not only occur before MRI but also occur before CT. Its sources are manifold and include communication of CT results, administration of contrast agents, radiation exposure, and claustrophobia. In this setting, women seemed to be more receptive than men. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Laser immunotherapy for treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer and melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Guerra, Maria C.; Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed for the treatment of metastatic tumors. It combines local selective photothermal interaction and active immunological stimulation to induce a long-term, systemic anti-tumor immunity. During the past sixteen years, LIT has been advanced from bench-top to bedside, with promising outcomes. In our pre-clinical and preliminary clinical studies, LIT has demonstrated the capability in inducing immunological responses, which not only can eradicate the treated primary tumors, but also can eliminate untreated metastases at distant sites. Specifically, LIT has been used to treat advanced melanoma and breast cancer patients during the past five years. LIT was shown to be effective in controlling both primary tumors and distant metastases in late-stage patients, who have failed conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and other more advanced approaches. The methodology and the development of LIT are presented in this paper. The patients' responses to LIT are also reported in this paper. The preliminary results obtained in these studies indicated that LIT could be an effective modality for the treatment of patients with late-stage, metastatic cancers, who are facing severely limited options.

  2. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  3. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass burgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Kirilova, Kremena; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the cerebroprotective effect of piracetam on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients scheduled for elective, primary and isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomised either to piracetam or placebo group. The study was performed in a double blind fashion. Patients received either 12 g piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total number of 120 patients were enrolled into the study. Preoperative overall cognitive function were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed a deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (placebo-pre: -0.06+/-0.99 vs placebo-post: -1.38+/-1.11; p<0.0005 and piracetam-pre: 0.06+/-1.02 vs piracetam-post: -0.65+/-0.93; p<0.0005). However, the piracetam patients performed significantly better compared to the placebo patients after the operation and had a less decline of overall cognitive function (p<0.0005). Piracetam has a cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. It reduces an early postoperative substantial decline of neuropsychological abilities.

  4. Quality of Life in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Vlachou, Eugenia; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2017-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, it is expected that 60% of all cases of cancer will be detected in elderly patients in the next two decades. Cancer treatment for older persons is complicated by a number of factors, thus negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate quality of life in elderly cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study was descriptive and non-experimental. It was conducted in one large hospital in a major city of Northern Greece. The sample was convenience comprising 53 elderly cancer patients undergoing cycle 3 chemotherapy. The data was collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale and included questions related to demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of participants were men (n = 27, 50.9%) who were married (n = 32, 79.5%). Their mean age was 70.07 ± 3.60. Almost half of the sample (n = 30, 56.6%) had colon cancer. There was a statistical significant difference between men and women pertaining to physical wellbeing (p = 0.004) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). When comparing each subscale with the patients' marital status it was found that there was a statistical difference with respect to social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029), functional wellbeing (p = 0.09) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). Moreover, the type of cancer affected overall quality of life (p < 0.001) and social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029). These findings call attention to quality of life and its related factors in elderly cancer patients. It is highly recommended to envisage measures for improving quality of life in this group of cancer patients.

  5. Clinical response of advanced cancer patients to cellular immunotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasumi, Kenichiro; Aoki, Yukimasa; Wantanabe, Ryuko; Mann, Dean L

    2013-01-01

    Patients afflicted with advanced cancers were treated with the intratumoral injection of autologous immature dendritic cells (iDCs) followed by activated T-cell infusion and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A second round of iDCs and activated T cells was then administered to patients after the last radiation cycle. This complete regimen was repeated for new and recurring lesions after 6 weeks of follow-up. One year post therapy, outcome analyses were performed to evaluate treatment efficacy. Patients were grouped according to both the number and size of tumors and clinical parameters at treatment initiation, including recurrent disease after standard cancer therapy, Stage IV disease, and no prior therapy. Irrespective of prior treatment status, 23/37 patients with ≤ 5 neoplastic lesions that were ≤ 3 cm in diameter achieved complete responses (CRs), and 5/37 exhibited partial responses (PRs). Among 130 individuals harboring larger and more numerous lesions, CRs were observed in 7/74 patients that had received prior SCT and in 2/56 previously untreated patients. Some patients manifested immune responses including an increase in CD8+CD56+ lymphocytes among circulating mononuclear cells in the course of treatment. To prospectively explore the therapeutic use of these cells, CD8+ cells were isolated from patients that had been treated with cellular immunotherapy and IMRT, expanded in vitro, and injected into recurrent metastatic sites in 13 individuals who underwent the same immunoradiotherapeutic regimens but failed to respond. CRs were achieved in 34 of 58 of such recurrent lesions while PRs in 17 of 58. These data support the expanded use of immunoradiotherapy in advanced cancer patients exhibiting progressive disease. PMID:24349874

  6. Venom immunotherapy improves health-related quality of life in patients allergic to yellow jacket venom.

    PubMed

    Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; De Monchy, Jan G R; Van Der Heide, Sicco; Guyatt, Gordon H; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2002-07-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is effective in preventing anaphylactic reactions after insect stings. The effect of VIT on health-related quality of life (HRQL) was studied to evaluate whether this treatment is of importance to patients. We compared HRQL outcomes measured with a disease-specific instrument (Vespid Allergy Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [VQLQ]) in patients allergic to yellow jacket venom treated with VIT or with an adrenalin self-administration device (EpiPen) in an open-label, randomized, controlled trial. Consenting patients were block randomized to either VIT or EpiPen. Patients received uniform, standardized information, which specified the risk of their condition and the risks and benefits of both treatment options. HRQL measures took place before and after 1 year of treatment with VIT or EpiPen. Seventy-four patients agreed to be randomized, of whom 36 received VIT and 38 an EpiPen. The mean change in VQLQ score in the group randomized to VIT was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.68-1.46), and this improvement was statistically significant (P <.0001) compared with that seen in the group randomized to the EpiPen, in which this change was -0.43 (95% CI, -0.71 to -0.16). These differences were seen in both men and women, persons with more or less general anxiety, and those stung recently and those stung more than a year before their outpatient department visit. The overall proportion of patients receiving benefit from VIT is 0.72, generating a number needed to treat of 1.4. VIT results in a clinically important improvement in HRQL in patients allergic to yellow jacket venom in all subgroups studied. Of every 3 patients treated with VIT, 2 patients experience an important improvement in their quality of life.

  7. Relevance of a 5-grass sublingual tablet for immunotherapy of patients with grass pollen allergy in North America.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Cox, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Grass pollen allergy is common and clinically consequential in North America. While it is frequently treated with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy, debate remains regarding whether allergen immunotherapy is best carried out using a single representative or multiple cross-reactive allergen(s). Patients are commonly exposed to pollens from multiple allergenic grass species belonging to the Pooideæ subfamily. Beyond the known IgE cross-reactivity, considerable molecular heterogeneity exists with respect to allergen content among grass species, with further evidence that these molecular variants can be detected by the patients' immune system. These observations provide a compelling scientific rationale for the use of mixed pollen allergen extracts to broaden the allergen repertoire, with the aim of reorienting inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients.

  8. Novel strategies of adoptive immunotherapy: How natural killer cells may change the treatment of elderly patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lemoli, Roberto M; Parisi, Sarah; Curti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Although many attempts have been made to identify novel molecular-targeted therapies for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, their translation into the clinic have had limited impact. In particular, the question of effective and curative treatments for elderly patients, who are not eligible for stem cell transplantation, remains an unmet medical need. To answer this question, a wide range of immunologic therapeutic strategies, mostly T cell based, have been proposed and investigated. At present, however, the clinical results have been largely unsatisfactory. Natural killer cells have recently been used as a means of adoptive immunotherapy with promising clinical results. On the basis of recent clinical reports and moving from the basic immunobiology of natural killer cells, here we discuss some open issues in the clinical translation of natural killer-based adoptive immunotherapy for the management of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

  9. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L. Objective To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Results Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose (B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug (B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval (B = −2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15–20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15–20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10–14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. Conclusions The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15–20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27826151

  10. Safe and Reproducible Preparation of Functional Dendritic Cells for Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lisini, Daniela; Pogliani, Simona; Dossena, Marta; Bersano, Anna; Pellegatta, Serena; Parati, Eugenio; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Frigerio, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy based on dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor lysate is a promising approach in addition to conventional therapy for the treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GB). The success of this approach strongly depends on the ability to generate high-quality, functionally mature DCs (mDCs), with a high level of standardization and in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices. In the cell factory of the Carlo Besta Foundation, two phase I clinical trials on immunotherapy with tumor lysate-loaded DCs as treatment for GB are ongoing. From 2010 to 2014, 54 patients were enrolled in the studies and 54 batches of DCs were prepared. We retrospectively analyzed the results of the quality control tests carried out on each produced batch, evaluating yield of mDCs and their quality in terms of microbiological safety and immunological efficacy. The number of mDCs obtained allowed the treatment of all the enrolled patients. All 54 batches were sterile, conformed to acceptable endotoxin levels, and were free of Mycoplasma species and adventitious viruses. During culture, cells maintained a high percentage of viability (87%–98%), and all batches showed high viability after thawing (mean ± SD: 94.6% ± 2.9%). Phenotype evaluation of mDCs showed an evident upregulation of markers typical of DC maturation; mixed lymphocyte reaction tests for the functional evaluation of DCs demonstrated that all batches were able to induce lymphocyte responses. These results demonstrated that our protocol for DC preparation is highly reproducible and permits generation of large numbers of safe and functional DCs for in vivo use in immunotherapy approaches. Significance Cell therapy based on antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients. The success of this approach strongly depends on the ability to generate high-quality, functional DCs with a high level of standardization, ensuring reproducibility, efficacy, and safety of the

  11. Safe and Reproducible Preparation of Functional Dendritic Cells for Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Nava, Sara; Lisini, Daniela; Pogliani, Simona; Dossena, Marta; Bersano, Anna; Pellegatta, Serena; Parati, Eugenio; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Frigerio, Simona

    2015-10-01

    Cell therapy based on dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor lysate is a promising approach in addition to conventional therapy for the treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GB). The success of this approach strongly depends on the ability to generate high-quality, functionally mature DCs (mDCs), with a high level of standardization and in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices. In the cell factory of the Carlo Besta Foundation, two phase I clinical trials on immunotherapy with tumor lysate-loaded DCs as treatment for GB are ongoing. From 2010 to 2014, 54 patients were enrolled in the studies and 54 batches of DCs were prepared. We retrospectively analyzed the results of the quality control tests carried out on each produced batch, evaluating yield of mDCs and their quality in terms of microbiological safety and immunological efficacy. The number of mDCs obtained allowed the treatment of all the enrolled patients. All 54 batches were sterile, conformed to acceptable endotoxin levels, and were free of Mycoplasma species and adventitious viruses. During culture, cells maintained a high percentage of viability (87%-98%), and all batches showed high viability after thawing (mean±SD: 94.6%±2.9%). Phenotype evaluation of mDCs showed an evident upregulation of markers typical of DC maturation; mixed lymphocyte reaction tests for the functional evaluation of DCs demonstrated that all batches were able to induce lymphocyte responses. These results demonstrated that our protocol for DC preparation is highly reproducible and permits generation of large numbers of safe and functional DCs for in vivo use in immunotherapy approaches. Cell therapy based on antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) is a promising approach for the treatment of glioblastoma patients. The success of this approach strongly depends on the ability to generate high-quality, functional DCs with a high level of standardization, ensuring reproducibility, efficacy, and safety of the final product

  12. Distribution characteristics of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Boros, L; Cacek, T; Pine, R B; Battaglia, A C

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of mitoxantrone in a patient undergoing hemodialysis is described. Significant characteristics of our patient included lymphoma with liver involvement, tumor lysis syndrome, renal and hepatic failure. Combination chemotherapy consisted of mitoxantrone, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. Mitoxantrone plasma samples were obtained prior to dosing and at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.5, 7.0, and 12 h after the intravenous infusion of a 17-mg dose over 20 min. Serum concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration versus time curve was consistent with a three-compartment model. However, rebounds in serum drug concentrations were detected during the last portion of dialysis and after its completion. The gamma elimination half-life could not be determined due to the continued detection of rebounds in drug concentrations throughout the postdialysis sampling period. The alpha and beta distribution phases did not appear to be affected by hemodialysis. The peak mitoxantrone concentration fell within the reported range. Mitoxantrone does not appear to be eliminated by hemodialysis, and dose adjustments are not needed in patients undergoing this procedure.

  13. Immediate hemodynamic response to furosemide in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, R E; Messerli, F H; deCarvalho, J G; Husserl, F E

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of furosemide on cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with end-stage renal failure, we studied ten patients undergoing hemodialysis three times a week. Arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output (indocyanine green dye) were measured in triplicate; total peripheral resistance and central blood volume were calculated by standard formulas. Hemodynamics were determined at baseline and 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) bolus injection of furosemide 60 mg. Furosemide produced a decrease in central blood volume of -13% +/- 2.2% from pretreatment values (P less than .01) that was most pronounced five minutes after injection, together with a fall in cardiac output (from 6.76 +/- 0.59 to 6.17 +/- 0.52 L/min, P less than .10). Stroke volume decreased with a maximum fall occurring after 15 minutes (from 84 +/- 7 to 79 +/- 7 mL/min, P less than .05), and total peripheral resistance increased (from 15.8 +/- 2.1 to 17.8 +/- 2.3 units, P less than .05) after furosemide. Arterial pressure and heart rate did not change. The decrease in central blood volume reflects a shift of the total blood volume from the cardiopulmonary circulation to the periphery, suggesting dilation of the peripheral venous bed. Thus, even in patients undergoing hemodialysis, furosemide acutely decreases left ventricular preload by venous dilation and should therefore prove to be beneficial in acute volume overload.

  14. Fospropofol disodium injection for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levitzky, Benjamin E; Vargo, John J

    2008-01-01

    Sedation plays a central role in making colonoscopy tolerable for patients and feasible for the endoscopist to perform. The array of agents used for endoscopic sedation continues to evolve. Fospropofol (FP), a prodrug of propofol with a slower pharmacokinetic profile, is currently under evaluation for use during endoscopic procedures. Preliminary data suggests that FP dosed at 6.5 mg/kg is well tolerated by most patients with perineal paresthesias being the most commonly experienced adverse effect. This article will examine the current literature on the use of FP for the sedation of patients undergoing colonoscopy, highlighting the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, risks, and common adverse events associated with the novel sedative/hypnotic. PMID:19209255

  15. Resistance to Clopidogrel among Iranian Patients Undergoing Angioplasty Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Kobarfard, Farzad; Safi, Olia; Sheibani, Kourosh; Sistanizad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the resistance to standard dosage of clopidogrel among Iranian patients following percutaneous coronary intervention measured by platelet aggregation test. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in Imam Hussein Medical center, Tehran, Iran, who were under treatment with aspirin, but had no history of clopidogrel usage, entered the study. Patients received standard dosage of clopidogrel (Plavix®, Sanofi, France, 600 mg loading dose and 75 mg/day afterward). Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmission aggregometer. The response to the drug was categorized as complete resistance (platelet aggregation decreased less than 10%), intermediate resistance (platelet aggregation decreased between 10 to 30%) and complete response (platelet aggregation decreased to 30% or more). All patients were evaluated for major adverse cardio vascular events one month after the angioplasty based on MACE criteria by phone contact. Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 59 ± 13 entered the study. Sixty-five percent of patients showed complete response to clopidogrel (95% CI: 45% to 81%), 22% showed intermediate resistance (95% CI: 10-41%) and 13% showed complete resistance (95% CI: 4-30%). One month after the angioplasty, no major adverse cardiovascular event was recorded. Based on our findings, it seems that there is no major difference between Iranian population and other studies regarding the resistance to clopidogrel. Due to the limited number of participants in our study, further investigations with higher number of patients are recommended to more precisely calculate the percentage of resistance among Iranian patients. PMID:24250685

  16. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Kaminogo, Makio; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    Randomised trials have shown the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol to prevent secondary ischaemic stroke. Recently, cilostazol has been reported to prevent the development and/or recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), which can potentially prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. Herein, we examined the impact of prior antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol on the incidence of cardioembolic stroke, which had not been fully investigated. Using the multicenter retrospective study of stroke risk in antithrombotic therapy (RESTATE) database, we analysed consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke under single antiplatelet therapy. We evaluated the characteristics of ischaemic stroke based on the type of antiplatelet agent used: aspirin, ticlopidine/clopidogrel or cilostazol. Of 1069 consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke during antithrombotic therapy from January to December 2012, 615 patients received single antiplatelet therapy (293 and 322 cases of primary and secondary strokes, respectively). Interestingly, the percentage of cardioembolic infarction was significantly lower in patients taking cilostazol compared with other agents. Multivariate regression analysis found that age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, P = 0.0029), serum creatinine (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0198), aspirin (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00-3.22, P = 0.0486), cilostazol (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.03-0.73, P = 0.0125), and smoking (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.16-2.94, P = 0.0102) were independently associated with cardioembolic stroke. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. This could be a novel strategy for cardioembolic stroke prevention potentially by affecting cardiac remodelling, in contrast to secondary anticoagulant therapy.

  17. Preoperative Optimization of the Heart Failure Patient Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Maxime; Liszkowski, Mark; Ducharme, Anique

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers. Levels of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) provide additional prognostic value and therefore should be measured. In addition, individual patient's risk should be objectively assessed using standard formulas such as the EuroSCORE-II or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores, which are simple and validated for various cardiac surgeries, including left ventricular assist device implantation. When patients are identified as high risk, preoperative hemodynamic optimization might be achieved with the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and hemodynamic-based tailored therapy. Finally, a prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump might be considered in certain circumstances to decrease morbidity and even mortality, like in some high risk heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery, whereas routine preoperative inotropes are not recommended and should be reserved for patients in shock, except maybe for levosimendan.

  18. Active specific immunotherapy with polyvalent melanoma cell vaccine for patients with in-transit melanoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, E C; Nathanson, L; Foshag, L J; Essner, R; Nizze, J A; Stern, S L; Morton, D L

    1999-05-15

    This study was conducted to document the rate, duration, and type of objective response to active specific immunotherapy with a polyvalent melanoma cell vaccine (PMCV) for patients with in-transit melanoma metastases and to identify any acute or chronic toxic effects of PMCV treatment. An analysis was conducted of all in-transit melanoma patients seen at the John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California, during the period 1985-1997 who were enrolled in prospective PMCV protocols in the absence of other therapies with possible antitumor activity (n = 54). Clinical response to PMCV was assessed by standard criteria. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group standard. PMCV produced a 17% (9 of 54 patients) objective response rate with a 13% rate (7 of 54 patients) of complete remission (CR). The median duration of CR was >22 months. Complete response lasting more than 1 year was observed in 4 patients (7.2%); 1 patient remained in remission over 9 years. Median survival was >53 months (i.e., not reached) for responders, 42 months for nonresponders, and 53 months overall. Salvage interventions allowed reinduction with PMCV in 23 of 25 patients, who subsequently remained clinically free of disease for a median of 14 months. Overall toxicity was mild, easily tolerable, and did not significantly change the quality of life. There were no toxic deaths. PMCV can cause objective complete regression of measurable intransit metastatic melanoma with minimal toxicity, and may prolong patients' median survival.

  19. Smoking effects on quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients after sublingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Katotomichelakis, M; Tripsianis, G; Daniilidi, A; Cassimos, D; Kourousis, C; Vogiatzaki, T; Danielides, V

    2015-12-01

    Although tobacco smoking is of great concern, there is no evidence for the effects of smoking on quality of life (QoL) results after sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). This study aims tο explore any association between smoking habits (duration and quantity) and QoL results after SLIT in allergic rhinitis (AR). One hundred and sixty three patients following SLIT for AR were participated. SLIT efficacy related to smoking was prospectively evaluated by means of validated widely used QoL questionnaires, either for assessing psychology (Zung Anxiety Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Zung Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory) or generic (Short Form-36) ones, pre- and immediately upon cessation of SLIT. Smoking habits were expressed in pack-years. Significant improvement of total symptoms score (T5SS) and of all QoL questionnaires' results were observed in our patients' group, both for smokers and non smokers. The comparison of changes between smokers and non smokers, controlling for the effect of all patients' characteristics, showed that there was no significant differences on improvement values. Additionally multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that the effect of pack-years on the QoL scales was not significant. Our results suggest that smoking habits (quantity of daily smoking and duration) do not influence the success of SLIT with regards to QoL outcomes.

  20. Active immunotherapy for cancer patients using tumor lysate pulsed dendritic cell vaccine: a safety study.

    PubMed

    Ovali, E; Dikmen, T; Sonmez, M; Yilmaz, M; Unal, A; Dalbasti, T; Kuzeyli, K; Erturk, M; Omay, S B

    2007-06-01

    Cancer vaccine therapy represents a promising therapeutical option. Consistently, with these new treatment strategies, the use of dendritic cell vaccines is becoming increasingly widespread and currently in the forefront for cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in patients with advanced cancers. For this purpose, eighteen patients with relapsed or refractory cancer were vaccinated with peripheral monocyte-derived DCs generated with GM-CSF and IL-4, and pulsed consequently with 100 microg/ml of tumor lysate before maturation in culture in the presence of IL-1beta, PGE2 and TNF alpha for two days. The first two vaccinations were given intradermally every two weeks while further injections were given monthly. Tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell injections were well-tolerated in all patients with no more than grade 1 injection-related toxicity. Local inflammatory response was mainly erythematous which subsided in 48 hrs time. No end organ toxicity or autoimmune toxicity was identified. Clinical responses observed in our study were satisfactory for a phase I clinical study. We observed 4 (22%) objective clinical responses. These responses are significantly correlated with delayed type hypersensitivity testing (DTH) (p < 0.01). The results showed that this active immunotherapy is feasible, safe, and may be capable of eliciting immune responses against cancer.

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of immune response in breast cancer and melanoma patients after laser immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordquist, Robert E.; Bishop, Shelly L.; Ferguson, Halie; Vaughan, Melville B.; Jose, Jessnie; Kastl, Katherine; Nguyen, Long; Li, Xiaosong; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2011-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies and preliminary clinical trials. It could not only eradicate treated local tumors but also cause regression and elimination of untreated metastases at distant sites. Combining a selective photothermal therapy with an active immunological stimulation, LIT can induce systemic anti-tumor immune responses. Imiquimod (IMQ), a toll-like receptor agonist, was used for the treatment of late-stage melanoma patients and glycated chitosan (GC), a biological immunological modulator, was used for the treatment of late-stage breast cancer patients, in combination of irradiation of a near-infrared laser light. To observe the immunological changes before and after LIT treatment, the pathological tissues of melanoma and breast cancer patients were processed for immunohistochemical analysis. Our results show that LIT changed the expressions of several crucial T cell types. Specifically, we observed significant decreases of CD3+ T-cells and a significant increase of CD4+,CD8+, and CD68+ T-cells in the tumor samples after LIT treatment. While not conclusive, our study could shed light on one the possible mechanisms of anti-tumor immune responses induced by LIT. Further studies will be conducted to identify immunological biomarkers associated with LIT-induced clinical response.

  2. Incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  4. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  5. Perioperative Risk in Patients With Epilepsy Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Couch, Cory G; Menendez, Mariano E; Barnes, C Lowry

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsies is a spectrum of brain disorders ranging from severe, life threatening, and disabling to more benign, but little is known about its impact in the perioperative arthroplasty setting. We sought to determine whether epileptic patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) would be at increased risk for in-hospital complications and death, prolonged stay, and nonroutine discharge. Using discharge records from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011), we identified 6,054,344 patients undergoing elective primary TJA, of whom 31,865 (0.5%) were identified as having epilepsy. Comparisons of perioperative outcomes were performed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. Patients with epilepsy were associated with increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-2.62) and morbidity, including (in decreasing order of magnitude of effect estimate): mechanical ventilation (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.56-1.94), induced mental disorder (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.56-1.85), stroke (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.23-2.15), pneumonia (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.49), and ileus or gastrointestinal events (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12-1.42). Epilepsy was associated with higher risk for blood transfusion (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.27-1.33), prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.17), and nonroutine discharge (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.50-1.58). We found no association with inpatient thromboembolic events, acute renal failure, and myocardial infarction. Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk for early postoperative complications (especially mechanical ventilation, induced mental disorder, and stroke) and resource utilization after elective joint arthroplasty. Greater awareness of epilepsy and its health consequences may contribute to improvements in the perioperative management of TJA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  7. Cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Manjili, Masoud H.; Payne, Kyle K.

    2012-01-01

    Cancers utilize multiple mechanisms to overcome immune responses. Emerging evidence suggest that immunotherapy of cancer should focus on inducing and re-programming cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems rather than focusing solely on T cells. Recently, we have shown that such a multifaceted approach can improve immunotherapy of breast cancer. PMID:22720242

  8. Preoperative autologous plateletpheresis in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Akhlesh S; Tempe, Deepak K; Banerjee, Amit; Hegde, Radhesh; Cooper, Andrea; Khanna, S K

    2003-07-01

    Blood conservation is an important aspect of care provided to the patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It is even more important in patients with anticipated prolonged CPB, redo cardiac surgery, patients having negative blood group and in patients undergoing emergency cardiac surgery. In prolonged CPB the blood is subjected to more destruction of important coagulation factors, in redo surgery the separation of adhesions leads to increased bleeding and difficulty in achieving the haemostasis and in patients with negative blood group and emergency operations, the availability of sufficient blood can be a problem. Harvesting the autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be a useful method of blood conservation in these patients. The above four categories of patients were prospectively studied, using either autologous whole blood donation or autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) harvest in the immediate pre-bypass period. Forty two patients were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups of 21 each, control group (Group I) in which one unit of whole blood was withdrawn, and PRP group (Group II) where autologous plateletpheresis was utilised. After reversal of heparin, autologous whole blood was transfused in the control group and autologous PRP was transfused in the PRP group. The chest tube drainage and the requirement of homologous blood and blood products were recorded. Average PRP harvest was 643.33 +/- 133.51 mL in PRP group and the mean whole blood donation was 333.75 +/- 79.58 mL in the control group. Demographic, preoperative and intra operative data showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The PRP group patients drained 26.44% less (p<0.001) and required 38.5% less homologous blood and blood products (p<0.05), in the postoperative period. Haemoglobin levels on day zero (day of operation) and day three were statistically not different between the two groups. We conclude

  9. Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp. PMID:24031759

  10. [Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in patients undergoing robotic mitral valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Gao, Changqing; Xiao, Cangsong; Yang, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiali; Shen, Yansong

    2012-12-01

    To retrospectively assess the value of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during robotic mitral valve (MV) replacement. Intraoperative TEE was performed in 21 patients undergoing robotic MV replacement for severe rheumatic mitral stenosis between November 2008 and December 2010. During the procedure, TEE was performed to document the mechanism of rheumatic mitral stenosis (leaflet thickening and calcification, commissural fusion or chordal fusion) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During the establishment of peripheral CPB, TEE was used to guide the placement of the cannulae in the inferior vena cava (IVC), superior vena cava (SVC), and ascending aorta (AAO). After weaning from CPB, TEE was performed to evaluate the effect of the procedure. Accuracy of TEE was 100% for rheumatic mitral stenosis. All the cannuli in the SVC, IVC and AAO were located in the correct position. In all patients, TEE confirmed successful procedure. TEE is useful in the assessment of robotic MV replacement.

  11. Incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Westling, Agneta; Bergqvist, David; Boström, Annika; Karacagil, Sadettin; Gustavsson, Sven

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after surgery for morbid obesity. The series comprised 116 consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The median age and body mass index were 35 years (range 19-59 years) and 42 kg/m2 (range 32-68 kg/m2), respectively. The patients were examined with duplex ultrasonography pre- and postoperatively. No patient had any symptoms or signs of DVT postoperatively, and ultrasonography showed no signs of thrombosis in iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins in any of the patients. Two patients (1.7%) had a thrombus in the peroneal vein of one leg. Repeated ultrasonographic investigation after 1 week showed complete resolution of both. One patient with a previously unknown activated protein C resistance had an angiographically confirmed minor pulmonary embolus. The incidence of venous thromboembolism after obesity surgery seems to be low, and obesity as a risk factor for thromboembolic disease might have been overestimated in the past.

  12. Immunotherapy response assessment in neuro-oncology: a report of the RANO working group.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hideho; Weller, Michael; Huang, Raymond; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Gilbert, Mark R; Wick, Wolfgang; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Hashimoto, Naoya; Pollack, Ian F; Brandes, Alba A; Franceschi, Enrico; Herold-Mende, Christel; Nayak, Lakshmi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Pope, Whitney B; Prins, Robert; Sampson, John H; Wen, Patrick Y; Reardon, David A

    2015-11-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising area of therapy in patients with neuro-oncological malignancies. However, early-phase studies show unique challenges associated with the assessment of radiological changes in response to immunotherapy reflecting delayed responses or therapy-induced inflammation. Clinical benefit, including long-term survival and tumour regression, can still occur after initial disease progression or after the appearance of new lesions. Refinement of the response assessment criteria for patients with neuro-oncological malignancies undergoing immunotherapy is therefore warranted. Herein, a multinational and multidisciplinary panel of neuro-oncology immunotherapy experts describe immunotherapy Response Assessment for Neuro-Oncology (iRANO) criteria based on guidance for the determination of tumour progression outlined by the immune-related response criteria and the RANO working group. Among patients who demonstrate imaging findings meeting RANO criteria for progressive disease within 6 months of initiating immunotherapy, including the development of new lesions, confirmation of radiographic progression on follow-up imaging is recommended provided that the patient is not significantly worse clinically. The proposed criteria also include guidelines for the use of corticosteroids. We review the role of advanced imaging techniques and the role of measurement of clinical benefit endpoints including neurological and immunological functions. The iRANO guidelines put forth in this Review will evolve successively to improve their usefulness as further experience from immunotherapy trials in neuro-oncology accumulate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting Infected Bile Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, Shannon L.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Patel, Aalpen; Freiman, David B.; Soulen, Michael C.; Stavropoulos, S. William; Clark, Timothy W.I.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Patients may not achieve a clinical benefit after percutaneous cholecystostomy due to the inherent difficulty in identifying patients who truly have infected gallbladders. We attempted to identify imaging and biochemical parameters which would help to predict which patients have infected gallbladders. Methods. A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy for clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis in whom bile culture results were available. Multiple imaging and biochemical variables were examined alone and in combination as predictors of infected bile, using logistic regression. Results. Of the 52 patients, 25 (48%) had infected bile. Organisms cultured included Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Citrobacter and Candida. No biochemical parameters were significantly predictive of infected bile; white blood cell count >15,000 was weakly associated with greater odds of infected bile (odds ratio 2.0, p = NS). The presence of gallstones, sludge, gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid by ultrasound or CT were not predictive of infected bile, alone or in combination, although a trend was observed among patients with CT findings of acute cholecystitis toward a higher 30-day mortality. Radionuclide scans were performed in 31% of patients; all were positive and 66% of these patients had infected bile. Since no patient who underwent a radionuclide scan had a negative study, this variable could not be entered into the regression model due to collinearity. Conclusion. No single CT or ultrasound imaging variable was predictive of infected bile, and only a weak association of white blood cell count with infected bile was seen. No other biochemical parameters had any association with infected bile. The ability of radionuclide scanning to predict infected bile was higher than that of ultrasound or CT. This study illustrates the continued challenge to identify bacterial cholecystitis

  14. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing electrophysiological device surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural

  15. Coagulation management in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Görlinger, Klaus; Bergmann, Lars; Dirkmann, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications in patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support therapy remains high and is associated with bad outcomes and increased costs. The need for anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy varies widely between different pulsatile and non-pulsatile ventricular-assist devices (VADs) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) systems. Therefore, a unique anticoagulation protocol cannot be recommended. Notably, most thrombo-embolic complications occur despite values of conventional coagulation tests being within the targeted range. This is due to the fact that conventional coagulation tests such as international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelet count cannot detect hyper- or hypofibrinolysis, hypercoagulability due to tissue factor expression on circulating cells or increased clot firmness, and platelet aggregation as well as response to anti-platelet drugs. By contrast, point-of-care (POC) whole blood viscoelastic tests (thromboelastometry/-graphy) and platelet function tests (impedance or turbidimetric aggregometry) reflect in detail the haemostatic status of patients undergoing mechanical circulatory support therapy and the efficacy of their anticoagulation and antiaggregation therapy. Therefore, monitoring of haemostasis using POC thromboelastometry/-graphy and platelet function analysis is recommended during mechanical circulatory support therapy to reduce the risk of bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications. Notably, these haemostatic tests should be performed repeatedly during mechanical circulatory support therapy since thrombin generation, clot firmness and platelet response may change significantly over time with a high inter- and intra-individual variability. Furthermore, coagulation management can be hampered in non-pulsatile VADs by acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and in general by acquired factor XIII deficiency as well as by heparin

  16. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  17. Incidental adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing surgery for stricturing Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083

  18. Randomized controlled trial of oral immunotherapy for egg allergy in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masayuki; Yasudo, Hiroki; Narita, Masami; Nomura, Ichiro; Akasawa, Akira; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Takahashi, Takao; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2017-05-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in young children. While oral immunotherapy (OIT) is not routinely recommended in current guidelines, it has been considered as a potential alternative treatment strategy. Studies on OIT for food allergy have been explored, but no controlled trials have been reported in Japan. The first oral food challenge (OFC) was performed before treatment to ensure diagnosis and evaluate the threshold dose for egg using the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Participants were randomly assigned by computerized algorithm to receive OIT using egg (OIT group) or no egg (egg elimination [EE] group). A second OFC was performed in both groups approximately 6 months after therapy. Blood samples were collected and egg white-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG4 were measured before and after the treatment period. Eight of the 14 patients (57%) in the OIT group had no allergic reaction to 4 g dry egg powder whereas none of the 16 patients in the EE group did. All 14 patients in the OIT group had increased threshold for egg powder in the second OFC compared with baseline. There was no significant change in egg white-specific IgE level during therapy. After therapy, egg white-specific IgG4 increased significantly in the OIT group, but not in the EE group. OIT is effective in increasing the threshold for allergens and inducing desensitization in Japanese egg allergy patients, similarly to North American and European patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Value of extended warming in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Wasfie, Tarik J; Barber, Kimberly R

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative temperature management is imperative for positive surgical outcomes. This study assessed the clinical and wellbeing benefits of extending normothermia by using a portable warming gown. A total of 94 patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. They were randomized pre-operatively to either a portable warming gown or the standard warming procedure. The warming gown stayed with patients from pre-op to operating room to postrecovery room discharge. Core temperature was tracked throughout the study. Patients also provided responses to a satisfaction and comfort status survey. The change in average core temperature did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.23). A nonsignificant 48% relative decrease in hypothermic events was observed for the extended warming group (P = 0.12). Patients receiving the warming gown were more likely to report always having their temperature controlled (P = 0.04) and significantly less likely to request additional blankets for comfort (P = 0.006). Clinical outcomes and satisfaction were improved for patients with extended warming.

  20. Prediction of cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.

  1. Could intradialytic nutrition improve refractory anaemia in patients undergoing haemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Thabet, Ahmad F; Moeen, Sawsan M; Labiqe, Mohammed O; Saleh, Medhat A

    2017-09-01

    This prospective randomised study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) therapy in malnourished patients with refractory anaemia. Forty patients who were malnourished with a BMI not greater than 23 (17-23) kg/m(2) , undergoing regular HD were included. Of those, 20 patients received 500-1000 ml of IDPN at a rate of 250-300 ml/h at each HD session three days per week for six consecutive months. The other 20 patients did not receive IDPN infusion. The malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and haematological parameters were recorded at baseline and after three and six months. Mean haemoglobin levels, BMI and serum albumin were significantly increased while MIS was significantly decreased after the 3rd and 6th months of IDPN. IDPN has a good role in improving refractory anaemia by significantly increasing haemoglobin levels, body weight, and serum albumin levels. The intervention also significantly decreases the MIS of patients. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  2. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Wildfeuer, A; Müller, V; Springsklee, M; Sonntag, H G

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, were investigated in 16 patients undergoing prosthetic cardiac valve insertion. The combination of 2 g of ampicillin and 1 g of sulbactam was administered as perioperative prophylaxis intravenously over 3 to 6 days. Several serum pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for the two drugs after three intravenous doses were given to patients following surgery. The half-lives of elimination of ampicillin and sulbactam were 79 +/- 4.9 and 88 +/- 5.9 min, the volumes of distribution were 15.6 +/- 1.4 and 17.7 +/- 1.2 liters/70 kg, and the total plasma clearances were 144.4 +/- 14.5 and 147.2 +/- 14.5 ml/min, respectively. The peak concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum were calculated to be 134.3 +/- 1.3 and 58.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Ampicillin and sulbactam rapidly penetrated from the blood into various tissues collected during heart surgery, such as sternum, pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The concentrations of ampicillin in tissue ranged from 17.8 +/- 9.9 to 50 +/- 29.5 micrograms/g, and those of sulbactam in tissue ranged from 8.8 +/- 6.2 to 19.6 +/- 10.1 micrograms/g. The concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and tissue also apparently exceeded the MICs against most beta-lactamase-producing bacteria usually involved in postoperative wound infections and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The ratio of the two compounds was approximately 2:1 in serum and in the various tissues affected by the operation. The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and investigated tissues suggest that the combination of the two beta-lactams will be effective in the perioperative prophylaxis of patients undergoing heart surgery. PMID:1952846

  4. Predictors of overall satisfaction of cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Pinkert, Uwe; Ahmad, Tahera; Schäfer, Christof; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Franz, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Reporting the experiences and satisfaction of patients, as well as their quality of care scores is an emerging recommendation in health care systems. Many aspects of patients' experience determine their overall satisfaction. The aim of this evaluation was to define the main factors contributing to the satisfaction of patients undergoing radiotherapy in an outpatient setting. A total of 1,710 patients with a histologically proven cancer, who were treated in our department between 2012 and 2014, were recruited for this prospective evaluation. At the end of therapy, each patient was asked to grade the skills and the care provided by radiation therapists, physicians, and physician's assistants, as well as the overall satisfaction during therapy. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which parameters had the greatest influence on overall satisfaction. Overall satisfaction with the provided care was high with a mean satisfaction score of 1.4. Significant correlations were found between overall satisfaction and each of the following survey items: courtesy, protection of privacy, professional skills and care provided by the radiation therapists and physicians, accuracy of provided information, and cleanliness. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that courteous behavior and the protection of privacy were the strongest predictors for overall satisfaction (P<0.001), followed by care and skills of physicians and radiation therapists. Patients suffering from head and neck cancer expressed lower overall satisfaction. Based on our prospectively acquired data, we were able to identify and confirm key factors for patient satisfaction in an outpatient radiooncological cancer center. From these results, we conclude that patients want most importantly to be treated with courtesy, protection of privacy and care.

