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Sample records for patients undergoing routine

  1. The Utility of Routine Intensive Care Admission for Patients Undergoing Intracranial Neurosurgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Cesar Cimonari; Boone, M Dustin; Laviv, Yosef; Kasper, Burkhard S; Chen, Clark C; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2018-02-01

    Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission. A systematic review was performed in July 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist of the Medline database. The search strategy was created based on the following key words: "craniotomy," "neurosurgical procedure," and "intensive care unit." The nine articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria yielded a total of 2227 patients. Of these patients, 879 were observed in a non-ICU setting. The most frequent diagnoses were supratentorial brain tumors, followed by patients with cerebrovascular diseases and infratentorial brain tumors. Three percent (30/879) of the patients originally assigned to floor or intermediate care status were transferred to the ICU. The most frequently observed neurological complications leading to ICU transfer were delayed postoperative neurological recovery, seizures, worsening of neurological deficits, hemiparesis, and cranial nerves deficits. Our systematic review demonstrates that routine postoperative ICU admission may not benefit carefully selected patients who have undergone elective intracranial neurosurgical procedures. In addition, limiting routine ICU admission may result in significant cost savings.

  2. Brain measures of nociception using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients undergoing routine screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Lino; Aasted, Christopher M; Boas, David A; George, Edward; Yücel, Meryem A; Kussman, Barry D; Kelsey, Peter; Borsook, David

    2016-04-01

    Colonoscopy is an invaluable tool for the screening and diagnosis of many colonic diseases. For most colonoscopies, moderate sedation is used during the procedure. However, insufflation of the colon produces a nociceptive stimulus that is usually accompanied by facial grimacing/groaning while under sedation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a nociceptive signal elicited by colonic insufflation could be measured from the brain. Seventeen otherwise healthy patients (age 54.8 ± 9.1; 6 female) undergoing routine colonoscopy (ie, no history of significant medical conditions) were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Moderate sedation was produced using standard clinical protocols for midazolam and meperidine, titrated to effect. Near-infrared spectroscopy data captured during the procedure was analyzed offline to evaluate the brains' responses to nociceptive stimuli evoked by the insufflation events (defined by physician or observing patients' facial responses). Analysis of NIRS data revealed a specific, reproducible prefrontal cortex activity corresponding to times when patients grimaced. The pattern of the activation is similar to that previously observed during nociceptive stimuli in awake healthy individuals, suggesting that this approach may be used to evaluate brain activity evoked by nociceptive stimuli under sedation, when there is incomplete analgesia. Although some patients report recollection of procedural pain after the procedure, the effects of repeated nociceptive stimuli in surgical patients may contribute to postoperative changes including chronic pain. The results from this study indicate that NIRS may be a suitable technology for continuous nociceptive afferent monitoring in patients undergoing sedation and could have applications under sedation or anesthesia.

  3. Brain Measures of Nociception using Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients Undergoing Routine Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Boas, David A.; George, Edward; Yücel, Meryem A.; Kussman, Barry D.; Kelsey, Peter; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy is an invaluable tool for screening and diagnosis of many colonic diseases. For most colonoscopies, moderate sedation is used during the procedure. However, insufflation of the colon produces a nociceptive stimulus that is usually accompanied by facial grimacing/groaning while under sedation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether a nociceptive signal elicited by colonic insufflation could be measured from the brain. Seventeen otherwise healthy patients (age 54.8±9.1; 6 female) undergoing routine colonoscopy (i.e., no history of significant medical conditions) were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Moderate sedation was produced using standard clinical protocols for midazolam and meperidine, titrated to effect. NIRS data captured during the procedure was analyzed offline to evaluate the brains’ responses to nociceptive stimuli evoked by the insufflation events (defined by physician or observing patients’ facial responses). Analysis of NIRS data revealed a specific, reproducible prefrontal cortex activity corresponding to times when patients grimaced. The pattern of the activation is similar to that previously observed during nociceptive stimuli in awake healthy individuals, suggesting that this approach may be used to evaluate brain activity evoked by nociceptive stimuli under sedation, when there is incomplete analgesia. While some patients report recollection of procedural pain following the procedure, the effects of repeated nociceptive stimuli in surgical patients may contribute to postoperative changes including chronic pain. The results from this study indicate that NIRS may be a suitable technology for continuous nociceptive afferent monitoring in patients undergoing sedation and could have applications under sedation or anesthesia. PMID:26645550

  4. Body dysmorphic disorder in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty surgery: should we be performing routine screening?

    PubMed

    Joseph, J; Randhawa, P; Hannan, S A; Long, J; Goh, S; O'Shea, N; Saleh, H; Hansen, E; Veale, D; Andrews, P

    2017-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as having a preoccupation with a perceived flaw in one's appearance, which appears slight to others and significantly interferes with a person's functioning. When undetected in septorhinoplasty patients, it will often lead to poor outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the prevalence of BDD in our patients and whether surgical correction could be considered. We recruited 34 patients being considered for septorhinoplasty in a tertiary referral rhinology clinic and a control group of 50 from the otology clinic giving a total of 84. Participants completed the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), the sino-nasal outcome test-23 (SNOT-23) and underwent nasal inspiratory peak flow (NIPF). Those found to be at high risk for BDD were referred to a clinical psychologist. Of the septorhinoplasty patients, 11 (32%) were high risk for BDD. Following psychological assessment, 7 (63%) patients were felt to be unsuitable for surgery and were offered psychological therapy. SNOT-23 scores were significantly higher in the BDD group indicating a negative impact on quality of life. NIPF readings were not significantly different in the BDD group compared to the control group. The BDDQ is a valid tool for identifying patients at risk of BDD. A close working relationship with clinical psychology has been advantageous to help the selection process of candidates for surgery when there is a high risk of BDD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Routine interim disease assessment in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia: Can we do better?

    PubMed

    Campuzano-Zuluaga, Germán; Deutsch, Yehuda; Salzberg, Matthew; Gomez, Alexandra; Vargas, Fernando; Elias, Roy; Kwon, Deukwoo; Goodman, Mark; Ikpatt, Offiong F; Chapman, Jennifer R; Watts, Justin; Vega, Francisco; Swords, Ronan

    2016-03-01

    The presence of >5% blasts at "day 14" (D14), in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is problematic. It is unclear if a second course of chemotherapy for early persistent disease will alter outcome in these patients. We conducted a retrospective study of AML patients undergoing induction chemotherapy where diagnostic, interim (around day 14), and recovery (days 21-42) bone marrow (BM) evaluations were available for review. Of the 113 patients included in the final analysis, 99 (87.6%) achieved CR at hematologic recovery. At D14, 90 patients (79.6%) had <5% blasts and of these, 87 (96.7%) ultimately achieved CR. At D14, Twenty-three (20.4%) patients had residual leukemia (>5% blasts). Of these, 11 (47.8%) received a second course of chemotherapy (double induction [DI]) and 12 (52.2%) were observed until count recovery (single induction [SI]). No significant difference in CR rates was observed between these two groups (58.3% DI group vs. 45.5% SI group, P value = 0.684). In our analysis, D14 BM evaluation did not uniformly identify patients with primary induction failure. To unequivocally determine the value of a D14 marrow assessment in AML, prospective studies in the context of large cooperative group trials are required. Considering our findings and similar reports from others, we propose that D14 marrow assessment should be individualized, and that other factors, such as cytogenetics and early peripheral blood blast clearance should be considered, to identify patients most likely to benefit from interim disease assessment during AML induction therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Usefulness of Routine Periodic Fasting to Lower Risk of Coronary Artery Disease among Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Benjamin D.; May, Heidi T.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Kfoury, Abdallah G.; Bailey, Beau M.; McClure, Brian S.; Renlund, Dale G.; Lappé, Donald L.; Carlquist, John F.; Fisher, Patrick W.; Pearson, Robert R.; Bair, Tami L.; Adams, Ted D.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multi-factorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. While the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (N1=4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994-2002) were evaluated for association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (≥70% coronary stenosis on angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (N2=448) were surveyed (2004-2006) for association of behavioral factors with CAD, with the primary variable being routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink). Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee, social support, and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking]: odds ratio [OR]=0.81; p=0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs. 76% CAD; OR=0.55, CI=0.35, 0.87; p=0.010) and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR=0.46, CI=0.27, 0.81; p=0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p=0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD. PMID:18805103

  7. Three-dimensional thoracic aorta principal strain analysis from routine ECG-gated computerized tomography: feasibility in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Satriano, Alessandro; Guenther, Zachary; White, James A; Merchant, Naeem; Di Martino, Elena S; Al-Qoofi, Faisal; Lydell, Carmen P; Fine, Nowell M

    2018-05-02

    Functional impairment of the aorta is a recognized complication of aortic and aortic valve disease. Aortic strain measurement provides effective quantification of mechanical aortic function, and 3-dimenional (3D) approaches may be desirable for serial evaluation. Computerized tomographic angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for various clinical indications, and offers the unique potential to study 3D aortic deformation. We sought to investigate the feasibility of performing 3D aortic strain analysis in a candidate population of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Twenty-one patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) referred for TAVR underwent ECG-gated CTA and echocardiography. CTA images were analyzed using a 3D feature-tracking based technique to construct a dynamic aortic mesh model to perform peak principal strain amplitude (PPSA) analysis. Segmental strain values were correlated against clinical, hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables. Reproducibility analysis was performed. The mean patient age was 81±6 years. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 52±14%, aortic valve area (AVA) 0.6±0.3 cm 2 and mean AS pressure gradient (MG) 44±11 mmHg. CTA-based 3D PPSA analysis was feasible in all subjects. Mean PPSA values for the global thoracic aorta, ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending aorta segments were 6.5±3.0, 10.2±6.0, 6.1±2.9 and 3.3±1.7%, respectively. 3D PSSA values demonstrated significantly more impairment with measures of worsening AS severity, including AVA and MG for the global thoracic aorta and ascending segment (p<0.001 for all). 3D PSSA was independently associated with AVA by multivariable modelling. Coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-observer variability were 5.8 and 7.2%, respectively. Three-dimensional aortic PPSA analysis is clinically feasible from routine ECG-gated CTA. Appropriate reductions in PSSA were identified with increasing AS hemodynamic severity. Expanded

  8. Thermo-wrap technology preserves normothermia better than routine thermal care in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass and is associated with lower immune response and lesser myocardial damage.

    PubMed

    Nesher, Nahum; Uretzky, Gideon; Insler, Steven; Nataf, Patrick; Frolkis, Inna; Pineau, Emmanuelle; Cantoni, Emmanuel; Bolotin, Gil; Vardi, Moshe; Pevni, Dimitry; Lev-Ran, Oren; Sharony, Ram; Weinbroum, Avi A

    2005-06-01

    Perioperative hypothermia might be detrimental to the patient undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. We assessed the efficacy of the Allon thermoregulation system (MTRE Advanced Technologies Ltd, Or-Akiva, Israel) compared with that of routine thermal care in maintaining normothermia during and after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were perioperatively and randomly warmed with the 2 techniques (n = 45 per group). Core temperature, hemodynamics, and troponin I, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and interleukin 10 blood levels were assessed. The mean temperature of the patients in the Allon thermoregulation system group (AT group) was significantly ( P < .005) higher than that of the patients receiving routine thermal care (the RTC group); less than 40% of the latter reached 36 degrees C compared with 100% of the former. The cardiac index was higher and the systemic vascular resistance was lower ( P < .05) by 16% and 25%, respectively, in the individuals in the AT group compared with in the individuals in the RTC group during the 4 postoperative hours. End-of-surgery interleukin 6 levels and 24-hour postoperative troponin I levels were significantly ( P < .01) lower in the patients in the AT group than in the RTC group. The RTC group's troponin levels closely correlated with their interleukin 6 levels at the end of the operation ( R = 0.51, P = .002). Unlike routine thermal care, the Allon thermoregulation system maintains core normothermia in more than 80% of patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Normothermia is associated with better cardiac and vascular conditions, a lower cardiac injury rate, and a lower inflammatory response. The close correlation between the increased interleukin 6 and troponin I levels in the routine thermal care group indicates a potential deleterious effect of lowered temperature on the patient's outcome.

  9. The risk of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding and death in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement: a 15-year retrospective cohort study of routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A B; Mehnert, F; Sorensen, H T; Emmeluth, C; Overgaard, S; Johnsen, S P

    2014-04-01

    We examined the risk of thrombotic and major bleeding events in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement (THR and TKR) treated with thromboprophylaxis, using nationwide population-based databases. We identified 83 756 primary procedures performed between 1997 and 2011. The outcomes were symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and major bleeding requiring hospitalisation within 90 days of surgery. A total of 1114 (1.3%) and 483 (0.6%) patients experienced VTE and bleeding, respectively. The annual risk of VTE varied between 0.9% and 1.6%, and of bleeding between 0.4% and 0.8%. The risk of VTE and bleeding was unchanged over a 15-year period. A total of 0.7% of patients died within 90 days, with a decrease from 1% in 1997 to 0.6% in 2011 (p < 0.001). A high level of comorbidity and general anaesthesia were strong risk factors for both VTE and bleeding, with no difference between THR and TKR patients. The risk of both MI and stroke was 0.5%, which remained unchanged during the study period. In this cohort study of patients undergoing THR and TKR patients in routine clinical practice, approximately 3% experienced VTE, MI, stroke or bleeding. These risks did not decline during the 15-year study period, but the risk of dying fell substantially.

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics of Busulfan in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplant: A Model-Based Dosing Algorithm for Personalized Therapy and Implementation into Routine Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Long-Boyle, Janel; Savic, Rada; Yan, Shirley; Bartelink, Imke; Musick, Lisa; French, Deborah; Law, Jason; Horn, Biljana; Cowan, Morton J.; Dvorak, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Population pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of busulfan in children have shown that individualized model-based algorithms provide improved targeted busulfan therapy when compared to conventional dosing. The adoption of population PK models into routine clinical practice has been hampered by the tendency of pharmacologists to develop complex models too impractical for clinicians to use. The authors aimed to develop a population PK model for busulfan in children that can reliably achieve therapeutic exposure (concentration-at-steady-state, Css) and implement a simple, model-based tool for the initial dosing of busulfan in children undergoing HCT. Patients and Methods Model development was conducted using retrospective data available in 90 pediatric and young adult patients who had undergone HCT with busulfan conditioning. Busulfan drug levels and potential covariates influencing drug exposure were analyzed using the non-linear mixed effects modeling software, NONMEM. The final population PK model was implemented into a clinician-friendly, Microsoft Excel-based tool and used to recommend initial doses of busulfan in a group of 21 pediatric patients prospectively dosed based on the population PK model. Results Modeling of busulfan time-concentration data indicates busulfan CL displays non-linearity in children, decreasing up to approximately 20% between the concentrations of 250–2000 ng/mL. Important patient-specific covariates found to significantly impact busulfan CL were actual body weight and age. The percentage of individuals achieving a therapeutic Css was significantly higher in subjects receiving initial doses based on the population PK model (81%) versus historical controls dosed on conventional guidelines (52%) (p = 0.02). Conclusion When compared to the conventional dosing guidelines, the model-based algorithm demonstrates significant improvement for providing targeted busulfan therapy in children and young adults. PMID:25162216

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of busulfan in pediatric and young adult patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant: a model-based dosing algorithm for personalized therapy and implementation into routine clinical use.

    PubMed

    Long-Boyle, Janel R; Savic, Rada; Yan, Shirley; Bartelink, Imke; Musick, Lisa; French, Deborah; Law, Jason; Horn, Biljana; Cowan, Morton J; Dvorak, Christopher C

    2015-04-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of busulfan in children have shown that individualized model-based algorithms provide improved targeted busulfan therapy when compared with conventional dose guidelines. The adoption of population PK models into routine clinical practice has been hampered by the tendency of pharmacologists to develop complex models too impractical for clinicians to use. The authors aimed to develop a population PK model for busulfan in children that can reliably achieve therapeutic exposure (concentration at steady state) and implement a simple model-based tool for the initial dosing of busulfan in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Model development was conducted using retrospective data available in 90 pediatric and young adult patients who had undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation with busulfan conditioning. Busulfan drug levels and potential covariates influencing drug exposure were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed effects modeling software, NONMEM. The final population PK model was implemented into a clinician-friendly Microsoft Excel-based tool and used to recommend initial doses of busulfan in a group of 21 pediatric patients prospectively dosed based on the population PK model. Modeling of busulfan time-concentration data indicates that busulfan clearance displays nonlinearity in children, decreasing up to approximately 20% between the concentrations of 250-2000 ng/mL. Important patient-specific covariates found to significantly impact busulfan clearance were actual body weight and age. The percentage of individuals achieving a therapeutic concentration at steady state was significantly higher in subjects receiving initial doses based on the population PK model (81%) than in historical controls dosed on conventional guidelines (52%) (P = 0.02). When compared with the conventional dosing guidelines, the model-based algorithm demonstrates significant improvement for providing targeted busulfan therapy in

  12. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  13. [Analysis of correlative factors of sterility in males undergoing routine sperm inspection by masturbation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liyuan; Shi, Xiaobo; Wang, Xin; Liu, Dan

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the factors influencing sterility in males undergoing routine sperm inspection by masturbation. Scales for demographic data, self-compiled infertility questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , and sexual life subscale of Olson Marital Quality Questionnaire (ENRICH) were assessed in 220 cases of sterility in males who had undergone sperm examination after ejaculation. The total SCL-90 scores and the factor scores of anxiety, phobia, somatization, obsessive compulsive behavior, interpersonal-sensitivity, hostility, and depression were significantly higher than the norm (P<0.05). The total SCL-90 score of 69 males was higher than 160, implying that 31.36% of the sterile males had negative emotions. The total score was related to wife's attitude, semen collecting room, ejaculation situation, and the general state of sexual life. The ejaculation situation was subjected to a multivariate linear regression model. About 1/3 of males with sterility problems undergoing routine semen examination by masturbation have negative emotions such as anxiety, phobia, somatization, and interpersonal sensitivities. The defective ejaculation may be the influential factor at the stage.

  14. Coagulation management in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bertuetti, Rita; Rasulo, Frank; Bertuccio, Alessando; Matta, Basil

    2017-10-01

    Management of coagulation in neurosurgical procedures is challenging. In this contest, it is imperative to avoid further intracranial bleeding. Perioperative bleeding can be associated with a number of factors, including anticoagulant drugs and coagulation status but is also linked to the characteristic and the site of the intracranial disorder. The aim of this review will be to focus primarily on the new evidence regarding the management of coagulation in patients undergoing craniotomy for neurosurgical procedures. Antihemostatic and anticoagulant drugs have shown to be associated with perioperative bleeding. On the other hand, an increased risk of venous thromboembolism and hypercoagulative state after elective and emergency neurosurgery, in particular after brain tumor surgery, has been described in several patients. To balance the risk between thrombosis and bleeding, it is important to be familiar with the perioperative changes in coagulation and with the recent management guidelines for anticoagulated patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures, in particular for those taking new direct anticoagulants. We have considered the current clinical trials and literature regarding both safety and efficacy of deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis in the neurosurgical population. These were mainly trials concerning both elective surgical and intensive care patients with a poor grade intracranial bleed or multiple traumas with an associated severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Coagulation management remains a major issue in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. However, in this field of research, literature quality is poor and further studies are necessary to identify the best strategies to minimize risks in this group of patients.

  15. Routines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    ADAlS481 ROUTINES(U), NASSACNUSETTS INST OF TECH CANIRIDGE 1in ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAS P E AfiRE NAY 85 AI- N -129 NSSS±4-7?-C-S3S9 UNCLSSIFIED F/G...Process representation 3 0. AGSTRAC? (Cal~ N 411 P011110 @do it 0600 01 MMRN& uIV.i eONlm- Regularities in the world give rise to regularities in, the way...sourcc code can wreak suhstantihd havoc. ............---... ... . . . . ........." ’.pa ". --.-. .. n . .’....p a’’. .. ’ .. ’-’..... ’..... 1

  16. Role of genetic testing in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Youn; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Rivas Rios, Jose R; Kureti, Megha; Cavallari, Larisa H; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2018-02-01

    Variability in individual response profiles to antiplatelet therapy, in particular clopidogrel, is a well-established phenomenon. Genetic variations of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme, a key determinant in clopidogrel metabolism, have been associated with clopidogrel response profiles. Moreover, the presence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events among clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), prompting studies evaluating the use of genetic tests to identify patients who may be potential candidates for alternative platelet P2Y 12 receptor inhibiting therapies (prasugrel or ticagrelor). Areas covered: The present manuscript provides an overview of genetic factors associated with response profiles to platelet P2Y 12 receptor inhibitors and their clinical implications, as well as the most recent developments and future considerations on the role of genetic testing in patients undergoing PCI. Expert commentary: The availability of more user-friendly genetic tests has contributed towards the development of many ongoing clinical trials and personalized medicine programs for patients undergoing PCI. Results of pilot investigations have shown promising results, which however need to be confirmed in larger-scale studies to support the routine use of genetic testing as a strategy to personalize antiplatelet therapy and improve clinical outcomes.

  17. Role of Genetic Testing in Patients undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jae Youn; Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Rios, Jose R. Rivas; Kureti, Megha; Cavallari, Larisa H.; Angiolillo, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Variability in individual response profiles to antiplatelet therapy, in particular clopidogrel, is a well-established phenomenon. Genetic variations of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme, a key determinant in clopidogrel metabolism, have been associated with clopidogrel response profiles. Moreover, the presence of a CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele is associated with an increased risk of atherothrombotic events among clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), prompting studies evaluating the use of genetic tests to identify patients who may be potential candidates for alternative platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibiting therapies (prasugrel or ticagrelor). Areas covered The present manuscript provides an overview of genetic factors associated with response profiles to platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors and their clinical implications, as well as the most recent developments and future considerations on the role of genetic testing in patients undergoing PCI. Expert Commentary The availability of more user-friendly genetic tests has contributed towards the development of many ongoing clinical trials and personalized medicine programs for patients undergoing PCI. Results of pilot investigations have shown promising results, which however need to be confirmed in larger-scale studies to support the routine use of genetic testing as a strategy to personalize antiplatelet therapy and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:28689434

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Launch Pad 39A undergoes sandblasting of its metal structures and surfaces. Routine maintenance includes sandblasting and repainting as preventive means to minimize corrosion.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-12

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Launch Pad 39A undergoes sandblasting of its metal structures and surfaces. Routine maintenance includes sandblasting and repainting as preventive means to minimize corrosion.

  19. Speech profile of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Menegueti, Katia Ignacio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Alonso, Nivaldo; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2017-10-26

    To characterize the profile and speech characteristics of patients undergoing primary palatoplasty in a Brazilian university hospital, considering the time of intervention (early, before two years of age; late, after two years of age). Participants were 97 patients of both genders with cleft palate and/or cleft and lip palate, assigned to the Speech-language Pathology Department, who had been submitted to primary palatoplasty and presented no prior history of speech-language therapy. Patients were divided into two groups: early intervention group (EIG) - 43 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty before 2 years of age and late intervention group (LIG) - 54 patients undergoing primary palatoplasty after 2 years of age. All patients underwent speech-language pathology assessment. The following parameters were assessed: resonance classification, presence of nasal turbulence, presence of weak intraoral air pressure, presence of audible nasal air emission, speech understandability, and compensatory articulation disorder (CAD). At statistical significance level of 5% (p≤0.05), no significant difference was observed between the groups in the following parameters: resonance classification (p=0.067); level of hypernasality (p=0.113), presence of nasal turbulence (p=0.179); presence of weak intraoral air pressure (p=0.152); presence of nasal air emission (p=0.369), and speech understandability (p=0.113). The groups differed with respect to presence of compensatory articulation disorders (p=0.020), with the LIG presenting higher occurrence of altered phonemes. It was possible to assess the general profile and speech characteristics of the study participants. Patients submitted to early primary palatoplasty present better speech profile.

  20. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  1. Peginesatide in patients with anemia undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven; Schiller, Brigitte; Locatelli, Francesco; Covic, Adrian C; Provenzano, Robert; Wiecek, Andrzej; Levin, Nathan W; Kaplan, Mark; Macdougall, Iain C; Francisco, Carol; Mayo, Martha R; Polu, Krishna R; Duliege, Anne-Marie; Besarab, Anatole

    2013-01-24

    Peginesatide, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), is a potential therapy for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We conducted two randomized, controlled, open-label studies (EMERALD 1 and EMERALD 2) involving patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular safety was evaluated by analysis of an adjudicated composite safety end point--death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious adverse events of congestive heart failure, unstable angina, or arrhythmia--with the use of pooled data from the two EMERALD studies and two studies involving patients not undergoing dialysis. In the EMERALD studies, 1608 patients received peginesatide once monthly or continued to receive epoetin one to three times a week, with the doses adjusted as necessary to maintain a hemoglobin level between 10.0 and 12.0 g per deciliter for 52 weeks or more. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from the baseline hemoglobin level to the mean level during the evaluation period; noninferiority was established if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was -1.0 g per deciliter or higher in the comparison of peginesatide with epoetin. The aim of evaluating the composite safety end point in the pooled cohort was to exclude a hazard ratio with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA of more than 1.3. In an analysis involving 693 patients from EMERALD 1 and 725 from EMERALD 2, peginesatide was noninferior to epoetin in maintaining hemoglobin levels (mean between-group difference, -0.15 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.30 to -0.01 in EMERALD 1; and 0.10 g per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26 in EMERALD 2). The hazard ratio for the composite safety end point was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.26) with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA in the four pooled studies (2591 patients) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17) in the EMERALD studies. The proportions of patients with adverse and serious

  2. The obese patient undergoing nonbariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bluth, Thomas; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the reader with recent findings on the pathophysiology of comorbidities in the obese, as well as evidence-based treatment options to deal with perioperative respiratory challenges. Our understanding of obesity-associated asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome is still expanding. Routine screening for obstructive sleep apnea using the STOP-Bang score might identify high-risk patients that benefit from perioperative continuous positive airway pressure and close postoperative monitoring. Measures to most effectively support respiratory function during induction of and emergence from anesthesia include optimal patient positioning and use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Appropriate mechanical ventilation settings are under investigation, so that only the use of protective low tidal volumes could be currently recommended. A multimodal approach consisting of adjuvants, as well as regional anesthesia/analgesia techniques reduces the need for systemic opioids and related respiratory complications. Anesthesia of obese patients for nonbariatric surgical procedures requires knowledge of typical comorbidities and their respective treatment options. Apart from cardiovascular diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome, awareness of any pulmonary dysfunction is of paramount. A multimodal analgesia approach may be useful to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications.

  3. Clopidogrel Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Pastromas, Georgios, E-mail: geopastromas@gmail.com; Spiliopoulos, Stavros, E-mail: stavspiliop@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical significance of platelet responsiveness in patients receiving clopidogrel after peripheral angioplasty procedures. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included patients receiving antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 75 mg after infrainguinal angioplasty or stenting and who presented to our department during routine follow-up. Clopidogrel responsiveness was tested using the VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay. Patients with residual platelet reactivity units (PRU) {>=} 235 were considered as nonresponders (NR group NR), whereas patients with PRU < 235 were considered as normal (responders [group R]). Primary end points were incidence of resistance to clopidogrel and target limb reintervention (TLR)-freemore » survival, whereas secondary end points included limb salvage rates and the identification of any independent predictors influencing clinical outcomes. Results: In total, 113 consecutive patients (mean age 69 {+-} 8 years) with 139 limbs were enrolled. After clopidogrel responsiveness analysis, 61 patients (53.9 %) with 73 limbs (52.5 %) were assigned to group R and 52 patients (46.1 %) with 66 limbs (47.5 %) to group NR. Mean follow-up interval was 27.7 {+-} 22.9 months (range 3-95). Diabetes mellitus, critical limb ischemia, and renal disease were associated with clopidogrel resistance (Fisher's exact test; p < 0.05). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, TLR-free survival was significantly superior in group R compared with group NR (20.7 vs. 1.9 %, respectively, at 7-year follow-up; p = 0.001), whereas resistance to clopidogrel was identified as the only independent predictor of decreased TLR-free survival (hazard rate 0.536, 95 % confidence interval 0.31-0.90; p = 0.01). Cumulative TLR rate was significantly increased in group NR compared with group R (71.2 % [52 of 73] vs. 31.8 % [21 of 66], respectively; p < 0.001). Limb salvage was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance was related with

  4. Physicians slow to e-mail routinely with patients.

    PubMed

    Boukus, Ellyn R; Grossman, Joy M; O'Malley, Ann S

    2010-10-01

    Some experts view e-mail between physicians and patients as a potential tool to improve physician-patient communication and, ultimately, patient care. Despite indications that many patients want to e-mail their physicians, physician adoption and use of e-mail with patients remains uncommon--only 6.7 percent of office-based physicians routinely e-mailed patients in 2008, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Overall, about one-third of office-based physicians reported that information technology (IT) was available in their practice for e-mailing patients about clinical issues. Of those, fewer than one in five reported using e-mail with patients routinely; the remaining physicians were roughly evenly split between occasional users and non-users. Physicians in practices with access to electronic medical records and those working in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) or medical school settings were more likely to adopt and use e-mail to communicate with patients compared with other physicians. However, even among the highest users--physicians in group/staff-model HMOs--only 50.6 percent reported routinely e-mailing patients.

  5. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  6. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

  7. Routine admission laboratory testing for general medical patients.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, F A; Frye, E B; Akin, B V; Rucker, L

    1988-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of commonly ordered routine admission laboratory tests in 301 patients admitted consecutively to the internal medicine wards of a university teaching hospital. Using a consensus analysis approach, three Department of Medicine faculty members reviewed the charts of admitted patients to determine the impact of the test results on patient care. The evaluated tests were the urinalysis, hematocrit, white blood cell count, platelet count, six-factor automated multiple analysis (serum sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen), prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, chest x-ray, and electrocardiogram. Forty-five percent of the 3,684 tests were ordered for patients without recognizable medical indications. Twelve percent of these routine tests were abnormal, 5% led to additional laboratory testing, but only 0.5% led to change in the treatment of patients. We conclude that the impact of routine admission laboratory testing on patient care is very small and that there is little justification for ordering tests solely because of hospital admission.

  8. Do patients fear undergoing general anesthesia for oral surgery?

    PubMed

    Elmore, Jasmine R; Priest, James H; Laskin, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing major surgery have more fear of the general anesthesia than the procedure. This appears to be reversed with oral surgery. Therefore, patients need to be as well informed about this aspect as the surgical operation.

  9. Nursing care of the patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caron G; Turkelson, Sandra L

    2006-01-01

    The role of the professional nurse in the perioperative care of the patient undergoing open heart surgery is beneficial for obtaining a positive outcome for the patient. This article focuses on the preoperative and postoperative nursing care of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Risk assessment, preoperative preparation, current operative techniques, application of the nursing process immediately after surgery, and common postoperative complications will be explored.

  10. Hispanic parents' experiences of the process of caring for a child undergoing routine surgery: a focus on pain and pain management.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, Ellen; Zender, Robynn; Kain, Zeev N; Rosales, Alvina; Guadarrama, Josue; Fortier, Michelle A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose was to understand the processes Hispanic parents undergo in managing postoperative care of children after routine surgical procedures. Sixty parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery were interviewed. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Parents experienced five subprocesses that comprised the overall process of caring for a child after routine surgery: (a) becoming informed; (b) preparing; (c) seeking reassurance; (d) communicating with one's child; and (e) making pain management decisions. Addressing cultural factors related to pain management in underserved families may instill greater confidence in managing pain. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Obesity paradox in patients undergoing coronary intervention: A review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirav; Elsaid, Ossama; Shenoy, Abhishek; Sharma, Abhishek; McFarlane, Samy I

    2017-01-01

    There is strong relationship exist between obesity and cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (CAD). However, better outcomes noted in obese patients undergoing percutaneous cardiovascular interventions for CAD, a phenomenon known as the obesity paradox. In this review, we performed extensive search for obesity paradox in obese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and discussed possible mechanism and disparities in different race and sex. PMID:29081905

  12. Routine intraoperative cholangiography is unnecessary in patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis and normalizing bilirubin levels.

    PubMed

    Pham, Xuan-Binh D; de Virgilio, Christian; Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Bermudez, Michael C; Schwed, Alexander C; Kaji, Amy H; Plurad, David S; Lee, Steven L; Bennion, Robert S; Saltzman, Darin J; Kim, Dennis Y

    2016-12-01

    The benefit of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is controversial in patients with gallstone pancreatitis whose bilirubin levels are normalizing. IOC with subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may lengthen duration of surgery and length of stay, whereas failure to clear the common bile duct may result in recurrent pancreatitis. We performed a 6-year retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive adult patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis undergoing same-admission cholecystectomy at 2 university-affiliated medical centers. Institution A routinely performed IOC, whereas institution B did not. The primary outcome was readmission within 30 days for recurrent pancreatitis. Of 520 patients evaluated, 246 (47%) were managed at institution A (routine IOC) and 274 (53%) were managed at institution B (restricted IOC). Patients at institution B had a shorter duration of surgery (1.0 vs 1.6 hours, P < .001), shorter length of stay (4 vs 5 days, P < .001), and fewer postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies performed (1.8% vs 21%, P < .001), without a difference in readmissions (1.5% vs 0%, P = .12). Routine IOC is not necessary in the setting of mild gallstone pancreatitis with normalizing bilirubin values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weight changes in euthyroid patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-12-01

    Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism, experienced more weight gain than both

  14. Weight Changes in Euthyroid Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nsouli-Maktabi, Hala

    2011-01-01

    Background Thyroidectomized patients frequently report weight gain resistant to weight loss efforts, identifying their thyroidectomy as the event precipitating subsequent weight gain. We wished to determine whether recently thyroidectomized euthyroid patients gained more weight over 1 year than matched euthyroid patients with preexisting hypothyroidism. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. One hundred twenty patients had their weight and thyroid status documented after thyroidectomy and achievement of euthyroidism on thyroid hormone replacement, and one year later. Three additional groups of 120 patients with preexisting hypothyroidism, no thyroid disease, and thyroid cancer were matched for age, gender, menopausal status, height, and weight. Anthropometric data were documented at two time points 1 year apart. We compared the weight changes and body mass index changes occurring over a 1-year period in the four groups. Results Patients with recent postsurgical hypothyroidism gained 3.1 kg during the year, whereas matched patients with preexisting hypothyroidism gained 2.2 kg. The patients without thyroid disease and those with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism gained 1.3 and 1.2 kg, respectively. The weight gain in the thyroidectomized group was significantly greater than that in the matched hypothyroid group (p-value 0.004), the group without thyroid disease (p-value 0.001), and the patients with iatrogenic hyperthyroidism (p-value 0.001). Within the thyroidectomized group, the weight gain in menopausal women was greater than in either premenopausal women (4.4 vs. 2.3 kg, p-value 0.007) or men (4.4 vs. 2.5 kg, p-value 0.013). Conclusion Patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in the previous year did, in fact, gain more weight than their matched counterparts with preexisting hypothyroidism. In addition, all patients with hypothyroidism, even though treated to achieve euthyroidism

  15. Gastritis in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables. One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications. Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP. There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results. PMID:28422853

  16. Prevalence and predictors of renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing peripheral and coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anand N; Madan, Tarun H; Jayaram, Ashwal A; Kute, Vivek B; Rawal, Jayesh R; Manjunath, A P; Udhreja, Satyam

    2013-12-01

    Renal artery stenosis is a potential cause of secondary hypertension, ischemic nephropathy and end-stage renal disease. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common etiology of renal artery stenosis in elderly. We investigated whether the presence of significant atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) with luminal diameter narrowing ≥50 % could be predicted in patients undergoing peripheral and coronary angiography. The records of 3,500 consecutive patients undergoing simultaneous renal angiography along with peripheral and coronary angiography were reviewed. The patients with known renal artery disease were excluded. Prevalence of ARAS was 5.7 %. Significant ARAS (luminal diameter narrowing ≥50 %) was present in 139 patients (3.9 %). Hypertension with altered serum creatinine and triple-vessel CAD were associated with significant renal artery stenosis in multivariate analysis. No significant relationship between the involved coronary arteries like left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery and ARAS was found. Only hypertension and altered serum creatinine were associated with bilateral ARAS. Extent of CAD or risk factors like diabetes, hyperlipidemia or smoking did not predict the unilateral or bilateral ARAS. Prevalence of ARAS among the patients in routine cardiac catheterization was 5.7 %. Hypertension is closely associated with significant ARAS. Significant CAD in the form of triple-vessel disease and altered renal function tests are closely associated with ARAS. They predict the presence of significant renal artery stenosis in patients undergoing routine peripheral and coronary angiography. Moreover, hypertension and altered renal functions predict bilateral ARAS.

  17. Medical Crowdfunding for Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Durand, Wesley M; Johnson, Joseph R; Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H

    2018-01-01

    Crowdfunding for medical expenses is growing in popularity. Through several websites, patients create public campaign profiles to which donors can contribute. Research on medical crowdfunding is limited, and there have been no studies of crowdfunding in orthopedics. Active medical crowdfunding campaigns for orthopedic trauma, total joint arthroplasty, and spine surgery were queried from a crowdfunding website. The characteristics and outcomes of crowdfunding campaigns were abstracted and analyzed. For this study, 444 campaigns were analyzed, raising a total of $1,443,528. Among the campaigns that received a donation, mean amount raised was $4414 (SE, $611). Multivariate analysis showed that campaigns with unspecified location (odds ratio, 0.26; P=.0008 vs West) and those for total joint arthroplasty (odds ratio, 0.35; P=.0003 vs trauma) had significantly lower odds of receipt of any donation. Description length was associated with higher odds of donation receipt (odds ratio, 1.13 per +100 characters; P<.0001). Among campaigns that received any donation, those with Southern location (-65.5%, P<.0001), international location (-68.5%, P=.0028), and unspecified location (-63.5%, P=.0039) raised lower amounts compared with campaigns in the West. Goal amount was associated with higher amount raised (+3.2% per +$1000, P<.0001). Resources obtained through crowdfunding may be disproportionately available to patients with specific diagnoses, those from specific regions, those who are able to craft a lengthy descriptive narrative, and those with access to robust digital social networks. Clinicians are likely to see a greater proportion of patients turning to crowdfunding as it grows in popularity. Patients may ask physicians for information about crowdfunding or request testimonials to support campaigns. Surgeons should consider their response to such requests individually. These findings shed light on the dynamics of medical crowdfunding and support robust personal and

  18. [Complications in patients undergoing pulmonary oncological surgery].

    PubMed

    Mitás, L; Horváth, T; Sobotka, M; Garajová, B; Hanke, I; Kala, Z; Penka, I; Ivicic, J; Vomela, J

    2010-02-01

    A survey evaluating incidence and risk factors of complications in persons underwent complete open lung resection because of primary or secondary lung malignancy. Retrospective study of 189 open surgery procedures in 128 males and 61 females, mean age males 61 years (range 21-78), females 64 years (range 33-80) during a five-years period (2003-2007). Data processing and analysis were performed with the statistical software system Statistica and compared by parametres odds ratio a chi2 test. Complications were divided into five groups. First group was defined as complications in perioperative period and was composed of three events 1.5%: endotracheal tube dysfunction (i.e. 0.5%), heavy cardiac arrhytmia 0.5% and serious haemorrhage, that occurred immediately after operation 0.5%. Second group includes complications within period of 7 days after surgery: prolonged air leak (PAL > 7 days) 7.4%, bronchopneumonia 6.9%, cardiac arrhythmia 6.9%, postoperative delirium 4.2%, atelectasis 2.6%, wound infection 1.1%, bleeding 1.1% and chylothorax 0.5%. Third group contains events between 8th and 30th postoperative days: thoracic empyema 2.1%, dysphonia 2.1%, painfull shoulder 1.1%, alimentary tract infection 0.5% and bronchial closure insufficiency 0.5%. Fourth group contains patients with severe complications, that led to death during 30 days after operation: ischemic stroke 0.5% and pulmonary embolism 0.5%. Patients without any complication formed the fifth group of 60.5%. Main risk factors for complications in postoperative period after lung resection due to primary or secondary lung malignancy in our group of patients are COPD, corticotherapy, time of operation over 3 hours, BMI over 25, left side tumor localization and bronchoplastic procedure. For cardiac arrhytmia seems to be risk factor pneumonectomy and previous neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

  19. Periodontal evaluation in patients undergoing maxillary expansion.

    PubMed

    Carmen, M; Marcella, P; Giuseppe, C; Roberto, A

    2000-09-01

    Maxillary transverse diameter expansion is a treatment various authors have claimed is related to the development of gingival recession on the teeth of the upper arch. The aim of the present study was to compare such an incidence in two different groups of patients: those treated with surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion and orthopedic expansion, respectively. Both treatments achieved the goal of expanding the transverse dimension (5.3 and 4.4 mm, respectively), but a significant difference was shown by the chi 2 test for the incidence of gingival recession of premolar/molar upper teeth, more than double for the latter than for the former. Therefore, surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion seems to be an orthodontically effective procedure, safer than the orthopedic treatment regarding the possible development of mucogingival problems.

  20. Factors Associated With the Use of Postoperative Analgesics in Patients Undergoing Direct Microlaryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Taliercio, Salvatore; Sanders, Brian; Achlatis, Stratos; Fang, Yixin; Branski, Ryan; Amin, Milan

    2017-05-01

    Morbidity associated with suspension laryngoscopy has been well documented. However, standard of care with regard to postoperative analgesia has not been described, and anecdotal evidence suggests wide variability with regard to postoperative narcotic and non-narcotic recommendations. We sought to quantify the postoperative course following suspension microlaryngoscopy by relating patient-based and intraoperative measures with analgesic use. Body mass index (BMI), Friedman tongue position (FTP), and Mallampati scores as well as laryngoscope type, number of attempts required for optimal visualization, and suspension time were documented in 50 consecutive patients undergoing routine suspension microlaryngoscopy. Postoperative symptoms and analgesic use was queried on postoperative days 1, 3, and 10. In this cohort, 62.5% employed postoperative analgesia. However, only 20% required narcotics. No difference in suspension time was identified in those taking analgesics (33.0 vs 37.3 minutes, P = .44). In addition, no relationship between procedure type and the need for analgesia was noted. The majority of patients (76%) described sore throat persisting for 3 postoperative days; 36% reported sore throat persisting beyond postoperative day 3. The majority of patients undergoing microlaryngoscopy reported discomfort, but symptoms were largely ameliorated with over-the-counter analgesics. Routine prescription of narcotics following routine suspension laryngoscopy may be unnecessary.

  1. [Management of Patients on Antithrombotic Agents Undergoing Endoscopy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Byung Wook

    2018-05-25

    Antithrombotic agents are used increasingly in Asia. The management of patients on antithrombotics undergoing elective or emergency endoscopy has become an increasing clinical challenge for gastroenterologists. Current practice guidelines have been developed by societies from western countries. On the other hand, these guidelines cannot meet the specific needs of the Asian Pacific region, raising the need for separate guidelines in Asia. This review compares the recommendations of previous guidelines with the most recently published Asian guidelines regarding the management of patients on antithrombotic agents undergoing elective and emergency endoscopy.

  2. [Unnecessary routine laboratory tests in patients referred for surgical services].

    PubMed

    Mata-Miranda, María del Pilar; Cano-Matus, Norberto; Rodriguez-Murrieta, Margarita; Guarneros-Zapata, Idalia; Ortiz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    To question the usefulness of the lab analysis considered routine testing for the identification of abnormalities in the surgical care. To determine the percentage of unnecessary laboratory tests in the preoperative assessment as well as to estimate the unnecessary expenses. A descriptive, cross-sectional study of patients referred for surgical evaluation between January 1st and March 31st 2013. The database of laboratory testing and electronic files were reviewed. Reference criteria from surgical services were compared with the tests requested by the family doctor. In 65% of the patients (n=175) unnecessary examinations were requested, 25% (n=68) were not requested the tests that they required, and only 10% of the patients were requested laboratory tests in accordance with the reference criteria (n=27). The estimated cost in unnecessary examinations was $1,129,552 in a year. The results were similar to others related to this theme, however, they had not been revised from the perspective of the first level of attention regarding the importance of adherence to the reference criteria which could prevent major expenditures. It is a priority for leaders and operational consultants in medical units to establish strategies and lines of action that ensure compliance with institutional policies so as to contain spending on comprehensive services, and which in turn can improve the medical care. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. General Anaesthesia Protocols for Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aravind; Lal, Chandar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to review general anaesthesia protocols for patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary care hospital in Oman, particularly with regards to clinical profile, potential drug interactions and patient outcomes. Methods This retrospective study took place at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman. The electronic medical records of patients undergoing ECT at SQUH between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed for demographic characteristics and therapy details. Results A total of 504 modified ECT sessions were performed on 57 patients during the study period. All of the patients underwent a uniform general anaesthetic regimen consisting of propofol and succinylcholine; however, they received different doses between sessions, as determined by the treating anaesthesiologist. Variations in drug doses between sessions in the same patient could not be attributed to any particular factor. Self-limiting tachycardia and hypertension were periprocedural complications noted among all patients. One patient developed aspiration pneumonitis (1.8%). Conclusion All patients undergoing ECT received a general anaesthetic regimen including propofol and succinylcholine. However, the interplay of anaesthetic drugs with ECT efficacy could not be established due to a lack of comprehensive data, particularly with respect to seizure duration. In addition, the impact of concurrent antipsychotic therapy on anaesthetic dose and subsequent complications could not be determined. PMID:28417028

  4. Metabolic syndrome in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    Morote, J; Ropero, J; Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Ferrer, R; de Torres, I

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is the leading cause of death in patients with prostate cancer (PC), metabolic syndrome (MS) being related to it. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MS in patients with CP undergoing androgen suppression (AS). We performed a retrospective study of cases and controls that included 159 patients. The study group was made up of 53 patients with PC undergoing SA for a period exceeding 12 months. The control group was formed by 53 patients with PC at the time of diagnosis and 53 patients with negative prostate biopsy. All patients were evaluated for presence of MS according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Prevalence of MS in patients without PC was 32.1% and in those with non-treated PC 35.8%, P = .324. In patients with PC undergoing AS, prevalence of MS was 50.9%, P < .001. When AS duration was less than 36 months, prevalence of MS was 44.0% and when greater than 36 months 57.1%, P < .001. Waist circumference and hyperglycemia were the two MS components that significantly increased. AS and its duration were independent predictors factors for the development of MS. Continuous AS therapy increases the prevalence of MS and especially waist circumference and hyperglycemia. Development of MS increases according to AS duration. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the "July effect" on patients undergoing pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Bashjawish, Bassel; Patel, Shreya; Kılıç, Suat; Hsueh, Wayne D; Liu, James K; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2018-06-15

    Our aim in this study was to assess the impact of the turnover of residents in July on patients undergoing pituitary surgery. This work was a retrospective cohort study of cases from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Patients who underwent pituitary surgery from 2005 to 2012 were selected in the NIS. Patients undergoing surgery in July and in non-July months were compared to determine differences in demographics, comorbidities, and complications. Of the 12,939 patients, 1098 (8.5%) underwent pituitary surgery in July. Patients receiving surgery in July had similar demographics and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality comorbidity values compared with patients receiving surgery in other months. There were no significant differences in mortality, cerebral edema, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, iatrogenic pituitary complications, iatrogenic cerebrovascular accidents, urinary tract infections, pulmonary edema, pulmonary complications, or acute cardiac complications. There were no differences in the rate of postoperative fistulas, hematomas, perforations, or infections. The use of meningeal suturing, pedicled or free-flap reconstruction, and skin reconstruction was more frequent in July. Finally, hospitalization costs in July were similar to costs in other months. The turnover of new residents in July showed no change in complication rates for patients undergoing pituitary surgery. Patient care in July is similar to care during other months, demonstrating that hospitals are adequately supervising surgical residents during this transition. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. [Effectiveness of Paradontax toothpaste in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Silin, A V; Satygo, E A; Reutskaya, K V

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of toothpaste Parodontax in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The results showed that fixed orthodontic appliances deteriorated oral hygiene, increased the viscosity of saliva and reduced mineralizing capacity of saliva (MCS). Use of Parodontax toothpaste based on sodium bicarbonate improved OHI-S, reduced the viscosity of saliva, increased MCS and normalized oral microbiota.

  7. Management of sickle cell disease in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Todd C; Carter, Michael V; Patel, Rina K; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Lin, Sophie Z; Magruder, Jonathan Trent; Grimm, Joshua C; Cameron, Duke E; Baumgartner, William A; Mandal, Kaushik

    2017-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting inherited hemoglobinopathy that poses inherent risk for surgical complications following cardiac operations. In this review, we discuss preoperative considerations, intraoperative decision-making, and postoperative strategies to optimize the care of a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing cardiac surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Local anesthesia with ropivacaine for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Yin; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Wang, Shang-Yu; Tsai, Chun-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pain relief after infusion of ropivacaine at port sites at the end of surgery. METHODS: From October 2006 to September 2007, 72 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were randomized into two groups of 36 patients. One group received ropivacaine infusion at the port sites at the end of LC and the other received normal saline. A visual analog scale was used to assess postoperative pain when the patient awakened in the operating room, 6 and 24 h after surgery, and before discharge. The amount of analgesics use was also recorded. The demographics, laboratory data, hospital stay, and perioperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two groups preoperatively in terms of demographic and laboratory data. After surgery, similar operation time, blood loss, and no postoperative morbidity and mortality were observed in the two groups. However, a significantly lower pain score was observed in the patients undergoing LC with local anesthesia infusion at 1 h after LC and at discharge. Regarding analgesic use, the amount of meperidine used 1 h after LC and the total used during admission were lower in patients undergoing LC with local anesthesia infusion. This group also had a shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Local anesthesia with ropivacaine at the port site in LC patients significantly decreased postoperative pain immediately. This explains the lower meperidine use and earlier discharge for these patients. PMID:19452582

  9. Anesthetic Considerations in Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Sanaie, Sarvin; Nazari, Mehdi; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2017-01-01

    Context This article discusses the anesthetic considerations in patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of surgery. Evidence Acquisition This review includes studies involving obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Searches have been conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review using the terms obese, obesity, bariatric, anesthesia, perioperative, preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and their combinations. Results Obesity is a major worldwide health problem associated with many comorbidities. Bariatric surgery has been proposed as the best alternative treatment for extreme obese patients when all other therapeutic options have failed. Conclusions Anesthetists must completely assess the patients before the surgery to identify anesthesia- related potential risk factors and prepare for management during the surgery. PMID:29430407

  10. The effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ro, You-Ja; Ha, Hyae-Chung; Kim, Chun-Gill; Yeom, Hye-A

    2002-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. The participants were 29 adult patients living in Seoul, Korea. Thirteen patients were assigned to the experimental group and received the aromatherapy massage on the arm 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Pruritus score, skin pH, stratum corneum hydration, and pruritus-related biochemical markers were measured before and after the treatment. The results showed that pruritus score was significantly decreased after aromatherapy. Skin pH showed no significant changes in either group while stratum corneum hydration increased significantly in the experimental group after aromatherapy. The results support the use aromatherapy as a useful and effective method of managing pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  11. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  12. Sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - a review.

    PubMed

    Drozd-Sokolowska, Joanna Ewa; Sokolowski, Jacek; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    Sinusitis is a common morbidity in general population, however little is known about its occurrence in severely immunocompromised patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature concerning sinusitis in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An electronic database search was performed with the objective of identifying all original trials examining sinusitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The search was limited to English-language publications. Twenty five studies, published between 1985 and 2015 were identified, none of them being a randomized clinical trial. They reported on 31-955 patients, discussing different issues i.e. value of pretransplant sinonasal evaluation and its impact on post-transplant morbidity and mortality, treatment, risk factors analysis. Results from analyzed studies yielded inconsistent results. Nevertheless, some recommendations for good practice could be made. First, it seems advisable to screen all patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with Computed Tomography (CT) prior to procedure. Second, patients with symptoms of sinusitis should be treated before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), preferably with conservative medical approach. Third, patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be monitored closely for sinusitis, especially in the early period after transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Multislice CT of the head and body routine scans: Are scanning protocols adjusted for paediatric patients?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Z; Al Ghamdi, KS; Baroum, IH

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the multislice CT scanning protocols of head, chest and abdomen are adjusted according to patient’s age in paediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Multislice CT examination records of paediatric patients undergoing head, chest and abdomen scans from three public hospitals during a one-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorised into the following age groups: under 4 years, 5–8 years, 9–12 years and 13–16 years, while the tube current was classified into the following ranges: < 49 mA, 50–99 mA, 100–149 mA, 150–199 mA, > 200 mA and unknown. Results: A total of 4998 patient records, comprising a combination of head, chest and abdomen CT scans, were assessed, with head CT scans representing nearly half of the total scans. Age-based adjusted CT protocols were observed in most of the scans with higher tube current setting being used with increasing age. However, a high tube current (150–199 mA) was still used in younger patients (0–8 years) undergoing head CT scans. In one hospital, CT protocols remained constant across all age groups, indicating potential overexposure to the patients. Conclusion: This analysis shows that paediatric CT scans are adjusted according to the patient’s age in most of the routine CT examinations. This indicates increased awareness regarding radiation risks associated with CT. However, high tube current settings are still used in younger patient groups, thus, optimisation of paediatric CT protocols and implementation of current guidelines, such as age-and weight-based scanning, should be recommended in daily practice. PMID:22970059

  14. Nonselective carotid artery ultrasound screening in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: Is it necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Masabni, Khalil; Sabik, Joseph F.; Raza, Sajjad; Carnes, Theresa; Koduri, Hemantha; Idrees, Jay J.; Beach, Jocelyn; Riaz, Haris; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Gornik, Heather L.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nonselective preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening alters management of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and whether such screening affects neurologic outcomes. Methods From March 2011 to September 2013, preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening was performed on 1236 of 1382 patients (89%) scheduled to undergo CABG. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was classified as none or mild (any type 0%–59% stenosis), moderate (unilateral 60%-79% stenosis), or severe (bilateral 60%-79% stenosis or unilateral 80%–100% stenosis). Results A total of 1069 (86%) hadpatients with patients with ≥moderate CAS, 1 of 19 (5.3%) undergoing CABG + CEA and 3 of 148 (2.0%) undergoing CABG alone experienced stroke (P = .4). In patients with moderate CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 11 (9.1%) off-pump and 1 of 79 (1.3%) on-pump patients (P = .2). In patients with severe CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 6 (17%) off-pump and 1 of 71 (1.4%) on-pump patients (P = .15). Conclusions Routine preoperative carotid artery evaluation altered the management of a minority of patients undergoing CABG; this did not translate into perioperative stroke risk. Hence, a more targeted approach for preoperative carotid artery evaluation should be adopted. PMID:26586360

  15. Predictive value of preoperative electrocardiography for perioperative cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing noncardiac, nonvascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Biteker, Murat; Duman, Dursun; Tekkeşin, Ahmet Ilker

    2012-08-01

    The utility of routine preoperative electrocardiography (ECG) for assessing perioperative cardiovascular risk in patients undergoing noncardiac, nonvascular surgery (NCNVS) is unclear. There would be an association between preoperative ECG and perioperative cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing NCNVS. A total of 660 patients undergoing NCNVS were prospectively evaluated. Patients age >18 years who underwent an elective, nonday case, open surgical procedure were enrolled. Troponin I concentrations and 12-lead ECG were evaluated the day before surgery, immediately after surgery, and on the first 5 postoperative days. Preoperative ECG showing atrial fibrillation, left or right bundle branch block, left ventricular hypertrophy, frequent premature ventricular complexes, pacemaker rhythm, Q-wave, ST-segment changes, or sinus tachycardia or bradycardia were classified as abnormal. The patients were followed up during hospitalization and were evaluated for the presence of perioperative cardiovascular events (PCE). Eighty patients (12.1%) experienced PCE. Patients with abnormal ECG findings had a greater incidence of PCE than those with normal ECG results (16% vs 6.4%; P < 0.001). Mean QTc interval was significantly longer in the patients who had PCE (436.6 ± 31.4 vs 413.3 ± 16.7 ms; P < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed a significant association between preoperative atrial fibrillation, pacemaker rhythm, ST-segment changes, QTc prolongation, and in-hospital PCE. However, only QTc prolongation (odds ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.2, P < 0.001) was an independent predictor of PCE according to the multivariate analysis. Every 10-ms increase in QTc interval was related to a 13% increase for PCE. Prolongation of the QTc interval on the preoperative ECG was related with PCE in patients undergoing NCNVS. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of a psychoeducation intervention on fear and anxiety about surgery: randomized trial in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Shahmansouri, Nazilla; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Salehi Omran, Abbas; Karimi, Abbas Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Arjmandi, Akram; Nikfam, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a brief psychoeducation group intervention on fear and anxiety in patients undergoing the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Sixty consecutive patients undergoing CABG for the first time were recruited for a clinical trial and randomized into two groups. The control group received routine care. The study group received a brief psychoeducation group intervention combined with routine care. The psychoeducation session consisted of a discussion of fear and anxiety in a psychotherapeutic atmosphere and relaxation techniques. Fear was scored with the Bypass Grafting Fear Scale (BGFS) and anxiety was scored with the Spielberger State Inventory (STAI) Questionnaire. The BGFS and the STAI were given to the patients the day after hospital admission and a day before the operation to measure fear and anxiety. Fear scores decreased in the psychoeducation group. Of the 29 patients treated with psychoeducation, the mean (SD) fear score decreased from 4.6 (1.7) at baseline to 2.8 (1.2) before the operation (p < .001). In the 31 patients who received routine care, there was a nonsignificant trend from 3.7 (1.9) to 4.1 (2.1) (p > .05). The mean difference in fear score before the operation was significantly lower in the psychoeducation group than the routine care group (mean difference -1.3; 95% CI, -2.1, -.2; p < .05). There were no differences in anxiety scores before the operation between the psychoeducation and routine care groups. In patients undergoing CABG, adding psychoeducation to routine care had a significant positive effect on fear but not on anxiety scores. A larger study of psychoeducation in these patients is warranted to assess the efficacy of this intervention in greater detail.

  17. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Functional Capacity in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, André Luiz Lisboa; de Melo, Thiago Araújo; Neves, Daniela; Luna, Julianne; Esquivel, Mateus Souza; Guimarães, André Raimundo França; Borges, Daniel Lago; Petto, Jefferson

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac surgery is a highly complex procedure which generates worsening of lung function and decreased inspiratory muscle strength. The inspiratory muscle training becomes effective for muscle strengthening and can improve functional capacity. To investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This is a clinical randomized controlled trial with patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Instituto Nobre de Cardiologia. Patients were divided into two groups: control group and training. Preoperatively, were assessed the maximum inspiratory pressure and the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test. From the third postoperative day, the control group was managed according to the routine of the unit while the training group underwent daily protocol of respiratory muscle training until the day of discharge. 50 patients, 27 (54%) males were included, with a mean age of 56.7±13.9 years. After the analysis, the training group had significant increase in maximum inspiratory pressure (69.5±14.9 vs. 83.1±19.1 cmH2O, P=0.0073) and 6-minute walk test (422.4±102.8 vs. 502.4±112.8 m, P=0.0031). We conclude that inspiratory muscle training was effective in improving functional capacity submaximal and inspiratory muscle strength in this sample of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  18. Management of Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysms in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patrick A; Thompson, Stephanie N; Hanson, Brent; Masinter, David

    2016-05-01

    A plethora of papers have been written regarding postcatheterization femoral pseudoaneurysms. However, literature is lacking on pseudoaneurysmal management in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Thus, we examined if pseudoaneurysms with subsequent CABG can be managed with the same strategies as those not exposed to the intense anticoagulation accompanying CABGs. During a 14-year study period, we retrospectively examined femoral iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms (IPSAs) diagnosed postheart catheterization in patients having a subsequent CABG. Patient information was obtained from electronic medical records and included pseudoaneurysm characteristics, treatment, and resolution. Outcomes of interest included the occurrence of IPSA treatment failures and complications. In the 66 patients (mean age, 66 ± 11 years, 46% male) meeting inclusion criteria, mean dose of heparin received during the CABG procedure was 34 000 ± 23 000 units. The IPSA size distribution was the following: 17% of IPSAs measured <1 cm, 55% between 1 and 3 cm, and 21% measured >3 cm. Pseudoaneurysms were managed with compression, duplex-guided thrombin injection, and surgical repair (1%, 27%, and 26% of cases, respectively). Thrombin injection and surgical repair were 100% effective at treating pseudoaneurysms, with 1 patient experiencing a surgical site infection postsurgical repair. Observation-only management was employed in 30 (45%) patients. Nine of 30 patients with no intervention beyond observation had duplex documented resolution/thrombosis during follow-up. One patient initially managed by observation required readmission and surgical repair of an enlarging pseudoaneurysm (6 cm growth) following CABG. Management of pseudoaneurysms in patients prior to CABG should be similar to those patients not undergoing intense anticoagulation. In appropriate cases, small aneurysms can be safely observed, while thrombin injections are effective and safe as well. Thus, routine open

  19. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery. Since it has been proven that piracetam is cerebroprotective in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, we investigated the effects of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery were randomized to the piracetam or placebo group in a double-blind study. Patients received 12 g of piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on day 3, postoperatively. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after the surgery, we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 67 years were enrolled into the study. The mean duration of CPB was 110 minutes. Preoperative clinical parameters and overall cognitive functions were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (piracetam: preoperative 0.19 ± 0.97 vs. postoperative -0.97 ± 1.38, p <0.0005 and placebo: preoperative -0.14 ± 0.98 vs. postoperative -1.35 ± 1.23, p <0.0005). Patients taking piracetam did not perform better than those taking placebo, and both groups had the same decline of overall cognitive function (p = 0.955). Piracetam had no cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Unlike the patients who underwent coronary surgery, piracetam did not reduce the early postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in heart valve patients.

