Science.gov

Sample records for pattern identification technique

  1. Identification of unique repeated patterns, location of mutation in DNA finger printing using artificial intelligence technique.

    PubMed

    Mukunthan, B; Nagaveni, N

    2014-01-01

    In genetic engineering, conventional techniques and algorithms employed by forensic scientists to assist in identification of individuals on the basis of their respective DNA profiles involves more complex computational steps and mathematical formulae, also the identification of location of mutation in a genomic sequence in laboratories is still an exigent task. This novel approach provides ability to solve the problems that do not have an algorithmic solution and the available solutions are also too complex to be found. The perfect blend made of bioinformatics and neural networks technique results in efficient DNA pattern analysis algorithm with utmost prediction accuracy.

  2. Microorganism identification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, R. E.

    1985-07-02

    An identification technique for micro-organisms in which a dilute solution of a culture medium containing an unknown micro-organism has added thereto an emissive agent such as a radioactive amino acid to produce a mix of emissive products that depends on the metabolic mechanism of the micro-organism. After a predetermined incubation period, the reaction is arrested and the solution layered onto a gel plate where it is subjected to electrophoresis. The plate is then autoradiographed by exposing the gel to a sensitive photographic film for a period sufficient to produce thereon a characteristic band pattern functioning as an identifier for the micro-organism. Identification may be effected by comparing the identifier for the unknown with a collection of identifiers for known micro-organisms to find a match with one of these known identifiers. The comparison is preferably carried out by scanning the unknown identifier to produce a signal which is compared with signals representing known identifiers stored in a computer which, when a match is found, yields identification data. Alternatively, the emissive products, after separation, may be detected by direct scanning to provide an identifier signal for computer processing.

  3. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  4. Identification of combustible material with piezoelectric crystal sensor array using pattern-recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    He, X W; Xing, W L; Fang, Y H

    1997-11-01

    A promising way of increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of gas sensors is to treat the signals from a number of different gas sensors with pattern recognition (PR) method. A gas sensor array with seven piezoelectric crystals each coated with a different partially selective coating material was constructed to identify four kinds of combustible materials which generate smoke containing different components. The signals from the sensors were analyzed with both conventional multivariate analysis, stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), and artificial neural networks (ANN) models. The results show that the predictions were even better with ANN models. In our experiment, we have reported a new method for training data selection, 'training set stepwise expending method' to solve the problem that the network can not converge at the beginning of the training. We also discussed how the parameters of neural networks, learning rate eta, momentum term alpha and few bad training data affect the performance of neural networks.

  5. Pattern Identification Exercise. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norm

    Career exploration typically involves the investigation of personal factors: interests, aptitudes, values, and personal style. This digest outlines one counseling method, pattern identification exercise (PIE). PIE starts with past experiences and identifies personal patterns which are relevant to career decisions. A premise of PIE is that…

  6. Magnetic tunnel junction pattern technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Eugene; Schwarz, Benjamin; Choi, Chang Ju; Kula, Witold; Wolfman, Jerome; Ounadjela, Kamel; Geha, Sam

    2003-05-01

    We have developed a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) pattern technique that involves transforming the magnetic layer above the tunnel barrier in unwanted areas into an insulator, thus providing insulation between different MTJ devices without suffering common tunnel barrier shorting problems. With this technique, 90%-100% yielding MTJ devices have been observed. MTJ results using this process are superior to an etching based process. Switching distribution of patterned magnetic bits is also narrower using this novel technique. Process control and the ability to stop on the tunnel barrier have been demonstrated.

  7. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  8. Techniques for plotting shadow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bainbridge, D.A.

    1982-02-01

    Basic approaches for plotting shadow patterns (summer or winter) are discussed, illustrated, and compared. The solar simulator technique uses floodlights or a moveable table to mimic the sun's path over a model of the building being studied. The drawback is that, for large developments, very small models would have to be built. Graphic solutions (2 types) are described in which: (1) sun angles are used to calculate shadow patterns using trigonometry and (2) drawings are made and shadows are calculated. Examples are given for a house on level ground and on sloping ground. Calculations of shade density are also illustrated. 8 references. (MJJ)

  9. Discrimination and identification of acoustic transient patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballas, J. A.; Howard, J. H., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The relation between the discrimination and the identification of acoustic patterns can be addressed psychophysically or cognitively. The psychophysical approach predicts a monotonic relationship between performance on the two tasks. Cognitively, the relationship may depend upon the type of structure encoded from the patterns. Structure based upon similarities in runs could enhance discrimination but degrade identification. Hierarchical structural encoding might enhance both tasks. The relationship was investigated in three dual task experiments. In one experiment, trial and error learning was used whereas in the other two, observation of positive examples was used. All three experiments indicated that discrimination was superior to identification, and that the concurrent identification task improved discrimination performance above what has been obtained in single task discrimination studies. The effects of structure in the two tasks were equivocal but implied that the type of structured encoding is important and may be influenced by the procedure used to acquire the patterns.

  10. Comparison of two dissimilar modal identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Niedbal, Norbert; Klusowski, Erhard

    1992-01-01

    Recent laboratory results using a refined phase resonance method and the eigensystem realization algorithm on the same test structure are reported. These methods are dissimilar modal identification techniques suitable for future large spacecraft. The theory, application approach, and results obtained for each technique are summarized and compared. Although both methods worked well in this investigation, significant differences occurred in some identified mode shapes. Comparison of independently derived modal parameters provides the means for disclosing such discrepancies in flight projects.