  5. Anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Fauchier, L; Pellegrin, C; Clementy, N; Saint Etienne, C; Banerjee, A; Naudin, D; Angoulvant, D

    2013-09-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stent implantation, the optimal antithrombotic strategy is unclear. We evaluated whether use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) was associated with any benefit in morbidity or mortality in patients with AF, high risk of thromboembolism (TE) (CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2) and coronary stent implantation. Among 8,962 unselected patients with AF seen between 2000 and 2010, a total of 2,709 (30%) had coronary artery disease and 417/2,709 (15%) underwent stent implantation while having CHA2DS2-VASC score ≥ 2. During follow-up (median=650 days), all TE, bleeding episodes, and major adverse cardiac events (i.e. death, acute myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularisation) were recorded. At discharge, 97/417 patients (23%) received OAC, which was more likely to be prescribed in patients with permanent AF and in those treated for elective stent implantation. The incidence of outcome event rates was not significantly different in patients treated and those not treated with OAC. However, in multivariate analysis, the lack of OAC at discharge was independently associated with increased risk of death/stroke/systemic TE (relative risk [RR] =2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.67, p=0.04), with older age (RR =1.12, 1.04-1.20, p=0.003), heart failure (RR =3.26, 1.18-9.01, p=0.02), and history of stroke (RR =18.87, 3.11-111.11, p=0.001). In conclusion, in patients with AF and high thromboembolic risk after stent implantation, use of OAC was independently associated with decreased risk of subsequent death/stroke/systemic TE, suggesting that OAC should be systematically used in this patient population.

  6. Which immunotherapy product is better for patients allergic to Polistes venom? A laboratory and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Savi, Eleonora; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Boni, Elisa; Mauro, Marina; Peveri, Silvia; Pravettoni, Valerio; Quercia, Oliviero; Reccardini, Federico; Montagni, Marcello; Pessina, Laura; Ridolo, Erminia

    2017-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in preventing allergic reactions to insect stings, but the appropriate venom must be used to achieve clinical protection. In patients with multiple positive results to venoms, molecular allergy diagnostics or CAP-inhibition may identify the causative venom. Concerning allergy to venom from Polistes spp. it has been proposed that only the European species P. dominulus should be used for VIT. However, this recommendation is not present in any international guideline. Using both laboratory and clinical data, we aimed to evaluate the reliability of this proposal. We performed an in vitro study using CAP-inhibition to determine sensitization of 19 patients allergic to Polistes venom. The clinical study included 191 patients with positive tests to Polistes treated with VIT, 102 were treated with P. dominulus and 89 were treated with a mix of American Polistes (mAP). The difference in % of inhibition was significant concerning inhibition of P. dominulus sIgE by P. dominulus venom (79.8%) compared with inhibition by mAP venom (64.2%) and not significant concerning the inhibition of mAP sIgE by P. dominulus venom (80.1%) and by mAP venom (73.6%). Instead, the clinical protection from stings was not statistically different between the two kinds of venom. The data from CAP inhibition would suggest that the choice of either P. dominulus venom or mAP venom for VIT is appropriate in patients with CAP inhibition higher than 70%, but the clinical data show the same odds of protection from stings using for VIT P. dominulus or mAP venom.

  7. Which immunotherapy product is better for patients allergic to Polistes venom? A laboratory and clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Eleonora; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Boni, Elisa; Mauro, Marina; Peveri, Silvia; Pravettoni, Valerio; Quercia, Oliviero; Reccardini, Federico; Montagni, Marcello; Pessina, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Background Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in preventing allergic reactions to insect stings, but the appropriate venom must be used to achieve clinical protection. In patients with multiple positive results to venoms, molecular allergy diagnostics or CAP-inhibition may identify the causative venom. Concerning allergy to venom from Polistes spp. it has been proposed that only the European species P. dominulus should be used for VIT. However, this recommendation is not present in any international guideline. Using both laboratory and clinical data, we aimed to evaluate the reliability of this proposal. Methods We performed an in vitro study using CAP-inhibition to determine sensitization of 19 patients allergic to Polistes venom. The clinical study included 191 patients with positive tests to Polistes treated with VIT, 102 were treated with P. dominulus and 89 were treated with a mix of American Polistes (mAP). Results The difference in % of inhibition was significant concerning inhibition of P. dominulus sIgE by P. dominulus venom (79.8%) compared with inhibition by mAP venom (64.2%) and not significant concerning the inhibition of mAP sIgE by P. dominulus venom (80.1%) and by mAP venom (73.6%). Instead, the clinical protection from stings was not statistically different between the two kinds of venom. Conclusion The data from CAP inhibition would suggest that the choice of either P. dominulus venom or mAP venom for VIT is appropriate in patients with CAP inhibition higher than 70%, but the clinical data show the same odds of protection from stings using for VIT P. dominulus or mAP venom. PMID:28686638

  8. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Emily F.; Smyth, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4) trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients. PMID:27669318

  9. Clinical safety of bivalirudin in patients undergoing carotid stenting.

    PubMed

    Cogar, Bryan D; Wayangankar, Siddharth A; Abu-Fadel, Mazen; Hennebry, Thomas A; Ghani, Mohammad K; Kipperman, Robert M; Chrysant, George S

    2012-05-01

    Prior to June 2011, carotid artery stenting (CAS) had been limited to patients deemed high risk for surgical revascularization due to medical or anatomic reasons. Intraprocedural anticoagulation for CAS has traditionally been carried out with unfractionated heparin (UFH). The direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin has emerged as a possible alternative choice for anticoagulation in this patient population. In patients undergoing coronary interventions, bivalirudin has been shown in large prospective analysis to reduce major adverse events and hemorrhagic complications (TIMI major bleeding rates, 0.6%-3.1%; TIMI minor bleeding rates, 1.3%-3.7%). As of now, the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin for use during carotid stenting has not been rigorously evaluated. To date, the published evidence in favor of bivalirudin for CAS exists in small retrospective analyses and two prospective studies. We present a retrospective analysis of 331 patients with a total of 365 carotid artery lesions undergoing CAS between February 2007 and September 2010. The procedures were performed by five experienced operators from four separate sites within the same metropolitan area. Patients were included who received bivalirudin as the anticoagulation strategy and underwent CAS. The primary endpoints of the study were 30-day incidence of death, stroke, TIMI major bleeding (defined as ≥5 g/dL Hgb drop or intracranial hemorrhage), TIMI minor bleeding (defined as ≥3 g/dL Hgb drop), and blood transfusion. All data were collected by retrospective chart review. A total of 365 CAS procedures were performed. There were no deaths, strokes, or TIMI major bleeds. There was a 2.19% incidence of TIMI minor bleeding (8/365) and a 1.64% rate of blood transfusion (6/365). In our patient population, the major endpoints of stroke, death, MI, major and minor bleeding rates were well within those previously reported overall for carotid artery revascularization. Hence, we conclude that bivalirudin may be safe

  10. [Effects of video information in patients undergoing coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Philippe, F; Meney, M; Larrazet, F; Ben Abderrazak, F; Dibie, A; Meziane, T; Folliguet, T; Delahousse, P; Lemoine, J F; Laborde, F

    2006-02-01

    informed consent is a fundamental and legal obligation for each interventional cardiologist. The effect of consent form describing risks of invasive procedure on anxiety is controversial. This trial was aimed to assess the added value of video information to the standard informed consent process. 200 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled. The first one hundred were assigned to conventional education conducted by the physician (no video group) and the second one hundred had consent obtained in the conventional manner assisted by video information (video group). The outcome variables for this comparison consisted of a standard anxiety score (Spielberger Statement Anxiety Inventory questionnary) plus hemodynamics measurements of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained at baseline and immediately after written informed consent In addition, before discharge, patients graded the tolerability and satisfaction on a 4-point scale. The groups were similar with regard to their baseline characteristics and anxity score (37+23 vs 37+23). Patients who had not had prior experience of catheterization had higher baseline anxiety than those who had prior angiography (45 + 22 vs 31 + 20; p = 0.027). Patients who watched the video were significantly less anxious after informed consent (28 + 21 vs 34 + 22; p = 0.048) and had a significantly lower heart rate (65 + 10 vs 71 + 12; p = 0.03). The benefits of video information were especially prominent in those with higher anxiety scores at baseline (score after 45 + 24 vs 57 + 26; p = 0.046). Tolerability were higher in the video group compared with no video group (98% vs 86%; p = 0.003). Finally, satisfaction of information for informed consent process was higher in video group than in no video group (99% vs 76%; p = 0.001). a video information decreased anxiety level after written informed consent and improved tolerability and satisfaction scales in patients undergoing coronary angiography

  11. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-03-19

    Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. Results A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate

  12. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LIFE QUALITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963

  13. Determinants of Compliance Behaviours among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yoke Mun; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hii, Sing Ziunn

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods This was a cross-sectional study which employed purposive sampling design. A total of 188 respondents were recruited from 14 dialysis centres in Malaysia between 2008–2011. Self-reported compliance behaviours and biochemical measurements were used as evaluation tools. Results Compliance rates of dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis were 27.7%, 24.5%, 66.5% and 91.0%, respectively. Younger, male, working patients and those with longer duration on hemodialysis were found more likely to be non-compliant. Lacks of adequate knowledge, inadequate self-efficacy skills, forgetfulness and financial constraints were the major perceived barriers towards better compliance to fluid, dietary, medication and dialysis, respectively. Conclusions Healthcare professionals should recognise the factors hindering compliance from the patients' perspective while assisting them with appropriate skills in making necessary changes possible. PMID:22870215

  14. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  15. Poxviral vectors for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joseph W.; Gulley, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Poxviral vaccines have been given to over 1 billion people in the successful global eradication of smallpox. Since then, recombinant poxviruses have been investigated extensively as a novel immunotherapy for cancer, undergoing several iterations to optimize their immunogenicity and efficacy. The current platform expressing multiple costimulatory molecules plus a tumor-associated antigen such as PSA, i.e., PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC-V/F), is promising and is currently in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Areas covered This review discusses the clinical development of poxviral-based cancer vaccines, with a particular focus on the rationale for combining vaccines with other treatment modalities, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, other immune-based therapies, and molecularly targeted therapy. We also discuss the importance of appropriate patient selection in clinical trial design. Expert Opinion Preclinical and early clinical studies with poxviral vector vaccines have shown promising results with this novel immunologic approach both as vaccine alone and combined with other therapies. The challenges of translating the science of immunotherapy to clinical practice include clinical trial design that includes appropriate patient selection, appropriate endpoints, and identification of meaningful surrogate biomarkers. PMID:22413824

  16. Efficacy of baked milk oral immunotherapy in baked milk-reactive allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Michael R; Nachshon, Liat; Appel, Michael Y; Elizur, Arnon; Levy, Michael B; Eisenberg, Eli; Sampson, Hugh A; Katz, Yitzhak

    2015-12-01

    Patients with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy who are nonreactive to baked milk (BM) can be desensitized with BM to promote tolerance to unheated milk (UM). We sought to test whether patients who are BM reactive can progress in BM oral immunotherapy (OIT) and become desensitized to UM as well. Fifteen patients (>4 years) who previously failed to complete our milk OIT program were enrolled into the BM OIT protocol. A dose of BM (180 °C for 30 minutes) which was less than the eliciting dose was increased 50% monthly while under medical supervision until the primary outcome dose of 1.3 g/d BM protein was achieved. Basophil reactivity and milk protein-specific IgE binding were analyzed at the first round of BM OIT therapy (T0) and at 12 months of BM treatment. In terms of the primary outcome, only 3 (21%) of 14 patients tolerated the 1.3 g/d BM dose. Although some patients initially progressed in BM OIT, 8 of 11 failed because of IgE-mediated reactions. Three did not complete the program because of non-IgE-mediated factors. An increase in challenge threshold to UM was noted in patients continuing until 12 months (P = .003), including those among whom reactions precluded continuation in the program. Patients (n = 3) who successfully reached maintenance had decreased milk-specific IgE reactivity. Furthermore, the mean difference at T0 between induced HM and UM percentages of CD203c expression was significantly lower in patients who successfully completed BM OIT than in those who did not (-11% vs 4.4%, P = .0002), which is consistent with their decreased clinical reactivity to BM. Although use of hypoallergenic BM in OIT is a promising therapy, care must be taken before its administration in BM-reactive patients because of the risk for anaphylaxis and only limited increase in challenge threshold attained. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postoperative urinary retention in patients undergoing elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Altschul, David; Kobets, Andrew; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jada, Ajit; Nasser, Rani; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza; Houten, John

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common problem leading to morbidity and an increased hospital stay. There are limited data regarding its baseline incidence in patients undergoing spinal surgery and the risk factors with which it may be associated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POUR in elective spine surgery patients and determine the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery and had been prospectively monitored for POUR during an 18-month period. Collected data included operative positioning, surgery duration, volume of intraoperative fluid, length of hospital stay, and patient characteristics such as age, sex, and medical comorbidities. Dialysis patients or those with complete urinary retention preoperatively were excluded from analysis. RESULTS Of the 397 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 35 (8.8%) developed POUR. An increased incidence of POUR was noted in those who underwent posterior lumbar surgery, those with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), those with chronic constipation or prior urinary retention, and those using a patient-controlled analgesia pump postoperatively. An increased incidence of POUR was seen with a longer operative time but not with intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. A significant relationship between the female sex and POUR was noted after controlling for BPH, yet there was no association between POUR and diabetes or intraoperative instrumentation. Postoperative retention significantly prolonged the hospital stay. Three patients developed epidural hematomas necessitating operative reexploration, and while they experienced POUR, they also developed the full constellation of cauda equina syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Awareness of the risk factors for POUR may be useful in perioperative Foley catheter management and in identifying patients who need particular

  18. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Preoperative expectations and values of patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Leach, Brian C; Wheless, Lee; Lang, Pearon G; Cook, Joel

    2011-03-01

    Dermatologists have championed Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for its unsurpassed treatment success for skin cancers, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, and tissue-sparing quality. It is unclear whether patients undergoing MMS also value these characteristics. To evaluate patients' preoperative expectations of MMS and identify the factors that may influence such expectations The study prospectively recruited participants who were newly diagnosed with skin cancer and referred for MMS. A questionnaire listing the characteristics of MMS was given to the participants asking them to score the importance of each characteristic on a 10-point scale. The participants were also asked to provide information regarding their gender, age, subjective health status, education level, family annual income, and their referral source On average, participants placed the highest value, in descending order, on a treatment that yielded the highest cure rate, reconstruction initiation only after complete tumor removal, and the surgeon being a skin cancer specialist. Overall, participants placed high values on characteristics of MMS that dermatologists have long esteemed. Our data corroborate that MMS is a valuable procedure that meets the expectations not just of physicians, but also of patients. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  20. Myoinositol Improves Embryo Development in PCOS Patients Undergoing ICSI

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of myoinositol, in a court of 217 PCOS women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), on pregnancy rate, embryo development, estradiol, and progesterone concentration in blood serum, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in follicular fluid. Concerning the court of patient, 112 (groups I and II) out of 217 were PCOS women, whereas group III consisted of healthy subjects (not PCOS). Group I patients were treated with 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI, whereas group II patients received 4000 mg of myoinositol and 400 μg of folic acid per day for 3 months before ICSI. Group II revealed a shorter embryo/blastocyst development period between microinjection and 5-cell stage compared to group I. The difference in SOD concentration between groups I and II and between groups II and III was statistically significant. In group II, 34.62% of pregnancies were obtained, whereas in group I this number reached 20% (NS). Myoinositol increased embryo development dynamics and accelerated blastocyst stage reaching time; however, no effect was shown on clinical pregnancy. Furthermore, it restored SOD concentration, lowered in PCOS women, but did not exert any effect on CAT concentration. PMID:27777587

  1. Autoimmune Cardiotoxicity of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixiong; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary immunotherapies (e.g., immune checkpoint inhibitors), which enhance the immune response to cancer cells, improve clinical outcomes in several malignancies. A recent study reported the cases of two patients with metastatic melanoma who developed fatal myocarditis during ipilimumab and nivolumab combination immunotherapy; these examples highlight the risk of unbridled activation of the immune system.

  2. Immunotherapy of Cancer in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, John M.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Zarour, Hassane; Kalinski, Pawel; Ferrone, Soldano

    2012-01-01

    The immunotherapy of cancer has made significant strides in the past few years due to improved understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology. These principles have been critical in the development of immunotherapy in the laboratory and in the implementation of immunotherapy in the clinic. This improved understanding of immunotherapy, enhanced by increased insights into the mechanism of tumor immune response and its evasion by tumors, now permits manipulation of this interaction and elucidates the therapeutic role of immunity in cancer. Also important, this improved understanding of immunotherapy and the mechanisms underlying immunity in cancer has fueled an expanding array of new therapeutic agents for a variety of cancers. Pegylated interferon-α2b as an adjuvant therapy and ipilimumab as therapy for advanced disease, both of which were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for melanoma in March 2011, are 2 prime examples of how an increased understanding of the principles of tumor biology and immunology have been translated successfully from the laboratory to the clinical setting. Principles that guide the development and application of immunotherapy include antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and cellular therapies. The identification and further elucidation of the role of immunotherapy in different tumor types, and the development of strategies for combining immunotherapy with cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents for future multimodal therapy for cancer will enable even greater progress and ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22576456

  3. Immunotherapy of cancer in 2012.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, John M; Butterfield, Lisa H; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Zarour, Hassane; Kalinski, Pawel; Ferrone, Soldano

    2012-01-01

    The immunotherapy of cancer has made significant strides in the past few years due to improved understanding of the underlying principles of tumor biology and immunology. These principles have been critical in the development of immunotherapy in the laboratory and in the implementation of immunotherapy in the clinic. This improved understanding of immunotherapy, enhanced by increased insights into the mechanism of tumor immune response and its evasion by tumors, now permits manipulation of this interaction and elucidates the therapeutic role of immunity in cancer. Also important, this improved understanding of immunotherapy and the mechanisms underlying immunity in cancer has fueled an expanding array of new therapeutic agents for a variety of cancers. Pegylated interferon-α2b as an adjuvant therapy and ipilimumab as therapy for advanced disease, both of which were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for melanoma in March 2011, are 2 prime examples of how an increased understanding of the principles of tumor biology and immunology have been translated successfully from the laboratory to the clinical setting. Principles that guide the development and application of immunotherapy include antibodies, cytokines, vaccines, and cellular therapies. The identification and further elucidation of the role of immunotherapy in different tumor types, and the development of strategies for combining immunotherapy with cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents for future multimodal therapy for cancer will enable even greater progress and ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients receiving cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  5. Effects of the conventional antitumor therapies surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy on regulatory T lymphocytes in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lissoni, P; Brivio, F; Fumagalli, L; Messina, G; Meregalli, S; Porro, G; Rovelli, F; Vigorè, L; Tisi, E; D'Amico, G

    2009-05-01

    Several clinical studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune status is one a major prognostic factor for the survival time in cancer patients. However the main clinical problem is to identify the most prognostically important index within the great number of immune parameters. Recently the evaluation of regulatory T (T-reg) (CD4CD25) lymphocyte count and function with respect to the T helper (TH) (CD4) number has been shown to represent the main immune parameters capable of representing the functional status of the anticancer immunity in cancer patients. This study evaluated the influence of the four main conventional anticancer therapies (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy) on the CD4/CD4CD25 ratio. The study included 70 patients. The oncological treatments consisted of surgery in 14, chemotherapy in 36, radiotherapy in 12 and immunotherapy (subcutaneous low-dose, S.C.-low, interleukin, IL-2) in 8 patients. The normal value of the CD4/CD4CD25 ratio was greater then 4.0. Surgery induced a significant decline in the CD4/CD4CD25 mean ratio. Radiotherapy also induced also a dramatic significant decrease in the CD4/CD4CD25 ratio, whereas the effect of both chemotherapy and immunotherapy reflected the clinical response to the treatments. The CD4/CD4CD25 mean ratio was significantly enhanced in the patients who obtained control of the neoplastic growth, whereas it diminished in progressing patients. The commonly used anticancer therapies profoundly modify the levels of amounts of T-reg lymphocytes. Because of the fundamental role of T-reg cells in suppressing the anticancer immunity, thus diminishing survival, the monitoring of the CD4/CD4CD25 ratio could constitute an important clinical index during conventional anticancer therapies to predict the prognosis of cancer patients.

  6. Halitosis in obese patients and those undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Dupim Souza, Ana Carolina; Franco, Carolina F; Pataro, André L; Guerra, Tadeu; de Oliveira Costa, Fernando; da Costa, José Eustáquio

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing bariatric surgery often complain of bad breath. However, the relationship between bariatric surgery and halitosis is relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the occurrence of halitosis among patients before and after a specific type of bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and its relationship with the tongue coating index, plaque index, and salivary flow rate. A total of 62 patients with good oral health and in treatment for obesity at the walk-in clinic of Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were selected. Of this sample, 31 were bariatric surgery candidates (control group) and 31 had already undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (case group). After completing a questionnaire, all patients underwent an oral clinical examination. Halitosis was measured using an organoleptic scale and a portable sulfide monitor. The Spearman correlation demonstrated a strong positive relation between the organoleptic rates and the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds determined using the sulfide monitor (rs = .58; P = .0001). No difference was found in the prevalence of halitosis between the 2 groups (P = .48). Only the salivary flow rate was significantly reduced in the control group compared with the case group (P = .02). In the case group, the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds correlated negatively with the salivary flow rate (P = .04) and positively with the tongue coating index (P = .005). The tongue coating index was significantly increased in those patients who did not brush the tongue (P < .04) and who had had episodes of vomiting (P = .02). These data suggest that no significant association exists between halitosis and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, they do highlight the possible effect of this surgery on the oral cavity. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin pump therapy in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Adrienne A; Boyle, Mary E; Seifert, Karen M; Beer, Karen A; Apsey, Heidi A; Schlinkert, Richard T; Stearns, Joshua D; Cook, Curtiss B

    2012-01-01

    To assess perioperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus who were being treated with insulin pump therapy. We reviewed records for documentation of insulin pump status and glucose monitoring during preoperative, intraoperative, and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) phases of surgery. Thirty-five patients (21 men) with insulin pumps underwent surgical procedures between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Mean age was 56 years, mean diabetes duration was 31 years, and mean duration of insulin pump therapy was 7 years. All patients were white, and 29 had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Of the 50 surgical procedures performed during the study period, 16 were orthopedic, 9 were general surgical, 7 were urologic, and 7 were kidney transplant operations; the remaining 11 procedures were in other surgical specialties. The mean (± standard deviation) time in the preoperative area was 118 ± 75 minutes, mean intraoperative time was 177 ± 102 minutes, and mean PACU time was 170 ± 78 minutes. Of the 50 procedures, status of pump use was documented in 32 cases in the preoperative area, 14 cases intraoperatively, and 30 cases in the PACU. Glucose values were recorded in 47 cases preoperatively, 30 cases intraoperatively, and 48 cases in the PACU. Results showed inconsistent documentation of pump use and glucose monitoring throughout the perioperative period, even for patients with prolonged anesthesia and recovery times. It was often unclear whether the pump was in place and operational during the intraoperative period. Guidelines should be developed for management of insulin pump-treated patients who are to undergo surgery.

  8. The burden of bowel preparations in patients undergoing elective colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    El Reda, Zeinab D; Harb, Ali H; Abou Fadel, Carla G; Sarkis, Fayez S; Chalhoub, Jean M; Abou Mrad, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate bowel preparation is an important quality measure for optimal colonoscopy. Aims The aim of this article is to study the burden of bowel preparations by examining seven specific variables (hunger, taste, volume, sleep, social, work, and adverse events (AEs)). Methods Ambulatory patients undergoing elective colonoscopy completed a questionnaire regarding their experience with the prescribed preparation. The seven study variables were graded using a numerical scale of 0–10 (best to worst). A score >6 was considered to indicate a significant impact and used as primary outcome. Patients were also asked to grade in descending order what they perceived as the worst aspect of the preparation. Results A total of 216 patients completed the survey. Preparations consisted of split-dose sodium picosulfate (SPS) (n = 49), split-dose 4 l PEG ± menthol (n = 49), full-dose PEG (n = 68), and 2 l split-dose PEG + ascorbic acid (n = 50). Except for work and AEs, all variables were considered to have a negative impact by >20% of patients (range 20.4–34.2). SPS was superior to PEG regimens in taste (4.1% vs. 35.9%) and volume (0% vs. 44.9%) (p < 0.05 for both) but inferior for hunger (30.6% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.09). The addition of menthol to PEG significantly improved taste (22.4% vs. 41.5%; p = 0.02). Sleep disturbances were most common with SPS and least with split-dose PEG (30.6% vs. 17.4%; p < 0.05). Overall, patients ranked volume, taste, and hunger as most burdensome. Conclusions The burden of bowel preparation is substantial. An informed personalized choice of preparation may improve adherence, tolerability and colon cleansing. PMID:27087962

  9. Oral surgery in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Vicente Barrero, Mario; Knezevic, Milan; Tapia Martín, Manuel; Viejo Llorente, Aurora; Orengo Valverde, Juan Carlos; García Jiménez, Francisco; López Pérez, Omar; Domínguez Sarmiento, Sergio; Díaz Cremades, Jose Manuel; Castellano Reyes, Juan

    2002-01-01

    There is an evident need for procedural protocol for oral surgery patients who undergo oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) because of: 1) the possible severity of complications and 2) the growing demand for OAT, which in some cases may be as much as 8% of the oral surgery patients that are referred to the hospital from primary care centers. In this study, the authors define the parameters for creating a proto- col applicable to this group of patients. The conclusion is that it is not necessary to suspend OAT before surgery; rather, these procedures should be performed under multidisciplinary medical control. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to perform oral surgery on OAT patients, without having to sus- pend treatment beforehand. A longitudinal study was performed in OAT patients that required some type of oral surgical procedures. After an INR control, the patient underwent surgery and afterwards the patient was given tranexamic acid as a mouth rinse. Postoperative hemorrhage was classified as slight when it lasted less than 5 minutes, moderate when it lasted longer than five minutes, and severe when it required blood transfusion. The study was performed over a 5-year period (1996-2000), by the maxillofacial surgery department. In that time period, 125 patients with OAT were treated; 90 of them were males and 35 were females. Tooth extraction was per- formed in 229 sessions and a total of 367 teeth were extracted, with an average of 1.6% per session. With regards to postoperative hemorrahage, it was slight in 210 cases (91.7%), moderate in 18 (7.9%) and severe only in one case (0.4%). All the variables were compared and no statistically significant differences were found. We believe that OAT should not be suspended before oral surgery, but it surgery should be performed under multidisciplinary control-especially in the case of the elderly (over 65) or with those patients that have other concomitant illnesses such as renal insufficiency or anemia or other

  10. Efficacy of a short course of specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to ragweed pollen.

    PubMed

    Patel, Piyush; Holdich, Tom; Fischer von Weikersthal-Drachenberg, Karl J; Huber, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy acts to modify the underlying cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Addition of adjuvants, such as monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), might allow for efficacious and safe treatment with only 4 injections administered preseasonally, which is in contrast to most available schedules requiring long injection courses. The primary objective was to assess the clinical efficacy of Ragweed MATA MPL (short ragweed pollen allergoid adsorbed to L-Tyrosine + MPL) versus placebo in reducing allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms caused by ragweed pollen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) 3 weeks after treatment. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Ragweed MATA MPL compared with placebo by using controlled ragweed pollen exposure in an EEC. Two hundred twenty-eight patients with a history of ragweed allergy and positive skin prick test responses to ragweed were randomized and received 4 weekly injections of active treatment or placebo. Total nasal and nonnasal symptom scores were obtained in the EEC before and after treatment. Mean improvement in total symptom scores in the Ragweed MATA MPL group was statistically significantly greater than in the placebo group (relative mean improvement of active vs placebo, 48%; P < .05; median improvement, 82%). The majority of adverse events (AEs) experienced by subjects were mild injection-site reactions. No severe systemic AEs or serious AEs occurred during the study. This study demonstrated that an ultrashort course of Ragweed MATA MPL is efficacious in reducing allergy symptoms in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and that it is well tolerated. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dexmedetomidine in Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunguang; Chi, Meiying; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Zongwang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both dexmedetomidine and sufentanil modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet no human studies are available on their combination for analgesia during the first 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. This CONSORT-prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Ninety women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 equal groups that received sufentanil (Group C; 0.02 μg/kg/h), sufentanil plus dexmedetomidine (Group D1; 0.02 μg/kg/h, each), or sufentanil (0.02 μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) (Group D2) for 72 hours after surgery in this double-blinded, randomized study. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative sufentanil consumption, whereas the secondary outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), requirement of narcotic drugs during the operation, level of sedation, Bruggrmann comfort scale, and concerning adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil consumption was significantly lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C during the observation period (P < 0.05), but lower in Group D2 than in Group D1 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery (P < 0.05). The heart rate after intubation and incision was lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C (P < 0.05). On arrival at the recovery room, Groups D1 and D2 had lower mean blood pressure than Group C (P < 0.05). The intraoperative requirement of sevoflurane was 30% lesser in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C. The sedation levels were greater in Groups D1 and D2 during the first hour (P < 0.05). Compared with Groups C and D1, Group D2 showed lower levels of the overall incidence of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05). Among the tested PCA options, the addition of dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) and sufentanil (0

  12. Postoperative sepsis prediction in patients undergoing major cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Sood, Akshay; Abdollah, Firas; Sammon, Jesse D; Arora, Nivedita; Weeks, Matthew; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2017-03-01

    Cancer patients are at increased risk for postoperative sepsis. However, studies addressing the issue are lacking. We sought to identify preoperative and intraoperative predictors of 30-d sepsis after major cancer surgery (MCS) and derive a postoperative sepsis risk stratification tool. Patients undergoing one of nine MCSs (gastrointestinal, urological, gynecologic, or pulmonary) were identified within the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2005-2011, n = 69,169). Multivariable adjusted analyses (MVA) were performed to identify the predictors of postoperative sepsis. A composite sepsis risk score (CSRS) was constructed using the regression coefficients of predictors significant on MVA. The score was stratified into low, intermediate, and high risk, and its predictive accuracy for sepsis, septic shock, and mortality was assessed using the area under the curve analysis. Overall, 4.3% (n = 2954) of patients developed postoperative sepsis. In MVA, Black race (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, P = 0.002), preoperative hematocrit <30 (OR = 1.40, P = 0.022), cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular comorbidities (P < 0.010), American Society of Anesthesiologists score >3 (P < 0.05), operative time (OR = 1.002, P < 0.001), surgical approach (OR = 1.81, P < 0.001), and procedure type (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of postoperative sepsis. CSRS demonstrated favorable accuracy in predicting postoperative sepsis, septic shock, and mortality (area under the curve 0.72, 0.75, and 0.74, respectively). Furthermore, CSRS risk stratification demonstrated high concordance with sepsis rates, 1.3% in low-risk patients versus 9.7% in high-risk patients. Similarly, 30-d mortality rate varied from 0.5% to 5.5% (10-fold difference) in low-risk patients versus high-risk patients. Our study identifies the major risk factors for 30-d sepsis after MCS. These risk factors have been converted into a simple, accurate bedside sepsis risk

  13. [Panniculitis in patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate].

    PubMed

    Feki, Nabil Bel; Khanfir, Monia Smiti; Ghorbel, Imed Ben; Said, Fatma; Houman, Mohamed Habib

    2016-01-01

    Panniculitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM). The appearance of panniculitis during treatment with methotrexate (MTX) is exceptional and has only been described in 3 cases. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman suffering from DM since 1997 who was treated with corticosteroids showing favorable clinical and biological evolution. When a relapse occurred 2 years later, she was treated with higher-dose of corticosteroids in combination with a 7,5 mg weekly dose of methotrexate. The evolution was rapidly favorable. Eighteen months later, the patient had multiple subcutaneous nodules on limbs and buttocks. Anatomopathological examination showed panniculitis. There was no evidence supporting progression in DM. Prednisone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/kg/day, always in combination with MTX, without any clear signs of improvement. MTX treatment was stopped and the cutaneous lesions completely disappeared in 2 months without any relapse. This objective response lasted for 42 months. Our observation is particular given the occurrence of panniculitis in a patient undergoing treatment for dermatomyositis with methotrexate and illustrates the difficulties in the diagnosis. This entity must be known despite its exceptional nature since cutting off MTX treatment generally induces the disappearance of subcutaneous nodules.

  14. A neurophysiological study of patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M V; Ertekin, C; Larsson, L E; Pedersen, K

    1989-01-01

    24 men suffering from localized prostatic cancer undergoing radical retropubic nerve-sparing prostatectomy were investigated by the following electrophysiological methods: Bulbocavernosus reflexes elicited from the penile skin or the posterior urethra, sensory thresholds in the posterior urethra, cerebral evoked potentials after stimulation of the pudendal nerve or the posterior urethra. 15 men were examined 4-33 months postoperatively only, 5 men were examined only preoperatively and 4 men were examined both pre- and postoperatively. 10 men suffering from minor problems due to benign prostatic hyperplasia served as controls. In patients with localized cancer of the prostate, the findings did not differ from those in the control group. In the operated group the findings were pathological in a large proportion of the patients, indicating injuries both to nervous pathways running through the pelvic nerve plexus and in the pudendal nerve. The conclusions were: Localized cancer of the prostate has minimal or no risk at all of impaired functioning in the pelvic nervous pathways. Radical retropubic prostatectomy may in some cases be undertaken without any objective evidence of injury to these nervous pathways, but is often followed by findings indicating such injury. The dorsal nerve of the penis may be affected by the operation. Transcranial stimulation of the motor cortex is a useful method in the evaluation of prolonged or absent bulbocavernosus reflexes.

  15. Preoperative laxity in osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideo; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kiga, Hiroshi; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A preoperative quantitative evaluation of soft tissues is helpful for planning total knee arthroplasty, in addition to the conventional clinical examinations involved in moving the knee manually. We evaluated preoperative coronal laxity with osteoarthritis in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty by applying a force of 150 N with an arthrometer. We examined a consecutive series of 120 knees in 102 patients. The median laxity was 0° in abduction and 8° in adduction. The femorotibial angle on non-weight-bearing standard anteroposterior radiographs was 180° and correlated with both abduction (r = −0.244, p = 0.007) and adduction (r = 0.205, p = 0.025) laxity. The results of a regression analysis suggested that the femorotibial angle is helpful for estimating both laxities. Considering the many reports on how to obtain well-balanced soft tissues, stress radiographs might help to improve the preoperative planning for gaining the optimal laxity deemed appropriate by surgeons. PMID:17938923

  16. Asymmetry of Inframammary Folds in Patients Undergoing Augmentation Mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Yeslev, Max; Braun, Stephane A; Maxwell, G Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Variation in the anatomical position of the inframammary fold (IMF) in women remains poorly studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of asymmetry between IMF locations on the chest wall of women undergoing breast augmentation and to determine breast measurements associated with IMF asymmetry. Three-dimensional imaging analysis of the breasts was performed in 111 women with micromastia, using the Vectra Imaging System(TM). The following measurements were recorded: vertical distance between right and left IMF (inter-fold distance), vertical distance between nipples (inter-nipple distance), and difference between projection of right and left breasts in anterior-posterior direction. Asymmetry between the right and left IMF positions was found in the majority of patients (95.4%), with symmetry only found in 5 patients (4.6%). In the majority of patients (60.3%), the right IMF was located inferior to the left IMF with median inter-fold distance 0.4 cm (range, 0.1, 2.1 cm). In 39 patients (35.1%), the left IMF was located inferior to the right with median inter-fold distance 0.4 cm (range, 0.1, 1.7 cm). There was strong correlation between the degree of asymmetry of IMF and asymmetry of nipple areola complex (NAC) positions (r = 0.687, P < .01). The majority of women with micromastia demonstrate asymmetry of the IMF, which correlates with asymmetry of NAC location. The authors propose a classification system based on most commonly observed IMF locations as types I (right IMF inferior to left), type II (left IMF inferior to right) and type III (both IMF located on the same level). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Diagnostic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Active immunotherapy with ultraviolet B-irradiated autologous whole melanoma cells plus DETOX in patients with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eton, O; Kharkevitch, D D; Gianan, M A; Ross, M I; Itoh, K; Pride, M W; Donawho, C; Buzaid, A C; Mansfield, P F; Lee, J E; Legha, S S; Plager, C; Papadopoulos, N E; Bedikian, A Y; Benjamin, R S; Balch, C M

    1998-03-01

    Our objective was to determine the clinical activity, toxicity, and immunological effects of active immunotherapy using UVB-irradiated (UVR) autologous tumor (AT) cells plus adjuvant DETOX in metastatic melanoma patients. Eligibility included nonanergic patients fully recovered after resection of 5 or more grams of metastatic melanoma. Treatment consisted of intradermal injections of 10(7) UVR-AT plus 0.25 ml of DETOX every 2 weeks x 6, then monthly. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested for cytotoxicity assays, and skin testing was performed for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) determinations before the first, fourth, seventh, and subsequent treatments. Forty-two patients were treated, 18 in the adjuvant setting and 24 with measurable disease. Among the latter group, there were two durable responses in soft-tissue sites and in a bone metastasis. Treatment was well tolerated. Thirty-five patients were assessable for immunological parameters; 10 of these patients, including the 2 responders, demonstrated early induction of PBMC cytotoxicity against AT cells that persisted up to 10 months on treatment before falling to background levels. In five of seven patients, the fall-off heralded progressive disease. Late induction of a weak DTH reaction to AT cells was observed in eight patients. Active immunotherapy with UVR-AT + DETOX had modest but definite clinical activity in advanced melanoma. The induction of both PBMC cytotoxicity and DTH reactivity to AT cells supported a specific systemic immune effect of treatment, although the former more closely followed disease course in this study.

  18. Immunoscintigraphy With 99mTc-Nimotuzumab for Planning Immunotherapy in Patients With Bone Metastases Due to Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Quián, Yamilé P; Crombet, Tania; Batista, Juan F; Prats, Anaís; Perera, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Detection of bone metastases indicates poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. The immunotherapy with monoclonal antibody has been an important advance in the treatment of the cancer in the last years. Nimotuzumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against epidermal growth factor receptor that has been evaluated in solid tumors. The authors show images of 2 patients with bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer, "pre-cold therapy" with nimotuzumab. Immunoscintigraphic images were acquired 4 and 24 hours after the intravenous administration of 1110 MBq (30 mCi) of Tc-labeled nimotuzumab. Bone metastases expressing the receptor are visualized.