  20. Patients with glycogen storage diseases undergoing anesthesia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Gurrieri, Carmelina; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby N; Warner, Mary E

    2017-10-06

    Glycogen storage diseases are rare genetic disorders of glycogen synthesis, degradation, or metabolism regulation. When these patients are subjected to anesthesia, perioperative complications can develop, including hypoglycemia, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, acute renal failure, and postoperative fatigue. The objective of this study was to describe the perioperative course of a cohort of patients with glycogen storage diseases. This is a retrospective review of patients with glycogen storage diseases undergoing anesthetic care at our institution from January 1, 1990, through June 30, 2015 to assess perioperative management and outcomes. We identified 30 patients with a glycogen storage disease who underwent 41 procedures under anesthesia management. Intraoperative lactic acidosis developed during 4 major surgeries (3 liver transplants, 1 myectomy), and in all cases resolved within 24 postoperative hours. Lactated Ringer solution was used frequently. Preoperative and intraoperative hypoglycemia was noted in some patients with glycogen storage disease type I, all of which responded to administration of dextrose-containing solutions. No serious postoperative complications occurred. Patients with glycogen storage disease, despite substantial comorbid conditions, tolerates the anesthetic management without major complications. Several patients who experienced self-limited metabolic acidosis were undergoing major surgical procedures, during which acidosis could be anticipated. Close monitoring and management of blood glucose levels of patients with glycogen storage disease type I is prudent.

  1. Dyspnea predicts mortality among patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Rine; Gransar, Heidi; Rozanski, Alan; Rana, Jamal S; Cheng, Victor Y; Thomson, Louise E J; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Dey, Damini; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S

    2016-02-01

    The prognostic implications of dyspnea and typical angina in patients referred for coronary CT angiography have not been examined. We examined features associated with incident mortality risk among individuals undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) presenting with dyspnea, typical angina, and neither of these symptoms. 1147 consecutive individuals without known CAD (mean 61 years, 61.6 %men) undergoing CCTA comprised the study population 132 with dyspnea, 218 with typical angina, and 797 without dyspnea or typical angina (reference group). Mortality risk in relation to dyspnea or typical angina was evaluated with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models compared to reference. In addition, the prognosis associated with dyspnea or typical angina was assessed among age matched subgroups. Patients with dyspnea had a greater prevalence of C70 % stenosis (p\\0.001) and coronary segments with plaque (p = 0.02) compared to the other two groups. During a follow-up of 3.1 years, 52 individuals died. By multivariable Cox models, compared to patients in reference group, dyspnea patients experienced higher mortality (HR 2.0, 95 % CI 1.0–4.0, p = 0.049) while typical angina patients did not (HR 1.1, 95 % CI 0.6–2.3, p = 0.76). In the matched group, the patients with dyspnea (HR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.1–4.3, p = 0.03) still had significantly reduced survival compared to the other two groups, while those with typical angina did not (HR 1.2, 95 % CI 0.6–2.6,p = 0.62). Dyspnea is associated with increased mortality ate compared to patients with typical angina and those with neither of these symptoms among patients undergoing CCTA.

  2. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L. To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose ( B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug ( B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval ( B = -2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15-20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10-14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15-20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  3. Prevalence of unrecognized diabetes, prediabetes and metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Revathi; Berger, Jeffrey S; Tully, Lisa; Vani, Anish; Shah, Binita; Burdowski, Joseph; Fisher, Edward; Schwartzbard, Arthur; Sedlis, Steven; Weintraub, Howard; Underberg, James A; Danoff, Ann; Slater, James A; Gianos, Eugenia

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome are important targets for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention is not well defined. We aimed to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with previously unrecognized prediabetes, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected from 740 patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention between November 2010 and March 2013 at a tertiary referral center. Prevalence of DM and prediabetes was evaluated using Haemoglobin A1c (A1c ≥ 6.5% for DM, A1c 5.7-6.4% for prediabetes). A modified definition was used for metabolic syndrome [three or more of the following criteria: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL; high density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women; systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 85 mmHg; and A1c ≥ 5.7% or on therapy]. Mean age was 67 years, median body mass index was 28.2 kg/m(2) and 39% had known DM. Of those without known DM, 8.3% and 58.5% met A1c criteria for DM and for prediabetes at time of percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 54.9% met criteria for metabolic syndrome (69.2% of patients with DM and 45.8% of patients without DM). Among patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention, a substantial number were identified with a new DM, prediabetes, and/or metabolic syndrome. Routine screening for an abnormal glucometabolic state at the time of revascularization may be useful for identifying patients who may benefit from additional targeting of modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Managing direct oral anticoagulants in patients undergoing dentoalveolar surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Woolcombe, S A; Patel, R K; Obisesan, O; Roberts, L N; Bryant, C; Arya, R

    2017-02-24

    Our objective was to describe our experience of managing a cohort of adult patients prescribed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) undergoing dentoalveolar procedures between November 2012 and May 2016. Prior to conducting a procedure a formal assessment was made of each patient's anticoagulation treatment. A specific plan was then formulated, balancing the risk of bleeding with the risk of thrombosis. Patients received a telephone consultation one week following treatment to assess any post-operative bleeding. Eighty-two patients underwent 111 oral surgical procedures, the majority of which were dental extractions. In the case of 35 (32%) procedures, advice was given to omit the DOAC, either before or after treatment. There was no bleeding following the majority of procedures. Persistent bleeding followed 15 (13.5%) procedures, of which 7 (6.3%) procedures required specific intervention. The majority of patients prescribed DOACs can undergo dentoalveolar procedures safely. Important considerations when planning treatment are: (i) when the patient usually takes their dose of DOAC, (ii) the time the procedure is performed and, (iii) when the DOAC is taken post-procedure. In our experience, if these factors are considered carefully, omission of DOAC doses is unlikely to be required for most patients.

  5. Knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing EMG examinations

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Mauro; Aretini, Alessandro; Greco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing the procedure. In one year, 1,586 consecutive patients (mean age 56 years; 58.8% women) were admitted to two EMG labs to undergo EMG for the first time. The patients found to be “informed” about the how an EMG examination is performed and about the purpose of EMG numbered 448 (28.2%), while those found to be “informed” only about the manner of its execution or only about its purpose numbered 161 (10.2%) and 151 (9.5%), respectively. The remaining 826 (52.1%) patients had either no information, or the information they had was very poor or incorrect (this was particularly true if they had been consulting websites). Being “informed” was associated with level of education (high), type of referring physician (specialist) and with an appropriate referral diagnosis specified in the EMG request. The quality of patient information on EMG was found to be very poor and could be improved. Physicians referring patients for EMG examinations, especially general practitioners, should assume primary responsibility for patient education and counseling in this field. PMID:25473740

  6. Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R J; Thomson, I R; Cannon, J E; Friesen, R M; Meatherall, R C

    1986-03-01

    The authors determined the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl 100 micrograms X kg-1 iv in patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic surgery. The mean (+/- SD) age of the ten patients was 67.2 +/- 8.7 yr; their mean weight was 78.5 +/- 13.7 kg. Seven patients had aortic aneurysm repair, and the other three patients had aortobifemoral grafts. Serum fentanyl concentrations were determined from samples drawn at increasing intervals over a 24-h period. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fit to the concentration versus time data. Total drug clearance was 9.8 +/- 1.8 ml X min-1 X kg-1. The volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) was 5.4 +/- 1.9 X 1 kg-1. Elimination half-time was 8.7 +/- 2.5 h. There were no significant correlations between these pharmacokinetic parameters and patient's age, duration of aortic cross-clamping, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, or volume of iv fluids given intraoperatively. In healthy volunteers or patients undergoing general surgery, other investigators report mean elimination half-times for fentanyl ranging from 1.7 to 4.4 h. The prolonged elimination half-time in patients having abdominal aortic surgery has important clinical implications. In particular, recovery from large doses will take much longer than would have been anticipated from previously published fentanyl pharmacokinetic data.

  7. Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert H; Murray, Jayson N; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S

    2017-07-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, in collaboration with the American Dental Association, has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Management of Patients with Orthopaedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications of patients with orthopaedic implants presenting for dental procedures, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The 64 patient scenarios and 1 treatment were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

  8. Prediction of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. S.; Lauer, M. S.; Asher, C. R.; Cosgrove, D. M.; Blackstone, E.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a model that estimates the risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing operations for mitral valve degeneration and to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. METHODS: A total of 722 patients (67% men; age, 61 +/- 12 years) without a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, or angina who underwent routine coronary angiography before mitral valve prolapse operations between 1989 and 1996 were analyzed. A bootstrap-validated logistic regression model on the basis of clinical risk factors was developed to identify low-risk (< or =5%) patients. Obstructive coronary atherosclerosis was defined as 50% or more luminal narrowing in one or more major epicardial vessels, as determined by means of coronary angiography. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine (19%) patients had obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of coronary artery disease include age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus,and hyperlipidemia. Two hundred twenty patients were designated as low risk according to the logistic model. Of these patients, only 3 (1.3%) had single-vessel disease, and none had multivessel disease. The model showed good discrimination, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.84. Cost analysis indicated that application of this model could safely eliminate 30% of coronary angiograms, corresponding to cost savings of $430,000 per 1000 patients without missing any case of high-risk coronary artery disease. CONCLUSION: A model with standard clinical predictors can reliably estimate the prevalence of obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in patients undergoing mitral valve prolapse operations. This model can identify low-risk patients in whom routine preoperative angiography may be safely avoided.

  9. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-06-23

    Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45-64 years, 46%; 18-44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) for young adults aged 18-44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45-64 years and 65 years or older. The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey.

  10. The HRQoL of Chinese patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Dan; Petrini, Marcia A

    2010-03-01

    With the transition from infectious disease and acute illness to chronic disease and degenerative illness as leading causes of death, health-related quality of life has become an important aspect in assessing the burden of chronic disease. The quality of life of haemodialysis patients has been studied extensively; however, very limited research using exploratory descriptive design has been carried out in this area in China. The aim of this study was to explore health-related quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis in China. This study used the qualitative research design approach. A semi-structured, in-depth interview was conducted with 16 haemodialysis patients in two hospitals using Colaizzi's phenomenological method to transcribe and analyse the data. The results of this study showed that dialysis patients show improvement in physical competence, but they also experienced emotional instability and psychological distress, financial burdens, inadequate disease knowledge and less social support which influenced their quality of life. To optimise the patients undergoing dialysis health-related quality of life, support of psycho-social-economical aspects should be enhanced. Health care providers should give haemodialysis patients thorough health education, individualised psychological and emotional intervention and adequate social support to optimise health-related quality of life.

  11. Outcomes in adult pectus excavatum patients undergoing Nuss repair

    PubMed Central

    Ewais, MennatAllah M; Chaparala, Shivani; Uhl, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Pectus excavatum (PEx) is one of the most common congenital chest wall deformities. Depending on the severity, presentation of PEx may range from minor cosmetic issues to disabling cardiopulmonary symptoms. The effect of PEx on adult patients has not been extensively studied. Symptoms may not occur until the patient ages, and they may worsen over the years. More recent publications have implied that PEx may have significant cardiopulmonary implications and repair is of medical benefit. Adults presenting for PEx repair can undergo a successful repair with a minimally invasive “Nuss” approach. Resolution of symptoms, improved quality of life, and satisfying results are reported. PMID:29430201

  12. Predictors of pain control in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lechtzin, N; Rubin, H R; Jenckes, M; White, P; Zhou, L M; Thompson, D A; Diette, G B

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy (FOB) experience pain and to identify patient factors and process of care factors that are associated with pain. We conducted a prospective cohort study on 481 patients undergoing FOB. Overall control of pain during FOB was the primary outcome. The mean age of the patients was 48 yr, 50% were male, and 32% required supplemental oxygen prior to FOB. Pain control was excellent in 36% of patients, but 10% considered it to be fair or poor. Patient factors associated with excellent pain control were excellent health (versus poor health, OR = 6.25 [95% CI, 2.28-16.67]), more education (college education versus high school education, OR = 1.72 [95% CI, 1.05-2.86]), and not having asthma (OR = 2.86 [95% CI, 1.09-7.14]). Process of care factors associated with excellent pain control were not being bothered by scope insertion (versus bothered, OR = 3.65 [95% CI, 1.99-6.98]), no memory of FOB (versus some memory, OR = 2.33 [95% CI, 1.24-4.44]), and higher ratings of information about the procedure (per 1-point increase on a 12-point scale, OR = 1.57 [95% CI, 1.41-1.78]). This is the first large-scale, prospective study to evaluate patient and process of care factors that influence pain control during FOB. It demonstrated that there are patient characteristics and process of care factors that need to be considered when evaluating pain during bronchoscopy. Improved preparation of patients with lower education, inferior health status, and asthma may lead to decreased pain during FOB. Bronchoscopists may be able to reduce pain during FOB by identifying methods to decrease pain on scope insertion, by improving the information provided to patients, and by achieving greater levels of amnesia during FOB.

  13. [Eradication of Staphylococcus aureus in carrier patients undergoing joint arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Barbero Allende, José M; Romanyk Cabrera, Juan; Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Vallés Purroy, Alfonso; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Agudo López, Rosa; Gete García, Luis; López Álvarez, Joaquín

    2015-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a complication with serious repercussions and its main cause is Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether decolonization of S.aureus carriers helps to reduce the incidence of PJI by S.aureus. An S.aureus screening test was performed on nasal carriers in patients undergoing knee or hip arthroplasty between January and December 2011. Patients with a positive test were treated with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine soap 5 days. The incidence of PJI was compared with patients undergoing the same surgery between January and December 2010. A total of 393 joint replacements were performed in 391 patients from the control group, with 416 joint replacements being performed in the intervention group. Colonization study was performed in 382 patients (91.8%), of which 102 were positive (26.7%) and treated. There was 2 PJI due S.aureus compared with 9 in the control group (0.5% vs 2.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 2.3, P=.04). In our study, the detection of colonization and eradication of S.aureus carriers achieved a significant decrease in PJI due to S.aureus compared to a historical group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Goodman, William G; Herzog, Charles A; Kubo, Yumi; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mix, T Christian H; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Wheeler, David C; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-12-27

    Disorders of mineral metabolism, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, are thought to contribute to extraskeletal (including vascular) calcification among patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been hypothesized that treatment with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet might reduce the risk of death or nonfatal cardiovascular events in such patients. In this clinical trial, we randomly assigned 3883 patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (median level of intact parathyroid hormone, 693 pg per milliliter [10th to 90th percentile, 363 to 1694]) who were undergoing hemodialysis to receive either cinacalcet or placebo. All patients were eligible to receive conventional therapy, including phosphate binders, vitamin D sterols, or both. The patients were followed for up to 64 months. The primary composite end point was the time until death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or a peripheral vascular event. The primary analysis was performed on the basis of the intention-to-treat principle. The median duration of study-drug exposure was 21.2 months in the cinacalcet group, versus 17.5 months in the placebo group. The primary composite end point was reached in 938 of 1948 patients (48.2%) in the cinacalcet group and 952 of 1935 patients (49.2%) in the placebo group (relative hazard in the cinacalcet group vs. the placebo group, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.02; P=0.11). Hypocalcemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were significantly more frequent in patients receiving cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not significantly reduce the risk of death or major cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing dialysis. (Funded by Amgen; EVOLVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345839.).

  15. Daily life activity routine discovery in hemiparetic rehabilitation patients using topic models.

    PubMed

    Seiter, J; Derungs, A; Schuster-Amft, C; Amft, O; Tröster, G

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring natural behavior and activity routines of hemiparetic rehabilitation patients across the day can provide valuable progress information for therapists and patients and contribute to an optimized rehabilitation process. In particular, continuous patient monitoring could add type, frequency and duration of daily life activity routines and hence complement standard clinical scores that are assessed for particular tasks only. Machine learning methods have been applied to infer activity routines from sensor data. However, supervised methods require activity annotations to build recognition models and thus require extensive patient supervision. Discovery methods, including topic models could provide patient routine information and deal with variability in activity and movement performance across patients. Topic models have been used to discover characteristic activity routine patterns of healthy individuals using activity primitives recognized from supervised sensor data. Yet, the applicability of topic models for hemiparetic rehabilitation patients and techniques to derive activity primitives without supervision needs to be addressed. We investigate, 1) whether a topic model-based activity routine discovery framework can infer activity routines of rehabilitation patients from wearable motion sensor data. 2) We compare the performance of our topic model-based activity routine discovery using rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary. We analyze the activity routine discovery in a dataset recorded with 11 hemiparetic rehabilitation patients during up to ten full recording days per individual in an ambulatory daycare rehabilitation center using wearable motion sensors attached to both wrists and the non-affected thigh. We introduce and compare rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary to process statistical and frequency acceleration features to activity words. Activity words were used for activity routine pattern discovery using topic models

  16. Clostridium difficile colitis in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Silvestre, Jason; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective database analysis. To investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery. C. difficile colitis is reportedly increasing in hospitalized patients and can have a negative impact on patient outcomes. No data exist on estimates of C. difficile infection rates and its consequences on patient outcomes and health care resources among patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined from 2002 to 2011. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, procedural codes for lumbar spine surgery for degenerative diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined and multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery is 0.11%. At baseline, patients infected with C. difficile were significantly older (65.4 yr vs. 58.9 yr, P<0.0001) and more likely to have diabetes with chronic complications, neurological complications, congestive heart failure, pulmonary disorders, coagulopathy, and renal failure. Lumbar fusion (P=0.0001) and lumbar fusion revision (P=0.0003) were associated with increased odds of postoperative infection. Small hospital size was associated with decreased odds (odds ratio [OR], 0.5; P<0.001), whereas urban hospitals were associated with increased odds (OR, 2.14; P<0.14) of acquiring infection. Uninsured (OR, 1.62; P<0.0001) and patients with Medicaid (OR, 1.33; P<0.0001) were associated with higher odds of acquiring postoperative infection. C. difficile increased hospital length of stay by 8 days (P<0.0001), hospital charges by 2-fold (P<0.0001), and inpatient mortality to 4% from 0.11% (P<0.0001). C. difficile infection after lumbar spine surgery carries a 36.4-fold increase in mortality and costs

  17. Liquid discharges from patients undergoing 131I treatments.

    PubMed

    Barquero, R; Basurto, F; Nuñez, C; Esteban, R

    2008-10-01

    This work discusses the production and management of liquid radioactive wastes as excretas from patients undergoing therapy procedures with 131I radiopharmaceuticals in Spain. The activity in the sewage has been estimated with and without waste radioactive decay tanks. Two common therapy procedures have been considered, the thyroid cancer (4.14 GBq administered per treatment), and the hyperthyroidism (414 MBq administered per treatment). The calculations were based on measurements of external exposure around the 244 hyperthyroidism patients and 23 thyroid cancer patients. The estimated direct activity discharged to the sewage for two thyroid carcinomas and three hyperthyroidisms was 14.57 GBq and 1.27 GBq, respectively, per week; the annual doses received by the most exposed individual (sewage worker) were 164 microSv and 13 microSv, respectively. General equations to calculate the activity as a function of the number of patient treated each week were also obtained.

  18. Effective doses to patients undergoing thoracic computed tomography examinations.

    PubMed

    Huda, W; Scalzetti, E M; Roskopf, M

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how x-ray technique factors and effective doses vary with patient size in chest CT examinations. Technique factors (kVp, mAs, section thickness, and number of sections) were recorded for 44 patients who underwent a routine chest CT examination. Patient weights were recorded together with dimensions and mean Hounsfield unit values obtained from representative axial CT images. The total mass of directly irradiated patient was modeled as a cylinder of water to permit the computation of the mean patient dose and total energy imparted for each chest CT examination. Computed values of energy imparted during the chest CT examination were converted into effective doses taking into account the patient weight. Patient weights ranged from 4.5 to 127 kg, and half the patients in this study were children under 18 years of age. All scans were performed at 120 kVp with a 1 s scan time. The selected tube current showed no correlation with patient weight (r2=0.06), indicating that chest CT examination protocols do not take into account for the size of the patient. Energy imparted increased with increasing patient weight, with values of energy imparted for 10 and 70 kg patients being 85 and 310 mJ, respectively. The effective dose showed an inverse correlation with increasing patient weight, however, with values of effective dose for 10 and 70 kg patients being 9.6 and 5.4 mSv, respectively. Current CT technique factors (kVp/mAs) used to perform chest CT examinations result in relatively high patient doses, which could be reduced by adjusting technique factors based on patient size.

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of routine use of post-operative in-patient physical therapy services.

    PubMed

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Fialkoff, Jared; Vuong, Victoria D; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    The association between functional decline occurring with prolonged bed rest after surgery is well-known. Immediate in-patient post-operative ambulation with the physical therapy (PT) service has been reported to improve pain and disability, while decreasing the incidence of perioperative complications. Whether formal PT evaluation prior to hospital discharge leads to improved ambulation (number of steps ambulated), shorter duration of hospital stay and lower peri-operative complications compared to nurse-assisted ambulation protocols remain unknown. The medical records of 274 patients (No PT: n=87, PT: n=187) undergoing elective spine surgery at a major academic medical center were reviewed. Patients were categorized based on whether PT services were delivered during the post-operative in-patient stay. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and post-operative complication rates were collected and compared. Ambulation status and the number of steps ambulated were recorded. Baseline characteristics were similar in both cohorts. Operative variables were similar between both cohorts, with no significant difference in operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), and number of fusion levels. Peri-operative complication rates were similar between the cohorts. Compared to patients in the nurse-assisted ambulation cohort (No PT), patients in the PT cohort had a longer duration of hospital stay (4.17 vs. 3.39 days, P=0.15). 30-day readmission rates, although higher in the PT cohort, was not statistically significantly different (PT 6.57% vs. No PT: 2.30%, P=0.13). Our study suggests that the routine use of the PT services compared to nurse-assisted ambulation programs is associated with a modest increase in the duration of hospital stay without any significant reduction in peri-operative complications profile. In a health conscious healthcare climate, appropriate screening mechanisms and risk stratification should be performed to optimize utilization of post-operative in-patient

  20. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  1. Cerebroprotective effect of piracetam in patients undergoing coronary bypass burgery.

    PubMed

    Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Kirilova, Kremena; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the cerebroprotective effect of piracetam on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients scheduled for elective, primary and isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomised either to piracetam or placebo group. The study was performed in a double blind fashion. Patients received either 12 g piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total number of 120 patients were enrolled into the study. Preoperative overall cognitive function were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed a deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (placebo-pre: -0.06+/-0.99 vs placebo-post: -1.38+/-1.11; p<0.0005 and piracetam-pre: 0.06+/-1.02 vs piracetam-post: -0.65+/-0.93; p<0.0005). However, the piracetam patients performed significantly better compared to the placebo patients after the operation and had a less decline of overall cognitive function (p<0.0005). Piracetam has a cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. It reduces an early postoperative substantial decline of neuropsychological abilities.

  2. Quality of Life in Elderly Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria; Zyga, Sofia; Vlachou, Eugenia; Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina

    2017-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, it is expected that 60% of all cases of cancer will be detected in elderly patients in the next two decades. Cancer treatment for older persons is complicated by a number of factors, thus negatively affecting patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study is to investigate quality of life in elderly cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study was descriptive and non-experimental. It was conducted in one large hospital in a major city of Northern Greece. The sample was convenience comprising 53 elderly cancer patients undergoing cycle 3 chemotherapy. The data was collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale and included questions related to demographic and clinical characteristics. The majority of participants were men (n = 27, 50.9%) who were married (n = 32, 79.5%). Their mean age was 70.07 ± 3.60. Almost half of the sample (n = 30, 56.6%) had colon cancer. There was a statistical significant difference between men and women pertaining to physical wellbeing (p = 0.004) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). When comparing each subscale with the patients' marital status it was found that there was a statistical difference with respect to social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029), functional wellbeing (p = 0.09) and overall quality of life (p < 0.001). Moreover, the type of cancer affected overall quality of life (p < 0.001) and social/family wellbeing (p = 0.029). These findings call attention to quality of life and its related factors in elderly cancer patients. It is highly recommended to envisage measures for improving quality of life in this group of cancer patients.

  3. Nutritional Deficiencies in Chinese Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy: Prevalence and Predictors.

    PubMed

    Guan, Bingsheng; Yang, Jingge; Chen, Yanya; Yang, Wah; Wang, Cunchuan

    2018-05-12

    Nutritional deficiencies have been reported in bariatric surgery patients with inconsistent results. However, scarce data exist for Chinese patients. We aimed to assess nutritional deficiencies in Chinese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and to identify predictors of postoperative nutritional status. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was conducted in the patients undergoing RYGB and SG in our hospital between June 2013 and January 2017. Anthropometric data and nutritional data were collected before surgery, at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. This study enrolled 269 patients (120 RYGB, 149 SG). Nutritional deficiencies were common in Chinese bariatric candidates, with vitamin D deficiency the most serious (78.8%), followed by vitamin B1 (39.2%), vitamin B6 (28.0%), folate (26.8%), vitamin C (18.0%) albumin (13.4%), transferrin (11.6%), and phosphorus (11.5%). Despite postoperative routine multivitamin and calcium supplements, nutritional deficiencies were still obvious for RYGB and SG patients. The prevalence of hemoglobin and vitamin B12 deficiencies increased remarkably in the RYGB group; the levels of hemoglobin, globin, vitamin B12, and ferritin decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Preoperative hemoglobin, vitamin B12, and ferritin levels were independently associated with postoperative decrease, respectively. Deficiencies of vitamin D, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and albumin before surgery were predictors for deficiencies 1 year after surgery, respectively. Nutritional deficiencies are common in Chinese bariatric surgery candidates. Similar deficiencies were also seen after RYGB and SG. Routine evaluation and related corrections of preoperative nutritional abnormity could contribute to postoperative nutrient balance.

  4. Tranexamic Acid in Patients Undergoing Coronary-Artery Surgery.

    PubMed

    Myles, Paul S; Smith, Julian A; Forbes, Andrew; Silbert, Brendan; Jayarajah, Mohandas; Painter, Thomas; Cooper, D James; Marasco, Silvana; McNeil, John; Bussières, Jean S; McGuinness, Shay; Byrne, Kelly; Chan, Matthew T V; Landoni, Giovanni; Wallace, Sophie

    2017-01-12

    Tranexamic acid reduces the risk of bleeding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but it is unclear whether this leads to improved outcomes. Furthermore, there are concerns that tranexamic acid may have prothrombotic and proconvulsant effects. In a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned patients who were scheduled to undergo coronary-artery surgery and were at risk for perioperative complications to receive aspirin or placebo and tranexamic acid or placebo. The results of the tranexamic acid comparison are reported here. The primary outcome was a composite of death and thrombotic complications (nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, renal failure, or bowel infarction) within 30 days after surgery. Of the 4662 patients who were enrolled and provided consent, 4631 underwent surgery and had available outcomes data; 2311 were assigned to the tranexamic acid group and 2320 to the placebo group. A primary outcome event occurred in 386 patients (16.7%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 420 patients (18.1%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.05; P=0.22). The total number of units of blood products that were transfused during hospitalization was 4331 in the tranexamic acid group and 7994 in the placebo group (P<0.001). Major hemorrhage or cardiac tamponade leading to reoperation occurred in 1.4% of the patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 2.8% of the patients in the placebo group (P=0.001), and seizures occurred in 0.7% and 0.1%, respectively (P=0.002 by Fisher's exact test). Among patients undergoing coronary-artery surgery, tranexamic acid was associated with a lower risk of bleeding than was placebo, without a higher risk of death or thrombotic complications within 30 days after surgery. Tranexamic acid was associated with a higher risk of postoperative seizures. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; ATACAS Australia New Zealand

  5. The pharmacokinetics of propofol in ICU patients undergoing long-term sedation.

    PubMed

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Wiczling, Paweł; Przybyłowski, Krzysztof; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Trojanowska, Iwona; Paterska, Marta; Matysiak, Jan; Kokot, Zenon; Grześkowiak, Edmund; Bienert, Agnieszka

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of propofol in ICU patients undergoing long-term sedation and to assess the influence of routinely collected covariates on the PK parameters. Propofol concentration-time profiles were collected from 29 patients. Non-linear mixed-effects modelling in NONMEM 7.2 was used to analyse the observed data. The propofol pharmacokinetics was best described with a three-compartment disposition model. Non-parametric bootstrap and a visual predictive check were used to evaluate the adequacy of the developed model to describe the observations. The typical value of the propofol clearance (1.46 l/min) approximated the hepatic blood flow. The volume of distribution at steady state was high and was equal to 955.1 l, which is consistent with other studies involving propofol in ICU patients. There was no statistically significant covariate relationship between PK parameters and opioid type, SOFA score on the day of admission, APACHE II, predicted death rate, reason for ICU admission (sepsis, trauma or surgery), gender, body weight, age, infusion duration and C-reactive protein concentration. The population PK model was developed successfully to describe the time-course of propofol concentration in ICU patients undergoing prolonged sedation. Despite a very heterogeneous group of patients, consistent PK profiles were observed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Skin toxicities and unmet supportive care needs of patients with cancer undergoing EGFR-inhibitor therapy

    PubMed

    Matzka, Martin; Stöhr, Doreen; Colditz, Alexandra; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Koller, Martina; Mayer, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Targeted therapies, such as the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor therapy, are being used to treat patients with various solid and metastatic tumours. Skin toxicities are a common side effect of this therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of skin toxicities on quality of life of patients with cancer undergoing EGFR inhibitor therapy, as well as their unmet supportive care needs. Method: Embedded design. A standardised quantitative survey was administered and analysed. In addition, memos and audiotaped material of insightful conversations with the patients after survey administration were included in the analyses. Results: Among the three domains of the effects of skin toxicities on quality of life, physical symptoms (e. g. itching skin, rash) were most frequently reported to impair quality of life, while associated emotional and functional impairments were less frequently reported. Patients don’t consider the management of skin toxicities to be a priority during their treatment, skin toxicities are rather perceived in context of the total symptom burden. Yet, we observed significant correlations between the assessed quality of life and unmet supportive care need domains, especially concerning physical and psychological needs. Conclusions: Although no clinically significant impairment of quality of life of patients undergoing EGFR inhibitor therapy was found, skin changes should be addressed in supportive interventions embedded in routine symptom management.

  7. Post-recurrence chemotherapy for mesothelioma patients undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Masaki; Matsumoto, Seiji; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Kuribayash, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2017-10-01

    Additional chemotherapy is often not feasible in patients with recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), due to deteriorated cardiopulmonary reserve. We thus examined the feasibility and efficacy of additional chemotherapy in patients with recurrent MPM after EPP. A retrospective review was conducted of 59 consecutive patients who underwent bi-/tri-modal treatment with induction chemotherapy, EPP, and radiation therapy from July 2004 to August 2013 at Hyogo College of Medicine (Nishinomiya, Japan). Of 59 patients, 39 (male/female = 31/8, right/left = 15/24, pathological stage I/II/III/IV = 1/7/23/3, bi-/tri-modality = 27/12) relapsed at a median age of 62 (range 37-71) years. The median time to recurrence after EPP was 11.6 months. Of the 39 relapsed patients, 12 received best supportive care alone, six started but discontinued chemotherapy, and the remaining 21 (53%) completed more than three cycles of intravenous chemotherapy. The median survival time after EPP was significantly longer in 21 patients who received additional chemotherapy than in 18 patients who did not (39.2 vs. 12.2 months, P = 0.009). Additional systemic chemotherapy was successfully administered in more than 50% of relapsed patients after bi-/tri-modal treatment, which included EPP, and resulted in a longer survival in comparison with best supportive care alone.

  8. Anaemia management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: routine practice across nine European countries.

    PubMed

    Stein, Jürgen; Bager, Palle; Befrits, Ragnar; Gasche, Christoph; Gudehus, Maja; Lerebours, Eric; Magro, Fernando; Mearin, Fermin; Mitchell, Daniell; Oldenburg, Bas; Danese, Silvio

    2013-12-01

    Anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) are common complications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In patients undergoing iron therapy, intravenous iron supplementation is recommended in preference to oral therapy. This study evaluated routine practice in the management of IBD-associated anaemia and ID to verify implementation of international treatment guidelines. Gastroenterologists from nine European countries (n=344) were surveyed about their last five IBD patients treated for anaemia (n=1404). Collected information included tests performed at anaemia diagnosis, haemoglobin (Hb) levels and iron status parameters, the anaemia treatment given and, if applicable, the iron administration route. Selection of diagnostic tests and treatment for IBD-associated anaemia varied considerably across Europe. Anaemia and iron status were mainly assessed by Hb (88%) and serum ferritin (75%). Transferrin saturation was only tested in 25% of patients. At diagnosis of anaemia, 56% presented with at least moderate anaemia (Hb<10 g/dl) and 15% with severe anaemia (Hb<8 g/dl). ID (ferritin<30 ng/ml) was detected in 76%. Almost all patients (92%) received iron supplementation; however, only 28% received intravenous iron and 67% oral iron. Management practice was similar in 2009 and 2011. In clinical practice, most IBD patients received oral iron even though this administration route may aggravate the disease, and despite international guidelines recommending intravenous administration as the preferred route. The high frequency of ID suggests insufficient monitoring of iron status in IBD patients. There is a need to increase awareness and implementation of international guidelines on iron supplementation in patients with IBD.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Pad 39A, clouds of dust float away from the Mobile Launcher Platform, which is undergoing sandblasting to remove corrosion before repainting. Routine maintenance includes sandblasting and repainting as preventive means to minimize corrosion.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-12

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On Launch Pad 39A, clouds of dust float away from the Mobile Launcher Platform, which is undergoing sandblasting to remove corrosion before repainting. Routine maintenance includes sandblasting and repainting as preventive means to minimize corrosion.

  10. Incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  12. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1-5) and 6 to 20 (area 6-20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  13. The Effect of Intra-articular Cocktail Versus Femoral Nerve Block for Patients Undergoing Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Childs, Sean; Pyne, Sonia; Nandra, Kiritpaul; Bakhsh, Wajeeh; Mustafa, S Atif; Giordano, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    To compare clinical efficacy and complication rate as measured by postoperative falls and development of peripheral neuritis between intra-articular blockade and femoral nerve block in patients undergoing arthroscopic hip surgery. An institutional review board approved retrospective review was conducted on a consecutive series of patients who underwent elective arthroscopic hip surgery by a single surgeon, between November 2013 and April 2015. Subjects were stratified into 2 groups: patients who received a preoperative femoral nerve block for perioperative pain control, and patients who received an intra-articular "cocktail" injection postoperatively. Demographic data, perioperative pain scores, narcotic consumption, incidence of falls, and iatrogenic peripheral neuritis were collected for analysis. Postoperative data were then collected at routine clinical visits. A total of 193 patients were included in this study (65 males, 125 females). Of them, 105 patients received preoperative femoral nerve blocks and 88 patients received an intraoperative intra-articular "cocktail." There were no significant differences in patient demographics, history of chronic pain (P = .35), worker's compensation (P = .24), preoperative pain scores (P = .69), or intraoperative doses of narcotics (P = .40). Patients who received preoperative femoral nerve blocks reported decreased pain during their time in PACU (P = .0001) and on hospital discharge (P = .28); however, there were no statistically significant differences in patient-reported pain scores at postoperative weeks 1 (P = .34), 3 (P = .64), and 6 (P = .70). Administration of an intra-articular block was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of postoperative falls (P = .009) and iatrogenic peripheral neuritis (P = .0001). Preoperative femoral nerve blocks are associated with decreased immediate postoperative pain, whereas intraoperative intra-articular anesthetic injections provide effective postoperative

  14. Preoperative Electrocardiogram Score for Predicting New-Onset Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan J; Melgaard, Jacob; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Hansen, John; Schmidt, Erik B; Thorsteinsson, Kristinn; Graff, Claus

    2017-02-01

    To investigate if electrocardiogram (ECG) markers from routine preoperative ECGs can be used in combination with clinical data to predict new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Retrospective observational case-control study. Single-center university hospital. One hundred consecutive adult patients (50 POAF, 50 without POAF) who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or combinations. Retrospective review of medical records and registration of POAF. Clinical data and demographics were retrieved from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and patient records. Paper tracings of preoperative ECGs were collected from patient records, and ECG measurements were read by two independent readers blinded to outcome. A subset of four clinical variables (age, gender, body mass index, and type of surgery) were selected to form a multivariate clinical prediction model for POAF and five ECG variables (QRS duration, PR interval, P-wave duration, left atrial enlargement, and left ventricular hypertrophy) were used in a multivariate ECG model. Adding ECG variables to the clinical prediction model significantly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from 0.54 to 0.67 (with cross-validation). The best predictive model for POAF was a combined clinical and ECG model with the following four variables: age, PR-interval, QRS duration, and left atrial enlargement. ECG markers obtained from a routine preoperative ECG may be helpful in predicting new-onset POAF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Maia, Lígia de Albuquerque; Silva, Pedro Leme; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-06-01

    The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes. Expert commentary: Before determining the ideal intraoperative ventilation strategy, it is important to analyze the pathophysiology and comorbidities of each obese patient. Protective ventilation with low tidal volume, driving pressure, energy, and mechanical power should be employed during surgery; however, further studies are required to clarify the most effective ventilation strategies, such as the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure and whether recruitment maneuvers minimize lung injury. In this context, an ongoing trial of intraoperative ventilation in obese patients (PROBESE) should help determine the mechanical ventilation strategy that best improves clinical outcome in patients with body mass index≥35kg/m 2 .

  16. Management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing electrophysiological device surgery.

    PubMed

    Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural

  17. Predicting Infected Bile Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, Shannon L.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Patel, Aalpen

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Patients may not achieve a clinical benefit after percutaneous cholecystostomy due to the inherent difficulty in identifying patients who truly have infected gallbladders. We attempted to identify imaging and biochemical parameters which would help to predict which patients have infected gallbladders. Methods. A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy for clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis in whom bile culture results were available. Multiple imaging and biochemical variables were examined alone and in combination as predictors of infected bile, using logistic regression. Results. Of the 52 patients, 25 (48%) had infected bile. Organisms cultured included Enterococcus,more » Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Citrobacter and Candida. No biochemical parameters were significantly predictive of infected bile; white blood cell count >15,000 was weakly associated with greater odds of infected bile (odds ratio 2.0, p = NS). The presence of gallstones, sludge, gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid by ultrasound or CT were not predictive of infected bile, alone or in combination, although a trend was observed among patients with CT findings of acute cholecystitis toward a higher 30-day mortality. Radionuclide scans were performed in 31% of patients; all were positive and 66% of these patients had infected bile. Since no patient who underwent a radionuclide scan had a negative study, this variable could not be entered into the regression model due to collinearity. Conclusion. No single CT or ultrasound imaging variable was predictive of infected bile, and only a weak association of white blood cell count with infected bile was seen. No other biochemical parameters had any association with infected bile. The ability of radionuclide scanning to predict infected bile was higher than that of ultrasound or CT. This study illustrates the continued challenge to identify bacterial

  18. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  19. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  20. Can patients with schizophrenia undergo renal transplantation with success?

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Saoussen

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a 41-year-old man suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. The patient has been consulting in our psychiatric hospital since he was 29 years old. Eight years later, he developed kidney failure and required peritoneal dialysis. After more than two years, the nephrology team indicated a renal transplantation and his brother suggested giving his kidney. There were no obstacles for transplantation in the immune and histological compatibilities; the psychiatric staff decided to check the patient's compliance with medication. The patient was compliant to all his medications and to the salt-free diet after the transplant operation. Few weeks later, he developed steroid-induced diabetes. Through the last two years, he had psychotic exacerbations with major anxiety and fear of losing the transplant. These relapses were managed by increasing doses of antipsychotics without need for hospitalization. At the present time, three years after transplantation, the nephrologists are decreasing the immunosuppressive agents and the steroids. The renal function is optimum and the diabetes is stabilized. This case exemplifies the potential for schizophrenic patients to undergo renal transplantation and to comply with follow-up medical care through a close cooperation between the patient's family, the psychiatric staff and the nephrology team.

  1. Predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Spain: the CLEOPATRE study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection that may lead to development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The aim of the current study was to investigate socio-demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors for potential associations with cervical HPV infection in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Spain. Methods The CLEOPATRE Spain study enrolled 3 261 women aged 18–65 years attending cervical cancer screening across the 17 Autonomous Communities. Liquid-based cervical samples underwent cytological examination and HPV testing. HPV positivity was determined using the Hybrid Capture II assay, and HPV genotyping was conducted using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify putative risk factors for HPV infection. Results A lifetime number of two or more sexual partners, young age (18–25 years), a history of genital warts, and unmarried status were the strongest independent risk factors for HPV infection of any type. Living in an urban community, country of birth other than Spain, low level of education, and current smoking status were also independent risk factors for HPV infection. A weak inverse association between condom use and HPV infection was observed. Unlike monogamous women, women with two or more lifetime sexual partners showed a lower risk of infection if their current partner was circumcised (P for interaction, 0.005) and a higher risk of infection if they were current smokers (P for interaction, 0.01). Conclusion This is the first large-scale, country-wide study exploring risk factors for cervical HPV infection in Spain. The data strongly indicate that variables related to sexual behavior are the main risk factors for HPV infection. In addition, in non-monogamous women, circumcision of the partner is associated with a reduced risk and smoking with an increased risk of HPV infection. PMID:22734435

  2. Predictors of human papillomavirus infection in women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Spain: the CLEOPATRE study.

    PubMed

    Roura, Esther; Iftner, Thomas; Vidart, José Antonio; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Bosch, F Xavier; Muñoz, Nubia; Palacios, Santiago; Rodriguez, Maria San Martin; Morillo, Carmen; Serradell, Laurence; Torcel-Pagnon, Laurence; Cortes, Javier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2012-06-26

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection that may lead to development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The aim of the current study was to investigate socio-demographic, lifestyle, and medical factors for potential associations with cervical HPV infection in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Spain. The CLEOPATRE Spain study enrolled 3 261 women aged 18-65 years attending cervical cancer screening across the 17 Autonomous Communities. Liquid-based cervical samples underwent cytological examination and HPV testing. HPV positivity was determined using the Hybrid Capture II assay, and HPV genotyping was conducted using the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify putative risk factors for HPV infection. A lifetime number of two or more sexual partners, young age (18-25 years), a history of genital warts, and unmarried status were the strongest independent risk factors for HPV infection of any type. Living in an urban community, country of birth other than Spain, low level of education, and current smoking status were also independent risk factors for HPV infection. A weak inverse association between condom use and HPV infection was observed. Unlike monogamous women, women with two or more lifetime sexual partners showed a lower risk of infection if their current partner was circumcised (P for interaction, 0.005) and a higher risk of infection if they were current smokers (P for interaction, 0.01). This is the first large-scale, country-wide study exploring risk factors for cervical HPV infection in Spain. The data strongly indicate that variables related to sexual behavior are the main risk factors for HPV infection. In addition, in non-monogamous women, circumcision of the partner is associated with a reduced risk and smoking with an increased risk of HPV infection.

  3. Emotional state and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Toshiko; Murata, Hinako; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sakata, Yu; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Aso, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in emotional state and the relationship between emotional state and demographic/clinical factors and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery. Using the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), 90 patients (benign disease: 32, malignancy: 58) were examined on three occasions: before surgery, before discharge, and 3 months after discharge. They were also examined using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) on one occasion before discharge. The scores for the subscales depression, anger, and confusion were the highest after discharge while those for anxiety were the highest before surgery. The average scores of the POMS subscales for all subjects were within the normal range. With regard to the relationship between these emotional states and other factors, multiple regressions showed that the principal determinants of anxiety before surgery were religious belief, psychological symptoms during hospitalization and emotion-oriented (E) coping style; further, it was found that depression after discharge could be explained by chemotherapy, duration of hospitalization, and E coping style. The principal determinants of anger after discharge and vigor before surgery were length of education and E coping style, and severity of disease, chemotherapy, E coping style and task-oriented coping style, respectively. Those of post-discharge fatigue and confusion were length of education, psychological symptoms, and E coping style. In summary it is suggested that the following should be taken into account in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery: anxiety before surgery, depression, anger, and confusion after surgery, including coping styles.

  4. Nonselective carotid artery ultrasound screening in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Masabni, Khalil; Sabik, Joseph F; Raza, Sajjad; Carnes, Theresa; Koduri, Hemantha; Idrees, Jay J; Beach, Jocelyn; Riaz, Haris; Shishehbor, Mehdi H; Gornik, Heather L; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether nonselective preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening alters management of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and whether such screening affects neurologic outcomes. From March 2011 to September 2013, preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening was performed on 1236 of 1382 patients (89%) scheduled to undergo CABG. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was classified as none or mild (any type 0%-59% stenosis), moderate (unilateral 60%-79% stenosis), or severe (bilateral 60%-79% stenosis or unilateral 80%-100% stenosis). A total of 1069 (86%) had patients with patients with ≥moderate CAS, 1 of 19 (5.3%) undergoing CABG + CEA and 3 of 148 (2.0%) undergoing CABG alone experienced stroke (P = .4). In patients with moderate CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 11 (9.1%) off-pump and 1 of 79 (1.3%) on-pump patients (P = .2). In patients with severe CAS, stroke occurred in 1 of 6 (17%) off-pump and 1 of 71 (1.4%) on-pump patients (P = .15). Routine preoperative carotid artery evaluation altered the management of a minority of patients undergoing CABG; this did not translate into perioperative stroke risk. Hence, a more targeted approach for preoperative carotid artery evaluation should be adopted. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical outcomes of patients with hypothyroidism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Sara, Jaskanwal D.S.; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Gharib, Hossein; Bell, Malcolm R.; Gulati, Rajiv; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and results Two thousand four hundred and thirty patients who underwent PCI were included. Subjects were divided into two groups: hypothyroidism ( n = 686) defined either as a history of hypothyroidism or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥5.0 mU/mL, and euthyroidism ( n = 1744) defined as no history of hypothyroidism and/or 0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL. Patients with hypothyroidism were further categorized as untreated ( n = 193), or those taking thyroid replacement therapy (TRT) with adequate replacement (0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL, n = 175) or inadequate replacement (TSH ≥ 5.0 mU/mL, n = 318). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Median follow-up was 3.0 years (interquartile range, 0.5–7.0). After adjustment for covariates, the risk of MACCE and its constituent parts was higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared with those with euthyroidism (MACCE: HR: 1.28, P = 0.0001; myocardial infarction (MI): HR: 1.25, P = 0.037; heart failure: HR: 1.46, P = 0.004; revascularization: HR: 1.26, P = 0.0008; stroke: HR: 1.62, P = 0.04). Compared with untreated patients or those with inadequate replacement, adequately treated hypothyroid patients had a lower risk of MACCE (HR: 0.69, P = 0.005; HR: 0.78, P = 0.045), cardiac death (HR: 0.43, P = 0.008), MI (HR: 0.50, P = 0.0004; HR: 0.60, P = 0.02), and heart failure (HR: 0.50, P = 0.02; HR: 0.52, P = 0.017). Conclusion Hypothyroidism is associated with a higher incidence of MACCE compared with euthyroidism in patients undergoing PCI. Maintaining adequate control on TRT is beneficial in preventing MACCE. PMID:26757789

  6. Clinical outcomes of patients with hypothyroidism undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Sara, Jaskanwal D S; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Gharib, Hossein; Bell, Malcolm R; Gulati, Rajiv; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2016-07-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hypothyroidism and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two thousand four hundred and thirty patients who underwent PCI were included. Subjects were divided into two groups: hypothyroidism (n = 686) defined either as a history of hypothyroidism or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ≥5.0 mU/mL, and euthyroidism (n = 1744) defined as no history of hypothyroidism and/or 0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL. Patients with hypothyroidism were further categorized as untreated (n = 193), or those taking thyroid replacement therapy (TRT) with adequate replacement (0.3 mU/mL ≤ TSH < 5.0 mU/mL, n = 175) or inadequate replacement (TSH ≥ 5.0 mU/mL, n = 318). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Median follow-up was 3.0 years (interquartile range, 0.5-7.0). After adjustment for covariates, the risk of MACCE and its constituent parts was higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared with those with euthyroidism (MACCE: HR: 1.28, P = 0.0001; myocardial infarction (MI): HR: 1.25, P = 0.037; heart failure: HR: 1.46, P = 0.004; revascularization: HR: 1.26, P = 0.0008; stroke: HR: 1.62, P = 0.04). Compared with untreated patients or those with inadequate replacement, adequately treated hypothyroid patients had a lower risk of MACCE (HR: 0.69, P = 0.005; HR: 0.78, P = 0.045), cardiac death (HR: 0.43, P = 0.008), MI (HR: 0.50, P = 0.0004; HR: 0.60, P = 0.02), and heart failure (HR: 0.50, P = 0.02; HR: 0.52, P = 0.017). Hypothyroidism is associated with a higher incidence of MACCE compared with euthyroidism in patients undergoing PCI. Maintaining adequate control on TRT is beneficial in preventing MACCE. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H

    2017-05-25

    Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate with placebo among patients with a

  8. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LIFE QUALITY IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963

  9. Cardiovascular Impact in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: Clinical Management Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Francis, Gary S.; Tang, W.H. Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. PMID:28108129

  10. Determinants of compliance behaviours among patients undergoing hemodialysis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yoke Mun; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hii, Sing Ziunn

    2012-01-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This was a cross-sectional study which employed purposive sampling design. A total of 188 respondents were recruited from 14 dialysis centres in Malaysia between 2008-2011. Self-reported compliance behaviours and biochemical measurements were used as evaluation tools. Compliance rates of dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis were 27.7%, 24.5%, 66.5% and 91.0%, respectively. Younger, male, working patients and those with longer duration on hemodialysis were found more likely to be non-compliant. Lacks of adequate knowledge, inadequate self-efficacy skills, forgetfulness and financial constraints were the major perceived barriers towards better compliance to fluid, dietary, medication and dialysis, respectively. Healthcare professionals should recognise the factors hindering compliance from the patients' perspective while assisting them with appropriate skills in making necessary changes possible.

  11. Cardiovascular impact in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: Clinical management considerations.

    PubMed

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Francis, Gary S; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Undiagnosed hereditary angioedema in a patient undergoing emergency caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yukihiko; Kamei, Masataka; Jyujou, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Chinami; Katsuragi, Shinji; Onishi, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of localized edema. Surgical procedures, trauma, and infections have been considered as potential triggers of HAE. Although HAE is a rare genetic disorder, approximately 50-60% of all HAE patients are involved with at least one occurrence of upper airway obstruction. The airway trouble is the most life-threating complication in HAE patients because HAE-related edema does not respond to typical treatment, such as administration of epinephrine, antihistamines, or glucocorticoids. Indeed, mortality rates of laryngeal attack are estimated around 25% to 40%. Here we describe a case of undiagnosed HAE patient undergoing emergency caesarean section under neuraxial blockade. A 31-year-old woman showed multiple regions at her lip margin during surgery and rapidly developed lip swelling after admission to the ward. Neither respiratory nor hemodynamic instability was found during and after surgery. Immediately, in order to assess whether HAE caused these dermatological manifestations, we measured values of both complement component 4 (C4) and functional activity of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh), a protein of the complement system. These laboratory data showed low levels, which were compatible with HAE definition. After commencement of C1-inhibitor replacement therapy, her lip swelling and erythema gradually disappeared without adverse drug reactions. The patient was finally discharged from our institution 10 days after surgery.

  13. Heat and moisture exchange devices for patients undergoing total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Icuspit, Pearl; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Garg, Shweta; Johnson, Theresa; Deschler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing total laryngectomy face the challenge of an altered anatomy with the resultant changes in quality of life and significant requirements for post-operative care. Increased production of secretions and sputum, the need for ongoing suctioning, and the formation of stomal crusting require meticulous post-operative care. The use of Heat and Moisture Exchange (HME) devices has been shown to decrease the effect of these factors. This article describes the nature of these devices and their use. The literature is reviewed regarding the long term benefits and new data are presented suggesting an immediate post-operative benefit as well. Finally, costs and other considerations for successful use of HME devices are presented.

  14. [Evaluation of nurse workload in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Argibay-Lago, Ana; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Ferrer-Sala, Nuria; Prieto-Robles, Cristina; Hernanz-del Río, Alexandre; Castro-Rebollo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended to minimize neurological damage in patients surviving sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). There is scarcity of data evaluating the nursing workload in these patients. The objective of the study is to assess the workload of nurses whilst treating patients undergoing TH after SCA. A 43-month prospective-retrospective comparative cohort study was designed. Patients admitted to intensive care unit, for recovered SCA and persistent coma, were included. A comparison was made using the baseline characteristics, medical management, in-hospital mortality, and nursing workload during the first 96hours using the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28); Nursing Activities Score (NAS); and Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) scales among patients who received TH and those who did not. A total 46 patients were included: 26 in the TH group and 20 in the Non-TH group. Regarding baseline characteristics and management, the TH group presented higher prevalence of smoking habit (69 vs. 25%, p=0.012), out-of-hospital SCA (96 vs. 55%, p<0.001), and the performance of coronary angiography (96 vs. 65%, p=0.014) compared with the non-TH group. No differences were observed in the nursing workload, assessed by TISS 28, NAS or NEMS scales, or in-hospital mortality. In this study performance of TH in SCA survivors is not associated with an increase in nursing workload. The installation of a TH program does not require the use of more nursing resources in terms of workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of moderate functional mitral insufficiency in patients undergoing surgical revascularization.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Eugene A; Crooke, Gregory A; DiGiorgi, Paul L; Schwartz, Charles F; Jorde, Ulrich; Applebaum, Robert M; Ribakove, Greg H; Galloway, Aubrey C; Grau, Juan B; Colvin, Stephen B

    2006-07-04

    Mild and moderate functional ischemic mitral insufficiency present at the time of surgical revascularization present clinical uncertainty. It is unclear whether the relatively poor outcomes in this cohort are dependent on valvular function or related to left ventricular dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the early and late outcomes in patients with less-than-severe functional ischemic mitral insufficiency at the time of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). From 1996 through 2004, 2242 consecutive patients undergoing isolated CABG were identified as having none to moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) and no valve leaflet pathology. All of the patients at this single institution routinely had an intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, prospectively quantified MR, and ejection fraction (EF). The New York State Cardiac Surgery Reporting System infrastructure was used to prospectively collect in-hospital patient variables and outcomes. Social Security Death Benefit Index was used to determine long-term survival. Odds ratio and significance (P value) are presented for each determined risk factor. There were 841 patients (37.5%) with no MR, 1137 (50.7%) with mild MR, and 264 (11.8%) with moderate MR. The patients with moderate MR were more likely to be older, female, and have more renal disease, previous MI, congestive heart failure, previous cardiac surgery, and lower EFs. Hospital mortality was independently and significantly associated with renal disease, decreasing EF, increasing age, previous cardiac operation, and cerebral vascular disease. Multivariable analysis revealed decreased survival with increasing age, previous operation, congestive heart failure, diabetes, nonelective operation, decreasing EF, and the presence of moderate MR (expbeta = 1.49; P=0.007) and mild MR (expbeta = 1.34; P=0.033). Independent of ventricular function, mild and moderate functional mitral insufficiency are associated with significantly decreased

  16. Radiation Dose Estimation for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chu

    Patients undergoing cardiac catheterization are potentially at risk of radiation-induced health effects from the interventional fluoroscopic X-ray imaging used throughout the clinical procedure. The amount of radiation exposure is highly dependent on the complexity of the procedure and the level of optimization in imaging parameters applied by the clinician. For cardiac catheterization, patient radiation dosimetry, for key organs as well as whole-body effective, is challenging due to the lack of fixed imaging protocols, unlike other common X-ray based imaging modalities. Pediatric patients are at a greater risk compared to adults due to their greater cellular radio-sensitivities as well as longer remaining life-expectancy following the radiation exposure. In terms of radiation dosimetry, they are often more challenging due to greater variation in body size, which often triggers a wider range of imaging parameters in modern imaging systems with automatic dose rate modulation. The overall objective of this dissertation was to develop a comprehensive method of radiation dose estimation for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this dissertation, the research is divided into two main parts: the Physics Component and the Clinical Component. A proof-of-principle study focused on two patient age groups (Newborn and Five-year-old), one popular biplane imaging system, and the clinical practice of two pediatric cardiologists at one large academic medical center. The Physics Component includes experiments relevant to the physical measurement of patient organ dose using high-sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters placed in anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. First, the three-dimensional angular dependence of MOSFET detectors in scatter medium under fluoroscopic irradiation was characterized. A custom-made spherical scatter phantom was used to measure response variations in three-dimensional angular orientations. The results were to be used as angular dependence

  17. Is routine ophthalmoscopy really necessary in candidemic patients?

    PubMed Central

    Vena, Antonio; Padilla, Belen; Valerio, Maricela; Sanchez, Maria Isabel; Puig-Asensio, Mireia; Fortun, Jesus; Fernandez-Ruiz, Mario; Merino, Paloma; Losa, Juan Emilio; Loza, Ana; Rivas, Rosa Ana; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine among patients with candidemia the real rate of ophthalmoscopy and the impact of performing ocular assessment on the outcome of the disease. We performed a post hoc analysis of a prospective, multicenter, population-based candidemia surveillance program implemented in Spain during 2010–2011 (CANDIPOP). Ophthalmoscopy was performed in only 168 of the 365 patients with candidemia (46%). Ocular lesions related to candidemia were found in only 13/168 patients (7.7%), of whom 1 reported ocular symptoms (incidence of symptomatic disease in the whole population, 0.27% [1/365]). Ophthalmological findings led to a change in antifungal therapy in only 5.9% of cases (10/168), and performance of the test was not related to a better outcome. Ocular candidiasis was not associated with a worse outcome and progressed favorably in all but 1 evaluable patient, who did not experience vision loss. The low frequency of ophthalmoscopy and ocular involvement and the asymptomatic nature of ocular candidiasis, with a favorable outcome in almost all cases, lead us to reconsider the need for systematic ophthalmoscopy in all candidemic patients. PMID:29065121

  18. Left Atrial Anatomy in Patients Undergoing Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Krum, David; Hare, John; Gilbert, Carol; Choudhuri, Indrajit; Mori, Naoyo; Sra, Jasbir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Left atrial anatomy is highly variable, asymmetric, irregular and three-dimensionally unique. This variability can affect the outcome of atrial ablation. A catalog of anatomic varieties may aid patient selection and ablation approach and provide better tools for left atrial ablation. Methods: We analyzed computed tomography scans from 514 patients undergoing left atrial ablation. Images were processed on Advantage Windows with CardEP™ software (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Measurements of pulmonary vein (PV) ostial size along the long and short axes were made using double oblique cuts, and area of the ostia was calculated. Results: Patients with 2 left (LPV) and 2 right PVs (RPV) (62.6%), 2 LPVs and 3 RPVs (17.3%) and 1 LPV and 2 RPVs (14.2%) made up the three most common variants. In the 2-LPV/2-RPV anatomy, the ostial size and area of the RPVs were larger than their corresponding LPVs (p<0.001), and the ostial size and area of the superior PVs were larger than their corresponding inferior PVs (p<0.001). In the 2-LPV/3-RPV anatomy, the total area of the RPVs was larger than the total area of the LPVs (p<0.001). In the 1-LPV/2-RPV anatomy, the ostial size of the left common PV was larger than either right PV (p<0.007). However, the total area of the RPVs was larger than the area of the left common PV (p<0.002). The left common PV was also larger than any of the left veins in any of the other anatomies. The total PV area between the three most common anatomies was not significantly different. Conclusions: More than 37% of patients have a left atrial anatomy other than 2 left and 2 right PVs. This data may help in designing approaches for left atrial ablation, tailoring the procedure to individual patients and improving ablation tools.