  11. Interpretation techniques. [image enhancement and pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragg, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    The image enhancement and geometric correction and registration techniques developed and/or demonstrated on ERTS data are relatively mature and greatly enhance the utility of the data for a large variety of users. Pattern recognition was improved by the use of signature extension, feature extension, and other classification techniques. Many of these techniques need to be developed and generalized to become operationally useful. Advancements in the mass precision processing of ERTS were demonstrated, providing the hope for future earth resources data to be provided in a more readily usable state. Also in evidence is an increasing and healthy interaction between the techniques developers and the user/applications investigators.

  12. Patterning techniques for next generation IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reduction of linear critical dimensions (CDs) beyond 45 nm would require significant increase of the complexity of pattern definition process. In this work, we discuss the key successor methodology to the current optical lithography, the Double Patterning Technique (DPT). We compare the complexity of CAD solutions, fab equipment, and wafer processing with its competitors, such as the nanoimprint (NIL) and the extreme UV (EUV) techniques. We also look ahead to the market availability for the product families enabled using the novel patterning solutions. DPT is often recognized as the most viable next generation lithography as it utilizes the existing equipment and processes and is considered a stop-gap solution before the advanced NIL or EUV equipment is developed. Using design for manufacturability (DfM) rules, DPT can drive the k1 factor down to 0.13. However, it faces a variety of challenges, from new mask overlay strategies, to layout pattern split, novel OPC, increased CD tolerances, new etch techniques, as well as long processing time, all of which compromise its return on investment (RoI). In contrast, it can be claimed e.g., that the RoI is the highest for the NIL but this technology bears significant risk. For all novel patterning techniques, the key questions remain: when and how should they be introduced, what is their long-term potential, when should they be replaced, and by what successor technology. We summarize the unpublished results of several panel discussions on DPT at the recent SPIE/BACUS conferences.

  13. Bayesian Analysis of the Pattern Informatics Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, N.; Tiampo, K.; Klein, W.; Rundle, J.

    2007-12-01

    The pattern informatics (PI) [Rundle et al., 2000; Tiampo et al., 2002; Holliday et al., 2005] is a technique that uses phase dynamics in order to quantify temporal variations in seismicity patterns. This technique has shown interesting results for forecasting earthquakes with magnitude greater than or equal to 5 in southern California from 2000 to 2010 [Rundle et al., 2002]. In this work, a Bayesian approach is used to obtain a modified updated version of the PI called Bayesian pattern informatics (BPI). This alternative method uses the PI result as a prior probability and models such as ETAS [Ogata, 1988, 2004; Helmstetter and Sornette, 2002] or BASS [Turcotte et al., 2007] in order to obtain the likelihood. Its result is similar to the one obtained by the PI: the determination of regions, known as hotspots, that are most susceptible to the occurrence of events with M=5 and larger during the forecast period. As an initial test, retrospective forecasts for the southern California region from 1990 to 2000 were made with both the BPI and the PI techniques, and the results are discussed in this work.

  14. An Investigation of System Identification Techniques for Simulation Model Abstraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes research into the application of system identification techniques to simulation model abstraction. System identification produces...34Mission Simulation," a simulation of a squadron of aircraft performing battlefield air interdiction. The system identification techniques were...simplified mathematical models that approximate the dynamic behaviors of the underlying stochastic simulations. Four state-space system

  15. [Snowboard sports technique, injury pattern, prevention].

    PubMed

    Dingerkus, M L; Imhoff, A; Hipp, E

    1997-02-20

    Although, in Europe, snowboarding is a young sport, it has already established itself and, in common with Alpine skiing, is represented in the Olympics. Its biomechanical aspects (technique, shoeboard connection), lead not only to a typical pattern of movements, but also to a snowboard-specific pattern of injuries, which differs from that seen with Alpine skiing. In the case of snowboarding, the upper limbs are appreciably more often involved in injuries than are the lower extremities. The most common injuries are fractures of or close to the wrist. Since many children and adolescents are to be found among snowboarding fans, the percentage of epiphyseal injuries is high. Depending on the style employed-Alpine or freestyle-the risk of lower limb injuries differ in terms of ankles and knee injuries. Through the use of special protective equipment, such as gloves provided with extra protection for wrist and fingers, (possibly also helmets, knee and elbow protectors for beginners), together with improvements in technique in a snowboard school, and the optimisation of the materials used by the industry, the risk of injury can be reduced.

  16. Muscle Activation Patterns During Different Squat Techniques.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Slater, LV, and Hart, JM. Muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 667-676, 2017-Bilateral squats are frequently used exercises in sport performance programs. Lower extremity muscle activation may change based on knee alignment during the performance of the exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. Twenty-eight healthy, uninjured subjects (19 women, 9 men, 21.5 ± 3 years, 170 ± 8.4 cm, 65.7 ± 11.8 kg) volunteered. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius of the dominant leg. Participants completed 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee anteriorly (AP malaligned), 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee medially (ML malaligned) and 5 squats with control alignment (control). Normalized EMG data (MVIC) were reduced to 100 points and represented as percentage of squat cycle with 50% representing peak knee flexion and 0 and 99% representing fully extended. Vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased in the medio-lateral (ML) malaligned squat compared with the control squat. In the antero-posterior (AP) malaligned squat, the vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased during initial descent and final ascent; however, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activation increased during initial ascent compared with the control squat. The biceps femoris and gastrocnemius displayed increased activation during both malaligned squats compared with the control squat. In conclusion, participants had altered muscle activation patterns during squats with intentional frontal and sagittal malalignment as demonstrated by changes in quadriceps, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius activation during the squat cycle.