  19. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Leser, Laura; Lanckohr, Christian; Wempe, Carola; Ellger, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysregulations of blood glucose (BG) are associated with adverse outcome in critical illness; controlling BG to target appears to improve outcome. Since BG-control is challenging in daily intensive care practice BG-control remains poor especially in patients with rapidly fluctuating BG. To improve BG-control and to avoid deleterious hypoglycemia, automated online-measurement tools are advocated. We thus evaluated the point-accuracy of the subcutaneous Sentrino® Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGM, Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, California) in patients undergoing extracorporeal cardiac life support (ECLS) for cardiogenic shock. Methods Management of BG was performed according to institute’s standard aiming at BG-levels between 100–145 mg/dl. CGM-values were recorded without taking measures into therapeutic account. Point-accuracy in comparison to intermittent BG-measurement by the ABL-blood-gas analyzer was determined. Results CGM (n = 25 patients) correlated significantly with ABL-values (r = 0.733, p<0.001). Mean error from standard was 15.0 mg/dl (11.9%). 44.2% of the readings were outside a 15% range around ABL-values. In one of 635 paired data-points, ABL revealed hypoglycemia (BG 32 mg/dl) whereas CGM did not show hypoglycemic values (132mg/dl). Conclusions CGM reveals minimally invasive BG-values in critically ill adults with dynamically impaired tissue perfusion. Because of potential deviations from standard, CGM-readings must be interpreted with caution in specific ICU-populations. PMID:26963806

  20. Immunotherapy for Patients with Advanced Urothelial Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Marcello; Leone, Gianmarco; Buttigliero, Consuelo; Vignani, Francesca; Pignataro, Daniele; Scagliotti, Giorgio V.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has produced encouraging results in a rapidly increasing number of solid tumors. The responsiveness of bladder cancer to immunotherapy was first established in nonmuscle invasive disease in 1976 with intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Very recently immune checkpoint inhibitors demonstrated good activity and significant efficacy in metastatic disease. In particular the best results were obtained with programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) and programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors, but many other immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies, are currently under investigation in several trials. Simultaneously other therapeutic strategies which recruit an adaptive immune response against tumoral antigens or employ externally manipulated tumor infiltrating lymphocytes might change the natural history of bladder cancer in the near future. This review describes the rationale for the use of immunotherapy in bladder cancer and discusses recent and ongoing clinical trials with checkpoint inhibitors and other novel immunotherapy agents. PMID:28680882

  1. Nutritional issues in peritoneal dialysis patients: how do they differ from that of patients undergoing hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2013-05-01

    It is important to understand the unique aspects vis-à-vis protein-energy wasting for patients undergoing PD. As a result of obligatory protein losses with the therapy, the serum albumin levels of patients undergoing PD are lower, as is the threshold serum albumin at which the risk for death is increased. Consequently, it is prudent to consider a lower threshold for serum albumin for the diagnosis of protein-energy wasting for patients undergoing PD. Likewise, it is important to consider the energy intake from obligatory nutrient absorption in the form of carbohydrates when estimating total energy intake (diet and dialysate) when evaluating patients for protein-energy wasting. The continuous nature of PD also has important therapeutic implications for protein-energy wasting. Such patients are more likely to have a complete correction of metabolic acidosis, and glucose absorption from the peritoneal dialysate has a protein-sparing effect, allowing some patients to maintain neutral nitrogen balances in the face of suboptimal protein intake. In contrast, clinical trials of amino-acid-based PD solutions have not met expectations and cannot be recommended for routine use for treatment of protein-energy wasting. In conclusion, it is important to consider these unique nutritional considerations when providing care to patients undergoing PD. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient engagement and patient support programs in allergy immunotherapy: a call to action for improving long-term adherence.

    PubMed

    Demoly, Pascal; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Pfaar, Oliver; Sastre, Joaquin; Wahn, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Allergy immunotherapy (AIT) is acknowledged to produce beneficial mid- and long-term clinical and immunologic effects and increased quality of life in patients with allergic respiratory diseases (such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma). However, poor adherence to AIT (due to intentional and/or non-intentional factors) is still a barrier to achieving these benefits. There is an urgent need for patient support programs (PSPs) that encompass communication, educational and motivational components. In the field of AIT, a PSP should be capable of (1) improving adherence, (2) boosting patient engagement, (3) explaining how AIT differs from pharmacological allergy treatments; (4) increasing health literacy about chronic, progressive, immunoglobulin-E-mediated immune diseases, (5) helping the patient to understand and manage local or systemic adverse events, and (6) providing and/or predicting local data on aeroallergen levels. We reviewed the literature in this field and have identified a number of practical issues to be addressed when implementing a PSP for AIT: the measurement of adherence, the choice of technologies, reminders, communication channels and content, the use of "push" messaging and social networks, interactivity, and the involvement of caregivers and patient leaders. A key issue is "hi-tech" (i.e. approaches based mainly on information technology) vs. "hi-touch" (based mainly on interaction with humans, i.e. family members, patient mentors and healthcare professionals). We conclude that multistakeholder PSPs (combining patient-, provider and society-based actions) must now be developed and tested with a view to increasing adherence, efficacy and safety in the field of AIT.

  3. Patient quality of life following induction of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Epstein Rigbi, Na'ama; Katz, Yitzhak; Goldberg, Michael R; Levy, Michael B; Nachshon, Liat; Elizur, Arnon

    2016-05-01

    Patient quality of life improves following successful completion of oral immunotherapy (OIT), but the process itself might have undesirable effects. We aimed to evaluate patient quality of life following OIT initial induction. The Hebrew version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Parental Form (FAQLQ-PF) was validated and administered to the parents of children following the first week of OIT for food allergy (n = 119). Patient demographics and clinical history as well as the course of initial induction week were reviewed. Pre-OIT severity of food allergy, defined as severity of reactions due to accidental exposure to the allergenic food (anaphylactic reactions, p = 0.017; epinephrine use, p = 0.049; emergency room referrals p = 0.003; and hospital admissions, p = 0.015) and a lower number of tolerated doses during initial induction, reflective of a lower maximal tolerated dose for the different allergens (p = 0.011) were associated with worse total FAQLQ-PF scores. The number of tolerated doses during induction and pre-OIT emergency room referrals remained significantly associated with worse total score of the FAQLQ-PF on multivariate analysis (p = 0.016 and p = 0.005, respectively). The correlation between the number of tolerated doses and quality of life scores was moderate-strong primarily in children aged 6-12 years (Total score, r = -0.41, p = 0.001; Emotional Impact r = -0.42, p = 0.001; Food Anxiety, r = -0.38, p = 0.002; Social and Dietary Limitations, r = -0.33, p = 0.009). Pre-OIT reaction severity affects quality of life in both preschool and school-aged food-allergic children. In contrast, a lower maximal tolerated dose during OIT induction is associated with worse indices of quality of life primarily in children aged 6-12 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Responsive measures to prehabilitation in patients undergoing bowel resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Jun; Mayo, Nancy E; Carli, Franco; Montgomery, David L; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2009-02-01

    Surgical patients often show physiological and metabolic distress, muscle weakness, and long hospital stays. Physical conditioning might help recovery. We attempted to identify the most responsive measure of aerobic fitness from a four-week pre-surgical aerobic exercise program (prehabilitation) in patients undergoing major bowel resection. Twenty-one subjects randomized two to one (exercise: control) scheduled for colorectal surgery. Fourteen subjects [Body Mass Index (BMI) = 27 +/- 6 kg/m(2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) = 22 +/- 10 ml/kg/min] underwent 3.8 +/- 1.2 weeks (27 +/- 8 sessions) of progressive, structured pre-surgical aerobic exercise training at 40 to 65% of heart rate reserve (%HRR). Peak power output was the only maximal measure that was responsive to training [26 +/- 27%, Effects Size (ES) = 0.24; Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 1.05; p < 0.05]. For the submaximal measures, heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise was most responsive to training (decrease by 13% +/- 15%, ES = -0.24; SRM = -0.57; and 7% +/- 6%, ES = -0.40; SRM -0.97; p < 0.05) at an exercise intensity of 76 +/- 47 W. There was no change to maximal or submaximal measures in the control group. The distance walked over six minutes improved in both groups (by approximately 30 m), but the effect size and t-statistic were higher in the exercise group. Heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise, and peak power output are the most responsive measures to four weeks of prehabilitation in subjects with low initial fitness.

  5. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  6. Acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Coppolino, Giuseppe; Presta, Piera; Saturno, Laura; Fuiano, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery ranges from 7.7% to 28.1% in different studies, probably in relation to the criteria adopted to define AKI. AKI markedly increases mortality risk. However, despite the development of less invasive techniques, cardiac surgery remains the first option in many conditions such as severe coronary artery disease, valve diseases and complex interventions. The risk of postsurgery AKI can be reduced by adopting less invasive approaches, such as off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but these options cannot be employed in all cases. Thus, since traditional cardiac surgery remains the only option in many cases, it is important to adopt strategies helping the clinician to prevent AKI or diagnose it early. Old age, preprocedural chronic kidney disease, obesity, some comorbidities, wide pulse pressure and some pharmacological regimens represent risk factors for postsurgery AKI and mortality. Important intraoperative factor are use and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative efforts should be aimed toward maximizing cardiac output, avoiding drugs vasoconstricting the renal artery, providing adequate crystalloid infusion and alkalinizing urine. Fluid management should not be based on the measurements for cardiac filling pressures, which are mostly unreliable in these patients. Novel biomarkers such as cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 and human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin have been found to change earlier than creatinine, particularly when measured in combination, so their use in clinical practice can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of AKI. The occurrence of oliguria despite adequate cardiovascular therapy can be managed with furosemide, possibly using continuous infusion, or renal replacement therapy.

  7. [Blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Wen; Hua, Rui; Zhou, Yao; Li, Hong; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2017-07-20

    To explore the incidence and risk factors of blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 2378 patients who were pregnant following embryo transfer at our center from January, 2012 to December, 2015, including cases of early pregnancy losses and simultaneous live births. The cases with early pregnancy losses were divided into embryonic pregnancy and blighted ovum groups based on the presence or absence of an embryonic pole before dilation and curettage. The clinical data of the 3 groups were analyzed for comparisons of the maternal age, paternal age, BMI, AFC, basal FSH, bFSH/bLH, duration of infertility, Gn dosage, Gn days, serum estradiol on the day of HCG administration, endometrium thickness, number of oocyte retrieved, proportion of high-quality embryos transferred, serum β-HCG value on the 10th to 14th days of embryo transfer, infertility type and miscarriage times. The incidences of blighted ovum were compared between cases with different cycles, embryo stages, infertile factors and methods of fertilization. Maternal age and paternal age, BMI, duration of infertility, infertility type and miscarriage times differed significantly between cases with blighted ovum and those with live births. Serum β-HCG level was the lowest in blighted ovum group followed by embryonic pregnancy group and then by live birth group. Blastocyst transfer was associated with a significantly higher incidence of blighted ovum as compared with cleavage embryo transfer (11.6% vs 5.6%, P=0.000). No significant difference was found in the other parameters among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age, β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer were risk factors of blighted ovum. Advanced maternal age, low β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer may increase the risk of blighted ovum possibly in association with gene imprinting errors during the early stage of

  8. Neuroblastoma Patients' KIR and KIR-ligand Genotypes Influence Clinical Outcome for Dinutuximab-based Immunotherapy: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Amy K; Wang, Wei; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Mendonca, Eneida A; Song, Yiqiang; Hess, Dustin; Reville, Patrick K; London, Wendy B; Naranjo, Arlene; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Diccianni, Mitchell B; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Matthay, Katherine K; Cohn, Susan L; Hogarty, Michael D; Maris, John M; Park, Julie R; Ozkaynak, Mehmet Fevzi; Gilman, Andrew; Yu, Alice L; Sondel, Paul M

    2017-10-02

    In 2010, a Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase III randomized trial for high-risk neuroblastoma patients (ANBL0032) demonstrated improved event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) following treatment with an immunotherapy regimen of dinutuximab, GM-CSF, IL-2, and isotretinoin compared to treatment with isotretinoin alone. Dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody, acts in part via NK cells. Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their interactions with KIR-ligands can influence NK cell function. We investigated whether KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes were associated with EFS or OS in this trial. We genotyped patients from COG study, ANBL0032, and evaluated the effect of KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes on clinical outcomes. Cox regression models and log-rank tests were used to evaluate associations of EFS and OS with KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes. In this trial, patients with the "all KIR-ligands present" genotype, as well as patients with inhibitory KIR2DL2 with its ligand (HLA-C1) together with inhibitory KIR3DL1 with its ligand (HLA-Bw4) were associated with improved outcome if they received immunotherapy. In contrast, for patients with the complementary KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes, clinical outcome was not significantly different for patients that received immunotherapy vs. those receiving isotretinoin alone. These data show that administration of immunotherapy is associated with improved outcome for neuroblastoma patients with certain KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes, while this was not seen for patients with other KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes. Further investigation of KIR/KIR-ligand genotypes may clarify their role in cancer-immunotherapy, and may enable KIR/KIR-ligand genotyping to be utilized prospectively for identifying patients likely to benefit from certain cancer immunotherapy regimens. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Brand, Martin; Bizos, Damon; O'Farrell, Peter

    2010-10-06

    (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.11), bacteriaemia (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.78), and pancreatitis (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.00). In random-effects meta-analyses, only the effect on bacteriaemia remained significant. Overall mortality was not reduced (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.32 to 5.44). If one selects patients in whom the ERCP resolved the biliary obstruction at the first procedure, there seem to be no significant benefit in using prophylactic antibiotics to prevent cholangitis (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.69, only three trials). Prophylactic antibiotics reduce bacteriaemia and seem to prevent cholangitis and septicaemia in patients undergoing elective ERCP. In the subgroup of patients with uncomplicated ERCP, the effect of antibiotics may be less evident. Further research is required to determine whether antibiotics can be given during or after an ERCP if it becomes apparent that biliary obstruction cannot be relieved during that procedure.

  10. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program in Patients Undergoing Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Junjie; Szatmary, Peter; Huang, Wei; de la Iglesia-Garcia, Daniel; Nunes, Quentin M.; Xia, Qing; Hu, Weiming; Sutton, Robert; Liu, Xubao; Raraty, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    -regression analysis. Our study suggested that ERAS was as safe as CPC and improved recovery of patients undergoing PD, thus reducing in-hospital costs. General adoption of ERAS protocols during PD should be recommended. PMID:27149448

  11. Immunotherapy for B-Cell Lymphoma: Current Status and Prospective Advances

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Nurit

    2011-01-01

    Therapy for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has progressed significantly over the last decades. However, the majority of patients remain incurable, and novel therapies are needed. Because immunotherapy ideally offers target selectivity, an ever increasing number of immunotherapies, both passive and active, are undergoing development. The champion of passive immunotherapy to date is the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab that revolutionized the standard of care for lymphoma. The great success of rituximab catalyzed the development of new passive immunotherapy strategies that are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. These include improvement of rituximab efficacy, newer generation anti-CD20 antibodies, drug-conjugated and radio labeled anti-CD20 antibodies, monoclonal antibodies targeting non-CD20 lymphoma antigens, and bispecific antibodies. Active immunotherapy aims at inducing long-lasting antitumor immunity, thereby limiting the likelihood of relapse. Current clinical studies of active immunotherapy for lymphoma consist largely of vaccination and immune checkpoint blockade. A variety of protein- and cell-based vaccines are being tested in ongoing clinical studies. Recently completed phase III clinical trials of an idiotype protein vaccine suggest that the vaccine may have clinical activity in a subset of patients. Efforts to enhance the efficacy of active immunotherapy are ongoing with an emphasis on optimization of antigen delivery and presentation of vaccines and modulation of the immune system toward counteracting immunosuppression, using antibodies against immune regulatory checkpoints. This article discusses results of the various immunotherapy approaches applied to date for B-cell lymphoma and the ongoing trials to improve their effect. PMID:22566889

  12. Specific immunotherapy in renal cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gordan, Hesam Addin; Zahiri, Zahra; Mirshahvalad, Mohammad; Hosseinverdi, Sima; Rini, Brian I; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-02-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the tenth most common malignancy in adults. In recent years, several approaches of active and passive immunotherapy have been studied extensively in clinical trials of patients with RCC. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical efficacy of various approaches of specific immunotherapy in patients with RCC. We searched Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, TRIP, DART, OpenGrey and ProQuest without any language filter through to 9 October 2015. One author reviewed search results for irrelevant and duplicate studies and two other authors independently extracted data from the studies. We collated study findings and calculated a weighted treatment effect across studies using Review Manager (version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, the Cochrane Collaboration). We identified 14 controlled studies with 4013 RCC patients after excluding irrelevant and duplicate studies from 11,319 references retrieved from a literature search. Overall, five autologous tumor cell vaccines, one peptide-based vaccine, one virus-based vaccine and one dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine were studied in nine controlled studies of active specific immunotherapies. A total of three passive immunotherapies including autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, auto lymphocyte therapy (ALT) and autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were studied in four controlled studies. The clinical efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DCs, with CIK cells was studied in one controlled trial concurrently. The overall quality of studies was fair. Meta-analysis of seven studies showed that patients undergoing specific immunotherapy had significantly higher overall survival (OS) than those in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.89, p = 0.003]. In addition, a meta-analysis of four studies showed that there was a significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between patients undergoing specific immunotherapy

  13. Specific immunotherapy in renal cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gordan, Hesam Addin; Zahiri, Zahra; Mirshahvalad, Mohammad; Hosseinverdi, Sima; Rini, Brian I.; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the tenth most common malignancy in adults. In recent years, several approaches of active and passive immunotherapy have been studied extensively in clinical trials of patients with RCC. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the clinical efficacy of various approaches of specific immunotherapy in patients with RCC. Methods: We searched Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, TRIP, DART, OpenGrey and ProQuest without any language filter through to 9 October 2015. One author reviewed search results for irrelevant and duplicate studies and two other authors independently extracted data from the studies. We collated study findings and calculated a weighted treatment effect across studies using Review Manager (version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, the Cochrane Collaboration). Results: We identified 14 controlled studies with 4013 RCC patients after excluding irrelevant and duplicate studies from 11,319 references retrieved from a literature search. Overall, five autologous tumor cell vaccines, one peptide-based vaccine, one virus-based vaccine and one dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine were studied in nine controlled studies of active specific immunotherapies. A total of three passive immunotherapies including autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, auto lymphocyte therapy (ALT) and autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were studied in four controlled studies. The clinical efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DCs, with CIK cells was studied in one controlled trial concurrently. The overall quality of studies was fair. Meta-analysis of seven studies showed that patients undergoing specific immunotherapy had significantly higher overall survival (OS) than those in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58–0.89, p = 0.003]. In addition, a meta-analysis of four studies showed that there was a significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) between patients

  14. Microparticles in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Wernly, Bernhard; Goebel, Bjoern; Foerster, Martin; Edlinger, Christoph; Lauten, Alexander

    2016-08-03

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent form of acquired valvular heart disease. AS is known to entail endothelial dysfunction caused by increased mechanical shear stress leading to elevated circulatory levels of microparticles. Endothelial and platelet microparticles (EMP and PMP) are small vesicles that originate from activated cells and thrombocytes. We sought to evaluate whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedure would elicit effects on circulating EMP and PMP. 92 patients undergoing TAVI procedure for severe AS were included in this study. Samples were obtained at each visit before TAVI, 1 week post-procedure and at 1, 3 and after 6 months after TAVI and were evaluated using flow cytometry. A 12 month clinical follow-up was also performed. CD62E+ EMP concentration before TAVI was 21.11 % (±6.6 % SD) and declined to 20.99 % (±6.8 % SD) after 1 week, to 16.63 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 1 month, to 17.08 % (±4.6 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 3 months and to 15.94 % (±5.4 % SD, p < 0.0001) after 6 months. CD31+/CD42b-, CD31+/Annexin+/- EMP remained unchanged. CD31+/CD41b+ PMP evidenced a slight, but statistically significant increase after TAVI and remained elevated during the entire follow-up. Apart from a procedure-related improvement in echocardiographic parameters, TAVI procedure led also to a decline in CD62E+ EMP. The reduction in pressure gradients with less hemodynamic shear stress seems also to have beneficially affected endothelial homeostasis.

  15. 486 Therapeutic Effect and Security in Asthmatics Adult Patients Treated with Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus Allergen Sublingual Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, José; Castro, Raúl; Labrada, Alexis; Alvarez, Mirta; Ronquillo, Mercedes; González, Mayda; Navarro, Bárbara; Mateo, Maytee; Oliva, Yunia; García, Iris; Enriquez, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background The specific active immunotherapy, employing vaccine of allergen of mite is a treatment considered as effective for the respiratory allergy and asthma. The sublingual route has minor risk of systematises reactions. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect and security of sublingual immunotherapy (ITSL) employing the standard vaccine VALERGEN-DP (BIOCEN, CUBA) in a population of asthmatic Cuban patients. Methods A phase II Clinical Trials double blind, placebo controlled in a total of 40 adult patients with mild or moderate asthma and specific sensibility preponderant to this mite. Half of patients received drops by sublingual route with growing doses up to 2000 UB. Results The treatment was effective in the reduction of clinical symptoms and medication intake as compared to conventional treatment in control group. The cutaneous sensibility to this mite was significant reduced, increasing in 1.9 log; the amount of necessary allergen to provoke a positive Prick Test. An improvement of the lung function was observed with a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of expiratory pick flow variability. The frequency of local reactions were only 0.58% of administration. Conclusions The VALERGEN-DP vaccine is an effective treatment and profitable against asthma in our population and guarantee its generalization in the Allergy Services of our health system.

  16. [Sublingual immunotherapy with cat epithelial extract. Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Palacios, A; Schamann, F; García, J A

    2001-01-01

    Because cats are a common pet in many houses and tourist complexes in the Canary Islands, sensitization to cat epithelium is a frequent problem. A total of 19.2% of patients with intrinsic asthma are sensitized to cat epithelium. In the Canary Islands, the percentage of sensitization among patients with a household cat is 18.1%, which higher is higher than in the rest of Spain (11.9). Many patients with extrinsic asthma sensitized to house dust mites undergo conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy but evolution is unsatisfactory due to sensitization to cat epithelium (whether a cat is present or not). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of sublingual immunotherapy with extract of cat epithelium in monosensitized patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma. Forty patients monosensitized to cat epithelium were selected. Of these, 20 were administered sublingual immunotherapy and another 20 received placebo. The following evaluation was carried out in both groups: in vivo and in vitro: symptom score, skin tests, nasal challenge with cat epithelium, specific IgE determination, specific IgG4 and eosinophilic cationic protein. After 1 year of treatment the cumulative dose was 3.6 micrograms of Fe ld I, equivalent to 10 ng/drop. Duration of treatment was 365 days. Our conclusions, based on our patients in the Canary Islands, were the following: 1. Sublingual Fel d I therapy is effective after 1 year of treatment. 2. There were no modifications in IgE, eosinophilic cationic protein or skin tests. 3. An increase in IgG4 occurred which was related to clinical improvement. 4. In general, tolerance was good, except in one patient who presented urticaria and sublingual pruritus. 5. In polysensitized patients, sublingual immunotherapy to cat epithelium is complementary to immunotherapy to dermatophagoides.

  17. Short review on sublingual immunotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Goda, Kaoru; Tongu, Miki; Yamada, Takaya; Aoi, Noriaki; Morikura, Ichiro; Fuchiwaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy has been considered to be a painless and effective therapeutic treatment for allergic rhinitis, and is known as type 1 allergy of the nasal mucosa. So far, its mechanism of action has been elucidated employing peripheral blood serum and lymphocytes in an antigen-specific fashion. Because of the limitations in sampling human materials, there is still controversy among many reports between clinical efficacy and laboratory data. Therefore, its mechanism of action needs to be investigated further by using promising animal models such as rodents and monkeys. Bearing this in mind, in our present study, we successfully constructed an effective murine model for sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis in which mice were administered ovalbumin (OVA) sublingually followed by intraperitoneal sensitization and nasal challenge.

  18. Larger Size of Donor Alloreactive NK Cell Repertoire Correlates with Better Response to NK Cell Immunotherapy in Elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Curti, Antonio; Ruggeri, Loredana; Parisi, Sarah; Bontadini, Andrea; Dan, Elisa; Motta, Maria Rosa; Rizzi, Simonetta; Trabanelli, Sara; Ocadlikova, Darina; Lecciso, Mariangela; Giudice, Valeria; Fruet, Fiorenza; Urbani, Elena; Papayannidis, Cristina; Martinelli, Giovanni; Bandini, Giuseppe; Bonifazi, Francesca; Lewis, Russell E; Cavo, Michele; Velardi, Andrea; Lemoli, Roberto M

    2016-04-15

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells are crucial mediators of immune responses after haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Allogeneic NK cell infusions have been adoptively transferred with promising clinical results. We aimed at determining whether the composition of NK graft in terms of frequency of alloreactive NK cells influence the clinical response in a group of elderly AML patients undergoing NK immunotherapy. Seventeen AML patients, in first complete remission (CR; median age 64 years, range 53-73) received NK cells from haploidentical KIR-ligand-mismatched donors after fludarabine/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, followed by IL2. To correlate donor NK cell activity with clinical response, donor NK cells were assessed before and after infusion. Toxicity was moderate, although 1 patient died due to bacterial pneumonia and was censored for clinical follow-up. With a median follow-up of 22.5 months (range, 6-68 months), 9 of 16 evaluable patients (0.56) are alive disease-free, whereas 7 of 16 (0.44) relapsed with a median time to relapse of 9 months (range, 3-51 months). All patients treated with molecular disease achieved molecular CR. A significantly higher number of donor alloreactive NK cell clones was observed in responders over nonresponders. The infusion of higher number of alloreactive NK cells was associated with prolonged disease-free survival (0.81 vs. 0.14, respectively;P= 0.03). Infusion of purified NK cells is feasible in elderly AML patients as post-CR consolidation strategy. The clinical efficacy of adoptively transferred haploidentical NK cells may be improved by infusing high numbers of alloreactive NK cells. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Antibody responses to galectin-8, TARP and TRAP1 in prostate cancer patients treated with a GM-CSF-secreting cellular immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh C; Tu, Guang Huan; Koprivnikar, Kathryn E; Gonzalez-Edick, Melissa; Jooss, Karin U; Harding, Thomas C

    2010-09-01

    A critical factor in clinical development of cancer immunotherapies is the identification of tumor-associated antigens that may be related to immunotherapy potency. In this study, protein microarrays containing >8,000 human proteins were screened with serum from prostate cancer patients (N = 13) before and after treatment with a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting whole cell immunotherapy. Thirty-three proteins were identified that displayed significantly elevated (P patients (N = 92) from two phase 1/2 trials of prostate cancer immunotherapy, G-9803 and G-0010, indicated a significant (P = 0.03) association of TARP antibody induction and median survival time (MST). Antibody induction to TARP was also significantly correlated (P = 0.036) with an increase in prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) in patients with a biochemical (PSA) recurrence following prostatectomy or radiation therapy (N = 19) from in a previous phase 1/2 trial of prostate cancer immunotherapy, G-9802. RNA and protein encoding TARP and TRAP1 was up-regulated in prostate cancer tissue compared to matched normal controls. These preliminary findings suggest that antibody induction to TARP may represent a possible biomarker for treatment response to GM-CSF secreting cellular immunotherapy in prostate cancer patients and demonstrates the utility of using protein microarrays for the high-throughput screening of patient-derived antibody responses.

  20. Paravertebral block versus thoracic epidural for patients undergoing thoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Joyce H Y; Gates, Simon; Naidu, Babu V; Wilson, Matthew J A; Gao Smith, Fang

    2016-02-21

    Operations on structures in the chest (usually the lungs) involve cutting between the ribs (thoracotomy). Severe post-thoracotomy pain can result from pleural (lung lining) and muscular damage, costovertebral joint (ribcage) disruption and intercostal nerve (nerves that run along the ribs) damage during surgery. Poor pain relief after surgery can impede recovery and increase the risks of developing complications such as lung collapse, chest infections and blood clots due to ineffective breathing and clearing of secretions. Effective management of acute pain following thoracotomy may prevent these complications and reduce the likelihood of developing chronic pain. A multi-modal approach to analgesia is widely employed by thoracic anaesthetists using a combination of regional anaesthetic blockade and systemic analgesia, with both non-opioid and opioid medications and local anaesthesia blockade.There is some evidence that blocking the nerves as they emerge from the spinal column (paravertebral block, PVB) may be associated with a lower risk of major complications in thoracic surgery but the majority of thoracic anaesthetists still prefer to use a thoracic epidural blockade (TEB) as analgesia for their patients undergoing thoracotomy. In order to bring about a change in practice, anaesthetists need a review that evaluates the risk of all major complications associated with thoracic epidural and paravertebral block in thoracotomy. To compare the two regional techniques of TEB and PVB in adults undergoing elective thoracotomy with respect to:1. analgesic efficacy;2. the incidence of major complications (including mortality);3. the incidence of minor complications;4. length of hospital stay;5. cost effectiveness. We searched for studies in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 9); MEDLINE via Ovid (1966 to 16 October 2013); EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 16 October 2013); CINAHL via EBSCO host (1982 to 16 October 2013); and reference lists of

  1. "Wet diapers--dry patients": an effective dressing for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapila, Atul; Bhargava, Amit; Funk, Len; Copeland, Stephen; Levy, Ofer

    2005-02-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is very commonly associated with postoperative leakage of irrigation fluid. This causes apprehension to patients and their relatives and leads to frequent change of dressings. We describe a simple and effective diaper dressing for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. It is highly absorbent, cost-effective, and easy to apply. We have used this dressing successfully in more than 1,500 shoulder arthroscopies over the last 3 years with no adverse reaction.

  2. Mouse Models of Tumor Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ngiow, Shin Foong; Loi, Sherene; Thomas, David; Smyth, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is now evolving into a major therapeutic option for cancer patients. Such clinical advances also promote massive interest in the search for novel immunotherapy targets, and to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs. It is projected that a series of novel immunotherapy agents will be developed and assessed for their therapeutic activity. In light of this, in vivo experimental mouse models that recapitulate human malignancies serve as valuable tools to validate the efficacy and safety profile of immunotherapy agents, before their transition into clinical trials. In this review, we will discuss the major classes of experimental mouse models of cancer commonly used for immunotherapy assessment and provide examples to guide the selection of appropriate models. We present some new data concerning the utility of a carcinogen-induced tumor model for comparing immunotherapies and combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy. We will also highlight some recent advances in experimental modeling of human malignancies in mice that are leading towards personalized therapy in patients.

  3. Modified immunotherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    Squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) is a commonly used contact sensitizer in immunotherapy for alopecia areata (AA). Severe contact dermatitis is induced by the currently high recommended sensitization dose of 1%-2% SADBE, often decreasing patient compliance. We assessed a modified immunotherapy for AA using SADBE at a starting concentration of 0.01% without sensitization. After one or two weeks of initial 0.01% SADBE application, the concentration of SADBE was increased gradually to 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% until the patients felt itching or erythema at the AA lesion site. The modified immunotherapy showed a response rate of 69.4% (25/36), equivalent to conventional immunotherapy using SADBE starting at 1%-2% sensitization. Furthermore, we investigated the combination therapy of SADBE and multiple courses of steroid pulses for AA. The response rate for combination therapy was 73.7% (28/38); however, the group receiving combination therapy showed a significant prevalence of severe AA compared with the group receiving modified immunotherapy only. We reviewed the efficacy and safety of modified immunotherapy without initial sensitization and combination therapy with immunotherapy and multiple courses of pulses for AA.

  4. Immunotherapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Procaccio, Letizia; Schirripa, Marta; Fassan, Matteo; Vecchione, Loredana; Bergamo, Francesca; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Intini, Rossana; Manai, Chiara; Dadduzio, Vincenzo; Boscolo, Alice; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers represent a major public health problem worldwide. Immunotherapeutic strategies are currently under investigation in this setting and preliminary results of ongoing trials adopting checkpoint inhibitors are striking. Indeed, although a poor immunogenicity for GI has been reported, a strong biological rationale supports the development of immunotherapy in this field. The clinical and translational research on immunotherapy for the treatment of GI cancers started firstly with the identification of immune-related mechanisms possibly relevant to GI tumours and secondly with the development of immunotherapy-based agents in clinical trials. In the present review a general overview is firstly provided followed by a focus on major findings on gastric, colorectal, and hepatocellular carcinomas. Finally, pathological and molecular perspectives are provided since many efforts are ongoing in order to identify possible predictive biomarkers and to improve patients' selection. Many issues are still unsolved in this field; however, we strongly believe that immunotherapy might positively affect the natural history of a subgroup of GI cancer patients improving outcome and the overall quality of life. PMID:28758114

  5. Basics of cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yuki; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders including cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy, which employs our own immune systems to attack cancer cells, is now emerging as a promising modality of cancer treatment based upon the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell transfer. In hematologic malignancies, clinical application of anti-PD-1 mAb and CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T therapy is now being extensively tested in Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and CD19(+) acute lymphocytic leukemia. In sharp contrast to conventional anti-cancer reagents which directly kill cancer cells, cancer immunotherapy activates various types of immune effector cells to attack cancer cells. However, more than half of the treated patients showed no activation of anti-tumor CD8(+) killer T cells and CD4(+) helper T cells and failed to respond to immune therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade, even when administered in combination regimens. Thus, development of novel immunotherapies to achieve more effective activation of anti-cancer immunity and immuno-monitoring of biomarkers, allowing proper evaluation of immune responses in cancer patients in order to detect responders, are urgent issues. Additionally, we must pay attention to characteristic immunological side effects not observed following treatment with conventional anti-cancer reagents. Herein, we present a summary outline and discuss the future direction of cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Emerging immunotherapies for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rupen; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Batich, Kristen A.; Harrison Farber, S.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Sampson, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy for brain cancer has evolved dramatically over the past decade, owed in part to our improved understanding of how the immune system interacts with tumors residing within the central nervous system (CNS). Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common brain tumor in adults, carries a poor prognosis (<15 months) and only few advances have been made since the FDA’s approval of temozolomide (TMZ) in 2005. Importantly, several immunotherapies have now entered patient trials based on promising preclinical data, and recent studies have shed light on how GBM employs a slew of immunosuppressive mechanisms which may be targeted for therapeutic gain. Altogether, accumulating evidence suggests immunotherapy may soon earn its keep as a mainstay of clinical management for GBM. Areas Covered Here, we review cancer vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors, T-cell immunotherapy, and oncolytic virotherapy. Expert Opinion Checkpoint blockade induces antitumor activity by preventing negative regulation of T-cell activation. This platform, however, depends on an existing frequency of tumor-reactive T cells, and GBM is weakly immunogenic and GBM patients are typically immunocompromised. Therefore, checkpoint blockade may be most effective when used in combination with a DC vaccine or adoptively transferred tumor-specific T cells generated ex vivo. Both approaches have been shown to induce endogenous immune responses against tumor antigens, providing a rationale for use with checkpoint blockade where both primary and secondary responses may be potentiated. PMID:27223671

  7. Acute management of autoimmune toxicity in cancer patients on immunotherapy: Common toxicities and the approach for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Anna J; McNeil, Catriona

    2017-01-16

    When a patient receiving anti-cancer treatment presents acutely unwell, an understanding of associated side effects of their therapy is critical. This review will discuss the approach to patients receiving anti-cancer treatment with immunotherapy presenting with autoimmune toxicities in the emergency setting. These toxicities are commonly referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAE). IrAE might consist of, but are not limited to, dermatologic, gastrointestinal (diarrhoea, colitis), hepatic, endocrine (thyroid dysfunction, hypophysitis, adrenal crisis), renal, ocular and pulmonary toxicity. General principles of managing these irAE in the acute setting will be outlined. Steroid therapy is a critical component of the treatment algorithm, being administered at high doses and for prolonged periods to switch off immune over-activation. Prompt intervention might prevent multi-organ failure and fatality, and allow patients to remain on effective anti-cancer therapy.

  8. The effect of a new communication template on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy: an internet-based patient survey.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Moises A; Cox, Linda; Casale, Thomas B; Mösges, Ralph; Pfaar, Oliver; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Sastre, Joaquin; Khaitov, Musa; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A patient's knowledge of his/her allergic condition and treatment is a key factor in adherence and effectiveness. To assess patients' understanding of allergy and acceptance of allergen immunotherapy on the basis of (i) information given by their physician at the time of prescription and (ii) a new communication template viewed some months later, we performed an Internet-based survey of patient panels in France, Germany, Spain, the USA and Russia. The survey participants were either recent "early abandoners" (having discontinued allergen immunotherapy before the end of the prescribed course) or "non-starters" (having decided not to initiate a course of allergen immunotherapy recommended by their physician). All participants completed an on-line questionnaire immediately before and immediately after viewing the new communication template. The study's main objectives were to validate the new communication template and to assess its impact on anticipated willingness to initiate or resume allergen immunotherapy. We surveyed a total of 261 patients (France: 57; Germany: 51; Spain: 52; USA: 51; Russia: 50), comprising 127 "early abandoners" and 134 "non-starters". The mean time since symptom onset and selection for the study was 14.5 years. Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy had been prescribed in 60 % of cases. Twenty-eight percent of the participants did not know for which allergy they were being treated. Early abandoners reported a perception of low effectiveness (39 %) and complained about expense (39 %) and practical constraints (32 %). Twenty-two percent of the non-starters feared side effects. The communication template was considered to be clear (by 92 % of the patients), convincing (by 75 %) and reassuring (by 89 %); 80 % of the participants felt better informed afterwards, and 67 % stated that viewing the communication template would have made them more likely to continue or initiate allergen immunotherapy (overall willingness score: 5.65 out of 10

  9. Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in elderly patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Bozek, Andrzej; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Warkocka-Szoltysek, Barbara; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen allergens in patients >60 years of age with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and/or asthma. This study sought to assess nasal symptoms during the grass pollen season, reduce medication use, and monitor adverse reactions during immunotherapy. Seventy-eight 60- to 70-year-old patients with SAR and a confirmed grass pollen allergy according to skin-prick tests, nasal provocation, and measurement of serum IgE were included in the study. The patients were individually randomized to the active or placebo groups using a double-blind method. A total of 41 subjects in the SLIT group (5 grass pollen mixture) and 37 subjects in the placebo group were monitored for 3 years. The patients were required to record each use of an antiallergy medication on a diary card. Thirty-eight patients completed 3 years (preseasonal) of SLIT, and 34 subjects finished the placebo treatment in the same time period. The total nasal symptom score decreased by 64% in the active group and 7% in the placebo group after SLIT. This difference was only significant in the active group (p < 0.05). At the end of therapy, the total medication score of the active group decreased significantly by a maximum of 51% (p < 0.05), whereas the total medication score of the placebo group had an insignificant decrease. None of the study participants had systemic adverse reactions during the study period. SLIT in elderly patients with a grass pollen allergy generated a significant clinical improvement in the active group compared with the placebo group for grass pollen season. This therapy was well tolerated.