  19. Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Nguyen, Heajung; Shlofmitz, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the angiographic and clinical outcomes of orbital atherectomy to treat severely calcified coronary lesions in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetics have increased risk for death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention. Severely calcified coronary lesions are associated with increased cardiac events. Orbital atherectomy facilitates stent delivery and optimizes stent expansion by modifying severely calcified plaque. Outcomes in diabetic patients who undergo orbital atherectomy have not been reported. Our retrospective multicenter registry included 458 consecutive real-world patients with severely calcified coronary arteries who underwent orbital atherectomy. The primary safety endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. Diabetics represented 42.1% (193/458) of the entire cohort. The primary endpoint was similar in diabetics and non-diabetics (1.0% vs. 3.0%%, P = 0.20), as were 30-day rates of death (0.5% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.41), myocardial infarction (0.5% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.40), target vessel revascularization (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and stroke (0% vs. 0.4%, P > 0.9). Angiographic complications and stent thrombosis rate were low and did not differ between the 2 groups. Diabetics represented a sizeable portion of patients who underwent orbital atherectomy. Diabetics who had severely calcified coronary arteries and underwent orbital atherectomy had low event rates that were similar to non-diabetics. Orbital atherectomy appears to be a viable treatment strategy for diabetic patients. Randomized trials with longer-term follow-up are needed to determine the ideal treatment strategy for diabetics. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Access disparities to Magnet hospitals for patients undergoing neurosurgical operations

    PubMed Central

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon

    2017-01-01

    Background Centers of excellence focusing on quality improvement have demonstrated superior outcomes for a variety of surgical interventions. We investigated the presence of access disparities to hospitals recognized by the Magnet Recognition Program of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) for patients undergoing neurosurgical operations. Methods We performed a cohort study of all neurosurgery patients who were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database from 2009–2013. We examined the association of African-American race and lack of insurance with Magnet status hospitalization for neurosurgical procedures. A mixed effects propensity adjusted multivariable regression analysis was used to control for confounding. Results During the study period, 190,535 neurosurgical patients met the inclusion criteria. Using a multivariable logistic regression, we demonstrate that African-Americans had lower admission rates to Magnet institutions (OR 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58–0.67). This persisted in a mixed effects logistic regression model (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.70–0.83) to adjust for clustering at the patient county level, and a propensity score adjusted logistic regression model (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69–0.82). Additionally, lack of insurance was associated with lower admission rates to Magnet institutions (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68–0.73), in a multivariable logistic regression model. This persisted in a mixed effects logistic regression model (OR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.69–0.74), and a propensity score adjusted logistic regression model (OR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.69–0.75). Conclusions Using a comprehensive all-payer cohort of neurosurgery patients in New York State we identified an association of African-American race and lack of insurance with lower rates of admission to Magnet hospitals. PMID:28684152

  1. Penile Improvement Protocol in Postoperative Management of Patients Undergoing Metoidioplasty.

    PubMed

    Cohanzad, Shahryar

    2016-12-01

    To introduce a postoperative protocol to optimize the final size of the penis in patients undergoing metoidioplasty. Fourteen patients with the mean age of 29.3 years (8-40 ± 11.7), ten female transsexuals (46 xx karyotype) and four with 5-alpha-reductase deficiency syndrome (5ARDS) who had undergone extensive metoidioplasty entered a penile improvement protocol (PIP) between 2007 and 2015 at a specialized clinic in a general hospital in Tehran, Iran. Subjects were thoroughly instructed, rehearsed on the protocol and closely followed for 24 weeks. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. We adapted a popular device, the so-called penile traction device, to accommodate the size of the neo-penis. All patients achieved an increase in their penile length with a mean of 28.42 mm (21-47 ± 6.86). Two subjects developed penile bruises and edema during the protocol implementation. No significant procedural complications were detected in the remaining 12 participants. PIP can be an effective step in increasing the size of the neo-penis in patients who have undergone metoidioplasty. We suggest this procedure to be seriously considered in postoperative management of well-informed and motivated patients to improve the final penile length and function in this population. Larger studies are needed to further validate this protocol. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with a giant left atrium undergoing mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Jin; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-08-01

    As the efficacy of surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is reported to be suboptimal for patients with a giant left atrium (LA), its routine use on this population has remained controversial. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with a giant LA undergoing mitral valve (MV) surgery with/without the maze procedure. We identified 759 patients with a giant LA (>60 mm) and AF undergoing MV surgery from 1999 through 2012. Of these, 400 underwent MV surgery with the maze procedure (maze group), and the remainder (n=359) underwent MV surgery only (no-maze group). To reduce the impact of selection bias, propensity score analyses were performed based on 25 baseline covariates. Early death occurred in five (1.3%) and nine (2.5%) patients in the maze and the no-maze group, respectively (p=0.28). Freedom from AF at 5 years was 68.9% in the maze group and 9.6% in the no-maze group (p<0.001). After adjustment, the maze group showed a significantly lower risk of death (HR, 0.65; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.98; p=0.038), thromboembolic events (HR, 0.23; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.58; p=0.002) and composite adverse outcomes (death, congestive heart failure and valve-related complications; HR, 0.55; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71; p<0.001) than the no-maze group. In subgroup analyses, MV surgery with the maze procedure resulted in higher survival and event-free survival in most risk subgroups than without the maze procedure. The concomitant maze procedure improved postoperative rhythm status, clinical outcomes and cardiac functions in patients with a giant LA undergoing MV surgery. This study indicates that the patients with a giant LA undergoing MV surgery may benefit from an addition of the maze procedure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Physical Therapy Management for Adult Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Canadian Practice Survey

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cathy M.; Jackson, Jennifer; Lucy, S. Deborah; Prendergast, Monique; Sinclair, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine current Canadian physical therapy practice for adult patients requiring routine care following cardiac surgery. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted of a selected sample (n=18) of Canadian hospitals performing cardiac surgery to determine cardiorespiratory care, mobility, exercises, and education provided to patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Results: An average of 21 cardiac surgeries per week (range: 6–42) were performed, with an average length of stay of 6.4 days (range: 4.0–10.6). Patients were seen preoperatively at 7 of 18 sites and on postoperative day 1 (POD-1) at 16 of 18 sites. On POD-1, 16 sites performed deep breathing and coughing, 7 used incentive spirometers, 13 did upper-extremity exercises, and 12 did lower-extremity exercises. Nine sites provided cardiorespiratory treatment on POD-3. On POD-1, patients were dangled at 17 sites and mobilized out of bed at 13. By POD-3, patients ambulated 50–120 m per session 2–5 times per day. Sternal precautions were variable, but the lifting limit was reported as ranging between 5 lb and 10 lb. Conclusions: Canadian physical therapists reported the provision of cardiorespiratory treatment after POD-1. According to current available evidence, this level of care may be unnecessary for uncomplicated patients following cardiac surgery. In addition, some sites provide cardiorespiratory treatment techniques that are not supported by evidence in the literature. Further research is required. PMID:21629599

  4. Text messaging improves preoperative exercise in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lemanu, Daniel P; Singh, Primal P; Shao, Robert Y; Pollock, Terina T; MacCormick, Andrew D; Arroll, Bruce; Hill, Andrew G

    2018-06-25

    To investigate whether a text message intervention improves adherence to preoperative exercise advice prior to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). A single-blinded parallel design 1:1 ratio randomized controlled trial was performed in patients undergoing LSG as a single-stage bariatric procedure for morbid obesity. The intervention group received preoperative daily text messages. The primary outcome was adherence to preoperative exercise advice as assessed by the number of participants partaking in ≥450 metabolic equivalent minutes (METmin -1 ) exercise activity per week preoperatively. Eighty-eight patients were included in the analysis with 44 allocated to each arm. Adherence and exercise activity increased significantly from baseline in the exposure group (EG) but not in the control group (CG). Adherence was significantly higher in the EG at the end of the intervention period compared to the CG. Despite increased exercise activity, there was no improvement in 6-min walk test or surgical recovery. A daily text message intervention improved adherence to preoperative exercise advice, but this did not correlate with improved surgical recovery. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. [Influencing factors of reproduction status of patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy].

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-hui; Zhang, Song-ying; Li, Bai-jia; Wei, Wei; Huang, Dong; Lin, Xiao-na; Lou, Hong-ying

    2013-09-17

    To explore the influencing factors of reproduction status in women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). A total of 278 LM patients were recruited.We retrospectively reviewed the reproduction status of 87 pregnant cases after LM. The correlations of their pregnancy outcomes and such clinical profiles as age, operative techniques, biological characteristics of fibroids (number, type, size and location) were analyzed.No uterine rupture occurred during the gestation period. None of them switched to open surgery due to laparoscopic difficulties. However, one patient had a laparoscopic suture for secondary bleeding of uterine incision. At 3 months post-operation, sonography showed no heterogeneous echo, effusion and hematoma in uterine incision.Incision through uterine cavity occurred intraoperatively in 8 cases, but no intrauterine adhesion was found on hysteroscopy 3 months later. And 87 women became pregnant and the postoperative fertilization time was from 2 months to 5 years. Age influenced the postoperative pregnancy rate.Other factors such as location, number and size of fibroid had no impact on fertility. For achieving a high conception rate and guaranteeing the safety of pregnant women, a clinician should select reasonable surgical approaches, perform accurate anatomical restoration, apply strict hemostasis and choose a right time of conception.

  6. An updated meta-analysis on the effectiveness of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing breast surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad S; Hutson, Kristian; Akhter, Naved; Kalra, Lorain; Rapisarda, Ignacio F; Bonomi, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To systematically analyze published randomized trials on the effectiveness of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing breast surgical procedures. Trials on the effectiveness of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing breast surgery were selected and analyzed to generate summated data (expressed as risk ratio [RR]) by using RevMan 5.0. Nine randomized controlled trials encompassing 3720 patients undergoing breast surgery were retrieved from the electronic databases. The antibiotics group comprised a total of 1857 patients and non-antibiotics group, 1863 patients. There was no heterogeneity [χ(2) = 7.61, d.f. = 7, p < 0.37; I(2) = 8%] amongst trials. Therefore, in the fixed-effects model (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83; z = 3.48; p < 0.0005), the use of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing breast surgical procedures was statistically significant in reducing the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI). Furthermore, in the fixed-effects model (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.89-1.90; z = 1.37; p < 0.17), adverse reactions secondary to the use of prophylactic antibiotics was not statistically significant between the two groups. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotics significantly reduce the risk of SSI after breast surgical procedures. The risk of adverse reactions from prophylactic antibiotic administration is not significant in these patients. Therefore, preoperative prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery patients may be routinely administered. Further research is required, however, on risk stratification for SSI, timing and duration of prophylaxis, and the need for prophylaxis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction versus no reconstruction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Routine perioperative ketorolac administration is not associated with hemorrhage in pediatric neurosurgery patients.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Marlin Dustin; Palmeri, Nicholas O; Williams, Sarah A; Torok, Michelle R; O'Neill, Brent R; Handler, Michael H; Hankinson, Todd C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT NSAIDs are effective perioperative analgesics. Many surgeons are reluctant to use NSAIDs perioperatively because of a theoretical increase in the risk for bleeding events. The authors assessed the effect of routine perioperative ketorolac use on intracranial hemorrhage in children undergoing a wide range of neurosurgical procedures. METHODS A retrospective single-institution analysis of 1451 neurosurgical cases was performed. Data included demographics, type of surgery, and perioperative ketorolac use. Outcomes included bleeding events requiring return to the operating room, bleeding seen on postoperative imaging, and the development of renal failure or gastrointestinal tract injury. Variables associated with both the exposure and outcomes (p < 0.20) were evaluated as potential confounders for bleeding on postoperative imaging, and multivariable logistic regression was performed. Bivariable analysis was performed for bleeding events. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were estimated. RESULTS Of the 1451 patients, 955 received ketorolac. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated no significant association between clinically significant bleeding events (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.15-3.1) or radiographic hemorrhage (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.43-1.51) and the perioperative administration of ketorolac. Treatment with a medication that creates a known bleeding risk (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.01-9.57), surgical procedure (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.11-4.94), and craniotomy/craniectomy (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.19-4.94) were associated with a significantly elevated risk for radiographically identified hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS Short-term ketorolac therapy does not appear to be associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of bleeding documented on postoperative imaging in pediatric neurosurgical patients and may be considered as part of a perioperative analgesic regimen. Although no association was found between ketorolac and clinically significant bleeding events, a larger study needs to be

  8. Speech evaluation after palatal augmentation in patients undergoing glossectomy.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho-Teles, Viviane; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara; Gielow, Ingrid

    2008-10-01

    To assess, in patients undergoing glossectomy, the influence of the palatal augmentation prosthesis on the speech intelligibility and acoustic spectrographic characteristics of the formants of oral vowels in Brazilian Portuguese, specifically the first 3 formants (F1 [/a,e,u/], F2 [/o,ó,u/], and F3 [/a,ó/]). Speech evaluation with and without a palatal augmentation prosthesis using blinded randomized listener judgments. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six patients (33 men and 3 women) aged 30 to 80 (mean [SD], 53.9 [10.5]) years underwent glossectomy (14, total glossectomy; 12, total glossectomy and partial mandibulectomy; 6, hemiglossectomy; and 4, subtotal glossectomy) with use of the augmentation prosthesis for at least 3 months before inclusion in the study. Spontaneous speech intelligibility (assessed by expert listeners using a 4-category scale) and spectrographic formants assessment. We found a statistically significant improvement of spontaneous speech intelligibility and the average number of correctly identified syllables with the use of the prosthesis (P < .05). Statistically significant differences occurred for the F1 values of the vowels /a,e,u/; for F2 values, there was a significant difference of the vowels /o,ó,u/; and for F3 values, there was a significant difference of the vowels /a,ó/ (P < .001). The palatal augmentation prosthesis improved the intelligibility of spontaneous speech and syllables for patients who underwent glossectomy. It also increased the F2 and F3 values for all vowels and the F1 values for the vowels /o,ó,u/. This effect brought the values of many vowel formants closer to normal.

  9. Selective Use of Sentinel Lymph Node Surgery in Patients Undergoing Prophylactic Mastectomy Using Intraoperative Pathology.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brittany L; Glasgow, Amy E; Keeney, Gary L; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Boughey, Judy C

    2017-10-01

    Routine sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery during prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is unnecessary, because most PMs do not contain cancer. Our institution utilizes intraoperative pathology to guide the surgical decision for resection of SLNs in PM. The purpose of this study was to review the effectiveness of this approach. We identified all women aged ≥18 years who underwent bilateral PM (BPM) or contralateral PM (CPM) at our institution from January 2008 to July 2016. We evaluated the frequency of SLN resection and rate of occult breast cancer (DCIS or invasive disease) in the PM. We used the following definitions: over-treatment-SLN surgery in patients without cancer; under-treatment-no SLN surgery in patients with cancer; appropriate treatment-no SLN in patients without cancer or SLN surgery in patients with cancer. PM was performed on 1900 breasts: 1410 (74.2%) CPMs and 490 (25.8%) BPMs. Cancer was identified in 58 (3.0%) cases (32 invasive disease and 26 DCIS) and concurrent SLN surgery was performed in 44 (75.9%) of those cases. Overall, SLN surgery guided by intraoperative pathology resulted in appropriate treatment of 1787 (94.1%) cases: 1319 (93.5%) CPMs and 468 (95.5%) BPMs, by avoiding SLN in 1743/1842 cases without cancer (94.6%), and performing SLN surgery in 44/58 cases with cancer (75.9%). Use of intraoperative pathology to direct SLN surgery in patients undergoing PM minimizes over-treatment from routine SLN in PM and minimizes under-treatment from avoiding SLN in PM, demonstrating the value of intraoperative pathology in this era of focus on appropriateness of care.

  10. Effectiveness of stress management in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Li-Pin; Tung, Heng-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Lai, Yu-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Saint Shiou-Sheng; Chiu, Allen W

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utilization of stress management in relieving anxiety and pain among patients who undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate. Eighty-two patients admitted to a community hospital for a TRUS biopsy of the prostate participated in this case-controlled study. They were divided into an experimental group that was provided with stress management and a control group that received only routine nursing care. Stress management included music therapy and one-on-one simulation education. Before and after the TRUS biopsy, the patients' state-anxiety inventory score, pain visual analogue scale (VAS), respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were obtained. There were no differences in baseline and disease characteristics between the two groups. The VAS in both groups increased after the TRUS biopsy, but the difference in pre- and postbiopsy VAS scores was significantly lower in the experimental group (P=0.03). Patients in both groups experienced mild anxiety before and after the biopsy, but those in the experimental group displayed a significantly greater decrease in postbiopsy state-anxiety inventory score compared to the control group (P=0.02). Stress management can alleviate anxiety and pain in patients who received a TRUS biopsy of the prostate under local anesthesia.

  11. Limited utility of routine surveillance imaging for classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients in first complete remission.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Sai Ravi; Jewell, Sarah W; Havlat, Luiza; Bast, Martin A; Thompson, Jonathan R; Eastwood, Daniel C; Bartlett, Nancy L; Armitage, James O; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Vose, Julie M; Fenske, Timothy S

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who achieved complete remission with frontline therapy and then underwent either clinical surveillance or routine surveillance imaging. In total, 241 patients who were newly diagnosed with cHL between January 2000 and December 2010 at 3 participating tertiary care centers and achieved complete remission after first-line therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, there were 174 patients in the routine surveillance imaging group and 67 patients in the clinical surveillance group, based on the intended mode of surveillance. In the routine surveillance imaging group, the intended plan of surveillance included computed tomography and/or positron emission tomography scans; whereas, in the clinical surveillance group, the intended plan of surveillance was clinical examination and laboratory studies, and scans were obtained only to evaluate concerning signs or symptoms. Baseline patient characteristics, prognostic features, treatment records, and outcomes were collected. The primary objective was to compare overall survival for patients in both groups. For secondary objectives, we compared the success of second-line therapy and estimated the costs of imaging for each group. After 5 years of follow-up, the overall survival rate was 97% (95% confidence interval, 92%-99%) in the routine surveillance imaging group and 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%) in the clinical surveillance group (P = .41). There were few relapses in each group, and all patients who relapsed in both groups achieved complete remission with second-line therapy. The charges associated with routine surveillance imaging were significantly higher than those for the clinical surveillance strategy, with no apparent clinical benefit. Clinical surveillance was not inferior to routine surveillance imaging in patients with cHL who achieved complete remission with frontline therapy. Routine

  12. [Blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Nie, Qing-Wen; Hua, Rui; Zhou, Yao; Li, Hong; Yu, Yan-Hong

    2017-07-20

    To explore the incidence and risk factors of blighted ovum in subfertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 2378 patients who were pregnant following embryo transfer at our center from January, 2012 to December, 2015, including cases of early pregnancy losses and simultaneous live births. The cases with early pregnancy losses were divided into embryonic pregnancy and blighted ovum groups based on the presence or absence of an embryonic pole before dilation and curettage. The clinical data of the 3 groups were analyzed for comparisons of the maternal age, paternal age, BMI, AFC, basal FSH, bFSH/bLH, duration of infertility, Gn dosage, Gn days, serum estradiol on the day of HCG administration, endometrium thickness, number of oocyte retrieved, proportion of high-quality embryos transferred, serum β-HCG value on the 10th to 14th days of embryo transfer, infertility type and miscarriage times. The incidences of blighted ovum were compared between cases with different cycles, embryo stages, infertile factors and methods of fertilization. Maternal age and paternal age, BMI, duration of infertility, infertility type and miscarriage times differed significantly between cases with blighted ovum and those with live births. Serum β-HCG level was the lowest in blighted ovum group followed by embryonic pregnancy group and then by live birth group. Blastocyst transfer was associated with a significantly higher incidence of blighted ovum as compared with cleavage embryo transfer (11.6% vs 5.6%, P=0.000). No significant difference was found in the other parameters among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age, β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer were risk factors of blighted ovum. Advanced maternal age, low β-HCG level and blastocyst transfer may increase the risk of blighted ovum possibly in association with gene imprinting errors during the early stage of

  13. Responsive measures to prehabilitation in patients undergoing bowel resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Jun; Mayo, Nancy E; Carli, Franco; Montgomery, David L; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2009-02-01

    Surgical patients often show physiological and metabolic distress, muscle weakness, and long hospital stays. Physical conditioning might help recovery. We attempted to identify the most responsive measure of aerobic fitness from a four-week pre-surgical aerobic exercise program (prehabilitation) in patients undergoing major bowel resection. Twenty-one subjects randomized two to one (exercise: control) scheduled for colorectal surgery. Fourteen subjects [Body Mass Index (BMI) = 27 +/- 6 kg/m(2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) = 22 +/- 10 ml/kg/min] underwent 3.8 +/- 1.2 weeks (27 +/- 8 sessions) of progressive, structured pre-surgical aerobic exercise training at 40 to 65% of heart rate reserve (%HRR). Peak power output was the only maximal measure that was responsive to training [26 +/- 27%, Effects Size (ES) = 0.24; Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 1.05; p < 0.05]. For the submaximal measures, heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise was most responsive to training (decrease by 13% +/- 15%, ES = -0.24; SRM = -0.57; and 7% +/- 6%, ES = -0.40; SRM -0.97; p < 0.05) at an exercise intensity of 76 +/- 47 W. There was no change to maximal or submaximal measures in the control group. The distance walked over six minutes improved in both groups (by approximately 30 m), but the effect size and t-statistic were higher in the exercise group. Heart rate and oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise, and peak power output are the most responsive measures to four weeks of prehabilitation in subjects with low initial fitness.

  14. Early mobilization reduces the atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Moradian, Seyed Tayeb; Najafloo, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Ghiasi, Mohammad Saeid

    2017-09-01

    Atelectasis and pleural effusion are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Longer stay in the bed is one of the most important contributing factors in pulmonary complications. Some studies confirm the benefits of early mobilization (EM) in critically ill patients, but the efficacy of EM on pulmonary complications after CABG is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of EM on the incidence of atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. In a single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned into two groups each consisted of 50 patients. Patients in the experimental group were enrolled in a mobilization protocol consisting of the mobilization from the bed in the first 3 days after surgery in the morning and evening. Patients in the control group were mobilized from bed in third postoperation day, according to the hospital routine. Arterial blood gases, pleural effusion, and atelectasis were compared between groups. Atelectasis and pleural effusion was reduced in experimental group. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood in third postoperative day and the percentage of arterial oxygen saturation in the fourth postoperative day were higher in the intervention group (P value < .05). EM from bed could be an effective intervention in reducing atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Current status of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, G L; Lei, X Z

    2017-03-20

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a higher rate of hepatitis C virus infection than the general population, and due to various factors including hemodialysis and immunosuppression, it is difficult to make a diagnosis. The appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents greatly promotes the treatment of hepatitis C, but there are still no adequate data on their effect and safety in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This article discusses the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  16. Predictors of treatment failure in young patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marni B; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary; Agarwal, Sanjay; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Lindsay, Suzanne; Garzo, V Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether routinely collected clinical factors can predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure among young, "good prognosis" patients predominantly with secondary infertility who are less than 35 years of age. Using de-identified clinic records, 414 women <35 years undergoing their first autologous IVF cycle were identified. Logistic regression was used to identify patient-driven clinical factors routinely collected during fertility treatment that could be used to model predicted probability of cycle failure. One hundred ninety-seven patients with both primary and secondary infertility had a failed IVF cycle, and 217 with secondary infertility had a successful live birth. None of the women with primary infertility had a successful live birth. The significant predictors for IVF cycle failure among young patients were fewer previous live births, history of biochemical pregnancies or spontaneous abortions, lower baseline antral follicle count, higher total gonadotropin dose, unknown infertility diagnosis, and lack of at least one fair to good quality embryo. The full model showed good predictive value (c = 0.885) for estimating risk of cycle failure; at ≥80 % predicted probability of failure, sensitivity = 55.4 %, specificity = 97.5 %, positive predictive value = 95.4 %, and negative predictive value = 69.8 %. If this predictive model is validated in future studies, it could be beneficial for predicting IVF failure in good prognosis women under the age of 35 years.

  17. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Anesthetic management of patients undergoing extra-anatomic renal bypass surgery for renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Sinha, Prabhat Kumar; Unnikrishnan, M

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery disease is the most common cause for surgically curable form of hypertension. In a small subset of patients with severe aortic disease where the aorta is not suitable for endovascular technique and to provide an arterial inflow, an extra-anatomic renal bypass surgery (EARBS) is an option. Anesthetic management of such procedures has not been described so far in the literature. We retrospectively analyzed the anesthetic techniques used in all patients who underwent EARBS between February 1998 and June 2008 at this institute. We also further analyzed data concerning blood pressure (BP) control and renal function response following surgery as outcome variable measures. A total of 11 patients underwent EARBS during this period. Five received oral clonidine with premedication. During laryngoscopy, esmolol was used in 4 patients, while lignocaine was used in remaining 7 patients. Of 11 patients, 7 showed significant hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation; among these, one had oral clonidine with premedicant, and 6 received lignocaine just before laryngoscopy. Intravenous vasodilators were used to maintain target BP within 20% of baseline during perioperative period. All patients received renal protective measures. During follow-up, 10% were considered cured, 70% had improved BP response, while 20% failed to show improvement in BP response. Renal functions improved in 54.5%, remain unchanged in 36.5%, and worsened in 9% of patients. Use of clonidine during premedication and esmolol before laryngoscopy were beneficial in attenuating hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, while use of vasodilators to maintain target BP within 20% of baseline, and routine use of renal protective measures appear to be promising in patients undergoing EARBS.

  19. Association of circulating ANGPTL 3, 4, and 8 levels with medical status in a population undergoing routine medical checkups: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Jun; Zhao, Jiabin; Endo, Motoyoshi; Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Sugizaki, Taichi; Okadome, Yusuke; Tian, Zhe; Horiguchi, Haruki; Miyashita, Kazuya; Maruyama, Nobuhiro; Mukoyama, Masashi; Oike, Yuichi

    2018-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3, 4, and 8 reportedly contribute to progression of metabolic disease, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether circulating ANGPTL levels are associated with CVD risk after adjustment for potential confounding factors. We conducted a single center, cross-sectional study of 988 Japanese subjects undergoing routine health checks. Serum ANGPTL3, 4, and 8 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using multiple regression analysis we evaluated potential association of circulating ANGPTL3, 4, and 8 levels with general medical status including age, sex, smoking, drinking, obesity, hypertension, impaired glycometabolism, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, hepatic impairment, chronic kidney disease, anemia, cardiac abnormality, and inflammation. Circulating ANGPTL3 levels were relatively high in health-related categories of hepatic impairment and inflammation. Circulating ANGPTL4 levels were also significantly high in impaired glycometabolism or hepatic impairment but decreased in inflammation. Finally, increased ANGPTL8 levels were observed in obesity, impaired glycometabolism and dyslipidemia. Particularly, increased levels of circulating ANGPTL8 were positively correlated with circulating triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels and inversely correlated with circulating HDL-cholesterol levels. Circulating ANGPTL3, 4, and 8 levels reflect some risk factors for CVD development.

  20. "Combined Diagnostic Tool" APPlication to a Retrospective Series of Patients Undergoing Total Joint Revision Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gallazzi, Enrico; Drago, Lorenzo; Baldini, Andrea; Stockley, Ian; George, David A; Scarponi, Sara; Romanò, Carlo L

    2017-01-01

    Background : Differentiating between septic and aseptic joint prosthesis may be challenging, since no single test is able to confirm or rule out infection. The choice and interpretation of the panel of tests performed in any case often relies on empirical evaluation and poorly validated scores. The "Combined Diagnostic Tool (CDT)" App, a smartphone application for iOS, was developed to allow to automatically calculate the probability of having a of periprosthetic joint infection, on the basis of the relative sensitivity and specificity of the positive and negative diagnostic tests performed in any given patient. Objective : The aim of the present study was to apply the CDT software to investigate the ability of the tests routinely performed in three high-volume European centers to diagnose a periprosthetic infection. Methods : This three-center retrospective study included 120 consecutive patients undergoing total hip or knee revision, and included 65 infected patients (Group A) and 55 patients without infection (Group B). The following parameters were evaluated: number and type of positive and negative diagnostic tests performed pre-, intra- and post-operatively and resultant probability calculated by the CDT App of having a peri-prosthetic joint infection, based on pre-, intra- and post-operative combined tests. Results : Serological tests were the most common performed, with an average 2.7 tests per patient for Group A and 2.2 for Group B, followed by joint aspiration (0.9 and 0.8 tests per patient, respectively) and imaging techniques (0.5 and 0.2 test per patient). Mean CDT App calculated probability of having an infection based on pre-operative tests was 79.4% for patients in Group A and 35.7 in Group B. Twenty-nine patients in Group A had > 10% chance of not having an infection, and 29 of Group B had > 10% chance of having an infection. Conclusion : This is the first retrospective study focused on investigating the number and type of tests commonly performed

  1. Routine transesophageal echocardiography for the diagnosis of aortic disruption in trauma patients without enlarged mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vignon, P; Lagrange, P; Boncoeur, M P; Francois, B; Gastinne, H; Lang, R M

    1996-03-01

    To assess the value of routine transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in diagnosing traumatic disruption of the aorta (TDA) in trauma patients presenting without enlarged mediastinum on chest x-ray films. Prospective study. TEE was routinely performed to exclude the presence of TDA in patients who sustained severe trauma secondary to abrupt deceleration collisions and presented with an upper mediastinum of fewer than 8 cm on supine chest x-ray films. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (group I) or absence (group II) of mediastinal hematoma diagnosed during TEE examination. Radiographic signs regarded as indicators of the presence of TDA were evaluated in both groups. Among the 40 consecutive patients studied, TEE demonstrated two cases of TDA associated with a mediastinal hematoma that were confirmed by both aortography and surgery. One of the patients had a normal mediastinum on presentation chest x-ray films, and the other only exhibited a blurred aortic knob. Radiographic mediastinal abnormalities suggestive of TDA were observed in 13 patients, but chest x-ray films were unremarkable in 12 patients. Twenty patients had multiple rib fractures. The frequency of chest radiographic abnormalities was not significantly higher in group I (n = 6) when compared with group II patients (n = 34). TEE examination demonstrated a normal thoracic aorta in 35 patients and was nondiagnostic in 3 patients (normal aortography). TEE should be routinely performed in victims of violent deceleration collisions, even in patients presenting apparently normal mediastinum on supine chest radiography.

  2. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative surgical site infections in gastrointestinal fistula patients undergoing bowel resections.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiongyuan; Wang, Gefei; Ren, Jianan; Ren, Huajian; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Ranran; Guo, Kun; Deng, Youming; Li, Yuan; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Li, Jieshou

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in postoperative septic complications of elective colorectal surgeries. However, the evaluation of PNI in contaminated surgeries for gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients is lack of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of PNI in surgical site infections (SSIs) for GI fistula patients undergoing bowel resections.A retrospective review of 290 GI patients who underwent intestinal resections between November 2012 and October 2015 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for SSIs, and receiver operating characteristic cure was used to quantify the effectiveness of PNI.SSIs were diagnosed in 99 (34.1%) patients, with incisional infection identified in 54 patients (18.6%), deep incisional infection in 13 (4.5%), and organ/space infection in 32 (11.0%). receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined a PNI cut-off level of 45 corresponding to postoperative SSIs (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72, 76% sensitivity, 55% specificity). Furthermore, a multivariate analysis indicated that the PNI < 45 [odd ratio (OR): 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-4.61, P = 0.029] and leukocytosis (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.02-13.42, P = 0.046) were independently associated with postoperative SSIs.Preoperative PNI is a simple and useful marker to predict SSIs in GI fistula patients after enterectomies. Measurement of PNI is therefore recommended in the routine assessment of patients with GI fistula receiving surgical treatment.

  3. Evaluation of routine enteric pathogens in hospitalized patients: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Kevin; Alfa, Michelle; Harding, Godfrey

    1996-01-01

    Diarrhea is a frequently encountered problem in hospitalized patients. Since nosocomial spread of routine enteric pathogens such as Salmonella species, Shigella species, Campylobacter species and Escherichia coli O:157 H:7 seldom occurs, testing for these organisms in patients hospitalized for longer than three days has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine the length of hospitalization preceding detection of routine enteric pathogens and Clostridium difficile cytotoxin, and to develop guidelines for enteric cultures from hospitalized patients. The enteric pathogens detected in 1991 were C difficile toxin B(+), 77%; Campylobacter species, 10%; Salmonella species, 9%; E coli O:157 H:7, 3%; and Shigella species, 1%. For 1992, these numbers were 86%, 9%, 3%, 2% and 0%, respectively. None of the routine enteric pathogens isolated in 1991 or 1992 was detected in patients after their second day of hospitalization. Routine cultures for enteric pathogens on hospitalized patients were eliminated in February 1993, and physician ordering practices were monitored. With the exception of one campylobacter isolate per year, all routine enteric pathogens isolated in 1993 and 1994 were detected by the second day of hospitalization. Compliance with the changed protocol was 76% measured over a four-month period in 1993 and 74% over the year 1994. Savings of $3,648.10 were associated with rejecting 191 ‘inappropriate’ specimens in 1994. It was concluded that routine enteric cultures are unnecessary for patients hospitalized more than two days, and that appreciable financial savings can be achieved if revised protocols for processing stool cultures are instituted. However, when enteric protocol changes are in place compliance must be evaluated to ensure appropriate utilization. PMID:22514438

  4. Immediate postpartum ultrasound evaluation for suspected retained placental tissue in patients undergoing manual removal of placenta.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, T; Haikin-Herzberger, E; Bacci-Hugger, K; Shechter-Maor, G; Fejgin, M; Biron-Shental, T

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 1% of term deliveries are complicated by retained products of conception. Untreated, this condition may cause bleeding, infection and intrauterine adhesions. This study assessed whether performing routine bedside uterine ultrasound immediately after manual removal of the placenta reduced the occurrence of undiagnosed, retained products of conception and its associated complications. A retrospective study was conducted using the records of patients who delivered and underwent manual removal of placenta at a single obstetrics center over a 6-year period. The outcomes of patients who were assessed using immediate bedside ultrasound were compared to a similar group who were treated based on clinical evaluation alone. All patients underwent ultrasound examination prior to discharge. Outcome variables included the rate of additional interventions (medical or surgical), abnormal pre-discharge uterine ultrasound findings, postpartum hemorrhage rate, puerperal fever and length of hospital stay. A total of 399 charts were reviewed. Immediate post-procedural ultrasound was performed in 235 patients. The remaining 164 women did not undergo immediate post-procedural ultrasound. All patients underwent an ultrasound examination prior to discharge. Among the patients who had an immediate post-procedural ultrasound, 12 (5.1%) received immediate re-intervention (2 methergine, 6 curettage and 4 manual uterine revision) vs. no intervention in the second group (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the group of patients who had immediate post-procedural ultrasound and those who did not, in the rates of postpartum hemorrhage (3.1% vs. 0.7%, p=0.13), abnormal ultrasound findings prior to discharge (14.9% vs. 14.8%, p=0.96) or additional late intervention (7.2% vs. 7.9%, p=0.79), respectively. Our findings suggest that immediate, bedside uterine ultrasound examination after manual removal of placenta might not change patient outcomes

  5. Effectiveness of Self-Care Education on the Enhancement of the Self-Esteem of Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Poorgholami, Farzad; Javadpour, Shohreh; Saadatmand, Vahid; Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar

    2015-06-12

    The assessment of self-esteem in hemodialysis people is becoming increasingly important and necessary. Low self-esteem as a problem in patients undergoing hemodialysis decreases adherence to treatment. The researcher intends to carry out a study in order to investigate the effect of self-care education on enhancement of the self-esteem of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. This is a quasi-experimental study. The subjects of the study who were selected based on purposive sampling method consisted of 50 patients with advanced chronic renal disease treated with hemodialysis. Before the intervention, two questionnaires were completed by patients. There was no intervention in the control group and the patients received only routine care in the hospital. In the experimental group, the hemodialysis patients received 5 consecutive one-hour training sessions by the researcher. Then the Rosenberg scale was filled out by the patients 2 month later. According to the results, Paired t-test showed a significant difference between the mean self-esteem score in both groups before and after intervention. Increasing the knowledge and awareness of hemodialysis patients must constitute a cornerstone of therapy and an integral part of nursing responsibilities. Nurses should educate the patients about self-care behaviors and remind them of the dangerous complications of abandoning these.

  6. Contextualising renal patient routines: Everyday space-time contexts, health service access, and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish

    2017-06-01

    Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants' everyday lives. We found that participants' everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants' everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off 'ripple effects' within participants' space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise and de

  7. Quality of life of Greek patients with end stage renal disease undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kastrouni, Maria; Sarantopoulou, Eleni; Aperis, Georgios; Alivanis, Polichronis

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the quality of life of patients with end stage kidney disease undergoing haemodialysis in the Greek population was conducted to understand whether this quality could be improved. Comparisons were made with a similar study conducted in United States in regards to the effects of kidney disease in daily life, burden of kidney disease, work status, cognitive function, quality of social interaction, sexual function, social support, physical functioning, role physical on daily routine, pain, general health perceptions, role emotional, emotional well being, social function and energy/fatigue. Any differences are discussed and analysed. Sexual problems were found to be more prominent in this study, but the emotional status has greater influence in quality of life in the US study. The results were more positive in Greece with respect to dialysis staff encouragement, patient satisfaction, as well as acceptance and the understanding of illness. The results from our study reflect the differences of the health care systems in various countries as well as population-related beliefs and values.

  8. Contextualising renal patient routines: Everyday space-time contexts, health service access, and wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    McQuoid, Julia; Jowsey, Tanisha; Talaulikar, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals’ everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients’ space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia. Data comprised self-reported two day participant diaries and semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was guided by an inductive-deductive approach. We examined the embeddedness of routines within the space-time contexts of participants’ everyday lives. We found that participants’ everyday space-time contexts were highly complex, especially for those receiving dialysis and/or employed, making routines difficult to establish and vulnerable to disruption. Health service access helped shape participants’ everyday space-time contexts, meaning that incidences of unpredictability in accessing health services set-off ‘ripple effects’ within participants’ space-time contexts, disrupting routines and making everyday life negotiation more difficult. The ability to absorb ripple effects from unpredictable health services without disrupting routines varied by space-time context. Implications of these findings for the deployment of the concept of routine in health research, the framing of patient success in self-managing illness, and health services design are discussed. In conclusion, efforts to understand and support individuals in establishing and maintaining routines that support health and wellbeing can benefit from approaches that contextualise

  9. Pre-operative nutrition support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Burden, Sorrel; Todd, Chris; Hill, James; Lal, Simon

    2012-11-14

    Post-operative management in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is becoming well established with 'Enhanced Recovery After Surgery' protocols starting 24 hours prior to surgery with carbohydrate loading and early oral or enteral feeding given to patients the first day following surgery. However, whether or not nutritional intervention should be initiated earlier in the preoperative period remains unclear. Poor pre-operative nutritional status has been linked consistently to an increase in post-operative complications and poorer surgical outcome. To review the literature on preoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery (GI). The searches were initially run in March 2011 and subsequently updated in February 2012. Databases including all EBM Reviews (Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA and NHSEED) MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, British Nursing Index Archive using OvidSP were included and a search was run on each database separately after which duplicates were excluded. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials that evaluated pre-operative nutritional support in GI surgical participants using a nutritional formula delivered by a parenteral, enteral or oral route. The primary outcomes included post-operative complications and length of hospital stay. Two observers screened the abstracts for inclusion in the review and performed data extraction. Bias was assessed for each of the included studies using the bias assessment tables in the Cochrane Software Review Manager (version 5.1, Cochrane Collaboration). The trials were analysed using risk ratios with Mantel-Haenszel in fixed effects methods displayed with heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were undertaken on trials evaluating immune enhancing (IE) nutrition, standard oral supplements, enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN) which were administered pre-operatively.Study characteristics were summarised in tables. Dichotomous and ratio data were entered into meta-analyses for

  10. Simpler score of routine laboratory tests predicts liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kun; Gao, Chun-Fang; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Liu, Hai-Lin; Zheng, Rui-Dan; Xian, Jian-Chun; Xu, Hong-Tao; Mao, Yi-Min; Zeng, Min-De; Lu, Lun-Gen

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, a great interest has been dedicated to the development of noninvasive predictive models to substitute liver biopsy for fibrosis assessment and follow-up. Our aim was to provide a simpler model consisting of routine laboratory markers for predicting liver fibrosis in patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in order to optimize their clinical management. Liver fibrosis was staged in 386 chronic HBV carriers who underwent liver biopsy and routine laboratory testing. Correlations between routine laboratory markers and fibrosis stage were statistically assessed. After logistic regression analysis, a novel predictive model was constructed. This S index was validated in an independent cohort of 146 chronic HBV carriers in comparison to the SLFG model, Fibrometer, Hepascore, Hui model, Forns score and APRI using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The diagnostic values of each marker panels were better than single routine laboratory markers. The S index consisting of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), platelets (PLT) and albumin (ALB) (S-index: 1000 x GGT/(PLT x ALB(2))) had a higher diagnostic accuracy in predicting degree of fibrosis than any other mathematical model tested. The areas under the ROC curves (AUROC) were 0.812 and 0.890 for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in the validation cohort, respectively. The S index, a simpler mathematical model consisting of routine laboratory markers predicts significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic HBV infection with a high degree of accuracy, potentially decreasing the need for liver biopsy.

  11. Telemedicine Interest for Routine Follow-Up Care Among Neurology Patients in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Maryam; Greenfield, L John; Oliveto, Alison

    2016-06-01

    Teleneurology in Arkansas has been used primarily for management of acute stroke with a state-funded hub-and-spoke model allowing physicians at rural hospitals to access vascular neurologists in time to facilitate tissue plasminogen activator administration. Routine neurologic care has been provided only in small pilot studies. We wished to determine patient interest in participating in teleneurology for routine follow-up visits as well as demographic and medical factors associated with interest. New and established patients of the Neurology Outpatient Clinic at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) were surveyed between March 2011 and December 2012 to assess their interest in participating in teleneurology as well as potential factors associated with their interest. Of 1,441 respondents, 52.4% were interested in telemedicine. Of those interested versus uninterested in telemedicine, respectively, 68.9% versus 36.32% traveled more than 1 h to the clinic, 64.7% versus 35.3% had difficulty secondary to neurological conditions, 22.6% versus 6.8% had missed medical appointments due to travel problems, and 43.1% versus 9.4% had travel-imposed financial hardship. Telemedicine interest for routine follow-up visits was strong among patients at the UAMS Neurology Outpatient Clinic. Factors positively associated with interest included long travel distances, travel expenses, and transportation difficulties. These results suggest that implementing a telemedicine program for follow-up visits would be acceptable to neurology patients for routine ongoing care.

  12. Aspirin resistance in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia undergoing extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Jussen, Daniel; Horn, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -occlusive CVD remained aspirin-resistant despite the dose escalation; 2 of them suffered an early bypass failure. Smoking habits and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with aspirin resistance. Moreover, 25% of all patients had laboratory signs of a prothrombotic disorder, but this had no influence on aspirin response or bypass patency. Aspirin resistance is common in the population of patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia scheduled for cerebral revascularization. It may have an adverse impact on the outcome of surgery. Screening and treatment via dose escalation of aspirin is a straightforward and sensible routine for patients undergoing EC-IC bypass surgery. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure

    PubMed Central

    Vilarta, Cristiane F.; Unger, Marianna D.; dos Reis, Luciene M.; Dominguez, Wagner V.; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M.; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R.; Hernandez, Mariel J.; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. METHODS: We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population. PMID:28793001

  14. Hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant: the importance of sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Vilarta, Cristiane F; Unger, Marianna D; Dos Reis, Luciene M; Dominguez, Wagner V; David-Neto, Elias; Moysés, Rosa M; Titan, Silvia; Custodio, Melani R; Hernandez, Mariel J; Jorgetti, Vanda

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 30 ng/ml, in both healthy populations and patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients undergoing kidney transplant are at an increased risk of skin cancer and are advised to avoid sunlight exposure. Therefore, these patients might share two major risk factors for hypovitaminosis D: chronic kidney disease and low sunlight exposure. This paper describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypovitaminosis D among patients undergoing kidney transplant. We evaluated 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels in a representative sample of patients undergoing kidney transplant. We sought to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, compare these patients with a control group, and identify factors associated with hypovitaminosis D (e.g., sunlight exposure and dietary habits). Hypovitaminosis D was found in 79% of patients undergoing kidney transplant, and the major associated factor was low sunlight exposure. These patients had higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being inversely correlated with intact parathyroid hormone serum levels. Compared with the control group, patients undergoing kidney transplant presented a higher prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and lower serum calcium, phosphate and albumin but higher creatinine and intact parathyroid hormone levels. Our results confirmed the high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in patients undergoing kidney transplant. Therapeutic strategies such as moderate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation should be seriously considered for this population.

  15. NCICT: a computational solution to estimate organ doses for pediatric and adult patients undergoing CT scans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Bolch, Wesley E; Moroz, Brian E; Folio, Les

    2015-12-01

    We developed computational methods and tools to assess organ doses for pediatric and adult patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference pediatric and adult phantoms combined with the Monte Carlo simulation of a reference CT scanner to establish comprehensive organ dose coefficients (DC), organ absorbed dose per unit volumetric CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) (mGy/mGy). We also developed methods to estimate organ doses with tube current modulation techniques and size specific dose estimates. A graphical user interface was designed to obtain user input of patient- and scan-specific parameters, and to calculate and display organ doses. A batch calculation routine was also integrated into the program to automatically calculate organ doses for a large number of patients. We entitled the computer program, National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT(NCICT). We compared our dose coefficients with those from CT-Expo, and evaluated the performance of our program using CT patient data. Our pediatric DCs show good agreements of organ dose estimation with those from CT-Expo except for thyroid. Our results support that the adult phantom in CT-Expo seems to represent a pediatric individual between 10 and 15 years rather than an adult. The comparison of CTDIvol values between NCICT and dose pages from 10 selected CT scans shows good agreements less than 12% except for two cases (up to 20%). The organ dose comparison between mean and modulated mAs shows that mean mAs-based calculation significantly overestimates dose (up to 2.4-fold) to the organs in close proximity to lungs in chest and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans. Our program provides more realistic anatomy based on the ICRP reference phantoms, higher age resolution, the most up-to-date bone marrow dosimetry, and several convenient features compared to previous tools. The NCICT will be available for research purpose in the near future.

  16. Most routine laboratory testing of pediatric psychiatric patients in the emergency department is not medically necessary.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, J Joelle; Horeczko, Timothy; Kaji, Amy; Santillanes, Genevieve; Claudius, Ilene

    2015-05-01

    We examined the patient characteristics and hospital charges associated with routine medical clearance laboratory screening tests in 1,082 children younger than age eighteen who were brought to the emergency department (ED) for involuntary mental health holds--that is, each patient was brought to the ED to be evaluated for being a danger to him- or herself or to others, for being gravely disabled (unable to meet his or her basic needs due to a mental disorder), or both--from July 2009 to December 2010. Testing was performed on 871 of the children; all patients also received a clinical examination. The median charge for blood and urine testing together was $1,235, and the most frequent ordering pattern was the full comprehensive panel of tests. Of the patients with a nonconcerning clinical examination, 94.3 percent also had clinically nonsignificant test results. When we extrapolated cost savings to the national level, omitting routine screening laboratory tests in the population of pediatric patients presenting to the ED on an involuntary psychiatric hold with nonconcerning clinical exams could represent up to $90 million in savings annually, without reducing the ability to screen for emergency medical conditions. Provider-initiated diagnostic testing instead of routine screening would lead to significantly lower charges to the ED and the patient. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Routine Screening for CYP2C19 Polymorphisms for Patients being Treated with Clopidogrel is not Recommended

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Robert A; Khan, Zia R; Valentin, Mona R; Badawi, Ramy A

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts directed at potential litigation in Hawai‘i have resulted in a renewed interest for genetic screening for cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms in patients treated with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent, frequently used in combination with aspirin, for the prevention of thrombotic complications with acute coronary syndrome and in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2C19 is an enzyme involved in the bioactivation of clopidogrel from a pro-drug to an active inhibitor of platelet action. Patients of Asian and Pacific Island background have been reported to have an increase in CYP2C19 polymorphisms associated with loss-of-function of this enzyme when compared to other ethnicities. This has created an interest in genetic testing for CYP2C19 polymorphisms in Hawai‘i. Based upon our review of the current literature, we do not feel that there is support for the routine screening for CYP2C19 polymorphisms in patients being treated with clopidogrel; furthermore, the results of genetic testing may not be helpful in guiding therapeutic decisions. We recommend that decisions on the type of antiplatelet treatment be made based upon clinical evidence of potential differential outcomes associated with the use of these agents rather than on the basis of genetic testing. PMID:25628978

  18. [Change in Perioperative Hemostatic Function in Patients Undergoing Hepatic Resection for Primary and Metastatic Liver Cancer].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Atagi, Kazuaki; Nishi, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    Patients undergoing primary hepatic resection often develop hemostatic dysfunction associated with cirrhosis. We retrospectively surveyed pre- and postoperative prothrombin time (PT) and the PT expressed as international normalized ratio (PT-INR) in 39 patients undergoing primary liver resection. We also compared PT changes between primary and metastatic cancer cases (8 cases). Postoperative PT-INR was 1.40 ± 0.38, which was significantly prolonged compared to preoperative PT-INR of 1.08 ± 0.07. Preoperative PT was over 70% in all 39 patients undergoing primary liver resection, whereas postoperative PT was less than 60% in 13 of 39 patients. No significant difference was found in preoperative PT-INR between primary and metastatic cancer cases, but postoperative PT-INR was significantly prolonged in primary cancer cases. Patients undergoing primary liver resection are susceptible to hemostatic dysfunction, even with preoperative PT levels within normal limits.

  19. Lack of hygiene routines among patients and family members at patient hotels--a possible route for transmitting puerperal fever.

    PubMed

    Starlander, Gustaf; Lytsy, Birgitta; Melhus, Asa

    2010-07-01

    The use of patient hotels for ambulatory care of women with uncomplicated deliveries has become a routine in Sweden. This report describes a minor outbreak of a group A Streptococcus strain in 2 newly delivered mothers and their newborn babies at a patient hotel.

  20. Quality in practice: integrating routine collection of patient language data into hospital practice.

    PubMed

    Hudelson, Patricia; Dominicé Dao, Melissa; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie

    2013-09-01

    Timely identification of patients' language needs can facilitate the provision of language-appropriate services and contribute to quality of care, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. At the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, timely organization of interpreter services was hindered by the lack of systematic patient language data collection. We explored the feasibility and acceptability of a procedure for collecting patient language data at the first point of contact, prior to its hospital-wide implementation. During a one-week period, receptionists and triage nurses in eight clinical services tested a new procedure for collecting patient language data. Patients were asked to identify their primary language and other languages they would be comfortable speaking with their doctor. Staff noted patients' answers on a paper form and provided informal feedback on their experience with the procedure. Registration staff encountered few difficulties collecting patient language data and thought that the two questions could easily be incorporated into existing administrative routines. Following the pilot test, two language fields with scroll-down language menus were added to the electronic patient file, and the subsequent filling-in of these fields has been rapid and hospital wide. Our experience suggests that routine collection of patient language data at first point of contact is both feasible and acceptable and that involving staff in a pilot project may facilitate hospital-wide implementation. Future efforts should focus on exploring the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed questions, as well as the impact of data collection on interpreter use.

  1. The significance of routine thoracic computed tomography in patients with blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Çorbacıoğlu, Seref Kerem; Er, Erhan; Aslan, Sahin; Seviner, Meltem; Aksel, Gökhan; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Güler, Sertaç; Bitir, Aysen

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the use of thoracic computed tomography (TCT) as part of nonselective computed tomography (CT) guidelines is superior to selective CT during the diagnosis of blunt chest trauma. This study was planned as a prospective cohort study, and it was conducted at the emergency department between 2013 and 2014. A total of 260 adult patients who did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. All patients were evaluated by an emergency physician, and their primary surveys were completed based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) principles. Based on the initial findings and ATLS recommendations, patients in whom thoracic CT was indicated were determined (selective CT group). Routine CTs were then performed on all patients. Thoracic injuries were found in 97 (37.3%) patients following routine TCT. In 53 (20%) patients, thoracic injuries were found by selective CT. Routine TCT was able to detect chest injury in 44 (16%) patients for whom selective TCT would not otherwise be ordered based on the EP evaluation (nonselective TCT group). Five (2%) patients in this nonselective TCT group required tube thoracostomy, while there was no additional treatment provided for thoracic injuries in the remaining 39 (15%). In conclusion, we found that the nonselective TCT method was superior to the selective TCT method in detecting thoracic injuries in patients with blunt trauma. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that the nonselective TCT method can change the course of patient management albeit at low rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Defibrotide for the management of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in patients who undergo haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Coutsouvelis, John; Avery, Sharon; Dooley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Carl; Spencer, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, previously known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD/SOS), is a complication in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Severe VOD/SOS, including progression to multi-organ failure, has resulted in a mortality of greater than 80%. Defibrotide's varying pharmacological actions, particularly on endothelial cells, make it is a useful agent to consider for prophylaxis and treatment of VOD/SOS. Barriers to its routine use include the high acquisition cost and the fact that neither the oral or parenteral formulations are licensed products in many countries at this time. This review summarises available literature on the use of defibrotide in the management of VOD/SOS. Publications consist predominantly of single centre cohort studies and case series. Available evidence indicates that defibrotide is effective in the management of VOD/SOS. Using defibrotide prophylaxis should also be considered, especially in the paediatric setting, where there are available results from a large, open label, randomized controlled trial. Patient outcome data from the larger studies and compassionate programs can inform consensus recommendations on dosing regimen and criteria for the treatment of VOD/SOS with defibrotide in the adult population. The reviewed literature indicates an effective and safe dose for treatment is 25mg/kg/day, continued for at least 14days or until complete response is achieved. Further studies are required to determine the optimal dose and duration of treatment in both paediatric patients and adults. Recent recommendations and a phase 3 trial using historical controls indicate that defibrotide should be included as a pharmacotherapy option in protocols guiding management of VOD/SOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast-Track Management of Patients Undergoing Proximal Pancreatic Resection

    PubMed Central

    French, JJ; Mansfield, SD; Jaques, K; Jaques, BC; Manas, DM; Charnley, RM

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To avoid the risk of complications of biliary drainage, a feasibility study was carried out to determine whether it might be possible to fast-track surgical treatment, with resection before biliary drainage, in jaundiced patients with proximal pancreatic/peri-ampullary malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Over an 18-month period, based on their presenting bilirubin levels and other logistical factors, all jaundiced patients who might be suitable for fast-track management were identified. Data on complications and hospital stay were compared with those patients in whom a conventional pathway (with biliary drainage) was used during the same time period. Data were also compared with a group of patients from the preceding 6 months. RESULTS Nine patients were fast-tracked and 49 patients treated in the conventional pathway. Fast-track patients mean (SD) serum bilirubin level was 265 μmol/l (81.6) at the time of the operation compared to 43 μmol/l (51.3; P ≥ 0.0001) in conventional patients. Mean (SD) of time from referral to operation, 14 days (9) versus 59 days (36.9), was significantly shorter in fast-track patients than conventional patients (P ≤ 0.0001). Length of hospital stay mean (SD) at 17 (6) days versus 22 days (19.6; P = 0.2114), surgical complications and mortality in fast-track patients were similar to conventional patients. Prior to surgery, the 49 conventional patients underwent a total of 73 biliary drainage procedures resulting in seven major complications. Comparison with the group of patients from the previous 6 months indicated that the conventional group were not disadvantaged. CONCLUSIONS Fast-track management by resection without biliary drainage of selected patients with distal biliary strictures is safe and has the potential to reduce the waiting time to surgery, overall numbers of biliary drainage procedures and the complications thereof. PMID:19220943

  4. Effect of a self-efficacy promotion training programme on the body weight changes in patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Aliasgharpour, Mansooreh; Shomali, Maryam; Moghaddam, Masoumeh Zakeri; Faghihzadeh, Sograt

    2012-09-01

    Haemodialysis is the most common form of medical management of patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD). For haemodialysis to be successful, strict fluid and weight control is recommended. Education, in terms of self-care activities, is an important intervention for improving patients' outcomes. A self-efficacy promotion training programme can be an effective strategy to bring about behavioural change. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a self-efficacy promotion training programme on the body weight changes in patients undergoing haemodialysis. In this single-blind quasi-experimental study, we recruited a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing haemodialy-sis from two teaching hospitals and allocated them randomly to the experimental or control group. Patients in the experimental group received a six-session self-efficacy promotion training programme while the control group received the routine care of the institute. Mean body weight gain and self-efficacy were measured before, immediately and two months after the study. The groups did not differ significantly regarding the study variable before the study. However, immediately and two months after the study, the mean body weight gain and self-efficacy in the experimental group were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than the control group (p < 0.05). Implementing a self-efficacy promotion training programme is effective in decreasing weight gain and increasing self-efficacy in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Nurses in haemodialysis units can use self-efficacy promotion training programmes as an effective intervention for improving patients' outcomes. © 2012 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  5. Agreement analysis between three different short geriatric screening scales in patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Tandon, Nidhi; Patil, Vijay M; Noronha, Vanita; Gupta, Sudeep; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Prabhash, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in routine practice is not logistically feasible. Short geriatric screening tools are available for selecting patients for CGA. However none of them is validated in India. In this analysis we aim to compare the level of agreement between three commonly used short screening tools (Flemish version of TRST (fTRST), G8 and VES-13. Patients ≥65 years with a solid tumor malignancy undergoing cancer directed treatment were interviewed between March 2013 to July 2014. Geriatric screening with G8, fTRST and VES-13 tools was performed in these patients. G8 score ≤14, fTRST score ≥1 and VES-13 score ≥3 were taken as indicators for the presence of a high risk geriatric profile respectively. R version 3.1.2 was used for analysis. Cohen kappa agreement statistics was used to compare the agreement between the 3 tools. p value of 0.05 was taken as significant. The kappa statistics value for agreement between G8 score and fTRST, between VES-13 and fTRST and between VES-13 and G8 were 0.12 (P = 0.04), 0.16 (P = 0.07) and 0.05 (P = 0.45) respectively. It was found that maximum agreement was observed for VES-13 and fTRST. The agreement value of VES-13 and fTRST observed was 59.44 %(39.63% for high risk profile and 19.81% for low risk profile). The agreement value of G-8 and fTRST was 39.62% (2.83% only for high risk profile and 36.79% for low risk profile). The lowest agreement was between G8 and VES-13, 35.84% (7.54% for high risk detection and 28.30% for low risk detection). There was poor agreement (in view of kappa value been below 0.2) between the 3 short geriatric screening tools. Research needs to be directed to compare the agreement level between these 3 scales and CGA, so that the appropriate short screening tool can be selected for routine use.