  17. Automatic seagrass pattern identification on sonar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Rahman, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Natural and human-induced disturbances are resulting in degradation and loss of seagrass. Freshwater flooding, severe meteorological events and invasive species are among the major natural disturbances. Human-induced disturbances are mainly due to boat propeller scars in the shallow seagrass meadows and anchor scars in the deeper areas. Therefore, there is a vital need to map seagrass ecosystems in order to determine worldwide abundance and distribution. Currently there is no established method for mapping the pothole or scars in seagrass. One of the most precise sensors to map the seagrass disturbance is side scan sonar. Here we propose an automatic method which detects seagrass potholes in sonar images. Side scan sonar images are notorious for having speckle noise and uneven illumination across the image. Moreover, disturbance presents complex patterns where most segmentation techniques will fail. In this paper, by applying mathematical morphology technique and calculating the local standard deviation of the image, the images were enhanced and the pothole patterns were identified. The proposed method was applied on sonar images taken from Laguna Madre in Texas. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Automated Coronal Loop Identification Using Digital Image Processing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong K.; Gary, G. Allen; Newman, Timothy S.

    2003-01-01

    The results of a master thesis project on a study of computer algorithms for automatic identification of optical-thin, 3-dimensional solar coronal loop centers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray 2-dimensional images will be presented. These center splines are proxies of associated magnetic field lines. The project is pattern recognition problems in which there are no unique shapes or edges and in which photon and detector noise heavily influence the images. The study explores extraction techniques using: (1) linear feature recognition of local patterns (related to the inertia-tensor concept), (2) parametric space via the Hough transform, and (3) topological adaptive contours (snakes) that constrains curvature and continuity as possible candidates for digital loop detection schemes. We have developed synthesized images for the coronal loops to test the various loop identification algorithms. Since the topology of these solar features is dominated by the magnetic field structure, a first-order magnetic field approximation using multiple dipoles provides a priori information in the identification process. Results from both synthesized and solar images will be presented.

  19. Event Networks and the Identification of Crime Pattern Motifs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of network analysis to characterise patterns of clustering in spatio-temporal events. Such clustering is of both theoretical and practical importance in the study of crime, and forms the basis for a number of preventative strategies. However, existing analytical methods show only that clustering is present in data, while offering little insight into the nature of the patterns present. Here, we show how the classification of pairs of events as close in space and time can be used to define a network, thereby generalising previous approaches. The application of graph-theoretic techniques to these networks can then offer significantly deeper insight into the structure of the data than previously possible. In particular, we focus on the identification of network motifs, which have clear interpretation in terms of spatio-temporal behaviour. Statistical analysis is complicated by the nature of the underlying data, and we provide a method by which appropriate randomised graphs can be generated. Two datasets are used as case studies: maritime piracy at the global scale, and residential burglary in an urban area. In both cases, the same significant 3-vertex motif is found; this result suggests that incidents tend to occur not just in pairs, but in fact in larger groups within a restricted spatio-temporal domain. In the 4-vertex case, different motifs are found to be significant in each case, suggesting that this technique is capable of discriminating between clustering patterns at a finer granularity than previously possible. PMID:26605544

  20. Event Networks and the Identification of Crime Pattern Motifs.

    PubMed

    Davies, Toby; Marchione, Elio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of network analysis to characterise patterns of clustering in spatio-temporal events. Such clustering is of both theoretical and practical importance in the study of crime, and forms the basis for a number of preventative strategies. However, existing analytical methods show only that clustering is present in data, while offering little insight into the nature of the patterns present. Here, we show how the classification of pairs of events as close in space and time can be used to define a network, thereby generalising previous approaches. The application of graph-theoretic techniques to these networks can then offer significantly deeper insight into the structure of the data than previously possible. In particular, we focus on the identification of network motifs, which have clear interpretation in terms of spatio-temporal behaviour. Statistical analysis is complicated by the nature of the underlying data, and we provide a method by which appropriate randomised graphs can be generated. Two datasets are used as case studies: maritime piracy at the global scale, and residential burglary in an urban area. In both cases, the same significant 3-vertex motif is found; this result suggests that incidents tend to occur not just in pairs, but in fact in larger groups within a restricted spatio-temporal domain. In the 4-vertex case, different motifs are found to be significant in each case, suggesting that this technique is capable of discriminating between clustering patterns at a finer granularity than previously possible.

  1. Normalized GNSS interference pattern technique for altimetry.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-06-11

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér-Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  2. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals. PMID:24922453

  3. [Application of molecular biological techniques in Taenia identification].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hang; Yang, Yi-Mei

    2011-10-01

    The traditional identification of Taenia spp. based on morphological features of adult and cysticercus has difficulties in identifying the morphologically similar species. The recent development of molecular techniques provides more scientific ways for distinguishing Taenia species. This paper summarizes the application of molecular biological techniques in the identification of Taenia, such as analysis of DNA sequence, PCR-RFLP and LAMP.

  4. The development of two-dimensional object identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebby, Gary; Sherrod, Earnest E.

    1989-01-01

    This report marks the end of the first year of an anticipated three year effort to study methods for numerically identifying objects according to shape in two dimensions. The method is based upon comparing the unit gradient of an observed object and the unit gradient of a standard object over a specified range of points. The manner in which the gradients are compared forms the basis of a shape recognition scheme, which is then applied to simple closed plane figures. The gradient based method is calibrated by using various distorted objects in comparison with a set of standard reference objects. The use of pattern recognition techniques for computer identification of two-dimensional figures will be investigated during the second and third years of this project.