  10. Prophylactic and therapeutic adenoviral vector-based multivirus-specific T-cell immunotherapy for transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Schuessler, Andrea; Smith, Corey; Wong, Yide; Miles, John J; Smyth, Mark J; Ambalathingal, George; Francis, Ross; Campbell, Scott; Chambers, Daniel; Khanna, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections including cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus are a common and predictable problem in transplant recipients. While cellular immune therapies have been successfully used to tackle infectious complications in transplant recipients, manufacturing immunotherapies to address the multitude of possible pathogens can be technically challenging and labor-intensive. Here we describe a novel adenoviral antigen presentation platform (Ad-MvP) as a tool for rapid generation of multivirus-specific T-cells in a single step. Ad-MvP encodes 32 CD8+ T-cell epitopes from cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and BK virus as a contiguous polyepitope. We demonstrate that Ad-MvP vector can be successfully used for rapid in vitro expansion of multivirus-specific T-cells from transplant recipients and in vivo priming of antiviral T-cell immunity. Most importantly, using an in vivo murine model of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma, we also show that adoptive immunotherapy with Ad-MvP expanded autologous and allogeneic multivirus-specific T-cells is highly effective in controlling Epstein-Barr virus tumor outgrowth and improving overall survival. We propose that Ad-MvP has wide ranging therapeutic applications in greatly facilitating in vivo priming of antiviral T-cells, the generation of third-party T-cell banks as “off-the-shelf” therapeutics as well as autologous T-cell therapies for transplant patients. PMID:27606351

  11. Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Burden, Sorrel; Todd, Chris; Hill, James; Lal, Simon

    2012-11-14

    Post-operative management in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is becoming well established with 'Enhanced Recovery After Surgery' protocols starting 24 hours prior to surgery with carbohydrate loading and early oral or enteral feeding given to patients the first day following surgery. However, whether or not nutritional intervention should be initiated earlier in the preoperative period remains unclear. Poor pre-operative nutritional status has been linked consistently to an increase in post-operative complications and poorer surgical outcome. To review the literature on preoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery (GI). The searches were initially run in March 2011 and subsequently updated in February 2012. Databases including all EBM Reviews (Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA and NHSEED) MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, British Nursing Index Archive using OvidSP were included and a search was run on each database separately after which duplicates were excluded. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials that evaluated pre-operative nutritional support in GI surgical participants using a nutritional formula delivered by a parenteral, enteral or oral route. The primary outcomes included post-operative complications and length of hospital stay. Two observers screened the abstracts for inclusion in the review and performed data extraction. Bias was assessed for each of the included studies using the bias assessment tables in the Cochrane Software Review Manager (version 5.1, Cochrane Collaboration). The trials were analysed using risk ratios with Mantel-Haenszel in fixed effects methods displayed with heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were undertaken on trials evaluating immune enhancing (IE) nutrition, standard oral supplements, enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN) which were administered pre-operatively.Study characteristics were summarised in tables. Dichotomous and ratio data were entered into meta-analyses for

  12. Detection of ABCB5-tumour-antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in Melanoma Patients and Implications for Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Sylvia; Masslo, Christoph; Müller, Christina Ann; Tahedl, Anika; Volkind, Jennifer; Nowak, Yvonne; Umansky, Viktor; Esterlechner, Jasmina; Frank, Markus Hermann; Ganss, Christoph; Kluth, Mark Andreas; Utikal, Jochen

    2017-09-23

    ABCB5 has been identified as a tumour initiating cell marker and is expressed in various malignancies, including melanoma. Moreover, treatment with anti-ABCB5 monoclonal antibodies has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in xenotransplantation models. Therefore, ABCB5 represents a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. However, cellular immune responses against ABCB5 in humans have not been described so far. Here, we investigated whether ABCB5-reactive T cells are present in human melanoma patients and tested the applicability of ABCB5-derived peptides for experimental induction of human T cell responses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) isolated from blood samples of melanoma patients (n=40) were stimulated with ABCB5 peptides, followed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for IFN-γ and TNF-α. To evaluate immunogenicity of ABCB5 peptides in naïve healthy donors, CD8 T cells were co-cultured with ABCB5 antigen-loaded autologous dendritic cells (DC). ABCB5-reactivity in expanded T cells was likewise assessed by ICS. ABCB5-reactive CD8(+) T cells were detected ex vivo in 19 of 29 patients, MART-1-reactive CD8 T cells in 6 of 21 patients. In this small, heterogeneous cohort, reactivity against ABCB5 was significantly higher than against MART-1. It occurred significantly more often and independent of clinical characteristics. Reactivity against ABCB5 could be induced in 14 of 16 healthy donors in vitro by repeated stimulation with peptide-loaded autologous DC. Since ABCB5-reactive CD8 T cells can be found in the peripheral blood of melanoma patients and an ABCB5-specific response can be induced in vitro in naïve donors, ABCB5 could be a new target for immuno-therapies in melanoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Educational Needs of Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Crystal; Saryeddine, Tina; Davis, Aileen M.; Flannery, John F.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Levy, Charissa; Mahomed, Nizar

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify the educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and total knee replacement surgery. Methods: A qualitative research design using a semi-standardized interviewing method was employed. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants, who were eligible if they were scheduled to undergo total hip or total knee replacement or had undergone total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. A comparative contrast method of analysis was used. Results: Of 22 potential participants who were approached, 15 participated. Five were booked for upcoming total hip or total knee replacement and 10 had undergone at least one total hip or total knee replacement in the previous 3 to 6 months. Several themes related to specific educational needs and factors affecting educational needs, including access, preoperative phase, surgery and medical recovery, rehabilitation process and functional recovery, fears, and expectations counterbalanced with responsibility, emerged from the interviews. Conclusions: Educational needs of adults who undergo total hip and knee replacement surgery encompass a broad range of topics, confirming the importance of offering an all-inclusive information package regarding total hip and total knee replacement. PMID:21629598

  14. Active Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chodon, Thinle; Koya, Richard C; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    Clinical progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy has been slow for many years but within the last 5 years, breakthrough successes have brought immunotherapy to the forefront in cancer therapy. Promising results have been observed in a variety of cancers including solid tumors and hematological malignancies with adoptive cell therapy using natural host tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, host cells that have been genetically engineered with antitumor T-cell receptors or chimeric antigen receptors, immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies and oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy. However, most treatment modalities have shown limited efficacy with single therapy. The complex nature of cancer with intra- and inter-tumor antigen and genomic heterogeneity coupled with the immune suppressive microenvironment emphasizes the prospect of personalized targeted immunotherapy to manipulate the patient's own immune system against cancer. For successful, robust and long-lasting cure of cancer, a multi-modal approach is essential, combining anti-tumor cell therapy with manipulation of multiple pathways in the tumor microenvironment to ameliorate tumor-induced immunosuppression.

  15. Long-term complete remission following radiosurgery and immunotherapy in a melanoma patient with brain metastasis: immunologic correlates.

    PubMed

    Karbach, Julia; Gnjatic, Sacha; Biskamp, Melina; Atmaca, Akin; Weidmann, Eckhart; Brandt, Kathrin; Wahle, Claudia; Bernhard, Helga; Knuth, Alexander; Jäger, Elke

    2014-05-01

    A melanoma patient with brain metastases was treated by gamma-knife radiosurgery and immunotherapy with autologous tumor-lysate-loaded dendritic cells (DC). Ten years after the combined treatment, the patient remains in complete remission. Remarkable immunologic correlates to the clinical development were the transient induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody and the durable expansion of MAGE-A1p161-169 EADPTGHSY-specific CD8+ T cells. Although the induction of NY-ESO-1 antibody most likely resulted from gamma-knife-mediated "auto-vaccination," the persistence of circulating MAGE-A1-specific T cells, which are still detectable ex vivo in the absence of any tumor manifestation, coincides with DC-based vaccination administered monthly until today.

  16. Cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Philip J

    2009-08-01

    The immune system is generally divided into 2 primary components: the innate immune response, and the highly specific but more slowly developing adaptive or acquired immune response. Immune responses can be further separated by whether they are induced by exposure to a foreign antigen (an "active" response) or whether they are transferred through serum or lymphocytes from an immunized individual (a "passive" response). The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells (ie, specificity), be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells (ie, sensitivity), and lastly be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor (ie, durability). Tumor immunology and immunotherapy is one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields at present.

  17. Sublingual immunotherapy with a latex extract in paediatric patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Roberto; Campodonico, Patrizia; Burastero, Samuele; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio; Pucci, Neri; Massai, Cristina; De Martino, Maurizio; Vierucci, Alberto

    2006-08-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy remains an important allergic disease triggering urticaria, asthma, angioedema and anaphylaxis. Specific immunotherapy can help to solve problems related to NRL allergy. So far, no controlled clinical trials have been performed in children suffering from NRL allergy. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with a commercial NRL extract in children with NRL allergy. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-month trial. Twenty-six children (aged 4-15 years) with NRL allergy, who had cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms, including oral allergy syndrome to fruits containing cross-reactive allergens, were recruited. Twelve children were randomized to SLIT with a commercial NRL extract and eight to placebo (3:2). An additional six children with NRL allergy served as untreated controls. A glove use test was utilized to monitor skin and systemic symptoms triggered by NRL exposure at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months later. Oral allergy symptoms were also monitored. No side effects related to treatments were observed in any patient. A significant improvement of symptom score in treated patients in comparison with baseline values was observed at 3 months (p = 0.01) and consolidated after 1 year of treatment (p = 0.0005). In comparison with placebo, significant improvements were observed starting at 9 months from study start (p = 0.015) and at 12 months (p = 0.005). The number of foods triggering oral allergy symptoms increased in placebo and control subjects, but not in active treated patients (p = 0.05). Latex SLIT was safe and efficacious in paediatric patients with NRL allergy.

  18. Discontinuing venom immunotherapy: extended observations.

    PubMed

    Golden, D B; Kwiterovich, K A; Kagey-Sobotka, A; Lichtenstein, L M

    1998-03-01

    Our studies of discontinuing venom immunotherapy after at least 5 years have led to the conclusion that the residual risk of a systemic reaction to a sting was in the range of 5% to 10% in adults, and no severe or life-threatening reaction occurred with 270 challenge stings in 74 patients after 1 to 5 years without venom immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to extend our observation of patients who discontinue venom immunotherapy over 5 to 10 years and to determine which patients are at higher risk for a reaction. Patients who discontinued venom immunotherapy were surveyed for 3 consecutive years to determine the frequency of systemic reactions to field stings and the fate of venom sensitivity. The evaluation included the 74 patients previously studied (group 1) and 51 additional patients followed after stopping therapy in our clinical center (group 2). Of the original 74 patients, 11 had field stings again after 3 to 7 years without venom immunotherapy, with one systemic reaction (dyspnea). Of the 51 patients in the other group, 15 were stung, of whom four (26%) had systemic reactions, including respiratory symptoms requiring epinephrine. Review of group 1 and group 2 revealed that half of the patients who had systemic reactions to a sting after stopping venom immunotherapy had a history of a systemic reaction occurring during venom immunotherapy (to an injection or a sting). Systemic reactions occurred in three patients who had negative skin test reactions; all three had very low but detectable venom-specific serum IgE antibody levels as determined by RAST and had a history of systemic reactions during venom immunotherapy. Greater severity of the pretreatment reaction was not associated with higher frequency of reaction to stings after stopping therapy but was associated with greater severity if a reaction did occur. Venom immunotherapy (yellow jacket/mixed vespid) in adults can be discontinued after 5 to 6 years with a 5% to 10% residual risk of a

  19. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilarta, Cristiane F; Unger, Marianna D; Dos Reis, Luciene M; Dominguez, Wagner V; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R; Hernandez, Mariel J; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population.

  20. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vilarta, Cristiane F.; Unger, Marianna D.; dos Reis, Luciene M.; Dominguez, Wagner V.; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M.; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R.; Hernandez, Mariel J.; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. METHODS: We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population. PMID:28793001

  1. Durable complete responses off all treatment in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma after sequential immunotherapy followed by a finite course of BRAF inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Wyluda, Edward J; Cheng, Jihua; Schell, Todd D; Haley, Jeremy S; Mallon, Carol; Neves, Rogerio I; Robertson, Gavin; Sivik, Jeffrey; Mackley, Heath; Talamo, Giampaolo; Drabick, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    We report 3 cases of durable complete response (CR) in patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma who were initially treated unsuccessfully with sequential immunotherapies (high dose interleukin 2 followed by ipilimumab with or without concurrent radiation therapy). After progression during or post immunotherapy, these patients were given BRAF inhibitor therapy and developed rapid CRs. Based on the concomitant presence of autoimmune manifestations (including vitiligo and hypophysitis), we postulated that there was a synergistic effect between the prior immune therapy and the BRAF targeting agents. Accordingly, the inhibitors were gradually weaned off beginning at 3 months and were stopped completely at 9-12 months. The three patients remain well and in CR off of all therapy at up to 15 months radiographic follow-up. The institution of the BRAF therapy was associated with development of severe rheumatoid-like arthritis in 2 patients which persisted for months after discontinuation of therapy, suggesting it was not merely a known toxicity of BRAF inhibitors (arthralgias). On immunologic analysis, these patients had high levels of non-T-regulatory, CD4 positive effector phenotype T-cells, which persisted after completion of therapy. Of note, we had previously reported a similar phenomenon in patients with metastatic melanoma who failed high dose interleukin-2 and were then placed on a finite course of temozolomide with rapid complete responses that have remained durable for many years after discontinuation of temozolomide. We postulate that a finite course of cytotoxic or targeted therapy specific for melanoma given after apparent failure of prior immunotherapy can result in complete and durable remissions that may persist long after the specific cytotoxic or targeted agents have been discontinued suggesting the existence of sequence specific synergism between immunotherapy and these agents. Here, we discuss these cases in the context of the literature on

  2. Nurse led Patient Education Programme for patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of patients undergoing lung resection for primary or suspected primary lung cancer in the UK due to improved staging techniques, dedicated thoracic surgeons and other initiatives such as preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation. This has had an impact on local healthcare resources requiring new ways of delivering thoracic surgical services. When considering service changes, patient reported outcomes are pivotal in terms of ensuring that the experience of care is enhanced and may include elements such as involving patients in their care, reducing the length of inpatient stay and reducing postoperative complications. The implementation of a thoracic surgical Patient Education Programme (PEP) has the potential to address these measures and improve the psychological and physical wellbeing of patients who require a lung resection. It may also assist in their care as an inpatient and to enhance recovery after surgery both in the short and long term. PMID:25984358

  3. Melanoma: From Incurable Beast to a Curable Bet. The Success of Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ascierto, Maria Libera; Melero, Ignacio; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    After Coley’s observation in 1891 of tumor regression in a patient who developed a postoperative infection, the field of immunotherapy is finally reborn. Avoiding immune destruction is now considered a hallmark of cancer, and the immunotherapy arena has exploded with the recent advances demonstrating an improvement in survival and a durability of response in patients with different cancer types, which translates into improved overall survival benefit. Here, we provide an overview of the main immune-oncology treatment strategies that, either alone or in combination, are undergoing clinical development. Namely, we will refer to those immunotherapeutic strategies that include adoptive transfer of ex vivo activated T cells, immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies, and cancer vaccines. Our major focus will be to describe these approaches in melanoma, a cancer type transformed by immunotherapy into a potentially curable disease. PMID:26217587

  4. Dialysis headache in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Stojimirovic, Biljana; Milinkovic, Marija; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Trbojevic-Stankovic, Jasna; Maric, Ivko; Milic, Miodrag; Andric, Branislav; Nikic, Petar

    2015-03-01

    Headache is among most frequently encountered neurological symptom during hemodialysis (HD), but still under investigated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of dialysis headache (DH) in HD and PD patients. A total of 409 patients (91 on PD and 318 on HD) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, designed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Classification of Headache Disorders from 2004. Patients with DH underwent a thorough neurological examination. DH was reported by 21 (6.6%) HD patients and 0 PD patients. PD patients had significantly lower serum sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, urea and creatinine, calcium-phosphate product, and diastolic blood pressure than HD patients. HD patients had significantly lower hemoglobin compared to PD patients. Primary renal disease was mostly parenchymal in HD patients, and vascular in PD patients. DH appeared more frequently in men, mostly during the third hour of HD. It lasted less than four hours, was bilateral, non-pulsating and without associated symptoms. Biochemical alterations may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DH. Specific features of DH might contribute to better understanding of this secondary headache disorder.

  5. Immunotherapy Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (iRANO): A Report of the RANO Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hideho; Weller, Michael; Huang, Raymond; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Gilbert, Mark R.; Wick, Wolfgang; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Hashimoto, Naoya; Pollack, Ian F.; Brandes, Alba A.; Franceschi, Enrico; Herold-Mende, Christel; Nayak, Lakshmi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Pope, Whitney B.; Prins, Robert; Sampson, John H.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Reardon, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy represents a promising area of therapy among neuro-oncology patients. However, early phase studies reveal unique challenges associated with assessment of radiological changes reflecting delayed responses or therapy-induced inflammation. Clinical benefit, including long-term survival and tumor regression, can still occur following initial apparent progression or appearance of new lesions. Refinement of response assessment criteria for neuro-oncology patients undergoing immunotherapy is therefore warranted. A multinational and multidisciplinary panel of neuro-oncology immunotherapy experts describes immunotherapy response assessment for neuro-oncology (iRANO) criteria that are based on guidance for determination of tumor progression outlined by the immune-related response criteria (irRC) and the response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) working group. Among patients who demonstrate imaging findings meeting RANO criteria for progressive disease (PD) within six months of initiating immunotherapy including the development of new lesions, confirmation of radiographic progression on follow-up imaging is recommended provided that the patient is not significantly worse clinically. The proposed criteria also include guidelines for use of corticosteroids. The role of advanced imaging techniques and measurement of clinical benefit endpoints including neurologic and immunologic functions are reviewed. The iRANO guidelines put forth herein will evolve successively to improve their utility as further experience from immunotherapy trials in neuro-oncology accumulate. PMID:26545842

  6. Evaluation of dental anxiety in patients undergoing dentoalveolar surgery with laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, Faysal; Cavus, Onur; Kaya, Alper; Sener, Cem B

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental anxiety in patients undergoing apicectomy procedures performed with conventional instruments or an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Twenty-eight patients undergoing apicectomy were divided into two groups; roots were removed with an Er:YAG laser in group A (n=14) and with conventional instruments in group B (n=14). All patients completed preoperative State-Trait Anxiety Inventories (STAI) and postoperative questionnaires. Although state anxiety, trait anxiety, and postoperative questionnaire scores were lower in patients undergoing Er:YAG laser treatment than in those treated with conventional instruments, the differences were not statistically significant. Surgical instruments affect the anxiety levels of dental patients. Even with the STAI scores being lower for patients treated with Er:YAG, use of the Er:YAG laser alone cannot contribute to the resolution of dental anxiety. A patient's individual condition is the major factor influencing that patient's anxiety level.

  7. Stress reduction through music in patients undergoing cerebral angiography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, N; Schedlowski, M; Schürmeyer, T H; Becker, H

    2001-06-01

    We studied the influence of music on stress reaction of patients during cerebral angiography. We randomised 30 patients to a music or a control group. We measured stress hormones, blood pressure, heart rate and psychological parameters. Patients examined without music showed rising levels of cortisol in plasma, indicating high stress levels, while cortisol in patients examined with music remained stable. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower listening to music. Patients with a high level of fear did appear to benefit particularly from the music.

  8. EVALUATION OF UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    ASSEF, Maurício Saab; MELO, Tiago Torres; ARAKI, Osvaldo; MARIONI, Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Treatment is multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment is a consistent resource in severe obesity. The indication of preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in asymptomatic patients is controversial; however, most studies recommend its implementation in all patients. Aim: To analyze endoscopic performance in patients who were in preoperative for bariatric surgery and compare them with control group. Method: A series of 35 obese patients in preoperative period for bariatric surgery compared with a control group of 30 patients submitted to upper endoscopy. There were analyzed clinical and endoscopic data. Results: The mean age of the group of patients was 43.54 years. Most individuals in the group of patients were female with median BMI of 47.26kg/m2and in control group 24.21 kg/m2. The majority of patients were asymptomatic. Upper endoscopy was altered in 81.25% of asymptomatic patients. Endoscopic findings in the patient group were 57.1% resulting from peptic ulcer disease and 34.3% associated with GERD. The analysis of endoscopic findings in patients showed no significant difference in relation of the control group. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 60% in patients. Conclusion: It is recommended that the upper endoscopy should be made in all patients in the preoperative bariatric surgery period, although the degree of obesity is not related to a greater number of endoscopic findings. Obese patients do not have more endoscopic findings that non-obese individuals. PMID:26537272

  9. More patients should undergo surgery after sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, Anne Kathrine Wewer; Kjaer, Daniel Willy

    2014-12-28

    To assess the outcome of patients treated conservatively vs surgically during their first admission for sigmoid volvulus. We conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients admitted to Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1996 and 2011 for their first incidence of sigmoid volvulus. The condition was diagnosed by radiography, sigmoidoscopy or surgery. Patients treated with surgery underwent either a sigmoid resection or a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC). Conservatively treated patients were managed without surgery. Data was recorded into a Microsoft Access database and calculations were performed with Microsoft Excel. Kaplan-Meier plotting and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) testing were performed using GraphPad Prism software. Mortality was defined as death within 30 d after intervention or surgery. Among the total 61 patients, 4 underwent emergency surgery, 55 underwent endoscopy, 1 experienced resolution of the volvulus after contrast enema, and 1 died without treatment because of large bowel perforation. Following emergency treatment, 28 patients underwent sigmoid resection (semi-elective n = 18; elective n = 10). Two patients who were unfit for surgery underwent PEC and both died, 1 after 36 d and the other after 9 mo, respectively. The remaining 26 patients were managed conservatively without sigmoid resection. Patients treated conservatively on their first admission had a poorer survival rate than patients treated surgically on their first admission (95%CI: 3.67-14.37, P = 0.036). Sixty-three percent of the 26 conservatively treated patients had not experienced a recurrence 3 mo after treatment, but that number dropped to 24% 2 years after treatment. Eight of the 14 patients with recurrence after conservative treatment had surgery with no 30-d mortality. Surgically-treated sigmoid volvulus patients had a higher long-term survival rate than conservatively managed patients, indicating a benefit of surgical resection or PEC insertion if feasible.

  10. Improved survival for patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of chemo-immunotherapy: a Danish population-based study of 10455 patients

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha-Bang, C; Simonsen, J; Rostgaard, K; Geisler, C; Hjalgrim, H; Niemann, C U

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is in rapid transition, and during recent decades both combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy have been introduced. To evaluate the effects of this development, we identified all CLL patients registered in the nation-wide Danish Cancer Register between 1978 and 2013. We identified 10 455 CLL patients and 508 995 CLL-free control persons from the general population. Compared with the latter, the relative mortality rate between CLL patients and their controls decreased from 3.4 (95% CI 3.2–3.6) to 1.9 (95% CI 1.7–2.1) for patients diagnosed in 1978–1984 and 2006–2013, respectively. The improved survival corresponded to a decreasing risk of death from malignant hematological diseases, whereas the risk of death from infections was stable during the study period. These population-based data substantiate the improved survival for patients treated with chemo-immunotherapy demonstrated in clinical studies. PMID:27834937

  11. Changes in skin reactivity and associated factors in patients sensitized to house dust mites after 1 year of allergen-specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jeong-Yeop; Jung, Mann-Hong; Koh, Kwang-Wook; Park, Eun-Kee; Heo, Jeong-Hoon; Choi, Gil-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) can significantly improve symptoms and reduce the need for symptomatic medication. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate changes in skin reactivity to house dust mites (HDMs) as an immunologic response and associated factors after 1 year of immunotherapy. Methods A total of 80 patients with allergic airway diseases who received subcutaneous SIT with HDMs from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated. The investigated parameters were basic demographic characteristics, skin reactivity and specific IgE for HDM, serum total IgE level, blood eosinophil counts, and medication score. Results The mean levels of skin reactivity to HDMs, blood eosinophil counts, and medication scores after 1 year were significantly reduced from baseline. In univariate comparison of the changes in skin reactivity to HDMs, age ≤30 years, HDMs only as target of immunotherapy, and high initial skin reactivity (≥2) to HDMs were significantly associated with the reduction in skin test reactivity. In multivariate analysis, high initial skin reactivity and HDMs only as target allergens were significantly associated with changes in skin reactivity to HDMs. In the receiver operating characteristic curve of the initial mean skin reactivity to HDMs for more than 50% reduction, the optimal cutoff value was 2.14. Conclusion This study showed significant reductions in allergen skin reactivity to HDMs after 1 year of immunotherapy in patients sensitized to HDMs. The extent of initial allergen skin reactivity and only HDMs as target allergen were important predictive factors for changes in skin reactivity. PMID:28487839

  12. Effects of laser immunotherapy on late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients in a Phase II clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrel, Gabriela L.; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Nordquist, Robert E.; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT), a novel technique with a local intervention to induce systemic antitumor effects, was developed to treat metastatic cancers. The pre-clinical studies of LIT have shown its unique characteristics in generating a specific antitumor immunity in treating metastatic tumors in rats and mice. For late-stage, metastatic breast cancer patients, who were considered to be out of other available treatment options, we conducted a small Phase II clinical trial using LIT starting in 2009 in Lima, Peru. This Phase II study was closed in December of 2012, as acknowldged by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Peur letter 438-2014-OGITT/INS dated March 5th, 2014. Ten patients were enrolled and received LIT in one or multiple 4-week treatment cycles. At the study closing date, four patients were alive and two of them remained cancer free. Here, following the successful conclusion of our Phase II study, we report the clinical effects of LIT on metastatic breast cancer patients. Specifically, we present the overall status of all the patients three years after the treatment and also the outcomes of two long-term surviving patients.

  13. Contact dermatitis in patients undergoing serial intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Veramme, Jolien; de Zaeytijd, Julie; Lambert, Jo; Lapeere, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) medication, injected intravitreally, is currently the standard of care in patients with different retinal pathologies. Since its introduction in 2006, an increasing number of patients have undergone this procedure in Ghent University Hospital. Strikingly, more patients were diagnosed with contact dermatitis caused by ophthalmic products used during intravitreal injection procedure. To identify which of the substances used during intravitreal injection is most likely to cause contact dermatitis. Sixteen patients who developed a burning and stinging sensation and swelling of the eyelids after intravitreal injection were tested. All patients were patch tested with the Belgian baseline series, as well as a cosmetic, a pharmaceutical and an ophthalmic series, including the different eye drops used during the intravitreal injection procedure. Fourteen of 16 patients reacted to at least one of the substances used during the injection procedure. Nine patients reacted to phenylephrine (56%), 5 to iso-Betadine(®) ophthalmic solution (31%), and 3 patients to sodium metabisulfite (16%). The most common causal allergen was phenylephrine, being positive in 56% of patients. Patients most likely become sensitized because of the high frequency of usage of phenylephrine during repeated intravitreal injections and follow-up consultations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Bladder drainage in patients undergoing the Pereyra surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Villagrán, R; Escobar-Del Barco, L; Villalobos-Acosta, S; Kunhardt-Rasch, J; Delgado-Urdapilleta, J

    1996-07-01

    Postoperative acute urinary retention was evaluated in the patients who underwent Pereyra procedure. Comparison of suprapubic and urethral catheterization. Between January 1994 and July 1995, fifty two patients with urinary stress incontinence underwent Pereyra procedure, 31 female patient with suprapubic drainage (cistofix Ch 15) and 17 urethral catherization with a latex foley catheter. Sponatneous micturition and urinary retention was evaluated until the catheter was removed. Mean age was 43.8 years (32 a 66), the duration of suprapubic vesical drainage with suprapubic catheter were 3 days in 58.6% of the patients, and more than 3 days in 41.29%. Recatheterizacion in the patients with urethral drainage was more frequent. Urinary retention after 7 days was present in 23.99% with suprapubic vesical drainage and 28.5% with urethral catheter. Recatheterization is more frequent in patients with urethral catheter.

  15. Management of oral anticoagulation in patients undergoing minor dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Alaali, Yathreb; Barnes, Geoffrey D; Froehlich, James B; Kaatz, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Approximately 4.2 million patients in the United States are taking warfarin, making it the 11th most prescribed drug. Warfarin is primarily used for treatment of venous thromboembolic disease and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and mechanical heart valves. Dentists frequently encounter anticoagulated patients and are faced with management decisions in these patients who require dental procedures. Observational studies suggest the risk of thrombosis if anticoagulation is suspended during dental procedures is higher than the risk of bleeding if anticoagulation is not suspended. Several groups now offer guidelines that recommend most minor dental procedures should be performed while on therapeutic warfarin. The recent approval of several new oral anticoagulants has introduced greater complexity to the management of the anticoagulated patient, and this narrative review will discuss current guidelines, the scientific underpinnings of the guidelines, and offer some practical suggestions for patients that are receiving the new agents.

  16. Functional Assessments in Patients Undergoing Radial Forearm Flap Following Hemiglossectomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangru; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Shu

    2016-03-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the functional outcomes following radial forearm free-flap reconstruction with a focus on radiotherapy. A 2-year prospective study was performed. A total of 47 patients were enrolled finally. They were asked to complete the swallowing, chewing, speech domains of the University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. Swallowing capacity was apparently affected after surgery, but no patients reported there was chokes cough during eating, the mean score was 51.1 (SD: 21.3). Most patients (70.2%) presented their articulation was good enough for everyday life, and the mean score was 60.0 (SD: 21.1). As for chewing, only 7 (14.9%) patients complained there was negative effect, and the mean score was as high as 92.6 (SD: 18.0). Compared to patients with surgery only, patients with postoperative radiotherapy only had significantly worse swallowing and speech capacity. Compared with patients with postoperative radiotherapy only, patients with both preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy tended to have better swallowing and speech. No significant differences were found between chewing and radiotherapy. In most patients, the results of swallowing, speech, and chewing are favorable. Postoperative radiotherapy has an apparent impact on functional impairment, but preoperative tends to preserve the original tongue function.

  17. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  18. Impact of allergic rhinitis and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy on peripheral blood basophils of patients sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Basophils are important effectors cells in allergic rhinitis (AR) since they are involved in immunoglobulin (Ig) E – mediated inflammation and in the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) provides clear immunologic modulation in some immune cells, however its systemic effects on basophils are not well known. Methods Peripheral blood (PB) samples from 43 patients with allergic rhinitis mono-sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) [33 of them under SCIT with allergoid Dpt extract, in maintenance dose (SCIT), with evaluation just before SCIT injection (SCIT-T0) and 4 hours later (SCIT-T4) and the other 10 Dpt allergic patients never having, in the past, undergone specific immunotherapy treatment (NSIT)], and 15 healthy age- and gender-matched controls (HG), were analyzed. For each sample, the total (t-IgE) and specific IgE (s-IgE) was performed, as well as, the relative frequency and absolute number of PB basophils and receptor-bound IgE and IgG expression were evaluated by flow cytometry and the Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and tryptase α/β1 (TPSAB1) gene expression was assessed by real-time PCR. Results Higher levels of receptor-bound IgE were observed in SCIT patients, which are correlated with the levels of serum t-IgE and s-IgE, whereas no significant differences were observed for receptor-bound IgG. Regarding HNMT mRNA expression, significantly lower expression levels were detected in AR patients compared to HG, independently of type of therapy. Moreover a negative correlation was found between HNMT gene expression and time under SCIT. Conversely, tryptase gene expression was significantly up-regulated in NSIT when compared to HG; however in SCIT patients, tryptase gene expression was significantly decreased than in NSIT patients. No differences were found for any parameter between SCIT-T0 and SCIT-T4 with exception of a transient increased expression of tryptase in SCIT-T4

  19. Basophil activation test in the diagnosis and monitoring of mastocytosis patients with wasp venom allergy on immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bidad, Katayoon; Nawijn, Martijn C; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; van der Heide, Sicco; Elberink, Joanne N G Oude

    2014-05-01

    There is need for an accurate diagnostic test in mastocytosis patients with wasp venom allergy (WVA) and monitoring of these patients during immunotherapy (IT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the Basophil Activation Test (BAT) as a diagnostic and monitoring test in patients with mastocytosis and WVA. Seventeen patients with mastocytosis and WVA and six mastocytosis patients without WVA were included. BAT was performed before the start of IT (first visit) and at 6 weeks (second visit) and 1 year (third visit), after reaching the maintenance dose. Of 17 patients included, 11 completed the third visit. In mastocytosis patients with WVA, dose-dependent wasp-venom induced upregulation of CD63 and CD203c expression on basophils was observed compared with mastocytosis patients without WVA. Serum specific IgE, IgG4, and tryptase levels were measured in all patients. BAT had a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 100% in diagnosing WVA in mastocytosis patients. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity with respect to CD63 and CD203c was significantly decreased in the second visit compared with the first visit and increased significantly in the third visit compared with the second visit. Specific IgE levels increased significantly in the second visit compared with first and decreased significantly in the third visit compared with the second. Specific IgG4 levels rose significantly in the second visit compared with the first and on the third visit compared with the second. Tryptase levels did not change significantly during the study. BAT represents a diagnostic test with 100% specificity in allergic patients with mastocytosis and these patients are better to be monitored for a longer period during IT. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  20. Immunotherapy improves health-related quality of life of adult patients with dermal reactions following yellow jacket stings.

    PubMed

    Oude Elberink, J N G; van der Heide, S; Guyatt, G H; Dubois, A E J

    2009-06-01

    In many European centers insect venom allergic patients with a reaction confined to the skin are only offered an epinephrine auto-injector and not venom immunotherapy (VIT). Previously we showed that VIT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) of yellow jacket allergic patients with more than dermal reactions. To examine whether HRQL of dermal reactors is impaired and to examine the influence of VIT on HRQL in comparison with the EpiPen. Patients with solely dermal reactions were asked if they were willing to be randomized either to VIT or EpiPen, after receiving patient information. Before and 1 year after enrollment, patients completed the Vespid allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (VQLQ), Burden of Treatment and Expectation of Outcome. Of 55 patients eligible for the study, 29 consented to randomization: 15 to VIT, 14 to EpiPen. The remaining 26 patients preferred to choose their treatment: 11 VIT and 15 EpiPen. The VQLQ score of patients randomized to VIT improved (mean change 0.83 (SD 0.87), in contrast to patients randomized to the EpiPen whose scores deteriorated (mean change -0.42 (SD 0.64), P < 0.0001), resulting in an overall difference of 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-1.87]. With a minimal important difference of 0.5 indicating a clinically significant improvement, VIT generated an number needed to treat (NNT) of 1.7. Dermal reactors did not consider VIT burdensome and rated this treatment as being superior to the EpiPen. VIT results in a clinically significant improvement of HRQL in most patients with reactions limited to the skin following yellow jacket stings. Prescription of an EpiPen in patients not choosing this treatment is associated with deterioration in HRQL and should therefore be avoided as definitive treatment in these patients.

  1. Risk index for peri-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing open intracranial neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, F; Pizzichetta, F; Fiorani, L; Paoloni, F P; Delfini, R; Rosa, G

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation and the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing elective or emergency intracranial neurosurgical procedures and the relation to survival and neurological outcome at 6-months follow-up compared to patients with sinus rhythm. A total of 2020 patients were enrolled; 1540 patients underwent elective procedures and 480 underwent emergency procedures. Prevalence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation was 3.7% in elective and 7.2% in emergency procedures (p = 0.0012). In patients undergoing elective cerebral procedures with pre-operative atrial fibrillation, compared to patients with sinus rhythm, 6-month neurological outcome and survival rate are similar. In patients undergoing emergency neurosurgical cerebral procedures, the presence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation is related to an increased risk of poor neurological outcome but with similar survival rate.

  2. Intravenous sedation in 200 geriatric patients undergoing office oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R L; Smith, P B

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred geriatric patients ranging from age 65 to 92 yr (mean age 72 yr) were evaluated for office oral surgery and intravenous sedation. Surgical time ranged from 6 to 129 min. Monitored anesthesia care was utilized for the administration of fentanyl, midazolam or diazepam, and methohexital. No serious complications were seen and no patients were hospitalized.

  3. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Results Overall, 28 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. Conclusions We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed. PMID:28280621

  4. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  5. Depression and hopelessness in Turkish patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevban; Celebioglu, Ayda; Tezel, Ayfer

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of depression and hopelessness of patients receiving chemotherapy. Through knowledge of the levels of hopelessness and depression in such patients, this study could contribute to the planning of nursing interventions. The study involved 101 patients with cancer who presented to the outpatient unit of a medical oncology clinic to receive outpatient chemotherapy between January and March 2006. Data on the patients' sociodemographic features, as well as their scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory, were obtained. The patients' mean total depression score was 16.0 +/- 8.3 and their mean hopelessness score was 6.9 +/- 3.4. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and hopelessness. The results indicated that depression and hopelessness were strongly and positively correlated.

  6. Weight and patients' decision to undergo cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    King-Shier, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mather, Charles; Sandham, Sarah; Seneviratne, Cydnee; Maitland, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Obese patients are less likely to have cardiac surgery than normal weight patients. This could be due to physician or patient decision-making. We undertook a qualitative descriptive study to explore the influence of obesity on patients' decision-making to have cardiac surgery. Forty-seven people referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were theoretically sampled. Twelve people had declined cardiac surgery. Participants underwent in-depth interviews aimed at exploring their decision-making process. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Though patients' weight did not play a role in their decision, their relationship with their cardiologist/surgeon, the rapidity and orchestration of the diagnosis and treatment, appraisal of risks and benefits, previous experience with other illness or others who had cardiac surgery, and openness to other alternatives had an impact. It is possible that there is a lack of comfort or acknowledgment by all parties in discussing the influence of weight on CABG surgery risks.

  7. Painless neutropenic enterocolitis in a patient undergoing chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chow, E.J.; Bishop, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Case Description A 60-year-old man developed painless neutropenic enterocolitis after induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia. The patient had recurrent fever while neutropenic, without experiencing abdominal pain or tenderness on physical examination. His diagnosis was delayed by the fact that he had no localizing symptoms. Discussion Neutropenic enterocolitis is a common complication, generally occurring in patients who are severely neutropenic; the condition presents with fever and abdominal pain. No cases of painless neutropenic enterocolitis have yet been reported. Review of the literature shows that patients can develop this condition in the absence of fever and, sometimes, neutropenia. Furthermore, few comprehensive studies or reviews have investigated the utility of computed tomography imaging in identifying a source for abdominal pain in neutropenic patients with fever. Summary Many potential causes of febrile neutropenia should be considered in chemotherapy patients. PMID:27803612

  8. [Patients facing with the decision to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Bobbio, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a common procedure to treat coronary artery stenoses. Several studies had demonstrated that PCI does not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction when performed to patients with stable angina. However it has been observed that most patients believe that PCI will reduce their risk for death and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, cardiologists generally acknowledge the limitation of PCI according to the current literature.Cardiologists' decision to refer a patient to PCI is based on factors other then perceived benefits such as fear of missing a needed procedure, defensive medicine, desire of demonstrating their professional competence, vested professional and economic interests, accomplish patient expectation, the so called oculo-stenotic reflex, when a lesion is dilated regardless the clinical indication. Patients' misleading perception of harm and benefits of a procedure is mainly related to the cognitive dissonance, when individuals tend to reduce the conflict of an uncomfortable decision adopting information, which are likely to reduce their discomfort. Furthermore, patients believe that doing more means doing better, that technologic intervention are better than pharmacological treatment that in turn are better than doing nothing. Finally, they assume that a procedure is really effective since their physician suggested it.It should be emphasized that physicians and patients do not communicate successfully about key decision and how little we know about patient understanding of the factors that influence important medical care decisions. Although considerable attention is given to facilitating informed consent, patients' perceived benefits of elective PCI do not match existing evidence, as they overestimated both the benefits and urgency of their procedures. These findings suggest that an even greater effort at patient education is needed prior to elective PCI to facilitate fully informed decision-making.