  6. More patients should undergo surgery after sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Ifversen, Anne Kathrine Wewer; Kjaer, Daniel Willy

    2014-12-28

    To assess the outcome of patients treated conservatively vs surgically during their first admission for sigmoid volvulus. We conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients admitted to Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1996 and 2011 for their first incidence of sigmoid volvulus. The condition was diagnosed by radiography, sigmoidoscopy or surgery. Patients treated with surgery underwent either a sigmoid resection or a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC). Conservatively treated patients were managed without surgery. Data was recorded into a Microsoft Access database and calculations were performed with Microsoft Excel. Kaplan-Meier plotting and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) testing were performed using GraphPad Prism software. Mortality was defined as death within 30 d after intervention or surgery. Among the total 61 patients, 4 underwent emergency surgery, 55 underwent endoscopy, 1 experienced resolution of the volvulus after contrast enema, and 1 died without treatment because of large bowel perforation. Following emergency treatment, 28 patients underwent sigmoid resection (semi-elective n = 18; elective n = 10). Two patients who were unfit for surgery underwent PEC and both died, 1 after 36 d and the other after 9 mo, respectively. The remaining 26 patients were managed conservatively without sigmoid resection. Patients treated conservatively on their first admission had a poorer survival rate than patients treated surgically on their first admission (95%CI: 3.67-14.37, P = 0.036). Sixty-three percent of the 26 conservatively treated patients had not experienced a recurrence 3 mo after treatment, but that number dropped to 24% 2 years after treatment. Eight of the 14 patients with recurrence after conservative treatment had surgery with no 30-d mortality. Surgically-treated sigmoid volvulus patients had a higher long-term survival rate than conservatively managed patients, indicating a benefit of surgical resection or PEC insertion if feasible.

  7. More patients should undergo surgery after sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Ifversen, Anne Kathrine Wewer; Kjaer, Daniel Willy

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the outcome of patients treated conservatively vs surgically during their first admission for sigmoid volvulus. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients admitted to Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1996 and 2011 for their first incidence of sigmoid volvulus. The condition was diagnosed by radiography, sigmoidoscopy or surgery. Patients treated with surgery underwent either a sigmoid resection or a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC). Conservatively treated patients were managed without surgery. Data was recorded into a Microsoft Access database and calculations were performed with Microsoft Excel. Kaplan-Meier plotting and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) testing were performed using GraphPad Prism software. Mortality was defined as death within 30 d after intervention or surgery. RESULTS: Among the total 61 patients, 4 underwent emergency surgery, 55 underwent endoscopy, 1 experienced resolution of the volvulus after contrast enema, and 1 died without treatment because of large bowel perforation. Following emergency treatment, 28 patients underwent sigmoid resection (semi-elective n = 18; elective n = 10). Two patients who were unfit for surgery underwent PEC and both died, 1 after 36 d and the other after 9 mo, respectively. The remaining 26 patients were managed conservatively without sigmoid resection. Patients treated conservatively on their first admission had a poorer survival rate than patients treated surgically on their first admission (95%CI: 3.67-14.37, P = 0.036). Sixty-three percent of the 26 conservatively treated patients had not experienced a recurrence 3 mo after treatment, but that number dropped to 24% 2 years after treatment. Eight of the 14 patients with recurrence after conservative treatment had surgery with no 30-d mortality. CONCLUSION: Surgically-treated sigmoid volvulus patients had a higher long-term survival rate than conservatively managed patients, indicating a benefit of surgical resection or

  8. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of bone flap resorption in patients undergoing cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Tommi K; Salokorpi, Niina; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Serlo, Willy; Lehenkari, Petri; Tetri, Sami

    2018-02-23

    OBJECTIVE Autologous bone cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy entails a notable burden of difficult postoperative complications, such as infection and bone flap resorption (BFR), leading to mechanical failure. The prevalence and significance of asymptomatic BFR is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to radiologically monitor the long-term bone flap survival and bone quality change in patients undergoing autologous cranioplasty. METHODS The authors identified all 45 patients who underwent autologous cranioplasty at Oulu University Hospital, Finland, between January 2004 and December 2014. Using perioperative and follow-up CT scans, the volumes and radiodensities of the intact bone flap prior to surgery and at follow-up were calculated. Relative changes in bone flap volume and radiodensity were then determined to assess cranioplasty survival. Sufficient CT scans were obtainable from 41 (91.1%) of the 45 patients. RESULTS The 41 patients were followed up for a median duration of 3.79 years (25th and 75th percentiles = 1.55 and 6.66). Thirty-seven (90.2%) of the 41 patients had some degree of BFR and 13 (31.7%) had a remaining bone flap volume of less than 80%. Patients younger than 30 years of age had a mean decrease of 15.8% in bone flap volume compared with the rest of the cohort. Bone flap volume was not found to decrease linearly with the passing of time, however. The effects of lifestyle factors and comorbidities on BFR were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS In this study BFR was a very common phenomenon, occurring at least to some degree in 90% of the patients. Decreases in bone volume were especially prominent in patients younger than 30 years of age. Because the progression of resorption during follow-up was nonlinear, routine follow-up CT scans appear unnecessary in monitoring the progression of BFR; instead, clinical follow-up with mechanical stability assessment is advised. Partial resorption is most likely a normal physiological phenomenon

  9. Identification and treatment of patients with nicotine problems in routine clinical psychiatry practice.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ivan D; Herbeck, Diane M; Svikis, Dace S; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the rates of nicotine problems diagnosed by psychiatrists, the characteristics of psychiatric patients who smoke, and the services provided to them in routine psychiatric practice. Data were obtained by asking psychiatrists participating in the American Psychiatric Institute for Psychiatric Research and Education's Practice Research Network to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide detailed sociodemographic, clinical, and health plan information on three of their patients seen during routine clinical practice. A total of 615 psychiatrists provided information on 1,843 patients, of which 280 (16.6%) were reported to have a current nicotine problem. Of these, 9.1% were reported to receive treatment for nicotine dependence. Patients with nicotine problems were significantly more likely to be males, divorced or separated, disabled, and uninsured, and have fewer years of education. They also had significantly more co-morbid psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia or alcohol/substance use disorders; a lower Global Assessment Functioning score; and poorer treatment compliance than their counterparts. The results suggest a very low rate of identification and treatment of nicotine problems among patients treated by psychiatrists, even though psychiatric patients who smoke seem to have more clinical and psychosocial stressors and more severe psychiatric problems than those who do not smoke. Programs should be developed to raise the awareness and ability of psychiatrists to diagnose and treat patients with nicotine problems, with a particular emphasis on the increased medical and psychosocial needs of psychiatric patients who smoke.

  10. Real-Time Patient Survey Data During Routine Clinical Activities for Rapid-Cycle Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. Objective We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. Methods We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Results Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (<20 words, 21-30 words, >30 words)—8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. Conclusions This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health

  11. Real-time patient survey data during routine clinical activities for rapid-cycle quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Wofford, James Lucius; Campos, Claudia L; Jones, Robert E; Stevens, Sheila F

    2015-03-12

    Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (<20 words, 21-30 words, >30 words)-8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health care system.

  12. A mobile application of breast cancer e-support program versus routine Care in the treatment of Chinese women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2017-04-26

    Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a number of symptoms and report receiving inadequate support from health care professionals. Innovative and easily accessible interventions are lacking. Breast Cancer e-Support is a mobile Application program (App) that provides patients with individually tailored information and a support group of peers and health care professionals. Breast Cancer e-Support aims to promote women's self-efficacy, social support and symptom management, thus improving their quality of life and psychological well-being. A single-blinded, multi-centre, randomised, 6-month, parallel-group superiority design will be used. Based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory and the social exchange theory, Breast Cancer e-Support has four modules: 1) a Learning forum; 2) a Discussion forum; 3) an Ask-the-Expert forum; and 4) a Personal Stories forum. Women with breast cancer (n = 108) who are commencing chemotherapy will be recruited from two university-affiliated hospitals in China. They will be randomly assigned to either control group that receives routine care or intervention group that receives routine care plus access to Breast Cancer e-Support program during their four cycles of chemotherapy. Self-efficacy, social support, symptom distress, quality of life, and anxiety and depression will be measured at baseline, then one week and 12 weeks post-intervention. This is the first study of its kind in China to evaluate the use of a mobile application intervention with a rigorous research design and theoretical framework. This study will contribute to evidence regarding the effectiveness of a theory-based mobile application to support women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The results should provide a better understanding of the role of self-efficacy and social support in reducing symptom distress and of the credibility of using a theoretical framework to develop internet-based interventions. The results will provide evidence

  13. Anxiety, memories and coping in patients undergoing intracranial tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    van Ark, Tom J; Klimek, Markus; de Smalen, Peter; Vincent, Arnaud J P E; Stolker, Robert Jan

    2018-05-17

    The diagnosis and the surgical removal of a brain tumor can have serious impact on the quality of life of a patient. The question rises, whether having more or just less memories of the procedure is better for coping with such an event. Furthermore, for preoperative information of future patients it is important to know how patients process their emotions and memories. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the link between preoperative anxiety, the perioperative experience and the quantity and quality of postoperative memories in patients who underwent intracranial tumor surgery. This study was a retrospective observational study; all patients who underwent intracranial tumor surgery at the Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015 were identified. In May 2016, all patients who were not registered as deceased were sent a questionnaire about their anxieties, perceptions and memories of the perioperative period. In total 476 patients were included. 272 patients responded, which resulted in a response rate of 57.14%. In the general anesthesia (GA) group there was a significant negative correlation between anxiety in the perioperative period and the quantity and quality of memories. In the awake craniotomy group, there was a significant negative correlation between anxiety after the operation and the quantity of memories. Patients in the GA group who experienced anxiety in the perioperative period had less quantity and quality of memories and less patient satisfaction. Patients in the AC group who experienced anxiety after the operation had only a lower quantity of the memory; there was no correlation with patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammatory bowel diseases activity in patients undergoing pelvic radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Annede, Pierre; Seisen, Thomas; Klotz, Caroline; Mazeron, Renaud; Maroun, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Deutsch, Eric; Bossi, Alberto; Haie-Meder, Christine; Chargari, Cyrus; Blanchard, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined. Overall, 28 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) (n=13) or ulcerative colitis (n=15) were included in the present study. Median follow-up time after irradiation was 5.9 years. Regarding IBD activity, only one and two patients experienced a severe episode within and after 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Grade 3/4 acute GI toxicity occurred in 3 (11%) patients, whereas one (3.6%) patient experienced late grade 3/4 GI toxicity. Only patients with rectal IBD location (P=0.016) or low body mass index (BMI) (P=0.012) experienced more severe IBD activity within or after 6 months following RT, respectively. We report an acceptable tolerance of RT in IBD patients with pelvic malignancies. Specifically, a low risk of uncontrolled flare-up was observed.

  15. An evaluation of routine specialist palliative care for patients on the Liverpool Care Pathway.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jo; Brown, Jayne; Davies, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a service evaluation of the 'added value' of routine specialist palliative care team (SPCT) involvement with patients on the Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP). In the authors' hospital, patients that are commenced on the LCP are routinely referred to the SPCT. They are reviewed on the day of referral and then at least every other day, depending on the clinical situation. The data for this report was obtained by reviewing the SPCT's clinical database and the patients' LCP proformas. The SPCT intervened in the care of 80% of 158 newly referred patients, e.g. for alteration of continuous subcutaneous infusion (23%) or alteration of use of non-pharmacological interventions (21%). Furthermore, 11% of patients were taken off the LCP, around one quarter of whom were later put back on. The authors' model of care could overcome many of the issues relating to the LCP and would ameliorate the developing vacuum of care for patients at the end of life.

  16. The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T

    2015-01-01

    As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin <12 g/dL], haematinics and length of hospital stay) was analysed on 400 hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, p<0.0001) respectively. In the elective general surgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis p<0.0001, ferritin <30 p<0.0001. Mean length of stay (days) was increased in the anaemic compared to in the non-anaemic group (2.7 vs. 1.9) and patients who were anaemic immediately post-operatively, also had an increased length of stay (2.7 vs. 1.9), p<0.05. Absolute iron deficiency was more common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacteria on catheters in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Maria; Davies, Julia R; Johansson, Ann-Cathrine; Svensäter, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Peritonitis is the leading cause of morbidity for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, and microbial biofilms have previously been identified on catheters from infected patients. However, few studies of catheters from patients without clinical signs of infection have been undertaken. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which bacteria are present on catheters from PD patients with no symptoms of infection. Microbiologic culturing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine the distribution of bacteria on PD catheters from 15 patients without clinical signs of infection and on catheters from 2 infected patients. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used to identify cultured bacteria. Bacteria were detected on 12 of the 15 catheters from patients without signs of infection and on the 2 catheters from infected patients. Single-species and mixed-microbial communities containing up to 5 species were present on both the inside and the outside along the whole length of the colonized catheters. The bacterial species most commonly found were the skin commensals Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, followed by S. warneri and S. lugdunensis. The strains of these micro-organisms, particularly those of S. epidermidis, varied in phenotype with respect to their tolerance of the major classes of antibiotics. Bacteria were common on catheters from patients without symptoms of infection. Up to 4 different bacterial species were found in close association and may represent a risk factor for the future development of peritonitis in patients hosting such micro-organisms.

  18. The Effects of Frailty in Patients Undergoing Elective Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ad, Niv; Holmes, Sari D; Halpin, Linda; Shuman, Deborah J; Miller, Casey E; Lamont, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) recommends using gait speed as a marker of frailty to identify cardiac surgery patients at risk for adverse outcomes. However, a single marker of frailty may not provide consistently reliable risk information. We evaluated the impact of frailty and gait speed on patient outcomes after elective cardiac surgery. This was a prospective study of 167 older (≥65 years) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or valve surgery patients. Patients were assessed using Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) Frailty Index criteria: weight loss, exhaustion, physical activity, gait speed, and grip strength. Frailty was identified in 39 patients (23%) using CHS criteria. Frail patients had longer median intensive care unit stays (54 vs. 28 h, p = 0.003), longer median length of stay (8 vs. 5 days, p < 0.001), and greater likelihood of STS-defined complications (54% vs. 32%, p = 0.011) and discharge to an intermediate-care facility (45% vs. 12%, p < 0.001) but were not different from nonfrail patients on major outcome, operative mortality, or readmissions. After multivariate adjustment, frail and nonfrail patients were similar on perioperative outcomes. Absolute gait speed and slow gait speed using a cutoff were not related to incidence of STS-defined complications or major outcome in multivariate analyses. However, higher body mass index was correlated with slower gait speed (rs  = 0.30, p < 0.001). The CHS index did not identify "frail" patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes. No relationship was found between gait speed and outcome. There is a need for alternative multidimensional measures to assess frailty in cardiac surgical patients. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12699 (J Card Surg 2016;31:187-194). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Infection, Alveolar Osteitis, and Adverse Effects Using Metronidazole in Healthy Patients Undergoing Third Molar Surgery: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel H; Bollogna-Molina, Ronell E; Alonso-Castro, Ángel J

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the risk of surgical infection, alveolar osteitis, and adverse effects using systemic metronidazole in comparison with placebo in healthy patients undergoing third molar surgery. The eligible reports were identified from diverse science sources. Clinical trials meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria and an acceptable Oxford Quality Score were included in this study. The evaluation of risk was done using the Risk Reduction Calculator and Review Manager 5.3., from the Cochrane Library. A significant risk reduction was assumed when the upper limit of the 95% confidence intervals was <1 and the lower limit did not cross zero (negative number) alongside a p value of <0.05 for the overall test. Data of 667 patients from five clinical trials were used for the assessment of risk. Our analysis showed no reduction of the risk of infection or dry socket in patients receiving metronidazole compared to whom took placebo. Meanwhile, the adverse effects did not exhibit a difference between the studied groups. The routine use of systemic metronidazole to prevent surgical site infection and/or dry socket in healthy patients undergoing third molar surgery is not recommended.

  20. Prior oral conditions in patients undergoing heart valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. Material and Methods A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Results Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups (p<0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls (p<0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Conclusions Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words:Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis. PMID:29302279

  1. Prior oral conditions in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups ( p <0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls ( p <0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words: Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis.

  2. Routine Computer Tomography Imaging for the Detection of Recurrences in High-Risk Melanoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Tristen S; Phan, Giao Q; Yang, James C; Kammula, Udai; Hughes, Marybeth S; Trebska-McGowan, Kasia; Morton, Kathleen E; White, Donald E; Rosenberg, Steven A; Sherry, Richard M

    2017-04-01

    The use of routine CT imaging for surveillance in asymptomatic patients with cutaneous melanoma is controversial. We report our experience using a surveillance strategy that included CT imaging for a cohort of patients with high-risk melanoma. A total of 466 patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma enrolled in adjuvant immunotherapy trials were followed for tumor progression by physical examination, labs, and CT imaging as defined by protocol. Evaluations were obtained at least every 6 months for year 1, every 6 months for year 2, and then annually for the remainder of the 5-year study. Time to tumor progression, sites of recurrence, and the method of relapse detection were identified. The patient cohort consisted of 115 stage II patients, 328 stage III patients, and 23 patients with resected stage IV melanoma. The medium time to progression for the 225 patients who developed tumor progression was 7 months. Tumor progression was detected by patients, physician examination or routine labs, or by CT imaging alone in 27, 14, and 59% of cases respectively. Melanoma recurrences were noted to be locoregional in 36% of cases and systemic in 64% of cases. Thirty percent of patients with locoregional relapse and 75% of patients with systemic relapse were detected solely by CT imaging. CT imaging alone detected the majority of sites of disease progression in our patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma. This disease was not heralded by symptoms, physical examination, or blood work. Although the benefit of the early detection of advanced melanoma is unknown, this experience is relevant because of the rapid development and availability of potentially curative immunotherapies.

  3. Distress, anxiety, and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj; Sarita, Gangadharan P; Devi, Nandkumar; Thomas, Bejoy C; Hussain, Badridien M; Krishnan, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy for cancer is an intense and cyclic treatment associated with number of side-effects. The present study evaluated the effect of chemotherapy on distress, anxiety and depression. Patients and methods A total of 117 patients were evaluated by using distress inventory for cancer (DIC2) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Majority of the patients were taking chemotherapy for solid tumors (52; 44.4%). Results The mean distress score was 24, 18 (15.38%) were found to have anxiety while 19 (16.23%) had depression. High social status was the only factor found to influence distress while female gender was the only factor found to influence depression in the present study. Conclusion The study highlights high psychological morbidity of cancer patients and influence of gender on depression. Construct of distress as evaluated by DIC 2 may have a possible overlap with anxiety. PMID:17002797

  4. Segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia in patient with Byssinosis undergoing nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kiran; Salgaonkar, Sweta

    2012-01-01

    Byssinosis is an occupational disease occurring commonly in cotton mill workers; it usually presents with features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The management of patients with COPD presents a significant challenges to the anesthetist. Regional anesthesia is preferred in most of these patients to avoid perioperative and postoperative complications related to general anesthesia. We report a known case of Byssinosis who underwent nephrectomy under segmental spinal anesthesia at the low thoracic level. PMID:25885628

  5. Segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia in patient with Byssinosis undergoing nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kiran; Salgaonkar, Sweta

    2012-01-01

    Byssinosis is an occupational disease occurring commonly in cotton mill workers; it usually presents with features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The management of patients with COPD presents a significant challenges to the anesthetist. Regional anesthesia is preferred in most of these patients to avoid perioperative and postoperative complications related to general anesthesia. We report a known case of Byssinosis who underwent nephrectomy under segmental spinal anesthesia at the low thoracic level.

  6. Continence outcomes in patients undergoing robotic assisted laparoscopic mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy.

    PubMed

    Wille, Mark A; Zagaja, Gregory P; Shalhav, Arieh L; Gundeti, Mohan S

    2011-04-01

    Continent catheterizable channels for emptying the bladder are typically performed via an open surgical approach. We present our surgical approach and initial outcomes with specific attention to continence for robotic assisted laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy formation. Between February 2008 and April 2010, 13 patients were considered for robotic assisted laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy and 11 underwent the procedure (2 open conversions). Five patients underwent enterocystoplasty with appendicovesicostomy and 6 underwent isolated appendicovesicostomy. The appendicovesicostomy anastomosis was performed on the anterior (without augmentation) or posterior (with augmentation) bladder wall and the stoma was brought to the umbilical site or right lower quadrant. Detrusor backing (4 cm) was ensured except in 1 patient (number 5). Mean patient age at surgery was 10.4 years (range 5 to 14). Mean estimated blood loss was 61.8 cc. Mean operative time for isolated appendicovesicostomy was 347 minutes and there were no intraoperative complications. Incontinence through the stoma developed in 1 patient with inadequate detrusor backing (less than 4 cm), which resolved with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection into the appendicovesicostomy anastomosis. This patient had resolution of incontinence with an increase in bladder capacity to 300 cc. Three patients required skin flap revision for cutaneous scarring. To date all patients are catheterizing without difficulty and are continent. Median followup was 20 months (range 3 to 29). We are encouraged by our preliminary experience with the robotic assisted laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy continent urinary diversion with or without ileocystoplasty. Early in the experience we emphasize the importance of 4 cm of detrusor backing to maintain stomal continence. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reversible primary hypothyroidism in Japanese patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, T; Inoue, T; Okamura, K; Sato, K; Yamamoto, K; Abe, T; Node, K; Tsuruya, K; Iida, M

    2008-02-01

    The presence or absence of hypothyroidism was assessed in 152 consecutive Japanese patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Eight patients who had undergone treatment for thyroid disease before starting hemodialysis therapy, and 3 patients with amyloidosis due to rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Of the remaining 141 hemodialysis patients, 14 (9.9%) (9 males and 5 females, aged 69.1 A+/- 8.8 years with a mean duration of hemodialysis of 69 A+/- 51 months) were in a hypothyroid state, defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level > 5 mU/l. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were positive in only 1 of the 14 patients, while antithyroglobulin antibodies were negative in all of these patients. After iodide restriction, the serum TSH level decreased in all the patients from a mean of 16.49 A+/- 22.80 to 4.44 A+/- 3.35 mU/l after 1 month, 4.25 A+/- 2.24 mU/l after 2 months and 3.97 A+/- 2.22 mU/l after 3 months. The 3 months of iodide restriction were also associated with decreases in systolic blood pressure (142 A+/- 19 to 125 A+/- 16 mmHg, p < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (79 A+/- 13 to 72 A+/- 9 mmHg, p < 0.05) and thyroid gland volume estimated by ultrasonography (13.7 A+/- 6.3 to 11.6 A+/- 5.2 ml, p < 0.05). A high prevalence of reversible primary hypothyroidism was found in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Retention of excess iodide may be the mechanism responsible for reversible hypothyroidism rather than immunological perturbations. It is, therefore, recommended to attempt iodide restriction before starting l-thyroxine replacement therapy.

  8. Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Transplant Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Van Bakel, Adrian B.; Brand, Timothy M.; Ravenel, James G.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Silvestri, Gerard A.; Judson, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the association between hemodynamic parameters of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (MLA) in heart transplantation (HT) candidates and the effect of HT on MLA. We also described the results of lymph node (LN) biopsies of MLA in the patients. Methods: Patients who underwent HT evaluation over an 8-year period and had chest CT scans were evaluated retrospectively. Data collected included LN sizes pre-HT and post-HT, echocardiographic measurements, radionuclide-derived ejection fraction, and right-sided heart catheterization hemodynamics. MLA was defined as LNs > 1 cm in smallest dimension. Results: Of 118 patients, 53 patients had MLA. MLA had weak statistically significant correlations with elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation (TR), right atrial pressure (RAP), and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Thirty-six patients with MLA underwent HT, and nine of the 36 had post-HT chest CT scans. All nine patients showed a decrease in LN size post-HT (mean LN diameter pre-HT = 1.16 ± 0.137 cm, post-HT = 0.75 ± 0.32 cm). Seven of 53 patients with MLA underwent biopsies. Four had benign LNs, one had sarcoidosis, and two had lung cancer. Conclusions: MPAP, MR, TR, RAP, and PCWP had weak statistically significant correlations with MLA. HT led to regression of MLA in patients who underwent CT scans post-HT, implying that MLA is related to CHF. However, we also identified clinically important causes of MLA; therefore, biopsy should be considered if enlarged LNs fail to regress after maximal medical management of CHF. PMID:20966040

  9. Quality of Life among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramatillah, Diana Laila; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Khan, Amer Hayat; Meng, Ong Loke

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life is one of the parameters to check the improvement of hemodialysis treatment among hemodialysed patients. Those patients will be dealing with this treatment in long term if this treatment is the only way for them to replace their kidney function and this thing will affect their quality of life. To evaluate the quality of life patients on hemodialysis using kidney disease quality of life-short term 24 (KDQoL-SF24) Malaysian Version. Cohort observational study was conducted in this study. The study included 78 hemodialysed patients in HD center Penang, Malaysia. There were 9 components which had the lower of the mean and standard deviation (SD) than the standard form; work status (15.01 ± 35.57), cognitive function (75.66 ± 13.75), quality of life social interaction (76.32 ± 16.11), sleep (55.86 ± 15.30), social support (59.61 ± 22.08), patient satisfaction (43.24 ± 15.32), physical functioning (50.06 ± 42.81), general health (29.62 ± 25.56), and role emotional (54.27 ± 49.92). In this HD center, the group of patient's age who had the lower mean ± SD from the KDQoL-SF Manual Standard were the first and the sixth groups of patient's age (≤20 and 61-70). The study conducted in HD center, Penang, Malaysia showed that the scoring of work status, cognitive function, quality of social interaction, sleep, social support, patient satisfaction, physical functioning, general health, and role emotional were low than standard form.

  10. Restrictive transfusion threshold is safe in high-risk patients undergoing brain tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Alkhalid, Yasmine; Lagman, Carlito; Sheppard, John P; Nguyen, Thien; Prashant, Giyarpuram N; Ziman, Alyssa F; Yang, Isaac

    2017-12-01

    To assess the safety of a restrictive threshold for the transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) compared to a liberal threshold in high-risk patients undergoing brain tumor surgery. We reviewed patients who were 50 years of age or older with a preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class II to V who underwent open craniotomy for tumor resection and were transfused packed RBCs during or after surgery. We retrospectively assigned patients to a restrictive-threshold (a pretransfusion hemoglobin level <8g/dL) or a liberal-threshold group (a pretransfusion hemoglobin level of 8-10/dL). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital complication rates, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Twenty-five patients were included in the study, of which 17 were assigned to a restrictive-threshold group and 8 patients to a liberal-threshold group. The in-hospital mortality rates were 12% for the restrictive-threshold group (odds ratio [OR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-12.11) and 13% for the liberal-threshold group. The in-hospital complication rates were 52.9% for the restrictive-threshold group (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.21-6.05) and 50% for the liberal-threshold group. The average number of days in the intensive care unit and hospital were 8.6 and 22.4 days in the restrictive-threshold group and 6 and 15 days in the liberal-threshold group, respectively (P=0.69 and P=0.20). The rates of non-routine discharge were 71% in the restrictive-threshold group (OR 2.40, 95% CI 0.42-13.60) and 50% in the liberal-threshold group. A restrictive transfusion threshold did not significantly influence in-hospital mortality or complication rates, length of stay, or discharge disposition in patients at high operative risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation in Lebanese patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Macaron, Gabrielle; Fahed, Mario; Matar, Dany; Bou-Khalil, Rami; Kazour, Francois; Nehme-Chlela, Dania; Richa, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts are highly prevalent comorbidities of end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD). There are no studies in Lebanon on the prevalence of these symptoms in Lebanese end-stage-renal-disease patients. Moreover, the association between ESRD on one hand, and anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation on the other has never been established in Lebanon. Groups of patients at a high-risk of development of these symptoms are not determined. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score and M.I.N.I (module C) were used to measure the prevalence of anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation in 51 patients from the dialysis center of Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital in Lebanon. In our sample, 45% of included patients suffered from symptoms of anxiety and 50% presented symptoms of depression.The prevalence of suicidal ideation as detected by the M.I.N.I. is at 37%. No patients presented with a high risk of suicide. There was a statistically significant correlation between the existence of organic comorbidities and the presence of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. As for anxiety, the association was marginally significant. The results obtained by our study are consistent with those found in studies performed in other societies. The profile of depression- and suicidal ideation-prone patients has been determined. It consists of patients with at least one medical comorbidity to the ESRD. This, in turn, should lead to increased awareness and better treatment of these psychiatric ailments, considering their impact on morbidity and mortality in ESRD.

  12. Comparison of pre-procedural anxiety and depression scores for patients undergoing chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis: An alternative perspective on prenatal invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Sanhal, Cem Yasar; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Ozekinci, Murat; Simsek, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pre-procedural anxiety and depression levels of patients undergoing chorion villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC). Patients referred to our department for fetal karyotype analysis with a positive first or second trimester screening test for aneuploidy between January 2013 to June 2015 were included. CVS and AC procedures were performed in patients with gestation periods of between 11-14 and 16-20 weeks, respectively. Anxiety was evaluated using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). A total of 1,400 patients were included. Compared to first trimester controls, patients undergoing CVS had significantly higher STAI-state and BDI-II results. Likewise, patients undergoing AC had higher STAI-state and BDI-II scores than controls in the second trimester. In terms of STAI-trait results, no difference was found between the groups. Our results also showed that, compared to AC group, patients undergoing CVS had similar STAI-state, STAI-trait and but higher BDI-II scores. We conclude that evaluating the stress and depression levels of these patients should be one of the routine procedures in pregnancy follow-up.

  13. When should ulcerative colitis patients undergo colectomy for dysplasia? Mismatch between patient preferences and physician recommendations.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Corey A; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Cole, Elisabeth B; Rubin, David T; Vay, Tegan; Baars, Judith; Sands, Bruce E

    2010-10-01

    If dysplasia is found on biopsies during surveillance colonoscopy for ulcerative colitis (UC), many experts recommend colectomy given the substantial risk of synchronous colon cancer. The objective was to learn if UC patients' perceptions of their colon cancer risk and if their preferences for elective colectomy match with physicians' recommendations if dysplasia was found. A self-administered written survey included 199 patients with UC for at least 8 years (mean age 49 years, 52% female) who were recruited from Dartmouth-Hitchcock (n = 104) and the University of Chicago (n = 95). The main outcome was the proportion of patients who disagree with physicians' recommendations for colectomy because of dysplasia. Almost all respondents recognized that UC raised their chance of getting colon cancer. In all, 74% thought it was "unlikely" or "very unlikely" to get colon cancer within the next 10 years and they quantified this risk to be 23%; 60% of patients would refuse a physician's recommendation for elective colectomy if dysplasia was detected, despite being told that they had a 20% risk of having cancer now. On average, these patients would only agree to colectomy if their risk of colon cancer "right now" were at least 73%. UC patients recognize their increased risk of colon cancer and undergo frequent surveillance to reduce their risk. Nonetheless, few seem prepared to follow standard recommendations for elective colectomy if dysplasia is found. This may reflect the belief that surveillance alone is sufficient to reduce their colon cancer risk or genuine disagreement about when it is worth undergoing colectomy.

  14. Evaluation of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Mohammad; Sami, Ramin; Behzad, Fariba

    2008-01-01

    Renal osteodystrophy is a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that present in low and high turnover patterns. This disorder has a key role in the disability of CKD patients in whom early diagnosis and treatment can result in better outcome. We studied hyperparathyroidism prevalence and its relationship with renal osteodystrophy in our advanced CKD population. We included 80 patients (of whom 44 (55%) were diabetic) during 6 months period. The patients answered a questionnaire about symptoms related to bone disease and blood levels of parathormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were obtained, in addition to hand and skull radiographs in all the study patients. Prevalence of clinically evident hyperparathyroidism in our patients was 45%. Hyperparathyroidism had significant relationship with alkaline phosphatase and radiological findings, but did not have a significant relationship with dialysis duration, age, sex, familial history, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. We conclude that secondary hyperparathyroidism is prevalent in our dialysis population and has high correlation with serum alkaline phosphatase levels and radiological changes.

  15. [Adherence to pharmacological treatment in adult patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima

    2012-06-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients on hemodialysis is not a simple process. Strategies to promote adherence will meet the need for improvements in the process of orientation concerning the disease and its pharmacological treatment. To identify compliance with pharmacological treatment of patients on hemodialysis and the main factors related to it we used the Adherence Scale. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect socioeconomic, pharmacological data, as well as those regarding self-reported adherence to drug. Out of the 65 participants, 55.4% showed non-compliance. The mean number of drugs used was 4.1 ± 2.5 (self-report) and 6.2 ± 3.0 (prescription). Statistical analysis showed significant differences concerning compliance at different ages (> 60 years are more adherent). A significant proportion of patients have difficulty to comply with treatment and the main factor was forgetfulness. Regarding age, elderly patients are more adherent to treatment. The low level of knowledge about the used drugs may be one of the reasons for the lack of adherence, and the patient's orientation process by a team of multiprofessionals involved in assisting is a strategy to promote adherence.

  16. Atrial electromechanical delay in patients undergoing heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mustafa; Evlice, Mert; Celik, Mehmet; Eren, Hayati; Savluk, Ömer F; Acar, Rezzan D; Tabakci, Mustafa; Emiroglu, Mehmet Y; Otcu Nurse, Ozlem; Kargin, Ramazan; Balkanay, Mehmet; Akcakoyun, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to assess atrial electromechanical delay (AEMD) in patients who had undergone heart transplantation. A total of 32 patients who underwent biatrial anastomosis heart transplantation (24 men, 8 women; mean age: 42±11 years) and 30 healthy volunteers (20 men, 10 women; mean age: 36±13 years) were included in the study. Atrial electromechanical coupling (PA), intra-AEMD, and inter-AEMD were measured. PA lateral (68±7 vs. 51±11 ms, p <0.01), PA septal (50±5 vs. 42±8 ms, p < 0.01) and PA tricuspid (39±6 vs. 36±9 ms, p <0.01), inter-AEMD (PA lateral-PA tricuspid) (27±7 vs. 10±4 ms, p <0.01), left intra-AEMD (PA lateral-PA septal) (18±7 vs. 10±4 ms, p <0.01), right intra-AEMD (PA septal-PA tricuspid) (13±5 vs. 5±3 ms, p <0.01) values were higher in patients who underwent heart transplantation than in a control population. Inter-AEMD and intra-AEMD were prolonged in patients who underwent heart transplantation as compared to a control population. This may explain the increased atrial fibrillation and other atrial arrhythmia incidences associated with the biatrial anastomosis heart transplantation technique and may contribute to the treatment of atrial fibrillation in this special patient group.

  17. Retreatment Rates Among Endometriosis Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy or Laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Du, Ella Xiaoyan; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Haley, Jane C

    2017-06-01

    Hysterectomy and laparoscopy are the two most common surgical options used to treat women with endometriosis, yet the disease may still recur. This study aimed to determine the long-term retreatment rates among endometriosis patients in the United States who received either hysterectomy or laparoscopy. Patients aged 18-49 years with endometriosis who underwent hysterectomy or laparoscopy were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan claims database (2004-2013). The retreatment rate up to 8 years after the initial surgery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The relative risk of retreatment among patients with hysterectomy versus laparoscopy was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 24,915 patients with endometriosis who underwent hysterectomy and 37,308 patients with endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy were identified. The estimated retreatment rates were 3.3%, 4.7%, and 5.4% in the 2nd, 5th, and 8th year following hysterectomy, respectively, while the rates following laparoscopy were 15.8%, 27.5%, and 35.2%, respectively. The hazard ratio of retreatment was 0.157 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.146-0.169) comparing hysterectomy to laparoscopy. In the sensitivity analysis, which expanded the definition of retreatment by including medical treatments, the retreatment rate increased by a factor of 11-14 for the hysterectomy cohort and by a factor of 2-4 for the laparoscopy cohort, and the hazard ratio of retreatment rate for hysterectomy versus laparoscopy was 0.490 (95% CI: 0.477-0.502). Our study results indicated that the disease retreatment rate after laparoscopy is high among patients with endometriosis; even hysterectomy does not guarantee freedom from retreatment.

  18. Effect of marital status on the outcome of patients undergoing elective or urgent coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Barbash, Israel M; Gaglia, Michael A; Torguson, Rebecca; Minha, Sa'ar; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2013-10-01

    Marriage confers various health advantages in the general population. However, the added value of marriage among patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) beyond the standard cardiovascular risk factors is not clear. This study aimed to assess the effects of marital status on outcomes of patients undergoing elective or urgent PCI. Clinical observational analysis of consecutive patients undergoing elective or urgent PCI from 1993 to 2011 was performed. Patients were stratified by marital status, comparing married to unmarried patients. Clinical outcome up to 12 months was obtained by telephone contact or office visit. A total of 11,216 patients were included in the present analysis; 55% were married and 45% unmarried. Significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted, including a lower prevalence of hypertension (86% vs 88%), diabetes (34% vs 38%), and smoking (19% vs 25%) among married vs unmarried patients, respectively (P < .001). However, married patients had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and family history of coronary artery disease. Early and late major adverse cardiac event rates were significantly lower for married vs unmarried patients up to 1 year (13.3% vs 8.2%, P < .001). Married status was independently associated with improved outcome in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9). Married patients who undergo urgent or elective PCI have superior short- and long-term outcomes up to 1 year when compared with unmarried patients. These benefits persist after adjustment for multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors. © 2013.

  19. [Risk factors for surgical site infections in patients undergoing craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, So-Yeon

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) after craniotomy. This study was a retrospective case-control study of 103 patients who had craniotomies between March 2007 and December 2008. A retrospective review of prospectively collected databases of consecutive patients who underwent craniotomy was done. SSIs were defined by using the Centers for Disease Control criteria. Twenty-six cases (infection) and 77 controls (no infection) were matched for age, gender and time of surgery. Descriptive analysis, t-test, X(2)-test and logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis. The statistical difference between cases and controls was significant for hospital length of stay (>14 days), intensive care unit stay more than 15 days, Glasgrow Coma Scale (GCS) score (< or = 7 days), extra-ventricular drainage and coexistent infection. Risk factors were identified by logistic regression and included hospital length of stay of more than 14 days (odds ratio [OR]=23.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.53-216.11) and GCS score (< or = 7 scores) (OR=4.71, 95% CI=1.64-13.50). The results of this study show that patients are at high risk for infection when they have a low level of consciousness or their length hospital stay is long term. Nurses have to take an active and continuous approach to infection control to help with patients having these risk factors.

  20. The ventilated patient undergoing hydrotherapy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan

    2003-08-01

    The ascending peripheral neuropathy and paralysis that result from Guillain-Barre Syndrome's (GBS) demyelination of peripheral nerves is a challenge to health professionals; the patient requires support during the acute disease process and during the remyelination recovery period, often lasting months to years. The staff of a major metropolitan teaching hospital's critical care unit (CCU) and physiotherapy departments developed a hydrotherapy treatment programme for a ventilated patient with GBS. Through careful planning and appropriate preparation, it was found that hydrotherapy could successfully and safely be incorporated into a patient's treatment regimen. The benefits included improved range of movement due to the supportive nature of water, anecdotal increased strength, size and movement of remyelinating muscles and a psychological improvement. Although this patient has not recovered from GBS to be independent, hydrotherapy was a valuable part of the treatment regimen and it could be suggested the increase muscle strength lead to improved respiratory function and enabled weaning from ventilation, reducing intensive care length of stay and cost.

  1. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  2. When Should Ulcerative Colitis Patients Undergo Colectomy for Dysplasia? Mismatch Between Patient Preferences and Physician Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Corey A.; Schwartz, Lisa M.; Woloshin, Steven; Cole, Elisabeth B.; Rubin, David T.; Vay, Tegan; Baars, Judith; Sands, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Background If dysplasia is found on biopsies during surveillance colonoscopy for ulcerative colitis (UC), many experts recommend colectomy given the substantial risk of synchronous colon cancer. The objective was to learn if UC patients’ perceptions of their colon cancer risk and if their preferences for elective colectomy match with physicians’ recommendations if dysplasia was found. Methods A self-administered written survey included 199 patients with UC for at least 8 years (mean age 49 years, 52% female) who were recruited from Dartmouth-Hitchcock (n = 104) and the University of Chicago (n = 95). The main outcome was the proportion of patients who disagree with physicians’ recommendations for colectomy because of dysplasia. Results Almost all respondents recognized that UC raised their chance of getting colon cancer. In all, 74% thought it was “unlikely” or “very unlikely” to get colon cancer within the next 10 years and they quantified this risk to be 23%; 60% of patients would refuse a physician’s recommendation for elective colectomy if dysplasia was detected, despite being told that they had a 20% risk of having cancer now. On average, these patients would only agree to colectomy if their risk of colon cancer “right now” were at least 73%. Conclusions UC patients recognize their increased risk of colon cancer and undergo frequent surveillance to reduce their risk. Nonetheless, few seem prepared to follow standard recommendations for elective colectomy if dysplasia is found. This may reflect the belief that surveillance alone is sufficient to reduce their colon cancer risk or genuine disagreement about when it is worth undergoing colectomy. PMID:20186940

  3. Use of PROMIS for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, S Blake; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2017-09-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) consists of question banks for health domains through computer adaptive testing (CAT). For patients with glenohumeral arthritis, (1) there would be high correlation between traditional patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and the PROMIS upper extremity item bank (PROMIS UE) and PROMIS physical function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT), and (2) PROMIS PF CAT would not demonstrate ceiling effects. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-one patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis were included. Each patient completed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, Marx Shoulder Activity Scale, Short Form-36 physical function scale (SF-36 PF), EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, PROMIS PF CAT, and the PROMIS UE. Correlation was defined as high (>0.7), moderate (0.4-0.6), or weak (0.2-0.3). Significant floor and ceiling effects were present if more than 15% of individuals scored the lowest or highest possible total score on any PRO. The PROMIS PF demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF ( r = 0.81, P < .0001) and good correlation with the ASES ( r = 0.62, P < .0001), EQ-5D ( r = 0.64, P < .001), and WOOS index ( r = 0.51, P < .01). The PROMIS PF demonstrated low correlation with the Marx scale ( r = 0.29, P = .02). The PROMIS UE demonstrated good correlation with the ASES ( r = 0.55, P < .0001), SF-36 ( r = 0.53, P < .01), EQ-5D ( r = 0.48, P < .01), and WOOS ( r = 0.34, P <.01), and poor correlation with the Marx scale ( r = 0.06, P = .62). There were no ceiling or floor effects observed. The mean number of items administered by the PROMIS PRO was 4. These data suggest that for a patient population with operative shoulder osteoarthritis, PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT may be valid alternative PROs. Additionally, PROMIS PF CAT offers a decreased question burden with no ceiling effects.

  4. Use of PROMIS for Patients Undergoing Primary Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, S. Blake; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) consists of question banks for health domains through computer adaptive testing (CAT). Hypothesis: For patients with glenohumeral arthritis, (1) there would be high correlation between traditional patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and the PROMIS upper extremity item bank (PROMIS UE) and PROMIS physical function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT), and (2) PROMIS PF CAT would not demonstrate ceiling effects. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Sixty-one patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis were included. Each patient completed the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment form, Marx Shoulder Activity Scale, Short Form–36 physical function scale (SF-36 PF), EuroQol 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire, Western Ontario Osteoarthritis Shoulder (WOOS) index, PROMIS PF CAT, and the PROMIS UE. Correlation was defined as high (>0.7), moderate (0.4-0.6), or weak (0.2-0.3). Significant floor and ceiling effects were present if more than 15% of individuals scored the lowest or highest possible total score on any PRO. Results: The PROMIS PF demonstrated excellent correlation with the SF-36 PF (r = 0.81, P < .0001) and good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.62, P < .0001), EQ-5D (r = 0.64, P < .001), and WOOS index (r = 0.51, P < .01). The PROMIS PF demonstrated low correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.29, P = .02). The PROMIS UE demonstrated good correlation with the ASES (r = 0.55, P < .0001), SF-36 (r = 0.53, P < .01), EQ-5D (r = 0.48, P < .01), and WOOS (r = 0.34, P <.01), and poor correlation with the Marx scale (r = 0.06, P = .62). There were no ceiling or floor effects observed. The mean number of items administered by the PROMIS PRO was 4. Conclusion: These data suggest that for a patient population with operative shoulder osteoarthritis, PROMIS UE and PROMIS PF CAT may be valid alternative PROs. Additionally, PROMIS PF CAT offers a decreased

  5. Brain natriuretic peptide levels predict perioperative events in cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, David; Planer, David; Rott, David; Elitzur, Yair; Chajek-Shaul, Tova; Weiss, A Teddy

    2008-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels correlate with prognosis in patients with cardiac disease and may be useful in the risk stratification of cardiac patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS). The objective of this study was to examine whether BNP levels predict perioperative events in cardiac patients undergoing NCS. Patients undergoing NCS with at least 1 of the following criteria were included: a clinical history of congestive heart failure (CHF), ejection fraction <40%, or severe aortic stenosis. All patients underwent echocardiography and measurement of BNP performed using the ADVIA-Centaur BNP assay (Bayer HealthCare). Clinical endpoints were death, myocardial infarction or pulmonary congestion requiring intravenous diuretics at 30 days of follow-up. Forty-four patients were entered into the study; 15 patients (34%) developed cardiac postoperative complications. The mean BNP level was 1,366 +/- 1,420 pg/ml in patients with events and 167 +/- 194 pg/ml in patients without events, indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.001). The ROC area under the curve was 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.99) with an optimal cutoff of >165 pg/ml (100% sensitivity, 70% specificity). BNP levels may predict perioperative complications in cardiac patients undergoing NCS, and the measurement of BNP should be considered to assess the preoperative cardiac risk. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part I.

    PubMed

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Braskett, Melinda; Carino, Arvie

    2016-02-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic agents can cause the discontinuation of first-line therapies. Chemotherapy desensitization is a safe, but labor-intensive, process to administer these important medications. A desensitization protocol can enable a patient to receive the entire target dose of a medication, even if the patient has a history of severe infusion reactions. In this article, the authors explain the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and describe the recent development of desensitization protocols in oncology. In part II of this article, which will appear in the April 2016 issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, the authors will give a detailed account of how a desensitization protocol is performed at an academic medical center.
.

  7. Snoring significance in patients undergoing home sleep studies.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Darrell H; Riffenburgh, Robert H

    2006-05-01

    To analyze the impact of snoring, independent of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on patients referred for home sleep studies and to report a new technology for the reporting of snoring, using sophisticated sound collection and noise-canceling technology. A retrospective statistical review of consecutive anonymous data compiled from questionnaires and digital data of snoring loudness and duration measured at the upper lip during unattended home sleep studies in 4,860 patients referred for snoring and sleep-disturbed breathing. A strong relationship exists between a history of snoring and complaints of daytime sleepiness (80%), obesity (73%), and chronic fatigue (78%) (all yield P<0.001). By contrast, only 42% to 48% of patients without these symptoms complain of snoring. In 3 multiple-regression analyses, the percent of time snoring, average loudness, and peak loudness are all significantly predicted by the apnea hypopnea index (all P<0.003), body mass index (all P<0.001), and age (P=0.014). Daytime sleepiness was strongly predicted by percent time snoring (P=0.014), weakly by average loudness (P=0.046), and not at all by peak loudness (P=0.303). By using a pair of microphones placed at the upper lip, one that samples breath sounds and the other ambient sound and artifact noise, the NovaSOM QSG measures snoring while canceling ambient noise. The clinical impact of snoring on the patient as well as the bed partner, independent of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, is an unrecognized factor in sleep-disturbed breathing. Measurable criteria to define snoring are suggested. Snoring loudness is not measured in most laboratory Polysomnograms. B-3b.

  8. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771

  9. Respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Leonard J; Noone, Peadar G

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease characterised by chronic respiratory infections associated with bronchiectasis. Lung transplantation has helped to extend the lives of patients with cystic fibrosis who have advanced lung disease. However, persistent, recurrent, and newly acquired infections can be problematic. Classic cystic fibrosis-associated organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are generally manageable post-transplantation, and are associated with favourable outcomes. Burkholderia cenocepacia poses particular challenges, although other Burkholderia species are less problematic. Despite concerns about non-tuberculous mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium abscessus, post-transplantation survival has not been definitively shown to be less than average in patients with these infections. Fungal species can be prevalent before and after transplantation and are associated with high morbidity, so should be treated aggressively. Appropriate viral screening and antiviral prophylaxis are necessary to prevent infection with and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus and their associated complications. Awareness of drug pharmacokinetics and interactions in cystic fibrosis is crucial to prevent toxic effects and subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic drug dosing. With the large range of potential infectious organisms in patients with cystic fibrosis, infection control in hospital and outpatient settings is important. Despite its complexity, lung transplantation in the cystic fibrosis population is safe, with good outcomes if the clinician is aware of all the potential pathogens and remains vigilant by means of surveillance and proactive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GASTRIC AND JEJUNAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUES, Rosemary Simões Nomelini; ALMEIDA, Élia Cláudia de Souza; CAMILO, Silvia Maria Perrone; TERRA-JÚNIOR, Júverson Alves; GUIMARÃES, Lucinda Calheiros; DUQUE, Ana Cristina da Rocha; ETCHEBEHERE, Renata Margarida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Morbid obesity is a multifactorial disease that increasingly is being treated by surgery. Aim: To evaluate gastric histopathological changes in obese, and to compare with patients who underwent gastrojejunal bypass and the jejunal mucosa after the surgery. Methods: This is an observational study performed at a tertiary public hospital, evaluating endoscopic biopsies from 36 preoperative patients and 35 postoperative. Results: In the preoperative group, 80.6% had chronic gastritis, which was active in 38.9% (77.1% and 20.1%, respectively, in the postoperative). The postoperative group had a significant reduction in H. pylori infection (p=0.0001). A longer length of the gastric stump and a time since surgery of more than two years were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was normal in 91.4% and showed slight nonspecific chronic inflammation in 8.6%. Conclusion: There was a reduction in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the postoperative group. A longer length of the gastric stump and longer time elapsed since surgery were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was considered normal in an absolute majority of patients. PMID:27683773

  11. Proactive enteral tube feeding in pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Nancy; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lange, Beverly J; Tan, Kay-See; Sandler, Eric S; Rogers, Paul C; Womer, Richard B; Pietsch, John B; Rheingold, Susan R

    2014-02-01

    To determine feasibility and safety of proactive enteral tube feeding (ETF) in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatric patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors, myeloid leukemia or high-risk solid tumors were eligible. Subjects agreeing to start ETF before cycle 2 chemotherapy were considered proactive participants (PPs). Those who declined could enroll as chart collection receiving nutritional standard of care. Nutritional status was assessed using standard anthropometric measurements. Episodes of infection and toxicity related to ETF were documented from diagnosis to end of therapy. A descriptive comparison between PPs and controls was conducted. One hundred four eligible patients were identified; 69 enrolled (20 PPs and 49 controls). At diagnosis, 17% of all subjects were underweight and 26% overweight. Barriers to enrollment included physician, subject and/or family refusal, and inability to initiate ETF prior to cycle 2 of chemotherapy. Toxicity of ETF was minimal, but higher percentage of subjects in the proactive group had episodes of infection than controls. Thirty-nine percent of controls eventually started ETF and were twice as likely to receive parenteral nutrition. PPs experienced less weight loss at ETF initiation than controls receiving ETF and were the only group to demonstrate improved nutritional status at end of study. Proactive ETF is feasible in children with cancer and results in improved nutritional status at end of therapy. Episodes of infection in this study are concerning; therefore, a larger randomized trial is required to further delineate infectious risks and toxicities that may be mitigated by improved nutritional status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of hydration combined with Shenfu injection on contrast-induced acute kidney injury in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Niu, Dandan; Yu, Yaren; Zhen, Di; Li, Wenhua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Shenfu injection (SFI) in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A single-center prospective and randomized controlled trial was performed and 148 ACS patients undergoing PCI were divided randomly into control (n=74; receiving only 0.9% sodium chloride solution for routine hydration) and intervention (n=74; based upon routine hydration and receiving SFI) groups. Serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were evaluated at the start, and 1 and 2 days after PCI. Among the 148 patients, 14 (9.4%) experienced CI-AKI subsequent to the procedure. CI-AKI occurred in 2.7% of the SFI group and 16.2% of the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of CI-AKI was lower in the intervention group when compared with the control. No serious adverse effects were observed in all patients. No differences between the levels of Scr and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the two groups were identified. However, 12 h after PCI, the urinary NGAL level in the control group was significantly higher than that in the SFI group (P<0.05). Thus, hydration combined with SFI was identified to be more effective than hydration with sodium chloride in the prevention of CI-AKI in ACS patients undergoing PCI.

  13. Routine repeat head CT may not be necessary for patients with mild TBI

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Claire B; Luy, Diego D; Deane, Molly R; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M

    2018-01-01

    Background Routine repeat cranial CT (RHCT) is standard of care for CT-verified traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite mixed evidence, those with mild TBI are subject to radiation and expense from serial CT scans. Thus, we investigated the necessity and utility of RHCT for patients with mild TBI. We hypothesized that repeat head CT in these patients would not alter patient care or outcomes. Methods We retrospectively studied patients suffering from mild TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 13–15) and treated at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center from November 2014 through January 2015. The primary outcome was the need for surgical intervention. Outcomes were compared using paired Student’s t-test, and stratified by injury on initial CT, GCS change, demographics, and presenting vital signs (mean ± SD). Results Eighty-five patients met inclusion criteria with an average initial GCS score=14.6±0.57. Our center sees about 2800 patients with TBI per year, or about 230 per month. This includes patients with concussions. This sample represents about 30% of patients with TBI seen during the study period. Ten patients required operation (four based on initial CT and others for worsening GCS, headaches, large unresolving injury). There was progression of injury on repeat CT scan in only two patients that required operation, and this accompanied clinical deterioration. The mean brain Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score was 4.8±0.3 for surgical patients on initial CT scan compared with 3.4±0.6 (P<0.001) for non-surgical patients. Initial CT subdural hematoma size was 1.1±0.6 cm for surgical patients compared with 0.49±0.3 cm (P=0.05) for non-surgical patients. There was no significant difference between intervention groups in terms of other intracranial injuries, demographics, vital signs, or change in GCS. Overall, 75 patients that did not require surgical intervention received RHCT. At $340 per CT, $51 000 was spent on unnecessary imaging ($367 000/year

  14. Transplant options for patients undergoing total pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gruessner, Rainer W G; Sutherland, David E R; Dunn, David L; Najarian, John S; Jie, Tun; Hering, Bernhard J; Gruessner, Angelika C

    2004-04-01

    Total pancreatectomy to treat chronic pancreatitis is associated with severe diabetic control problems in 15% to 75% of patients, causing up to 50% of deaths late postoperatively. We report our experience with islet autotransplants at the time of, or with pancreas allotransplants after, total pancreatectomy. Between February 1, 1977, and June 30, 2003, we performed 112 islet autotransplants at the time of total pancreatectomy; we also performed 20 pancreas allotransplants in 13 patients who had already undergone total pancreatectomy months to years earlier. Islet autotransplants at the time of total pancreatectomy in patients who had not had previous operations on the body and tail of the pancreas were associated with a high islet yield (>2,500 islet equivalents/kg body weight), and >70% of the recipients achieved complete insulin independence. In contrast, a previous distal pancreatectomy or a Puestow drainage procedure was associated with a low islet yield in 75% of them and with complete insulin independence in <20%. A pancreas allotransplant after total pancreatectomy was not associated with any transplant-related mortality at 1 and 3 years posttransplant. The pancreas graft survival rate at 1 year posttransplant was 77% with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression (versus 67% with cyclosporine). Enteric (over bladder) drainage was preferred to manage exocrine graft secretions, to cure pancreatectomy-induced endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Our series shows that pancreas allotransplants can be performed without transplant-related mortality and, when tacrolimus-based immunosuppression is used, with 1-year pancreas graft survival rates >75%. In contrast to a simultaneous islet autotransplant, a pancreas allotransplant has the disadvantage of requiring lifelong immunosuppression, but the advantage of not only curing endocrine but also exocrine insufficiency. Both transplant options, if successful, improve the recipient's quality of life.

  15. Definition of Readmission in 3,041 Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Brudvik, Kristoffer W; Mise, Yoshihiro; Conrad, Claudius; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Readmission rates of 9.7%–15.5% after hepatectomy have been reported. These rates are difficult to interpret due to variability in the time interval used to monitor readmission. The aim of this study was to refine the definition of readmission after hepatectomy. Study Design A prospectively maintained database of 3041 patients who underwent hepatectomy from 1998 through 2013 was merged with the hospital registry to identify readmissions. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the time interval that best captured unplanned readmission. Results Readmission rates at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year after discharge were 10.7% (n = 326), 17.3% (n = 526), and 31.9% (n = 971) respectively. The time interval that best accounted for unplanned readmissions was 45 days after discharge (AUC, 0.956; p < 0.001), during which 389 patients (12.8%) were readmitted (unplanned: n = 312 [10.3%]; planned: n = 77 [2.5%]). In comparison, the 30 days after surgery interval (used in the ACS-NSQIP database) omitted 65 (26.3%) unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for unplanned readmission: diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; p = 0.024), right hepatectomy (OR, 2.1; p = 0.034), bile duct resection (OR, 1.9; p = 0.034), abdominal complication (OR, 1.8; p = 0.010), and a major postoperative complication (OR, 2.4; p < 0.001). Neither index hospitalization > 7 days nor postoperative hepatobiliary complications were independently associated with readmission. Conclusions To accurately assess readmission after hepatectomy, patients should be monitored 45 days after discharge. PMID:26047760

  16. Definition of Readmission in 3,041 Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Brudvik, Kristoffer W; Mise, Yoshihiro; Conrad, Claudius; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    Readmission rates of 9.7% to 15.5% after hepatectomy have been reported. These rates are difficult to interpret due to variability in the time interval used to monitor readmission. The aim of this study was to refine the definition of readmission after hepatectomy. A prospectively maintained database of 3,041 patients who underwent hepatectomy from 1998 through 2013 was merged with the hospital registry to identify readmissions. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the time interval that best captured unplanned readmission. Readmission rates at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year after discharge were 10.7% (n = 326), 17.3% (n = 526), and 31.9% (n = 971) respectively. The time interval that best accounted for unplanned readmissions was 45 days after discharge (AUC, 0.956; p < 0.001), during which 389 patients (12.8%) were readmitted (unplanned: n = 312 [10.3%]; planned: n = 77 [2.5%]). In comparison, the 30 days after surgery interval (used in the ACS-NSQIP database) omitted 65 (26.3%) unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for unplanned readmission: diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; p = 0.024), right hepatectomy (OR 2.1; p = 0.034), bile duct resection (OR 1.9; p = 0.034), abdominal complication (OR 1.8; p = 0.010), and a major postoperative complication (OR 2.4; p < 0.001). Neither index hospitalization > 7 days nor postoperative hepatobiliary complications were independently associated with readmission. To accurately assess readmission after hepatectomy, patients should be monitored 45 days after discharge. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiographic sarcopenia predicts postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kosei; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Yagi, Takahito; Umeda, Yuzo; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-05-26

    Recently, skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has been reported to influence postoperative outcomes after certain procedures. This study investigated the impact of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients (n = 219) who underwent PD at our institution between January 2007 and May 2013. Sarcopenia was evaluated using preoperative computed tomography. We evaluated postoperative outcomes and the influence of sarcopenia on short-term outcomes, especially infectious complications. Subsequently, multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of prognostic factors (including sarcopenia) on postoperative infections. The mortality, major complication, and infectious complication rates for all patients were 1.4%, 16.4%, and 47.0%, respectively. Fifty-five patients met the criteria for sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality (P = 0.004) and infectious complications (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, sarcopenia (odds ratio = 3.43; P < 0.001), preoperative biliary drainage (odds ratio = 2.20; P = 0.014), blood loss (odds ratio = 1.92; P = 0.048), and soft pancreatic texture (odds ratio = 3.71; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of postoperative infections. Sarcopenia is an independent preoperative predictor of infectious complications after PD. Clinical assessment combined with sarcopenia may be helpful for understanding the risk of postoperative outcomes and determining perioperative management strategies.