  5. System identification techniques for helicopter higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents and compares several system identification techniques proposed for use with higher harmonic control algorithms designed to alleviate helicopter vibration. All method for actively controlling helicopter vibration require the knowledge of how the vibration outputs are related to the control inputs. Off-line or batch identification methods for obtaining this knowledge are presented first. Then the more advanced, adaptive identification techniques proposed to track the helicopter model parameters in flight are discussed. Considerations regarding system identifiability, identification algorithm stability, and computer implementation are also discussed.

  6. A novel online adaptive time delay identification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, Alper; Tatlicioglu, Enver

    2016-05-01

    Time delay is a phenomenon which is common in signal processing, communication, control applications, etc. The special feature of time delay that makes it attractive is that it is a commonly faced problem in many systems. A literature search on time-delay identification highlights the fact that most studies focused on numerical solutions. In this study, a novel online adaptive time-delay identification technique is proposed. This technique is based on an adaptive update law through a minimum-maximum strategy which is firstly applied to time-delay identification. In the design of the adaptive identification law, Lyapunov-based stability analysis techniques are utilised. Several numerical simulations were conducted with Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. It is numerically demonstrated that the proposed technique works efficiently in identifying both constant and disturbed time delays, and is also robust to measurement noise.

  7. THE IDENTIFICATION AND TESTING OF INTERACTION PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a method for identifying and assessing the significance of interaction patterns among various chemicals and chemical classes of importance to regulatory toxicologists. To this end, efforts were made to assemble and evaluate experimental data on toxicologically...

  8. Structural damage identification using mathematical optimization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Mo-How Herman

    1991-01-01

    An identification procedure is proposed to identify damage characteristics (location and size of the damage) from dynamic measurements. This procedure was based on minimization of the mean-square measure of difference between measurement data (natural frequencies and mode shapes) and the corresponding predictions obtained from the computational model. The procedure is tested for simulated damage in the form of stiffness changes in a simple fixed free spring mass system and symmetric cracks in a simply supported Bernoulli Euler beam. It is shown that when all the mode information is used in the identification procedure it is possible to uniquely determine the damage properties. Without knowing the complete set of modal information, a restricted region in the initial data space has been found for realistic and convergent solution from the identification process.

  9. Dynamic two-dimensional beam-pattern steering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shaomin; Yeh, Pochi; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-06-01

    A dynamic two-dimensional laser-beam-pattern steering technique using photorefractive holograms in conjunction with electrically addressed spatial light modulators is proposed and investigated. The experimental results demonstrate the dynamic steering of random combinations of basis beam patterns. The proposed method has the advantages of random beam-pattern combination, good beam intensity uniformity, and higher diffraction efficiency compared with conventional methods.

  10. Diffraction pattern study for cell type identification.

    PubMed

    Mihailescu, M; Costescu, J

    2012-01-16

    This paper presents our study regarding diffracted intensity distribution in Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximation from different cell types. Starting from experimental information obtained through digital holographic microscopy, we modeled the cell shapes as oblate spheroids and built their phase-only transmission functions. In Fresnel approximation, the experimental and numerical diffraction patterns from mature and immature red blood cells have complementary central intensity values at different distances. The Fraunhofer diffraction patterns of deformed red blood cells were processed in the reciprocal space where, the isoamplitude curves were formed independently for each degree of cell deformation present within every sample; the values on each separate isoamplitude curve are proportional with the percentage of the respective cell type within the sample.

  11. Deconvolution/identification techniques for nonnegative signals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.M.; Yu, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    Several methods for solving the nonparametric deconvolution/identification problem when the unknown is nonnegative are presented. First we consider the constrained least squares method and discuss three ways to estimate the regularization parameter: the discrepancy principle, Mallow`s C{sub L}, and generalized cross validation. Next we consider maximum entropy methods. Last, we present a new conjugate gradient algorithm. A preliminary comparison is presented; detailed Monte-Carlo experiments will be presented at the conference. 13 refs.

  12. Sustainable scaling technique on double-patterning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi

    2013-03-01

    The double patterning process has become a technology for extending the life of 193-nm immersion lithography. It is the most useful techniques of advancing downscaling in semiconductors and can theoretically be used scale infinitely down. For the self-aligned type of double patterning, such as self-aligned double patterning (SADP), self-aligned triple patterning (SATP), and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP)[1], we have reported that spacer-pattern processing is more difficult than line-pattern processing since the former includes more fluctuating factors, and that improving the performance of the core pattern is essential to solving this problem. Similarly, as calls for even more improvement in line edge roughness (LER) have come to be made, we have investigated the relationship between the core pattern and LER. Thus, given the importance of finding a means of securing pattern fidelity in the core pattern to improve critical dimension uniformity (CDU) and LER, we improved resist contrast resulting in dramatically reduced LER and improved spacer CD uniformity over the wafer surface. This paper presents the results of observing pattern fidelity in the double patterning process from many aspects and the results of testing a technique for high-accuracy management of pattern fidelity.

  13. [Study on identification of four kinds of Gentianaceae Mongolian medicine Digeda with spectroscopy techniques].

    PubMed

    Lv, Li-juan; Guo, Yong-hui; Zhao, Ya-chan; Zhao, Dong-dong; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    To study the identification of Gentianaceae Mongolian medicine Digeda with spectroscopy techniques, near infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were applied to study on the identification of 4 kinds of Gentianaceae Mongolian medicine Digeda, and characteristic spectrums obtained were systematically analyzed. In NIR study, the four species of Digeda exist some differences in 4 250-4 400 cm(-1) and 5 650-5 800 cm(-1) of one-dimensional spectra, and show significant differences in 4 100- 4 400 cm(-1), 4 401-4 900 cm(-1) and 5 400-5 800 cm(-1) of the second derivative spectra. DSC curves of them present distinct topological pattern, characteristic peak and peak temperature. Using near infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis can realize efficient and accurate identification of four kinds of Mongolian medicine Digeda, and provide scientific basis for the efficient and accurate identification of other Gentianaceae Mongolian medicine Digeda.