  9. Examination of the anxiety level in patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Çürük, Gülsüm N; Tekinsoy Kartın, Pınar; Yüceler Kaçmaz, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of anxiety in patients with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The research was carried out at a university's Heart Hospital, echocardiography laboratory between the dates of January-October 2014. Data were collected with Patient Identification Form, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory. The level of state and trait anxiety was measured by Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Signed forms of consent for the study were obtained from patients after the ethics committee approval. Descriptive statistics, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical data analysis. The study included 102 patients who were admitted to the cardiology department for TEE. The mean age of the patients was 44.12±16.86 years and 52.9% were men. About 46.5% of them graduated from primary school, 74.5% were married, and 52.0% has moderate income. Approximately half the patients reported that they had received information for TEE. State anxiety scores of patients ranged from 31 to 66 (mean±SD; 46.7±8.7), and their trait anxiety scores ranged from 28 to 52 (mean±SD; 44.4±4.3). Low educational level, female gender, and hospitalized patients' state anxiety point were very high and statistically significant. Anxiety level should be determined in this patients, and appropriate nursing care should be done for high anxiety score patients. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prospective Functional Voice Assessment in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Shaha, Ashok R.; Orlikoff, Robert F.; Nissan, Aviram; Kornak, Mary-Frances; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Boyle, Jay O.; Shah, Jatin P.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kraus, Dennis H.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze voice function before and after thyroidectomy for patients with normal preoperative voice using a standardized multidimensional voice assessment protocol. Summary Background Data The natural history of post-thyroidectomy voice disturbances for patients with preserved laryngeal nerve function has not been systematically studied and characterized with the intent of using the data for postoperative voice rehabilitation. Methods During a prospective single-arm study, patients with normal voice underwent functional voice testing using a standardized voice grading scale and a battery of acoustic, aerodynamic, glottographic, and videostroboscopic tests before, 1 week after, and 3 months after thyroidectomy. Differences in observed sample means were evaluated using analysis of covariance or t test; categorical data was analyzed using the Fisher exact or chi-square test. Results Fifty-four patients were enrolled; 50 and 46 were evaluable at 1 week and 3 months, respectively. No patient developed recurrent laryngeal nerve injury; one had superior laryngeal nerve injury. Fifteen (30%) patients reported early subjective voice change and seven (14%) reported late (3-month) subjective voice change. Forty-two (84%) patients had significant objective change in at least one voice parameter. Six (12%) had significant alterations in more than three voice measures, of which four (67%) were symptomatic, whereas 25% with three or fewer objective changes had symptoms. Patients with persistent voice change at 3 months had an increased likelihood of multiple (more than three) early objective changes (43% vs. 7%). Early maximum phonational frequency range and vocal jitter changes from baseline were significantly associated with voice symptoms at 3 months. Conclusions Early vocal symptoms are common following thyroidectomy and persist in 14% of patients. Multiple (more than three) objective voice changes correlate with early and late postoperative symptoms. Alterations

  11. Probiotics enhance the effect of allergy immunotherapy on regulating antigen specific B cell activity in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Feng-Hong; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Yang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Li, Hua-Bin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulatory system dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The therapeutic effect of allergic asthma is to be improved. The immune regulatory function of probiotics has been recognized. This study tests a hypothesis that Clostridium butyricum (CB) enhances the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) on asthma. In this study patients with allergic asthma were treated with AIT or/and CB for six months. The therapeutic effect and IgE production of the patients were observed. The results showed that administration with AIT alone alleviated the asthma symptoms; but the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and specific IgE were not altered, which was markedly improved by the administration with CB plus AIT. Such effects were maintained only for two months in the patients treated with AIT alone; but maintained more than 12 months in those patients treated with both AIT and CB. CB facilitated AIT to induce IL-10(+) B cells (B10 cells) in asthma patients. AIT/CB therapy converted antigen specific B cells to antigen specific regulatory B cells. Butyrate modulated the gene transcription of IgE and IL-10 in the allergen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration of CB can enhance the therapeutic effect of AIT in the treatment of allergic asthma via facilitating generation of B10 cells.

  12. Efficient monocyte-derived dendritic cell generation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia after chemotherapy treatment: application to active immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Bougras, Gwenola; Ebstein, Frederic; Leveque, Lucie; Tanguy-Royer, Severine; Simon, Thomas; Juge-Morineau, Nadine; Chevallier, Patrice; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Gregoire, Marc

    2008-03-01

    While complete remission in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be achieved after chemotherapy (CT), relapses occur for the majority of patients, underlying the need to eliminate residual disease. Based on dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, the triggering of an immune response against residual leukemia cells after CT could maintain patients in remission. The aim of our study was to assess, for vaccine preparation, generation of monocyte-derived DCs in AML patients after CT. We evaluated efficiency of the production, yields, maturation, and functional properties of DCs from 22 AML patients at different CT stages compared to those from 15 healthy donors. We demonstrated that monocyte-derived DC production is successful later than 3 weeks after the last CT cycle, whatever the CT was. Immature DCs demonstrated functional phagocytic activity. Mature DCs displayed migratory, T-cell stimulatory and Th1-activation capacities. Our results also suggest a favorable period from 20 to 60 days after CT for potent monocyte-derived DC production and immune activation. In defining patient-sampling conditions, this preclinical study has direct implications for AML DC-based immunotherapy.

  13. Probiotics enhance the effect of allergy immunotherapy on regulating antigen specific B cell activity in asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Feng-hong; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Yang, Li-Tao; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Gui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Li, Hua-Bin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Immune regulatory system dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The therapeutic effect of allergic asthma is to be improved. The immune regulatory function of probiotics has been recognized. This study tests a hypothesis that Clostridium butyricum (CB) enhances the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) on asthma. In this study patients with allergic asthma were treated with AIT or/and CB for six months. The therapeutic effect and IgE production of the patients were observed. The results showed that administration with AIT alone alleviated the asthma symptoms; but the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 and specific IgE were not altered, which was markedly improved by the administration with CB plus AIT. Such effects were maintained only for two months in the patients treated with AIT alone; but maintained more than 12 months in those patients treated with both AIT and CB. CB facilitated AIT to induce IL-10+ B cells (B10 cells) in asthma patients. AIT/CB therapy converted antigen specific B cells to antigen specific regulatory B cells. Butyrate modulated the gene transcription of IgE and IL-10 in the allergen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration of CB can enhance the therapeutic effect of AIT in the treatment of allergic asthma via facilitating generation of B10 cells. PMID:28078000

  14. Thyroid function in infertile patients undergoing assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fumarola, Angela; Grani, Giorgio; Romanzi, Daniela; Del Sordo, Marianna; Bianchini, Marta; Aragona, Alessia; Tranquilli, Daniela; Aragona, Cesare

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid disease is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women during reproductive age. A link between thyroid and assisted reproduction outcome is debated. Serum TSH levels, number and scoring of oocytes and embryos, and number of clinical pregnancies were retrospectively recorded in 164 women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) at an University-based fertility center, to evaluate the outcome of the first steps of assisted reproduction (ovarian stimulation, oocyte pickup and fertilization, embryo transfer and implantation) in relation to thyroid function and autoimmunity. No significant relationship was found between TSH and all parameters, except clinical pregnancy rate (22.3% in TSH ≤ 2.5 group versus 8.9% in TSH > 2.5 mUI/L group; P = 0.045). No pregnancy occurred in women with anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies, while pregnancy occurred in 23.9% of cycles without autoimmunity (P = 0.02). Further studies must be conducted in order to shed light on the link between infertility and thyroid dysfunction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Generation of a canine anti-EGFR (ErbB-1) antibody for passive immunotherapy in dog cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Singer, Josef; Fazekas, Judit; Wang, Wei; Weichselbaumer, Marlene; Matz, Miroslawa; Mader, Alexander; Steinfellner, Willibald; Meitz, Sarah; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Sobanov, Yuri; Willmann, Michael; Stockner, Thomas; Spillner, Edzard; Kunert, Renate; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-07-01

    Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies represents a cornerstone of human anticancer therapies, but has not been established in veterinary medicine yet. As the tumor-associated antigen EGFR (ErbB-1) is highly conserved between humans and dogs, and considering the effectiveness of the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab in human clinical oncology, we present here a "caninized" version of this antibody, can225IgG, for comparative oncology studies. Variable region genes of 225, the murine precursor of cetuximab, were fused with canine constant heavy gamma and kappa chain genes, respectively, and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DUKX-B11 cells. Of note, 480 clones were screened and the best clones were selected according to productivity and highest specificity in EGFR-coated ELISA. Upon purification with Protein G, the recombinant cetuximab-like canine IgG was tested for integrity, correct assembly, and functionality. Specific binding to the surface of EGFR-overexpressing cells was assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence; moreover, binding to canine mammary tissue was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. In cell viability and proliferation assays, incubation with can225IgG led to significant tumor cell growth inhibition. Moreover, this antibody mediated significant tumor cell killing via phagocytosis in vitro. We thus present here, for the first time, the generation of a canine IgG antibody and its hypothetical structure. On the basis of its cetuximab-like binding site, on the one hand, and the expression of a 91% homologous EGFR molecule in canine cancer, on the other hand, this antibody may be a promising research compound to establish passive immunotherapy in dog patients with cancer.

  16. Savings associated with high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite immunotherapy in rhinitis and/or asthma patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    García Robaina, José Carlos; Polanco Sánchez, Carlos; Estella Pérez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the cost difference between conventional symptomatic treatment of mite allergy and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Methods Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study was carried out in Spain in 2013. The medical records of 419 patients diagnosed with rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma for mite allergy were retrieved. Mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation 14.4). The use of symptomatic medication (rescue and daily), diagnostic tests, unscheduled medical care, and sick leave days associated with SCIT treatment versus no-SCIT treatment was compared. Also measured was the SCIT treatment to no-SCIT treatment costs ratio: used resources (symptomatic medication, unscheduled medical care, diagnostic tests, and 3 years SCIT treatment and sick leave days) were quantified in euros. Efficacy (decreased resource usage) of first-year treatment was assumed during the remaining 2 years and also during the 3-year follow-up period. Results After a single year of SCIT, all quantified resources diminished significantly (P<0.05) from baseline. Estimated reduction in cost items included hospital resources (100% in hospitalizations, 82% in visits to the allergist, and 79% in emergency room visits), therapies (56% in rescue medication and 63% in daily medication), diagnostic tests (77%), and sick leave days (94%). Ratio of comparative calculation described as SCIT treatment versus non-SCIT treatment (or conventional symptomatic treatment) is 0.8. Conclusion Direct costs are reduced by 64% and indirect costs by 94%. SCIT of hypoallergenic preparation of dust mite (Acaroid®) allows cost savings versus conventional treatment. Estimated savings for the public National Health System are 5.7 times the cost of immunotherapy. PMID:27366098

  17. Generation of a Canine Anti-EGFR (ErbB-1) Antibody for Passive Immunotherapy in Dog Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Weichselbaumer, Marlene; Matz, Miroslawa; Mader, Alexander; Steinfellner, Willibald; Meitz, Sarah; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Sobanov, Yuri; Willmann, Michael; Stockner, Thomas; Spillner, Edzard; Kunert, Renate; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies represents a cornerstone of human anticancer therapies, but has not been established in veterinary medicine yet. As the tumor-associated antigen EGFR (ErbB-1) is highly conserved between humans and dogs, and considering the effectiveness of the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab in human clinical oncology, we present here a “caninized” version of this antibody, can225IgG, for comparative oncology studies. Variable region genes of 225, the murine precursor of cetuximab, were fused with canine constant heavy gamma and kappa chain genes, respectively, and transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) DUKX-B11 cells. Of note, 480 clones were screened and the best clones were selected according to productivity and highest specificity in EGFR-coated ELISA. Upon purification with Protein G, the recombinant cetuximab-like canine IgG was tested for integrity, correct assembly, and functionality. Specific binding to the surface of EGFR-overexpressing cells was assessed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence; moreover, binding to canine mammary tissue was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. In cell viability and proliferation assays, incubation with can225IgG led to significant tumor cell growth inhibition. Moreover, this antibody mediated significant tumor cell killing via phagocytosis in vitro. We thus present here, for the first time, the generation of a canine IgG antibody and its hypothetical structure. On the basis of its cetuximab-like binding site, on the one hand, and the expression of a 91% homologous EGFR molecule in canine cancer, on the other hand, this antibody may be a promising research compound to establish passive immunotherapy in dog patients with cancer. PMID:24755200

  18. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin <12 g/dL], haematinics and length of hospital stay) was analysed on 400 hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, p<0.0001) respectively. In the elective general surgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis p<0.0001, ferritin <30 p<0.0001. Mean length of stay (days) was increased in the anaemic compared to in the non-anaemic group (2.7 vs. 1.9) and patients who were anaemic immediately post-operatively, also had an increased length of stay (2.7 vs. 1.9), p<0.05. Absolute iron deficiency was more common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.

  19. Impact of environmental particulate matter and peritoneal dialysis-related infection in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chan, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Jiun

    2014-11-01

    In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), PD-related infection is a major cause of PD failure and hospital admission. Good air quality is required when dialysate exchange or exit site wound care is performed. To our knowledge, investigation of air pollution as a factor for PD-related infection in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. This study aimed to assess the effect of environmental particulate matter (PM) and other important risk factors on 1-year PD-related infection in patients undergoing PD.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD were recruited in this 1-year retrospective observational study. Differences in environmental PMs (PM10 and PM2.5) were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The patients undergoing PD were categorized into 2 groups according to PM2.5 exposure: high (n = 61) and low (n = 114). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze 1-year PD-related infection.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD (50 men and 125 women) were enrolled. Thirty-five patients had PD-related infection within 1 year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high environmental PM2.5 exposure (hazard ratio (HR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03-3.91]; P = .04) and female sex (HR: 2.77, 95% CI [1.07-7.19]; P = .03) were risk factors for 1-year PD-related infection.Patients undergoing PD with high environmental PM2.5 exposure had a higher 1-year PD-related infection rate than that in those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with PD-related infection in such patients.

  20. Experience with daptomycin daily dosing in ICU patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Preiswerk, B; Rudiger, A; Fehr, J; Corti, N

    2013-04-01

    For critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), daptomycin dosing recommendations are scarce. We, therefore, retrospectively assessed routinely measured daptomycin plasma concentrations, daptomycin dose administered and microbiological data in 11 critically ill patients with Gram-positive infections that had received daptomycin once daily. The retrospective analysis included critically ill patients treated at the intensive care unit (ICU) who had daptomycin plasma concentrations measured. Daptomycin dose ranged from 3 to 8 mg/kg/q24 h in patients undergoing CRRT (n = 7) and 6 to 10 mg/kg/q24 h in patients without CRRT (n = 4). Peak and trough concentrations showed a high intra- and inter-patient variability in both groups, independent of the dosage per kg body weight. No drug accumulation was detected in CRRT patients with once-daily daptomycin dosing. Causative pathogens were Enterococcus faecium (n = 6), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 2), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) and unknown in one patient. Microbiological eradication was successful in 8 of 11 patients. Two of three patients with unsuccessful microbiological eradication and fatal outcome had an Enterococcus faecium infection. In critically ill patients undergoing CRRT, daptomycin exposure with once-daily dosing was similar to ICU patients with normal renal function, but lower compared to healthy volunteers. Our data suggest that daptomycin once-daily dosing is appropriate in patients undergoing CRRT.

  1. Parasites and immunotherapy: with or against?

    PubMed

    Yousofi Darani, Hossein; Yousefi, Morteza; Safari, Marzieh; Jafari, Rasool

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis. In this paper immunotherapy against common parasitic infections, and also immunotherapy of cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis with parasites or parasite antigens have been reviewed.

  2. Nanoparticulate immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Chintan H; Perry, Jillian L; Tian, Shaomin; Luft, J Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-12-10

    Although surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have significantly improved as treatments for cancer, they can rarely control metastatic disease and cures remain scarce. Promising recent developments suggest that cancer immunotherapy may become a powerful new therapy that clinicians can offer cancer patients. The opportunity to orchestrate the body's own immune system to target, fight, and eradicate cancer cells without destroying healthy cells makes this an extremely attractive treatment modality. Our increased knowledge in anti-tumor immunity and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) has provided many therapeutic strategies to battle cancer. That combined with advancements in the field of particulate delivery systems provide a mechanism to deliver these immunotherapeutics to their specific targeted cells and the TME. In this review we will focus on the current status of immunotherapy and the potential advantages of utilizing nanocarriers within the field.

  3. Immunotherapy for tularemia.

    PubMed

    Skyberg, Jerod A

    2013-11-15

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Francisella is highly infectious via the respiratory route (~10 CFUs) and pulmonary infections due to type A strains of F. tularensis are highly lethal in untreated patients (> 30%). In addition, no vaccines are licensed to prevent tularemia in humans. Due to the high infectivity and mortality of pulmonary tularemia, F. tularensis has been weaponized, including via the introduction of antibiotic resistance, by several countries. Because of the lack of efficacious vaccines, and concerns about F. tularensis acquiring resistance to antibiotics via natural or illicit means, augmentation of host immunity, and humoral immunotherapy have been investigated as countermeasures against tularemia. This manuscript will review advances made and challenges in the field of immunotherapy against tularemia.

  4. Immunotherapy for tularemia

    PubMed Central

    Skyberg, Jerod A.

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Francisella is highly infectious via the respiratory route (~10 CFUs) and pulmonary infections due to type A strains of F. tularensis are highly lethal in untreated patients (>30%). In addition, no vaccines are licensed to prevent tularemia in humans. Due to the high infectivity and mortality of pulmonary tularemia, F. tularensis has been weaponized, including via the introduction of antibiotic resistance, by several countries. Because of the lack of efficacious vaccines, and concerns about F. tularensis acquiring resistance to antibiotics via natural or illicit means, augmentation of host immunity, and humoral immunotherapy have been investigated as countermeasures against tularemia. This manuscript will review advances made and challenges in the field of immunotherapy against tularemia. PMID:23959031

  5. The Impact of Sexual Abuse in Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Melianthe P. J.; Keller, Josbert J.; de Vries, Lieke; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E.; Nicolai, Jan J.; Hardwick, James C. H.; Putter, Hein; Pelger, Rob C. M.; Elzevier, Henk W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual abuse has been linked to strong effects on gastrointestinal health. Colonoscopy can provoke intense emotional reactions in patients with a sexual abuse history and may lead to avoidance of endoscopic procedures. Objective To determine whether care around colonoscopy needs adjustment for patients with sexual abuse experience, thereby exploring targets for the improvement of care around colonoscopic procedures. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to patients (n = 1419) from two centers within 11 months after colonoscopy. Differences in experience of the colonoscopy between patients with and without a sexual abuse history were assessed and patients' views regarding physicians' inquiry about sexual abuse and care around endoscopic procedures were obtained. Results A total of 768 questionnaires were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual abuse was 3.9% in male and 9.5% in female patients. Patients born in a non-western country reported more sexual abuse (14.9%) than those born in a western country (6.3%; p = 0.008). Discomfort during colonoscopy was indicated on a scale from 0 to 10, mean distress score of patients with sexual abuse was 4.8(±3.47) compared to 3.5(±3.11) in patients without a sexual abuse history (p = 0.007). Abdominal pain was a predictor for higher distress during colonoscopy (β = −0.019 (SE = 0.008); p = 0.02, as well as the number of complaints indicated as reason for colonoscopy (β = 0.738 (SE = 0.276); p = 0.008). Of patients with sexual abuse experience, 53.8% believed gastroenterologists should ask about it, 43.4% said deeper sedation during colonoscopy would diminish the distress. Conclusions Sexual abuse is prevalent in patients presenting for colonoscopy. Patients with a sexual abuse history experience more distress during the procedure and indicate that extra attention around and during colonoscopy may diminish this distress. PMID:24454784

  6. Crystalloid administration among patients undergoing liver surgery: Defining patient- and provider-level variation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuhree; Ejaz, Aslam; Gani, Faiz; Wasey, Jack O; Xu, Li; Frank, Steven M; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-02-01

    Fluid administration among patients undergoing liver resection is a key aspect of perioperative care. We sought to examine practice patterns of crystalloid administration, as well as potential factors associated with receipt of crystalloid fluids. Patients who underwent liver resection between 2010 and 2014 were identified. Data on clinicopathologic variables, operative details, and perioperative fluid administration were collected and analyzed using univariable and multivariable analyses; variation in practice of crystalloid administration was presented as coefficient of variation (COV). Among 487 patients, median crystalloid administered at the time of surgery was 4,000 mL. After adjusting for body size and operative duration, median corrected crystalloid was 30.0 mL kg(-1) m(2) h(-1), corresponding with a COV of 35%. Patients who received <30 mL kg(-1) m(2) h(-1) crystalloids were more likely to be younger (58 vs 60 years), white (79% vs 74%), and have a higher body mass index (BMI; 28.2 vs 25.4 kg/m(2); all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, increasing Charlson comorbidity index, BMI, estimated blood loss, and each additional hour of surgery were all associated with increased crystalloid administration (all P < .05). Corrected crystalloid administration varied among providers with a corrected COV ranging from 14% to 61%. When overall variation in crystalloid administration was assessed, 80% of the variation occurred at the patient level, and 20% occurred at the provider level (surgeon, 3% vs anesthesiologist, 17%). There was wide variability in crystalloid administration among patients undergoing liver resection. Although the majority of variation was attributable to patient factors, a large amount of residual variation was attributable to provider-level differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific immunotherapy in children.

    PubMed

    Bufe, A; Roberts, G

    2011-09-01

    Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with allergen extracts in children with allergic rhinitis, with or without co-seasonal asthma, has developed into a routine treatment although the scientific evidence for its efficacy is not as strong as for adults. In the hands of experienced allergists, this treatment has been proven to be safe. The development of allergen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) may open a new age of more convenient, safer SIT. In children, in particular, the evidence for the long-term efficacy of SLIT, its ability to prevent the development of asthma and polysensitization and its comparability to SCIT will be required before it will replace the traditional subcutaneous route. Issues of compliance represent an important drawback of SLIT. We need ways of improving this. Treatment of asthma by immunotherapy is still restricted to clearly defined patients with mild to moderate asthma with symptoms that are related to the specific allergen sensitization. In these patients, symptoms and use of anti-inflammatory therapy can be reduced by SIT.

  8. Immunotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Märten, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas have especially poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of <1% and a median survival of 4-6 months. Pancreatic carcinoma is a systemic disease, insensitive to radiotherapy and mostly to chemotherapy. Accordingly, new treatment modalities are worth being investigated. One of the promising approaches is immunotherapy. Several phase I/II trials that have been published show interesting results, whereupon antibody-based strategies seem to fail and unspecific stimulation or vaccination with peptides look encouraging. Furthermore, phase II trials dealing with combination therapies are highly promising. One of them, a combination of chemoradiotherapy plus interferon-alpha is currently tested in a randomized phase III trial. As most of the trials had enrolled only limited numbers of patients and most of the trials were not conducted and/or reported according to the new standards it is difficult to draw final conclusions from the discussed trials. Immuno-monitoring was performed only in 40% of the discussed publications. In all cases immune responses were observed and correlation with the clinical outcome is discussed. Immunotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially combination therapies including immunotherapy is an up-and-coming approach and needs to be investigated in well conducted phase III randomized controlled trials accompanied by appropriate immuno-monitoring.

  9. Factors determining discharge destination for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sharareh, Behnam; Le, Natasha B; Hoang, Melinda T; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2014-07-01

    Discharge destination to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) plays an important role in healthcare costs. The pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative factors of 50 consecutive patients discharged to an SNF following TJA were compared to that of 50 consecutive patients discharged to home. Patients discharged to SNFs had slower pre-operative Get Up and Go scores (TGUG), lower pre-operative EQ-5D scores, higher ASA scores, increased hospital length of stay, increased self-reported post-operative pain, and decreased physical therapy achievements. We believe that the results of this study indicate that patients who get discharged to SNFs fit a certain criteria and this may be used to guide post-operative discharge destination during pre-operative planning, which can help lower costs while helping decrease the length of inpatient stay.

  10. [Nursing care in patients undergoing radiological surgery. A case report].

    PubMed

    Armero-Barranco, David; Ruiz-Mateos, María; Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Bernal-Páez, Fernando Luis

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old man with medical diagnoses of long-standing diabetes mellitus, chronic ischemia of the lower limbs and intermittent claudication, for which the patient had been treated with minimally invasive radiological surgery. On arrival at the radiology unit, the patient had nursing diagnoses of anxiety and fear. Intraoperatively, the client had nursing diagnoses of pain, urine retention and infection risk. At discharge, a collaboration problem was detected and hemorrhagic risk. The patient received individualized nursing care. Interventions were planned following the nursing intervention classification (NIC) and the expected results for these interventions followed the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) taxonomy. The application of an appropriate nursing care plan contributes to making the patient's hospital stay easier, more comfortable and less traumatic.

  11. Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Transplant Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Van Bakel, Adrian B.; Brand, Timothy M.; Ravenel, James G.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Silvestri, Gerard A.; Judson, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the association between hemodynamic parameters of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLA) in heart transplantation (HT) candidates and the effect of HT on MLA. We also described the results of lymph node (LN) biopsies of MLA in the patients. Methods: Patients who underwent HT evaluation over an 8-year period and had chest CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. Data collected included LN sizes pre-HT and post-HT, echocardiographic measurements, radionuclide-derived ejection fraction, and right-sided heart catheterization hemodynamics. MLA was defined as LNs > 1 cm in smallest dimension. Results: Of 118 patients, 53 patients had MLA. MLA had weak statistically significant correlations with elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation (TR), right atrial pressure (RAP), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Thirty-six patients with MLA underwent HT, and nine of the 36 had post-HT chest CT scans. All nine patients showed a decrease in LN size post-HT (mean LN diameter pre-HT = 1.16 ± 0.137 cm, post-HT = 0.75 ± 0.32 cm). Seven of 53 patients with MLA underwent biopsies. Four had benign LNs, one had sarcoidosis, and two had lung cancer. Conclusions: MPAP, MR, TR, RAP, and PCWP had weak statistically significant correlations with MLA. HT led to regression of MLA in patients who underwent CT scans post-HT, implying that MLA is related to CHF. However, we also identified clinically important causes of MLA; therefore, biopsy should be considered if enlarged LNs fail to regress after maximal medical management of CHF. PMID:20966040

  12. [Efficacy of parenteral glutamine in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Oliva García, J G; Pereyra-García Castro, F; Suárez Llanos, J P; Ríos Rull, P; Breña Atienza, J; Palacio Abizanda, J E

    2012-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) represents a high metabolic stress. Glutamine has proven to be effective in severe catabolic states, although there are controversial studies. To assess the effect of parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy supplemented with glutamine on the occurrence of mucositis and mean hospital stay in patients submitted to ABMT. Retrospective study of patients submitted to ABMT between 2006 and 2009. In 2008, one vial of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (20 g) was added by protocol to the PN formulations of these patients. Thirteen clinical charts since that date (glutamine group) and 13 previous charts (control group) were randomly selected (n = 26). We compared the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in both groups. In the subgroup of glutamine-treated patients, we compare the glutamine dose in the patients developing some degree of mucositis with that of those not having this complication. Mean hospital stay: 27.8 ± 7.4 days (control group) vs. 20.3 ± 5.3 days (glutamine group) (p = 0.01). The severity of mucositis was lower in the glutaminetreated group (p = 0.02). The weight-adjusted dose of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the patients not developing mucositis was higher than in the other ones (0.32 vs. 0.24 g/kg/day; p = 0.02). Glutamine supplementation reduces the degree of mucositis and hospital stay in patients submitted to autologous bone marrow transplantation. The degree of mucositis is lower in the subgroup of patients receiving higher doses of glutamine.

  13. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  14. Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Li-Na; Shi, Hon-Yi; Wang, Tsai-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Ying; Lee, King-Teh

    2011-07-01

    This large-scale prospective cohort study of a Taiwan population applied generalized estimating equations to evaluate predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after open cholecystectomy (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures performed between February 2007 and November 2008. The Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 were used in a preoperative assessment and in 3(rd) month and 6(th) month postoperative assessments of 38 OC and 259 LC patients. The HRQOL of the cholecystectomy patients were significantly improved at 3 months and 6 months postsurgery (p<0.05). At 3 months postsurgery, HRQOL improvement was significantly larger in LC patients than in OC patients. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and health care quality were also significantly related to HRQOL improvement (p<0.05). Additionally, after controlling for related variables, preoperative health status was significantly and positively associated with each subscale of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 throughout the 6 months (p<0.05). Patients should be advised that their postoperative HRQOL may depend not only on their postoperative health care but also on their preoperative functional status.

  15. Oral manifestation and salivary changes in renal patients undergoing hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Marieh; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sargolzaie, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc. were recorded in the information collection form. The data was analyzed using T-test and chi-square, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The mean salivary urea level and pH value in the patient group were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to salivary calcium. Halitosis, xerostomia, and increased calculus were the most prevalent manifestations, and gum bleeding was the least prevalent among the patients. Conclusions Advanced chronic renal insufficiency can increase salivary urea level, pH value, halitosis, xerostomia, and calculus formation, and may cause pale mucosa. Key words:Renal dialysis, biomarkers, oral manifestation, saliva. PMID:28210437

  16. Oral manifestation and salivary changes in renal patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Honarmand, Marieh; Farhad-Mollashahi, Leila; Nakhaee, Alireza; Sargolzaie, Fahimeh

    2017-02-01

    Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc. were recorded in the information collection form. The data was analyzed using T-test and chi-square, and p<0.05 was considered to be significant. The mean salivary urea level and pH value in the patient group were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to salivary calcium. Halitosis, xerostomia, and increased calculus were the most prevalent manifestations, and gum bleeding was the least prevalent among the patients. Advanced chronic renal insufficiency can increase salivary urea level, pH value, halitosis, xerostomia, and calculus formation, and may cause pale mucosa. Key words:Renal dialysis, biomarkers, oral manifestation, saliva.

  17. The prevalence of moderate mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing CABG.

    PubMed

    Wierup, Per; Nielsen, Sten Lyager; Egeblad, Henrik; Scherstén, Henrik; Kimblad, Per-Ola; Bech-Hansen, Odd; Roijer, Anders; Nilsson, Folke; Nielsen, Per Hostrup; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Mølgaard, Henning

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) in the contemporary CABG population. We also aimed to correlate the effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) of any regurgitant mitral valve in patients with coronary artery disease with the semiquantitative integrated scale of IMR. From March 15 through June 15, 2006, 510 consecutive CABG patients in three tertiary centres were included in the study. All patients showing any sign of mitral regurgitation (MR) at the referring hospital underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiographic estimation of the degree of MR using the integrated scale (1-4) and ERO. IMR was found in 141 patients (28%). The prevalence of moderate 2+ or worse IMR was 4% (95% CI; 2.5-6.1%) and the ERO corresponding to 2+ IMR or more ranged from 5 to 30 mm(2). Fourteen patients had an ERO between 15-30 mm(2). According to our study, patients with moderate IMR, defined as an ERO between 15-30 mm(2), account for only 2.7% (95% CI; 1.5-4.7%) of a non-emergency CABG population.

  18. Adjuvant Ovarian Suppression, High-dose Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy for Premenopausal Patients with High-risk Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Rosselli, Michele; Bratta, Massimo; Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Fumagalli, Luca A; Rea, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    Premenopausal patients with breast cancer and more than 10 positive axillary nodes (BC>10) have a poor prognosis: In these patients the best adjuvant therapy (CT) has not yet been established. Forty-two BC>10 received, in sequence, the following adjuvant treatments: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) analog for 5 years; anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy; radiation therapy; platinum-based high-dose CT, with autologous bone marrow transplantation; immunotherapy with interleukin 2 (IL2) and 13-cis retinoic acid (RA); anastrazole given 5 years to estrogen receptor-positive patients. Primary endpoints of the study were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall (OS) survival. A secondary endpoint was toxicity. The median age of patients was 41 years, and the mean number of positive axillary nodes was 14. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 57% and 29% of patients respectively, while 14% of patients had triple-negative disease. With a median follow-up of 120 months for patients remaining alive at the end of study, median DFS and OS, had not yet been reached. The 20-year DFS and OS rates were 63.8%, and 81.6%, respectively. One to two years after the end of the therapy, three patients had had four full-term pregnancies. Treatment with LH-RH analog, high-dose CT, peripheral blood progenitor cells and IL2 with RA for patients with BC>10 is feasible, has moderate toxicity, while preserving ovarian function, seems to improve the expected DFS and OS for these high-risk patients. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic value of Bcl-2 and Bax tumor cell expression in patients with non muscle-invasive bladder cancer receiving bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ajili, Faouzia; Kaabi, Belhassen; Darouiche, Amine; Tounsi, Haifa; Kourda, Nadia; Chebil, Mohamed; Manai, Mohamed; Boubaker, Samir

    2012-02-01

    Apoptosis is the distinctive form of programmed cell death that complements cell proliferation in maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. The significance of constitutive apoptosis in the recurrence of Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic significance of Bax and Bcl-2 in terms of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on frozen biopsies to evaluate bcl-2 and Bax proteins expression in 28 cases of NMIBC. All patients with confirmed NMIBC were treated with intravesical BCG-immunotherapy. The follow up was performed for 26 months. The correlation between clinicopathological, immunohistochemical data and the response to BCG therapy was performed. Univariate analysis showed that, PT1 stage, High grade and Bax expression increased significantly the risk of recurrence (P = 0.015, P = 0.015 and P= 0.034 respectively). In addition, multivariate analysis selected the model involving stage, age, Bax and Bcl-2 expression as the best independent variables of recurrence. In conclusion, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in NMIBC could have a prognostic value in assessing the risk of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy. These findings require further investigations on larger cohort in order to ascertain new molecular markers of the response to BCG immunotherapy.

  20. Columellar Incision Scars in Asian Patients Undergoing Open Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Chan; Jang, Yong Ju

    2016-05-01

    An open approach has been adopted for rhinoplasty because of its wide and undistorted exposure. The formation of a columellar incision scar is the main drawback of this approach. To evaluate the incidence and evolution of and risk factors for columellar incision scars in an Asian population. A retrospective case series of 529 patients who underwent open rhinoplasty was performed in a tertiary care referral center in South Korea from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2014. Problematic transcolumellar incision scars were categorized into wide and depressed, notching, and hyperpigmented wound types. Follow-up was complete on January 28, 2015, and data were assessed from July 1, 2014, to May 29, 2015. The incidence of each problematic scar and the time course of erythema evolution were evaluated. Factors affecting the formation of a problematic scar were also evaluated. Of 529 patients (176 female and 353 male patients; mean age, 31 [range, 5-70] years), 234 patients with at least 6 months of follow-up underwent evaluation for a problematic scar. Fourteen of the 234 patients (6.0%) had problematic incision scarring (wide and depressed wound, 4 [1.7%]; notching wound, 3 [1.3%]; hyperpigmentation, 4 [1.7%]; marginal incision hypertrophic scar, 2 [0.8%]; and columellar skin necrosis, 1 [0.4%]). Of the 243 patients with regular follow-up who underwent evaluation for erythema evolution, erythematous wounds were found in almost all in the immediate postoperative period and had normalized by a mean (SD) of 66.7 (37.4) postoperative days. Use of costal cartilage as tip graft material was associated with a problematic incision scar (2 of 25 patients [8.0%] vs 6 of 180 patients with other graft material [3.3%]; P = .02). In this cohort of Asian patients, the incisions used for an open rhinoplasty approach had some problems. However, the low incidence of problematic scars indicates that open rhinoplasty should not be discouraged because of the incision scar. 4.

  1. [Management of patients with arrhythmias undergoing thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, H; Okubo, K

    2012-07-01

    Recentry, surgical candidates have become older and have more surgical risk factors, perioperative patient management become more important than before. In the patients with significant arrhythmia observed in the preoperative period, examination of the baseline heart disease, i.e. myocardial ischemia or congestive heart failure, is mandatory and, if necessary, adequate treatment such as defibrillator, the implantation of a pacemaker, anticoagulation therapy, or other medical therapy should be performed. In the patients with atrial fibrillation, clinical prediction rules such as the congestive heart failure, hypertension, age>75, diabetes, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) [CHADS 2] score have been developed to identify those patients at highest risk for thrombo-embolism and can be used when assessing the need for bridging anticoagulation by heparin prior to surgery. The electrical stimulus from electrocautery may inhibit demand pacemakers or may reprogram the pacemaker. An asynchronous or non-sensing pacemaker mode is recommended in patients who are pacemaker dependent and whose underlying rhythm is unreliable. The device has to be checked to ensure appropriate programming and sensing pacing thresholds after surgery. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator should be turned off during surgery and switched on in the recovery phase before discharge to the ward.

  2. [Treatment of anemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Basora Macaya, M

    2015-06-01

    Iron deficiency in patients with morbid obesity can occur before bariatric surgery due to its inflammatory component and after surgery as the result of implementing the malabsorptive techniques. For patients with morbid obesity, micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, iron and folate, should be suspected. Iron deficiency and other hematinics should be corrected, even when anemia has not been established. Normal ferritin levels do not allow us to rule out a possible iron deficiency, given that ferritin can increase due to the chronic inflammatory condition of obesity. After bariatric surgery, patients should take iron supplements; however, these supplements are frequently poorly tolerated. Rapid and effective correction of hemoglobin levels might require the intravenous administration of iron preparations.

  3. Vocal changes in patients undergoing radiation therapy for glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.; Harrison, L.B.; Solomon, B.; Sessions, R.B. )

    1990-06-01

    A prospective evaluation of vocal changes in patients receiving radiation therapy for T1 and T2 (AJC) glottic carcinoma was undertaken in January 1987. Vocal analysis was performed prior to radiotherapy and at specific intervals throughout the radiation treatment program. The voicing ratio was extrapolated from a sustained vowel phonation using the Visipitch interfaced with the IBM-PC. Preliminary observations suggested three distinct patterns of vocal behavior: 1. reduced voicing ratio with precipitous improvement within the course of treatment, 2. high initial voicing ratio with reduction secondary to radiation induced edema, with rapid improvement in the voicing component after the edema subsided, and 3. fluctuating voicing ratio during and following treatment. Enrollment of new patients and a 2-year follow-up of current patients was undertaken.

  4. Iron Overload in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pullarkat, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) frequently have iron overload resulting from chronic transfusion therapy for anemia. In some cases, for example, in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and thalassemia, this can be further exacerbated by increased absorption of iron from the gut as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis. Accumulating evidence has established the negative impact of elevated pretransplantation serum ferritin, a surrogate marker of iron overload, on overall survival and nonrelapse mortality after HSCT. Complications of HSCT associated with iron overload include increased bacterial and fungal infections as well as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome and possibly other regimen-related toxicities. Based on current evidence, particular attention should be paid to prevention and management of iron overload in allogeneic HSCT candidates, especially in patients with thalassemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The pathophysiology of iron overload in the HSCT patient and optimum strategies to deal with iron overload during and after HSCT require further study. PMID:20871852

  5. Review of Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Paul; Morris, William; Oladeji, Philip; Huo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is a serious complication following hip surgery in elderly patients that can adversely affect outcomes in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. Recently, the incidence of hip fracture in the Medicare population was estimated at approximately 500 000 patients per year, with the majority treated surgically. The annual volume of total hip arthroplasty is nearly 450 000 patients and is projected to increase over the next 15 to 20 years. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative delirium will rise. The incidence of postoperative delirium after hip surgery in the elderly patients ranges between 4% and 53%, and it is identified as the most common surgical complication of older patients. The most common risk factors include advanced age, hip fracture surgery (vs elective hip surgery), and preoperative delirium/cognitive impairment. Exact pathophysiology has not been fully defined. It is hypothesized that imbalances in cortical neurotransmitters or inflammatory cytokine pathway mechanisms contribute to delirium. Development of postoperative delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, increased medical complications, and poorer short-term functional outcome. Patients who develop postoperative delirium are also at increased risk for cognitive decline beyond the acute phase. Following acute care, postoperative delirium is associated with the need for a higher level of care, an additional cost. Management of postoperative delirium centers on prevention and early recognition. Medical prophylaxis has been demonstrated to have limited utility. Utilization of delirium detection methods contributed to early recognition. The most effective means of prevention involved a multidisciplinary team focused on adequate hydration, optimization of analgesia, reduction in polypharmacy, aggressive physiotherapy, and early recognition of the delirium symptoms.