  18. Assessing barriers to adherence in routine clinical care for pediatric kidney transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Varnell, Charles D; Rich, Kristin L; Nichols, Melissa; Dahale, Devesh; Goebel, Jens W; Pai, Ahna L H; Hooper, David K; Modi, Avani C

    2017-11-01

    Patient-identified barriers to immunosuppressive medications are associated with poor adherence and negative clinical outcomes in transplant patients. Assessment of adherence barriers is not part of routine post-transplant care, and studies regarding implementing such a process in a reliable way are lacking. Using the Model for Improvement and PDSA cycles, we implemented a system to identify adherence barriers, including patient-centered design of a barriers assessment tool, identification of eligible patients, clear roles for clinic staff, and creating a culture of non-judgmental discussion around adherence. We performed time-series analysis of our process measure. Secondary analyses examined the endorsement and concordance of adherence barriers between patient-caregiver dyads. After three methods of testing, the most reliable delivery system was an EHR-integrated tablet that alerted staff of patient eligibility for assessment. Barriers were endorsed by 35% of caregivers (n=85) and 43% of patients (n=60). The most frequently patient-endorsed barriers were forgetting, poor taste, and side effects. Caregivers endorsed forgetting and side effects. Concordance between patient-caregiver dyads was fair (k=0.299). Standardized adherence barriers assessment is feasible in the clinical care of pediatric kidney transplant patients. Features necessary for success included automation, redundant systems with designated staff to identify and mitigate failures, aligned reporting structures, and reliable measurement approaches. Future studies will examine whether barriers predict clinical outcomes (eg, organ rejection, graft loss). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Infectious complications in patients undergoing a heart transplant].

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Muñoz, P

    1995-01-01

    Infectious complications are, with rejection, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplantation recipients. Adequate management of these patients requires an adequate knowledge of risk factors, of most common infectious syndromes and of relevant microorganism, as long as of their resistance pattern. Among the first group, we may mention lower respiratory tract infections, mediastinitis and meningitis, and among the microorganisms, Citomegalovirus, Aspergillus and Toxoplasma gondii. The impressive development of diagnostical techniques and of prophylactic and therapeutical possibilities suggest the convenience of a multidisciplinar approach to these complications.

  20. Patient decision aids in routine maternity care: Benefits, barriers, and new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gabrielle; Thompson, Rachel; Watson, Bernadette; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-02-01

    Participation in decision-making, supported by comprehensive and quality information provision, is increasingly emphasised as a priority for women in maternity care. Patient decision aids are tools that can offer women greater access to information and guidance to participate in maternity care decision-making. Relative to their evaluation in controlled settings, the implementation of patient decision aids in routine maternity care has received little attention and our understanding of which approaches may be effective is limited. This paper critically discusses the application of patient decision aids in routine maternity care and explores viable solutions for promoting their successful uptake. A range of patient decision aids have been developed for use within maternity care, and controlled trials have highlighted their positive impact on the decision-making process for women. Nevertheless, evidence of successful patient decision aid implementation in real world health care settings is lacking due to practical and ideological barriers that exist. Patient-directed social marketing campaigns are a relatively novel approach to patient decision aid delivery that may facilitate their adoption in maternity care, at least in the short-term, by overcoming common implementation barriers. Social marketing may also be particularly well suited to maternity care, given the unique characteristics of this health context. The potential of social marketing campaigns to facilitate patient decision aid adoption in maternity care highlights the need for pragmatic trials to evaluate their effectiveness. Identifying which sub-groups of women are more or less likely to respond to these strategies will further direct implementation. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Illness Perceptions in Minority Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmee; Pavlish, Carol; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Kopple, Joel D.; Phillips, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether racial/ethnic differences in illness perceptions exist among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. One hundred sixty-one patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (20% African Americans, 44% Hispanics, 9% Filipinos, and 27% Koreans) completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. Korean participants had higher emotional disturbance than their counterparts, whereas African-American participants had higher negative perceptions of personal intervention or medical treatment controlling their disease. This study indicates that patients from different racial/ethnic backgrounds undergoing maintenance hemodialysis may perceive their disease differently. This phenomenon could affect clinical outcomes and may require different therapeutic approaches. PMID:22480051

  2. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  3. The effectiveness of patient navigation programs for adult cancer patients undergoing treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tho, Poh Chi; Ang, Emily

    2016-02-01

    Advancements in technology and medical treatment have made cancer care treatment more complex. With the current trend of sub-specialization in health care, cancer patients commonly receive care from multiple specialists and have wider treatment options. In view of this, there is a need to coordinate care and integrate information to enhance care and quality of outcomes for patients. Since the successful implementation of programs for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients at Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA, patient navigation programs have been widely introduced in healthcare settings. Some literature has identified nurses as a primary candidate in assuming the role of a navigator. However, there is a need to further explore the effectiveness of patient navigation programs for their effectiveness in improving quality of life, and patient satisfaction and outcomes during the commencement of cancer treatment. The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of patient navigation programs in adult cancer patients undergoing treatments such as radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. This review considered studies that included adults aged 18 years and over, diagnosed with any type of cancer and undergoing treatment in an acute care hospital setting, including inpatient and outpatient/ambulatory care.This review considered studies that evaluated nurse-led patient navigation programs versus no patient navigation program or non-structured care coordination.A patient navigation program includes patient education, psychosocial support, and care coordination.This review considered randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies.The review focused on the effects of patient navigator program clinical/patient outcomes. The review included studies on patient wellbeing and clinical outcomes, but excluded studies that had examined the impact of these programs on efficiency-related outcomes, such as length

  4. Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Methotrexate in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Utilization of Routine Clinical Monitoring Parameters.

    PubMed

    Nader, Ahmed; Zahran, Noran; Alshammaa, Aya; Altaweel, Heba; Kassem, Nancy; Wilby, Kyle John

    2017-04-01

    Clinical response to methotrexate in cancer is variable and depends on several factors including serum drug exposure. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model describing methotrexate disposition in cancer patients using retrospective chart review data available from routine clinical practice. A retrospective review of medical records was conducted for cancer patients in Qatar. Relevant data (methotrexate dosing/concentrations from multiple occasions, patient history, and laboratory values) were extracted and analyzed using NONMEM VII ® . A population pharmacokinetic model was developed and used to estimate inter-individual and inter-occasion variability terms on methotrexate pharmacokinetic parameters, as well as patient factors affecting methotrexate pharmacokinetics. Methotrexate disposition was described by a two-compartment model with clearance (CL) of 15.7 L/h and central volume of distribution (V c ) of 79.2 L. Patient weight and hematocrit levels were significant covariates on methotrexate V c and CL, respectively. Methotrexate CL changed by 50 % with changes in hematocrit levels from 23 to 50 %. Inter-occasion variability in methotrexate CL was estimated for patients administered the drug on multiple occasions (48 and 31 % for 2nd and 3rd visits, respectively). Therapeutic drug monitoring data collected during routine clinical practice can provide a useful tool for understanding factors affecting methotrexate pharmacokinetics. Patient weight and hematocrit levels may play a clinically important role in determining methotrexate serum exposure and dosing requirements. Future prospective studies are needed to validate results of the developed model and evaluate its usefulness to predict methotrexate exposure and optimize dosing regimens.

  5. The Effect of Patellar Thickness on Intraoperative Knee Flexion and Patellar Tracking in Patients With Arthrofibrosis Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Abraham D; Shah, Vivek M; Scott, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the intraoperative effect of patellar thickness on intraoperative passive knee flexion and patellar tracking during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with preoperative arthrofibrosis and compared them to patients with normal preoperative range of motion (ROM) documented in a prior study. Routine posterior cruciate ligament-retaining TKA was performed in a total of 34 knees, 23 with normal ROM and 11 with arthrofibrosis, defined as ≤100° of passive knee flexion against gravity under anesthesia. Once clinical balance and congruent patellar tracking were established, custom trial patellar components thicker than the standard trial by 2-mm increments (2-8 mm) were sequentially placed and trialed. Passive flexion against gravity was recorded using digital photograph goniometry. Gross mechanics of patellofemoral tracking were visually assessed. On average, passive knee flexion decreased 2° for every 2-mm increment of patellar thickness (P < .0001), which was similar to patients with normal preoperative ROM. In addition, increased patellar thickness had no gross effect on patellar subluxation and tilt in patients with arthrofibrosis as well as those with normal ROM. Patellar thickness had a modest effect on intraoperative passive flexion and no effect on patellar tracking in patients with arthrofibrosis undergoing TKA. There was no marked difference in intraoperative flexion and patellar tracking between patients with arthrofibrosis and patients with normal preoperative ROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High risk of graft failure in patients with anti-HLA antibodies undergoing haploidentical stem-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Stefan O; de Lima, Marcos; Cano, Pedro; Korbling, Martin; Giralt, Sergio; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Wang, Xuemei; Thall, Peter F; Champlin, Richard E; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo

    2009-10-27

    BACKGROUND.: Although donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) have been implicated in graft rejection in solid organ transplantation, their role in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation remains unclear. METHODS.: To address the hypothesis that the presence of DSA contributes to the development graft failure, we tested 24 consecutive patients for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies determined by a sensitive and specific solid-phase/single-antigen assay. The study included a total of 28 haploidentical transplants, each with 2 to 5 HLA allele mismatches, at a single institution, from September 2005 to August 2008. RESULTS.: DSA were detected in five patients (21%). Three of four (75%) patients with DSA before the first transplant failed to engraft, compared with 1 of 20 (5%) without DSA (P=0.008). All four patients who experienced primary graft failure had second haploidentical transplants. One patient developed a second graft failure with persistent high DSA levels, whereas three engrafted, two of them in the absence of DSA. No other known factors that could negatively influence engraftment were associated with the development of graft failure in these patients. CONCLUSIONS.: These results suggest that donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies are associated with a high rate of graft rejection in patients undergoing haploidentical stem-cell transplantation. Anti-HLA sensitization should be evaluated routinely in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation with HLA mismatched donors.

  7. Is it necessary to shave the pubic and genital regions of patients undergoing endoscopic urological surgery?

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Violeta; Galán, Juan Antonio; Elia, Matilde; Collado, Argimiro; Lloréns, Francisco; Fernández, Carlos; García-López, Francisco

    2004-06-01

    To determine whether postoperative urinary infections were related to shaving before undergoing endoscopic urological surgery, 90 patients were randomly assigned to shaving or not shaving. Urinary cultures revealed infection in 10 patients. Half of them had been shaved, suggesting that this practice does not affect the incidence of urinary infections.

  8. Patient-based outcomes in patients with primary tinnitus undergoing tinnitus retraining therapy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Julie A; Gold, Susan L; Frederick, Ellen Alvarez; Gray, William C; Staecker, Hinrich

    2002-10-01

    To determine whether the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), a validated patient-based outcomes measure, may improve our ability to quantify impact and assess therapy for patients with tinnitus. Nonrandomized, prospective analysis of 32 patients undergoing tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT). Assessment tools included comprehensive audiology, a subjective self-assessment survey of tinnitus characteristics, and the THI. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores were assessed at baseline and 6 months following TRT. Baseline analysis revealed significant correlation between the subjective presence of hyperacusis and higher total, emotional, and catastrophic THI scores. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores correlated with subjective perception of overall tinnitus effect (P<.001). Mean pure-tone threshold average was 17.4 dB, and mean speech discrimination was 97.0%. There were no consistent correlations between baseline audiologic parameters and THI scores. Following 6 months of TRT, the total, emotional, functional, and catastrophic THI scores significantly improved (P<.001). Loudness discomfort levels also significantly improved (P< or =.02). There is significant improvement in self-perceived disability following TRT as measured by the THI. The results confirm the utility of the THI as a patient-based outcomes measure for quantifying treatment status in patients with primary tinnitus.

  9. Bowel Prep Quality in Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status Undergoing Screening Colonoscopy With Patient Navigation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah Johanna; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Shah, Brijen; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of colonoscopy is directly affected by the quality of the patient's bowel preparation. Patients with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk of having suboptimal bowel prep quality. Patient navigators can play a key role in clarifying bowel prep instructions. The aim of the present study was to examine the quality of bowel prep and its predictors among individuals of low SES undergoing screening colonoscopy with patient navigation. Participants (N = 607) were individuals of low SES who completed a screening colonoscopy with patient navigation. Demographic information was collected after the participants received a primary care referral for a screening colonoscopy. After the colonoscopy was completed, medical charts were reviewed to document the colonoscopists' bowel prep quality ratings. A total of 6.8% (41/607) of the sample had poor bowel prep, which significantly correlated with having a colonoscopy that did not reach the cecum. If fair preps were included, approximately 19.3% (117/607) of our cohort would be considered to have suboptimal bowel prep. Our suboptimal bowel prep rates were better than those reported from other low SES samples. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Do patients undergo prostate examination while having a colonoscopy?

    PubMed

    Hammett, Tess; Hookey, Lawrence C; Kawakami, Jun

    2009-01-01

    To determine the rate at which physicians report performing a digital rectal examination and comment on the prostate gland before performing colonoscopy in men 50 to 70 years of age. A retrospective chart review of all men 50 to 70 years of age who had a colonoscopy in Kingston, Ontario, in 2005 was completed. It was noted whether each physician described performing a digital rectal examination before the colonoscopy, and if so, whether he or she commented on the prostate. In 2005, 846 eligible colonoscopies were performed by 17 physicians in Kingston, Ontario. In 29.2% of cases, the physician made no comment about having performed a digital rectal examination; in 55.8% of cases, the physician commented on having completed a digital rectal examination but said nothing about the prostate; and in 15.0% of cases, the physician made a comment regarding the prostate. No physician consistently commented on the prostate for all patients, and in no circumstances was direct referral to another physician or follow-up suggested. A colonoscopy presents an ideal opportunity for physicians to use a digital rectal examination to assess for prostate cancer. Physicians performing colonoscopies in men 50 to 70 years of age should pay special attention to the prostate while performing a digital rectal examination before colonoscopy. This novel concept may help maximize resources for cancer screening and could potentially increase the detection rate of clinically palpable prostate cancer.

  11. Do patients undergo prostate examination while having a colonoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Hammett, Tess; Hookey, Lawrence C; Kawakami, Jun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate at which physicians report performing a digital rectal examination and comment on the prostate gland before performing colonoscopy in men 50 to 70 years of age. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all men 50 to 70 years of age who had a colonoscopy in Kingston, Ontario, in 2005 was completed. It was noted whether each physician described performing a digital rectal examination before the colonoscopy, and if so, whether he or she commented on the prostate. RESULTS: In 2005, 846 eligible colonoscopies were performed by 17 physicians in Kingston, Ontario. In 29.2% of cases, the physician made no comment about having performed a digital rectal examination; in 55.8% of cases, the physician commented on having completed a digital rectal examination but said nothing about the prostate; and in 15.0% of cases, the physician made a comment regarding the prostate. No physician consistently commented on the prostate for all patients, and in no circumstances was direct referral to another physician or follow-up suggested. DISCUSSION: A colonoscopy presents an ideal opportunity for physicians to use a digital rectal examination to assess for prostate cancer. Physicians performing colonoscopies in men 50 to 70 years of age should pay special attention to the prostate while performing a digital rectal examination before colonoscopy. This novel concept may help maximize resources for cancer screening and could potentially increase the detection rate of clinically palpable prostate cancer. PMID:19172207

  12. Predictors of Salivary Fistulas in Patients Undergoing Salvage Total Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Salivary fistula is a common complication after salvage total laryngectomy. Previous studies have not considered the number of layers of pharyngeal closure and have not classified fistulas according to severity. Our objective was to analyze our institutional experience with salvage total laryngectomy, categorize salivary fistulas based on severity, and study the effect of various pharyngeal closure techniques on fistula incidence. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 48 patients who underwent salvage total laryngectomy, comparing pharyngeal closure technique and use of a pectoralis major flap with regard to salivary fistula rate. Fistulas were categorized into major and minor fistulas based on whether operative intervention was required. Results. The major fistula rate was 18.8% (9/48) and the minor fistula rate was 29.2% (14/48). The overall (major plus minor) fistula rate was 47.9%. The overall fistula and major fistula rates decreased with increasing the number of closure layers and with use of a pectoralis major flap; however, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. Other than age, there were no clinicopathologic variables associated with salivary fistulas. Conclusion. For salvage total laryngectomies, increasing the number of closure layers or use of a pectoralis major flap may reduce the risk of salivary fistula. PMID:27355065

  13. The Society for Translational Medicine: clinical practice guidelines for mechanical ventilation management for patients undergoing lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shugeng; Zhang, Zhongheng; Brunelli, Alessandro; Chen, Chang; Chen, Chun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Haiquan; Chen, Jin-Shing; Cassivi, Stephen; Chai, Ying; Downs, John B; Fang, Wentao; Fu, Xiangning; Garutti, Martínez I; He, Jianxing; He, Jie; Hu, Jian; Huang, Yunchao; Jiang, Gening; Jiang, Hongjing; Jiang, Zhongmin; Li, Danqing; Li, Gaofeng; Li, Hui; Li, Qiang; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yin; Li, Zhijun; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Liu, Deruo; Liu, Lunxu; Liu, Yongyi; Ma, Haitao; Mao, Weimin; Mao, Yousheng; Mou, Juwei; Ng, Calvin Sze Hang; Petersen, René H; Qiao, Guibin; Rocco, Gaetano; Ruffini, Erico; Tan, Lijie; Tan, Qunyou; Tong, Tang; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Qun; Wang, Ruwen; Wang, Shumin; Xie, Deyao; Xue, Qi; Xue, Tao; Xu, Lin; Xu, Shidong; Xu, Songtao; Yan, Tiansheng; Yu, Fenglei; Yu, Zhentao; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Lanjun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Xuewei; Zhi, Xiuyi; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-09-01

    Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung injury and other adverse clinical outcomes. In order to understand the available evidence, a systematic review was conducted including the following topics: (I) protective ventilation (PV); (II) mode of mechanical ventilation [e.g., volume controlled (VCV) versus pressure controlled (PCV)]; (III) use of therapeutic hypercapnia; (IV) use of alveolar recruitment (open-lung) strategy; (V) pre-and post-operative application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP); (VI) Inspired Oxygen concentration; (VII) Non-intubated thoracoscopic lobectomy; and (VIII) adjuvant pharmacologic options. The recommendations of class II are non-intubated thoracoscopic lobectomy may be an alternative to conventional one-lung ventilation in selected patients. The recommendations of class IIa are: (I) Therapeutic hypercapnia to maintain a partial pressure of carbon dioxide at 50-70 mmHg is reasonable for patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (II) PV with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cmH 2 O are reasonable methods, based on current evidence; (III) alveolar recruitment [open lung ventilation (OLV)] may be beneficial in patients undergoing lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (IV) PCV is recommended over VCV for patients undergoing lung resection; (V) pre- and post-operative CPAP can improve short-term oxygenation in patients undergoing lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (VI) controlled mechanical ventilation with I:E ratio of 1:1 is reasonable in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation; (VII) use of lowest inspired oxygen concentration to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen saturation is reasonable based on physiologic principles; (VIII) Adjuvant drugs

  14. The Society for Translational Medicine: clinical practice guidelines for mechanical ventilation management for patients undergoing lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Brunelli, Alessandro; Chen, Chang; Chen, Chun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Haiquan; Chen, Jin-Shing; Cassivi, Stephen; Chai, Ying; Downs, John B.; Fang, Wentao; Fu, Xiangning; Garutti, Martínez I.; He, Jianxing; Hu, Jian; Huang, Yunchao; Jiang, Gening; Jiang, Hongjing; Jiang, Zhongmin; Li, Danqing; Li, Gaofeng; Li, Hui; Li, Qiang; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yin; Li, Zhijun; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Liu, Deruo; Liu, Lunxu; Liu, Yongyi; Ma, Haitao; Mao, Weimin; Mao, Yousheng; Mou, Juwei; Ng, Calvin Sze Hang; Petersen, René H.; Qiao, Guibin; Rocco, Gaetano; Ruffini, Erico; Tan, Lijie; Tan, Qunyou; Tong, Tang; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Qun; Wang, Ruwen; Wang, Shumin; Xie, Deyao; Xue, Qi; Xue, Tao; Xu, Lin; Xu, Shidong; Xu, Songtao; Yan, Tiansheng; Yu, Fenglei; Yu, Zhentao; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Lanjun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xun; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhao, Xuewei; Zhi, Xiuyi; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing lobectomy are at significantly increased risk of lung injury. One-lung ventilation is the most commonly used technique to maintain ventilation and oxygenation during the operation. It is a challenge to choose an appropriate mechanical ventilation strategy to minimize the lung injury and other adverse clinical outcomes. In order to understand the available evidence, a systematic review was conducted including the following topics: (I) protective ventilation (PV); (II) mode of mechanical ventilation [e.g., volume controlled (VCV) versus pressure controlled (PCV)]; (III) use of therapeutic hypercapnia; (IV) use of alveolar recruitment (open-lung) strategy; (V) pre-and post-operative application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP); (VI) Inspired Oxygen concentration; (VII) Non-intubated thoracoscopic lobectomy; and (VIII) adjuvant pharmacologic options. The recommendations of class II are non-intubated thoracoscopic lobectomy may be an alternative to conventional one-lung ventilation in selected patients. The recommendations of class IIa are: (I) Therapeutic hypercapnia to maintain a partial pressure of carbon dioxide at 50–70 mmHg is reasonable for patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (II) PV with a tidal volume of 6 mL/kg and PEEP of 5 cmH2O are reasonable methods, based on current evidence; (III) alveolar recruitment [open lung ventilation (OLV)] may be beneficial in patients undergoing lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (IV) PCV is recommended over VCV for patients undergoing lung resection; (V) pre- and post-operative CPAP can improve short-term oxygenation in patients undergoing lobectomy with one-lung ventilation; (VI) controlled mechanical ventilation with I:E ratio of 1:1 is reasonable in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation; (VII) use of lowest inspired oxygen concentration to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen saturation is reasonable based on physiologic principles; (VIII) Adjuvant drugs

  15. Exploring the impact of staff absenteeism on patient satisfaction using routine databases in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Duclay, E; Hardouin, J B; Sébille, V; Anthoine, E; Moret, L

    2015-10-01

    To explore the influence of staff absenteeism on patient satisfaction using the indicators available in management reports. Among factors explaining patient satisfaction, human resource indicators have been studied widely in terms of burnout or job satisfaction, but there have not been many studies related to absenteeism indicators. A multilevel analysis was conducted using two routinely compiled databases from 2010 in the clinical departments of a university hospital (France). The staff database monitored absenteeism for short-term medical reasons (5 days or less), non-medical reasons and absences starting at the weekend. The patient satisfaction database was established at the time of discharge. Patient satisfaction related to relationships with staff was significantly and negatively correlated with nurse absenteeism for non-medical reasons (P < 0.05) and with nurse absenteeism starting at weekends (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction related to the hospital environment was significantly and negatively correlated with nurse assistant absenteeism for short-term medical reasons (P < 0.05). Our findings seem to indicate that patient satisfaction is linked to staff absenteeism and should lead to a better understanding of the impact of human resources on patient satisfaction. To enhance patient satisfaction, managers need to find a way to reduce staff absenteeism, in order to avoid burnout and to improve the atmosphere in the workplace. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of routine diagnostic imaging for patients with musculoskeletal disorders: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Karel, Yasmaine H J M; Verkerk, Karin; Endenburg, Silvio; Metselaar, Sven; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2015-10-01

    The increasing use of diagnostic imaging has led to high expenditures, unnecessary invasive procedures and/or false-positive diagnoses, without certainty that the patients actually benefit from these imaging procedures. This review explores whether diagnostic imaging leads to better patient-reported outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders. Databases were searched from inception to September 2013, together with scrutiny of selected bibliographies. Trials were eligible when: 1) a diagnostic imaging procedure was compared with any control group not getting or not receiving the results of imaging; 2) the population included individuals suffering from musculoskeletal disorders, and 3) if patient-reported outcomes were available. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. Secondary outcome measures were satisfaction and quality of life. Subgroup analysis was done for different musculoskeletal complaints and high technological medical imaging (MRI/CT). Eleven trials were eligible. The effects of diagnostic imaging were only evaluated in patients with low back pain (n=7) and knee complaints (n=4). Overall, there was a moderate level of evidence for no benefit of diagnostic imaging on all outcomes compared with controls. A significant but clinically irrelevant effect was found in favor of no (routine) imaging in low back pain patients in terms of pain severity at short [SMD 0.17 (0.04-0.31)] and long-term follow-up [SMD 0.13 (0.02-0.24)], and for overall improvement [RR 1.15 (1.03-1.28)]. Subgroup analysis did not significantly change these results. These results strengthen the available evidence that routine referral to diagnostic imaging by general practitioners for patients with knee and low back pain yields little to no benefit. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Objectives Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. Methods We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Results Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. Conclusions In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26668745

  18. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-12-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  19. Surgical RF ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing mitral valve repair for Barlow disease.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, Carlo; Droandi, G; Gelsomino, S; Carone, E; Gensini, G F; Stefàno, P L

    2013-01-01

    At present, limited experience exists on the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing mitral valve repair (MVR) for Barlow disease. The aim of this investigation was to prospectively evaluate the radiofrequency ablation of AF in patients undergoing MVR for severe regurgitation due to Barlow disease. From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010, out of 85 consecutive patients with Barlow disease, 27 with AF underwent RF ablation associated with MVR. They were examined every 4 months in the first year after surgery and thereafter twice yearly. At follow-up, AF was observed in 4/25 (16.0%). NYHA (New York Heart Association) functional class improved significantly, with no patients in class III or IV (before surgery, 81.5% had been). Otherwise, among 58 patients in sinus rhythm, 6 (11%) developed AF during follow-up. No clinical or echocardiographic predictive factor was found in this subgroup. Results from our investigation suggest that radiofrequency ablation of AF in patients with Barlow disease undergoing MVR for severe regurgitation is effective and should be considered in every patient with Barlow disease and AF undergoing valve surgical repair. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction with autologous tissue transfer.

    PubMed

    Konoeda, Hisato; Yamaki, Takashi; Hamahata, Atsumori; Ochi, Masakazu; Osada, Atsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuki; Kirita, Miho; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Background Breast reconstruction is associated with multiple risk factors for venous thromboembolism. However, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction is uncertain. Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing breast reconstruction using autologous tissue transfer and to identify potential risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. Methods Thirty-five patients undergoing breast reconstruction were enrolled. We measured patients' preoperative characteristics including age, body mass index (kg/m 2 ), and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. The preoperative diameter of each venous segment in the deep veins was measured using duplex ultrasound. All patients received intermittent pneumatic pump and elastic compression stockings for postoperative thromboprophylaxis. Results Among the 35 patients evaluated, 11 (31.4%) were found to have deep vein thrombosis postoperatively, and one patient was found to have pulmonary embolism postoperatively. All instances of deep vein thrombosis developed in the calf and were asymptomatic. Ten of 11 patients underwent free flap transfer, and the remaining one patient received a latissimus dorsi pedicled flap. Deep vein thrombosis incidence did not significantly differ between patients with a free flap or pedicled flap (P = 0.13). Documented risk factors for deep vein thrombosis demonstrated no significant differences between patients with and without deep vein thrombosis. The diameter of the common femoral vein was significantly larger in patients who developed postoperative deep vein thrombosis than in those who did not ( P < 0.05). Conclusions The morbidity of deep vein thrombosis in patients who underwent breast reconstruction using autologous tissue transfer was relatively high. Since only the diameter of the common femoral vein was predictive of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis, postoperative

  1. Effect of preoperative multimedia information on perioperative anxiety in patients undergoing procedures under regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jlala, H A; French, J L; Foxall, G L; Hardman, J G; Bedforth, N M

    2010-03-01

    Provision of preoperative information can alleviate patients' anxiety. However, the ideal method of delivering this information is unknown. Video information has been shown to reduce patients' anxiety, although little is known regarding the effect of preoperative multimedia information on anxiety in patients undergoing regional anaesthesia. We randomized 110 patients undergoing upper or lower limb surgery under regional anaesthesia into the study and control groups. The study group watched a short film (created by the authors) depicting the patient's in-hospital journey including either a spinal anaesthetic or a brachial plexus block. Patients' anxiety was assessed before and after the film and 1 h before and within 8 h after their operation, using the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory and a visual analogue scale. There was no difference in state and trait anxiety between the two groups at enrollment. Women had higher baseline state and trait anxiety than men (P=0.02). Patients in the control group experienced an increase in state anxiety immediately before surgery (P<0.001), and patients in the film group were less anxious before operation than those in the control group (P=0.04). After operation, there was a decrease in state anxiety from baseline in both groups, but patients in the film group were less anxious than the control group (P=0.005). Preoperative multimedia information reduces the anxiety of patients undergoing surgery under regional anaesthesia. This type of information is easily delivered and can benefit many patients.

  2. Lack of evidence to support routine digital rectal examination in pediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Shlamovitz, Gil Z; Mower, William R; Bergman, Jonathan; Crisp, Jonathan; DeVore, Heather K; Hardy, David; Sargent, Martine; Shroff, Sunil D; Snyder, Eric; Morgan, Marshall T

    2007-08-01

    Current advanced trauma life support guidelines recommend that a digital rectal examination (DRE) should be performed as part of the initial evaluation of all trauma patients. Our primary goal was to estimate the test characteristics of the DRE in pediatric patients for the following injuries: (1) spinal cord injuries, (2) bowel injuries, (3) rectal injuries, (4) pelvic fractures, and (5) urethral disruptions. We conducted a nonconcurrent, observational, chart review study of a consecutive series of pediatric trauma patients. We enrolled all patients younger than 18 years seen in our ED from January 2003 to February 2005, for whom the trauma team was activated and who had a documented DRE. For each patient, we reviewed all available clinical documents in a computerized medical record system to identify the DRE findings followed by review of radiological reports, operative reports, and discharge summaries to identify specific injuries. Two hundred thirteen patients met our selection criteria and were included in the analysis. We identified 3 patients with spinal cord injury (1% prevalence), 13 patients with bowel injury (6%), 5 patients with rectal injury (2%), 12 patients with a pelvic fracture (6%), and 1 patient with urethral disruption (0.5%). The DRE failed to diagnose (false-negative rate) 66% of spinal cord injuries, 100% of bowel injuries, 100% of rectal wall injuries, 100% of pelvic fractures, and 100% of urethral disruption injuries. The DRE has poor sensitivity for the diagnosis of spinal cord, bowel, rectal, bony pelvis, and urethral injuries. Our findings suggest that the DRE should not be routinely used in pediatric trauma patients.

  3. Review of systems, physical examination, and routine tests for case-finding in ambulatory patients.

    PubMed

    Boland, B J; Wollan, P C; Silverstein, M D

    1995-04-01

    The screening value of the comprehensive review of systems and the complete physical examination in detecting unsuspected diseases for which therapeutic interventions are initiated has not been formally studied in ambulatory patients. The medical records of 100 randomly selected adult patients who had an ambulatory general medical evaluation at the Mayo Clinic in 1990-1991 were surveyed to compare review of systems and physical examination with routine laboratory tests, chest radiography, and electrocardiography as case-finding maneuvers. The main outcome measure was the therapeutic yield of each case-finding maneuver, defined as the proportion of maneuvers leading to a new therapy for a new clinically important diagnosis. The utilization rate of routine tests in the 100 patients (mean age: 59 +/- 16 years; 58% women) was high, ranging from 77 to 98%. Overall, the case-finding maneuvers led to 36 unsuspected clinically important diagnoses and resulted in 25 new therapeutic interventions. Higher therapeutic yield was observed for review of systems (7%), physical examination (5%), and lipid screening (9.2%) than for chemistry group (2.2%), complete blood count (1.8%), thyroid tests (1.5%), urinalysis (1.1%), electrocardiography (0%), or chest radiography (0%). The number of therapeutic interventions was not associated with patient's age (P = 0.55), sex (P = 0.88), comorbidity (P = 0.30) or with the time interval since the last general medical evaluation (P = 0.12). Based on therapeutic yield, these data suggest that review of systems and physical examination are valuable case-finding maneuvers in the periodic medical evaluation of ambulatory patients.

  4. Patients in palliative care-Development of a predictive model for anxiety using routine data.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sonja; Hess, Stephanie; Klein, Carsten; Lindena, Gabriele; Radbruch, Lukas; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common psychological symptoms in patients in a palliative care situation. This study aims to develop a predictive model for anxiety using data from the standard documentation routine. Data sets of palliative care patients collected by the German quality management benchmarking system called Hospice and Palliative Care Evaluation (HOPE) from 2007 to 2011 were randomly divided into a training set containing two-thirds of the data and a test set with the remaining one-third. We dichotomized anxiety levels, proxy rated by medical staff using the validated HOPE Symptom and Problem Checklist, into two groups with no or mild anxiety versus moderate or severe anxiety. Using the training set, a multivariable logistic regression model was developed by backward stepwise selection. Predictive accuracy was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) based on the test set. An analysis of 9924 data sets suggests a predictive model for anxiety in patients receiving palliative care which contains gender, age, ECOG, living situation, pain, nausea, dyspnea, loss of appetite, tiredness, need for assistance with activities of daily living, problems with organization of care, medication with sedatives/anxiolytics, antidepressants, antihypertensive drugs, laxatives, and antibiotics. It results in a fair predictive value (AUC = 0.72). Routinely collected data providing individual-, disease- and therapy-related information contain valuable information that is useful for the prediction of anxiety risks in patients receiving palliative care. These findings could thus be advantageous for providing appropriate support for patients in palliative care settings and should receive special attention in future research.

  5. Does routinely collected patient-reported outcome data represent the actual case-mix of elective coronary revascularization patients?

    PubMed

    Oinasmaa, Salla; Heiskanen, Jari; Hartikainen, Juha; Hippeläinen, Mikko; Miettinen, Heikki; Martikainen, Janne; Roine, Risto P; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2018-04-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are valuable for effectiveness evaluation, but it is unknown whether the patient views obtained represent the actual case mix. We studied the representativeness of the responses obtained to a routinely administered health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire in a cardiology unit. Elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; n = 404) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n = 738) patients operated during June 2012 to August 2014 in the Heart Center, Kuopio University Hospital. The characteristics of the patients with a baseline (n = 260 and 290 for CABG and PCI, respectively) or both baseline and follow-up HRQoL measurements (n = 203 and 189 for CABG and PCI, respectively) were compared with those who did not respond (n = 144 and 448 for CABG and PCI). Baseline questionnaires were less likely obtained from older CABG patients (odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.28-0.91) and those with more severe disease (0.20, 0.05-0.79). Among PCI patients, women (0.64, 0.45-0.91), smokers (0.74, 0.53-1.04), and those with more severe disease (0.26, 0.13-0.52) or more hospital days were underrepresented. Routinely collected PROs in cardiac patients may be biased towards younger and healthier patients. This needs to be recognized when evaluating the representativeness of such data. The routine collection of these data should be adequately resourced.

  6. A Phase 1 Study of a Novel Bidirectional Perfusion Cannula in Patients Undergoing Femoral Cannulation for Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Silvana F; Tutungi, Elli; Vallance, Shirley A; Udy, Andrew A; Negri, Justin C; Zimmet, Adam D; McGiffin, David C; Pellegrino, Vincent A; Moshinsky, Randall A

    Leg ischemia is a serious complication of femoral artery cannulation. The primary aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel bidirectional femoral arterial cannula (Sorin Group USA, a wholly owned subsidiary of LivaNova PLC, Arvada, CO USA) that provides both antegrade and retrograde flow, in patients undergoing peripheral cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing routine cardiac surgery requiring femoral artery cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass were identified preoperatively. Informed written consent was obtained in all cases. Bidirectional cannula insertion used either a surgical cut-down and wire through needle approach or a percutaneous technique. Flow in the superficial femoral artery was assessed using Doppler ultrasound after commencement of cardiopulmonary bypass. Lower limb perfusion was assessed using reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy to measure regional oxygen saturations in the cannulated limb during cardiopulmonary bypass. Fifteen patients (median age = 61.3 years, range = 26-79 years, 10 males, 5 females) underwent femoral arterial cannulation using the novel bidirectional femoral cannula between August 2016 and May 2017. Fourteen cannulae were inserted directly into the femoral artery via a surgical cut-down and wire through needle technique. One bidirectional cannula was inserted using a percutaneous insertion technique. Indications included minimally invasive mitral and aortic valve surgery, thoracic aortic aneurysm repair, and redo cardiac surgery. The median duration of cardiopulmonary bypass was 129 minutes (range = 53-228 minutes). The cannula was inserted and positioned without difficulty in 14 of 15 patients. Incorrect sizing and arterial spasm prevented correct cannula positioning in one patient. Antegrade flow in the superficial femoral artery was observed on Doppler ultrasound in 12 of 12 patients in which this was performed. Continuous stable distal perfusion was

  7. Management patterns of medicare patients undergoing treatment for upper urinary tract calculi.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Meckley, Lisa M; Kim, Micheline; Byrne, Thomas W

    2014-06-01

    We conducted this study to identify differences in the re-treatment rates and ancillary procedures for the two most commonly utilized stone treatment procedures in the Medicare population: ureteroscopy (URS) and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). A retrospective claims analysis of the Medicare standard analytical file 5% sample was conducted to identify patients with a new diagnosis of urolithiasis undergoing treatment with URS or SWL from 2009-2010. Outcomes evaluated: (1) repeat stone removal procedures within 120 days post index procedure, (2) stent placement procedures on the index date, 30 days prior to and 120 days post index date, and (3) use of general anesthesia. We identified 3885 eligible patients, of which 2165 (56%) underwent SWL and 1720 (44%) underwent URS. Overall, SWL patients were 1.73 times more likely to undergo at least one repeat procedure than URS patients, and twice as likely to require multiple re-treatments compared to URS. Among those with ureteral stones, SWL patients were 2.27 times more likely to undergo repeat procedures. The difference was not statistically significant in renal stone patients. Overall, SWL patients were 1.41 times more likely than URS patients to have a stent placed prior to index procedure, and 1.33 times more likely to have a stent placed subsequent to the index procedure. The majority of URS patients (77.8%) had a stent placed at the time of index procedure. There was no significant difference in anesthetic approaches between SWL and URS. Patients undergoing SWL are significantly more likely to require re-treatments than URS patients. SWL patients are also significantly more likely to require ureteral stent placement as a separate event. SWL and URS patients have similar rates of general anesthesia.

  8. Postoperative Respiratory Exercises Reduce the Risk of Developing Pulmonary Complications in Patients Undergoing Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Vellosillo-Ortega, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Muneta, Carlos; Abecia-Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Seco, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of an intensive postoperative physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises in patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Quasi-experimental study. Tertiary referral academic hospital. 208 patients undergoing lobectomy by open thoracotomy. Control group patients (n=102) received standard medical/nursing care, and experimental group patients (n=106) added to the standard clinical pathway a daily physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises until discharge. Analyzed outcomes were the frequency of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) more amenable to physiotherapy (pneumonia, atelectasis and respiratory insufficiency) and length of hospital stay (LOS). Both groups were comparable regarding preoperative and surgical characteristics. Incidence of PPCs was 20.6% in control and 6.6% in experimental group (P=.003). Median (IQR) LOS in control group was 14 (7) days (Huber M estimator 14.21) and 12 (6) days (Huber M estimator 12.81) in experimental. Logistic regression model identified the evaluated physiotherapy program (P=.017; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.081-0.780) and % FEV1 (P=.042; EXP [B] 95% CI 0.941-0.999) as protective factors for the development of PPCs in patients undergoing lobectomy. Implementing a postoperative intensive physiotherapy program focused on respiratory exercises reduces the risk of PPCs and resultant LOS on patients undergoing lobectomy. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Postoperative Diabetes Mellitus in Patients Undergoing Distal Pancreatectomy versus Whipple Procedure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Adrienne; Demirjian, Aram; Yamamoto, Maki; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Imagawa, David K

    2017-10-01

    Because the islets of Langerhans are more prevalent in the body and tail of the pancreas, distal pancreatectomy (DP) is believed to increase the likelihood of developing new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). To determine whether the development of postoperative diabetes was more prevalent in patients undergoing DP or Whipple procedure, 472 patients undergoing either a DP (n = 122) or Whipple (n = 350), regardless of underlying pathology, were analyzed at one month postoperatively. Insulin or oral hypoglycemic requirements were assessed and patients were stratified into preoperative diabetic status: NODM or preexisting diabetes. A retrospective chart review of the 472 patients between 1996 and 2014 showed that the total rate of NODM after Whipple procedure was 43 per cent, which was not different from patients undergoing DP (45%). The incidence of preoperative diabetes was 12 per cent in patients undergoing the Whipple procedure and 17 per cent in the DP cohort. Thus, the overall incidence of diabetes after Whipple procedure was 54 and 49 per cent in the DP group. The development of diabetes was unrelated to the type of resection performed. Age more than 65 and Caucasian ethnicity were associated with postoperative diabetes regardless of the type of resection performed.

  10. Dermatological Manifestations in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilisation: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aradhana; Sahu, Suvash; Karunakaran, Sandeep; Joshi, Rajneesh K; Raman, Deep Kumar

    Changing sociodemographic patterns with an increase in the age of childbirth have affected fertility rates worldwide. With advancing reproductive medicine, assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) are becoming common. While dermatological manifestations in normal pregnancies have been well documented, there is a paucity of data regarding cutaneous manifestations in patients undergoing ART. The objectives of our study were to estimate the incidence and types of dermatological manifestations in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and to study their associations with age, type of infertility, and outcome of the procedure. A prospective cohort of 200 patients undergoing IVF in a tertiary care centre was observed for occurrence of any dermatological manifestations from initiation of the IVF protocol to the outcome of the procedure at 3 weeks after embryo transfer. Dermatological manifestations were seen in 27% of the study group, with urticaria being the most common cutaneous finding seen in 13.5%, followed by acneform eruptions (3%). Twenty-six (96.3%) of patients who manifested with urticaria were on progesterone. No statistically significant association was found between the occurrence of dermatological manifestations and the outcome of IVF, type of infertility, history of ART, and ovum donation in our study. Association between the age of the patient and the outcome of IVF cycle was statistically significant. Dermatological manifestations are seen in almost one-quarter of patients undergoing IVF, with progesterone-induced urticaria being the most common. Occurrence of cutaneous manifestations has no significant association with the outcome of IVF.

  11. The routine use of pediatric airway exchange catheter after extubation of adult patients who have undergone maxillofacial or major neck surgery: a clinical observational study.

    PubMed

    Dosemeci, Levent; Yilmaz, Murat; Yegin, Arif; Cengiz, Melike; Ramazanoglu, Atilla

    2004-12-01

    We conducted the present study to determine the usefulness of routinely inserting a pediatric airway exchange catheter (PAEC) before tracheal extubation of adult patients who had undergone maxillofacial or major neck surgery and have risk factors for difficult reintubation. A prospective, observational and clinical study was performed in the 25-bed general intensive care unit of a university hospital. Thirty-six adult patients who underwent maxillofacial or major neck surgery and had risk factors for difficult reintubation were extubated after insertion of the PAEC. Four of 36 (11.1%) patients required emergency reintubation after 2, 4, 6 and 18 hours after tracheal extubation, respectively. Reintubation of these patients, which was thought to be nearly impossible by direct laryngoscopy, was easily achieved over the PAEC. The PAEC can be a life-saving device during reintubation of patients with risk factors for difficult reintubation such as laryngeo-pharyngeal oedema due to surgical manipulation or airway obstruction resulting from haematoma and anatomic changes. We therefore suggest the routine use of the PAEC in patients undergoing major maxillofacial or major neck surgery.

  12. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Misuzu; Natsumeda, Masamitsu; Takasugi, Koji; Ueno, Akiko; Ezawa, Kayo; Ezawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive joint destruction that requires aggressive treatment using appropriate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). RA patients with renal failure, however, are intolerant to most DMARDs due to the potential toxicity. In Japan, tacrolimus was approved for the treatment of RA in 2005. Based on its pharmacokinetics, tacrolimus may be administered to the patients undergoing hemodialysis. We report two cases of RA patients on hemodialysis treated effectively and safely with tacrolimus.

  13. Harnessing Information Technology to Inform Patients Facing Routine Decisions: Cancer Screening as a Test Case.

    PubMed

    Krist, Alex H; Woolf, Steven H; Hochheimer, Camille; Sabo, Roy T; Kashiri, Paulette; Jones, Resa M; Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Etz, Rebecca S; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Technology could transform routine decision making by anticipating patients' information needs, assessing where patients are with decisions and preferences, personalizing educational experiences, facilitating patient-clinician information exchange, and supporting follow-up. This study evaluated whether patients and clinicians will use such a decision module and its impact on care, using 3 cancer screening decisions as test cases. Twelve practices with 55,453 patients using a patient portal participated in this prospective observational cohort study. Participation was open to patients who might face a cancer screening decision: women aged 40 to 49 who had not had a mammogram in 2 years, men aged 55 to 69 who had not had a prostate-specific antigen test in 2 years, and adults aged 50 to 74 overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Data sources included module responses, electronic health record data, and a postencounter survey. In 1 year, one-fifth of the portal users (11,458 patients) faced a potential cancer screening decision. Among these patients, 20.6% started and 7.9% completed the decision module. Fully 47.2% of module completers shared responses with their clinician. After their next office visit, 57.8% of those surveyed thought their clinician had seen their responses, and many reported the module made their appointment more productive (40.7%), helped engage them in the decision (47.7%), broadened their knowledge (48.1%), and improved communication (37.5%). Many patients face decisions that can be anticipated and proactively facilitated through technology. Although use of technology has the potential to make visits more efficient and effective, cultural, workflow, and technical changes are needed before it could be widely disseminated. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Akira; Kariya, Misato; Irie, Kei; Okada, Yutaka; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Hashimoto, Hisako; Kajioka, Ryosuke; Maruyama, Chika; Kasai, Hidefumi; Hamori, Mami; Nishimura, Asako; Shibata, Nobuhito; Fukushima, Keizo; Sugioka, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-15

    Vancomycin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Vancomycin has large inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which is mainly described by renal function; various studies have indicated that vancomycin pharmacokinetics are altered in special populations. However, little is known regarding vancomycin pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Therefore, we aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of vancomycin in patients undergoing allo-HSCT for effective and safe antimicrobial therapy and to develop a vancomycin dosing nomogram for a vancomycin optimal-dosing strategy. In total, 285 observations from 95 patients undergoing allo-HSCT were available. The final PopPK parameter estimates were central volume of distribution (V1, L), 39.2; clearance (L/h), 4.25; peripheral volume of distribution (V2, L), 56.1; and intercompartmental clearance (L/h), 1.95. The developed vancomycin model revealed an increase in V1 and V2 compared with those in the general population that consisted of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, serum creatinine was reduced because of an increase in the plasma fraction because of destruction of hematopoietic stem cells accompanying allo-HSCT pretreatment, suggesting that the Cockcroft-Gault equation-based creatinine clearance value was overestimated. To our knowledge, this is the first PopPK study to develop a dosing nomogram for vancomycin in patients undergoing allo-HSCT and was proven to be useful in optimizing the dosage and dosing interval of vancomycin in these patients. This strategy will provide more useful information for vancomycin therapy with an evidence-based dose adjustment. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. A Mixed-Methods Study of Patient Views on Reflux Symptoms and Medication Routines.

    PubMed

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Yang, Sky; Purcell, Audrey; Rubio, Alix

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disorder often accompanied by laryngopharyngeal reflux. Speech-language pathologists are tasked with treating these patients with voice, dysphagia, and/or reflux therapy. This study investigated patient-reported reasons for reduced compliance with recommended reflux treatment and the top symptoms in patients with reflux, dysphagia, and voice symptoms. This study used a cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative mixed-methods design to identify and describe patients' reflux symptoms and reflux medication routines. Fifty-one patients completed a face-to-face, semistructured interview, a questionnaire, and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Interview transcripts were coded by authors for concepts in two cycles. During the 51 interviews, the top four reported symptoms were heartburn (n = 17), mucous (n = 11), dysphagia, and globus (n = 10). Further, 62.7% (n = 32/51) described an incorrect routine in taking their proton pump inhibitor (PPI): taking it with other pills, taking it with food/drink, and uncertainty about which pill is for reflux. RSI scores were moderately correlated with patient-reported reflux severity (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001, r 2  = 0.34). Correct compliance with PPI timing was not enough to significantly lower RSI scores more than those who did not comply (an average RSI of 20.0 vs. 25.9, P = 0.1252). Literature has not described the most relevant reflux-related symptoms and why PPI compliance is notoriously poor, from the patients' perspective. The results of this study confirm that PPI compliance is poor, and the reasons for poor compliance could have been prevented with patient education. Even when PPI compliance was adequate, symptoms like globus, mucous, voice dysfunction, and dysphagia persisted. Other interventions such as evidence-based diet and behavioral changes should be a part of voice/dysphagia/reflux therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by

  16. The effect of royal jelly on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ozden; Güngörmüş, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of royal jelly on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 103 patients undergoing radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Oral mucositis was graded according to the World Health Organization criteria, and patients were divided into 2 groups. All patients received mouthwash therapy with benzydamine hydrochloride and nystatin rinses. In addition, patients in the experimental group received royal jelly. The mean resolution time of oral mucositis in the royal jelly group was significantly shorter than that of the control group. As a result, the study results demonstrate that royal jelly administrated by a certain procedure improved the signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and markedly shortened its healing time.

  17. Evaluation of self-esteem in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment1

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marilia Aparecida Carvalho; Nogueira, Denismar Alves; Terra, Fábio de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the self-esteem of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: descriptive analytical cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Around 156 patients that attended an oncology unit of a mid-sized hospital participated in the study. Results: we found a higher frequency of patients with high self-esteem, but some of them showed average or low self-esteem. The scale showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.746, by considering its acceptable internal consistency for the evaluated items. No independent variables showed significant associations with self-esteem. Conclusion: the cancer patients evaluated have presented high self-esteem; thus, it becomes crucial for nursing to plan the assistance of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatments, which enables actions and strategies that meet their physical and psychosocial conditions, aiming to maintain and rehabilitate these people's emotional aspects. PMID:26625999

  18. Supervisory and routine processes in noun and verb generation in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Mondolo, Federica; Biasutti, Emanuele; Shallice, Tim

    2008-01-31

    Despite the increased comprehension of the role of the basal ganglia in cognitive functions such as learning, attention, and executive functions, the exact implication of these structures in language remains unclear. A specific role of basal ganglia in language has been proposed. Nonetheless, a recent hypothesis gives the basal ganglia a non-language specific role in the inhibition of competing alternatives during later controlled processes of language production. In this study we assessed the production of both nouns and verbs in a population of 20 nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease (NDPD). Aspects of selection demands and stimulus-response association strength were investigated in both tasks. Performance of NDPD patients was compared with that of 20 matched elderly subjects. An impairment in verb production was found in PD patients. A selection effect on verb production was found in PD patients along with a greater effect of stimulus-response association strength. PD patients had the greatest difficulty in situations of weak stimulus-response association strength. A "Task-Relevant-Response" analysis carried out on stimuli (nouns) in condition of free association suggested that verb production happens in the context of strongly activated nouns. This means that, in order to produce a verb a switch has to be done from a task irrelevant to a task relevant response. Our results are in line with the proposed non-language specific involvement of the basal ganglia in the supervisory rather than the routine semantic processes required during lexical retrieval.

  19. Antifungal treatment in haematological and oncological patients: Need for quality assessment in routine care.

    PubMed

    Lachenmayr, Sarah J; Berking, Sophie; Horns, Heidi; Strobach, Dorothea; Ostermann, Helmut; Berger, Karin

    2018-03-25

    Invasive fungal infections in haematological and oncological patients have a major impact on morbidity, mortality and treatment costs. Therefore, rational use of antifungal agents is important for optimal patient care and resource use. The study's objective was to analyse antifungal usage in a German tertiary teaching hospital, department of haematology and oncology, to evaluate quality of antifungal treatment and to assess the need for an antifungal stewardship programme. This retrospective observational study included patients ≥18 years receiving systemic antifungals for prophylaxis or therapy of invasive fungal infection between January and June 2016. Appropriateness of antifungal prescriptions was evaluated in accordance with guidelines of the German Society of Haematology and Oncology (DGHO) and drug labelling. In total, 104/1278 (8.1%) patients received antifungals. One hundred seventy-one antifungals were prescribed: 48 for prophylaxis, 104 for empirical and 19 for targeted therapy. In 127 (74.3%) prescriptions, indication was appropriate, and in 132 (77.2%), choice of drug. Antifungals were correctly dosed in 131 prescriptions (76.6%). Thirty-four antifungals (20.0%) were co-administrated with interacting drugs (5 mild to moderate, 29 severe interactions). Results of this analysis demonstrate that use of systemic antifungals in routine care differs in a substantial number of patients from guideline and labelling recommendations. To optimise antifungal use, the implementation of antifungal stewardship programmes seems to be justified. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Multiple Testing, Cumulative Radiation Dose, and Clinical Indications in Patients Undergoing Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Weiner, Shepard D.; Bernheim, Adam; Kulon, Michal; Bokhari, Sabahat; Johnson, Lynne L.; Moses, Jeffrey W.; Balter, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is the single medical test with the highest radiation burden to the US population. While many patients undergoing MPI receive repeat MPI testing, or additional procedures involving ionizing radiation, no data are available characterizing their total longitudinal radiation burden and relating radiation burden with reasons for testing. Objective To characterize procedure counts, cumulative estimated effective doses of radiation, and clinical indications, for patients undergoing MPI. Design, Setting, Patients Retrospective cohort study evaluating, for 1097 consecutive patients undergoing index MPI during the first 100 days of 2006 at Columbia University Medical Center, all preceding medical imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation undergone beginning October 1988, and all subsequent procedures through June 2008, at that center. Main Outcome Measures Cumulative estimated effective dose of radiation, number of procedures involving radiation, and indications for testing. Results Patients underwent a median (interquartile range, mean) of 15 (6–32, 23.9) procedures involving radiation exposure; 4 (2–8, 6.5) were high-dose (≥3 mSv, i.e. one year's background radiation), including 1 (1–2, 1.8) MPI studies per patient. 31% of patients received cumulative estimated effective dose from all medical sources >100mSv. Multiple MPIs were performed in 39% of patients, for whom cumulative estimated effective dose was 121 (81–189, 149) mSv. Men and whites had higher cumulative estimated effective doses, and there was a trend towards men being more likely to undergo multiple MPIs than women (40.8% vs. 36.6%, Odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.69). Over 80% of initial and 90% of repeat MPI exams were performed in patients with known cardiac disease or symptoms consistent with it. Conclusion In this institution, multiple testing with MPI was very common, and in many patients associated with very high cumulative

  1. What Aspects of Personal Care Are Most Important to Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

    PubMed

    Foley, Kimberley A; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Groome, Patti A; Brundage, Michael D; McArdle, Siobhan; Wallace, David; Peng, Yingwei; Mackillop, William J

    2016-02-01

    The overall quality of patient care is a function of the quality of both its technical and its nontechnical components. The purpose of this study was to identify the elements of nontechnical (personal) care that are most important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We reviewed the literature and interviewed patients and health professionals to identify elements of personal care pertinent to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We identified 143 individual elements relating to 10 aspects of personal care. Patients undergoing radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer completed a self-administered questionnaire in which they rated the importance of each element. The overall importance of each element was measured by the percentage of respondents who rated it as "very important." The importance of each aspect of personal care was measured by the mean importance of its elements. One hundred eight patients completed the questionnaire. The percentage of patients who rated each element "very important" ranged from 7% to 95% (mean 61%). The mean importance rating of the elements of each aspect of care varied significantly: "perceived competence of caregivers," 80%; "empathy and respectfulness of caregivers," 67%; "adequacy of information sharing," 67%; "patient centeredness," 59%; "accessibility of caregivers," 57%; "continuity of care," 51%; "privacy," 51%; "convenience," 45%; "comprehensiveness of services," 44%; and "treatment environment," 30% (P<.0001). Neither age nor education was associated with importance ratings, but the patient's health status was associated with the rating of some elements of care. Many different elements of personal care are important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer, but the 3 aspects of care that most believe are most important are these: the perceived competence of their caregivers, the empathy and respectfulness of their caregivers, and the adequacy of

  2. Liver enzymes in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Isabella Ramos de Oliveira; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Cavalcante, Maria Alina Gomes de Mattos; Pinto, Tiago Costa; Moura, Izolda Fernades; Loureiro Júnior, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and the hematocrit in patients with chronic kidney disease who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis and 40 on hemodialysis were assessed, and the patients were matched according to the length of time that they had been on dialysis. Blood samples were collected (both before and after the session for those on hemodialysis) to measure the enzymes and the hematocrit. In the samples from the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, the aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels were slightly higher compared with the samples collected from the patients before the hemodialysis session and slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the hemodialysis session. The levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the hemodialysis patients were slightly higher than the levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis. In addition, the levels of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyl transferase that were collected before the hemodialysis session were significantly lower than the values collected after the session. The hematocrit levels were significantly lower in the patients who were on peritoneal dialysis compared with the patients on hemodialysis (both before and after the hemodialysis session), and the levels were also significantly lower before hemodialysis compared with after hemodialysis. The aminotransferase levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis were slightly higher compared with the samples collected before the hemodialysis session, whereas the aminotransferase levels were slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the session. The hematocrits and the aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of the samples collected after the hemodialysis session were significantly higher than the samples collected before

  3. Exploring the use of Routine Outcome Monitoring in the treatment of patients with a psychotic disorder.

    PubMed

    Tasma, M; Liemburg, E J; Knegtering, H; Delespaul, P A E G; Boonstra, A; Castelein, S

    2017-05-01

    Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) has become part of the treatment process in mental health care. However, studies have indicated that few clinicians in psychiatry use the outcome of ROM in their daily work. The aim of this study was to explore the degree of ROM use in clinical practice as well as the explanatory factors of this use. In the Northern Netherlands, a ROM-protocol (ROM-Phamous) for patients with a psychotic disorder has been implemented. To establish the degree of ROM-Phamous use in clinical practice, the ROM results of patients (n=204) were compared to the treatment goals formulated in their treatment plans. To investigate factors that might influence ROM use, clinicians (n=32) were asked to fill out a questionnaire about ROM-Phamous. Care domains that were problematic according to the ROM-Phamous results were mentioned in the treatment plan in 28% of cases on average (range 5-45%). The use of ROM-Phamous in the treatment process varies considerably among clinicians. Most of the clinicians find ROM-Phamous both useful and important for good clinical practice. In contrast, the perceived ease-of-use is low and most clinicians report insufficient time to use ROM-Phamous. More frequent ROM use should be facilitated in clinicians. This could be achieved by improving the fit with clinical routines and the ease-of-use of ROM systems. It is important for all stakeholders to invest in integrating ROM in clinical practice. Eventually, this might improve the diagnostics and treatment of patients in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards shared patient records: an architecture for using routine data for nationwide research.

    PubMed

    Knaup, Petra; Garde, Sebastian; Merzweiler, Angela; Graf, Norbert; Schilling, Freimut; Weber, Ralf; Haux, Reinhold

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitous information is currently one of the most challenging slogans in medical informatics research. An adequate architecture for shared electronic patient records is needed which can use data for multiple purposes and which is extensible for new research questions. We introduce eardap as architecture for using routine data for nationwide clinical research in a multihospital environment. eardap can be characterized as terminology-based. Main advantage of our approach is the extensibility by new items and new research questions. Once the definition of items for a research question is finished, a consistent, corresponding database can be created without any informatics skills. Our experiences in pediatric oncology in Germany have shown the applicability of eardap. The functions of our core system were in routine clinical use in several hospitals. We validated the terminology management system (TMS) and the module generation tool with the basic data set of pediatric oncology. The multiple usability depends mainly on the quality of item planning in the TMS. High quality harmonization will lead to a higher amount of multiply used data. When using eardap, special emphasis is to be placed on interfaces to local hospital information systems and data security issues.