  14. Optimization of Neural Network Pattern Recognition Systems for Guided Waves Damage Identification in Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, C. K.; Veidt, M.

    2007-03-01

    Neural network pattern recognition is an advanced regression technique that can be applied to identify guided wave response signals for quantifying damages in structures. This paper describes a procedure to optimize the design of a multi-layer perceptron backpropagation neural network with signals preprocessed by the wavelet transform. The performance can be further improved using a weight-range selection technique in a series network since there is increased sensitivity of the neural network to experimental damage patterns if the training range is reduced. Damage identification in beams with longitudinal guided waves is used in this study.

  15. Serial identification of EEG patterns using adaptive wavelet-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazimov, A. I.; Pavlov, A. N.; Nazimova, A. A.; Grubov, V. V.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Sitnikova, E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2013-10-01

    A problem of recognition specific oscillatory patterns in the electroencephalograms with the continuous wavelet-transform is discussed. Aiming to improve abilities of the wavelet-based tools we propose a serial adaptive method for sequential identification of EEG patterns such as sleep spindles and spike-wave discharges. This method provides an optimal selection of parameters based on objective functions and enables to extract the most informative features of the recognized structures. Different ways of increasing the quality of patterns recognition within the proposed serial adaptive technique are considered.

  16. Whisker spot patterns: a noninvasive method of individual identification of Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea).

    PubMed

    Osterrieder, Sylvia K; Salgado Kent, Chandra; Anderson, Carlos J R; Parnum, Iain M; Robinson, Randall W

    2015-09-29

    Reliable methods for identification of individual animals are advantageous for ecological studies of population demographics and movement patterns. Photographic identification, based on distinguishable patterns, unique shapes, or scars, is an effective technique already used for many species. We tested whether photographs of whisker spot patterns could be used to discriminate among individual Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea). Based on images of 53 sea lions, we simulated 5,000 patterns before calculating the probability of duplication in a study population. A total of 99% (± 1.5 SD) of patterns were considered reliable for a population of 50, 98% (± 1.7 SD) for 100, 92% (± 4.7 SD) for 500, and 88% (± 5.7 SD) for 1,000. We tested a semiautomatic approach by matching 16 known individuals at 3 different angles (70°, 90°, and 110°), 2 distances (1 and 2 m), and 6 separate times over a 1-year period. A point-pattern matching algorithm for pairwise comparisons produced 90% correct matches of photographs taken on the same day at 90°. Images of individuals at 1 and 2 m resulted in 89% correct matches, those photographed at different angles and different times (at 90°) resulted in 48% and 73% correct matches, respectively. Our results show that the Chamfer distance transform can effectively be used for individual identification, but only if there is very little variation in photograph angle. This point-pattern recognition application may also work for other otariid species.

  17. Classification of relapse pattern in clubfoot treated with Ponseti technique

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Atul; Patni, Piyush

    2013-01-01

    Background: Relapse of clubfoot deformity following correction by Ponseti technique is not uncommon. The relapsed feet progress from flexible to rigid if left untreated and can become as severe as the initial deformity. No definitive classification exists to assess a relapsed clubfoot. Some authors have used the Pirani score to rate the relapse while others have used descriptive terms. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relapse pattern in clubfeet that have undergone treatment with the Ponseti method and propose a simple classification for relapsed clubfeet. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one children (164 feet) with idiopathic clubfeet who underwent treatment with Ponseti technique presented with relapse of the deformity. There were 68 boys and 23 girls. Mean age at presentation for casting was 10.71 days (range 7-22 days). Seventy three children (146 feet, 80%) had bilateral involvement and 18 (20%) had unilateral clubfeet. The mean Pirani Score was 5.6 and 5.5 in bilateral and unilateral groups respectively. Percutaneous heel cord tenotomy was done in 65 children (130 feet, 89%) in the bilateral group and in 12 children (66%) with unilateral clubfoot. Results: Five relapse patterns were identified at a mean followup of 4.5 years (range 3-5 years) which forms the basis of this study. These relapse patterns were classified as: Grade IA: decrease in ankle dorsiflexion from15 degrees to neutral, Grade IB: dynamic forefoot adduction or supination, Grade IIA – rigid equinus, Grade IIB – rigid adduction of forefoot/midfoot complex and Grade III: combination of two or more deformities: Fixed equinus, varus and forefoot adduction. In the bilateral group, 21 children (38 feet, 28%) had Grade IA relapse. Twenty four children (46 feet, 34%) had dynamic intoeing (Grade IB) on walking. Thirteen children (22 feet, 16%) had true ankle equinus of varying degress (Grade IIA); eight children (13 feet, 9.7%) had fixed adduction deformity of the forefoot (Grade IIB) and

  18. Radiographic identification by mastoid sinus and arterial pattern.

    PubMed

    Rhine, S; Sperry, K

    1991-01-01

    A skull and some incomplete postcranial remains were discovered in two searches over a two-month period near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The discoveries could be demonstrated to be from the same person, and the remains were shown to be consistent with a specific missing person on the basis of anthropological analysis. Further work led to a positive identification on multiple grounds, including agreement of the details of the mastoid sinus and endocranial arterial patterns observed radiographically. These features may be useful for establishing positive identification from skeletal remains when antemortem radiographic studies for comparison are limited to lateral cranial vault studies.