  6. Review of Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Morris, William; Oladeji, Philip; Huo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative delirium is a serious complication following hip surgery in elderly patients that can adversely affect outcomes in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. Recently, the incidence of hip fracture in the Medicare population was estimated at approximately 500 000 patients per year, with the majority treated surgically. The annual volume of total hip arthroplasty is nearly 450 000 patients and is projected to increase over the next 15 to 20 years. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative delirium will rise. The incidence of postoperative delirium after hip surgery in the elderly patients ranges between 4% and 53%, and it is identified as the most common surgical complication of older patients. The most common risk factors include advanced age, hip fracture surgery (vs elective hip surgery), and preoperative delirium/cognitive impairment. Exact pathophysiology has not been fully defined. It is hypothesized that imbalances in cortical neurotransmitters or inflammatory cytokine pathway mechanisms contribute to delirium. Development of postoperative delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, increased medical complications, and poorer short-term functional outcome. Patients who develop postoperative delirium are also at increased risk for cognitive decline beyond the acute phase. Following acute care, postoperative delirium is associated with the need for a higher level of care, an additional cost. Management of postoperative delirium centers on prevention and early recognition. Medical prophylaxis has been demonstrated to have limited utility. Utilization of delirium detection methods contributed to early recognition. The most effective means of prevention involved a multidisciplinary team focused on adequate hydration, optimization of analgesia, reduction in polypharmacy, aggressive physiotherapy, and early recognition of the delirium symptoms. PMID:27239384

  7. Retreatment Rates Among Endometriosis Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy or Laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Du, Ella Xiaoyan; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Haley, Jane C

    2017-06-01

    Hysterectomy and laparoscopy are the two most common surgical options used to treat women with endometriosis, yet the disease may still recur. This study aimed to determine the long-term retreatment rates among endometriosis patients in the United States who received either hysterectomy or laparoscopy. Patients aged 18-49 years with endometriosis who underwent hysterectomy or laparoscopy were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan claims database (2004-2013). The retreatment rate up to 8 years after the initial surgery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The relative risk of retreatment among patients with hysterectomy versus laparoscopy was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 24,915 patients with endometriosis who underwent hysterectomy and 37,308 patients with endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy were identified. The estimated retreatment rates were 3.3%, 4.7%, and 5.4% in the 2nd, 5th, and 8th year following hysterectomy, respectively, while the rates following laparoscopy were 15.8%, 27.5%, and 35.2%, respectively. The hazard ratio of retreatment was 0.157 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.146-0.169) comparing hysterectomy to laparoscopy. In the sensitivity analysis, which expanded the definition of retreatment by including medical treatments, the retreatment rate increased by a factor of 11-14 for the hysterectomy cohort and by a factor of 2-4 for the laparoscopy cohort, and the hazard ratio of retreatment rate for hysterectomy versus laparoscopy was 0.490 (95% CI: 0.477-0.502). Our study results indicated that the disease retreatment rate after laparoscopy is high among patients with endometriosis; even hysterectomy does not guarantee freedom from retreatment.

  8. Osteonecrosis associated with dental implants in patients undergoing bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Geon; Lee, Chung-O; Park, Jin-Woo; Choi, So-Young; Rijal, Girdhari; Shin, Hong-In

    2014-05-01

    Bisphosphonate-related jaw necrosis (BRONJ) associated with dental implants is a rare but continuously reported complication. To verify clinical and pathological characteristics of BRONJ around dental implants, the present study analyzed clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings of these lesions. Nineteen patients were diagnosed with osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with dental implants and treated at our institute from 2008 to 2011. The patients' medical history, demographic features, radiographic, and histopathological findings along with information on bisphosphonates (BP) administration were analyzed. The majority of BRONJ patients associated with dental implants used oral BP for osteoporosis. The patients were divided into two groups: BP initiation before (n = 16) and after (n = 3) implant surgery. Only three patients (15.8%) could be regarded as "implant surgery-triggered" BRONJ. Many patients (n = 9) showed successful osteointegration after fixture installation to an average of 35 months (11-82 months) until the development of osteonecrosis. The histological features of the lesion showed that the necrotic bone with empty lacunae was infiltrated by inflammatory cells and bacterial colonies. Viable osteocytes were also observed in some areas of the bony specimens. Three types of bone destruction pattern were observed: (i) complete necrosis of the bone around the implant (frozen type), (ii) extensive osteolysis around the implant with or without sequestra (osteolytic type), and (iii) sequestration of bone with an implant maintaining direct implant-bone contact (en block sequestration type). These findings could be existed at the same lesions depending on the degree of local bone destruction and the severity of the infection. These results and those of others suggested that already osseointegrated dental implants can also cause the osteonecrosis around the implant after BP administration. En block sequestration of bone with implant might be one of

  9. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: Facts and Hopes.

    PubMed

    Emens, Leisha A

    2017-08-11

    Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the management of multiple solid tumors, and early data have revealed the clinical activity of PD-1/PD-L1 antagonists in small numbers of metastatic breast cancer patients. Clinical activity appears more likely if the tumor is triple negative, PD-L1+, and/or harbors higher levels of TILs. Responses to atezolizumab and pembrolizumab appear to be durable in metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), suggesting these agents may transform the lives of responding patients. Current clinical efforts are focused on developing immunotherapy combinations that convert non-responders to responders, deepen those responses that do occur, and surmount acquired resistance to immunotherapy. Identifying biomarkers that can predict the potential for response to single agent immunotherapy, identify the best immunotherapy combinations for a particular patient, and guide salvage immunotherapy in patients with progressive disease are high priorities for clinical development. Smart clinical trials testing rational immunotherapy combinations that include robust biomarker evaluations will accelerate clinical progress, moving us closer to effective immunotherapy for almost all breast cancer patients. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Nutritional implications for the patient undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Farías, María Magdalena; Olivos, Cristina; Díaz, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiovascular collapse or catastrophic respiratory failure in the critically ill patient imposes a multidisciplinary approach. Nutritional support is one of the issues that must be faced, as this population presents a state of increased metabolic activity, elevated catabolism of protein and rapid accumulating energy deficiency. Provision of adequate nutritional therapy is hard to achieve due to different factors. This article provides a brief overview of the current literature regarding nutritional support during ECMO in adult patients, as no current guidelines address this issue.

  11. Persistent pulmonary artery hypertension in patients undergoing balloon mitral valvotomy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Krishna Kumar Mohanan; Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Titus, Thomas; Varaparambil, Ajitkumar; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Krishnamoorthy, Kavassery Mahadevan; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Thajudeen, Anees; Ganapathy, Sanjay; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is known to regress after successful balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV). Data of persistent pulmonary artery hypertension (PPAH) following BMV is scarce. We analyzed the clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic data of 701 consecutive patients who have undergone successful BMV in our institute from 1997 to 2003. Data of 287 patients who had PPAH (defined by pulmonary artery systolic pressure [PASP] of ≥ 40 mmHg at one year following BMV) were compared to the data of 414 patients who did not have PPAH. Patients who had PPAH were older (39.9 ± 9.9 years vs. 29.4 ± 10.1; P < 0.001). They had higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF; 21.9 vs. 12.1%, P < 0.05), moderate or severe pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) defined as PASP more than 50 mmHg (43.5 vs. 33.8%, P = 0.00), anatomically advanced mitral valve disease as assessed by Wilkin's echocardiographic score > 8 (33.7 vs. 23.2%, P < 0.001), and coexistent aortic valve disease (45.6 vs. 37.9%, P < 0.001) at the baseline. Those patients with PPAH had comparatively lower immediate postprocedural mitral valve area (MVA). On follow-up of more than five years, the occurrence of restenosis (39.3 vs. 10.1%, P = 0.000), new onset heart failure (14% vs. 4%, P < 0.05) and need for reinterventions (9.5% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.05) were higher in the PPAH group. Patients with PPAH were older, sicker, and had advanced rheumatic mitral valve disease. They had higher incidence of restenosis, new onset heart failure, and need for reinterventions on long term follow-up. PPAH represents an advanced stage of rheumatic valve disease and indicates chronicity of the disease, which may be the reason for the poorer prognosis of these patients. Patients with PPAH requires intense and more frequent follow-up. PMID:24015345

  12. Outcomes are Worse in US Patients Undergoing Surgery on Weekends Compared With Weekdays.

    PubMed

    Glance, Laurent G; Osler, Turner; Li, Yue; Lustik, Stewart J; Eaton, Michael P; Dutton, Richard P; Dick, Andrew W

    2016-06-01

    Increasing surgical access to previously underserved populations in the United States may require a major expansion of the use of operating rooms on weekends to take advantage of unused capacity. Although the so-called weekend effect for surgery has been described in other countries, it is unknown whether US patients undergoing moderate-to-high risk surgery on weekends are more likely to experience worse outcomes than patients undergoing surgery on weekdays. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing surgery on weekends are more likely to die or experience a major complication compared with patients undergoing surgery on a weekday. Using all-payer data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 305,853 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery, colorectal surgery, open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, and lower extremity revascularization. We compared in-hospital mortality and major complications for weekday versus weekend surgery using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After controlling for patient risk and surgery type, weekend elective surgery [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.26-4.49; P<0.001] and weekend urgent surgery (AOR=2.11; 95% CI, 1.68-2.66; P<0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death compared with weekday surgery. Weekend elective (AOR=1.58; 95% CI, 1.29-1.93; P<0.001) and weekend urgent surgery (AOR=1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.82; P<0.001) were also associated with a higher risk of major complications compared with weekday surgery. Patients undergoing nonemergent major cardiac and noncardiac surgery on the weekends have a clinically significantly increased risk of death and major complications compared with patients undergoing surgery on weekdays. These findings should prompt decision makers to seek to better understand factors, such physician and nurse staffing, which may contribute to the weekend effect.

  13. An algorithm for use of prasugrel (effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Julio; Morrow, David; Resnic, Frederic; Manica, Andre; Kirshenbaum, James; Cannon, Christopher; Croce, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    An algorithm for use of Prasugrel (Effient) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention at the Brigham and Women's Hospital is presented. Our algorithm, which is in the process of being implemented, is consistent with published and generally accepted standards of care and is based on data from the pivotal Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI) 38, which compared clopidogrel with prasugrel in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Areas of focus include analysis of the benefit of prasugrel over clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome patients and appropriate selection of patients for prasugrel treatment.

  14. Short communication: oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART including efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Aquino-García, S I; Rivas, M A; Ceballos-Salobreña, A; Acosta-Gio, A E; Gaitán-Cepeda, L A

    2008-06-01

    Oral lesions (OL) have an important prognostic value for HIV/AIDS patients. However, the behavior of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz (HAART/EFV) has not been documented. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV and to compare it with the prevalence of OL in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI). Seventy-three HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment for at least for 6 months at "La Raza" Medical Center's Internal Medicine Unit (IMSS, Mexico City) were included. To detect OL, a detailed examination of oral soft tissues was performed in each patient. Patient records recorded gender, seropositivity time, route of contagion, antiretroviral therapy type and duration, CD4 lymphocyte count/ml, and viral load. Two groups were formed: 38 patients receiving HAART/EFV [two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTI) plus efavirenz] and 35 patients receiving HAART/PI (two NARTIs plus one PI). OL prevalence was established in each study group. The Chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05(IC95%)). OL prevalence in the HAART/EFV group (32%) was lower (p < 0.007) than in the HAART/PI group (63%). Candidosis was the most prevalent OL in both groups. Herpes labialis, HIV-associated necrotizing periodontitis, xerostomia, hairy leukoplakia, and nonspecific oral sores were identified. The highest prevalence for all OL was found in the HAART/PI group. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV show a lower prevalence of oral lesions than patients undergoing HAART/PI.

  15. ET-1 levels in cardioischemic patients undergoing atrial pacing.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Alessandri, N; Campana, E; Quaglione, R; Ciccaglioni, A; Giancaspro, G; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Califano, F

    2001-01-01

    Atrial pacing (AP) procedure was carried out in 11 cardioischemic patients to reproduce tachycardia-induced myocardial ischemia. Six control subjects underwent the same procedure until the maximum pacing rate was reached. During the procedure, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasma lactate levels were measured in the coronary sinus and in the aortic root. In all the patients, atrial pacing provoked electrocardiographic signs and metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia and a significant decrease (p<0.001) in left ventricular ejection fraction. At AP-induced ischemia, coronary sinus (17.31 +/- 4.20 pg/mL) and arterial (9.60 +/- 3.31 pg/mL) ET-1 plasma levels were significantly different (p<0.001) in the patients. On the contrary, at maximum pacing rate, no significant difference (p=0.186) emerged between coronary sinus (9.72 +/- 1.09 pg/mL) and arterial (8.95 +/- 0.75 pg/mL) plasma ET-1 levels in the control group. These results suggest that, in cardioischemic patients, tachycardia can induce the coronary endothelium to release significant amounts of ET-1.

  16. Pruritus: control of itch in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Mettang, M; Weisshaar, E

    2010-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated pruritus is a significant clinical symptom affecting more than 50% of patients on hemodialysis. Restricted by the availability of effective therapeutic options, the management of CKD-associated pruritus remains a treatment challenge. Evaluating research in this area is difficult, as most studies are not comparable due to differing methodologies and study designs, limited number of patients, and the lack of standardized measures. The most frequently used therapy is UVB phototherapy, eliciting favorable responses in most patients. Newer approaches, such as treatment with the m-opiod-receptor antagonist, naltrexone, have yielded conflicting results. The use of the k-opioid-receptor-agonist, nalfurafine, appears to be partially effective in relieving CKD-associated pruritus, as shown by a meta-analysis of 2 clinical trials. Promising results have been obtained by treatment with the anticonvulsant gabapentin. CKD-associated pruritus is thought to be mediated by a proinflammatory state, which explains why immunomodulating drugs (e.g., thalidomide, tacrolimus, and pentoxiphylline) are effective in some patients. Treatment of CKD-associated pruritus should be undertaken according to individual benefit-risk ratio assessments.

  17. Punctate keratopathy of West Indians in patients undergoing photorefractive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Revelo, Mario L; Paredes, David; Jaramillo, Luis Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present two cases of patients with corneal lesions compatible with punctate keratopathy of West Indians who underwent photorefractive keratectomy and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Both had good postoperative results. The corneal lesions did not interfere with the refractive surgery. PMID:23355587

  18. [Perioperative management for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing noncardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Okuyama, A; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H; Takita, K; Okuyama, M; Kubota, M

    1992-01-01

    We had two patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for noncardiac surgeries. Case 1: A 74-year-old man for right nephrectomy received epidural lidocaine and nitrous oxide combined with 0.2-0.6% isoflurane. During the operation, heart rate and blood pressure were relatively unstable, but he woke up promptly after the operation. Early on the morning of the 2nd post-operative day, he was found dead on his bed. Case 2: A 52-year-old man for gastrectomy was anesthetized with nitrous oxide and halothane with continuous propranolol infusion. Through the operative period, heart rate and blood pressure were stable and postoperative course was uneventful. In these two patients, preoperative Holter ECG showed ventricular tachycardia, which may increase the risk of a sudden death. These cases demonstrate that general anesthesia with nitrous oxide combined with halothane, can be administered with a low risk in patients with HCM for noncardiac surgery and that postoperative intensive care unit monitoring is necessary for these patients for several days to prevent a sudden death.

  19. Hepatitis Viral Markers in Patients Undergoing Primary Liver Transplants

    PubMed Central

    LEWIS, JESSICA H.; EL-ASHMAWY, LOBNA; RAMSEY, GLENN E.; BONTEMPO, FRANKLIN A.; ROCHLANI, MAYA; DEMETRIS, ANTHONY J.; VAN THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence in liver transplant (OLTx) patients of the hepatitis markers (anti-A, anti-B, anti-C, anti-D and HBsAg) and the interrelationships between markers and patients’ sexes, ages, dates of transplant, clinicopathological diagnoses, and short-term survivals. Slightly more than half of the patients were male. Anti-A and anti-B were about evenly distributed between male and female. Anti-C, anti-D, and HBsAg were far more common in males. Age and year of transplant showed only a moderate increase in anti-A with increasing age. Anti-A was found in 57% of all patients, anti-B in 18%, anti-C in 17%, and HBsAg in 17%. Anti-D was tested only in patients who were positive for anti-B or HBsAg and occurred in 21 (11%) of 185. The poorest short-term survival occurred in males who showed both anti-A and HBsAg. PMID:8444076

  20. The ventilated patient undergoing hydrotherapy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan

    2003-08-01

    The ascending peripheral neuropathy and paralysis that result from Guillain-Barre Syndrome's (GBS) demyelination of peripheral nerves is a challenge to health professionals; the patient requires support during the acute disease process and during the remyelination recovery period, often lasting months to years. The staff of a major metropolitan teaching hospital's critical care unit (CCU) and physiotherapy departments developed a hydrotherapy treatment programme for a ventilated patient with GBS. Through careful planning and appropriate preparation, it was found that hydrotherapy could successfully and safely be incorporated into a patient's treatment regimen. The benefits included improved range of movement due to the supportive nature of water, anecdotal increased strength, size and movement of remyelinating muscles and a psychological improvement. Although this patient has not recovered from GBS to be independent, hydrotherapy was a valuable part of the treatment regimen and it could be suggested the increase muscle strength lead to improved respiratory function and enabled weaning from ventilation, reducing intensive care length of stay and cost.

  1. Immunotherapy of far-advanced lepromatous leprosy patients with low-dose convit vaccine along with multidrug therapy (Calcutta trial).

    PubMed

    Majumder, V; Mukerjee, A; Hajra, S K; Saha, B; Saha, K

    1996-03-01

    , the LMI test against specific M. leprae antigen was negative in all patients of both the Trial and Control Groups. After the end of the chemo-immunotherapy schedule, the LMI test became positive in 50% and 20% of LL patients receiving the mixed vaccine and BCG, respectively. None of the Control Group could show LMI positivity after completion of the MDT schedule. These results show that treatment of LL patients with the mixed vaccine and MDT could quickly reverse the clinical course of the disease, remove immunologic anergy in some patients, and induce a rapid decrease in the bacterial load in them.

  2. Treatment of Hepatitis C in Patients Undergoing Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ooka, Kohtaro; Lim, Joseph K

    2016-09-28

    With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients-most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases-could stand to benefit from these treatments. In this study, we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations. Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically. Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works, of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review. The quality of data was low; only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials. Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically. Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals. Severe adverse effects and death were rare. Data on all-oral regimens were sparse, but in the most robust study, rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41). Efficacy and safety of interferon-containing regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals; however, there were few interventional trials. The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias. While firm conclusions are challenging, given the dearth of high-quality studies, our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective. The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects. Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in

  3. Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyung-Min; Han, Jun; Jin, Dong San; Suh, Hyunseok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Won, Ye-Yeon

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among patients who underwent orthopedic surgery (OS). A total of 222 patients were reviewed immediately after or prior to OS. In the control group, 364 patients from outpatient departments (OPDs) who did not have any OS were enrolled. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze body composition. Skeletal muscle mass was adjusted for height squared, total body weight, and height and fat mass (residuals). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 25.0 kg/m(2). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the OS group was 25.7%, 44.1%, and 26.6%, respectively, according to the 3 different criteria. The prevalence was significantly lower in the OPD group (6.0%, 33.1%, and 14.8%, respectively). The highest rates of sarcopenia with height-adjusted definition were seen in patients with a femoral neck fracture. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with sarcopenia were male gender, older age, and lower BMI (odds ratio [OR]: 28.38, 1.03, and 1.83, respectively) when muscle mass was adjusted for height, whereas male gender, older age, and higher BMI were associated with sarcopenia (OR: 1.04, 2.57, and 1.83, respectively) when adjusted for weight. When residuals were used as a cutoff, decreased BMI and total hip bone mineral density (0.1 g/cm(2)) were independent risk factors associated with sarcopenia (OR: 1.09 and 1.05). The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity ranged from 1.8% to 21.2%. Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of sarcopenia among OS patients.

  4. Quantifying cardiovascular risks in patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R; Schwenk, Eric S; Pulido, Luis; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-04-01

    The coexistence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia is defined as metabolic syndrome. Studies show substantial cardiovascular risks among these patients. The risk of patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is unknown. Patients with and without metabolic syndrome undergoing TJA during a 3-year period were analyzed for postoperative complications. Metabolic syndrome was defined by having 3 of the following 4 criteria: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)), dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Patients with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular complications compared with controls (P = .017). The risk of an adverse event increased by 29% and 32%, respectively, when there were 3 or 4 syndrome components. Patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing TJA have increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Our results show that metabolic syndrome may have a clustering effect and pose increased risk when individual risks factors are combined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional markers in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Dewar, D; Soyibo, A K; Barton, E N

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status in patients on chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica using the Subjective Global Assessment tool and to correlate this with measured serum nutritional biomarkers, and also to identify nutritional biomarkers that can be used to assess nutritional status of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two hundred and nine consecutive patients on haemodialysis were selected from dialysis centres in Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, St. Catherine and Manchester Jamaica. The nutritional status of each participant was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment tool in an interview performed by the researcher. Serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, highly sensitive complement reactive protein (hsCRP) and total fasting cholesterol were determined from a single serum sample. Only patients with ESRD were selected. Patients with acute renal failure or those with ESRD who were admitted in the previous two weeks were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained prior to interview and obtaining blood samples. Of the total participants, 54.5% (n=114) were male and 45.5% (n=95) female. The mean age for males was 51.9 years and females 47.6 years. Diabetes was documented as the most common cause of chronic renal disease and was found in 29.7%, hypertension in 24.4% and chronic glomerulonephritis in 22% of the participants. Approximately 80% of the study population had moderate malnutrition. There was a significant association between moderate malnutrition and a diagnosis of ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, p = 0.03. Being on haemodialysis for < or = six months was significantly associated with moderate malnutrition p = 0.002. Also associated with moderate malnutrition were presence of an arteriovenous (AV) fistula (p = 0.01), serum albumin of < 40 g/L (OR 3.68, p = 0.001), pre-dialysis creatinine of <880 micromol/L (p = 0.02) and cholesterol < 3.9 mmol/L (p = 0.04). Highly sensitive

  6. Use of PROMIS for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, S. Blake; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) consists of question banks for health domains through computer adaptive testing (CAT). Hypothesis: For patients with glenohumeral arthritis, (1) there would be high correlation between traditional patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and the PROMIS upper extremity item bank (PROMIS UE) and PROMIS physical function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT), and (2) PROMIS PF CAT would not demonstrate ceiling effects. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Sixty-one patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis were included. Each patient completed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, Marx Shoulder Activity Scale, Short Form–36 physical function scale (SF-36 PF), EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, PROMIS PF CAT, and the PROMIS UE. Correlation was defined as high (>0.7), moderate (0.4-0.6), or weak (0.2-0.3). Significant floor and ceiling effects were present if more than 15% of individuals scored the lowest or highest possible total score on any PRO. Results: The PROMIS PF demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF (r = 0.81, P < .0001) and good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.62, P < .0001), EQ-5D (r = 0.64, P < .001), and WOOS index (r = 0.51, P < .01). The PROMIS PF demonstrated low correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.29, P = .02). The PROMIS UE demonstrated good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.55, P < .0001), SF-36 (r = 0.53, P < .01), EQ-5D (r = 0.48, P < .01), and WOOS (r = 0.34, P <.01), and poor correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.06, P = .62). There were no ceiling or floor effects observed. The mean number of items administered by the PROMIS PRO was 4. Conclusion: These data suggest that for a patient population with operative shoulder osteoarthritis, PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT may be valid alternative PROs. Additionally, PROMIS PF CAT offers a decreased

  7. Use of PROMIS for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, S Blake; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2017-09-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) consists of question banks for health domains through computer adaptive testing (CAT). For patients with glenohumeral arthritis, (1) there would be high correlation between traditional patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and the PROMIS upper extremity item bank (PROMIS UE) and PROMIS physical function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT), and (2) PROMIS PF CAT would not demonstrate ceiling effects. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-one patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis were included. Each patient completed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, Marx Shoulder Activity Scale, Short Form-36 physical function scale (SF-36 PF), EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, PROMIS PF CAT, and the PROMIS UE. Correlation was defined as high (>0.7), moderate (0.4-0.6), or weak (0.2-0.3). Significant floor and ceiling effects were present if more than 15% of individuals scored the lowest or highest possible total score on any PRO. The PROMIS PF demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF (r = 0.81, P < .0001) and good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.62, P < .0001), EQ-5D (r = 0.64, P < .001), and WOOS index (r = 0.51, P < .01). The PROMIS PF demonstrated low correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.29, P = .02). The PROMIS UE demonstrated good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.55, P < .0001), SF-36 (r = 0.53, P < .01), EQ-5D (r = 0.48, P < .01), and WOOS (r = 0.34, P <.01), and poor correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.06, P = .62). There were no ceiling or floor effects observed. The mean number of items administered by the PROMIS PRO was 4. These data suggest that for a patient population with operative shoulder osteoarthritis, PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT may be valid alternative PROs. Additionally, PROMIS PF CAT offers a decreased question burden with no ceiling effects.

  8. Hepatologic considerations in patients with parenchymal liver disease undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Provenza, J M; Bacon, B R

    1990-05-01

    Patients with liver disease requiring surgical procedures are at increased perioperative risk. In addition, the deleterious effect of anesthesia on hepatocellular function, altered drug pharmacokinetics, aberrant hemostasis, postoperative encephalopathy and infection, with multiorgan failure, all contribute to perioperative morbidity and mortality. Although limited by the lack of widely accepted quantitative liver function tests, preoperative evaluation and risk assessment is imperative. Acute viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, refractory coagulopathy, Child's class C cirrhosis, and emergent surgery are major risk factors predictive of a poor outcome. In addition, elective abdominal surgical procedures should be avoided in potential candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation. Identification and correction of reversible risk factors via meticulous preoperative definition of the etiology, chronicity, and severity of the patient's liver disease within the confines of surgical urgency is the goal of the preoperative hepatology consultation.

  9. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part I.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Braskett, Melinda; Carino, Arvie

    2016-02-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic agents can cause the discontinuation of first-line therapies. Chemotherapy desensitization is a safe, but labor-intensive, process to administer these important medications. A desensitization protocol can enable a patient to receive the entire target dose of a medication, even if the patient has a history of severe infusion reactions. In this article, the authors explain the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and describe the recent development of desensitization protocols in oncology. In part II of this article, which will appear in the April 2016 issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, the authors will give a detailed account of how a desensitization protocol is performed at an academic medical center.
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  10. Safety and effect on reported symptoms of depigmented polymerized allergen immunotherapy: a retrospective study of 2927 paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Pfaar, Oliver; Sager, Angelika; Robinson, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is effective treatment for allergic diseases, and subcutaneous use of depigmented polymerized extracts may allow rapid up-dosing and safe therapy. To date, there is little information on their safety and clinical effects for children and adolescents with allergic disease. Methods We performed a retrospective survey of patient notes of 2927 children and adolescents across 136 centres who had received subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) with depigmented polymerized extracts to pollen or mite allergens for at least 1 yr to collect documentation on safety and clinical symptoms. Results 16.3% percent of patients had local reactions, of these 148 were larger than 12 cm in diameter. Systemic reactions were documented in 1.6% of children and in 0.8% of adolescents. There were no documented cases of anaphylactic shock. There were significant reductions in the frequency of patients with recorded nasal symptoms over time of treatment. Moreover, the prescribing rate of rescue medication was reduced over the course of SCIT. Conclusion These ‘real-life’ data from a large retrospective analysis including 2927 children and adolescents with pollen- and/or mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with/or without allergic asthma indicate that AIT with depigmented polymerized extracts is well tolerated, and they are compatible with clinical response. PMID:25640879

  11. Clinical validation of sublingual formulations of Immunoxel (Dzherelo) as an adjuvant immunotherapy in treatment of TB patients.

    PubMed

    Efremenko, Yuri V; Arjanova, Olga V; Prihoda, Natalia D; Yurchenko, Larisa V; Sokolenko, Nina I; Mospan, Igor V; Pylypchuk, Volodymyr S; Rowe, John; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S; Kutsyna, Galyna A

    2012-03-01

    Immunoxel (Dzherelo) is a water-alcohol extract of medicinal plants used in Ukraine as an adjunct immunotherapy to TB and HIV therapy. Four types of solid sublingual formulations of Immunoxel were made: sugar dragées, sugar-coated pills, gelatin pastilles and dried-honey lozenges. They were administered once-daily along with TB drugs. After 1 month, 84.1% of TB patients became sputum-negative with rates in individual groups of 89.5, 70, 76.9 and 100%, respectively. The conversion rate was independent of bodyweight, age, gender, differences in chemotherapy regimens or whether subjects had newly diagnosed TB, re-treated TB, multidrug-resistant TB or TB with HIV coinfection. Patients experienced earlier clinical improvement, faster defervescence, weight gain, a higher hemoglobin content and reduced inflammation as evidenced by lower leukocyte counts and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. By contrast, in the placebo group, only 19% of patients had converted. These findings imply that mucosal delivery of solid Immunoxel is equivalent to the original liquid formula given per os twice-daily for 2-4 months.

  12. Treatment of Hepatitis C in Patients Undergoing Immunosuppressive Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ooka, Kohtaro; Lim, Joseph K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With 185 million people chronically infected globally, hepatitis C is a leading bloodborne infection. All-oral regimens of direct acting agents have superior efficacy compared to the historical interferon-based regimens and are significantly more tolerable. However, trials of both types of regimens have often excluded patients on immunosuppressive medications for reasons other than organ transplantation. Yet, these patients—most often suffering from malignancy or autoimmune diseases—could stand to benefit from these treatments. In this study, we systematically review the literature on the treatment of hepatitis C in these neglected populations. Research on patients with organ transplants is more robust and this literature is reviewed here non-systematically. Our systematic review produced 2273 unique works, of which 56 met our inclusion criteria and were used in our review. The quality of data was low; only 3 of the 56 studies were randomized controlled trials. Sustained virologic response was reported sporadically. Interferon-containing regimens achieved this end-point at rates comparable to that in immunocompetent individuals. Severe adverse effects and death were rare. Data on all-oral regimens were sparse, but in the most robust study, rates of sustained virologic response were again comparable to immunocompetent individuals (40/41). Efficacy and safety of interferon-containing regimens and all-oral regimens were similar to rates in immunocompetent individuals; however, there were few interventional trials. The large number of case reports and case series makes conclusions vulnerable to publication bias. While firm conclusions are challenging, given the dearth of high-quality studies, our results demonstrate that antiviral therapy can be safe and effective. The advent of all-oral regimens offers patients and clinicians greatly increased chances of cure and fewer side effects. Preliminary data reveal that these regimens may confer such benefits in

  13. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Benites, Eliana C A; Cabrini, Dayane P; Silva, Andrea C B; Silva, Juliana C; Catalan, Daniel T; Berezin, Eitan N; Cardoso, Maria R A; Passos, Saulo D

    2014-01-01

    to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI) and/or fever. cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc) and University Hospital (HU), Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland), and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta) for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ(2) or Fisher's exact test). 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3%) was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%), respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%), and coronavirus (6.8%). Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7) were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of body mass index for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Rangelova, Elena; Ansorge, Christoph; Blomberg, John; Segersvärd, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on short and long term results after pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD). METHODS: A consecutive series of PDs performed at the Karolinska University Hospital from 2004 till 2010 were retrieved from our prospective database. The patients were divided by BMI into overweight/obese (O; BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and controls (C; BMI < 25 kg/m2). Demographics, peri-operative data, morbidity, mortality, pancreatic fistula (PF) rate, length of stay (LOS), hospital costs, histology, and survival were analyzed. An additional sub analysis of survival was performed in patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and divided in underweight, normal-weight, overweight and obese. RESULTS: A total of 367 PDs were included (O = 141/C = 226). No differences were found between O and C regarding demographics, peri-operative data, costs, morbidity or mortality. O was associated with higher intra-operative blood loss (1392 ± 115 mL vs 1121 ± 83 mL; P = 0.01), rate of PF (20% vs 9.5%; P = 0.006) and marginally longer LOS (18 ± 0.9 d vs 15 ± 1.1 d; P = 0.05). An increasing risk for PF was observed with increasing BMI. The 1, 3 and 5 years survival rate was similar in O and C in PDAC (68.7%, 26.4% and 8.8% vs 66.1%, 30.9% and 17.9% respectively; P = 0.9). When the survival was analyzed using 4 different categories of BMI (underweight, normal, overweight and obese), a trend was seen toward a difference in survival, with a worse prognosis for the underweight and obese patients compared to normal weight and overweight patients. CONCLUSION: Overweight increases the risk for intra-operative bleeding and PF, but do not otherwise alter short or long term outcome after PD for pancreatic cancer. PMID:23755369

  15. Respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Leonard J; Noone, Peadar G

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterised by chronic respiratory infections associated with bronchiectasis. Lung transplantation has helped to extend the lives of patients with cystic fibrosis who have advanced lung disease. However, persistent, recurrent, and newly acquired infections can be problematic. Classic cystic fibrosis-associated organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are generally manageable post-transplantation, and are associated with favourable outcomes. Burkholderia cenocepacia poses particular challenges, although other Burkholderia species are less problematic. Despite concerns about non-tuberculous mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium abscessus, post-transplantation survival has not been definitively shown to be less than average in patients with these infections. Fungal species can be prevalent before and after transplantation and are associated with high morbidity, so should be treated aggressively. Appropriate viral screening and antiviral prophylaxis are necessary to prevent infection with and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus and their associated complications. Awareness of drug pharmacokinetics and interactions in cystic fibrosis is crucial to prevent toxic effects and subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic drug dosing. With the large range of potential infectious organisms in patients with cystic fibrosis, infection control in hospital and outpatient settings is important. Despite its complexity, lung transplantation in the cystic fibrosis population is safe, with good outcomes if the clinician is aware of all the potential pathogens and remains vigilant by means of surveillance and proactive treatment.

  16. Anesthesia Management in Aortic Dissection in Patients Undergoing Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Muharrem; Erdil, Feray; Sanlı, Mukadder; Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Durmus, Mahmut

    2016-04-01

    Kidney transplant is a last resort to increase the life expectancy and quality of life in patients with renal failure. Aortic dissection is a disease that requires emergency intervention; it is characterized by sudden life-threatening back or abdominal pain. In the case described, constant chest pain that increased with respiration was present on examination of a 28-year-old man (85 kg, 173 cm) who presented at our emergency department complaining of severe back pain. He had undergone a kidney transplant in 2004 from his mother (live donor). He was diagnosed with acute Type II aortic dissection and was scheduled for emergent surgery. Because there were no surgical or anesthetic complications, the patient with 79 and 89 minutes aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass durations was sent, intubated, to intensive care unit. When nephrotoxic agents are avoided and blood flow is stabilized, cardiovascular surgery with cardio-pulmonary bypass may be performed seamlessly in patients who have undergone a kidney transplant.

  17. Proactive enteral tube feeding in pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Nancy; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lange, Beverly J; Tan, Kay-See; Sandler, Eric S; Rogers, Paul C; Womer, Richard B; Pietsch, John B; Rheingold, Susan R

    2014-02-01

    To determine feasibility and safety of proactive enteral tube feeding (ETF) in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors, myeloid leukemia or high-risk solid tumors were eligible. Subjects agreeing to start ETF before cycle 2 chemotherapy were considered proactive participants (PPs). Those who declined could enroll as chart collection receiving nutritional standard of care. Nutritional status was assessed using standard anthropometric measurements. Episodes of infection and toxicity related to ETF were documented from diagnosis to end of therapy. A descriptive comparison between PPs and controls was conducted. One hundred four eligible patients were identified; 69 enrolled (20 PPs and 49 controls). At diagnosis, 17% of all subjects were underweight and 26% overweight. Barriers to enrollment included physician, subject and/or family refusal, and inability to initiate ETF prior to cycle 2 of chemotherapy. Toxicity of ETF was minimal, but higher percentage of subjects in the proactive group had episodes of infection than controls. Thirty-nine percent of controls eventually started ETF and were twice as likely to receive parenteral nutrition. PPs experienced less weight loss at ETF initiation than controls receiving ETF and were the only group to demonstrate improved nutritional status at end of study. Proactive ETF is feasible in children with cancer and results in improved nutritional status at end of therapy. Episodes of infection in this study are concerning; therefore, a larger randomized trial is required to further delineate infectious risks and toxicities that may be mitigated by improved nutritional status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Antithrombotic treatment in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Nijenhuis, Vincent J; Bennaghmouch, Naoual; van Kuijk, Jan-Peter; Capodanno, Davide; ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2015-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an established treatment option for symptomatic patients with severe aortic valvular disease who are not suitable for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement. Despite improving experience and techniques, ischaemic and bleeding complications after TAVI remain prevalent and impair survival in this generally old and comorbid-rich population. Due to changing aetiology of complications over time, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy after TAVI should be carefully balanced. Empirically, a dual antiplatelet strategy is generally used after TAVI for patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC; e. g. atrial fibrillation, mechanical mitral valve prosthesis), including aspirin and a thienopyridine. For patients on OAC, a combination of OAC and aspirin or thienopyridine is generally used. This review shows that current registries are unfit to directly compare antithrombotic regimens. Small exploring studies suggest that additional clopidogrel after TAVI only affects bleeding and not ischemic complications. However, these studies are lack in quality in terms of Cochrane criteria. Currently, three randomised controlled trials are recruiting to gather more knowledge about the effects of clopidogrel after TAVI.