  5. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE SPIRITUAL COPING STRATEGIES SCALE ARABIC VERSION IN SAUDI PATIENTS UNDERGOING HAEMODIALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas P; Baldacchino, Donia R; Alquwez, Nahed

    2016-06-01

    Patients often resort to religious and spiritual activities to cope with physical and mental challenges. The effect of spiritual coping on overall health, adaptation and health-related quality of life among patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) is well documented. Thus, it is essential to establish a valid and reliable instrument that can assess both the religious and non-religious coping methods in patients undergoing HD. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale Arabic version (SCS-A) in Saudi patients undergoing HD. A convenience sample of 60 Saudi patients undergoing HD was recruited for this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were collected between May and June 2015. Forward-backward translation was used to formulate the SCS-A. The SCS-A, Muslim Religiosity Scale and the Quality of Life Index Dialysis Version III were used to procure the data. Internal consistency reliability, stability reliability, factor analysis and construct validity tests were performed. Analyses were set at the 0.05 level of significance. The SCS-A showed an acceptable internal consistency and strong stability reliability over time. The EFA produced two factors (non-religious and religious coping). Satisfactory construct validity was established by the convergent and divergent validity and known-groups method. The SCS-A is a reliable and valid tool that can be used to measure the religious and non-religious coping strategies of patients undergoing HD in Saudi Arabia and other Muslim and Arabic-speaking countries. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. A Patient Friendly Corifollitropin Alfa Protocol without Routine Pituitary Suppression in Normal Responders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-Ling; Lai, Hsing-Hua; Chuang, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Wei; Huang, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chen, Shee-Uan

    2016-01-01

    The release of corifollitropin alfa simplifies daily injections of short-acting recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), and its widely-used protocol involves short-acting gonadotropins supplements and a fixed GnRH antagonist regimen, largely based on follicle size. In this study, the feasibility of corifollitropin alfa without routine pituitary suppression was evaluated. A total of 288 patients were stimulated by corifollitropin alfa on cycle day 3 following with routine serum hormone monitoring and follicle scanning every other day after 5 days of initial stimulation, and a GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg) was only used prophylactically when the luteinizing hormone (LH) was ≧ 6 IU/L (over half of the definitive LH surge). The incidence of premature LH surge (≧ 10 IU/L) was 2.4% (7/288) before the timely injection of a single GnRH antagonist, and the elevated LH level was dropped down from 11.9 IU/L to 2.2 IU/L after the suppression. Two hundred fifty-one patients did not need any antagonist (87.2% [251/288]) throughout the whole stimulation. No adverse effects were observed regarding oocyte competency (fertilization rate: 78%; blastocyst formation rate: 64%). The live birth rate per OPU cycle after the first cryotransfer was 56.3% (161/286), and the cumulative live birth rate per OPU cycle after cyrotransfers was 69.6% (199/286). Of patients who did and did not receive GnRH antagonist during stimulation, no significant difference existed in the cumulative live birth rates (78.4% vs. 68.3%, p = 0.25). The results demonstrated that the routine GnRH antagonist administration is not required in the corifollitropin-alfa cycles using a flexible and hormone-depended antagonist regimen, while the clinical outcome is not compromised. This finding reveals that the use of a GnRH antagonist only occasionally may be needed. PMID:27100388

  7. A Patient Friendly Corifollitropin Alfa Protocol without Routine Pituitary Suppression in Normal Responders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huai-Ling; Lai, Hsing-Hua; Chuang, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Wei; Huang, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chen, Shee-Uan

    2016-01-01

    The release of corifollitropin alfa simplifies daily injections of short-acting recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), and its widely-used protocol involves short-acting gonadotropins supplements and a fixed GnRH antagonist regimen, largely based on follicle size. In this study, the feasibility of corifollitropin alfa without routine pituitary suppression was evaluated. A total of 288 patients were stimulated by corifollitropin alfa on cycle day 3 following with routine serum hormone monitoring and follicle scanning every other day after 5 days of initial stimulation, and a GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg) was only used prophylactically when the luteinizing hormone (LH) was ≧ 6 IU/L (over half of the definitive LH surge). The incidence of premature LH surge (≧ 10 IU/L) was 2.4% (7/288) before the timely injection of a single GnRH antagonist, and the elevated LH level was dropped down from 11.9 IU/L to 2.2 IU/L after the suppression. Two hundred fifty-one patients did not need any antagonist (87.2% [251/288]) throughout the whole stimulation. No adverse effects were observed regarding oocyte competency (fertilization rate: 78%; blastocyst formation rate: 64%). The live birth rate per OPU cycle after the first cryotransfer was 56.3% (161/286), and the cumulative live birth rate per OPU cycle after cyrotransfers was 69.6% (199/286). Of patients who did and did not receive GnRH antagonist during stimulation, no significant difference existed in the cumulative live birth rates (78.4% vs. 68.3%, p = 0.25). The results demonstrated that the routine GnRH antagonist administration is not required in the corifollitropin-alfa cycles using a flexible and hormone-depended antagonist regimen, while the clinical outcome is not compromised. This finding reveals that the use of a GnRH antagonist only occasionally may be needed.

  8. How good patient blood management leads to excellent outcomes in Jehovah's witness patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Maximilian Y; Salzberg, Sacha P; Theusinger, Oliver M; Felix, Christian; Plass, Andre; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Falk, Volkmar; Gruenenfelder, Juerg

    2011-02-01

    The refusal of blood products makes open-heart surgery in Jehovah's witnesses (JW) an ethical challenge. We demonstrate how patient blood management strategies lead to excellent surgical outcomes. From 2003 to 2008, 16 JW underwent cardiac surgery at our institution. Only senior surgeons performed coronary revascularization (n=6), valve (n=6), combined (n=1) and aortic surgery (n=3) of which two patients presented with acute type-A dissection. Off-pump surgery remained the method of choice for patients requiring a bypass procedure (n=5). Preoperative hematocrit (Hk) and hemoglobin (Hb) were 42.8±4.7% and 14.5±2 g/dl. In three patients with an Hb<12 g/dl, preoperative hematological stimulating treatment was implemented. All patients survived, no major complications occurred and no blood transfusion was administered. The Cell Saver® system (transfused volume: 474±101 ml) and synthetic plasma substitutes [Ringer's Lactate: 873±367 ml and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 6%: 700±388 ml] were used routinely as well as hemostaticas, such as bone wax, and fibrin glue. The decrease of Hk and Hb appeared to be the lowest after off-pump surgery when compared to all other procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (25±9% vs. 33±6%; P=0.01 and 22±9% vs. 31±6%; P=0.04). Similarly, the decrease of platelets was significantly lower (20±12% vs. 43±14%; P=0.01). In the follow-up period (52±34 months), one patient died due to a non-cardiac reason, whereas all others were alive, in good clinical condition and did not have major adverse cardiac events (MACE) or recurrent symptoms requiring re-intervention. Patient blood management leads to excellent short- and long-term outcomes in JW. Combined efforts in regard to preoperative hematological parameter optimization, effective volume management and meticulous surgical techniques make this possible but raise the cautionary note why this is only possible in JW patients.

  9. Two Cases of Peritonitis Caused by Kocuria marina in Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Si Hyun; Jeong, Haeng Soon; Oh, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hye Ran; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Kook, Joong-Ki; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Bae, Il Kwon; Shin, Jeong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    Kocuria spp. are members of the Micrococcaceae family that are frequently found in the environment and on human skin. Few human infections have been reported. We describe what appear to be the first two cases of Kocuria marina peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. PMID:19692561

  10. Clinical and economic effectiveness of percutaneous ventricular assist devices for high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Shah, Atman P; Retzer, Elizabeth M; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D; Friant, Janet; Dill, Karin E; Thomas, Joseph L

    2015-03-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is taking a more prominent role in formalizing hospital treatment protocols and health-care coverage policies by having health-care providers consider the impact of new devices on costs and outcomes. CER balances the need for innovation with fiscal responsibility and evidence-based care. This study compared the clinical and economic impact of percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVAD) with intraaortic balloon pumps for high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study conducted a review of all comparative randomized control trials of the pVADS (Impella and TandemHeart) vs IABP for patients undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A retrospective analysis of the 2010 and 2011 Medicare MEDPAR data files was also performed to compare procedural costs and hospital length of stay (LOS). Readmission rates between the devices were also studied. Based on available trials, there is no significant clinical benefit with pVAD compared to IABP. Use of pVADs is associated with increased length of Intensive Care Unit stay and a total longer LOS. The incremental budget impact for pVADs was $33,957,839 for the United States hospital system (2010-2011). pVADs are not associated with improved clinical outcomes, reduced hospital length of stay, or reduced readmission rates. Management of high-risk PCI and cardiogenic shock patients with IABP is more cost effective than a routine use of pVADS. Use of IABP as initial therapy in high-risk PCI and cardiogenic shock patients may result in savings of up to $2.5 billion annually of incremental costs to the hospital system.

  11. Effect of nutritional status on mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Muhammed; İpek, Göktük; Aldağ, Mustafa; Altay, Servet; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Börklü, Edibe Betül; İnan, Duygu; Kozan, Ömer

    2018-04-01

    The prognostic effects of poor nutritional status and cardiac cachexia on coronary artery disease (CAD) are not clearly understood. A well-accepted nutritional status parameter, the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), which was first demonstrated to be valuable in patients with cancer and those undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, was introduced to patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of PNI in patients with CAD undergoing CABG. We evaluated the in-hospital and long-term (3-y) prognostic effect of PNI on 644 patients with CAD undergoing CABG. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared among the patients by PNI and categorized accordingly: Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. Patients with lower PNI had significantly higher in-hospital and long-term mortality. Patients with lower PNI levels (Q1) had higher in-hospital mortality and had 12 times higher mortality rates than those with higher PNI levels (Q4). The higher PNI group had the lower rates and was used as the reference. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with lower PNI (Q1)-4.9 times higher than in the higher PNI group (Q4). In-hospital and long-term mortality rates were similar in the non-lower PNI groups (Q2-4). The present study demonstrated that PNI, calculated based on serum albumin level and lymphocyte count, is an independent prognostic factor for mortality in patients undergoing CABG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation and Treated With Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Gastélum-Cano, Jose M; Méndez-Huerta, Mariana A; Rodríguez-Gallegos, Alma B; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2018-06-15

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is partially impaired in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). When given chemotherapy before receiving hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, GFR might be further deteriorated. To measure the effect of cyclophosphamide on GFR in patients with MS who undergo chemotherapy. We estimated GFR based on creatinine and cystatin C plasma concentrations in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation to treat their MS. Baseline GFR values were lower in the 28 patients with MS than in the 20 healthy individuals. Also, according to the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) 2012 Creat-CysC equation criteria, 4 of 28 patients were classified as having chronic kidney disease (CKD) before receiving the chemotherapy drugs. After receiving 4 × 50 mg per kg body weight cyclophosphamide, abnormal GFR results were recorded in 12 of 28 patients. Renal function must be monitored in patients with MS undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation. Also, chemotherapy should be constrained as much as possible to prevent further deterioration of renal function.

  13. Celiac disease or positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies in patients undergoing renal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Rakel; Metso, Martti; Pörsti, Ilkka; Niemelä, Onni; Huhtala, Heini; Mustonen, Jukka; Kaukinen, Katri; Mäkelä, Satu

    2018-01-01

    An association between celiac disease and renal diseases has been suggested, but the results are controversial. To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease autoimmunity among individuals undergoing renal biopsies and to evaluate whether co-existent celiac autoimmunity influences the clinical outcome of the renal disease. The prevalence of celiac autoimmunity (previous diagnosis of celiac disease or positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies) was determined in 827 consecutive patients undergoing kidney biopsies due to clinical indications. Up to 15 years' follow-up data on kidney function and co-morbidities were obtained. Celiac autoimmunity was found in 45 (5.4%) patients. Among the IgA nephropathy patients, 8.2% of had celiac autoimmunity. At the time of kidney biopsy and after a median follow-up of 5 to 6 years, renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was inferior in IgA nephropathy patients with celiac autoimmunity compared to those without it (P=0.048 and P=0.022, respectively). The prevalence of celiac autoimmunity seems to be high in patients undergoing renal biopsies, especially in patients with IgA nephropathy. Such autoimmunity may be associated with worse renal function in IgA nephropathy. Hence the co-existence of celiac disease should be taken into consideration when treating patients with renal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ciprofloxacin in patients undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Shalit, I; Greenwood, R B; Marks, M I; Pederson, J A; Frederick, D L

    1986-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis is often complicated by several factors, including nephrotoxicity, requirement for hospitalization, parenteral antibiotic therapy, and infection caused by resistant microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin, a new carboxyquinolone derivative, may offer the advantages of oral administration, a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, and safety for the management of these patients. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in serum and peritoneal fluid of eight adult patients undergoing chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were investigated. Each patient ingested a single 750-mg dose of ciprofloxacin, and drug concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography in serum and peritoneal fluid for 48 h after the dose. Serum concentrations reached a mean peak of 3.6 micrograms/ml 1 to 2 h after the oral dose. The mean terminal serum half-life was 16.8 h, and the mean peritoneal fluid/serum concentration ratio was 0.64. The mean peak ciprofloxacin concentration in peritoneal fluid was 1.3 micrograms/ml, and the bioactivity of the drug in peritoneal fluid was confirmed. These data indicated that therapeutic concentrations of ciprofloxacin against bacterial pathogens commonly associated with peritonitis in CAPD patients may be achievable in the peritoneal fluid after oral administration to patients undergoing CAPD. In addition, the pharmacokinetic data provide guidelines for further clinical studies of oral ciprofloxacin in CAPD patients. PMID:2944477

  15. Rapid learning in practice: A lung cancer survival decision support system in routine patient care data

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Andre; Vinod, Shalini; Holloway, Lois; Oberije, Cary; George, Armia; Goozee, Gary; Delaney, Geoff P.; Lambin, Philippe; Thwaites, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose A rapid learning approach has been proposed to extract and apply knowledge from routine care data rather than solely relying on clinical trial evidence. To validate this in practice we deployed a previously developed decision support system (DSS) in a typical, busy clinic for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Material and methods Gender, age, performance status, lung function, lymph node status, tumor volume and survival were extracted without review from clinical data sources for lung cancer patients. With these data the DSS was tested to predict overall survival. Results 3919 lung cancer patients were identified with 159 eligible for inclusion, due to ineligible histology or stage, non-radical dose, missing tumor volume or survival. The DSS successfully identified a good prognosis group and a medium/poor prognosis group (2 year OS 69% vs. 27/30%, p < 0.001). Stage was less discriminatory (2 year OS 47% for stage I–II vs. 36% for stage IIIA–IIIB, p = 0.12) with most good prognosis patients having higher stage disease. The DSS predicted a large absolute overall survival benefit (~40%) for a radical dose compared to a non-radical dose in patients with a good prognosis, while no survival benefit of radical radiotherapy was predicted for patients with a poor prognosis. Conclusions A rapid learning environment is possible with the quality of clinical data sufficient to validate a DSS. It uses patient and tumor features to identify prognostic groups in whom therapy can be individualized based on predicted outcomes. Especially the survival benefit of a radical versus non-radical dose predicted by the DSS for various prognostic groups has clinical relevance, but needs to be prospectively validated. PMID:25241994

  16. Mitral valve disease in patients with Marfan syndrome undergoing aortic root replacement.

    PubMed

    Kunkala, Meghana R; Schaff, Hartzell V; Li, Zhuo; Volguina, Irina; Dietz, Harry C; LeMaire, Scott A; Coselli, Joseph S; Connolly, Heidi

    2013-09-10

    Cardiac manifestations of Marfan syndrome include aortic root dilation and mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Only scant data exist describing MVP in patients with Marfan syndrome undergoing aortic root replacement. We retrospectively analyzed data from 166 MFS patients with MVP who were enrolled in a prospective multicenter registry of patients who underwent aortic root aneurysm repair. Of these 166 patients, 9% had mitral regurgitation (MR) grade >2, and 10% had MR grade 2. The severity of MVP and MR was evaluated by echocardiography preoperatively and ≤ 3 years postoperatively. Forty-one patients (25%) underwent composite graft aortic valve replacement, and 125 patients (75%) underwent aortic valve-sparing procedures; both groups had similar prevalences of MR grade >2 (P=0.7). Thirty-three patients (20%) underwent concomitant mitral valve (MV) intervention (repair, n=29; replacement, n=4), including all 15 patients with MR grade >2. Only 1 patient required MV reintervention during follow-up (mean clinical follow-up, 31 ± 10 months). Echocardiography performed 21 ± 13 months postoperatively revealed MR >2 in only 3 patients (2%). One early death and 2 late deaths occurred. Although the majority of patients with Marfan syndrome who undergo elective aortic root replacement have MVP, only 20% have concomitant MV procedures. These concomitant procedures do not seem to increase operative risk. In patients with MR grade ≤ 2 who do not undergo a concomitant MV procedure, the short-term incidence of progressive MR is low; however, more follow-up is needed to determine whether patients with MVP and MR grade ≤ 2 would benefit from prophylactic MV intervention.

  17. Trend in and Correlates of Undergoing Radiotherapy in Taiwanese Cancer Patients' Last Month of Life.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Cheng, Skye Hung-Chun; Liu, Tsang-Wu; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Jen-Shi; Tang, Siew Tzuh

    2016-09-01

    A significant proportion of cancer patients at end of life (EOL) undergo radiotherapy, but this evidence is not from nationwide population-based studies. The aims of this population-based study were to investigate the trend in undergoing radiotherapy among Taiwanese cancer patients' last month of life (EOL radiotherapy) in 2001-2010 and to identify factors associated with EOL radiotherapy. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study analyzing data from Taiwan's national death registry, cancer registry, and National Health Insurance claims for EOL radiotherapy using multilevel generalized linear mixed modeling. Participants were Taiwanese cancer patients (N = 339,546) who died in 2001-2010. Overall, 8.59% (7.97%-9.85%) of patients underwent EOL radiotherapy with a decreasing trend over time. Correlates of EOL radiotherapy included male gender, younger age, residing in less urbanized areas, diagnosis of lung cancer, metastatic disease, death within two years of diagnosis, and without comorbidities. Cancer patients were more likely to undergo EOL radiotherapy if they received primary care from medical oncologists and pediatricians, in a nonprofit, teaching hospital with a larger case volume of terminally ill cancer patients, and greater EOL care intensity. Approximately one-tenth of Taiwanese cancer patients underwent EOL radiotherapy with a decreasing trend over time. Undergoing EOL radiotherapy was associated with demographics, disease characteristics, physician specialty, and primary hospital's characteristics and EOL care practice patterns. Clinical and financial interventions should target hospitals/physicians that tend to aggressively treat at-risk cancer patients at EOL to carefully evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of using EOL radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pets are ‘risky business’ for patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fifi, Yahya Salim Yahya; Sathianathan, Chris; Murray, Brenda-Lee; Alfa, Michelle J

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the first case in Manitoba of a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who experienced three successive infections with Pasteurella multocida and Capnocytophaga species over an eight-month period. These zoonotic infections were believed to originate from contact with the patient’s household pets. To prevent such infections, the authors recommend the development and implementation of hygiene guidelines outlining the risks associated with owning domestic pets for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:24421840

  19. Assessing Physician-Patient Dialogues About Chronic Migraine During Routine Office Visits.

    PubMed

    Buse, Dawn C; Gillard, Patrick; Arctander, Kaitlyn; Kuang, Amy W; Lipton, Richard B

    2018-05-04

    To assess physician-patient communication and identify the frequency of use of specific communication techniques by analyzing recordings of routinely scheduled medical encounters for patients with clinician-identified chronic migraine. Chronic migraine is an under-diagnosed, under-treated, and highly burdensome disease. Effective medical communication is integral to optimal medical care, including providing accurate diagnoses, creating effective treatment plans, and enhancing patient adherence. Communication patterns during office visits may be a target for intervention to improve outcomes for people with chronic migraine. This was a prospective, observational study based on analysis of audio recordings collected during neurologist-patient chronic migraine dialogues. Twenty neurologists from a US neurology panel maintained by Verilogue, Inc., a research organization specializing in healthcare dialogues, were invited to identify patients with chronic migraine and record clinical encounters with their patients. Both new patient visits and follow-up visits were included in this analysis. Neurologist-patient dialogues were audio-recorded, anonymized, transcribed, and analyzed by a sociolinguist for the presence of prespecified communication parameters, strategies, and specific language indicative of optimal migraine-related medical care. Fourteen out of the 20 invited neurologists (70.0%) accepted the study invitation and recorded 35 encounters with patients eligible for the study. The patient sample was 91.4% female (n = 32/35), with a mean age of 46 years. On average, there were 17 headache-related questions per visit; 82.0% of questions were closed-ended (n = 369/450). Headache/migraine frequency was elicited in 77.1% of the dialogues (n = 27/35), but headache days per month was assessed in only a single dialogue. Only one neurologist utilized the ask-tell-ask technique. Headache-related disability was discussed in 22.9%of the dialogues (n = 8

  20. Music and ambient operating room noise in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Chakib M; Rizk, Laudi B; Yaacoub, Chadi I; Gaal, Dorothy; Kain, Zeev N

    2005-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that music decreases intraoperative sedative requirements in patients undergoing surgical procedures under regional anesthesia. In this study we sought to determine whether this decrease in sedative requirements results from music or from eliminating operating room (OR) noise. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the relationship of response to intraoperative music and participants' culture (i.e., American versus Lebanese). Eighty adults (36 American and 54 Lebanese) undergoing urological procedures with spinal anesthesia and patient-controlled IV propofol sedation were randomly assigned to intraoperative music, white noise, or OR noise. We found that, controlling for ambient OR noise, intraoperative music decreases propofol requirements (0.004 +/- 0.002 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) versus 0.014 +/- 0.004 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) versus 0.012 +/- 0.002 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1); P = 0.026). We also found that, regardless of group assignment, Lebanese patients used less propofol as compared with American patients (0.005 +/- 0.001 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) versus 0.017 +/- 0.003 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1); P = 0.001) and that, in both sites, patients in the music group required less propofol (P < 0.05). We conclude that when controlling for ambient OR noise, intraoperative music decreases propofol requirements of both Lebanese and American patients who undergo urological surgery under spinal anesthesia.

  1. Personality, function and satisfaction in patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Jenkins, Paul; Lane, Judith V; Knight, Sara; Macdonald, Deborah; Howie, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between personality and joint-specific function, general physical and general mental health in patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred and eighty-four patients undergoing THA and 205 undergoing TKA were assessed using the Eysneck Personality Questionnaire, brief version (EPQ-BV). General physical and mental health was measured using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire and the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Joint-specific function was measured using the Oxford hip or knee score. The "unstable introvert" personality type was associated with poorer pre-operative function and health in patients with hip arthrosis. In patients with knee arthrosis, there was poorer general health in those with "stable extrovert" and "unstable introvert" types. Personality was not an independent predictor of outcome following TKA or THA. The main predictor was pre-operative function and health. Comorbidity was an important covariate of both pre-operative and postoperative function. Personality may play a role in the interaction of these disease processes with function and health perception. It may also affect the response and interpretation of psychometric and patient-reported outcome measures. It may be important to characterise and identify these traits in potential arthroplasty patients as it may help deliver targeted education and management to improve outcomes in certain groups.

  2. Renal insufficiency predicts mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubian, Arezou; Ge, Phillip; Tolan, Amy; Saltmarsh, Guy; Kaji, Amy H; Neville, Angela L; Bricker, Scott; De Virgilio, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Clinical predictors of perioperative mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients and factors associated with mortality. A retrospective review of patients 65 years of age or older undergoing emergent general surgery at a public teaching hospital was performed over a 7-year period. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, laboratory studies, perioperative morbidities, and mortality. Descriptive statistics and predictors of morbidity and mortality are described. The mean age was 74 years. Indications for surgery included small bowel obstruction (24%), diverticulitis (20%), perforated viscous (16%), and large bowel obstruction (9%). The overall complication rate was 41 per cent with six cardiac complications (14%) and seven perioperative (16%) deaths. Mean admission serum creatinine was significantly higher in patients who died (3.6 vs 1.5 mg/dL, P = 0.004). Mortality for patients with an admission serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dL was 42 per cent (5 of 12) compared with 3 per cent (2 of 32) for those 2.0 mg/dL or less (OR, 10.7; CI, 1.7 to 67; P = 0.01). Morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergency surgery remains high with the most significant predictor of mortality being the presence of renal insufficiency on admission.

  3. Optimizing perioperative outcomes for older patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing arthroplasty: emphasis on medication management.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Susan M

    2015-05-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis continue to undergo arthroplasty despite widespread use of potent disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs), including the biologic tumor necrosis-α inhibitors. In fact, over 80 % of RA patients are taking DMARDs or biologics at the time of arthroplasty. While many RA-specific factors including disease activity and disability may contribute to the increase in infection in RA patients undergoing arthroplasty, immunosuppressant medications may also play a role. As the age of patients with RA undergoing arthroplasty is rising, and the incidence of arthroplasty among the older population is increasing, optimal perioperative management of DMARDs and biologics in older patients with RA is an increasing challenge. Although evidence is sparse, most evidence supports withholding tumor necrosis-α inhibitors and other biologics prior to surgery based on the dosing interval, and continuing methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine through the perioperative period. There is no consensus regarding leflunomide, and rituximab risk does not appear related to the interval between infusion and surgery. This paper reviews arthroplasty outcomes including complications in patients with RA, and discusses the rationale for strategies for the optimal medication management of DMARDs and biologics in the perioperative period to minimize complications and improve outcomes.

  4. Forced-Air Warmers and Surgical Site Infections in Patients Undergoing Knee or Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Austin, Paul N

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the evidence indicates preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia reduces the incidence of many perioperative complications. Among the results of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia are increased bleeding, myocardial events, impaired wound healing, and diminished renal function. Most researchers agree there is an increased incidence of surgical site infections in patients who experience inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Forced-air warming is effective in preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Paradoxically, forced-air warmers have been implicated in causing surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. The results of investigations suggest these devices harbor pathogens and cause unwanted airflow disturbances. However, no significant increases in bacterial counts were found when forced-air warmers were used according to the manufacturer's directions. The results of one study suggested the incidence of surgical site infections in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty was increased when using a forced-air warmer. However these researchers did not control for other factors affecting the incidence of surgical site infections in these patients. Current evidence does not support forced-air warmers causing surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. Clinicians must use and maintain these devices as per the manufacturer's directions. They may consider using alternative warming methods. Well-conducted studies are needed to help determine the role of forced-air warmers in causing infections in these patients.

  5. Postoperative outcomes in patients with a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order undergoing elective procedures.

    PubMed

    Brovman, Ethan Y; Walsh, Elisa C; Burton, Brittany N; Kuo, Christine E; Lindvall, Charlotta; Gabriel, Rodney A; Urman, Richard D

    2018-05-18

    Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status has been shown to be an independent risk factor for mortality in the post-operative period. Patients with DNR orders often undergo elective surgeries to alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life, but there are limited data on outcomes for informed decision making. Retrospective cohort study. A multi-institutional setting including operating room, postoperative recovery area, inpatient wards, and the intensive care unit. A total of 566 patients with a DNR status and 316,431 patients without a DNR status undergoing elective procedures using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) from 2012. Patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. We analyzed the risk-adjusted 30-day morbidity and mortality outcomes for the matched DNR and non-DNR cohorts undergoing elective surgeries. DNR patients had significantly increased odds of 30-day mortality (OR 2.51 [1.55-4.05], p < 0.001) compared with non-DNR patients. In the DNR versus non-DNR cohort there was no significant difference in the occurrence of a number of 30-day complications, the rate of resuscitative measures undertaken, including cardiac arrest requiring CPR, reintubation, or return to the OR. The most common complications in both DNR and non-DNR patients undergoing elective procedures were transfusion, urinary tract infection, reoperation, and sepsis. Finally, the DNR patients had a significantly increased total length of hospital stay (7.65 ± 9.55 vs. 6.87 ± 9.21 days, p = 0.002). DNR patients, as compared with non-DNR patients, have increased post-operative mortality but not morbidity, which may arise from unmeasured severity of illness or transition to comfort care in accordance with a patient's wishes. The informed consent process for elective surgeries in this patient population should include a discussion of acceptable operative risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Quinlan, Amy; Heck-Kanellidis, Jennifer; Calderon, Dawn; Patel, Tejas; Gandhi, Bhavika; Patel, Shrinil; Hetavi, Mahida; Costanzo, Eric J; Cosentino, James; Patel, Chirag; Dewan, Asa; Kuo, Yen-Hong; Salman, Loay; Vachharajani, Tushar J

    2018-07-01

    While transradial approach to conduct percutaneous coronary interventions offers multiple advantages, the procedure can cause radial artery damage and occlusion. Because radial artery is the preferred site for the creation of an arteriovenous fistula to provide dialysis, patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly dependent on radial artery for their long-term survival. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients undergoing coronary interventions via radial artery. Stage of chronic kidney disease was based on estimated glomerular filtration rate and National Kidney Foundation - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. A total of 497 patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions were included. Over 70.4% (350/497) of the patients had chronic kidney disease. Stage II chronic kidney disease was observed in 243 (69%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 76.0 ± 8.4 mL/min). Stage III was observed in 93 (27%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 49 ± 7.5 mL/min). Stage IV chronic kidney disease was observed in 5 (1%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 25.6 ± 4.3 mL/min) and Stage V chronic kidney disease was observed in 9 (3%) patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 9.3 ± 3.5 mL/min). Overall, 107 of 350 patients (30%) had advanced chronic kidney disease, that is, stage III-V chronic kidney disease. Importantly, 14 of the 107 (13%) patients had either stage IV or V chronic kidney disease. This study finds that nearly one-third of the patients undergoing transradial percutaneous coronary interventions have advanced chronic kidney disease. Because many of these patients may require dialysis, the use of radial artery to conduct percutaneous coronary interventions must be carefully considered in chronic kidney disease population.

  7. Impact of Liver Indicators on Clinical Outcome in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Daniel; Kahlert, Philipp; Canbay, Ali; Knipp, Stephan; Thoenes, Martin; Cremer, Gordina; Al-Rashid, Fadi; Jánosi, Rolf-Alexander; El-Chilali, Karim; Kamler, Markus; El Gabry, Mohamed; Marx, Philipp; Dohle, Daniel Sebastian; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Benedik, Jaroslav; Gerken, Guido; Rassaf, Tienush; Jakob, Heinz; Thielmann, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    Liver dysfunction increases death and morbidity after cardiac operations. There are currently no data evaluating liver function in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We aimed therefore to evaluate our TAVR results in regard to liver function. A total of 640 consecutive TAVR patients were evaluated. Of those, 11 patients presented with chronic liver disease before TAVR. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was used to measure liver function in these patients. The primary study end point was 30-day mortality in patients presenting with liver dysfunction. Secondary study end point was liver enzymes after TAVR. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score in patients with chronic liver disease was 16.8 ± 6.2 (median, 18; range, 7 to 26). The 30-day mortality was 9.1% (57 of 629) in patients presenting without liver disease and 9.1% (1 of 11) in patients with liver disease (p = 1.00). Patients with chronic liver disease showed significantly higher preoperative levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (p < 0.001). After TAVR, we observed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase on postoperative day 3 compared with preoperative values (p < 0.001), accompanied by a decrease in albumin (p < 0.001). Liver cirrhosis per se is not considered as a contraindication for cardiac operations. In the present study, we did not observe a higher 30-day mortality rate in liver cirrhotic patients undergoing TAVR, suggesting TAVR as a feasible alternative with acceptable outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. Moreover, the present study is the first to evaluate liver variables in patients undergoing TAVR. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Should patients with Björk-Shiley valves undergo prophylactic replacement?

    PubMed

    Birkmeyer, J D; Marrin, C A; O'Connor, G T

    1992-08-29

    About 85,000 patients have undergone replacement of diseased heart valves with prosthetic Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (CC) valves. These valves are prone to fracture of the outlet strut, which leads to acute valve failure that is usually fatal. Should patients with these valves undergo prophylactic replacement to avoid fracture? The incidence of strut fracture varies between 0% and 1.5% per year, depending on valve opening angle (60 degrees or 70 degrees), diameter (less than 29 mm or greater than or equal to 29 mm), and location (aortic or mitral). Other factors include the patient's life expectancy and the expected morbidity and mortality associated with reoperation. We have used decision analysis to identify the patients most likely to benefit from prophylactic reoperation. The incidence of outlet strut fracture was estimated from the data of three large studies on CC valves, and stratified by opening angle, diameter, and location. A Markov decision analysis model was used to estimate life expectancy for patients undergoing prophylactic valve replacement and for those not undergoing reoperation. Prophylactic valve replacement does not benefit patients with CC valves that have low strut fracture risks (60 degrees aortic valves and less than 29 mm, 60 degrees mitral valves). For most patients with CC valves that have high strut fracture risks (greater than or equal to 29 mm, 70 degrees CC), prophylactic valve replacement increases life expectancy. However, elderly patients with such valves benefit from prophylactic reoperation only if the risk of operative mortality is low. Patient age and operative risk are most important in recommendations for patients with CC valves that have intermediate strut fracture risks (less than 29 mm, 70 degrees valves and greater than or equal to 29 mm, 60 degrees mitral valves). For all patients and their doctors facing the difficult decision on whether to replace CC valves, individual estimates of operative mortality risk that

  9. Effects of different types of pharyngeal packing in patients undergoing nasal surgery: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Mohd Meesam; Singh, Raj Bahadur; Rasheed, Mohd Asim; Sarkar, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative throat complaints such as postoperative sore throat (POST), dysphagia, and hoarseness frequently arises after tracheal intubation and throat packing for patient undergoing general anesthesia. This condition is very disturbing to patient. Avoiding POST is a major priority for these patients because preventing postoperative complications contributes to patient satisfaction. To describe and analyze the postoperative throat effects of nasopharyngeal packing and oropharyngeal packing in patients undergoing nasal surgery. A randomized comparative study. After obtaining approval of Ethical Committee 40 patients were included in study. After this patient were randomly allocated into two groups of 20 each. Group A - in which the oropharynx was packed and Group B - inwhich the nasopharynx was packed. General anesthesia were given and throat packing was done and patients were interviewed postoperatively for any throat complications such as sore throat, difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), hoarseness of voice, throat irritation, and any other symptom pertaining to the study were noted and data were analyzed. T-test to compare the age, while Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare sex distribution, sore throat, dysphagia, hoarseness, and throat irritation. Results showed statistically significant difference in incidence and severity of POST in Group A patients when compared to Group B patients to be more. Patients in Group A had a higher incidence of dysphagia when compared to their Group B counterparts. With respect to the incidence of hoarseness and throat irritation, there was no statistical significance between the groups. We concluded that the site of pharyngeal packing influences the incidence and severity of POST and as well as the incidence of dysphagia after general anesthesia. The use of nasopharyngeal packing in the patients undergoing nasal surgeries might lead to a reduction of the same.

  10. Outcomes of gynecologic oncology patients undergoing gastrografin small bowel follow-through studies.

    PubMed

    Walters, Christen L; Sutton, Amelia L M; Huddleston-Colburn, Mary Kathryn; Whitworth, Jenny M; Schneider, Kellie E; Straughn, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the outcomes of gynecologic oncology patients undergoing small bowel follow-throughs (SBFTs) with Gastrografin at our institution. We identified all gynecologic oncology patients undergoing an SBFT from January 2004 to December 2009. We characterized the SBFT as normal, delayed transit, partial obstruction, or complete obstruction. Patient outcomes were correlated with the SBFT results. Seventy patients underwent 79 SBFT examinations with Gastrografin to evaluate their bowel dysfunction. The overall rate of operative intervention was 23%. A total of 69% of patients with a complete obstruction underwent surgery as compared to 21% of patients with a partial obstruction (p = 0.002). Return of bowel function was significantly longer in patients with complete obstructions as compared to patients with partial obstructions (48 vs. 8 hours, p = 0.006). Length of stay was longest in patients with complete obstructions. The majority of patients with a complete obstruction on SBFT will require surgical intervention and have a protracted hospital stay. Patients with delayed transit or a partial obstruction on SBFT usually will have resolution of their bowel dysfunction with conservative management.

  11. Importance of including Blomia tropicalis in the routine diagnosis of Venezuelan patients with persistent allergic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Puccio, F A; Lynch, N R; Noya, O; Noga, O; Noda, A; Hagel, I; López, E; López, R; Caraballo, L; Mercado, D; DiPrisco, M C

    2004-07-01

    Blomia tropicalis is a common mite found in the house dust of many tropical countries including Venezuela. The prevalence of skin test and specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E reactivity to B. tropicalis in Venezuela has not been previously evaluated. In the present study we evaluated the skin reactivity by skin prick test and specific IgE by a multiple antigen blot assay, against B. tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, in a group of 115 subjects who attended the Allergy Clinic of the Institute of Biomedicine, Caracas, Venezuela, and we studied possible cross reactions between similar proteins of these two mites. One hundred and six patients with persistent allergic respiratory symptoms showed a positive skin prick test to at least one of the mite extracts, with the frequency of positive reactions to B. tropicalis being as high as to D. pteronyssinus. Twelve patients reacted only to D. pteronyssinus and 13 different patients only to B. tropicalis. Specific IgE to each of the mite extracts was found with similar frequency, and the results coincided with the skin test reactivity. The study indicated the importance of including B. tropicalis in routine diagnostic testing in tropical and sub-tropical situations.

  12. Coexisting lumbar spondylosis in patients undergoing TKA: how common and how serious?

    PubMed

    Chang, Chong Bum; Park, Kun Woo; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2014-02-01

    Information on the coexistence of lumbar spondylosis and its influence on overall levels of pain and function in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would be valuable for patient consultation and management. The purposes of this study were to document the prevalence and severity of coexisting lumbar spondylosis in patients with advanced knee OA undergoing TKA and to determine whether the coexisting lumbar spondylosis at the time of TKA adversely affects clinical scores in affected patients before and 2 years after TKA. Radiographic lumbar spine degeneration and lumbar spine symptoms including lower back pain, radiating pain at rest, and radiating pain with activity were assessed in 225 patients undergoing TKA. In addition, the WOMAC score and the SF-36 scores were evaluated before and 2 years after TKA. Potential associations of radiographic lumbar spine degeneration and lumbar spine symptom severities with pre- and postoperative WOMAC subscales and SF-36 scores were examined. All 225 patients had radiographic degeneration of the lumbar spine, and the large majority (89% [200 of 225]) had either moderate or severe spondylosis (72% and 17%, respectively). A total of 114 patients (51%) had at least one moderate or severe lumbar spine symptom. No association was found between radiographic severity of lumbar spine degeneration and pre- and postoperative clinical scores. In terms of lumbar spine symptoms, more severe symptoms were likely to adversely affect the preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) scores, but most of these adverse effects improved by 2 years after TKA with the exception of the association between severe radiating pain during activity and a poorer postoperative SF-36 PCS score (regression coefficient = -5.41, p = 0.015). Radiographic lumbar spine degeneration and lumbar spine symptoms are common among patients with advanced knee OA undergoing TKA. Severe lumbar spine symptoms

  13. Prognostic implications of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Abidov, Aiden; Hachamovitch, Rory; Rozanski, Alan; Hayes, Sean W; Santos, Marcia M; Sciammarella, Maria G; Cohen, Ishac; Gerlach, James; Friedman, John D; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) provides incremental prognostic information relative to myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) with respect to risk of cardiac death (CD). The prognostic significance of AF in patients undergoing MPS is not known. A total of 16,048 consecutive patients undergoing MPS were followed-up for a mean of 2.21 +/- 1.15 years for the development of CD. Of those, 384 patients (2.4%) had AF. Cox proportional hazards method was used to compare clinical and perfusion data for the prediction of CD in patients with and without AF. Atrial fibrillation was a significant predictor of CD in patients with normal (1.6% per year vs. 0.4% per year in non-AF patients), mildly abnormal (6.3% per year vs. 1.2% per year), and severely abnormal MPS (6.4% per year vs. 3.7% per year) (p < 0.001 for all). By multivariable analysis, AF patients had worse survival (p = 0.001) even after adjustment for the variables most predictive of CD: age, diabetes, shortness of breath, use of vasodilator stress, rest heart rate, and the nuclear variables. In the 4,239 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction evaluated by gated MPS, AF demonstrated incremental prognostic value not only over clinical and nuclear variables, but also over left ventricular ejection in predicting CD (p = 0.014). The presence of AF independently increases the risk of cardiac events over perfusion and function variables in patients undergoing MPS. Patients with AF have a high risk of CD, even when MPS is only mildly abnormal. Whether patients with AF and mildly abnormal MPS constitute a group more deserving of early referral to cardiac catheterization is a question warranting further study.

  14. Report from a quality assurance program on patients undergoing the MILD procedure.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Brian; Romeiser, Jamie; Shroyer, A Laurie W; Schiller, Robin; Bae, Jin; Davis, Raphael P; Peyster, Robert; Benveniste, Helene

    2013-05-01

    To characterize trends in pain and functional outcomes and identify risk factors in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and neurogenic claudication undergoing the "Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression" (MILD) procedure. Retrospective observational cohort study. Academic multidisciplinary pain center at Stony Brook Medicine. Patients undergoing the MILD procedure from October 2010 to November 2012. De-identified perioperative, pain and function related data for 50 patients undergoing MILD were extracted from the Center for Pain Management's quality assessment database. Data included numerical rating scale (NRS), symptom severity and physical function (Zurich Claudication Questionnaire), functional status (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), pain interference scores (National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS]), and patients' self-reported low back and lower extremity pain distribution. No MILD patient incurred procedure-related complications. Average NRS scores decreased postoperatively and 64.3% of patients reported less pain at 3 months. Clinically meaningful functional ODI improvements of at least 20% from baseline were present in 25% of the patients at 6 months. Preliminary analysis of changes in PROMIS scores at 3 months revealed that pre-MILD "severe" lumbar canal stenosis may be associated with high risk of "no improvement." No such impact was observed for NRS or ODI outcomes. Overall, pain is reduced and functional status improved in LSS patients following the MILD procedure at 3 and 6 months. Given the small sample size, it is not yet possible to identify patient subgroups at risk for "no improvement." Continued follow-up of longer-term outcomes appears warranted to develop evidence-based patient selection criteria. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Clinical Prediction of Failure of Lamivudine Prophylaxis for Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients Undergoing Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Kyoung; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyo Suk

    2012-01-01

    Although lamivudine (LAM) prophylaxis is recommended for patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) undergoing chemotherapy for malignant disease, HBV reactivation sometimes occurs during or after LAM administration. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of LAM prophylactic failure in patients with malignancies. Patients with malignancies were routinely screened for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from June 2002 to August 2008. All consecutive, HBsAg-positive patients received LAM prophylaxis during and after completion of chemotherapy. We assessed risk factors for virologic breakthrough and withdrawal hepatitis. Death without HBV reactivation was regarded as a competing risk event, which was adjusted by Fine and Gray's model. A total of 110 patients were included in this study. They received LAM prophylaxis for a median of 9.2 months. Virologic breakthrough occurred in 15 patients at a median of 10.9 months from the initiation of LAM prophylaxis. Withdrawal hepatitis occurred in 15 patients at a median of 2.4 months after cessation of LAM prophylaxis. Multivariable analysis showed that high baseline HBV DNA titer (≥2,000 IU/ml) (hazard ratio [HR], 9.94; P = 0.0063) and the use of rituximab (HR, 3.19; P = 0.027) were significant predictors of virologic breakthrough and that high baseline HBV DNA titer (HR, 5.90; P = 0.007), liver cirrhosis (HR, 10.4; P = 0.002), and distant metastasis (HR, 5.14; P = 0.008) were independent risk factors for withdrawal hepatitis. Patients with high viremia, liver cirrhosis, rituximab treatment, and distant metastasis are at high risk of prophylactic failure and need antiviral agents with a greater barrier to resistance. PMID:22890764

  16. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  17. [Comparison of thromboelastography and routine coagulation tests for evaluation of blood coagulation function in patients].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Yi; Ou Yang, Xi-Lin; Wu, Jing-Hui; Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Jin-Hua; Gu, Li-Nan; Lu, Zhu-Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Zi

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the correlation and consistency between thromboelastography(TEG) and routine coagulation tests, and to evaluate the value of the two methods in determining the blood coagulation of patients. The TEG, routine coagulation tests and platelet counts of 182 patients from the Intensive Care Unit(ICU) and Department of Gastroenterology in our hospital from January to September 2014 were performed and analyzed retrospectively for their correlation, Kappa identity test analysis and chi-square test, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of both methods in the patients with bleeding were evaluated. The TEG R time and PT, R time and APTT showed a linear dependence (P<0.01). The relationship between the TEG K value, α-Angle, MA and Fibrinogen showed a linear dependence (P<0.001). And the relationship between the TEG K value, α-Angle, MA and the platelet count were in a linear dependent way (P<0.001). The Kappa values of the TEG R time with PT and APTT were 0.038 (P>0.05) and 0.061 (P>0.05), respectively. The chi-square test values of the TEG R time with PT and APTT were 35.309 (P<0.001) and 15.848 (P<0.001), respectively. The Fibrinogen and the TEG K value, α-Angle, MA value had statistical significance (P<0.001), with a Kappa value of 0.323, 0.288 and 0.427, respectively. The chi-square test values between Fibrinogen and the TEG K value, α-Angle, MA value were not statistically significant, with X2=1.091 (P=0.296), X2=1.361 (P=0.243), X2=0.108 (P=0.742). The Kappa values of the platelet count and the TEG K value, α-Angle, MA value were 0.379, 0.208 and 0.352, respectively, which were also statistically significant difference (P<0.001). The chi-square test values between the platelet count and the TEG K value, α-Angle, MA value showed a statistically significant difference (P<0.001), with X2=37.5, X2=37.23, X2=26.630. The diagnostic sensitivity of the two methods for the patients with bleeding was less than 50%. There was a significant correlation

  18. Defining the Relationship between Patient Decisions to Undergo Breast Reconstruction and Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Kraft, Casey T.; Kozlow, Jeffrey H.; Sabel, Michael S.; Chung, Kevin C.; Momoh, Adeyiza O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies suggest that the decision to undergo breast reconstruction and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) are closely related. Here we describe the relationship between method of reconstruction and decision to undergo CPM. We also evaluate recent trends in CPM use in the context of literature questioning its oncologic benefit. STUDY DESIGN Female patients with unilateral breast cancer were identified and data extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 2000 through 2010. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the relationship between having CPM and key demographic, oncologic and reconstructive factors among women with unilateral breast cancer. RESULTS A total of 157,042 patients with unilateral breast cancer were included. CPM rate increased from 7.7% to 28.3% during the study period, and the proportion of reconstructed patients who underwent CPM increased from 19% to 46%. Reconstruction was associated with higher odds of CPM (odds ratio (OR) 2.79, 95% CI 2.70-2.88, p<0.0001) after controlling for oncologic and demographic factors. Among women who had reconstruction, implant-based reconstruction was associated with significantly higher odds of CPM than autologous tissue reconstruction (OR 1.38, p<0.0001). Over the study period Implant reconstruction rates increased from 28.2% to 43.5% while autologous reconstruction rates decreased from 32.2% to 27.3% in CPM patients. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of CPM continues to increase in spite of literature questioning its oncologic benefit. Our study confirms that reconstruction and the decision to undergo CPM are closely related, with implant reconstruction dominating in patients who undergo CPM. Given the relationship between reconstruction and the choice for CPM, plastic surgeons should play an active role in educating patients to avoid decisions made based on inaccurate information. PMID:25719688

  19. Initial experience with ketamine-based analgesia in patients undergoing robotic radical cystectomy and diversion.

    PubMed

    Jacobsohn, Kenneth; Davis, Tanya D; El-Arabi, Ahmad M; Tlachac, Jonathan; Langenstroer, Peter; O'Connor, R Corey; Guralnick, Michael L; See, William A; Schlosser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We instituted a ketamine-predominant analgesic regimen in the peri- and postoperative periods to limit the effects of narcotic analgesia on bowel function in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The primary end points of interest were time to return of bowel function, time to discharge, and efficacy of the analgesic regimen. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy (RARC) with urinary diversion by a single surgeon at our institution from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. Patients receiving the opioid-minimizing ketamine protocol were compared to a cohort of patients undergoing RARC with an opioid-predominant analgesic regimen. In total, 15 patients (Group A) were included in the ketamine-predominant regimen and 25 patients (Group B) in the opioid-predominant control group. Three patients (19%) in Group A discontinued the protocol due to ketamine side effects. The mean time to bowel movement and length of stay in Group A versus Group B was 3 versus 6 days (p < 0.001), and 4 versus 8 days, respectively (p < 0.001). Group A patients received an average of 13.0 mg of morphine versus 97.5 mg in Group B (p < 0.001). Patients who received our ketamine pain control regimen had a shorter time to return of bowel function and length of hospitalization after RARC. Our study has its limitations as a retrospective, single surgeon, single institution study and the non-randomization of patients. Notwithstanding these limitations, this study was not designed to show inferiority of one approach, but instead to show that our protocol is safe and efficacious, warranting further study in a prospective fashion.

  20. Oral anticoagulation management in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device implantation.

    PubMed

    Black-Maier, Eric; Kim, Sunghee; Steinberg, Benjamin A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Freeman, James V; Kowey, Peter R; Ansell, Jack; Gersh, Bernard J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Naccarelli, Gerald; Hylek, Elaine M; Go, Alan S; Peterson, Eric D; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy is associated with increased periprocedural risks after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation. Patterns of anticoagulation management involving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have not been characterized. Anticoagulation strategies and outcomes differ by anticoagulant type in patients undergoing CIED implantation. Using the nationwide Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, we assessed how atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing CIED implantation were cared for and their subsequent outcomes. Outcomes were compared by oral anticoagulant therapy (none, warfarin, or NOAC) as well as by anticoagulation interruption status. Among 9129 AF patients, 416 (5%) underwent CIED implantation during a median follow-up of 30 months (interquartile range, 24-36). Of these, 60 (14%) had implantation on a NOAC. Relative to warfarin therapy, those on a NOAC were younger (70.5 years [range, 65-77.5 years] vs 77 years [range, 70-82 years]), had less valvular heart disease (15.0% vs 31.3%), higher creatinine clearance (67.3 [range, 59.7-99.0] vs 65.8 [range, 50.0-91.6]), were more likely to have persistent AF (26.7% vs 22.9%), and use concomitant aspirin (51.7% vs 35.2%). OAC therapy was commonly interrupted for CIED in 64% (n = 183 of 284) of warfarin patients and 65% (n = 39 of 60) of NOAC patients. Many interrupted patients received intravenous bridging anticoagulation: 33/183 (18%) interrupted warfarin and 4/39 (10%) interrupted NOAC patients. Thirty-day periprocedure bleeding and stroke adverse events were infrequent. Management of anticoagulation among AF patients undergoing CIED implantation is highly variable, with OAC being interrupted in more than half of both warfarin- and NOAC-treated patients. Bleeding and stroke events were infrequent in both warfarin and NOAC-treated patients. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Cardiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Postoperative hyperglycaemia of diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery - a clinical audit.

    PubMed

    Lehwaldt, Daniela; Kingston, Mary; O'Connor, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hyperglycaemia is associated with postoperative complications in cardiac surgical patients. Conversely, well-controlled glucose levels are said to reduce major infectious complications in diabetic patients. The purpose of this clinical audit was to evaluate the blood glucose levels of diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery and to determine the effectiveness of postoperative glycaemic control. A group of 150 patients from a large Irish cardiac surgery centre was selected by convenience sampling. An audit tool was designed to capture the patients' blood glucose levels, treatment regimes and postoperative complications. The findings showed major variations between 'high', 'good' and 'borderline' blood glucose levels in the pre- and postoperative phase. Although blood glucose testing practices seemed inconsistent, mean levels measured 'borderline'. Furthermore, the treatment regimes varied greatly and suggest a lack of consensus regarding the management of postoperative hyperglycaemia. A total of 52% (n = 78) patients developed 114 complications with a level of 21.4% (n = 32) postoperative wound infections. The findings from this audit highlight the importance of regular blood glucose testing to enable early detection of hyperglycaemia and timely initiation of appropriate treatments regimes for diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Findings also show that hyperglycaemia derangement may make a difference in the recovery phase. While patients will benefit from lesser wound infections, hospitals might save costs involved with treating postoperative complications. More consistent blood glucose testing might be achieved through the use of evidence-based protocols. However, the education of staff is as important as it develops knowledge on the complex metabolic interactions of diabetic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. While this means investing in staff education and policy development, costs for daily care and expensive

  2. Transesophageal Echocardiography, 3-Dimensional and Speckle Tracking Together as Sensitive Markers for Early Outcome in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Puri, Goverdhan Dutt; Bahl, Ajay

    2017-10-01

    Speckle tracking, when combined with 3-dimensional (3D) left ventricular ejection fraction, might prove to be a more sensitive marker for postoperative ventricular dysfunction. This study investigated early outcomes in a cohort of patients with left ventricular dysfunction undergoing cardiac surgery. Prospective, blinded, observational study. University hospital; single institution. The study comprised 73 adult patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. Routine transesophageal echocardiography before and after bypass. Global longitudinal strain using speckle tracking and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction were computed using transesophageal echocardiography. Mean prebypass global longitudinal strain and 3D left ventricle ejection fraction were significantly lower in patients with postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome compared with patients who did not develop low cardiac output (global longitudinal strain -7.5% v -10.7% and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction 29% v 39%, respectively; p < 0.0001). The cut-off value of global longitudinal strain predicting postoperative low-cardiac-output syndrome was -6%, with 95% sensitivity and 68% specificity; and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction was 19% with 98% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Preoperative left ventricular global longitudinal strain (-6%) and 3D left ventricular ejection fraction (19%) together could act as predictor of postoperative low-cardiac-output states with high sensitivity (99.9%) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cervical Cancer Risk for 330,000 Women Undergoing Concurrent HPV Testing and Cervical Cytology in Routine Clinical Practice at a Large Managed Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Kinney, Walter K.; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy E.; Cheung, Li; Demuth, Franklin; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Concurrent HPV testing and cervical cytology (co-testing) is an approved and promising alternative to cytology alone in women aged 30 and older. However, broad acceptance of co-testing is being hindered by a lack of evidence about its performance in routine clinical practice. We evaluated the safety of three-year screening intervals for women testing HPV-negative with normal cytology (Pap-negative) and assessed the ability of co-testing to identify women at high risk of CIN3+ or cervical cancer over five years. Methods We analyzed five-year cumulative incidence of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) for 331,818 women aged 30 and older who enrolled in co-testing at Kaiser Permanente Northern California starting 2003-2005 (and had adequate enrollment co-test results) and were followed through December 31, 2009. Findings Five-year cumulative incidence of cancer for all 315,061 HPV-negative women was extremely low (3.8 per 100,000 women per year), only slightly higher than for the 306,969 women who were both HPV-negative and Pap-negative (3.2 per 100,000 women per year), and half the cancer risk of all 319,177 women who were Pap-negative (7.5 per 100,000 women per year). Almost all (99.5%; 313,465) HPV-negative women had either normal cytology or minor abnormalities. Abnormal cytology greatly increased cumulative incidence of CIN3+ over five years for the 16,757 HPV-positive women (12% vs. 5.9%, p<0.0001). In contrast, although statistically significant, abnormal cytology did not increase 5-year CIN3+ risk for HPV-negative women to a substantial level (0.86% vs. 0.16%). 73% of HPV-positive women had no cytologic abnormality (12,208 women). HPV-positive women with no cytologic abnormality experienced 34% of the CIN3+, 29% of the cancers, and 63% of the adenocarcinomas. Interpretation For women aged 30 and older in routine clinical practice, a single negative HPV test sufficed to provide strong reassurance against

  4. Awareness of dysgeusia and gustatory tests in patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Sayaka; Fujiyama, Rie; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Morita, Michi; Sakimura, Chika; Hatachi, Toshiko; Matsumoto, Megumi; Yano, Hiroshi; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Hayashida, Naomi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-05-12

    We analyzed the prevalence of gustatory test abnormalities in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing chemotherapy. We enrolled 43 BC patients undergoing chemotherapy and 38 BC patients who had never undergone chemotherapy (control group). Two gustatory tests were conducted: an instillation method examining the threshold for four basic taste stimuli and an electrogustometry method measuring the threshold for perception with electric stimulation at the front two-thirds of the tongue (cranial nerve VII) and at the back third of the tongue (cranial nerve IX). The results of the two gustatory tests and clinicopathological factors were compared between the chemotherapy and control groups and between patients with and without awareness of dysgeusia in the chemotherapy group. In the chemotherapy group, 19 (44%) patients were aware of dysgeusia and 8 (19%) had hypogeusia using the instillation method. Although more patients had parageusia in the chemotherapy than control group, no significant differences in the results of the two gustatory tests were observed. Patients with dysgeusia awareness had a higher threshold at cranial nerve IX using the electrogustometry method than those without dysgeusia awareness; no significant differences in hypogeusia were observed using the instillation method. In fact, 74% (14/19) of patients with dysgeusia awareness could identify the four tastes accurately using the instillation method. Similar results were observed for the instillation and electrogustometry methods at cranial nerve VII. While approximately half of the chemotherapy patients were aware of dysgeusia, 81% (35/43) of them could accurately identify the four basic tastes using the instillation method.