  19. Parameter estimation techniques for LTP system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofrarias Serra, Miquel

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is the precursor mission of LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) and the first step towards gravitational waves detection in space. The main instrument onboard the mission is the LTP (LISA Technology Package) whose scientific goal is to test LISA's drag-free control loop by reaching a differential acceleration noise level between two masses in √ geodesic motion of 3 × 10-14 ms-2 / Hz in the milliHertz band. The mission is not only challenging in terms of technology readiness but also in terms of data analysis. As with any gravitational wave detector, attaining the instrument performance goals will require an extensive noise hunting campaign to measure all contributions with high accuracy. But, opposite to on-ground experiments, LTP characterisation will be only possible by setting parameters via telecommands and getting a selected amount of information through the available telemetry downlink. These two conditions, high accuracy and high reliability, are the main restrictions that the LTP data analysis must overcome. A dedicated object oriented Matlab Toolbox (LTPDA) has been set up by the LTP analysis team for this purpose. Among the different toolbox methods, an essential part for the mission are the parameter estimation tools that will be used for system identification during operations: Linear Least Squares, Non-linear Least Squares and Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods have been implemented as LTPDA methods. The data analysis team has been testing those methods with a series of mock data exercises with the following objectives: to cross-check parameter estimation methods and compare the achievable accuracy for each of them, and to develop the best strategies to describe the physics underlying a complex controlled experiment as the LTP. In this contribution we describe how these methods were tested with simulated LTP-like data to recover the parameters of the model and we report on the latest results of these mock data exercises.

  20. Biometric identification using holographic radar imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlen P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first "biometric" application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  1. Biometric Identification Using Holographic Radar Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; Kennedy, Mike O.; Foote, Harlan P.

    2007-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have been at the forefront of developing innovative screening systems to enhance security and a novel imaging system to provide custom-fit clothing using holographic radar imaging techniques. First-of-a-kind cylindrical holographic imaging systems have been developed to screen people at security checkpoints for the detection of concealed, body worn, non-metallic threats such as plastic and liquid explosives, knifes and contraband. Another embodiment of this technology is capable of obtaining full sized body measurements in near real time without the person under surveillance removing their outer garments. Radar signals readily penetrate clothing and reflect off the water in skin. This full body measurement system is commercially available for best fitting ready to wear clothing, which was the first “biometric” application for this technology. One compelling feature of this technology for security biometric applications is that it can see effectively through disguises, appliances and body hair.

  2. Background characterization techniques for target detection using scene metrics and pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, Paul V.; Noah, Meg A.; Schroeder, John W.; Chernick, Julian A.

    1990-09-01

    The U.S. Army has a requirement to develop systems for the detection and identification of ground targets in a clutter environment. Autonomous Homing Munitions (AHM) using infrared, visible, millimeter wave and other sensors are being investigated for this application. Advanced signal processing and computational approaches using pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques combined with multisensor data fusion have the potential to meet the Army's requirements for next generation ARM.

  3. Deconvolution/identification techniques for 1-D transient signals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses a variety of nonparametric deconvolution and identification techniques that we have developed for application to 1-D transient signal problems. These methods are time-domain techniques that use direct methods for matrix inversion. Therefore, they are not appropriate for large data'' problems. These techniques involve various regularization methods and permit the use of certain kinds of a priori information in estimating the unknown. These techniques have been implemented in a package using standard FORTRAN that should make the package readily transportable to most computers. This paper is also meant to be an instruction manual for the package. 25 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Identification of apolipoprotein using feature selection technique

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hua; Zou, Ping; Zhang, Chunmei; Chen, Rong; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein is a kind of protein which can transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The abnormal expression level of apolipoprotein always causes angiocardiopathy. Thus, correct recognition of apolipoprotein from proteomic data is very crucial to the comprehension of cardiovascular system and drug design. This study is to develop a computational model to predict apolipoproteins. In the model, the apolipoproteins and non-apolipoproteins were collected to form benchmark dataset. On the basis of the dataset, we extracted the g-gap dipeptide composition information from residue sequences to formulate protein samples. To exclude redundant information or noise, the analysis of various (ANOVA)-based feature selection technique was proposed to find out the best feature subset. The support vector machine (SVM) was selected as discrimination algorithm. Results show that 96.2% of sensitivity and 99.3% of specificity were achieved in five-fold cross-validation. These findings open new perspectives to improve apolipoproteins prediction by considering the specific dipeptides. We expect that these findings will help to improve drug development in anti-angiocardiopathy disease. PMID:27443605

  5. Detection, identification, and quantification techniques for spills of hazardous chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, J. F.; Sandness, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first 400 chemicals listed in the Coast Guard's Chemical Hazards Response Information System were evaluated with respect to their detectability, identifiability, and quantifiability by 12 generalized remote and in situ sensing techniques. Identification was also attempted for some key areas in water pollution sensing technology.

  6. Development of evaluation method for software hazard identification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shih, C.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C. T.; Wang, L. H.; Yu, Y. C.; Chen, C. W.