  19. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771

  20. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Mortality among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Mannstadt, Michael; Isakova, Tamara; Rauh-Hain, Jose Alejandro; Tamez, Hector; Shah, Anand; Smith, Kelsey; Lee, Hang; Thadhani, Ravi; Jüppner, Harald; Wolf, Myles

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a hormone that increases the rate of urinary excretion of phosphate and inhibits renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thus helping to mitigate hyperphosphatemia in patients with kidney disease. Hyperphosphatemia and low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease, but the effect of the level of FGF-23 on mortality is unknown. Methods We examined mortality according to serum phosphate levels in a prospective cohort of 10,044 patients who were beginning hemodialysis treatment and then analyzed FGF-23 levels and mortality in a nested case–control sample of 200 subjects who died and 200 who survived during the first year of hemodialysis treatment. We hypothesized that increased FGF-23 levels at the initiation of hemodialysis would be associated with increased mortality. Results Serum phosphate levels in the highest quartile (>5.5 mg per deciliter [1.8 mmol per liter]) were associated with a 20% increase in the multivariable adjusted risk of death, as compared with normal levels (3.5 to 4.5 mg per deciliter [1.1 to 1.4 mmol per liter]) (hazard ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 1.4). Median C-terminal FGF-23 (cFGF-23) levels were significantly higher in case subjects than in controls (2260 vs. 1406 reference units per milliliter, P<0.001). Multivariable adjusted analyses showed that increasing FGF-23 levels were associated with a monotonically increasing risk of death when examined either on a continuous scale (odds ratio per unit increase in log-transformed cFGF-23 values, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.4) or in quartiles, with quartile 1 as the reference category (odds ratio for quartile 2, 1.6 [95% CI, 0.8 to 3.3]; for quartile 3, 4.5 [95% CI, 2.2 to 9.4]; and for quartile 4, 5.7 [95% CI, 2.6 to 12.6]). Conclusions Increased FGF-23 levels appear to be independently associated with mortality among patients who are beginning hemodialysis

  2. Definition of Readmission in 3,041 Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Brudvik, Kristoffer W; Mise, Yoshihiro; Conrad, Claudius; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Readmission rates of 9.7%–15.5% after hepatectomy have been reported. These rates are difficult to interpret due to variability in the time interval used to monitor readmission. The aim of this study was to refine the definition of readmission after hepatectomy. Study Design A prospectively maintained database of 3041 patients who underwent hepatectomy from 1998 through 2013 was merged with the hospital registry to identify readmissions. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the time interval that best captured unplanned readmission. Results Readmission rates at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year after discharge were 10.7% (n = 326), 17.3% (n = 526), and 31.9% (n = 971) respectively. The time interval that best accounted for unplanned readmissions was 45 days after discharge (AUC, 0.956; p < 0.001), during which 389 patients (12.8%) were readmitted (unplanned: n = 312 [10.3%]; planned: n = 77 [2.5%]). In comparison, the 30 days after surgery interval (used in the ACS-NSQIP database) omitted 65 (26.3%) unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for unplanned readmission: diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; p = 0.024), right hepatectomy (OR, 2.1; p = 0.034), bile duct resection (OR, 1.9; p = 0.034), abdominal complication (OR, 1.8; p = 0.010), and a major postoperative complication (OR, 2.4; p < 0.001). Neither index hospitalization > 7 days nor postoperative hepatobiliary complications were independently associated with readmission. Conclusions To accurately assess readmission after hepatectomy, patients should be monitored 45 days after discharge. PMID:26047760

  3. Definition of Readmission in 3,041 Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Brudvik, Kristoffer W; Mise, Yoshihiro; Conrad, Claudius; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    Readmission rates of 9.7% to 15.5% after hepatectomy have been reported. These rates are difficult to interpret due to variability in the time interval used to monitor readmission. The aim of this study was to refine the definition of readmission after hepatectomy. A prospectively maintained database of 3,041 patients who underwent hepatectomy from 1998 through 2013 was merged with the hospital registry to identify readmissions. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the time interval that best captured unplanned readmission. Readmission rates at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year after discharge were 10.7% (n = 326), 17.3% (n = 526), and 31.9% (n = 971) respectively. The time interval that best accounted for unplanned readmissions was 45 days after discharge (AUC, 0.956; p < 0.001), during which 389 patients (12.8%) were readmitted (unplanned: n = 312 [10.3%]; planned: n = 77 [2.5%]). In comparison, the 30 days after surgery interval (used in the ACS-NSQIP database) omitted 65 (26.3%) unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for unplanned readmission: diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; p = 0.024), right hepatectomy (OR 2.1; p = 0.034), bile duct resection (OR 1.9; p = 0.034), abdominal complication (OR 1.8; p = 0.010), and a major postoperative complication (OR 2.4; p < 0.001). Neither index hospitalization > 7 days nor postoperative hepatobiliary complications were independently associated with readmission. To accurately assess readmission after hepatectomy, patients should be monitored 45 days after discharge. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology membership experience with allergen immunotherapy safety in patients with specific medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée E S; Hauswirth, David W; Calabria, Christopher W; Sher, Lawrence D; Rank, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    Little data in the literature exist concerning patients with certain underlying medical conditions who receive allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). To survey allergists' experience with SCIT in patients with medical conditions considered to impose an elevated risk for untoward outcomes. A Web-based survey was conducted among members of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology to query about their experience with SCIT in patients with certain medical conditions. There were 1085 replies (21% response), of whom, 86% were U.S. based, 51% were suburban, 31% were academic, 42% were medium-sized practices, and 54% had >15 years' experience. In responders' opinion, SCIT was "contraindicated" in patients with the following: acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (48%), cancer (and still receiving active treatment) (33%), severe asthma (32%), and a history of transplantation (30%). Even so, survey responders collectively gave SCIT to >2400 patients for each of these conditions: severe asthma, coronary artery disease, cancer in remission, and autoimmune disorders; and to ≥5400 patients with hypertension and ≥4100 women who became pregnant. The experience of colleagues with these patients rarely resulted in major problems (i.e., activation of underlying disease, systemic reactions to SCIT, or SCIT discontinuation), with the exception of severe asthma (12.5%), initiation of SCIT during pregnancy (5.4%), and AIDS (4.2%). For most other conditions, it was ≤1.5% (e.g., continue during pregnancy, cancer in remission, history of transplantation, positive human immunodeficiency virus and no AIDS). According to the experience of a large group of practicing allergists, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology members, few medical conditions seemed to pose an elevated risk for untoward outcomes from SCIT. Because these are survey results, prospective research might yield even more solid data.

  5. Inappropriate use of antibiotics in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, John; Langsjoen, Jessica; Sharadin, Cynthia; Kuehl, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    We retrospectively examined prophylactic antibiotic use and documentation of wound classification in patients having gynecologic surgery at a tertiary hospital. Of the 326 cases reviewed, 175 (54%) received prophylactic antibiotics when not indicated according to guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Antibiotic administration varied significantly (P < 0.02) among the different types of surgery, being given in 82% of laparoscopic cases, 35% of nonobstetrical dilation and curettage and operative hysteroscopy procedures, and 51% of open abdominal procedures. There were no recorded episodes of anaphylaxis or pseudomembranous colitis. In conclusion, antibiotic use is high among gynecologic surgeons at a tertiary hospital, but this use was unnecessary. PMID:28127125

  6. Perioperative hemodynamic instability in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Pisarska, Magdalena; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative hemodynamic instability still remains the biggest surgical and anesthetic challenge in surgery for pheochromocytoma. The aim of this review was to discuss pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that may impact on hemodynamic condition of a patient. It describes patients’ preparation with appropriate medication, principles of surgical technique as well as risk factors for development of hemodynamic instability in postoperative period. Currently the gold standard in the treatment of pheochromocytoma is preoperative use of alpha-blockers and laparoscopic surgery. This approach allowed improving outcomes by lowering both mortality and morbidity. PMID:27867865

  7. Association between ambient carbon monoxide and secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondiabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major disorder in patients with chronic renal disease with or without dialysis. Air pollution has been confirmed as being associated with increased incidence of human morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, investigating air pollution as a dialysis-unrelated factor for SHPT in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. We developed this study to assess the effect of air pollution and other important risk factors on SHPT in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We recruited a total of 141 patients who did not have diabetes mellitus, were nonsmokers, and were undergoing PD in this cross-sectional study. We analyzed the difference in air quality based on the patients' living areas. We estimated demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutant, and dialysis-related data based on this cross-sectional study. Subgroup analysis of the relationship between air pollutants and the clinical variables and having or not having hyperparathyroidism (HPT) (intact parathyroid hormone level ≥180 pg/dL) was also performed. A total of 141 patients undergoing PD (30 men and 111 women) were enrolled in the study. Sixty-eight patients had SHPT. In a binary logistic regression, high environmental CO exposure (odds ratio [OR] 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-7.28; P=0.005), serum phosphate levels (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.37; P=0.005), hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.29-10.94; P=0.015), and use of calcitriol (OR 8.25, 95% CI 3.43-19.85; P<0.001) were positively associated with SHPT. The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated the presence of an association between environmental CO exposure and SHPT in patients undergoing PD who did not have diabetes mellitus. Therefore, poor environmental air quality may be a risk factor for deterioration of SHPT in patients undergoing PD.

  8. Adequacy of oxygenation parameters in elderly patients undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Luana Petruccio Cabral Monteiro; Delfino, Fabrício Costa; de Faria, Flavia Perassa; de Melo, Gislane Ferreira; Carvalho, Gustavo de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare ideal PaO2 with PaO2 found, ideal PaO2/FiO2 of room air with the one found, and ideal FiO2 with FiO2 found in mechanically ventilated elderly patients. Methods: Cross-sectional study that evaluated elderly mechanically ventilated patients for at least 72 hours and who underwent three subsequent blood gas analyses. Results: The sample consisted of 48 elderly with mean age of 74.77±9.36 years. There was a significant difference between the ideal PaO2 and the one found (p<0.001), between FiO2 corrected and the offered one, and also between ideal PaO2/FiO2 of room air and the PaO2/FiO2 found (p<0,001). Conclusion: A significant increase was seen in PaO2 and FiO2 and in alterations of gas exchange by PaO2/FiO2 index than those found in normal parameters. PMID:24488386

  9. [Nursing care in patients undergoing interventional neuroendovascular procedures].

    PubMed

    Galimany-Masclans, Jordi; Garcia-Sort, Rosa; Pernas-Canadell, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Vascular interventional radiology (VIR) procedures have increased markedly, partly due to the current healthcare context, which encourages the use of less invasive procedures that reduce pressure on surgery departments and decrease hospital stays. In most patients, these techniques can be carried out in a single intervention. VIR procedures are based on the possibility of gaining access to vascular structures through a catheter inserted percutaneously without the need for open surgery. Due to the complexity of these procedures, hospitalization is required before and after the technique is performed but length of stay is short compared with that associated with surgery. As the health workers closest to patients, nurses must respond to their information needs. The provision of comprehensive nursing care should include all the care required before, during and after the procedure and all aspects related to the quality of the healthcare process. Knowledge of how diagnostic and therapeutic VIR techniques are performed in the neurovascular section is essential. Based on the authors' experience, the present article aims to provide nurses with knowledge of some neurointerventional procedures (cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms) and of the care provided in RVI rooms.

  10. Successful treatment with ustekinumab of psoriasis vulgaris in a patient undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Nimmannitya, Kulsupa; Tateishi, Chiharu; Mizukami, Yukari; Hamamoto, Kae; Yamada, Shinsuke; Goto, Hitoshi; Okada, Shigeki; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease but psoriasis patients with renal impairment undergoing dialysis are not frequently seen. Furthermore, the published work contains little information on the treatment with biologic drugs of patients with end-stage renal disease. We describe a 57-year-old man with refractory plaque-type psoriasis and end-stage renal disease due to polycystic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. He had tried topical medications and ultraviolet therapy for many years and was then treated with ustekinumab (an interleukin-12 and interleukin-23 blocker), which resulted in good clinical response along with stable renal function. After a few years of therapy, no side-effects have been observed. Our experience with this patient expands the spectrum of ustekinumab to include psoriasis patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis.

  11. Pre-surgical Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Asthma Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Türk, Yasemin; van Huisstede, Astrid; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian; Braunstahl, Gert-Jan

    2017-08-22

    This pilot study was performed to investigate the feasibility of pre-surgical pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in morbidly obese patients with uncontrolled asthma, undergoing bariatric surgery. Four morbidly obese female patients with asthma participated in a 12-week PR program (exercise, diet, and psychological intervention) before undergoing bariatric surgery, and the outcomes were compared to a matched group of seven female controls (bariatric surgery only). In patients who participated in PR, asthma control and asthma quality of life improved dramatically after 3 months of PR. Besides, asthma control was better at the moment of surgery. The results of this pilot study show that PR is feasible in morbidly obese asthmatics and should be considered for a selected group of patients with uncontrolled asthma before undergoing bariatric surgery.

  12. Cytogenetic effects of contrast material in patients undergoing excretory urography

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, S.T.; Khodadoust, A.; Norman, A.

    1980-07-01

    Acentric chromosome fragments produced in cells by irradiation or other agents give rise to micronuclei in daughter cells. The micronuclei can be counted readily in large numbers of cells which provides a sensitive measure of chromosome aberrations. Previous studies have shown that the presence of contrast material enhances the radiation-induced yield of micronuclei in vitro. Micronuclei were scored in peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 26 patients before and after excretory urography (ExU). The results show a consistent and significant increase in the counts after ExU amounting to about one third of the counts blood samples before the examination. We conclude that the contrast medium contributed significantly to the increase in micronuclei.

  13. Psychological assessment of the patient undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allison G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the critical domains assessed during the psychological evaluation of candidates for bariatric surgery. Although no formal standard exists in the literature, there is growing recognition of the important elements to be addressed and the appropriate means for collecting the necessary data to determine psychological readiness for these procedures. Information regarding the components of the clinical interview and the specific measures used for psychological testing are discussed. Given the limited data on predicting success after surgery, determining psychological contraindications for surgery is addressed. Additionally, the multiple functions served by the psychologist during this assessment procedure are highlighted along with the value of this procedure in the patients' preparation for surgery.

  14. Plasma carnitine concentrations in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kiyomitsu; Nakamura, Katsutoshi; Miyoshi, Yutaka; Sakai, Akira

    2004-02-01

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for fatty acid (FA) metabolism, the predominant source of ATP in the normal aerobic heart. During myocardial ischemia, FA metabolism is impaired and tissue carnitine levels are depleted. Since the heart cannot synthesize carnitine, plasma carnitine could play an important role in maintaining myocardial carnitine levels during reperfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of abnormal plasma carnitine concentrations in open heart surgery. Blood samples were obtained from eleven patients before, immediately after, and two hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Total and free carnitine levels were significantly reduced immediately after CPB (p<0.01) and remained depressed until two hours after CPB (p<0.01 vs. pre CPB), while acyl carnitine levels were unchanged over the course of this study. These depressed free carnitine levels might affect cardiac metabolism in the heart after open heart surgery. Carnitine supplement might be a useful adjunct in the therapy after open heart surgery.

  15. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  16. Pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, E D; Blair, A D

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime were studied in 12 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. After a 3-g intravenous dose, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.23 +/- 0.05 liter kg-1, with an elimination half-life of 9.7 +/- 5.1 h. The peritoneal clearance of ceftizoxime (2.8 +/- 0.7 ml min-1) contributed modestly to the overall serum clearance of the drug (17.1 +/- 7.4 ml min-1) and was greater than the renal clearance (0.8 +/- 0.8 ml min-1). The peritoneal concentration rose to 91 +/- 29 micrograms ml-1 at 6 h, which was 0.61 +/- 0.17 of the serum concentration. A 3-g intravenous dose of ceftizoxime given every 48 h would result in adequate activity against most susceptible organisms, but more frequent dosing may be necessary for less susceptible organisms. PMID:6314887

  17. Pharmacokinetics of cefepime in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pfeffer, M; Zaccardelli, D; Dukes, G M; Mattern, W; Pittman, K A; Hak, L J

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefepime were studied in 10 male patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy. Five patients received a single 1,000-mg dose and the other five received a single 2,000-mg dose; all doses were given as 30-min intravenous infusions. Serial plasma, urine, and peritoneal dialysate samples were collected; and the concentrations of cefepime in these fluids were measured over 72 h by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The peak concentrations in plasma and the areas under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve for the 2,000-mg dose group were twice as high as those observed for the 1,000-mg dose group. The elimination half-life of cefepime was about 18 h and was independent of the dose. The steady-state volume of distribution was about 22 liters, and values for the 1,000- and 2,000-mg doses were not significantly different. The values for total body clearance and peritoneal dialysis clearance were about 15 and 4 ml/min, respectively. No dose dependency was observed for the clearance estimates. Over the 72-h sampling period, about 26% of the dose was excreted intact into the peritoneal dialysis fluid. For 48 h postdose, mean concentrations of cefepime in dialysate at the end of each dialysis interval exceeded the reported MICs for 90% of the isolates (MIC90s) for bacteria which commonly cause peritonitis resulting from continuous peritoneal dialysis. A parenteral dose of 1,000 or 2,000 mg of cefepime every 48 h would maintain the antibiotic levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid above the MIC90s for the most susceptible bacteria for the treatment of systemic and intraperitoneal infections [corrected]. PMID:1510432

  18. Plasma mepivacaine concentrations in patients undergoing third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Scarparo, H C; Maia, R N; Filho, Ea Dos Santos; Soares, Ecs; Costa, Fwg; Fonteles, Csr; Bezerra, T P; Ribeiro, T R; Romero, N R

    2016-12-01

    Local anaesthetic-related systemic toxicity mainly results from elevated plasma concentrations of these drugs. We hypothesized that intraoral injection of submaximal doses of mepivacaine does not lead to toxic levels of this drug in blood. This study evaluated the plasma levels of mepivacaine in third molars surgeries. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned into two groups: group I (two unilateral third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 108 mg with epinephrine 54 μg) and group II (four third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 216 mg with epinephrine 108 μg). Blood samples were collected before anaesthesia, and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min after anaesthesia. Individual peak plasma concentrations ranged 0.77-8.31 μg/mL (group I) and from 2.36-7.72 μg/mL (group II). An increase in the average dose of mepivacaine from 1.88 ± 0.12 mg/kg (group I) to 3.35 ± 0.17 mg/kg (group II) increased the mean mepivacaine peak plasma levels from 2.33 ± 0.58 to 4.01 ± 0.69 μg/mL, respectively. Four patients obtained plasma levels of mepivacaine above the threshold for toxicity (5 μg/mL). Toxic levels of mepivacaine are possible, even when a submaximal dose is used. A twofold increase in the dose of mepivacaine caused the mean peak plasma concentration to increase proportionally, indicating that they may be predicted based on the relation of dose per bodyweight. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Effect of 2 Years of Treatment With Sublingual Grass Pollen Immunotherapy on Nasal Response to Allergen Challenge at 3 Years Among Patients With Moderate to Severe Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis: The GRASS Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Guy W; Calderon, Moises A; Shamji, Mohamed H; Eifan, Aarif O; Penagos, Martin; Dumitru, Florentina; Sever, Michelle L; Bahnson, Henry T; Lawson, Kaitie; Harris, Kristina M; Plough, Audrey G; Panza, Joy Laurienzo; Qin, Tielin; Lim, Noha; Tchao, Nadia K; Togias, Alkis; Durham, Stephen R

    2017-02-14

    Sublingual immunotherapy and subcutaneous immunotherapy are effective in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Three years of continuous treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy has been shown to improve symptoms for at least 2 years following discontinuation of treatment. To assess whether 2 years of treatment with grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy, compared with placebo, provides improved nasal response to allergen challenge at 3-year follow-up. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-parallel-group study performed in a single academic center, Imperial College London, of adult patients with moderate to severe seasonal allergic rhinitis (interfering with usual daily activities or sleep). First enrollment was March 2011, last follow-up was February 2015. Thirty-six participants received 2 years of sublingual immunotherapy (daily tablets containing 15 µg of major allergen Phleum p 5 and monthly placebo injections), 36 received subcutaneous immunotherapy (monthly injections containing 20 µg of Phleum p 5 and daily placebo tablets) and 34 received matched double-placebo. Nasal allergen challenge was performed before treatment, at 1 and 2 years of treatment, and at 3 years (1 year after treatment discontinuation). Total nasal symptom scores (TNSS; range; 0 [best] to 12 [worst]) were recorded between 0 and 10 hours after challenge. The minimum clinically important difference for change in TNSS within an individual is 1.08. The primary outcome was TNSS comparing sublingual immunotherapy vs placebo at year 3. Subcutaneous immunotherapy was included as a positive control. The study was not powered to compare sublingual immunotherapy with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Among 106 randomized participants (mean age, 33.5 years; 34 women [32.1%]), 92 completed the study at 3 years. In the intent-to-treat population, mean TNSS score for the sublingual immunotherapy group was 6.36 (95% CI, 5.76 to 6.96) at pretreatment and 4.73 (95% CI, 3.97 to 5

  20. The effectiveness of patient navigation programs for adult cancer patients undergoing treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tho, Poh Chi; Ang, Emily

    2016-02-01

    Advancements in technology and medical treatment have made cancer care treatment more complex. With the current trend of sub-specialization in health care, cancer patients commonly receive care from multiple specialists and have wider treatment options. In view of this, there is a need to coordinate care and integrate information to enhance care and quality of outcomes for patients. Since the successful implementation of programs for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients at Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA, patient navigation programs have been widely introduced in healthcare settings. Some literature has identified nurses as a primary candidate in assuming the role of a navigator. However, there is a need to further explore the effectiveness of patient navigation programs for their effectiveness in improving quality of life, and patient satisfaction and outcomes during the commencement of cancer treatment. The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of patient navigation programs in adult cancer patients undergoing treatments such as radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This review considered studies that included adults aged 18 years and over, diagnosed with any type of cancer and undergoing treatment in an acute care hospital setting, including inpatient and outpatient/ambulatory care.This review considered studies that evaluated nurse-led patient navigation programs versus no patient navigation program or non-structured care coordination.A patient navigation program includes patient education, psychosocial support, and care coordination.This review considered randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies.The review focused on the effects of patient navigator program clinical/patient outcomes. The review included studies on patient wellbeing and clinical outcomes, but excluded studies that had examined the impact of these programs on efficiency-related outcomes, such as length

  1. Case report of venom immunotherapy for a patient with large local reactions.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R G; Golden, D B; Kagey-Sobotka, A; Lichtenstein, L M

    2001-08-01

    Inadvertent Hymenoptera stings reportedly elicit large local reactions in up to 17% of the general population. Current practice parameters do not recommend venom immunotherapy (IT) for these cases. The goal of this case study was to investigate the clinical and immunologic consequences of venom IT in a newly sensitized individual with large local reactions using an intentional sting challenge before and after treatment to document changes in reaction severity. A 47-year-old man became honeybee venom (HBV)-allergic with progressively larger reactions at honeybee sting sites with subsequent stings. Then, a sting on his forefinger produced a large (62 cm) local reaction with swelling throughout the arm that persisted for more than 4 weeks with severe pain. He refused steroid therapy and voluntarily requested venom IT with honeybee-sting challenges to monitor clinical parameters and immunologic changes in his skin and serum before and 7 months post-HBV maintenance IT. A single pre-IT bee sting challenge produced an 11.4-cm wheal with 13-cm erythema at the sting site after 15 minutes, followed by several weeks of edema that involved the entire arm. After rapid escalation of venom IT to maintenance in 7 weeks, a post-maintenance IT sting challenge with two honeybees produced a 3-cm diameter erythema with no wheal at 15 minutes and no late-phase induration. Complete loss of any visible reaction at the field sting site resulted after 13 months of maintenance venom IT. A HBV-specific IgG antibody level >3.5 microg/mL and IgG/IgE antibody molar ratio >500 persisted over the period of venom IT, with venom skin reactivity diminishing 100-fold. These results support venom IT use in the treatment of Hymenoptera venom-sensitive individuals who experience large local reactions and are at risk for repetitive inadvertent stings.

  2. Timely meta-analysis on the efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative therapy

    PubMed Central

    You, Xue-Mei; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Yuan, Bao-Hong; Li, Ru-Hong; Li, Le-Qun

    2017-01-01

    Aims The role of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have received curative therapy is still not well illustrated. This timely meta-analysis aims to update the current evidence on efficacy and safety of AIT for patients with HCC who have received curative therapy. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library Through January 2017 for relevant studies. Mortality and tumor recurrence were compared between patients with or without adjuvant AIT. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results Eight studies involving 1861 patients met the eligibility criteria and were meta-analyzed. Adjuvant AIT was associated with significantly lower mortality at 1 year (RR 0.64, 95%CI 0.52–0.79), 3 years (RR 0.73, 95%CI 0.65–0.81) and 5 years (RR 0.86, 95%CI 0.79–0.94). Similarly, adjuvant AIT was associated with significantly lower recurrence rate than curative therapies alone at 1 year (RR 0.64, 95%CI 0.49–0.82), 3 years (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.79–0.91) and 5 years (RR 0.90, 95%CI 0.85–0.95). Short-term outcomes were confirmed in sensitivity analyses based on randomized trials or choice of random- or fixed-effect meta-analysis model. None of the included patients experienced grade 4 adverse events. Conclusions This timely meta-analysis confirms the evidence that adjuvant AIT for patients with HCC after curative treatment lowers risk of mortality and tumor recurrence. PMID:28339493

  3. 12-Chemokine Gene Signature Identifies Lymph Node-like Structures in Melanoma: Potential for Patient Selection for Immunotherapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Jane L.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Eschrich, Steven; Qu, Xiaotao; Berglund, Anders E.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Mulé, James J.

    2012-10-01

    We have interrogated a 12-chemokine gene expression signature (GES) on genomic arrays of 14,492 distinct solid tumors and show broad distribution across different histologies. We hypothesized that this 12-chemokine GES might accurately predict a unique intratumoral immune reaction in stage IV (non-locoregional) melanoma metastases. The 12-chemokine GES predicted the presence of unique, lymph node-like structures, containing CD20+ B cell follicles with prominent areas of CD3+ T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets). CD86+, but not FoxP3+, cells were present within these unique structures as well. The direct correlation between the 12-chemokine GES score and the presence of unique, lymph nodal structures was also associated with better overall survival of the subset of melanoma patients. The use of this novel 12-chemokine GES may reveal basic information on in situ mechanisms of the anti-tumor immune response, potentially leading to improvements in the identification and selection of melanoma patients most suitable for immunotherapy.

  4. GASTRIC AND JEJUNAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosemary Simões Nomelini; Almeida, Élia Cláudia de Souza; Camilo, Silvia Maria Perrone; Terra-Júnior, Júverson Alves; Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; Duque, Ana Cristina da Rocha; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida

    Morbid obesity is a multifactorial disease that increasingly is being treated by surgery. To evaluate gastric histopathological changes in obese, and to compare with patients who underwent gastrojejunal bypass and the jejunal mucosa after the surgery. This is an observational study performed at a tertiary public hospital, evaluating endoscopic biopsies from 36 preoperative patients and 35 postoperative. In the preoperative group, 80.6% had chronic gastritis, which was active in 38.9% (77.1% and 20.1%, respectively, in the postoperative). The postoperative group had a significant reduction in H. pylori infection (p=0.0001). A longer length of the gastric stump and a time since surgery of more than two years were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was normal in 91.4% and showed slight nonspecific chronic inflammation in 8.6%. There was a reduction in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the postoperative group. A longer length of the gastric stump and longer time elapsed since surgery were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was considered normal in an absolute majority of patients. A obesidade mórbida é doença multifatorial cujo tratamento cirúrgico é cada vez mais indicado. Avaliar alterações histopatológicas gástricas em obesos e comparar com os submetidos à bypass gastrojejunal e a mucosa jejunal após a operação. Estudo observacional realizado em hospital público terciário avaliando biópsias endoscópicas de 36 pacientes no pré-operatório e 35 no pós-operatório. No pré-operatório 80,6% apresentaram gastrite crônica, 38,9% em atividade (77,1% e 20,1%, respectivamente, no pós-operatório). O grupo pós-operatório apresentou diminuição significativa na infecção por Helicobacter pylory (p=0,0001). Maior comprimento do coto gástrico e tempo de operação superior a dois anos associaram-se a infecção por Helicobacter pylori. A mucosa jejunal foi normal em 91,4% e

  5. Is it necessary to shave the pubic and genital regions of patients undergoing endoscopic urological surgery?

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Violeta; Galán, Juan Antonio; Elia, Matilde; Collado, Argimiro; Lloréns, Francisco; Fernández, Carlos; García-López, Francisco

    2004-06-01

    To determine whether postoperative urinary infections were related to shaving before undergoing endoscopic urological surgery, 90 patients were randomly assigned to shaving or not shaving. Urinary cultures revealed infection in 10 patients. Half of them had been shaved, suggesting that this practice does not affect the incidence of urinary infections.

  6. Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Estrogen Deprivation Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0358 TITLE: Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Estrogen...30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Musculoskeletal Complications and Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients... musculoskeletal complications in my model of breast cancer bone metastases. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer; bone metastases; estrogen; endocrine therapy

  7. [THE DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC BRONCHOSCOPY IN CARDIAC PATIENTS UNDERGOING MECHANICAL VENTILATION IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD].

    PubMed

    Titova, I V; Khrustaleva, M V; Eremenko, A A; Babaev, M A

    2016-01-01

    The review presents an analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the use of bronchoscopy in patients with obstructive respiratory failure in the ICU. Separately considered the issue of additional research when performing bronchoscopy and create an algorithmfor the application of diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy in cardiac surgical patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  8. Probiotic bacteria in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mego, Michal; Holec, Vladimir; Drgona, Lubos; Hainova, Katarina; Ciernikova, Sona; Zajac, Vladimir

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, which as drugs or food supplements help to maintain health beneficial microbial balance in the digestive tract of a human or other host. Probiotics by their properties may help strengthen homeostasis and thus reduce side effects associated with cancer treatment. Experimental evidence suggests that probiotics might have beneficial effect on the toxicity of anticancer therapy. A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed (keywords: "probiotic" and "lactic acid bacteria" in association with the search terms "cancer" or "oncology" or "chemotherapy" or "radiation"); data reported at international meetings were included. Probiotics might have beneficial effects on some aspects of toxicity related to anticancer treatment especially radiation therapy. However, reported trials vary in utilized probiotic strains, dose of probiotics and vast majority of them are small trials with substantial risk of bias. Despite limited data, it seems that probiotic bacteria as live microorganisms could be safely administered even in the setting of neutropenia. Current evidence supporting probiotic use as adjunctive therapy to anticancer treatment is limited, especially in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Well designed clinical trials are needed to find true role of probiotics in oncology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phonatory characteristics of patients undergoing thyroidectomy without laryngeal nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Hong, K H; Kim, Y K

    1997-10-01

    Complications that arise after thyroid surgery may be associated with infection, hemorrhage, hormonal problems, and laryngeal nerve injury. Voice alteration after thyroidectomy is usually caused by recurrent or superior laryngeal nerve injury. This voice dysfunction may also be associated with laryngotracheal fixation with impairment of vertical movement or by temporary malfunction of the strap muscles after surgery. In this study, we evaluated the voice function phonetically before and after thyroidectomy in 54 patients, although function of the recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves was normal. During surgery, the superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves were identified and protected, and after surgery electromyographic testing of the cricothyroid muscle was performed. Typical voice symptoms after surgery were easy fatigue during phonation and difficulty with high pitch and singing voice. Acoustic analysis revealed that the phonation time and fundamental frequency were not changed after surgery, but the speaking fundamental frequency, range of speaking fundamental frequency, and vocal range were significantly diminished after surgery. These data allowed us to suggest that the cause of voice dysfunction is not seen in neural lesions, but in a disturbance of the extralaryngeal skeleton. These voice changes emphasize the importance of the extralaryngeal mechanism for pitch control.

  10. Symptoms and angiographic findings of patients undergoing elective coronary angiography without prior stress testing.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mouin S; Spertus, John A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Kennedy, Kevin F; Arnold, Suzanne V; Chan, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    Many patients undergo elective coronary angiography without preprocedural stress testing that may be suitable if performed in patients with more angina pectoris or more frequently identified obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI Registry undergoing elective coronary angiography from July 2009 to April 2013 were assessed for differences in angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class) and severity of obstructive CAD in those with and without preprocedural stress testing, stratified by CAD history. Given the large sample size, differences were considered clinically meaningful if the standardized difference (SD) was >10%. Of 790,601 patients without CAD history, 36.9% did not undergo preprocedural stress testing. Compared with patients with preprocedural stress testing, patients without preprocedural stress testing were more frequently angina free (CCS class 0; 28.2% with stress test vs 38.5% without, SD = 14.8%) and had similar rates of obstructive CAD (40.1% with stress test vs 35.7% without, SD = 9.0). Of 449,579 patients with CAD history, 44.2% did not undergo preprocedural stress testing. Patients without preprocedural stress testing reported more angina (CCS class III/IV angina: 17.8% vs 13.4%; SD = 11.3%) but were not more likely to have obstructive CAD (78.7% vs 81.1%; SD = 5.8%) than patients with preprocedural stress testing. In conclusion, approximately 40% of patients undergoing elective coronary angiography did not have preprocedural risk stratification with stress testing. For these patients, the clinical decision to proceed directly to invasive evaluation was not driven primarily by severe angina and did not result in higher detection rates for obstructive CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu; Huang, Qian-Rong; Zheng, Guang-Shun; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-10-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; P<0.001). Therefore, monitoring serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC.

  12. Measurement of serum antibodies against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA: A guide for the treatment of specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    LONG, YAN-YAN; WANG, YU; HUANG, QIAN-RONG; ZHENG, GUANG-SHUN; JIAO, SHUN-CHANG

    2014-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 has been identified as one of the most immunogenic antigens; thus, is a highly attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. The present study analyzed the expression of serum antibodies (Abs) against NY-ESO-1 in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), with the aim of guiding the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific-immunotherapy for these patients. Furthermore, the present study was the first to evaluate the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and investigate the possible influencing factors. A total of 239 serum samples from 155 pathologically confirmed patients with advanced CRC (stages III and IV) were collected. The presence of spontaneous Abs against NY-ESO-1 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results demonstrated that 24.5% (38/155) of the investigated patients were positive for NY-ESO-1-specific Abs. No statistically significant correlations were identified between the expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs and clinicopathological parameters, including age and gender, location, grading, local infiltration, lymph node status, metastatic status and K-ras mutation status (P>0.05). In 59 patients, the kinetic expression of anti-NY-ESO-1 Abs was analyzed, of which 14 patients were initially positive and 45 patients were initially negative. Notably, 16/59 (27.1%) patients changed their expression status during the study period, and the initially positive patients were more likely to change compared with the initially negative patients (85.7 vs. 8.8%; P<0.001). Therefore, monitoring serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 by ELISA is an easy and feasible method. The high expression rate of NY-ESO-1-specific Abs in CRC patients indicates that measuring the levels of serum Abs against NY-ESO-1 may guide the treatment of NY-ESO-1-based specific immunotherapy for patients with advanced CRC. PMID:25187840

  13. Laser immunotherapy for advanced solid tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, Mark; Li, Xiaosong; Hode, Tomas; Alleruzzo, Lu; Raker, Joseph; Lam, Siu Kit; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Immunologically oriented therapy (immunotherapy) has arguably proved to be the most effective method for treating advanced melanoma, the prototypical chemotherapy-resistant solid tumor. The efficacy and benefit of immunotherapy for other tumors, including those that are at least partly responsive to chemotherapy, is less well established. Breast cancer, one of the most common of the solid tumors in humans, is partially responsive to traditional chemotherapy. We believe that breast cancer patients, like melanoma patients, will benefit from the application of immunotherapy techniques. Here we review the different forms of laser immunotherapy (LIT), a key type of immunologically oriented therapy, discuss its use in melanoma and in breast cancer, and discuss its potentially pivotal role in the immunotherapy armamentarium.

  14. Oral Health Status of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Head and Neck Oncology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ciaran; Killough, Simon; Markey, Neill; Winning, Lewis; McKenna, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to collect data on the oral health status of patients undergoing treatment for head and neck oncology across Northern Ireland. Data were collected on all patients referred to the Northern Ireland Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Oncology Team for discussion and treatment planning. Each patient underwent pre-treatment dental assessment in the Centre for Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, between June 2013 and November 2014. Data were collected from clinical oral examinations supplemented with intra-oral radiographs. During the course of the study 96 patients were assessed and the levels of dental disease observed in this cohort were high. On clinical examination 43% were diagnosed with caries and 46% with periodontal disease. Ten patients were completely edentate. The disease profile of this patient group presents significant challenges to dental services tasked with rendering patients dentally fit prior to undergoing oncology treatment.

  15. Albumin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Segersvärd, Ralf; Wernerman, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The drop in plasma albumin concentration following surgical trauma is well known, but the temporal pattern of the detailed mechanisms behind are less well described. The aim of this explorative study was to assess changes in albumin synthesis and transcapillary escape rate (TER) following major surgical trauma, at the time of peak elevations in two well-recognized markers of inflammation. Methods This was a clinical trial of radiolabeled human serum albumin for the study of TER and plasma volume. Ten patients were studied immediately preoperatively and on the 2nd postoperative day after major pancreatic surgery. Albumin synthesis rate was measured by the flooding dose technique employing incorporation of isotopically labelled phenylalanine. Results Fractional synthesis rate of albumin increased from 11.7 (95% CI: 8.9, 14.5) to 15.0 (11.7, 18.4) %/day (p = 0.027), whereas the corresponding absolute synthesis rate was unchanged, 175 (138, 212) versus 150 (107, 192) mg/kg/day (p = 0.21). TER was unchanged, 4.9 (3.1, 6.8) %/hour versus 5.5 (3.9, 7.2) (p = 0.63). Plasma volume was unchanged but plasma albumin decreased from 33.5 (30.9, 36.2) to 22.1 (19.8, 24.3) g/L. (p<0.001). Conclusion Two days after major abdominal surgery, at the time-point when two biomarkers of generalised inflammation were at their peak and the plasma albumin concentration had decreased by 33%, we were unable to show any difference in the absolute synthesis rate of albumin, TER and plasma volume as compared with values obtained immediately pre-operatively. This suggests that capillary leakage, if elevated postoperatively, had ceased at that time-point. The temporal relations between albumin kinetics, capillary leakage and generalised inflammation need to be further explored. Trial Registration clinicaltrialsregister.eu: EudraCT 2010-08529-21 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01194492 PMID:26313170

  16. Evaluation of factors that influence anxiety and satisfaction in patients undergoing bronchofiberoscopy with analgosedation.

    PubMed

    Andrychiewicz, Anna; Konarska, Katarzyna; Gorka, Karolina; Bartyzel, Sylwia; Salek, Marta; Biedron, Grzegorz; Surowiec, Aleksandra; Sladek, Krzysztof; Soja, Jerzy; Szczeklik, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Bronchofiberoscopy (BF) is a key tool used in the management of patients with respiratory diseases. Describing factors that contribute to patient anxiety surrounding BF has the potential to influence patient management and willingness to undergo the procedure again in the future if needed. This study sought to understand what factors influence anxiety and satisfaction experienced by patients undergoing BF under conscious sedation. This study had a prospective observational character and evaluated 463 consecutive patients undergoing BF. Participants were divided into two groups, those undergoing BF for the first time and those who had undergone the procedure at least once in the past. Data were collected from three questionnaires prepared by the research team. Patients who had undergone multiple bronchoscopies were more satisfied with their physician's explanation of the procedure (P < 0.0001), had a better understanding of the indications (P < 0.0001) and potential complications (P < 0.0001) of BF and knew what specific procedure was planned (P < 0.001). Patients undergoing BF for the first time experienced anxiety before the procedure more frequently (P < 0.001). No significant difference in satisfaction was observed between patient groups and 89% would agree to BF in the future. Patients who had previously undergone BF were better prepared for their procedure; however, satisfaction levels after the procedure were similar in both groups. Results suggest that medical staff should target patients who have not undergone BF previously to relieve anxiety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sevuk, Utkan; Baysal, Erkan; Ay, Nurettin; Altas, Yakup; Altindag, Rojhat; Yaylak, Baris; Alp, Vahhac; Demirtas, Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and is independently associated with increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and higher costs. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency is a common cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms and affects up to 40% of elderly people. The relationship between cobalamin deficiency and the occurrence of delirium after cardiac surgery has not been examined in previous studies. We examined the relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. A total of 100 patients with cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG were enrolled in this retrospective study. Control group comprised 100 patients without cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG. Patients aged 65 years or over were included. Diagnosis of delirium was made using Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Delirium severity was measured using the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98. Patients with cobalamin deficiency had a significantly higher incidence of delirium (42% vs 26%; P=0.017) and higher delirium severity scores (16.5±2.9 vs 15.03±2.48; P=0.034) than patients without cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin levels were significantly lower in patients with delirium than patients without delirium (P=0.004). Delirium severity score showed a moderate correlation with cobalamin levels (ρ=-0.27; P=0.024). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that cobalamin deficiency was independently associated with postoperative delirium (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.03-3.6, P=0.038). The results of our study suggest that cobalamin deficiency may be associated with increased risk of delirium in patients undergoing CABG. In addition, we found that preoperative cobalamin levels were associated with the severity of delirium. This report highlights the importance of investigation for cobalamin deficiency in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in the elderly.