  5. Lack of motivation: a new modifiable risk factor for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis?

    PubMed

    Paudel, Klara; Namagondlu, Girish; Samad, Nasreen; McKitty, Khadija; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-03-01

    Can we identify modifiable risk factors for peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD)? We aimed to determine whether housing standard, PD exchange technique or patient motivation might be modifiable risks for peritonitis. We also explored the relationship between lack of motivation and depression. Nurse home visits assessed PD exchange technique, environment and patient motivation. Motivation scores were correlated separately with an Apathy Evaluation Score and a depression score using PHQ-9 questionnaires. Home hygiene, exchange technique and motivation were above average in 53%, 56% and 60%, respectively in 104 patients undergoing PD. After 15 months, 25.9% patients developed peritonitis but nurses' ratings of homes and exchange techniques were not predictive. Low patient motivation was predictive. Patients rated to have above or below median motivation had significantly different Apathy Scores (p = 0.0002). Unmotivated depressed patients were significantly more likely to develop peritonitis compared to motivated depressed patients. Lack of motivation predicted peritonitis particularly if associated with depression. Further studies are required focusing on specific motivation scoring schemes and the psychosocial support that might lead to better outcomes. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Quality Assurance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria in Routine Patient Care in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Meredith L.; Masanja, M. Irene; Kahigwa, Elizeus; Abdulla, Salim M. K.; Kachur, S. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Histidine-rich protein II (HRP2)-based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have shown high sensitivity and specificity for detecting Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a variety of study settings. However, RDTs are susceptible to heat and humidity and variation in individual performance, which may affect their use in field settings. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of RDTs during routine use for malaria case management in peripheral health facilities. From December 2007 to October 2008, HRP2-based ParaHIT-f RDTs were introduced in 12 facilities without available microscopy in Rufiji District, Tanzania. Health workers received a single day of instruction on how to perform an RDT and thick blood smear. Job aids, Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines, and national malaria treatment algorithms were reviewed. For quality assurance (QA), thick blood smears for reference microscopy were collected for 2 to 3 days per week from patients receiving RDTs; microscopy was not routinely performed at the health facilities. Slides were stained and read centrally within 72 hours of collection by a reference microscopist. When RDT and blood smear results were discordant, blood smears were read by additional reference microscopists blinded to earlier results. Facilities were supervised monthly by the district laboratory supervisor or a member of the study team. Ten thousand six hundred fifty (10,650) patients were tested with RDTs, and 51.5% (5,488/10,650) had a positive test result. Blood smear results were available for 3,914 patients, of whom 40.1% (1,577/3,914) were positive for P. falciparum malaria. Overall RDT sensitivity was 90.7% (range by facility 85.7–96.5%) and specificity was 73.5% (range 50.0–84.3%). Sensitivity increased with increasing parasite density. Successful implementation of RDTs was achieved in peripheral health facilities with adequate training and supervision. Quality assurance is essential to the adequate performance of any

  7. Preoperative vitamin D deficiency and postoperative hypocalcemia in thyroid cancer patients undergoing total thyroidectomy plus central compartment neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhu, Jingqiang; Liu, Feng; Gong, Yanping; Li, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Background There appears to be a lack of consensus whether preoperative vitamin D deficiency (VDD) increases the risk of postoperative hypocalcemia and decreases the accuracy of postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) in predicting hypocalcemia in thyroid cancer patients undergoing total thyroidectomy (TT) plus central compartment neck dissection (CCND). This study aims to address these issues. Method All consecutive thyroid cancer patients who underwent TT plus CCND were retrospectively reviewed through a prospectively collected database between October 2015 and April 2016 in a tertiary referral hospital. The multivariate analysis was performed to identify the significant predictors for hypocalcemia. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was created and the area under the ROC was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of postoperative PTH and compared between patients with or without VDD. Results A total of 186 patients were included. The incidence of VDD was 73.7% (137 patients). The incidence of biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia was similar in patients with or without VDD (P = 0.304 and 0.657, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that only postoperative PTH was an independent predictor of symptomatic hypocalcemia (OR = 8.05, 95%CI = 3.99-16.22; P = 0.000). The area under the ROC was similar between patients with preoperative vitamin D level < 20 and ≥20 ng/mL (0.809 versus 0.845, P = 0.592). Conclusion VDD was not a significant risk factor for hypocalcemia following TT+CCND, and did not affect the accuracy of postoperative PTH as a predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia. Thus, routine preoperative screening for vitamin D seems to be unnecessary. PMID:29100453

  8. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies negatively impact survival of pediatric aplastic anemia patients undergoing HSCT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; He, Jun; Cai, Junchao; Yuan, Xiaoni; Jiang, Hua; Luo, Changying; Wang, Jianmin; Luo, Chengjuan; Pan, Zhijuan; Terasaki, Paul I; Ding, Lixia; Chen, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Graft failure and survival are the major problems for patients with aplastic anemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Previous studies showed that anti-HLA antibodies negatively impact engraftment in HSCT. This retrospective study of 51 pediatric patients with acquired aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic HSCT at a single institution between 2006 and 2012 investigated the influence of anti-HLA antibodies on the outcome of HSCT. Serum samples collected before HSCT were tested for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies were detected in 54.9% (28/51) of patients, among whom 39.2% (20/51) had anti-HLA class I antibodies. Anti-HLA antibodies were associated with worse five-yr survival (78.6% vs. 100%, p = 0.021) and higher treatment-related mortality (21.4% vs. 0%, p = 0.028) compared with antibody-negative patients. Anti-HLA class I antibody-positive patients had poorer five-yr survival (75.0%) than anti-HLA class I&II antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients (87.5% and 100.0%, respectively, p = 0.039). Presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies (p = 0.024) and older age (10 yr or more; p = 0.027) significantly increased the risk of post-HSCT mortality. Pre-existing anti-HLA antibodies negatively affect the outcome of HSCT in pediatric patients with aplastic anemia. Routine testing for anti-HLA antibodies concurrent with efficient treatment should be conducted prior to HSCT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Routine administration of antibiotics to patients suffering accidental gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not necessary.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Valdivia, Gilberto

    2008-12-01

    Accidental rupture of the gallbladder is an event which occurs in up to 20% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, mainly in those where dissection is difficult, or during extraction when the gallbladder is withdrawn directly through the laparoscope port. It has been commonly assumed that contamination by bile in the abdominal cavity could be a cause of infection and lead to the formation of a residual abscess or even to surgical wound infection. It is common practice, therefore, for the surgeon to prescribe the application of an antibiotic at the moment when gallbladder perforation occurs. To compare 2 groups of similar patients, to determine whether administration of antibiotics, started during surgery, is actually useful in reducing the risk of residual abscess or infection in the surgical wound. The study considered a total of 166 patients who had suffered accidental perforation of the gallbladder during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This total was divided at random into 2 groups: group A (80 patients) who received a dose of 1 g of Cefotaxime at the moment of gallbladder rupture, followed by 2 more doses at intervals of 8 hours in the immediate postoperative period; and group B (86 patients) who did not receive any antibiotic treatment at all. The dependent variables observed were surgical wound infection and residual abscess: and the control variables were age, sex, length of operation time, intercurrent illnesses, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Two patients (2.5%) in group A developed a surgical wound infection, against 3 cases (3.4%) in group B, the result having no statistical significance. No patients developed residual abscess. In a multivariant analysis, the following were identified as independent factors significantly associated with the onset of surgical wound infection (P<0.001): diabetes mellitus, being over 60 years of age, operation time lasting longer than 70 minutes, and ASA 3. Routine application of an

  10. The use of lipid-lowering therapy for secondary prevention in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jessica M; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Genus, Uchenwa; Dzavik, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent literature suggests that lipid-lowering therapy may have an early beneficial effect among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because the therapy decreases cardiac mortality, morbidity and possibly restenosis. OBJECTIVE The primary objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of PCI patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy at a large, tertiary-care referral centre. METHODS Patients undergoing a first PCI between August 2000 and August 2002 with corresponding inpatient medication information were included in the study. Patient demographics, procedural variables, and lipid-lowering and other evidence-based cardiac medication data were collected. A multiple logistical regression model was constructed to evaluate the factors associated with the use of lipid-lowering therapy. RESULTS Of the 3254 cases included in the analyses, 52% were elective, 44% were urgent or salvage, and 4% were emergent. The mean patient age was 63 years, and 73% of patients were male. Over 76% of patients were receiving lipid-lowering therapy at the time of PCI. Patient use of other medications was as follows: acetylsalicylic acid in 96%, beta-blocker in 80% and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in 59%. In the multiple regression analysis, variables significantly associated with lipid-lowering therapy use included hypercholesterolemia, beta-blocker use, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, case urgency, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, age and sex. CONCLUSION Lipid-lowering therapy use rates exceeded those previously reported in the literature. Women and patients undergoing elective procedures appear to be treated less often with lipid-lowering therapy. There remains an opportunity to further optimize use in this high-risk cohort at time of PCI. PMID:16639478

  11. Timed Stair Climbing is the Single Strongest Predictor of Perioperative Complications in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sushanth; Contreras, Carlo M; Singletary, Brandon; Bradford, T Miller; Waldrop, Mary G; Mims, Andrew H; Smedley, W Andrew; Swords, Jacob A; Thomas N, Wang; Martin J, Heslin

    2016-01-01

    Background Current methods to predict patients' peri-operative morbidity utilize complex algorithms with multiple clinical variables focusing primarily on organ-specific compromise. The aim of the present study is to determine the value of a timed stair climb (SC) in predicting peri-operative complications for patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Study Design From March 2014 to July 2015, 362 patients attempted SC while being timed prior to undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Vital signs were measured before and after SC. Ninety day post-operative complications were assessed by the Accordion Severity Grading System. The prognostic value of SC was compared to the ACS NSQIP risk calculator. Results A total of 264 (97.4%) patients were able to complete SC. SC time directly correlated to changes in both mean arterial pressure and heart rate as an indicator of stress. An Accordion grade 2 or higher complication occurred in 84 (25%) patients. There were 8 mortalities (2.4%). Patients with slower SC times had an increased complication rate (P<0.0001). In multivariable analysis SC time was the single strongest predictor of complications (OR=1.029, P<0.0001), and no other clinical co-morbidity reached statistical significance. Receiver operative characteristic curves predicting post-operative morbidity by SC time was superior to that of the ACS risk calculator (AUC 0.81 vs. 0.62, P<0.0001). Additionally slower patients had a greater deviation from predicted length of hospital stay (P=0.034) Conclusions SC provides measurable stress, accurately predicts post-operative complications, and is easy to administer in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Larger patient populations with a diverse group of operations will be needed to further validate the use of SC in risk prediction models. PMID:26920993

  12. Electrolyte and mineral disturbances in septic acute kidney injury patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Young; Kim, Hyunwook; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Hyoungnae; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Chang, Tae Ik; Park, Jung Tak; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Lee, Hajeong; Kim, Dong Ki; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electrolyte and mineral disturbances remain a major concern in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT); however, it is not clear whether those imbalances are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing CRRT. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from a prospective randomized controlled trial. A total of 210 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (136 [64.8%] males) in 2 hospitals were enrolled. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate measured before (0 hour) and 24 hours after CRRT initiation. Before starting CRRT, at least 1 deficiency and excess in electrolytes or minerals were observed in 126 (60.0%) and 188 (67.6%) patients, respectively. The excess in these parameters was greatly improved, whereas hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia became more prevalent at 24 hours after CRRT. However, 1 and 2 or more deficiencies in those parameters at the 2 time points were not associated with mortality. However, during 28 days, 89 (71.2%) deaths occurred in patients with phosphate levels at 0 hour of ≥4.5 mg/dL as compared with 49 (57.6%) in patients with phosphate levels <4.5 mg/dL. The 90-day mortality was also significantly higher in patients with hyperphosphatemia. Similarly, in 184 patients who survived at 24 hours after CRRT, hyperphosphatemia conferred a 2.2-fold and 2.6-fold increased risk of 28- and 90-day mortality, respectively. The results remained unaltered when the serum phosphate level was analyzed as a continuous variable. Electrolyte and mineral disturbances are common, and hyperphosphatemia may predict poor prognosis in septic AKI patients undergoing CRRT. PMID:27603344

  13. [Preoperatory sonography efficiency in paediatric patients with cholelithiasis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Riñón, C; de Mingo, L; Cortés, M J; Ollero, J C; Alvarez, M; Espinosa, R; Rollán, V

    2009-01-01

    Biliary lithiasis is not much frequent in paediatric patients. The manegement of cholelithiasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still controversial. We propose the preoperatory echographic study of the biliary tree 24-48 h before surgery, as the first choice, instead of the intraoperatory cholangiography. We made a retrospective study of 42 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to symptomatic biliary lithiasis during the last 15 years, with ages between 18 months and 17-years-old (mean age 9,6-years-old) and weight between 11 and 70 kg (mean weight 42 kg) at the moment of surgery. Six of them had haematological illnesses, 17 came to the hospital because of acute abdominal pain, 10 had been studied because of recurrent abdominal pain and 9 had casual diagnoses. Abdominal sonography was performed in all patients 24-48 hours before surgery. Four children were diagnosed of biliary duct lithiasis: two choledocolithiasis and two stones in the cystic duct. One of the cystic stones was extracted in the operating room and the rest resolved spontaneously. One patient presented dilatation of choledocal duct after surgery, without any stones' evidence. Also this patient resolved spontaneously. We had no complications. Biliary lithiasis is not frequent in children, even if it seems to be increasing. A few of these patients will suffer of choledocolithiasis. The intraoperatory exploration of the biliary tree during laparoscopic surgery is technically difficult due the small size of paediatric patients. Cholangiography is not always successful and can produce some important complications as pancreatitis. Preoperative sonography 24-48 hours before surgery is a safe and efficient method for the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric patients with biliary lithiasis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is safe enough to be performed without intraoperatory cholangiography.

  14. Immune function, pain, and psychological stress in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Starkweather, Angela R; Witek-Janusek, Linda; Nockels, Russ P; Peterson, Jonna; Mathews, Herbert L

    2006-08-15

    This study was an exploratory repeated measures design comparing patients undergoing two magnitudes of surgery in the lumbar spine: lumbar herniated disc repair and posterior lumbar fusion. The present study evaluated and compared the effect of perceived pain, perceived stress, anxiety, and mood on natural killer cell activity (NKCA) and IL-6 production among adult patients undergoing lumbar surgery. Presurgical stress and anxiety can lead to detrimental patient outcomes after surgery, such as increased infection rates. It has been hypothesized that such outcomes are due to stress-immune alterations, which may be further exacerbated by the extent of surgery. However, psychologic stress, anxiety, and mood have not been previously characterized in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Pain, stress, anxiety, and mood were measured using self-report instruments at T1 (1 week before surgery), T2 (the day of surgery), T3 (the day after surgery), and T4 (6 weeks after surgery). Blood (30 mL) was collected for immune assessments at each time point. Pain, stress, anxiety, and mood state were elevated at baseline in both surgical groups and were associated with significant reduction in NKCA compared with the nonsurgical control group. A further decrease in NKCA was observed 24 hours after surgery in both surgical groups with a significant rise in stimulated IL-6 production, regardless of the magnitude of surgery. In the recovery period, NKCA increased to or above baseline values, which correlated with decreased levels of reported pain, perceived stress, anxiety, and mood state. This study demonstrated that patients undergoing elective spinal surgery are highly stressed and anxious, regardless of the magnitude of surgery and that such psychologic factors may mediate a reduction in NKCA.

  15. The effect of therapeutic touch on pain and fatigue of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aghabati, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa; Pour Esmaiel, Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study-experimental (TT), placebo (placebo TT), and control (usual care)-was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day). The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS) were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group.

  16. Mucositis and salivary antioxidants in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT)

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Marcelo A.; López, María M.; Linares, Jorge A.; Jarchum, Gustavo; Wietz, Fernando M.; Finkelberg, Ana B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: High doses of chemotherapy generate DNA damage in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT), due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to evaluate the local defensive effectiveness of the patient undergoing BMT, the concentrations of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and uric acid (UA) were measured in saliva. Study Design: Basal saliva samples were collected from 20 patients undergoing BMT at the Oncology Department, Sanatorio Allende (Córdoba), in the stages: initial, prior to conditioning therapy (I); middle: 7 to 10 days after BMT (M) and final stage, 30 days after discharge from isolation (F). SOD levels were determined using a RANDOX kit (RANSOD superoxide dismutase manual), and for uric acid enzymatic UOD / PAP spectrophotometric method, ( Trinder Color Kit , Wiener Lab) was used. Results: 85% of the patients developed oral mucositis. SOD concentration in the M stage was significantly higher (p<0.01) compared with stage I, and it reversed in stage F. UA concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in stage M compared with stage I, and in stage F it recovered the initial values. Conclusions: SOD increase in stage M coincided with the appearance of mucositis, which could be interpreted as a defensive mechanism of saliva against oxidative stress produced by chemotherapy. UA decrease in stage M would favour the development of higher degrees of mucositis. Key words:Bone marrow transplantation, mucositis, superoxide dismutase, uric acid. PMID:24608218

  17. The Effect of Therapeutic Touch on Pain and Fatigue of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aghabati, Nahid; Pour Esmaiel, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Despite major advances in pain management, cancer pain is managed poorly in 80% of the patients with cancer. Due to deleterious side effects of pharmacology therapy in these people, there is an urgent need for clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions. To examine the effect of therapeutic touch (TT) on the pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, a randomized and three-groups experimental study—experimental (TT), placebo (placebo TT), and control (usual care)—was carried out. Ninety patients undergoing chemotherapy, exhibiting pain and fatigue of cancer, were randomized into one of the three groups in the Cancer Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Pain and fatigue were measured and recorded by participants before and after the intervention for 5 days (once a day). The intervention consisted of 30 min TT given once a day for 5 days between 10:00 a.m. and 10:30 a.m. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain and the Rhoten Fatigue Scale (RFS) were completed for 5 days before and after the intervention by the subjects. The TT (significant) was more effective in decreasing pain and fatigue of the cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy than the usual care group, while the placebo group indicated a decreasing trend in pain and fatigue scores compared with the usual care group. PMID:18955319

  18. Measuring pain in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a review of pain assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Chandani; Cameron, Karen; Murphy, Laura; Battistella, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hemodialysis frequently report pain with multifactorial causes, not limited to that experienced directly from hemodialysis treatment. Their pain may be nociceptive, neuropathic, somatic or visceral in nature. Despite this, pain in this population remains under-recognized and under-treated. Although several tools have been used to measure pain in patients undergoing hemodialysis as reported in the literature, none of them have been validated specifically in this population. The objective for this review was to compare and contrast these pain assessment tools and discuss their clinical utility in this patient population. Methods To identify pain assessment tools studied in patients undergoing hemodialysis, a literature search was performed in PubMed and Medline. An expert panel of dialysis and pain clinicians reviewed each tool. Each pain assessment tool was assessed on how it is administered and scored, its psychometric properties such as reliability, validity and responsiveness to change, and its clinical utility in a hemodialysis population. Brief Pain Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Management Index, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Visual Analogue Scale and Faces Pain Scale were evaluated and compared. Results This assessment will help clinicians practicing in nephrology to determine which of these pain assessment tools is best suited for use in their individual clinical practice. PMID:25852910

  19. Dose audit for patients undergoing two common radiography examinations with digital radiology systems.

    PubMed

    İnal, Tolga; Ataç, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing general examinations using computed or digital radiography systems in Turkey. Radiographs of 20 patients undergoing posteroanterior chest X-ray and of 20 patients undergoing anteroposterior kidney-ureter-bladder radiography were evaluated in five X-ray rooms at four local hospitals in the Ankara region. Currently, almost all radiology departments in Turkey have switched from conventional radiography systems to computed radiography or digital radiography systems. Patient dose was measured for both systems. The results were compared with published diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the European Union and International Atomic Energy Agency. The average entrance surface doses (ESDs) for chest examinations exceeded established international DRLs at two of the X-ray rooms in a hospital with computed radiography. All of the other ESD measurements were approximately equal to or below the DRLs for both examinations in all of the remaining hospitals. Improper adjustment of the exposure parameters, uncalibrated automatic exposure control systems, and failure of the technologists to choose exposure parameters properly were problems we noticed during the study. This study is an initial attempt at establishing local DRL values for digital radiography systems, and will provide a benchmark so that the authorities can establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Turkey.

  20. Dose audit for patients undergoing two common radiography examinations with digital radiology systems

    PubMed Central

    İnal, Tolga; Ataç, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the radiation doses delivered to patients undergoing general examinations using computed or digital radiography systems in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS Radiographs of 20 patients undergoing posteroanterior chest X-ray and of 20 patients undergoing anteroposterior kidney-ureter-bladder radiography were evaluated in five X-ray rooms at four local hospitals in the Ankara region. Currently, almost all radiology departments in Turkey have switched from conventional radiography systems to computed radiography or digital radiography systems. Patient dose was measured for both systems. The results were compared with published diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the European Union and International Atomic Energy Agency. RESULTS The average entrance surface doses (ESDs) for chest examinations exceeded established international DRLs at two of the X-ray rooms in a hospital with computed radiography. All of the other ESD measurements were approximately equal to or below the DRLs for both examinations in all of the remaining hospitals. Improper adjustment of the exposure parameters, uncalibrated automatic exposure control systems, and failure of the technologists to choose exposure parameters properly were problems we noticed during the study. CONCLUSION This study is an initial attempt at establishing local DRL values for digital radiography systems, and will provide a benchmark so that the authorities can establish reference dose levels for diagnostic radiology in Turkey. PMID:24317331

  1. Perioperative management and complications in patients with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing transsphenoidal surgery: Our institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Eiman; Mariappan, Ramamani; Tharmaradinam, Suresh; Manninen, Pirjo; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi

    2014-07-01

    Patients with endocrine diseases such as acromegaly and Cushing's disease have a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There is controversy regarding the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) following transsphenoidal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative management and complications, in patients with or without OSA undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. After Research Ethics Board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery in our institution from 2006 to 2011. Information collected included patients' demographics, pathology of lesion, history of OSA, anesthetic and perioperative management and incidence of perioperative complications. Patients with sleep study proven OSA were compared with a control group, matched for age, sex and pathology of patients without OSA. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test and Chi-square test and the P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Out of a total 469 patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery, 105 patients were found to be at risk for OSA by a positive STOP-BANG scoring assessment. Preoperative sleep study testing was positive for OSA in 38 patients. Post-operative hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90) occurred in 10 (26%) patients with OSA and was treated with high-flow oxygen through face mask (n = 7) and by CPAP mask (n = 3). In the OSA-negative group, 2 patients had hypoxemia and were treated with low-flow oxygen using face mask. There were no differences between the groups with respect to post-operative opioid use, destination, hospital stay or other complications. Post-operative hypoxemia in patients with OSA following transsphenoidal surgery can be treated in most but not all patients with high flow oxygen using the face mask. We were able to safely use CPAP in a very small number of patients but caution is needed to prevent complications. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the safe use of CPAP in

  2. Blood glucose management in the patient undergoing cardiac surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Pingle; Duggar, Brian; Butterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Both diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia per se are associated with negative outcomes after cardiac surgery. In this article, we review these associations, the possible mechanisms that lead to adverse outcomes, and the epidemiology of diabetes focusing on those patients requiring cardiac surgery. We also examine outpatient and perioperative management of diabetes with the same focus. Finally, we discuss our own efforts to improve glycemic management of patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution, including keys to success, results of implementation, and patient safety concerns. PMID:25429332

  3. The Effect of Live Classical Piano Music on the Vital Signs of Patients Undergoing Ophthalmic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Jorge G.; Ruszkowski, Joseph M.; Worak, Sandra R.

    2008-01-01

    Context Music and surgery. Objective To determine the effect of live classical piano music on vital signs of patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Design Retrospective case series. Setting and Patients 203 patients who underwent various ophthalmologic procedures in a period during which a piano was present in the operating room of St. Francis Medical Center. [Note: St. Francis Medical Center has recently been renamed Hawaii Medical Center East.] Intervention Demographic data, surgical procedures, and the vital signs of 203 patients who underwent ophthalmic procedures were obtained from patient records. Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate measured in the preoperative holding area were compared with the same parameters taken in the operating room, with and without exposure to live piano music. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Main outcome measure Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. Results 115 patients who were exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in the operating room compared with their vital signs measured in the preoperative holding area (P < .0001). The control group of 88 patients not exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (P < .0002) and heart rate and respiratory rate (P < .0001). Conclusion Live classical piano music lowered the blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. PMID:18679538

  4. The epidemiology of upper airway injury in patients undergoing major surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Hua, May; Brady, Joanne; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Airway injury is a potentially serious and costly adverse event of anesthesia care. The epidemiologic characteristics of airway injury have not been well documented. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) is a multicenter, prospective, outcome-oriented database for patients undergoing major surgical procedures. Using the NSQIP data for the years 2005 to 2008, we examined the incidence of, and risk factors for, airway injury. Of the 563,190 patients studied, 1202 (0.2%) sustained airway injury. The most common airway injury was lip laceration/hematoma (61.4%), followed by tooth injury (26.1%), tongue laceration (5.7%), pharyngeal laceration (4.7%), and laryngeal laceration (2.1%). Multivariable logistic modeling revealed an increased risk of airway injury in patients with Mallampati class III (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-2.11, relative to patients with Mallampati classes I and II) or class IV (adjusted OR, 2.6; 99% CI, 1.52-4.02), and in patients aged 80 years or older (adjusted OR, 1.50; 99% CI, 1.02-2.19, relative to patients aged 40 to 49 years). The risk of airway injury for patients undergoing major surgical procedures is approximately 1 in 500. Patients with difficult airways as indicated by Mallampati classes III and IV are at significantly increased risk of sustaining airway injury during anesthesia for major surgical procedures.

  5. Clinical analysis of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Li, Y-H; Li, G-Q; Guo, S-M; Che, Y-N; Wang, X; Cheng, F-T

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the related influencing factors of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia admitted to this hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, were selected and treated by TURP. Patients were divided into infection group and non-infection group according to the occurrence of urinary tract infection after operation. The possible influencing factors were collected to perform univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. There were 53 cases with urinary tract infection after operation among 343 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, accounting for 15.5%. The univariate analysis displayed that the occurrence of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing TURP was closely associated with patient's age ≥ 65 years old, complicated diabetes, catheterization for urinary retention before operation, no use of antibiotics before operation and postoperative indwelling catheter duration ≥ 5 d (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥ 65 years old, complicated diabetes, catheterization before operation, indwelling catheter duration ≥ 5 d and no use of antibiotics before operation were risk factors of urinary tract infection in patients receiving TURP (p < 0.05). The patient's age ≥ 65 years old, catheterization before operation, complicated diabetes and long-term indwelling catheter after operation, can increase the occurrence of urinary tract infection after TURP, while preoperative prophylactic utilization of anti-infective drugs can reduce the occurrence of postoperative urinary tract infection.

  6. Routine opt-out rapid HIV screening and detection of HIV infection in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Haukoos, Jason S; Hopkins, Emily; Conroy, Amy A; Silverman, Morgan; Byyny, Richard L; Eisert, Sheri; Thrun, Mark W; Wilson, Michael L; Hutchinson, Angela B; Forsyth, Jessica; Johnson, Steven C; Heffelfinger, James D

    2010-07-21

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine (nontargeted) opt-out HIV screening in health care settings, including emergency departments (EDs), where the prevalence of undiagnosed infection is 0.1% or greater. The utility of this approach in EDs remains unknown. To determine whether nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening in the ED was associated with identification of more patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection than physician-directed diagnostic rapid HIV testing. Quasi-experimental equivalent time-samples design in an urban public safety-net hospital with an approximate annual ED census of 55,000 patient visits. Patients were 16 years or older and capable of providing consent for rapid HIV testing. Nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening and physician-directed diagnostic rapid HIV testing alternated in sequential 4-month time intervals between April 15, 2007, and April 15, 2009. Number of patients with newly identified HIV infection and the association between nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening and identification of HIV infection. In the opt-out phase, of 28,043 eligible ED patients, 6933 patients (25%) completed HIV testing (6702 patients were screened; 231 patients were diagnostically tested). Ten of 6702 patients (0.15%; 95% CI, 0.07%-0.27%) who did not decline HIV screening in the opt-out phase had new HIV diagnoses, and 5 of 231 patients (2.2%; 95% CI, 0.7%-5.0%) who were diagnostically tested during the opt-out phase had new HIV diagnoses. In the diagnostic phase, of 29,925 eligible patients, 243 (0.8%) completed HIV testing. Of these, 4 patients (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.5%-4.2%) had new diagnoses. The prevalence of new HIV diagnoses in the opt-out phase (including those diagnostically tested) and in the diagnostic phase was 15 in 28,043 (0.05%; 95% CI, 0.03%-0.09%) and 4 in 29,925 (0.01%; 95% CI, 0.004%-0.03%), respectively. Nontargeted opt-out HIV screening was independently associated with new HIV diagnoses (risk ratio, 3

  7. Yield of yearly routine physical examination in HIV-1 infected patients is limited: A retrospective cohort study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Amsterdam, Marleen A.; van Assen, Sander; Sprenger, Herman G.; Wilting, Kasper R.; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2017-01-01

    Background Routine physical examinations might be of value in HIV-infected patients, but the yield is unknown. We determined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing annual routine physical examinations in HIV-infected patients with stable disease. Methods Data were collected from the medical records of 299 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 if not using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), or CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 and undetectable viral load if using cART. We defined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing routine physical examinations on annual check-ups in 2010. Exclusion criteria were hepatitis B/C co-infection, start/ switch of cART < 24 weeks, pregnancy, and transgenderism. Results 215 patients (72%) had positive findings: lipodystrophy (30%), lymphadenopathy (16%) and hypertension (8.4%) were the most common. Two-thirds of all findings were not new or were based on complaints indicating a physical examination even if not routinely scheduled. For 24 patients (8.0%) the routine physical examination led to the finding of a new diagnosis: six—all men who have sex with men (MSM)—had a concurrent sexually transmitted infection, eight had hypertension, and ten others had a large variety of diagnoses. A total atrioventricular block with bradycardia was the most clinically relevant finding. Conclusions Annual physical examinations of HIV-infected patients with stable disease brought few new diagnoses that would have been missed without performing a routine examination. Our results suggest that standard assessments could be restricted to six-monthly measuring blood pressure in all patients and annually performing anogenital and digital rectal examination on MSM. PMID:28636651

  8. Yield of yearly routine physical examination in HIV-1 infected patients is limited: A retrospective cohort study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Marleen A; van Assen, Sander; Sprenger, Herman G; Wilting, Kasper R; Stienstra, Ymkje; Bierman, Wouter F W

    2017-01-01

    Routine physical examinations might be of value in HIV-infected patients, but the yield is unknown. We determined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing annual routine physical examinations in HIV-infected patients with stable disease. Data were collected from the medical records of 299 HIV-1-infected patients with CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 if not using combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), or CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 and undetectable viral load if using cART. We defined the diagnoses that would have been missed without performing routine physical examinations on annual check-ups in 2010. Exclusion criteria were hepatitis B/C co-infection, start/ switch of cART < 24 weeks, pregnancy, and transgenderism. 215 patients (72%) had positive findings: lipodystrophy (30%), lymphadenopathy (16%) and hypertension (8.4%) were the most common. Two-thirds of all findings were not new or were based on complaints indicating a physical examination even if not routinely scheduled. For 24 patients (8.0%) the routine physical examination led to the finding of a new diagnosis: six-all men who have sex with men (MSM)-had a concurrent sexually transmitted infection, eight had hypertension, and ten others had a large variety of diagnoses. A total atrioventricular block with bradycardia was the most clinically relevant finding. Annual physical examinations of HIV-infected patients with stable disease brought few new diagnoses that would have been missed without performing a routine examination. Our results suggest that standard assessments could be restricted to six-monthly measuring blood pressure in all patients and annually performing anogenital and digital rectal examination on MSM.

  9. Trends in the Body Mass Index of Pediatric and Adult Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Ethan A.; Collins, Alexander D.; Jack, Robert A.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The body mass index (BMI) in the United States (US) is rising and may be contributing to increased anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) rates. It is currently unknown whether the BMI is increasing in patients who undergo ACLR. Purpose: To determine whether (1) the BMI changed in pediatric and adult patients who previously underwent ACLR or revision ACLR over a 10-year eligibility period, (2) the BMI changed at a greater rate in pediatric or adult patients, and (3) the percentage of overweight and obese patients in the ACLR population was different than that of the general overweight population. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A retrospective investigation of patients who underwent ACLR by 6 surgeons from June 3, 2005, to June 3, 2015, was conducted. Patients were divided into pediatric (<18 years) and adult (≥18 years) categories. BMI at the time of surgery was defined as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Patients with an indeterminate BMI were excluded. Comparisons of overweight and obese patients were made with general population trends determined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a single US state. Pearson (R) and Spearman (R s) correlations were used to determine correlations, Student t tests were used for 2-variable comparisons, analyses of variance were used for multivariable comparisons, and analyses of covariance were used for comparing linear relationships. Results: There were 1305 patients (733 male, 572 female; 409 pediatric, 896 adult) included. Adults requiring surgical revision demonstrated a strong positive correlation with respect to BMI over time (R s = 0.906, P < .01). No other statistically significant trends in the BMI over time were found. The proportion of overweight pediatric patients undergoing ACLR was significantly greater than that of the general overweight pediatric population (P < .05

  10. Aspirin in the Management of Patients with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    Mascan, Bianca; Marignol, Laure

    2018-04-01

    Aspirin has cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2)-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties that may confer a positive effect in preventing and limiting the progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer has been shown to have poor treatment outcomes due to therapeutic resistance; therefore, COX2 inhibition caused by aspirin could represent an opportunity to augment current therapies. This is particularly of interest to patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) where inflammation is a common side-effect. This review discusses the evidence for the potential role of aspirin in the management of patients with prostate cancer undergoing RT. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Magnesium Sulfate Reduced Opioid Consumption in Obese Patients Undergoing Sleeve Gastrectomy: a Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kizilcik, Nurcan; Koner, Ozge

    2018-05-12

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate on pain management for pain after sleeve gastrectomy operation. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study. University hospital. Eighty patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy. Visual analog scale for the evaluation of pain, sedation score, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and total analgesic consumption was recorded. Serum magnesium levels were determined before the operation, at the end of the operation, and at 24 h. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to demographics, and sedation scores. Cumulative morphine consumption and pain scores were found to be higher in the control group than the magnesium group. Perioperative use of magnesium sulfate reduced postoperative pain and opioid consumption in obese patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy operations.

  12. Pulmonary hypertension: an important predictor of outcomes in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Roop; Pasupuleti, Vinay; Deshpande, Abhishek; Hamieh, Tarek; Walker, Esteban; Minai, Omar A

    2011-04-01

    Perioperative risk associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (NCS) remains poorly defined. We report perioperative outcomes in a large cohort of patients undergoing NCS, comparing those with and without PH. Patients undergoing NCS at our institution between January 2002 and December 2006, were cross matched with a Right Heart Catheterization (RHC) database for the same period. Patients were excluded if they were <18 years old and if they underwent cardiac surgery prior to NCS or minor procedures using local anesthesia or sedation. Controls were defined as patients who underwent similar NCS with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) ≤ 25 mmHg. 173 patients underwent RHC and NCS during the specified period and were included in the analysis. Of these 96 (55%) had PH. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.001), American Association of Anesthesiology Class (p = 0.02), and chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.03) were determined as independent risk factors for post-operative morbidity. Patients with PH were more likely to develop congestive heart failure (p < 0.001; OR: 11.9), hemodynamic instability (p < 0.002), sepsis (p < 0.0005), and respiratory failure (p < 0.004). Patients with PH needed longer ventilatory support (p < 0.002), stayed longer in the ICU (p < 0.04), and were more frequently readmitted to the hospital within 30 days (p < 008; OR 2.4). In addition to the traditionally known risk factors for outcomes after NCS such as coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, American Society of Anesthesiology class, the presence of underlying PH can have a significant negative impact on perioperative outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Ampicillin/Sulbactam in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury undergoing Extended Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Johan M.; Broll, Michael; Kaever, Volkhard; Burhenne, Heike; Hafer, Carsten; Clajus, Christian; Knitsch, Wolfgang; Burkhardt, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The fixed antibacterial combination of ampicillin and sulbactam is frequently used for various infections. Intact kidneys eliminate approximately 71% of ampicillin and 78% of sulbactam. Patients on thrice-weekly low-flux hemodialysis exhibit an ampicillin t1/2 of 2.3 hours on and 17.4 hours off dialysis. Despite its frequent use in intensive care units, there are no available dosing recommendations for patients with AKI undergoing renal replacement therapy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin/sulbactam in critically ill patients with AKI undergoing extended dialysis (ED) and to establish a dosing recommendation for this treatment method. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twelve critically ill patients with anuric AKI being treated with ED were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, observational pharmacokinetic study. Pharmacokinetics after a single dose of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) was obtained in 12 patients. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics after 4 days of twice-daily ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) was obtained in three patients. Results The mean dialyzer clearance for ampicillin/sulbactam was 80.1±7.7/83.3±12.1 ml/min. The t1/2 of ampicillin and sulbactam in patients with AKI undergoing ED were 2.8±0.8 hours and 3.5±1.5 hours, respectively. There was no significant accumulation using a twice-daily dosage of 2 g/1 g ampicillin/sulbactam. Conclusions Our data suggest that in patients treated with ED using a high-flux dialyzer (polysulphone, 1.3 m2; blood and dialysate flow, 160 ml/min; treatment time, 480 minutes), a twice-daily dosing schedule of at least 2 g/1 g ampicillin/sulbactam, with one dose given after ED, should be used to avoid underdosing. PMID:22223613

  14. Outcomes of Male Patients with Alport Syndrome Undergoing Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Temme, Johanna; Kramer, Anneke; Jager, Kitty J.; Lange, Katharina; Peters, Frederick; Müller, Gerhard-Anton; Kramar, Reinhard; Heaf, James G.; Finne, Patrik; Palsson, Runolfur; Reisæter, Anna V.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; Metcalfe, Wendy; Postorino, Maurizio; Zurriaga, Oscar; Santos, Julio P.; Ravani, Pietro; Jarraya, Faical; Verrina, Enrico; Dekker, Friedo W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with the hereditary disease Alport syndrome commonly require renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the second or third decade of life. This study compared age at onset of RRT, renal allograft, and patient survival in men with Alport syndrome receiving various forms of RRT (peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or transplantation) with those of men with other renal diseases. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients with Alport syndrome receiving RRT identified from 14 registries in Europe were matched to patients with other renal diseases. A linear spline model was used to detect changes in the age at start of RRT over time. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to examine patient and graft survival. Results Age at start of RRT among patients with Alport syndrome remained stable during the 1990s but increased by 6 years between 2000–2004 and 2005–2009. Survival of patients with Alport syndrome requiring dialysis or transplantation did not change between 1990 and 2009. However, patients with Alport syndrome had better renal graft and patient survival than matched controls. Numbers of living-donor transplantations were lower in patients with Alport syndrome than in matched controls. Conclusions These data suggest that kidney failure in patients with Alport syndrome is now being delayed compared with previous decades. These patients appear to have superior patient survival while undergoing dialysis and superior patient and graft survival after deceased-donor kidney transplantation compared with patients receiving RRT because of other causes of kidney failure. PMID:22997344

  15. Outcomes of male patients with Alport syndrome undergoing renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Temme, Johanna; Kramer, Anneke; Jager, Kitty J; Lange, Katharina; Peters, Frederick; Müller, Gerhard-Anton; Kramar, Reinhard; Heaf, James G; Finne, Patrik; Palsson, Runolfur; Reisæter, Anna V; Hoitsma, Andries J; Metcalfe, Wendy; Postorino, Maurizio; Zurriaga, Oscar; Santos, Julio P; Ravani, Pietro; Jarraya, Faical; Verrina, Enrico; Dekker, Friedo W; Gross, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Patients with the hereditary disease Alport syndrome commonly require renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the second or third decade of life. This study compared age at onset of RRT, renal allograft, and patient survival in men with Alport syndrome receiving various forms of RRT (peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, or transplantation) with those of men with other renal diseases. Patients with Alport syndrome receiving RRT identified from 14 registries in Europe were matched to patients with other renal diseases. A linear spline model was used to detect changes in the age at start of RRT over time. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to examine patient and graft survival. Age at start of RRT among patients with Alport syndrome remained stable during the 1990s but increased by 6 years between 2000-2004 and 2005-2009. Survival of patients with Alport syndrome requiring dialysis or transplantation did not change between 1990 and 2009. However, patients with Alport syndrome had better renal graft and patient survival than matched controls. Numbers of living-donor transplantations were lower in patients with Alport syndrome than in matched controls. These data suggest that kidney failure in patients with Alport syndrome is now being delayed compared with previous decades. These patients appear to have superior patient survival while undergoing dialysis and superior patient and graft survival after deceased-donor kidney transplantation compared with patients receiving RRT because of other causes of kidney failure.

  16. Continuous blood pressure monitoring via non-invasive radial artery applanation tonometry and invasive arterial catheter demonstrates good agreement in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Chen, Hanjian; Zheng, Jun; Mao, Bin; Zhu, Shengmei; Feng, Jingyi

    2017-12-01

    Radial artery applanation tonometry (RAAT) has been developed and utilized for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. However, evidence is lacking to clinically verify the RAAT technology and identify appropriate patient groups before routine clinical use. This study aims to evaluate the RAAT technology by comparing systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery. Blood Pressure (BP) values obtained via RAAT (TL-300, Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and conventional arterial catheterization from 30 colon carcinoma surgical patients were collected and compared via Bland-Atman method, linear regression and 4-quadrant plot concordance analysis. For SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, means of the differences (±standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) were -0.9 (±7.6; -15.7 to 13.9) mmHg, 3.1 (±6.5; -9.6 to 15.8) mmHg and 4.3 (±7.4; -10.3 to 18.8) mmHg, respectively. Linear regression coefficients of determination were 0.8706 for SBPs, 0.8353 for MBPs and 0.6858 for DBPs. Four-quadrant concordance correlation coefficients were 0.8740, 0.8522 and 0.7108 for SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, respectively. A highly selected patient collective undergoing colon carcinoma surgery was studied. BP measurements obtained via the TL-300 had clinically acceptable agreement with that acquired invasively using an arterial catheter. For use in clinical routine, it is necessary to take measures for improvement regarding movement artifacts and dilution of noise. A large sample size of patients under various conditions is also needed to further evaluate the RAAT technology before clinically routine use.

  17. Mortality of Department of Veterans Affairs patients undergoing coronary revascularization in private sector hospitals.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Wakefield, Bonnie; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2007-10-01

    A limitation of studies comparing outcomes of Veterans Affairs (VA) and private sector hospitals is uncertainty about the methods of accounting for risk factors in VA populations. This study estimates whether use of VA services is a marker for increased risk by comparing outcomes of VA users and other patients undergoing coronary revascularization in private sector hospitals. Males 67 years and older undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG; n=687,936) surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; n=664,124) during 1996-2002 were identified from Medicare administrative data. Patients using VA services during the 2 years preceding the Medicare admission were identified using VA administrative files. Thirty-, 90-, and 365-day mortality were compared in patients who did and did not use VA services, adjusting for demographic and clinical risk factors using generalized estimating equations and propensity score analysis. Adjusted mortality after CABG was higher (p<.001) in VA users compared with nonusers at 30, 90, and 365 days: odds ratio (OR)=1.07 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.11), 1.07 (95 percent CI, 1.04-1.10), and 1.09 (95 percent CI, 1.06-1.12), respectively. For PCI, mortality at 30 and 90 days was similar (p>.05) for VA users and nonusers, but was higher at 365 days (OR=1.09; 95 percent CI, 1.06-1.12). The increased risk of death in VA users was limited to patients with service-connected disabilities or low incomes. Odds of death for VA users were slightly lower using samples matched by propensity scores. A small difference in risk-adjusted outcomes for VA users and nonusers undergoing revascularization in private sector hospitals was found. This difference reflects unmeasured severity in VA users undergoing revascularization in private sector hospitals.

  18. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Resulting in Cardiac Arrest in a Patient Undergoing Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Can, M Güner; Özer, A; İyigün, M; Gökay, B Vural; Emiroğlu, R

    2017-12-01

    Cardiac complications during and after liver transplantation are a common cause of death. Although considered to be uncommon, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by reversible left ventricular akinesis without coronary artery obstruction, is becoming increasingly reported. Herein we have presented a case of reversible stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy resulting in cardiac arrest in a patient undergoing liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fluid loading and level of dependency in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery: trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing major elective or urgent surgery are at high risk of death or significant morbidity. Measures to reduce this morbidity and mortality include pre-operative optimisation and use of higher levels of dependency care after surgery. We propose a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of level of dependency and pre-operative fluid therapy in high-risk surgical patients undergoing major elective surgery. Methods/Design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial with a 2 * 2 factorial design. The first randomisation is to pre-operative fluid therapy or standard regimen and the second randomisation is to routine intensive care versus high dependency care during the early post-operative period. We intend to recruit 204 patients undergoing major elective and urgent abdominal and thoraco-abdominal surgery who fulfil high-risk surgical criteria. The primary outcome for the comparison of level of care is cost-effectiveness at six months and for the comparison of fluid optimisation is the number of hospital days after surgery. Discussion We believe that the results of this study will be invaluable in determining the future care and clinical resource utilisation for this group of patients and thus will have a major impact on clinical practice. Trial Registration Trial registration number - ISRCTN32188676 PMID:20398378

  20. Effect of orthodontic pain on quality of life of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sujoy; Banerjee, Rajlakshmi; Shenoy, Usha; Agarkar, Sanket; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta

    2018-01-01

    Pain is an important aspect of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). Understanding how patients' pain experiences during their treatment affect their quality of life (QOL) is important and the absence of pain/discomfort is important for achieving a high QOL. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between pain and OHRQOL among patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances and to evaluate whether patient motivation and counseling had an effect on the pain and discomfort. The McGill-Short-Form with visual analog scale and present pain intensity and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 indices were used to determine the intensity and severity of pain and to evaluate the QOL of 200 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment during different phases of treatment. There was a significant correlation found between pain and the QOL of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Overall score of OHRQOL increased significantly (mean 43.5 ± 10.9) in the initial phase of treatment where the incidence of severe to moderate pain was reported in 80% patients. Ninety-five percent patients felt pain or discomfort. After 1 day of appliance placement, more than 85% of patients experienced severe to mild pain whereas 9% of patients suffered very severe pain. Pain reduced over a week, and at the end of a month, 10.5% patients had moderate pain whereas majority, i.e., 58% of patients complained of only mild pain (P < 0.05). Pain is important sequelae of orthodontic treatment and has a significant effect on the QOL of orthodontic patients, especially during the initial phases of treatment. Patient motivation and counseling by the orthodontist have a profounding effect in reducing the pain and discomfort, improving the QOL, and an overall improvement in the patient compliance affecting the successful outcome of the treatment.

  1. A Proactive Approach to High Risk Delirium Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Duque, Andres F; Post, Zachary D; Orozco, Fabio R; Lutz, Rex W; Ong, Alvin C

    2018-04-01

    Delirium is a common complication among elderly patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Its incidence has been reported from 4% to 53%. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services consider delirium following TJA a "never-event." The purpose of this study is to evaluate a simple perioperative protocol used to identify delirium risk patients and prevent its incidence following TJA. Our group developed a protocol to identify and prevent delirium in patients undergoing TJA. All patients were screened and scored in the preoperative assessment, on criteria such as age, history of forgetfulness, history of agitation or visual hallucinations, history of falls, history of postoperative confusion, and inability to perform higher brain functions. Patients were scored on performance in a simple mental examination. The patients were classified as low, medium, or high risk. Patients who were identified as high risk were enrolled in a delirium avoidance protocol that minimized narcotics and emphasized nursing involvement and fluids administration. Five of 7659 (0.065%) consecutive TJA patients from 2010 to 2015 developed delirium. A total of 422 patients were identified as high risk. All 5 patients who suffered delirium were within the high risk group. No low or medium risk patients suffered a delirium complication. Three (0.039%) patients suffered drug-induced delirium, 1 (0.013%) had delirium related to alcohol withdrawal, and 1 (0.013%) had delirium after a systemic infection. This protocol is effective in identifying patients at high delirium risk and diminishing the incidence of this complication by utilizing a simple screening tool and perioperative protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Different perception of surgical risks between physicians and patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Tuveri, Massimiliano; Caocci, Giovanni; Efficace, Fabio; Medas, Fabio; Collins, Gary S; Pisu, Salvatore

    2009-08-01

    Data on the quality of communication during informed consent for surgery is sparse; we investigated this issue in a cohort of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Two hundred and seven consecutive patients with benign biliary disease who had undergone LC completed 2 questionnaires. We investigated the patient choice to undergo the surgical procedure along with perceptions of risk complications presented by the surgeon. Nineteen attending surgeons also completed a questionnaire giving information on their recall perception on the information they provided. Multiple logistic regression analyses determined the predictors of perceived communication factors during the informed consent process. One hundred eighty-one patients (87.4%) returned questionnaires. Younger patients (<50 y) with lower education perceived higher level of risk complications compared with older and higher educated patients (P=0.04 and P<0.001). Younger patients felt psychologic support was necessary (P<0.001) and that quality of life issues related to the interventions were under addressed (P=0.018). Differences were observed between patients' recalled risk of complications and the risk to convert LC to open laparotomy and physicians' perception of information provided to patients regarding these aspects (P<0.01). Although informed consent for surgical procedures requires that the procedures are explained and that the patient understands the procedures and risks, our data suggest different perceptions of the quality of information provided during this process between patients and physicians. Physicians should be aware that surgical risks might be perceived differently by patients and this perception might be influenced, for example, by patients' age and education. Major efforts should be directed to improve communications skills in surgical laparoscopy.

  3. The effect of live classical piano music on the vital signs of patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed

    Camara, Jorge G; Ruszkowski, Joseph M; Worak, Sandra R

    2008-06-25

    Music and surgery. To determine the effect of live classical piano music on vital signs of patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Retrospective case series. 203 patients who underwent various ophthalmologic procedures in a period during which a piano was present in the operating room of St. Francis Medical Center. [Note: St. Francis Medical Center has recently been renamed Hawaii Medical Center East.] Demographic data, surgical procedures, and the vital signs of 203 patients who underwent ophthalmic procedures were obtained from patient records. Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate measured in the preoperative holding area were compared with the same parameters taken in the operating room, with and without exposure to live piano music. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. 115 patients who were exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in the operating room compared with their vital signs measured in the preoperative holding area (P < .0001). The control group of 88 patients not exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (P < .0002) and heart rate and respiratory rate (P < .0001). Live classical piano music lowered the blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery.

  4. Use of rectus sheath catheters for pain relief in patients undergoing major pelvic urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Thomas J; McGrath, John S; Daugherty, Mark O

    2014-02-01

    To report on the safety and efficacy of rectus sheath blocks, 'topped-up' using bilateral rectus sheath catheters (RSCs), in patients undergoing major open urological surgery. The RSCs were inserted under ultrasound guidance into 200 patients between April 2008 and August 2011, of whom 106 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and 94 underwent open radical cystectomy (ORC). A retrospective case-note review was undertaken. Outcomes included technical success and complication rates of the insertion and use of RSC, visual analogue pain scores, additional analgesia requirements and length of hospital stay (LOS). All RSCs were successfully placed without complication and used for a mean of 3.6 days for ORC and 2.1 days for RRP. Early removal occurred in 6.49% of patients. Low overall pain scores were reported in both groups. Patients were more likely to require a patient-controlled analgesia system in the ORC group but the overall need for additional analgesia was low in both groups, reducing significantly after the initial 24 h. In combination with an enhanced recovery programme, LOS reduced from 17.0 to 10.8 days in the ORC group and from 6.2 to 2.8 days in the RRP group. The use of RSCs appears to offer an effective and safe method of peri-operative analgesia in patients undergoing major open urological pelvic surgery. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  5. Effect of music on level of anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yi-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Ta; Wang, Shu-Chi; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Yu-Yin; Lin, Chia-I; Kuo, Hsiang-Ju; Dai, Chia-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan

    2017-03-01

    Listening to music can be a noninvasive method for reducing the anxiety level without any adverse effects. The aim of this study was to explore whether music can reduce anxiety and to compare two different styles of music, informal classical music and light music, to ascertain the more effective style of music in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation. This study enrolled 138 patients who underwent colonoscopy without sedation during a general health examination from February 2009 to January 2015. The patients were randomly assigned to a group that did not listen to music, a group that listened to music by David Tolley, or a group that listened to music by Kevin Kern. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to evaluate the status of anxiety. A trend test for mild anxiety was performed on the patients in the three groups, and a significant trend was noted (p=0.017 for all patients; p=0.014 for analysis by sex). Multivariate analysis for mild anxiety on the patients in each group was also performed in this study, and music by Kevin Kern was found to have the lowest odds ratio (Odds ratio=0.34, p=0.045). Listening to music, especially music by Kevin Kern, reduced the level of anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy examination without sedation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  6. Angiographic and Clinical Impact of Successful Manual Thrombus Aspiration in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diabetes mellitus is associated with worse angiographic and clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Aim. To investigate the impact of manual thrombus aspiration on in-stent restenosis (ISR) and clinical outcome in patients treated by bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods. 100 diabetic patients were prospectively enrolled. They were randomly assigned to undergo either standard primary PCI (group A, 50 patients) or PCI with thrombus aspiration using Export catheter (group B, 50 patients). The primary endpoint was the rate of eight-month ISR. The secondary endpoint included follow-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results. Mean age of the study cohort was 59.86 ± 8.3 years, with 64 (64%) being males. Baseline characteristics did not differ between both groups. Eight-month angiogram showed that group B patients had significantly less late lumen loss (0.17 ± 0.35 versus 0.60 ± 0.42 mm, P < 0.001), with lower incidence of ISR (4% versus 16.6%, P < 0.001). There was a trend towards lower rate of MACE in the same group of patients. Conclusion. In diabetic patients undergoing primary PCI, manual thrombus aspiration (compared with standard PCI) was associated with better ISR rate after BMS implantation. PMID:24804102

  7. Myocardial infarction and subsequent death in a patient undergoing robotic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Judy

    2009-10-01

    A 52-year-old patient, ASA physical status IV, undergoing a radical prostatectomy for cancer with a robotic system had a cardiac arrest 3 hours into the case. All attempts to resuscitate were unsuccessful, and several hours later he was pronounced dead. Underlying patient comorbidity and procedural issues contributed to the patient's death. The patient had a history of coronary artery disease that required the placement of drug-eluting stents 2 years before this surgical procedure. The preoperative cardiac evaluation and pharmacological management of patients with drug-eluting coronary stents are reviewed. There are a number of positional and technical considerations for patients undergoing robotic surgical procedures, especially in relation to the requirement of low-lithotomy and steep Trendelenburg positions. The cardiac and respiratory systems are especially vulnerable to the extreme and lengthy head-down position. The needed positioning, combined with the problems associated with insufflation, presents a unique challenge in anesthetic management. This course reviews the current literature on the surgical implications for patients with drug-eluting stents and the physiologic factors related to position and pneumoperitoneum and their associated stressors. By using a review of the contemporary literature, a best-evidence approach to anesthetic management is reviewed.

  8. Symptom clusters of ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and their emotional status and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung-Hye; Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a descriptive study to identify the symptoms, emotional status, and quality of life experienced by hospitalized ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and influencing the factors of symptom clusters on their quality of life. A total of 192 patients who had been diagnosed with ovarian cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery more than once from 2 university hospitals with over 800 beds located in the Seoul and Gyeonggi areas of South Korea were included in this study. Using a structured questionnaire, the symptoms, emotional status, and quality of life by these patients were investigated from May 2012 to June 2013. We identified the following 7 symptom clusters among ovarian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: psychological distress, fatigue-pain, abdominal discomfort, flu-like symptoms, fluid accumulation, and peripheral neuropathy. Patients with a high level of anxiety or depression experienced all symptoms at a higher level, and the 7 symptom clusters influenced all aspects of the patients' quality of life. This study provides to need interventions for the quality of life of ovarian cancer patients need to include the management of not only the physical symptoms and treatment-related side effects, but also the changes in their emotional status and daily lives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics of Topiramate in Japanese Pediatric and Adult Patients With Epilepsy Using Routinely Monitored Data.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masato; Yano, Ikuko; Ito, Satoko; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Shota; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Akio; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Topiramate is a second-generation antiepileptic drug used as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in adults and children with partial seizures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis was performed to improve the topiramate dosage adjustment for individualized treatment. Patients whose steady-state serum concentration of topiramate was routinely monitored at Kyoto University Hospital from April 2012 to March 2013 were included in the model-building data. A nonlinear mixed effects modeling program was used to evaluate the influence of covariates on topiramate pharmacokinetics. The obtained PPK model was evaluated by internal model validations, including goodness-of-fit plots and prediction-corrected visual predictive checks, and was externally confirmed using the validation data from January 2015 to December 2015. A total of 177 steady-state serum concentrations from 93 patients were used for the model-building analysis. The patients' age ranged from 2 to 68 years, and body weight ranged from 8.6 to 105 kg. The median serum concentration of topiramate was 1.7 mcg/mL, and half of the patients received carbamazepine coadministration. Based on a one-compartment model with first order absorption and elimination, the apparent volume of distribution was 105 L/70 kg, and the apparent clearance was allometrically related to the body weight as 2.25 L·h·70 kg without carbamazepine or phenytoin. Combination treatment with carbamazepine or phenytoin increased the apparent clearance to 3.51 L·h·70 kg. Goodness-of-fit plots, prediction-corrected visual predictive check, and external validation using the validation data from 43 patients confirmed an appropriateness of the final model. Simulations based on the final model showed that dosage adjustments allometrically scaling to body weight can equalize the serum concentrations in children of various ages and adults. The PPK model, using the power scaling of body weight, effectively elucidated the topiramate serum

  10. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at NIH Clinical Center | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Therapy Dogs Animal-Assisted Therapy for Patients Undergoing Treatment at ... Kerry (middle), a patient, is with the therapy dog team of Jeanette Golden (left) and Tucker the ...

  11. Predictors of renal function recovery among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Maria Claudia Cruz; Souza, Nádia Karina Guimarães de; Ammirati, Adriano Luiz; Matsui, Thais Nemoto; Carneiro, Fabiana Dias; Ramos, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza; Iizuca, Ilson Jorge; Coelho, Maria Paula Vilela; Afonso, Rogério Carballo; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Durão, Marcelino; Batista, Marcelo Costa; Monte, Julio Cesar; Pereira, Virgílio Gonçalves; Santos, Oscar Pavão Dos; Santos, Bento Cardoso Dos

    2017-01-01

    Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT. Log-rank tests were used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the risk of remaining on HD. The results of our analysis showed that of the 155 patients, 28% had pre-OLT diabetes mellitus, 21% had pre-OLT hypertension, and 40% had viral hepatitis. Among the patients, the median MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score was 27 (interquartile range [IQR] 22-35). When they were listed for liver transplantation, 32% of the patients had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD, and 50% had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD at the time of OLT. Of the transplanted patients, 25% underwent pre-OLT intermittent HD, and 14% and 41% underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) pre-OLT and post-OLT, respectively. At 90 days post-OLT, 118 (76%) patients had been taken off dialysis, and 16 (10%) patients had died while undergoing HD. The median recovery time of these post-OLT patients was 33 (IQR 27-39) days. In the multivariate analysis, fulminant hepatic failure as the cause of liver disease (p<0.001), the absence of pre-OLT hypertension (p = 0.016), a lower intraoperative fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion volume (p = 0.019) and not undergoing pre-OLT intermittent HD (p = 0.032) were associated with performing RRT for less than

  12. Predictors of renal function recovery among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Nádia Karina Guimarães; Ammirati, Adriano Luiz; Matsui, Thais Nemoto; Carneiro, Fabiana Dias; Ramos, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza; Iizuca, Ilson Jorge; Afonso, Rogério Carballo; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Durão, Marcelino; Batista, Marcelo Costa; Monte, Julio Cesar; Pereira, Virgílio Gonçalves; dos Santos, Oscar Pavão

    2017-01-01

    Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT. Log-rank tests were used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the risk of remaining on HD. The results of our analysis showed that of the 155 patients, 28% had pre-OLT diabetes mellitus, 21% had pre-OLT hypertension, and 40% had viral hepatitis. Among the patients, the median MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score was 27 (interquartile range [IQR] 22-35). When they were listed for liver transplantation, 32% of the patients had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD, and 50% had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD at the time of OLT. Of the transplanted patients, 25% underwent pre-OLT intermittent HD, and 14% and 41% underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) pre-OLT and post-OLT, respectively. At 90 days post-OLT, 118 (76%) patients had been taken off dialysis, and 16 (10%) patients had died while undergoing HD. The median recovery time of these post-OLT patients was 33 (IQR 27–39) days. In the multivariate analysis, fulminant hepatic failure as the cause of liver disease (p<0.001), the absence of pre-OLT hypertension (p = 0.016), a lower intraoperative fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion volume (p = 0.019) and not undergoing pre-OLT intermittent HD (p = 0.032) were associated with performing RRT for less

  13. What Aspects of Personal Care Are Most Important to Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Kimberley A.; Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; Feldman-Stewart, Deb

    Purpose/Objective: The overall quality of patient care is a function of the quality of both its technical and its nontechnical components. The purpose of this study was to identify the elements of nontechnical (personal) care that are most important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the literature and interviewed patients and health professionals to identify elements of personal care pertinent to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We identified 143 individual elements relating to 10 aspects of personal care. Patients undergoing radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer completed a self-administered questionnaire inmore » which they rated the importance of each element. The overall importance of each element was measured by the percentage of respondents who rated it as “very important.” The importance of each aspect of personal care was measured by the mean importance of its elements. Results: One hundred eight patients completed the questionnaire. The percentage of patients who rated each element “very important” ranged from 7% to 95% (mean 61%). The mean importance rating of the elements of each aspect of care varied significantly: “perceived competence of caregivers,” 80%; “empathy and respectfulness of caregivers,” 67%; “adequacy of information sharing,” 67%; “patient centeredness,” 59%; “accessibility of caregivers,” 57%; “continuity of care,” 51%; “privacy,” 51%; “convenience,” 45%; “comprehensiveness of services,” 44%; and “treatment environment,” 30% (P<.0001). Neither age nor education was associated with importance ratings, but the patient's health status was associated with the rating of some elements of care. Conclusions: Many different elements of personal care are important to patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer, but the 3 aspects of care that most believe are most important are these: the

  14. Cardiothoracic ratio within the “normal” range independently predicts mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, M Justin S; Sanders, Julie; Crook, Angela M; Feder, Gene; Shipley, Martin; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), within the range conventionally considered normal, predicted prognosis in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Design Cohort study with a median of 7‐years follow‐up. Setting Consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography at Barts and The London National Health Service (NHS) Trust. Subjects 1005 patients with CTRs measured by chest radiography, and who subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Of these patients, 7.3% had a CTR ⩾0.5 and were excluded from the analyses. Outcomes All‐cause mortality and coronary event (non‐fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death). Adjustments were made for age, left ventricular dysfunction, ACE inhibitor treatment, body mass index, number of diseased coronary vessels and past coronary artery bypass graft. Results The risk of death was increased among patients with a CTR in the upper part of the normal range. In total, 94 (18.9%) of those with a CTR below the median of 0.42 died compared with 120 (27.8%) of those with a CTR between 0.42 and 0.49 (log rank test p<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, this increased risk remained (adjusted HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.05). CTR, at values below 0.5, was linearly related to the risk of coronary event (test for trend p = 0.024). Conclusion : In patients undergoing coronary angiography, CTR between 0.42 and 0.49 was associated with higher mortality than in patients with smaller hearts. There was evidence of a continuous increase in risk with higher CTR. These findings, along with those in healthy populations, question the conventional textbook cut‐off point of ⩾0.5 being an abnormal CTR. PMID:17164481

  15. [Hereditary heterozygous factor VII deficiency in patients undergoing surgery : Clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Woehrle, D; Martinez, M; Bolliger, D

    2016-10-01

    A hereditary deficiency in coagulation factor VII (FVII) may affect the international normalized ratio (INR) value. However, FVII deficiency is occasionally associated with a tendency to bleed spontaneously. We hypothesized that perioperative substitution with coagulation factor concentrates might not be indicated in most patients. In this retrospective data analysis, we included all patients with hereditary heterozygous FVII deficiency who underwent surgical procedures at the University Hospital Basel between December 2010 and November 2015. In addition, by searching the literature, we identified publications reporting patients with FVII deficiency undergoing surgical procedures without perioperative substitution. We identified 22 patients undergoing 46 surgical procedures, resulting in a prevalence of 1:1500-2000. Coagulation factor concentrates were administered during the perioperative period in 15 procedures (33 %), whereas in the other 31 procedures (66 %), FVII deficiency was not substituted. No postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic events were reported. In addition, we found no differences in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin and coagulation parameters, with the exception of an improved postoperative INR value in the substituted group. In the literature review, we identified five publications, including 125 patients with FVII deficiency, undergoing 213 surgical procedures with no perioperative substitution. Preoperative substitution using coagulation factor concentrates does not seem to be mandatory in patients with an FVII level ≥15 %. For decision-making on preoperative substitution, patient history of an increased tendency to bleed may be more important than the FVII level or increased INR value.