    2006-07-01

    This research evaluated the applicable software hazard identification techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various software hazard identification combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (with transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and simulation-based model-analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantages are the completeness complexity and implementation cost. This evaluation method can be a platform to reach common consensus for the stakeholders. Following the evolution of software hazard identification techniques, the evaluation results could be changed. However, the insight of software hazard identification techniques is much more important than the numbers obtained by the evaluation. (authors)

  7. Patterns of shoulder muscle coordination vary between wheelchair propulsion techniques.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated changes in the coordination patterns of shoulder muscles and wheelchair kinetics with different propulsion techniques by comparing wheelchair users' self-selected propulsion patterns with a semicircular pattern adopted after instruction. Wheelchair kinetics data were recorded by Smart(Wheel) on an ergometer, while EMG activity of seven muscles was recorded with surface electrodes on 15 able-bodied inexperienced participants. The performance data in two sessions, first using a self-selected and then the learned semicircular pattern, were compared with a paired t-test. Muscle coordination patterns across seven muscles were analyzed by principal component analysis. The semicircular pattern was characterized by significantly lower push frequency, significantly longer push length, push duration and push distance (p < 0.05, all cases) without a significant increase in push force, when compared with the self-selected pattern. In addition, our results show that in the semicircular propulsion technique, synergistic muscles were recruited in distinct phases and displayed a clearer separation between activities in the push phase and recovery phase muscles. An instruction session in semicircular propulsion technique is recommended for the initial use of a wheelchair after an injury.

  8. Patterns of Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses: Identification Rates, Agreement, and Validity for Learning Disabilities Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2014-01-01

    Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability and validity of two proposed PSW methods: the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) and cross battery assessment (XBA) method. Cognitive assessment…

  9. An experimental modal testing/identification technique for personal computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roemer, Michael J.; Schlonski, Steven T.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A PC-based system for mode shape identification is evaluated. A time-domain modal identification procedure is utilized to identify the mode shapes of a beam apparatus from discrete time-domain measurements. The apparatus includes a cantilevered aluminum beam, four accelerometers, four low-pass filters, and the computer. The method's algorithm is comprised of an identification algorithm: the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) and an estimation algorithm called Minimum Model Error (MME). The identification ability of this algorithm is compared with ERA alone, a frequency-response-function technique, and an Euler-Bernoulli beam model. Detection of modal parameters and mode shapes by the PC-based time-domain system is shown to be accurate in an application with an aluminum beam, while mode shapes identified by the frequency-domain technique are not as accurate as predicted. The new method is shown to be significantly less sensitive to noise and poorly excited modes than other leading methods. The results support the use of time-domain identification systems for mode shape prediction.

  10. Rapid identification of single microbes by various Raman spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, Petra; Harz, Michaela; Schmitt, Michael; Peschke, Klaus-Dieter; Ronneberger, Olaf; Burkhardt, Hans; Motzkus, Hans-Walter; Lankers, Markus; Hofer, Stefan; Thiele, Hans; Popp, Jürgen

    2006-02-01

    A fast and unambiguous identification of microorganisms is necessary not only for medical purposes but also in technical processes such as the production of pharmaceuticals. Conventional microbiological identification methods are based on the morphology and the ability of microbes to grow under different conditions on various cultivation media depending on their biochemical properties. These methods require pure cultures which need cultivation of at least 6 h but normally much longer. Recently also additional methods to identify bacteria are established e.g. mass spectroscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry or fluorescence spectroscopy. Alternative approaches for the identification of microorganisms are vibrational spectroscopic techniques. With Raman spectroscopy a spectroscopic fingerprint of the microorganisms can be achieved. Using UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) macromolecules like DNA/RNA and proteins are resonantly enhanced. With an excitation wavelength of e.g. 244 nm it is possible to determine the ratio of guanine/cytosine to all DNA bases which allows a genotypic identification of microorganisms. The application of UVRR requires a large amount of microorganisms (> 10 6 cells) e.g. at least a micro colony. For the analysis of single cells micro-Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm can be used. Here, the obtained information is from all type of molecules inside the cells which lead to a chemotaxonomic identification. In this contribution we show how wavelength dependent Raman spectroscopy yields significant molecular information applicable for the identification of microorganisms on a single cell level.

  11. Machine-learned pattern identification in olfactory subtest results

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Jörn; Hummel, Thomas; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    The human sense of smell is often analyzed as being composed of three main components comprising olfactory threshold, odor discrimination and the ability to identify odors. A relevant distinction of the three components and their differential changes in distinct disorders remains a research focus. The present data-driven analysis aimed at establishing a cluster structure in the pattern of olfactory subtest results. Therefore, unsupervised machine-learning was applied onto olfactory subtest results acquired in 10,714 subjects with nine different olfactory pathologies. Using the U-matrix, Emergent Self-organizing feature maps (ESOM) identified three different clusters characterized by (i) low threshold and good discrimination and identification, (ii) very high threshold associated with absent to poor discrimination and identification ability, or (iii) medium threshold, i.e., in the mid-range of possible thresholds, associated with reduced discrimination and identification ability. Specific etiologies of olfactory (dys)function were unequally represented in the clusters (p < 2.2 · 10−16). Patients with congenital anosmia were overrepresented in the second cluster while subjects with postinfectious olfactory dysfunction belonged frequently to the third cluster. However, the clusters provided no clear separation between etiologies. Hence, the present verification of a distinct cluster structure encourages continued scientific efforts at olfactory test pattern recognition. PMID:27762302

  12. Accuracy of Using Visual Identification of White Sharks to Estimate Residency Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, David G.; Johnson, Ryan; Bester, Marthán N.; Gennari, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Determining the residency of an aquatic species is important but challenging and it remains unclear what is the best sampling methodology. Photo-identification has been used extensively to estimate patterns of animals' residency and is arguably the most common approach, but it may not be the most effective approach in marine environments. To examine this, in 2005, we deployed acoustic transmitters on 22 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in Mossel Bay, South Africa to quantify the probability of detecting these tagged sharks by photo-identification and different deployment strategies of acoustic telemetry equipment. Using the data collected by the different sampling approaches (detections from an acoustic listening station deployed under a chumming vessel versus those from visual sightings and photo-identification), we quantified the methodologies' probability of detection and determined if the sampling approaches, also including an acoustic telemetry array, produce comparable results for patterns of residency. Photo-identification had the lowest probability of detection and underestimated residency. The underestimation is driven by various factors primarily that acoustic telemetry monitors a large area and this reduces the occurrence of false negatives. Therefore, we propose that researchers need to use acoustic telemetry and also continue to develop new sampling approaches as photo-identification techniques are inadequate to determine residency. Using the methods presented in this paper will allow researchers to further refine sampling approaches that enable them to collect more accurate data that will result in better research and more informed management efforts and policy decisions. PMID:22514662