  18. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Objectives Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. Methods We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Results Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. Conclusions In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26668745

  19. Risk and outcome in metastatic malignant melanoma patients receiving DTIC, cisplatin, BCNU and tamoxifen followed by immunotherapy with interleukin 2 and interferon alpha2a.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, R; Müller, I; Neuber, K; Lassmann, S; Buer, J; Probst, M; Oevermann, K; Franzke, A; Kirchner, H; Ganser, A; Atzpodien, J

    1998-10-01

    Combined chemo-/immunotherapy has shown high objective response rates and a significant though small proportion of long-term complete responders in metastatic malignant melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine response rates, freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and overall survival in patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma treated with combined chemo-/immunotherapy, and to determine the value of a prognostic model for prediction of treatment outcome, FFTF and survival. Sixty-nine patients with metastatic malignant melanoma received combined chemo-/immunotherapy consisting of up to four cycles of DTIC (220 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), cisplatin (35 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), BCNU (150 mg m(-2) i.v. day 1, cycles 1 and 3 only) and tamoxifen (20 mg orally, daily). Two cycles of chemotherapy were followed by 6 weeks of outpatient immunotherapy with combined interleukin 2 (20 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 3-5, weeks 1 and 4; 5 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6) and interferon-alpha (6 x 10(6) IU m(-2) s.c. day 1, weeks 1 and 4; days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6). All patients were evaluated on an intention-to-treat basis. Of 69 patients entered in the study, seven achieved complete remissions and 20 reached partial remissions with an objective response rate of 39% (95% confidence interval 28-52%). Median survival was 11 months, median FFTF was 5 months. Seven patients achieved ongoing long-term remissions, with maximum survival of 58 + months, and maximum FFTF of 58 + months. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and two-proportional Cox regression analysis, pretreatment performance status and serum lactic dehydrogenase were statistically significant and independent predictors of survival; risk groups could be defined as (a) the absence of both or (b) the presence of either one or both of these risk factors. Whereas survival and response were significantly influenced by patient risk, no influence could be demonstrated for FFTF. This combined

  20. Risk and outcome in metastatic malignant melanoma patients receiving DTIC, cisplatin, BCNU and tamoxifen followed by immunotherapy with interleukin 2 and interferon alpha2a.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, R.; Müller, I.; Neuber, K.; Lassmann, S.; Buer, J.; Probst, M.; Oevermann, K.; Franzke, A.; Kirchner, H.; Ganser, A.; Atzpodien, J.

    1998-01-01

    Combined chemo-/immunotherapy has shown high objective response rates and a significant though small proportion of long-term complete responders in metastatic malignant melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine response rates, freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and overall survival in patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma treated with combined chemo-/immunotherapy, and to determine the value of a prognostic model for prediction of treatment outcome, FFTF and survival. Sixty-nine patients with metastatic malignant melanoma received combined chemo-/immunotherapy consisting of up to four cycles of DTIC (220 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), cisplatin (35 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), BCNU (150 mg m(-2) i.v. day 1, cycles 1 and 3 only) and tamoxifen (20 mg orally, daily). Two cycles of chemotherapy were followed by 6 weeks of outpatient immunotherapy with combined interleukin 2 (20 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 3-5, weeks 1 and 4; 5 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6) and interferon-alpha (6 x 10(6) IU m(-2) s.c. day 1, weeks 1 and 4; days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6). All patients were evaluated on an intention-to-treat basis. Of 69 patients entered in the study, seven achieved complete remissions and 20 reached partial remissions with an objective response rate of 39% (95% confidence interval 28-52%). Median survival was 11 months, median FFTF was 5 months. Seven patients achieved ongoing long-term remissions, with maximum survival of 58 + months, and maximum FFTF of 58 + months. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and two-proportional Cox regression analysis, pretreatment performance status and serum lactic dehydrogenase were statistically significant and independent predictors of survival; risk groups could be defined as (a) the absence of both or (b) the presence of either one or both of these risk factors. Whereas survival and response were significantly influenced by patient risk, no influence could be demonstrated for FFTF. This combined

  1. [Development of Tax-redirected T-cell immunotherapy using TCR gene transduction in patients with ATL].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukie; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2015-07-01

    ATL is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by HTLV-1 virus infection. Tax, which is the most important regulatory protein of HTLV-1, is associated with aggressive proliferation of host cells and is also a major target antigen for CD8⁺ cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs). Recently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has proven effective for ATL, and donor-derived Tax-specific CTL might contribute to graft-versus-ATL effects in some recipients who maintained complete remission after allo-HSCT. We, for the first time, analyzed the Tax-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, phenotypes and functions of Tax-specific CTLs at single-cell levels in HLA-A24⁺ ATL patients who underwent allo-HSCT. We found that 1) a particular amino acid sequence motif (PDR) in the CDR3 region of TCR-β was conserved in different patients and also within the same patient before and after allo-HSCT, and 2) the PDR⁺ Tax-specific CTL clone selectively expanded in ATL long-term survivors as less-differentiated effector memory CTLs. Actually, the PDR⁺ CTL showed not only strong binding activity for the Tax-tetramer but also strong killing activity against patients' HTLV-1-infected T-cells without any reaction against normal cells. We are presently evaluating the killing activities of PDR⁺ TCR-transduced T-cells against Tax in immunodeficient mice, with the aim of developing a new immunotherapy for ATL.

  2. A pilot study of autologous cancer cell vaccination and cellular immunotherapy using anti-CD3 stimulated lymphocytes in patients with recurrent grade III/IV astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wood, G W; Holladay, F P; Turner, T; Wang, Y Y; Chiga, M

    2000-06-01

    The study objectives were to determine; (1) whether activated T cells could be generated from peripheral blood of patients immunized with their own cancer cells, (2) whether adoptive transfer of the activated T cells to patients had toxic effects and (3) whether the infused cells produced clinical responses. Study patients had recurrent, surgically accessible grade III/IV astrocytomas. The patients were tapered off steroids after total surgical resection and immunized with autologous cancer cells plus Bacillus, Calmette and Guerin (BCG). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with anti-CD3, expanded with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and reinfused to patients. The number of activated T cells that was given back to patients varied between 10(10) and 10(11). Side effects that were observed following immunization and adoptive cell transfer included mainly transient flu-like symptoms. One patient's tumor partially regressed, but there was no effect on survival. Two other patients' tumors regressed, and the patients are apparently disease-free more than 5 and 4 years later. The other six patients' tumors were apparently unaffected by the treatment. Patient age, tumor grade and CD4/CD8 composition of infused cells were positively correlated with clinical responses. Cellular immunotherapy is feasible and is associated with minimal toxicity. Additional appropriately controlled studies will be required to determine whether cellular immunotherapy could be used as a treatment for central nervous system malignancy. Additional studies also will be required to determine the underlying immunological mechanisms.

  3. Recommendations for management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery after coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Croce, Kevin J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Resnic, Frederic S

    2012-12-01

    Patients commonly undergo noncardiac surgical procedures after implantation of a coronary stent. In the case where surgery cannot be deferred until completing the minimum duration of dual antiplatelet therapy, the Brigham and Women's Hospital Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory recommends using a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging protocol to minimize the risk of perioperative ischemic events. We discuss our algorithm for managing antiplatelet agents, including the newer agents, prasugrel and ticagrelor, in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery after coronary stenting and present our glycoprotein IIb/IIIa bridging strategy along with a review of the relevant pharmacodynamic and clinical evidence.

  4. Nursing Strategies for Patients with Chronic Renal Failure Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis Treatment by Arteriovenous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    QIN, Hong Yan; JIA, Ping; LIU, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to analyze the effect of nursing strategies on patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment by puncturing on arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Methods: Ninety-two patients with chronic renal failure undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) between Jan 2014 and Jan 2015 were included in the study (all undergoing AVF, dialysis for 2–3 sessions per week, 4–5 h per session) and randomly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in control group were given standard nursing care and patients in observation group were given professional nursing of internal fistula. The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period, fistula usage time and effect on life quality of patients of these two groups were compared (during 18-month follow-up). Results: The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median time of internal fistula usage was significantly prolonged, and the health index, emotion index and psychology index quality-of-life in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Professional nursing strategies of internal fistula can prolong service time, decrease complications and improve life quality for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment via arteriovenous fistula. PMID:27957433

  5. Postoperative Respiratory Exercises Reduce the Risk of Developing Pulmonary Complications in Patients Undergoing Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Vellosillo-Ortega, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Muneta, Carlos; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of an intensive postoperative physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises in patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Quasi-experimental study. Tertiary referral academic hospital. 208 patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Control group patients (n=102) received standard medical/nursing care, and experimental group patients (n=106) added to the standard clinical pathway a daily physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises until discharge. Analyzed outcomes were the frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) more amenable to physiotherapy (pneumonia, atelectasis and respiratory insufficiency) and length of hospital stay (LOS). Both groups were comparable regarding preoperative and surgical characteristics. Incidence of PPCs was 20.6% in control and 6.6% in experimental group (P=.003). Median (IQR) LOS in control group was 14 (7) days (Huber M estimator 14.21) and 12 (6) days (Huber M estimator 12.81) in experimental. Logistic regression model identified the evaluated physiotherapy program (P=.017; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.081-0.780) and % FEV1 (P=.042; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.941-0.999) as protective factors for the development of PPCs in patients undergoing lobectomy. Implementing a postoperative intensive physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises reduces the risk of PPCs and resultant LOS on patients undergoing lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: current concepts and concerns: part II.

    PubMed

    Dzeshka, Mikhail S; Brown, Richard A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) often present concomitantly. Given the increased risk of thrombotic complications with either of them but different pathogenesis of clot formation, combined antithrombotic therapy is necessary in patients developing acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Different antithrombotic regimens in this group of patients have been summarized and discussed earlier. Triple therapy remains the treatment of choice in these patients despite the increased risk of hemorrhagic complications. Given the absence of evidence from randomized controlled trials, balancing the risk of stroke and stent thrombosis against the risk of major bleeding is a challenge. Precise stroke and bleeding risk assessment is an essential part of the decision making process regarding antithrombotic management. Continuing the discussion of current concepts and concerns of antithrombotic management in AF patients undergoing PCI, we emphasize the importance of various strategies to reduce bleeding in the modern era, namely, radial access combined with careful selection of a P2Y₁₂ receptor inhibitor, use of newer drug-eluting stents, and uninterrupted anticoagulation for patients undergoing procedures. We also focus on the role of the non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (novel oral anticoagulants, eg, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) which are increasingly used for stroke prevention in AF. Finally, recent recommendations on the management of antithrombotic therapy in AF patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing PCI as well as ongoing clinical trials and future directions are highlighted.

  7. Experience With Rituximab Immunotherapy as an Early Intervention in Patients With Rai Stage 0 to II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Thomas, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Management of asymptomatic early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) centered on expectant surveillance for active disease warranting chemotherapy. In CLL, elevated serum β-2 microglobulin (β2M) levels were associated with more rapid disease progression and shorter survival (OS). METHODS An early intervention trial was designed to assess response, time-to-progression (TTP), and OS after immunotherapy with standard-dose rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously weekly for 8 consecutive weeks) in 34 asymptomatic untreated early stage CLL with β2M level ≥ 2 mg/dL. RESULTS Long-term follow-up and results are reported. The overall response rate in 34 patients was 82% (9% complete [CR]), median TTP in the 28 responders was 23 months, the median time to subsequent treatment was 43 months, and the 8-year OS rate was 74% (median follow-up, 102 months). CONCLUSIONS Early treatment with rituximab was well tolerated and safe. Further studies are needed to determine if this intervention can decrease CLL-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:21246526

  8. [The cardiological evaluation in patients undergoing to Day Surgery: when is indicated].

    PubMed

    Sonnessa, S; Sebastianelli, A; De Lucia, G; Rauzino, J; Lala, N; Mingoia, C; Fazi, S; Trappolini, M

    Guidelines established preoperative cardiac management of the patient undergoing non-cardiac surgery in hospitalization. Regarding the patients undergoing the surgery in DS, the management is not defined. Aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of the cardiological consultation requested by the patients undergoing surgery with this method. We examined the request of cardiological evaluation for patient admitted to DS of Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome. We have considered: age, sex, clinic history, simpthomatology, electrocardiogram, cardiovascular objectivity, hemodynamic stability, comorbidity, therapy, type of the surgery, the motivation of the request. Of 2350 patients, 495 patients (21%) have been undergone the preoperative cardiologic consultation. The request was resulted as unnecessary for 432 (87.2%) patients, appropriate for 63 (12.7%): 4 that had the ischemic heart disease without knowing this, 6 with severe hypertension; 2 with mitral valve prolapse and valvular regurgitation; 34 with congestive heart failure; 6 with the alterations in EKG : 3 with "Brugada pattern"; 1 with Pace Maker (PMK) that had to be reprogrammed before the operation; 3 under dual antiplatelet therapy; 7 that were taking the oral anticoagulant therapy. Cardiac complications occurred just in one case with patient suffering dilated cardiomyopathy, diabetes and hypertension; during the cataract surgery was presented the abrupt increase of blood pressure and left ventricular failure. Preoperative cardiologic evaluation results as useless in most patients. However, in some particular situations had allowed the diagnosis of heart disease for the patients who did not know to have it.

  9. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Valerie A.; Manahan, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient's diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population. PMID:27051544

  10. Recurrent Pseudomembranous Colitis in an Ovarian Cancer Patient Undergoing Carboplatin Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Valerie A; Manahan, Kelly J; Geisler, John P

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diarrhea is a common problem in ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and Clostridium difficile infection has been identified as a cause. The proper diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea are critical to patient care, especially to prevent the serious complications from a severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Case. We present a heavily pretreated ovarian cancer patient who developed recurrent pseudomembranous colitis while receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. Despite treatment with oral metronidazole for fourteen days, the patient's diarrhea relapsed and colonoscopy revealed extensive pseudomembranous colitis. The infection eventually resolved with the combination of oral vancomycin and metronidazole. Conclusions. Diarrhea is a common problem in patients undergoing chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. Management requires obtaining the proper diagnosis. Clostridium difficile associated pseudomembranous colitis must be part of the differential diagnosis. Treatment must be sufficient to prevent relapses of the Clostridium difficile infection to prevent serious consequences in an already vulnerable patient population.

  11. Up to 15-year clinical follow-up of a pilot Phase III immunotherapy study in stage II breast cancer patients using oxidized mannan-MUC1.

    PubMed

    Vassilaros, Stamatis; Tsibanis, Anastasios; Tsikkinis, Annivas; Pietersz, Geoffrey A; McKenzie, Ian F C; Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2013-11-01

    Targeting antigens to dendritic cell receptors has recently become a popular approach to inducing effective immune responses against cancer antigens. Almost 20 years ago, however, we demonstrated that targeting the mannose receptor on macrophages and dendritic cells leads to strong cellular immune responses. We conducted numerous human clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of oxidized mannan-MUC1 (M-FP) in MUC1(+) adenocarcinoma patients. In one trial, the 5-8-year follow-up of breast cancer patients vaccinated with M-FP was published previously; we now report here the 12-15-year follow-up. Details regarding the preparation of the vaccine, inclusion and exclusion criteria, immunotherapy and follow-up schedule, were published previously. The follow-up at 12-15 years showed that the recurrence rate in patients receiving placebo was 60% (nine of 15). In those receiving immunotherapy (M-FP), the rate was 12.5% (two of 16). The time of recurrence in the placebo group ranged from 7 to 180 months (mean: 65.8 months) and in the two patients of the vaccine group, the recurrence appeared at 95 and 141 months (mean: 118 months) after surgery. These findings are statistically significant (p = 0.02 for survival and p = 0.009 for percentage of patients cancer-free). All patients injected with M-FP showed no evidence of toxic effects or signs of autoimmunity during the 12-15-year follow-up. The preliminary evidence indicates that M-FP is beneficial in the overall survival of early-stage breast cancer patients. This long-term clinical follow-up of patients strongly supports the necessity for a large Phase III study of direct M-FP injection in early-stage breast cancer patients, to evaluate immunotherapy as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

  12. Acute mortality in critically ill patients undergoing echocardiography with or without an ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Main, Michael L; Hibberd, Mark G; Ryan, Amy; Lowe, Timothy J; Miller, Paula; Bhat, Gajanan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was to compare 48-h all-cause mortality (as well as hospital stay mortality) among critically ill patients who underwent echocardiography either with or without an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). The safety of perflutren-based UCAs has been questioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (particularly when administered to critically ill patients) following rare reports of deaths or life-threatening adverse reactions that occurred in close temporal relationship to UCA administration. This was a retrospective observational outcome study conducted in critically ill patients to compare all-cause 48-h and hospital stay mortality subsequent to echocardiography procedures performed either with or without a UCA. The study utilized discharge data from a database maintained by Premier, Inc. (Charlotte, North Carolina). Premier's database is the largest U.S. hospital-based, service-level comparative database for quality and outcomes research, and provides detailed resource utilization data along with patients' primary and secondary diagnoses and procedure billing codes. A propensity score-matching algorithm between UCA-enhanced echocardiography patients and non-contrast-enhanced echocardiography patients was utilized to reduce the potential for imbalance in covariates of selected patients in the comparison of mortality between groups. Patients undergoing echocardiography with a UCA had lower mortality at 48 h compared with patients undergoing non-contrast-enhanced echocardiography (1.70% vs. 2.50%), with an odds ratio = 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54 to 0.80). Patients undergoing echocardiography with a UCA had lower hospital stay mortality compared with patients undergoing noncontrast echocardiography (14.85% vs. 15.66%), with an odds ratio = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.96). In critically ill, propensity-matched hospitalized patients undergoing echocardiography, use of a UCA is associated with a 28% lower mortality at

  13. Patient characteristics associated with undergoing cancer operations at low-volume hospitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason B; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Mallin, Katherine; Winchester, David P

    2017-02-01

    Although strong volume-outcome relationships exist for many cancer operations, patients continue to undergo these operations at low-volume hospitals. Patients were identified from the National Cancer Data Base from 2010-2013 who underwent resection for bladder, breast, esophagus, lung, pancreas, rectum, and stomach cancers. Low-volume hospitals were defined as those in the bottom quartile by surgical volume for each cancer type separately. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess patient-level factors associated with undergoing cancer surgery at low-volume hospitals across cancer types while controlling for tumor characteristics. Survival outcomes (30- and 90-day mortality; overall survival) were also assessed. Low volume thresholds were 4, 84, 4, 18, 8, 7, and 4 resections per year for bladder, breast, esophagus, lung, pancreas, rectum, and stomach cancers, respectively, resulting in 772 (74.1%), 828 (57.5%), 664 (77.5%), 830 (64.7%), 716 (79.2%), 898 (65.1%), and 888 (68.5%) hospitals classified as low-volume hospitals, respectively. For all the cancers examined, patients were more likely to undergo operation at low-volume hospitals if they traveled shorter distances (home to surgical facility), resided in rural locations, or had not received neoadjuvant therapy. Other patient and tumor factors were not associated consistently with undergoing operation at low-volume hospitals. Patients who went to low-volume hospitals had poorer outcomes among the studied cancers. Patients continue to undergo operation at low-volume hospitals due to where they live and how far they have to travel. Regionalization policy initiatives will remain challenging in this population. Efforts should therefore continue to emphasize quality improvement locally at each facility caring for patients with cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased depressive ratings in patients with hepatitis C receiving interferon-alpha-based immunotherapy are related to interferon-alpha-induced changes in the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Stefania; Marino, Valentina; Puzella, Antonella; Pasquini, Massimo; Biondi, Massimo; Artini, Marco; Almerighi, Cristiana; Verkerk, Robert; Meltzer, Herbert; Maes, Michael

    2002-02-01

    There is now evidence that repeated administration of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to patients with chronic active hepatitis and cancers induces depressive symptoms. There is also evidence that induction of the cytokine network modulates the serotonergic system and that major depression is related to activation of the cytokine network and disturbances in the serotonergic metabolism. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of IFN-alpha-based immunotherapy on the development of depressive symptoms in relation to its effects on plasma tryptophan and kynurenine and serum serotonin (5-HT). Eighteen patients affected by chronic active hepatitis C were treated with IFN-alpha (3-6 million units subcutaneously three to six times a week for 6 months) and had measurements of the previous parameters before starting immunotherapy and 2, 4, 16, and 24 weeks later. Severity of depression and anxiety were measured with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) scale, respectively. Immunochemotherapy with IFN-alpha (1) significantly increased the MADRS and HAM-A scores and serum kynurenine concentrations and (2) significantly reduced plasma tryptophan and serum 5-HT concentrations. IFN-alpha-based immunotherapy significantly increased the kynurenine per tryptophan quotient, which estimates the activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, the major tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, which is induced by IFNs. There are significant relationships between the IFN-alpha-induced changes in the MADRS score and serum kynurenine (positive) and 5-HT (negative) concentrations. Immunotherapy with IFN-alpha significantly increases the severity of depressive symptoms. The latter is related to changes in the serotonergic system, such as depletion of serum 5-HT and induction of the catabolism of tryptophan to kynurenine. It is suggested that the IFN-alpha-induced changes in the serotonergic turnover could play a role in the

  15. Usefulness of Acoustic Monitoring of Respiratory Rate in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Shingo; Nakae, Hirohiko; Imai, Jin; Sawamoto, Kana; Kijima, Maiko; Tsukune, Yoko; Uchida, Tetsufumi; Igarashi, Muneki; Koike, Jun; Matsushima, Masashi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Mine, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The study assessed the usefulness of a recently developed method for respiratory rate (RR) monitoring in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under deep sedation. Methods. Study subjects comprised 182 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer or gastric cancer undergoing ESD. The usefulness of acoustic RR monitoring was assessed by retrospectively reviewing the patients' records for age, gender, height, weight, past history, serum creatinine, RR before ESD, and total dose of sedative. Results. Respiratory suppression was present in 37.9% of (69/182) patients. Continuous monitoring of RR led to detection of respiratory suppression in all these patients. RR alone was decreased in 24 patients, whereas both RR and blood oxygen saturation were decreased in 45 patients. Univariate analysis showed female gender, height, weight, and RR before treatment to be significantly associated with respiratory suppression. Multivariate analysis showed RR before treatment to be the only significant independent predictor [odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.95, and P = 0.006] of respiratory suppression. Conclusion. In this study, the difference in RR before treatment between patients with and without respiratory suppression was subtle. Therefore, we suggest that acoustic RR monitoring should be considered in patients undergoing ESD under sedation to prevent serious respiratory complications. PMID:26858748

  16. Usefulness of Acoustic Monitoring of Respiratory Rate in Patients Undergoing Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Tsuda, Shingo; Nakae, Hirohiko; Imai, Jin; Sawamoto, Kana; Kijima, Maiko; Tsukune, Yoko; Uchida, Tetsufumi; Igarashi, Muneki; Koike, Jun; Matsushima, Masashi; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Mine, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The study assessed the usefulness of a recently developed method for respiratory rate (RR) monitoring in patients undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) under deep sedation. Methods. Study subjects comprised 182 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer or gastric cancer undergoing ESD. The usefulness of acoustic RR monitoring was assessed by retrospectively reviewing the patients' records for age, gender, height, weight, past history, serum creatinine, RR before ESD, and total dose of sedative. Results. Respiratory suppression was present in 37.9% of (69/182) patients. Continuous monitoring of RR led to detection of respiratory suppression in all these patients. RR alone was decreased in 24 patients, whereas both RR and blood oxygen saturation were decreased in 45 patients. Univariate analysis showed female gender, height, weight, and RR before treatment to be significantly associated with respiratory suppression. Multivariate analysis showed RR before treatment to be the only significant independent predictor [odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.95, and P = 0.006] of respiratory suppression. Conclusion. In this study, the difference in RR before treatment between patients with and without respiratory suppression was subtle. Therefore, we suggest that acoustic RR monitoring should be considered in patients undergoing ESD under sedation to prevent serious respiratory complications.

  17. Reduced work/academic performance and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and impact of allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Roger, A; Arcalá Campillo, E; Torres, M C; Millan, C; Jáuregui, I; Mohedano, E; Liñan, S; Verdu, P; Rubira, N; Santaolalla, M; González, P; Orovitg, A; Villarrubia, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterised by burdensome nasal and/or ocular symptoms. This inflammatory disease can be debilitating and thus result in considerable health-related and economic consequences. In a cross-sectional study, adult subjects with AR (N = 683) completed three allergy-specific questionnaires that assessed the impact of AR on the work/academic performance, daily activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and satisfaction with allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Regression analyses were used to examine the associations between several clinical variables and the patient-reported outcomes. Total loss of productivity was 21.0 and 21.2 % for employed and student patients, respectively, whereas the impairment of daily activities was 22.0 %. The mean overall HRQOL score was 1.94 ± 1.29 (on the scale of 0-6 points). Global score for satisfaction with AIT was 65.5 ± 24.8 (on a 0-100 scale). Simple regression analysis found statistically significant associations between loss of work and academic productivity, impairment of daily activities and the type and severity of AR. AIT was a protective factor. The persistent and more severe types of AR and lack of AIT contributed to the worsening of HRQOL. AR (the persistent and more severe form of the disease) has an impact on functional characteristics of adult patients in Spain. AIT might reduce the effect of this disease on the work/academic performance and HRQOL. Trial registration Retrospectively registered.

  18. Venom immunotherapy: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Moreno Aguilar, Carmen; Vega, Arantza; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2014-07-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the most effective form of specific immunotherapy to date. Hitherto, several relevant queries remain unanswered, namely optimal doses, duration, and means of assessment. Important progress has been lately made in terms of diagnosis by means of component-resolved diagnosis. Moreover, basophil activation test results in patients with negative serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and skin prick test confer this technique a promising future, although these outcomes shall be considered with caution. This review aims to unravel the important advances made on diagnosis, management, and prognosis and also focuses on several undetermined aspects of VIT.

  19. Immunotherapy and mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Carlos, A G; Carlos, M L; Santos, M A; Pedro, E; Santos, S; Lopes-Pregal, A

    1998-10-01

    Tryptase is the more specific markers for mast cell activation and mediators release and can be used as an index of mast cell activation after challenge. Nasal provocation tests have been done in patients allergic to the pollen of Parietaria (pellitory wall) before and after specific systemic immunotherapy and tryptase release evaluated in nasal lavage fluid. After specific immunotherapy the concentration of tryptase in nasal lavage was significantly decreased to all the concentrations used in challenge and the peack of tryptase release was delayed. These results confirm that assays of tryptase in nasal fluid after nasal provocation are a reliable markers of mast cell activation. Immunotherapy with specific allergen decreases mast cell reactivity to the same allergen.

  20. Patient Outcomes and Factors Associated with Healing in Calciphylaxis Patients Undergoing Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Norman; Wojcik, Susan M; Heyboer, Marvin

    2015-12-01

    Calcific uremic arteriolopathy, also known as calciphylaxis, is a rare syndrome of small vessel calcification of unknown etiology causing painful, violaceous skin lesions that progress to form chronic non-healing ulcers and gangrene. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of these ulcers. However, due to paucity of cases, there is limited data on the clinical benefit of HBOT and identifying factors associated with healing. The purpose of this study was to determine patient outcomes and factors associated with healing in patients with calciphylaxis undergoing HBOT. A retrospective chart review was completed on patients who were diagnosed with calciphylaxis and had hyperbaric medicine consultation between May 2012 and January 2016. Clinical outcomes, demographics, risk factors, laboratory values, wound distribution, and HBOT profiles were collected and analyzed. We identified 8 patients. Out of 8 patients consulted for calciphylaxis, five were consented and underwent HBOT (2 males and 3 females). All had coexisting ESRD and Diabetes. All males were able to tolerate being in the chamber and received therapeutic treatments (at least 20 HBOT) with complete resolution of ulcers. HBOT was discontinued in one female due to an inconsistent biopsy report and two others due to death secondary to septic shock or respiratory arrest and severe uremia. Calciphylaxis is a devastating disease with a high mortality rate. Our results demonstrated a positive response to HBOT especially when receiving at least 20 treatments. A majority of calciphylaxis cases are females and indeed female gender has been cited as a risk factor for this disease. However, current literature has not conferred a relationship between gender nor the number of HBOT received and outcomes. Our results showed that males had a more favorable outcome provided they received at least twenty HBOT. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate these outcomes.

  1. Patient race and the likelihood of undergoing bariatric surgery among patients seeking surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Jones, Daniel B.; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Blackburn, George L.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Hess, Donald T.; Chiodi, Sarah; Robert, Shirley; Bourland, Ashley C.; Wee, Christina C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority adults have disproportionately higher rates of obesity than Caucasians but are less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. Recent data suggest that minorities might be less likely to seek surgery. Whether minorities who seek surgery are also less likely to proceed with surgery is unclear. Methods We interviewed 651 patients who sought bariatric surgery at two academic medical centers to examine whether ethnic minorities are less likely to proceed with surgery than Caucasians and whether minorities who do proceed with surgery have higher illness burden than their counterparts. We collected patient demographics and abstracted clinical data from the medical records. We then conducted multivariable analyses to examine the association between race and the likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery within 1 year of initial interview and to compare the illness burden by race and ethnicity among those who underwent surgery. Results Of our study sample, 66 % were Caucasian, 18 % were African-American, and 12 % were Hispanics. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, there were no racial differences in who proceeded with bariatric surgery. Among those who proceeded with surgery, illness burden was comparable between minorities and Caucasian patients with the exception that African-Americans were underrepresented among those with reflux disease (0.4, 95 % CI 0.2–0.7) and depression (0.4, 0.2–0.7), and overrepresented among those with anemia (4.8, 2.4–9.6) than Caucasian patients. Conclusions Race and ethnicity were not independently associated with likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery. Minorities who proceeded with surgery did not clearly have higher illness burden than Caucasian patients. PMID:25492453

  2. Molecular Imaging of Immunotherapy Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ehlerding, Emily B.; England, Christopher G.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising alternative in the arsenal against cancer by harnessing the power of the immune system to specifically target malignant tissues. As the field of immunotherapy continues to expand, researchers will require newer methods for studying the interactions between the immune system, tumor cells, and immunotherapy agents. Recently, several noninvasive imaging strategies have been used to map the biodistribution of immune checkpoint molecules, monitor the efficacy and potential toxicities of the treatments, and identify patients who are likely to benefit from immunotherapies. In this review, we outline the current applications of noninvasive techniques for the preclinical imaging of immunotherapy targets and suggest future pathways for molecular imaging to contribute to this developing field. PMID:27469363

  3. Comparison of the Serum Tumor Markers S100 and Melanoma-inhibitory Activity (MIA) in the Monitoring of Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Receiving Vaccination Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Ugur; Schliep, Stefan; Schliep, Klaus; Erdmann, Michael; Koch, Hans-Uwe; Parsch, Hans; Rosenheinrich, Stina; Anzengruber, Doris; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In patients with melanoma, early dissemination via lymphatic and hematogenous routes is frequently seen. Thus, besides clinical follow-up examination and imaging, reliable melanoma-specific serological tumor markers are needed. We retrospectively compared two serum markers for melanoma, S100 and melanoma-inhibitory activity (MIA), for monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma under either adjuvant or therapeutic vaccination immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC). Serum was obtained from a total of 100 patients (28 patients in stage III and 72 patients in stage IV, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) at regular intervals during therapy, accompanied by follow-up imaging. When relapse was detected, both markers often remained within normal range. In contrast, in patients with metastatic measurable disease receiving therapeutic and not adjuvant DC vaccination, an increase of both markers was a strong indicator for disease progression. When comparing both markers in the whole study population, MIA showed a superior sensitivity to detect disease progression. S100 and MIA are highly sensitive tumor markers for monitoring of patients with melanoma with current metastases, but less sensitive for monitoring of tumor-free patients. In the current study, MIA had a slightly superior sensitivity to detect progressive disease compared to S100 and seems to be more useful in monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma receiving immunotherapy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of royal jelly on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ozden; Güngörmüş, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 103 patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Oral mucositis was graded according to the World Health Organization criteria, and patients were divided into 2 groups. All patients received mouthwash therapy with benzydamine hydrochloride and nystatin rinses. In addition, patients in the experimental group received royal jelly. The mean resolution time of oral mucositis in the royal jelly group was significantly shorter than that of the control group. As a result, the study results demonstrate that royal jelly administrated by a certain procedure improved the signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and markedly shortened its healing time.

  5. Evaluation of self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment1

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marilia Aparecida Carvalho; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the self-esteem of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: descriptive analytical cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Around 156 patients that attended an oncology unit of a mid-sized hospital participated in the study. Results: we found a higher frequency of patients with high self-esteem, but some of them showed average or low self-esteem. The scale showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.746, by considering its acceptable internal consistency for the evaluated items. No independent variables showed significant associations with self-esteem. Conclusion: the cancer patients evaluated have presented high self-esteem; thus, it becomes crucial for nursing to plan the assistance of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments, which enables actions and strategies that meet their physical and psychosocial conditions, aiming to maintain and rehabilitate these people's emotional aspects. PMID:26625999

  6. Adverse Hospital Events for Mentally Ill Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Glance, Laurent G; Cai, Xueya; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Context Patients with mental disorders show higher burden of coronary heart disease, and may face special safety issues during in-hospital cardiac care. Objectives To compare the postoperative complication rate between patients with and without mental disorders undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective analyses of New York state hospital claims between 1997 and 2004 (N=135,701). Complications were defined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (AHRQ PSI). Principal Findings Mental disorders were significantly associated with higher anesthesia complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=6.44, p<.001), decubitus ulcer (AOR=1.42, p=.006), postoperative hip fracture (AOR=3.29, p<.001), and overall complication rate representing nine PSIs (AOR=1.27, p<.001). Conclusions Mentally ill patients undergoing CABG surgery are more likely to experience potentially preventable complications and injuries. The mechanism underlying this observation warrants further study. PMID:18665856

  7. Anesthetic challenges of patients with cardiac comorbidities undergoing major urologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. Number of this group of patients having to go through this procedure is constantly increasing, due to prolonged life, increased agressiveness of surgery and increased anesthesia’s safety. The anesthesiologist usually has to deal with several problems of the patient, such as hypertension, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, rhythm disturbances, intraoperative hemodymanic changes, intraoperative bleeding, perioperative fluid imbalance, and metabolic disturbances. A cardiac patient undergoing major urologic surgery is a complex case requiring a great attention by the anesthesiologist. The scope of this review article is to present the most frequent issues encountered with this group of patients, and to synthetically discuss the respective strategies and maneuvers during perioperative period, which is the major challenge for the anesthesiologist. PMID:24791166

  8. Antioxidant capacity of follicular fluid from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Li, Zhou; Ai, Jihui; Zhu, Lixia; Li, Yufeng; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Hanwang

    2014-01-01

    This study measured the antioxidant activity of follicular fluid (FF) in infertile patients and assessed its possible correlation between ovarian stimulation and pregnancy outcomes. Samples from 191 infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were determined by α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging, β-Carotene bleaching assay, ferrothiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid assays. The comparison between a positive IVF outcome and FF’s antioxidant activity was also studied. The results showed FF had strong antioxidant activity, which equated to common antioxidants Vc and BHT (100 μg/mL). Patients with endometriosis had less efficient antioxidant activity in FF than that of patients with tubal occlusion or polycystic ovary syndrome. In conclusion, this study detected, for the first time, the antioxidant activity of FF from patients undergoing an IVF and the FF exhibited strong antioxidant activity. PMID:24966936

  9. Carotid Stenting versus Endarterectomy in Patients undergoing Re-intervention after Prior Carotid Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fokkema, Margriet; de Borst, Gert Jan; Nolan, Brian W.; Lo, Ruby C.; Cambria, Robert A.; Powell, Richard J.; Moll, Frans L.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Outcomes for patients undergoing intervention for restenosis after prior ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the era of carotid stenting (CAS) are unclear. We compared perioperative results and durability of CAS versus CEA in patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic restenosis after prior CEA and investigated the risk of re-intervention compared to primary procedures. Methods Patients undergoing CAS and CEA for restenosis between January 2003 and March 2012 were identified within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database.Endpoints included any stroke, death or myocardial infarction (MI) within 30 days, cranial nerve injury at discharge and restenosis ≥70% at 1-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression was done to identify whether prior ipsilateral CEA was an independent predictor for adverse outcome. Results Out of 9305 CEA procedures, 212 patients (2.3%) underwent redo-CEA (36% symptomatic). Of 663 CAS procedures, 220 patients (33%) underwent CAS after prior ipsilateral CEA (31% symptomatic). Demographics of patients undergoing redo-CEA were comparable to patients undergoing CAS after prior CEA. Stroke/death/MI rates were statistically similar between redo-CEA vs CAS after prior CEA in both asymptomatic (4.4% vs 3.3%, P=0.8) and symptomatic patients (6.6% vs 5.8%, P=1.0). No significant difference in restenosis ≥70% was identified between redo-CEA and CAS after prior CEA (5.2% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.5). Redo-CEA vs primary CEA had increased stroke/death/MI rate in both symptomatic (6.6% vs 2.3%, P=0.05) and asymptomatic patients 4.4% vs 1.7%, P=0.03). Prior ipsilateral CEA was an independent predictor for stroke/death/MI among all patients undergoing CEA (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 – 3.5). No difference in cranial nerve injury was identified between redo-CEA and primary CEA (5.2% vs 4.7%, P=0.8). Conclusions In the VSGNE, CEA and CAS showed statistically equivalent outcomes in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients treated for

  10. Age-dependent defective TGF-beta1 signaling in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is deregulated in atherosclerosis; however the role of age in this process is unknown. We aimed to assess whether TGF-β1 signaling is affected by age. Methods Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were obtained from patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Levels of TGF-β1 were measured by ELISA in sera from 169 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The p27 expression was determined by Western blot from internal mammary arteries (IMA) obtained from CABG patients (n = 13). In VSMC from these patients undergoing abdominal surgery, secretion of TGF-β1 was determined by ELISA of cell-conditioned media. Results In VSMC from aged patients we observed a lower TGF-β1 secretion, measured as TGF-β1 concentration in cell conditioned medium (p < 0.001). This effect was correlated to an age-dependent decrease of p27 expression in IMA from aged CABG patients. In a similar manner, there was an age-dependent decrease of serum TGF-β1 levels in CABG patients (p = 0.0195). Conclusions VSMC from aged patients showed a higher degree of cellular senescence and it was associated to a lower TGF-β1 secretion and signaling. PMID:24495866

  11. Prognostic Understanding, Quality of Life, and Mood in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    El-Jawahri, Areej; Traeger, Lara; Kuzmuk, Kailyn; Eusebio, Justin; Vandusen, Harry; Keenan, Tanya; Shin, Jennifer; Gallagher, Emily R.; Greer, Joseph A.; Pirl, William F.; Jackson, Vicki A.; Ballen, Karen K; Spitzer, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; McAfee, Steven; Dey, Bimalangshu; Chen, Yi-Bin A.; Temel, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how patients undergoing stem cell transplantation (HCT) and their family caregivers (FC) perceive their prognosis. We examined prognostic understanding in patients undergoing HCT and their FC and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) and mood. We conducted a longitudinal study of patients (and FC) hospitalized for HCT. We used a questionnaire to measure participants’ prognostic understanding and asked the oncologists to estimate patients’ prognosis prior to HCT. We assessed QOL and mood weekly and evaluated the relationship between prognostic understanding and QOL and mood using multivariable linear mixed models. We enrolled 90 patients undergoing (autologous n=30); myeloablative (n=30) or reduced intensity allogeneic (n=30)) HCT. 88.9% of patients and 87.1% of FC reported it is ‘extremely’ or ‘very’ important to know about prognosis. However, 77.6% of patients and 71.7% of FC reported a discordance and more optimistic prognostic perception compared to the oncologist (P’s < 0.0001). Patients with a concordant prognostic understanding with their oncologists reported worse QOL (β = −9.4, P = 0.01) and greater depression at baseline (β = 1.7, P = 0.02) and over time ((β = 1.2