  16. Cost-benefit evaluation of liposomal bupivacaine in the management of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kirkness, Carmen S; Asche, Carl V; Ren, Jinma; Kim, Minchul; Rainville, Edward C

    2016-05-01

    Results of a cost-benefit analysis of intraoperative use of liposomal bupivacaine for postsurgical pain management in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are presented. In a retrospective single-site study, clinical and cost outcomes were compared in a group of 134 consecutive patients who received liposomal bupivacaine (by local infiltration) during TKA and a propensity score-matched historical cohort of 134 patients undergoing TKA who received usual care (continuous femoral nerve blockade with conventional bupivacaine delivered via elastomeric pump). Postsurgical pain scores and opioid use were similar in the two study groups; the mean total amount of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs administered was lower in the liposomal bupivacaine group. Patients who received liposomal bupivacaine typically ambulated earlier than those who received usual care (22% and 3%, respectively, walked on the day of surgery; p < 0.05) and were more likely to be discharged within two days (50% versus 19%, p < 0.001); on average, liposomal bupivacaine- treated patients walked farther on the day of surgery (6.0 m versus 3.1 m, p < 0.001) and the day after surgery (63.7 m versus 25.5 m, p < 0.001) and had a shorter length of stay (LOS) (3.1 days versus 3.6 days, p < 0.03). The mean adjusted total direct hospital cost per patient was significantly lower with liposomal bupivacaine use versus usual care ($8758 versus $9213, p = 0.033). In patients undergoing TKA, intraoperative administration of liposomal bupivacaine for management of postsurgical pain was found to offer advantages over usual care, including decreased time to ambulation and reduced hospital LOS. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting acute pain perception and analgesics consumption in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Paola; Lai, Carlo; Perilli, Valter; Sacco, Teresa; Modesti, Cristina; Raffaelli, Marco; Sollazzi, Liliana

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies performed in non-obese patients undergoing elective surgery have revealed that psychological factors may affect postoperative analgesic requirements. The aim of this observational prospective study was to investigate the extent to which psychopathological dimensions, including anxiety, depression and alexithymia, may influence postoperative pain intensity and analgesics consumption using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. 120 patients, aged 18-60years, with an ASA physical status I-II, undergoing gastric bypass were enrolled. Anxiety and depression Hamilton scales, and Toronto Alexithymia scale, were administered to patients on the day before surgery. General anesthesia was standardized. After awakening, a PCA pump with intravenous tramadol was immediately made available for a 36-hour postoperative analgesia. Visual analog scale at rest (VASr) and after coughing (VASi), and effective PCA requests number were postoperatively recorded. Pearson's correlations, Anova analyses and multiple linear regression were used for statistical purpose. Positive correlations were found between anxiety, depression, alexithymia and all pain indicators (p<0.01). Analyses of variance showed that anxious (p<0.001), depressed (p<0.001) and alexithymic (p<0.05) patients had high pain indicators. VASr and VASi were predicted by anxiety and depression (p<0.05), but not by alexithymia; effective PCA requests number was predicted by anxiety, depression and alexithymia (p<0.001). Obese patients with high depression, anxiety and alexithymia levels rated their pain as more intense and required a larger amount of tramadol. Pain perception intensity was predicted by anxiety and depression but not by alexithymia, whereas analgesics consumption was predicted by all the investigated psychopathological dimensions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Anti-rheumatic therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients have been increasing recently. Some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients need hemodialysis (HD), though the proportion is not high. At present, such patients are almost treated with corticosteroids and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone, even if they have a high disease activity that would require disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, partly because the safety of DMARDs in RA patients with end-stage renal disease has not been confirmed. Their joint destruction would be inevitable and lead to impaired activities of daily living. As there are no guidelines for the use of DMARDs in HD patients, here I reviewed the previous reports about the treatment of DMARDs including biologics for patients with RA undergoing HD.

  19. Reiki for Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy in a Brazilian Hospital: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Pamela; da Motta, Pedro Mourão Roxo; da Silva, Luis G; Stephan, Celso; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos; de Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore whether individualized Reiki given to cancer patients at a Brazilian hospital improved symptoms and well-being. Data from 36 patients who received 5 Reiki sessions were collected using the MYMOP and were compared before and after their treatment and also with 14 patients who did not receive Reiki and who acted as a comparison group. Twenty-one patients reported feeling better, 12 felt worse, and 3 reported no change. Of the comparison group, 6 patients reported feeling better and 8 felt worse. The Reiki practice delivered as part of the integrative care in oncology did produce clinically significant effects, although not statistically significant results, for more than half of the patients undergoing cancer treatment.

  20. [Concomitant oncopathological changes in the prostate of urinary bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystoprostateectomy].

    PubMed

    Komyakov, B K; Sergeev, A V; Fadeev, V A; Ismailov, K I; Ulyanov, A Yu; Shmelev, A Yu; Onoshko, M V

    2017-09-01

    To determine the incidence of spreading bladder transitional cell carcinoma and primary adenocarcinoma to the prostate in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy. From 1995 to 2016, 283 men underwent radical cystectomy with removal of the bladder, perivesical tissue, prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes. Prostate sparing cystectomy was performed in 45 (13.7%) patients. The whole prostate and the apex of the prostate were preserved in 21 (6.4%) and 24 (7.3%) patients, respectively. The spread of transitional cell cancer of the bladder to the prostate occurred in 50 (15.2%) patients. Twelve (3.6%) patients were found to have primary prostate adenocarcinoma. Clinically significant prostate cancer was diagnosed in 4 (33.3%) patients. We believe that the high oncological risk of prostate sparing cystectomy, despite some functional advantages, dictates the need for complete removal of the prostate in the surgical treatment of bladder cancer.

  1. Scoring System Prognostic of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Malone, Adriana K.; Valcárcel, David; Grunwald, Michael R.; Bacher, Ulrike; Hamilton, Betty; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Saad, Ayman; Cutler, Corey; Warlick, Erica; Reshef, Ran; Wirk, Baldeep Mona; Sabloff, Mitchell; Fasan, Omotayo; Gerds, Aaron; Marks, David; Olsson, Richard; Wood, William Allen; Costa, Luciano J.; Miller, Alan M.; Cortes, Jorge; Daly, Andrew; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L.; Kamble, Rammurti; Rizzieri, David A.; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Gale, Robert Peter; William, Basem; Litzow, Mark; Wiernik, Peter H.; Liesveld, Jane; Savani, Bipin N.; Vij, Ravi; Ustun, Celalettin; Copelan, Edward; Popat, Uday; Kalaycio, Matt; Maziarz, Richard; Alyea, Edwin; Sobecks, Ron; Pavletic, Steven; Tallman, Martin; Saber, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a system prognostic of outcome in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients and Methods We examined 2,133 patients with MDS undergoing HLA-matched (n = 1,728) or -mismatched (n = 405) allo HCT from 2000 to 2012. We used a Cox multivariable model to identify factors prognostic of mortality in a training subset (n = 1,151) of the HLA-matched cohort. A weighted score using these factors was assigned to the remaining patients undergoing HLA-matched allo HCT (validation cohort; n = 577) as well as to patients undergoing HLA-mismatched allo HCT. Results Blood blasts greater than 3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.85), platelets 50 × 109/L or less at transplantation (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), Karnofsky performance status less than 90% (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), comprehensive cytogenetic risk score of poor or very poor (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80), and age 30 to 49 years (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.35) were associated with increased hazard of death and assigned 1 point in the scoring system. Monosomal karyotype (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45) and age 50 years or older (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.83) were assigned 2 points. The 3-year overall survival after transplantation in patients with low (0 to 1 points), intermediate (2 to 3), high (4 to 5) and very high (≥ 6) scores was 71% (95% CI, 58% to 85%), 49% (95% CI, 42% to 56%), 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%), and 25% (95% CI, 4% to 46%), respectively (P < .001). Increasing score was predictive of increased relapse (P < .001) and treatment-related mortality (P < .001) in the HLA-matched set and relapse (P < .001) in the HLA-mismatched cohort. Conclusion The proposed system is prognostic of outcome in patients undergoing HLA-matched and -mismatched allo HCT for MDS. PMID:27044940

  2. SPECT-CT in routine clinical practice: increase in patient radiation dose compared with SPECT alone.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punit; Sharma, Shekhar; Ballal, Sanjana; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-09-01

    To assess the patient radiation dose during routine clinical single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and measure the increase as compared with SPECT alone. Data pertaining to 357 consecutive patients who had undergone radioisotope imaging along with SPECT-CT of a selected volume were retrospectively evaluated. Dose of the injected radiopharmaceutical (MBq) was noted, and the effective dose (mSv) was calculated as per International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidelines. The volume-weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product of the CT were also assessed using standard phantoms. The effective dose (mSv) due to CT was calculated as the product of dose length product and a conversion factor depending on the region of investigation, using ICRP guidelines. The dose due to CT was compared among different investigations. The increase in effective dose was calculated as CT dose expressed as a percentage of radiopharmaceutical dose. The per-patient CT effective dose for different studies varied between 0.06 and 11.9 mSv. The mean CT effective dose was lowest for 99mTc-ethylene cysteine dimer brain SPECT-CT (0.9 ± 0.7) and highest for 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone SPECT-CT (4.2 ± 2.8). The increase in radiation dose (SPECT-CT vs. SPECT) varied widely (2.3-666.4% for 99mTc-tracers and 0.02-96.2% for 131I-tracers). However, the effective dose of CT in SPECT-CT was less than the values reported for conventional CT examinations of the same regions. Addition of CT to nuclear medicine imaging in the form of SPECT-CT increases the radiation dose to the patient, with the effective dose due to CT exceeding the effective dose of RP in many instances. Hence, appropriate utilization and optimization of the protocols of SPECT-CT is needed to maximize benefit to patients.

  3. Training clinicians in how to use patient-reported outcome measures in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Santana, Maria J; Haverman, Lotte; Absolom, Kate; Takeuchi, Elena; Feeny, David; Grootenhuis, Martha; Velikova, Galina

    2015-07-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) were originally developed for comparing groups of people in clinical trials and population studies, and the results were used to support treatment recommendations or inform health policy, but there was not direct benefit for the participants providing PROs data. However, as the experience in using those measures increased, it became obvious the clinical value in using individual patient PROs profiles in daily practice to identify/monitor symptoms, evaluate treatment outcomes and support shared decision-making. A key issue limiting successful implementation is clinicians' lack of knowledge on how to effectively utilize PROs data in their clinical encounters. Using a change management theoretical framework, this paper describes the development and implementation of three programs for training clinicians to effectively use PRO data in routine practice. The training programs are in three diverse clinical areas (adult oncology, lung transplant and paediatrics), in three countries with different healthcare systems, thus providing a rare opportunity to pull out common approaches whilst recognizing specific settings. For each program, we describe the clinical and organizational setting, the program planning and development, the content of the training session with supporting material, subsequent monitoring of PROs use and evidence of adoption. The common successful components and practical steps are identified, leading to discussion and future recommendations. The results of the three training programs are described as the implementation. In the oncology program, PRO data have been developed and are currently evaluated; in the lung transplant program, PRO data are used in daily practice and the integration with electronic patient records is under development; and in the paediatric program, PRO data are fully implemented with around 7,600 consultations since the start of the implementation. Adult learning programs teaching clinicians

  4. Frailty and falls among adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hemodialysis are at high risk of falls, with subsequent complications including fractures, loss of independence, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Factors associated with falls are poorly understood in this population. We hypothesized that insights derived from studies of the elderly might apply to adults of all ages undergoing hemodialysis; we focused on frailty, a phenotype of physiological decline strongly associated with falls in the elderly. Methods In this prospective, longitudinal study of 95 patients undergoing hemodialysis (1/2009-3/2010), the association of frailty with future falls was explored using adjusted Poisson regression. Frailty was classified using the criteria established by Fried et al., as a combination of five components: shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, low activity, and slowed walking speed. Results Over a median 6.7-month period of longitudinal follow-up, 28.3% of study participants (25.9% of those under 65, 29.3% of those 65 and older) experienced a fall. After adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidity, disability, number of medications, marital status, and education, frailty independently predicted a 3.09-fold (95% CI: 1.38-6.90, P=0.006) higher number of falls. This relationship between frailty and falls did not differ for younger and older adults (P=0.57). Conclusions Frailty, a validated construct in the elderly, was a strong and independent predictor of falls in adults undergoing hemodialysis, regardless of age. Our results may aid in identifying frail hemodialysis patients who could be targeted for multidimensional fall prevention strategies. PMID:24131569

  5. Pain and Anxiety Levels of Patients Undergoing Tissue Expansion After Mastectomies: A Case Series Study.

    PubMed

    Le, Nicole K; García-Molina, Carla; Kumar, Ambuj; Griffin, Lisa; Dayicioglu, Deniz

    2017-01-01

    The tissue expansion process is done after mastectomies to increase the submuscular space in preparation for the placement of permanent breast implant. The process is often believed to be painful by patients who are often intimidated by the prospect of mechanically stretching out their skin and muscle. This study aims to quantify the pain experienced by patients and determine the different pain management techniques used. We used a case series approach, in which patients who were undergoing serial tissue expansion process were asked to rate their pain and anxiety on a scale from 1 to 10, using a questionnaire and the visual analog scale. Pain was rated during and after the expansion procedure, and patients were also surveyed to find the most commonly used and most effective pain management technique. Patients typically reported very little pain during and after the procedure, with an average of 0.4 to 2.5 pain experienced out of 10. The pain did not last, on average, longer than 1 day. Furthermore, the most widely used and most helpful pain medication was ibuprofen. During the tissue expansion procedure, the mean anxiety level was 0.64 (1.3). The findings show that tissue expansion process is a relatively low pain procedure and is not a contraindication for undergoing breast reconstruction. Ibuprofen, a mild treatment with few side effects, was efficacious in pain relief though most patients required no pain relief.

  6. Dietary and fluid restriction perceptions of patients undergoing haemodialysis: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Leting Isabella; Wang, Wenru; Chan, Ee Yuee; Mohamed, Fatimah; Chen, Hui-Chen

    2017-11-01

    To explore the perspectives of patients undergoing haemodialysis in Singapore on an imposed dietary and fluid restriction regime. Adherence to prescribed dietary and fluid restriction constructs the fundamental basis of self-care with improved morbidity and mortality. However, most patients have struggled to adhere in this aspect. Existing studies have presented limited understanding on the facilitators and barriers of dietary and fluid adherence among haemodialysis patients. An exploratory qualitative study. A purposive sample of 14 patients undergoing haemodialysis was recruited from a renal unit of a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Data were collected through face-to-face individual interviews and subsequently analysed by thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) Pessimism, (2) Existing struggles, (3) Perceived quality of support, and (4) Immensity of self-discipline. The imposed dietary and fluid restriction is a constant struggle and a cause of suffering among haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Nonetheless, they are generally submissive to their fluid restrictions for the sake of survival or to meet the expectations of their loved ones. The imposed dietary restrictions are generally neglected. The findings from this study can provide useful information in reviewing existing educational strategies, policies and nursing care. This is especially important because most patients exhibit high reliance on healthcare professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sternal wrapping for the prevention of sternal morbidity in elderly osteoporotic patients undergoing median sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Kirbas, Ahmet; Celik, Sezai; Gurer, Onur; Yildiz, Yahya; Isik, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a major risk factor for sternum-related morbidity after median sternotomy, is quite prevalent among the elderly. In this prospective study, we investigated the potential of sternal protection by use of the "sternal wrapping method" in elderly osteoporotic patients who were undergoing median sternotomy.For this study, we chose 100 elderly osteoporotic patients who were scheduled to undergo median sternotomy. During surgery, we wrapped the sternal edges with polyvinyl chloride tubing in 50 patients (group 1) and omitted the sternal wrapping in the remaining 50 patients (group 2). We then compared the groups with regard to postoperative pain, bleeding, early and late sternum-related morbidity, sternal fractures, and duration of hospitalization.Sternal wrapping was associated with fewer sternal fractures, less chest pain, and shorter hospital stays. Overall sternal morbidity was significantly less common among patients with sternal wrapping (4% vs. 20%, P = 0.03); however, the difference in individual rates for early and late dehiscence or deep sternal infection did not reach statistical significance.Sternal wrapping using polyvinyl chloride tubes provides mechanical protection and, apparently, less postoperative chest pain and shorter hospitalizations. Probably, it reduces sternum-related complications, particularly in high-risk patients. Its benefits, however, should be confirmed in larger studies.

  8. Sternal Wrapping for the Prevention of Sternal Morbidity in Elderly Osteoporotic Patients Undergoing Median Sternotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kirbas, Ahmet; Celik, Sezai; Gurer, Onur; Yildiz, Yahya; Isik, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a major risk factor for sternum-related morbidity after median sternotomy, is quite prevalent among the elderly. In this prospective study, we investigated the potential of sternal protection by use of the “sternal wrapping method” in elderly osteoporotic patients who were undergoing median sternotomy. For this study, we chose 100 elderly osteoporotic patients who were scheduled to undergo median sternotomy. During surgery, we wrapped the sternal edges with polyvinyl chloride tubing in 50 patients (group 1) and omitted the sternal wrapping in the remaining 50 patients (group 2). We then compared the groups with regard to postoperative pain, bleeding, early and late sternum-related morbidity, sternal fractures, and duration of hospitalization. Sternal wrapping was associated with fewer sternal fractures, less chest pain, and shorter hospital stays. Overall sternal morbidity was significantly less common among patients with sternal wrapping (4% vs 20%, P = 0.03); however, the difference in individual rates for early and late dehiscence or deep sternal infection did not reach statistical significance. Sternal wrapping using polyvinyl chloride tubes provides mechanical protection and, apparently, less postoperative chest pain and shorter hospitalizations. Probably, it reduces sternum-related complications, particularly in high-risk patients. Its benefits, however, should be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:21494519

  9. Hysteroscopic tubal electrocoagulation versus laparoscopic tubal ligation for patients with hydrosalpinges undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    El-Mazny, Akmal; Abou-Salem, Nermeen; Hammam, Mohamed; Saber, Walid

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the use and success rate of hysteroscopic tubal electrocoagulation for the treatment of hydrosalpinx-related infertility among patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) who have laparoscopic contraindications. A prospective study was conducted among patients who had unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinges identified on hysterosalpingography and vaginal ultrasonography, and who were undergoing IVF at a center in Cairo, Egypt, between January 1, 2013, and October 30, 2014. All patients who had contraindications for laparoscopy were scheduled for hysteroscopic tubal electrocoagulation (group 1); the other patients underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation (group 2). For all patients, hysterosalpingography was performed 3 months after their procedure to evaluate proximal tubal occlusion. Among 85 enrolled patients, 22 underwent hysteroscopic tubal electrocoagulation and 63 underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation. The procedure was successful in terms of tubal occlusion for 25 (93%) of 27 hydrosalpinges in group 1, and 78 (96%) of 81 hydrosalpinges in group 2 (P=0.597). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported. Hysteroscopic tubal electrocoagulation was found to be a successful treatment for hydrosalpinges before IVF when laparoscopy is contraindicated. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoking, drinking, and depression: comorbidity in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Kristen; Baker, Amanda L; Britton, Benjamin; Wolfenden, Luke; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Halpin, Sean A; Carter, Gregory; Beck, Alison K; Leigh, Lucy; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2018-04-19

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms among a sample of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy. A total of 307 HNC patients participated in a multi-site stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a dietitian-delivered health behavior intervention in patients with HNC undergoing radiotherapy. During week one of radiotherapy patients completed measures of smoking, alcohol consumption, and level of depression. Approximately one-fifth (21%) of patients had two or more co-occurring problems: current smoking, hazardous alcohol use, and/or likely presence of a major depressive episode (MDE). Approximately one-third (34%) of the sample were current smokers, one-third (31%) were drinking hazardously and almost one-fifth (19%) had likely cases of depression. Comorbidity of smoking, hazardous alcohol use, and MDE is high in HNC patients, and interventions need to address this cluster of cancer risk factors. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Alterations through Music in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery in Greece.

    PubMed

    Merakou, Kyriakoula; Varouxi, Georgia; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Karageorgos, Georgios; Theodoridis, Dimitrios; Koutsouri, Aristea; Kourea-Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Music has been proposed as a safe, inexpensive, nonpharmacological antistress intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing cataract surgery while listening to meditation music experience lower levels of blood pressure and heart rate. Two hundred individuals undergoing cataract surgery participated in the study. Hundred individuals listened to meditation music, through headphones, before and during the operation (intervention group) and 100 individuals received standard care (control group). Patients stress coping skills were measured by the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC Scale). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were defined as outcome measures. According to the SOC Scale, both groups had similar stress coping skills (mean score: 127.6 for the intervention group and 127.3 for the control group). Before entering the operating room (OR) as well as during surgery the rise in systolic and diastolic pressures was significantly lower in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy, those in the intervention group presented a lower increase only in systolic pressure (P < 0.001) at both time recordings. For those patients in the intervention group who did not receive antihypertensive treatment, lower systolic blood pressure at both time recordings was recorded (P < 0.001) while lower diastolic pressure was observed only during entry to the OR (P = 0.021). Heart rate was not altered between the two groups in any of the recordings. Meditation music influenced patients' preoperative stress with regard to systolic blood pressure. This kind of music can be used as an alternative or complementary method for blood pressure stabilizing in patients undergoing cataract surgery.

  12. Increased Resistance of Skin Flora to Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Patients Undergoing Hip Revision Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Deiss, Lukas; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Pohlig, Florian; Harrasser, Norbert; Lenze, Ulrich; Gollwitzer, Hans; Suren, Christian; Prodinger, Peter; VON Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a major complication after total joint replacement and is the primary indication for revision arthroplasty. Specifically, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) can cause low-grade infections. Despite the use of cephalosporin-based antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) and antiseptic treatment at the surgical site, evidence suggests that a significant number of cases of dermal CNS results in low-grade PJI. Thus, this study examined the bacterial colonization and resistance patterns at the surgical site. We hypothesized that the bacteria developed resistance to antibiotics that are frequently used in primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedures. Ninety patients, including 63 primary and 27 revision THA patients, were enrolled in this study. For each patient, a single swab of the skin at the surgical site was subjected to clinical microbiology to assess bacterial colonization. Furthermore, resistance to a sentinel panel of antibiotics (benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin/moxifloxacin, rifampicin, linezolid and vancomycin) was tested. In 96.7% of the patients, at least one bacterial strain was identified at the surgical site, with CNS strains comprising 93.1% of the total. The sentinel panel showed that 30.7% of the CNS strains exhibited maximal resistance to oxacillin, a commonly used cephalosporin. Additionally, oxacillin resistance increased 1.9-fold (p=0.042) between primary and revision THA. Notably, 8.1% of the CNS stains found on patients undergoing primary THA were resistant to gentamicin, an aminoglycoside, and this rate increased 4.7-fold (p=0.001) for patients undergoing revision THA. CNS strains have significant resistance to standard AMP, particularly in individuals undergoing revision THA. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with quality of life in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Darvishpour, Azar; Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Salari, Arsalan; Sadeghi, Tahere; Taleshan-Nejad, Marayam

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Percutaneous coronary intervention has been effective in increasing longevity of patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the evidence shows that the quality of life after the intervention is still lower than optimal level. The quality of life can be affected by various factors. The aim of this study is to determine the quality of life and its related factors in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 106 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty during 2015-2016. This study population included all patients who referred to a cardiac clinic in Rasht, Iran, were passed 3 months after their angioplasty. Research samples met the inclusion criteria and were willing to participate to the study, were selected gradually (continually). Research tools were a self-structured questionnaire regarding factors associated with the quality of life and the MacNew quality of life questionnaire. Data were collected through asking patients questions and using patient’s medical records. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results of multivariate linear regression analysis showed that independent variables of age (P = 0.0001), the number of diseased vessels (P = 0.0001), and the number of comorbidities (P < 0.05) were the most important factors associated with the quality of life. Conclusion: Health-care professionals can play an effective role in promoting the quality of life of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty by modifying lifestyle based on the related factors and to provide comprehensive care programs, especially for elderly. PMID:29085266

  14. [The value of SYNTAX score in predicting outcome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue-chun; Yu, Xian-peng; He, Ji-qiang; Chen, Fang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the value of SYNTAX score to predict major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) among patients with three-vessel or left-main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. 190 patients with three-vessel or left-main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with Cypher select drug-eluting stent were enrolled. SYNTAX score and clinical SYNTAX score were retrospectively calculated. Our clinical Endpoint focused on MACCE, a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and repeat revascularization. The value of SYNTAX score and clinical SYNTAX score to predict MACCE were studied respectively. 29 patients were observed to suffer from MACCE, accounting 18.5% of the overall 190 patients. MACCE rates of low (≤ 20.5), intermediate (21.0 - 31.0), and high (≥ 31.5) tertiles according to SYNTAX score were 9.1%, 16.2% and 30.9% respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that SYNTAX score was the independent predictor of MACCE. MACCE rates of low (≤ 19.5), intermediate (19.6 - 29.1), and high (≥ 29.2) tertiles according to clinical SYNTAX score were 14.9%, 9.8% and 30.6% respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed that clinical SYNTAX score was the independent predictor of MACCE. ROC analysis showed both SYNTAX score (AUC = 0.667, P = 0.004) and clinical SYNTAX score (AUC = 0.636, P = 0.020) had predictive value of MACCE. Clinical SYNTAX score failed to show better predictive ability than the SYNTAX score. Both SYNTAX score and clinical SYNTAX score could be independent risk predictors for MACCE among patients with three-vessel or left-main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Clinical SYNTAX score failed to show better predictive ability than the SYNTAX score in this group of patients.

  15. Compressive cryotherapy versus cryotherapy alone in patients undergoing knee surgery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingzhi; Sun, Xiaohong; Tian, Xiliang; Zhang, Xianbin; Shi, Tieying; Sun, Ran; Dai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis to identify and compare the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone for patients undergoing knee surgery. Postoperative management is an important guarantee for the success of surgery. Cryotherapy and compression are two common nursing techniques after knee surgery, and are considered to be effective for postoperative clinical symptoms such as local pain and swelling. However, no previous meta-analyses have compared the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone in patients undergoing knee surgery. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a search in MEDLINE (via Pubmed, 1990-2014), EMBASE (via Elsevier, 1990-2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 1990-2014), CINAHL (1990-2014) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1990-2014) databases for RCTs published in English and Chinese. The primary outcome measure of interest was visual analog scale and girth measure. Finally, a meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.3. Among the 593 RCTs, 10 RCTs were selected and included into this study. These studies included 522 patients who underwent knee surgery. Patients who underwent compressive cryotherapy tended to have less pain than patients who underwent cryotherapy alone at POD2 and POD3, while compressive cryotherapy had a strong tendency towards less swelling over cryotherapy alone at POD1 and POD2. However, there was no significant difference between compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone at the intermediate stage of rehabilitation after knee surgery. All adverse reactions were recorded in all included RCTs. Current evidence suggests that compressive cryotherapy is beneficial to patients undergoing knee surgery at the early rehabilitation stage. At the last stage, the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone were found to be similar.

  16. Pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing endoscopic, transnasal, transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Lubbe, D; Semple, P

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the importance of pre-operative ear, nose and throat assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic, transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours. Literature pertaining to the pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment and management of patients undergoing endoscopic anterior skull base surgery is sparse. We describe two cases from our series of 59 patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary surgery. The first case involved a young male patient with a large pituitary macroadenoma. His main complaint was visual impairment. He had no previous history of sinonasal pathology and did not complain of any nasal symptoms during the pre-operative neurosurgical assessment. At the time of surgery, a purulent nasal discharge was seen emanating from both middle meati. Surgery was abandoned due to the risk of post-operative meningitis, and postponed until the patient's chronic rhinosinusitis was optimally managed. The second patient was a 47-year-old woman with a large pituitary macroadenoma, who presented to the neurosurgical department with a main complaint of diplopia. She too gave no history of previous nasal problems, and she underwent uneventful surgery using the endoscopic, transnasal approach. Two weeks after surgery, she presented to the emergency unit with severe epistaxis. A previous diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia was discovered, and further surgical and medical intervention was required before the epistaxis was finally controlled. Pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment is essential prior to endoscopic pituitary or anterior skull base surgery. A thorough otorhinolaryngological history will determine whether any co-morbid diseases exist which could affect the surgical field. Nasal anatomy can be assessed via nasal endoscopy and sinusitis excluded. Computed tomography imaging is a valuable aid to decisions regarding additional procedures needed to optimise access to the pituitary fossa.

  17. [Promoting recovery of schizophrenic patients: discrepancy between routine practice and evidence. The SIEP-DIRECT'S Project].

    PubMed

    Semisa, Domenico; Casacchia, Massimo; Di Munzio, Walter; Neri, Giovanni; Buscaglia, Giacinto; Burti, Lorenzo; Pucci, Cristina; Corlito, Giuseppe; Bacigalupi, Maurizio; Parravani, Roberto; Roncone, Rita; Cristofalo, Doriana; Lora, Antonio; Ruggeri, Mirella

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the main discrepancies, as evidenced by the SIEP-DIRECT'S Project, between the evidence-based NICE guidelines for schizophrenia and the usual practices of the Italian mental health services in order to promote the recovery of patients with schizophrenia. Starting from the main NICE recommendations on recovery promotion, 41 indicators were developed. These were experimented in 19 participating Italian Mental Health Departments (MHD) or Psychiatric Services through self-evaluation of the activities carried out to promote patient recovery with the aim of assessing the level of adherence to the recommendations. The data required by most of the indicators were obtained from the psychiatric informative system or from the Direction of the MHD. Moreover, specific research was carried out on the clinical records and on representative patient samples. Furthermore, for 14 indicators, there was requested an assessment by the part of "multidisciplinary" or "specialistic" focus groups who then attributed a score according to a defined "ad hoc" scale. According to the data obtained, although the mental health services seem to care about the physical condition of their patients, they do not routinely examine principle parameters such as blood pressure, glycaemia etc., and collaboration with general practitioners is often complex or not uniformly practiced. Most psychiatrists and psychologists possess the basic communication skills but not enough competences in cognitive-behavioural treatments; such treatments, and every other form of structured individual psychotherapy, are seldom carried out and seem to have become marginal activities within the Services. Also family psycho-educational interventions are under-used. The Services are very active in the care of multi-problem schizophrenia patients, who make up a large percentage (almost a quarter, on average) of the patients in their care. These patients are offered specific and integrated

  18. Scoring System Prognostic of Outcome in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Brian C; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Malone, Adriana K; Valcárcel, David; Grunwald, Michael R; Bacher, Ulrike; Hamilton, Betty; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Saad, Ayman; Cutler, Corey; Warlick, Erica; Reshef, Ran; Wirk, Baldeep Mona; Sabloff, Mitchell; Fasan, Omotayo; Gerds, Aaron; Marks, David; Olsson, Richard; Wood, William Allen; Costa, Luciano J; Miller, Alan M; Cortes, Jorge; Daly, Andrew; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L; Kamble, Rammurti; Rizzieri, David A; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Gale, Robert Peter; William, Basem; Litzow, Mark; Wiernik, Peter H; Liesveld, Jane; Savani, Bipin N; Vij, Ravi; Ustun, Celalettin; Copelan, Edward; Popat, Uday; Kalaycio, Matt; Maziarz, Richard; Alyea, Edwin; Sobecks, Ron; Pavletic, Steven; Tallman, Martin; Saber, Wael

    2016-06-01

    To develop a system prognostic of outcome in those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We examined 2,133 patients with MDS undergoing HLA-matched (n = 1,728) or -mismatched (n = 405) allo HCT from 2000 to 2012. We used a Cox multivariable model to identify factors prognostic of mortality in a training subset (n = 1,151) of the HLA-matched cohort. A weighted score using these factors was assigned to the remaining patients undergoing HLA-matched allo HCT (validation cohort; n = 577) as well as to patients undergoing HLA-mismatched allo HCT. Blood blasts greater than 3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.85), platelets 50 × 10(9)/L or less at transplantation (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.61), Karnofsky performance status less than 90% (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.28), comprehensive cytogenetic risk score of poor or very poor (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.80), and age 30 to 49 years (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.35) were associated with increased hazard of death and assigned 1 point in the scoring system. Monosomal karyotype (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65 to 2.45) and age 50 years or older (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.83) were assigned 2 points. The 3-year overall survival after transplantation in patients with low (0 to 1 points), intermediate (2 to 3), high (4 to 5) and very high (≥ 6) scores was 71% (95% CI, 58% to 85%), 49% (95% CI, 42% to 56%), 41% (95% CI, 31% to 51%), and 25% (95% CI, 4% to 46%), respectively (P < .001). Increasing score was predictive of increased relapse (P < .001) and treatment-related mortality (P < .001) in the HLA-matched set and relapse (P < .001) in the HLA-mismatched cohort. The proposed system is prognostic of outcome in patients undergoing HLA-matched and -mismatched allo HCT for MDS. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. The prevalence of glaucoma in patients undergoing surgery for eyelid entropion or ectropion

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Shani; Rabina, Gilad; Kurtz, Shimon; Leibovitch, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and design The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of known glaucoma in patients undergoing ectropion or entropion surgical repair. In this study, retrospective review of case series was performed. Participants All patients who underwent ectropion or entropion surgery in a tertiary medical center between 2007 and 2014 were included. The etiology of eyelid malpositioning was involutional or cicatricial. Methods The medical files of the study participants were reviewed for the presence and type of glaucoma, medical treatment, duration of treatment, and the amount of drops per day. These data were compared to a matched control group of 101 patients who underwent blepharoplasty for dermatochalasis in the same department during the same period. Main outcome measure In this study, the prevalence of glaucoma in individuals with ectropion or entropion was the main outcome measure. Results A total of 227 patients (57% men, mean age: 79.2 years) who underwent ectropion or entropion surgery comprised the study group and 101 patients who underwent upper blepharoplasty for dermatochalasis comprised the control group. Compared to four patients in the control group (4%, P=0.01), 30 of the study patients (13.2%) had coexisting glaucoma. Of 30 glaucomatous patients, 25 had primary open-angle glaucoma for a mean duration of 10.3 years. The glaucomatous patients were treated with an average of 2.7 antiglaucoma medications. Conclusion An increased prevalence of known glaucoma in patients undergoing ectropion or entropion repair surgery was found. This observation may indicate that the chronic usage of topical anti-glaucoma eyedrops may lead to an increased risk of developing eyelid malpositions, especially in elderly patients. PMID:27785003

  20. Gender-based outcomes of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Mina, George S; Firouzbakht, Tina; Modi, Kalgi; Dominic, Paari

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to perform a gender-based meta-analysis of the outcome of bivalirudin versus heparin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Bivalirudin has been shown to decrease major bleeding when compared to heparin ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in patients undergoing PCI. It is unclear, however, if those differences in outcomes are the same for men and women. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared bivalirudin to heparin with or without GPI in patients undergoing PCI and reported outcome data that were stratified by gender. Random effect model was used to pool odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 9 trials with 33,224 patients. Bivalirudin decreased major bleeding when compared to heparin plus routine GPI in both men (OR: 0.51, P < 0.001) and women (OR: 0.55, P < 0.001). However, when GPI were used selectively with heparin, the bleeding lowering effect of bivalirudin was statistically significant in men (OR: 0.69, P = 0.02) but not in women (OR: 0.71, P = 0.21). When compared to heparin ± GPI, there was a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower all-cause mortality with bivalirudin in both men (OR: 0.76, P = 0.055) and women (OR: 0.79, P = 0.21). There were no significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events between heparin and bivalirudin in both men and women. Bivalirudin decreases major bleeding in both men and women when compared to heparin plus routine GPI. However, when compared to heparin alone, the bleeding lowering benefit of bivalirudin is less evident in women. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft; comparison of the center for disease control clinical criteria with physicians' judgment.

    PubMed

    Baghban, Mahboubeh; Paknejad, Omalbanin; Yousefshahi, Fardin; Gohari Moghadam, Keivan; Bina, Payvand; Samimi Sadeh, Saghar

    2014-08-01

    Following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), patients are at high risk (3.2%-8.3%) for developing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) with mortality rate of 24% to 50%. Some of routine features in patients undergoing CABG are similar to clinical criteria of Center of Disease Control (CDC) for diagnosis of pneumonia. This may lead to over-diagnosis of pneumonia in these patients. This study aimed to assess the frequency of CDC criteria for diagnosis of pneumonia in patients undergoing CABG. This study was performed on CABG candidates admitted to post cardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in a six-month period. Patient's records, Chest-X-Ray, and Laboratory tests were assessed for PNU1-CDC criteria for HAP diagnosis. At the same time, a physician who was unaware of the study protocol assessed the clinical diagnosis. Then the results were compared with CDC criteria-based diagnosis. Of total 300 patients, 9 (3%) met CDC criteria for diagnosis of pneumonia while none of the cases were diagnosed as HAP according to the physicians' clinical diagnosis. All nine patients were discharged with proper general condition and no need of antibiotic therapy. This study showed that loss of consciousness, tachypnea, dyspnea, PaO2 < 60 mm Hg, PaO2/FiO2 < 240, and local infiltration in 24 hours of operation were misleading features of CDC criteria, which were not considered in physicians' clinical judgment to establish the diagnosis. Our findings suggest that in Post-CABG patients, physicians could judge the occurrence of HAP more accurately in comparison to making the diagnosis based on CDC criteria alone. Expert physician may intentionally do not take some of these criteria into account according the patients' course of disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the value of these criteria in special group of patients like those undergoing CABG should be re-evaluated.

  2. Anesthetic issues and perioperative blood pressure management in patients who have cerebrovascular diseases undergoing surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Jellish, W Scott

    2006-11-01

    Patients who have cerebrovascular disease and vascular insufficiency routinely have neurosurgical and nonneurosurgical procedures. Anesthetic priorities must provide a still bloodless operative field while maintaining cardiovascular stability and renal function. Patients who have symptoms or a history of cerebrovascular disease are at increased risk for stroke, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cerebral anoxia. Type of surgery and cardiovascular status are key concerns when considering neuroprotective strategies. Optimization of current condition is important for a good outcome; risks must be weighed against perceived benefits in protecting neurons. Anesthetic use and physiologic manipulations can reduce neurologic injury and assure safe and effective surgical care when cerebral hypoperfusion is a real and significant risk.

  3. Third-space fluid shift in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: Part 1: Pathophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Redden, Maurine; Wotton, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Third-space fluid shift, the movement of body fluid to a non-functional space, is a frequently occurring and potentially fatal clinical phenomenon. Little published research exists however in medical or nursing journals concerning its incidence, significance and ramifications in elderly patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. This initial article, part I, explores fluid movement between fluid compartments and uses these principles to discuss the pathophysiology of the two distinct phases of third-space fluid shift. Part II will examine the criteria nurses could use in the clinical assessment of patients in both first and second phases third-space fluid shift and discuss the clinical reliability of these criteria.

  4. Complications and Mortality in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Comparison Between Dialysis and Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Priscilla K; Chen, Antonia F; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Post, Zachary D; Orozco, Fabio R; Ong, Alvin C

    2016-02-01

    In total joint arthroplasty (TJA) literature, there is a paucity of large cohort studies comparing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vs non-CKD/ESRD patients. Thus, the purposes of this study were (1) to identify inhospital complications and mortality in CKD/ESRD and non-CKD/ESRD patients and (2) compare inhospital complications and mortality between dialysis and renal transplantation patients undergoing TJA. We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for patients with and without diagnosis of CKD/ESRD and those with a renal transplant or on dialysis undergoing primary or revision total knee or hip arthroplasty from 2007 to 2011. Patient comorbidities were identified using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes were used to identify postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs), wound complications, deep vein thrombosis, and transfusions. Chronic kidney disease/ESRD was associated with greater risk of SSIs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; P<.001), wound complications (OR, 1.1; P=.01), transfusions (OR, 1.6; P<.001), deep vein thrombosis (OR, 1.4; P=.03), and mortality (OR, 2.1; P<.001) than non-CKD/ESRD patients. Dialysis patients had higher rates of SSI, wound complications, transfusions, and mortality compared to renal transplant patients. Chronic kidney disease/ESRD patients had a greater risk of SSIs and wound complications compared to those without renal disease, and the risk of these complications was even greater in CKD/ESRD patients receiving dialysis. These findings emphasize the importance of counseling CKD patients about higher potential complications after TJA, and dialysis patients may be encouraged to undergo renal transplantation before TJA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is there a need for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Heart valve repair or replacement is a serious problem. Patients can benefit from an open dialogue between both cardiologists and gastroenterologists for the optimal effective patients care. The focused update on infective endocarditis of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 (ACC/AHA guidelines) and guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines) describe prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE) as not recommended for gastroscopy and colonoscopy in the absence of active infection but increasing evidence suggests that the role of IE antibiotic prophylaxis remains a dark side of the cardio-oncology prevention. New evidences concerning infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and new findings indicate that there is a need for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy especially in elderly patients and in cancer and immunocompromised patients, to avoid serious consequences.

  6. Experiences of the Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy at a Public Hospital Peshawar Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Habibullah, Gulzar; Gul, Raisa; Cassum, Shanaz; Elahi, Rehana

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the experiences of female breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in a public hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan. Methods: This study employed a descriptive exploratory method. A purposive sample of 14 breast cancer women undergoing RT was selected for this study. Data were collected over the period of 5 months, using a semi-structured interview guide and conducting in-depth face-to-face interviews. These interviews were audio taped and transcribed by a bilingual transcriber. The translated version of the interview was coded, and the analysis was done manually. Results: Four main categories emerged from data analysis, which were: feelings and perceptions of the patients, their challenges, coping strategies, and teaching and informational needs. Conclusions: Women undergoing RT in this culture experience more intense psychological effects, as compared to the physical effects. Keeping in mind, the magnitude of the emotional stress experienced by the participants, recommendations for policy reforms, and training for female RT staff are suggested based on findings of this research. PMID:29607379

  7. Brand-to-generic levetiracetam switch in patients with epilepsy in a routine clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Markoula, Sofia; Chatzistefanidis, Dimitrios; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Siarava, Eleftheria; Verentzioti, Anastasia; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Patsalos, Philip N

    2017-05-01

    The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand antiepileptic drugs, based on studies performed on healthy volunteers, has been questioned. We compare, in a routine clinical setting, brand versus generic levetiracetam (LEV) bioequivalence in patients with epilepsy and also the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the substitution. A prospective, open-label, non-randomized, steady-state, multiple-dose, bioequivalence study was conducted in 12 patients with epilepsy (5 females), with a mean age of 38.4±16.2 years. Patients treated with the brand LEV (Keppra; UCB Pharma) were closely followed for a four-week period and subsequently switched to a generic LEV (Pharmaten) and followed for another four-week period. Blood samples were collected at the end of each 4-week period, during a dose interval for each formulation, for LEV concentration measurements by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Steady-state area under the curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) data were subjected to conventional average bioequivalence analysis. Secondary clinical outcomes, including seizure frequency and adverse events, were recorded. Patients had epilepsy for a mean period of 14.1±10.6years and the mean daily LEV dose was 2583.3±763.7mg. The mean AUC±SD and Cmax±SD was 288.4±86.3(mg/L)h and 37.8±10.4mg/L respectively for brand LEV and 319.2±104.7(mg/L)h and 41.6±12.3mg/L respectively for the generic LEV. Statistic analysis showed no statistical significant difference in bioequivalence. Also, no change in seizures frequency and/or adverse events was recorded. In our clinical setting, generic LEV was determined to be bioequivalent to brand LEV. Furthermore, seizures frequency or/and adverse events were not affected upon switching from brand to generic LEV. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Information System for Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate undergoing Operation.

    PubMed

    Augsornwan, Darawan; Pattangtanang, Pantamanas; Surakunprapha, Palakorn

    2015-08-01

    Srinagarind Hospital has 150-200 patients with cleft lip and palate each year. When patients are admitted to hospital for surgery patients and family feel they are in a crisis of life, they feel fear anxiety and need to know about how to take care of wound, they worry if patient will feel pain, how to feed patients and many things about patients. Information is very important for patients/family to prevent complications and help their decision process, decrease parents stress and encourage better co-operation. To develop information system for patients with cleft lip-palate undergoing operation. This is an action research divided into 3 phases. Phase 1 Situation review: in this phase we interview, nursing care observation, and review nursing documents about the information giving. Phase 2 Develop information system: focus groups, for discussion about what nurses can do to develop the system to give information to patients/parents. Phase 3 evaluation: by interviewing 61 parents using the structure questionnaire. 100 percent of patients/parents received information but some items were not received. Patients/parents satisfaction was 94.9 percent, no complications. The information system development provides optimal care for patients and family with cleft lip and palate, but needs to improve some techniques or tools to give more information and evaluate further the nursing outcome after.

  9. Diagnosis of unsuspected facial fractures on routine head computerized tomographic scans in the unconscious multiply injured patient.

    PubMed

    Rehm, C G; Ross, S E

    1995-05-01

    This article assessed the value of routine head computerized axial tomographic (CT) scans for diagnosis of unsuspected facial fractures and its clinical implications in the multiply injured patient who is intubated, unconscious, or sedated at the time of initial assessment and requires a head CT scan to assess for brain injury. At a level I trauma center from June 1, 1992 to June 1, 1993 all intubated blunt trauma patients who required routine CT scan evaluation at initial assessment were studied prospectively. Routine scanning started at the foramen magnum and included the maxilla. Patients who died within the first 24 hours were excluded. The study population included 116 patients (85 male, 21 female) aged 12 to 85 years (mean, 28 years) with injury severity scores ranging from 1 to 50 (mean, 23). The mechanism of injury was: motor vehicle accidents (n = 74), motorcycling (n = 5), pedestrians accidents (n = 13), falls (n = 10), bicycling (n = 5), assaults (n = 8), and boating accident (n = 1). There were 19 suspected facial fractures; 18 required surgical repair. There were 27 unsuspected facial fractures; 13 required surgical care. Three suspected fractures were ruled out. Routine head CT scans to assess for brain injury in the multiply injured patient are also very useful in the diagnosis of unsuspected facial fractures, almost half of which will require surgical intervention.

  10. Knee arthroscopy routines and practice.

    PubMed

    Brattwall, M; Jacobson, E; Forssblad, M; Jakobsson, J

    2010-12-01

    Knee arthroscopy is one of most commonly performed day-case orthopaedic procedures, thus consuming huge medical resources. The aim of the present questionnaire survey was to study knee arthroscopy routines and practice. An electronic web-based survey including questions around pre-, per- and postoperative routines for elective knee arthroscopy was send to all orthopaedic units associated to the Swedish Arthroscopic Society (n = 60). Responses covering 37 centres out of 60 (response rate 62%) were returned. Preoperative radiograph routines varied considerable between centres; conventional radiograph varied between 5 and 100% and preoperative MRI between 5 and 80% of patients. General anaesthesia was the preferred intra-operative technique used in all centres (median 79% of patients), local anaesthesia with or without light sedation was used in all 28 out of the 37 centres responding (median 10% of cases) and spinal anaesthesia was used in 15 centres (median 5% of cases). Intra-articular local anaesthesia was provided in all but one of centres. Perioperative administration of oral NSAIDs was common (31 out 37), 6 centres (all teaching hospitals) did not routinely give pre- or postoperative NSAID. Analgesic prescription was provided on a regular base in 18 (49%) of centres; an NSAID being the most commonly prescribed. All but one centre provided written information and instruction at discharge. Referral to physiotherapy, prescribed sick leave and scheduled follow-up in the outpatient clinic diverged considerably. Routines and practice associated to elective knee arthroscopy differed; however, no clear differences in practice were seen between teaching centres, general or local hospitals apart from a lower usage of NSAID for perioperative analgesia. There is an obvious room for further standardisation in the routine handling of patients undergoing elective arthroscopy of the knee.

  11. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Goto, Koji; Nakai, Kentaro; Shizuta, Satoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Yahata, Mitsuhiko; Ota, Chihiro; Ono, Koh; Makiyama, Takeru; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kadota, Kazushige; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Tamura, Takashi; Takizawa, Akinori; Inada, Tsukasa; Doi, Osamu; Nohara, Ryuji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takeda, Teruki; Kato, Masayuki; Shirotani, Manabu; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Lee, Jong-Dae; Takahashi, Masaaki; Horie, Minoru; Takahashi, Mamoru; Miki, Shinji; Aoyama, Takeshi; Suwa, Satoru; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence, intensity, safety, and efficacy of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in addition to dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in "real-world" patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not yet been fully evaluated. In the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto registry cohort-2, a total of 1,057 patients with AF (8.3%) were identified among 12,716 patients undergoing first PCI. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke was higher in patients with AF than in no-AF patients (12.8% vs 5.8%, p <0.0001). Although most patients with AF had CHADS2 score ≥2 (75.2%), only 506 patients (47.9%) received OAC with warfarin at hospital discharge. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in the OAC group was not different from that in the no-OAC group (13.8% vs 11.8%, p = 0.49). Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was only 52.6% with an international normalized ratio of 1.6 to 2.6, and only 154 of 409 patients (37.7%) with international normalized ratio data had TTR ≥65%. Cumulative 5-year incidence of stroke in patients with TTR ≥65% was markedly lower than that in patients with TTR <65% (6.9% vs 15.1%, p = 0.01). In a 4-month landmark analysis in the OAC group, there was a trend for higher cumulative incidences of stroke and major bleeding in the on-DAPT (n = 286) than in the off-DAPT (n = 173) groups (15.1% vs 6.7%, p = 0.052 and 14.7% vs 8.7%, p = 0.10, respectively). In conclusion, OAC was underused and its intensity was mostly suboptimal in real-world patients with AF undergoing PCI, which lead to inadequate stroke prevention. Long-term DAPT in patients receiving OAC did not reduce stroke incidence. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the evolution of low back pain patients in routine clinical practice: results from a registry within the Spanish National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Francisco M; Seco, Jesús; Royuela, Ana; Corcoll Reixach, Josep; Abraira, Víctor

    2012-11-01

    The Spanish National Health Service (SNHS) is a tax-funded public organization that provides free health care to every resident in Spain. To develop models for predicting the evolution of low back pain (LBP) in routine clinical practice within SNHS. Analysis of a prospective registry in routine clinical practice, in 17 centers across SNHS. Patient sample includes 4,477 acute and chronic LBP patients treated in primary and hospital care. Pain and disability, measured through validated instruments. Patients treated for LBP were assessed at baseline and 3 months later. Data gathered were the following: sex, age, employment status, duration of pain, severity of LBP, pain down to the leg (LP) and disability, history of lumbar surgery, diagnostic procedures undertaken, imaging findings, and treatments used throughout the study period. Three separate multivariate logistic regression models were developed for predicting a clinically relevant improvement in LBP, LP, and disability at 3 months. In total, 4,261 patients (95.2%) attended follow-up. For all the models, calibration was reasonable and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was ≥0.640. For LBP, LP, and disability, factors associated with a higher probability of improvement at 3 months were the following: not having undergone lumbar surgery, higher baseline scores for the corresponding variable, lower ones for the rest, and being treated with neuroreflexotherapy. Additional factors were the following: for LBP, shorter pain duration; for LP, not undergoing electromyography; and for disability, shorter pain duration, not being diagnosed with disc degeneration, and being treated with muscle relaxants and not opioids. A prospective registry can be used for developing predictive models to quantify the odds that a given LBP patient will experience a clinically relevant improvement. This may empower patients for an informed shared decision making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcomes in Patients With Hemophilia and von Willebrand Disease Undergoing Invasive or Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Chapin, John; Bamme, Jaqueline; Hsu, Fraustina; Christos, Paul; DeSancho, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Adults with hemophilia A (HA), hemophilia B (HB), and von Willebrand disease (VWD) frequently require surgery and invasive procedures. However, there is variability in perioperative management guidelines. We describe our periprocedural outcomes in this setting. A retrospective chart review from January 2006 to December 2012 of patients with HA, HB, and VWD undergoing surgery or invasive procedures was conducted. Type of procedures, management including the use of continuous factor infusion, and administration of antifibrinolytics were reviewed. Adverse outcomes were defined as acute bleeding (<48 hours), delayed bleeding (≥48 hours), transfusion, inhibitor development, and thrombosis. We identified 59 patients with HA and HB. In all, 24 patients had severe hemophilia and 12 had mild/moderate hemophilia. Twelve patients had inhibitors. There were also 5 female carriers of HA and 6 patients with VWD. There were 34 major surgeries (26 orthopedic, 8 nonorthopedic) and 129 minor surgeries. Continuous infusion was used in 55.9% of major surgeries versus 8.5% of minor surgeries. Antifibrinolytics were administered in 14.7% of major surgeries versus 23.2% of minor surgeries. In all, 4 patients developed acute bleeding and 10 patients developed delayed bleeding. Delayed bleeding occurred in 28.6% of genitourinary procedures and in 16.1% of dental procedures. Five patients acquired an inhibitor and 2 had thrombosis. In conclusion, patients with HA, HB, or VWD had similar rates of adverse outcomes when undergoing minor surgeries or major surgeries. This finding underscores the importance of an interdisciplinary management and procedure-specific guidelines for patients with hemophilia and VWD prior to even minor invasive procedures.

  14. Prediction of the outcome in cardiac arrest patients undergoing hypothermia using EEG wavelet entropy.

    PubMed

    Moshirvaziri, Hana; Ramezan-Arab, Nima; Asgari, Shadnaz

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Induction of hypothermia has been found to improve the functional recovery of CA patients after resuscitation. However, there is no clear guideline for the clinicians yet to determine the prognosis of the CA when patients are treated with hypothermia. The present work aimed at the development of a prognostic marker for the CA patients undergoing hypothermia. A quantitative measure of the complexity of Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, called wavelet sub-band entropy, was employed to predict the patients' outcomes. We hypothesized that the EEG signals of the patients who survived would demonstrate more complexity and consequently higher values of wavelet sub-band entropies. A dataset of 16-channel EEG signals collected from CA patients undergoing hypothermia at Long Beach Memorial Medical Center was used to test the hypothesis. Following preprocessing of the signals and implementation of the wavelet transform, the wavelet sub-band entropies were calculated for different frequency bands and EEG channels. Then the values of wavelet sub-band entropies were compared among two groups of patients: survived vs. non-survived. Our results revealed that the brain high frequency oscillations (between 64100 Hz) captured from the inferior frontal lobes are significantly more complex in the CA patients who survived (p-value <; 0.02). Given that the non-invasive measurement of EEG is part of the standard clinical assessment for CA patients, the results of this study can enhance the management of the CA patients treated with hypothermia.

  15. Factors That Influence Surgical Margin State in Patients Undergoing Cold Knife Conization - A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Aluloski, Igor; Tanturovski, Mile; Petrusevska, Gordana; Jovanovic, Rubens; Kostadinova-Kunovska, Slavica

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the factors that influence the surgical margin state in patients undergoing cold knife conization at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia Materials and methods: We have retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients that underwent a cold knife conization at our Clinic in 2015. We cross-referenced the surgical margin state with the histopathological diagnosis (LSIL, HSIL or micro-invasive/invasive cancer), menopausal status of the patients, number of pregnancies, surgeon experience, operating time and cone depth. The data was analyzed with the Chi square test, Fisher's exact test for categorical data and Student's T test for continuous data and univariate and multivariate logistical regressions were performed. A total of 246 medical records have neen analyzed, out of which 29 (11.79%) patients had LSIL, 194 (78.86%) had HSIL and 23 (9.34%) patients suffered micro-invasive/invasive cervical cancer. The surgical margins were positive in 78 (31.7%) of the patients. The average age of the patients was 41.13 and 35 (14.23%) of the patients were menopausal. The multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative forceps biopsy of micro-invasive SCC, HSIL or higher cone specimen histology and shorter cone depth as independent predictors of surgical margin involvement in patients undergoing cold knife conization. In the current study, we have found no association between the inherent characteristics of the patient and the surgeon and the surgical margin state after a CKC. The most important predictors for positive margins were the severity of the lesion and the cone depth.

  16. Effect of Routine Surveillance Imaging on the Outcomes of Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma After Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kapke, Jonathan T; Epperla, Narendranath; Shah, Namrata; Richardson, Kristin; Carrum, George; Hari, Parameswaran N; Pingali, Sai R; Hamadani, Mehdi; Karmali, Reem; Fenske, Timothy S

    2017-07-01

    Patients with relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) are often treated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). After auto-HCT, most transplant centers implement routine surveillance imaging to monitor for disease relapse; however, there is limited evidence to support this practice. In this multicenter, retrospective study, we identified cHL patients (n = 128) who received auto-HCT, achieved complete remission (CR) after transplantation, and then were followed with routine surveillance imaging. Of these, 29 (23%) relapsed after day 100 after auto-HCT. Relapse was detected clinically in 14 patients and with routine surveillance imaging in 15 patients. When clinically detected relapse was compared with to radiographically detected relapse respectively, the median overall survival (2084 days [range, 225-4161] vs. 2737 days [range, 172-2750]; P = .51), the median time to relapse (247 days [range, 141-3974] vs. 814 days [range, 96-1682]; P =