  13. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Marsland, Finn; Lyons, Keith; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Macintosh, Colin; Chapman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxX™ unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability. PMID:22666075

  14. Transposition with atypical coronary pattern: the Aubert technique.

    PubMed

    Pita-Fernández, Ana; González-López, María T; Gil-Jaurena, Juan M

    2017-03-06

    The arterial switch operation is currently the gold standard technique for repair of transposition of the great arteries. Some atypical coronary patterns such as intramural, interarterial, and a unique posterior button are associated with more complexity and surgical risk. We report a successful Aubert operation for transposition of the great arteries associated with a single and interarterial coronary artery arising from a posterior sinus.

  15. Comparison of three advanced chromatographic techniques for cannabis identification.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, D; Albessard, F; Bigot, M C; Moulin, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of chromatography technology, with the increasing availability of easier-to-use mass spectrometers combined with gas chromatography (GC), the use of diode-array or programmable variable-wavelength ultraviolet absorption detectors in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the availability of scanners capable of reading thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates in the ultraviolet and visible regions, has made for easier, quicker and more positive identification of cannabis samples that standard analytical laboratories are occasionally required to undertake in the effort to combat drug addiction. At laboratories that do not possess the technique of GC combined with mass spectrometry, which provides an irrefutable identification, the following procedure involving HPLC or TLC techniques may be used: identification of the chromatographic peaks corresponding to each of the three main cannabis constituents-cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) and cannabinol (CBN)-by comparison with published data in conjunction with a specific absorption spectrum for each of those constituents obtained between 200 and 300 nm. The collection of the fractions corresponding to the three major cannabinoids at the HPLC system outlet and the cross-checking of their identity in the GC process with flame ionization detection can further corroborate the identification and minimize possible errors due to interference.

  16. Identification of articulation error patterns using a novel dependence network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeou-Jiunn

    2011-11-01

    Articulation errors seriously reduce speech intelligibility and the ease of spoken communication. Speech-language pathologists manually identify articulation error patterns based on their clinical experience, which is a time-consuming and expensive process. This study proposes an automatic pronunciation error identification system that uses a novel dependence network (DN) approach. In order to derive a subject's articulatory information, a photo naming task is performed to obtain the subject's speech patterns. Based on clinical knowledge about speech evaluation, a DN scheme was used to model the relationships of a test word, a subject, a speech pattern, and an articulation error pattern. To integrate DN into automatic speech recognition (ASR), a pronunciation confusion network is proposed to model the probability of DN and is then used to guide the search space of the ASR. Further, to increase the accuracy of the ASR, an appropriate threshold based on a histogram of pronunciation errors is selected in order to disregard rare pronunciation errors. Finally, the articulation error patterns were well identified by integrating the likelihoods of the DNs of each phoneme. The results of this study indicate that it is feasible to clinically implement this dynamic network approach to achieve satisfactory performance in articulation evaluation.

  17. Key techniques of laser direct writing patterns on spherical substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-guo; Zhao, Jing-li

    2007-12-01

    Comparing with the writing method of plane pattern, spherical pattern' has some remarkable different on several points. Firstly, it is difficult to spin-coated a uniform photoresist film on a spherical substrate, especially the ratio of spherical radius to caliber is smaller, and the spin-coated way must match the ratio of spherical radius to caliber. Secondly, if the sphere couldn't be regarded as a plane, a so-called concentric optical scan movement way must be applied for the generation of spherical pattern, because the reflex of substrate will affect the quantity of illumination. Commonly, an alignment technique is indispensable with pattern generation of spherical surface by the concentric optical scan in order to ensure the orthogonal intersection of focusing laser beam and writing surface. Thirdly, a uniform velocity control must be considered for the laser direct writing method on a spherical substrate. Otherwise, the exposure time of photoresist will be different, and the line widths of pattern will be also different at different areas. Fourthly, commonly, because the errors of concentric machine and substrate surface shape are bigger, so focusing servo-control technique is also needful for writing a pattern on a spherical substrate. Focusing servo-control may keep the focal spot on the spherical surface by a focus detection and control system in the course of writing pattern. Using these techniques, we fabricated a line width of 7μm and a period of 600μm isometric mesh on the concave of a spherical substrate.

  18. Identification of the murder weapon by intricate patterned injury measurements.

    PubMed

    Zugibe, F T; Costello, J T

    1986-04-01

    Critical studies of an intricate blunt force injury pattern in a brutal homicide led to the identification of the murder weapon. A 50-year-old male was bludgeoned to death in his apartment during a robbery allegedly engineered by his daughter. Careful measurements and overlay construction of the wounds relative to the magazine catch, lanyard ring, magazine chamber, and butt of a 32-caliber Eistegui Hermanos fibar (España) automatic pistol led to the conclusion that either the alleged weapon or one identical to it caused the fatal injuries.

  19. A novel analytical technique suitable for the identification of plastics.

    PubMed

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Sket, Primož; Plavec, Janez; Grdadolnik, Jože; Zvanut, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The enormous development and production of plastic materials in the last century resulted in increasing numbers of such kinds of objects. Development of a simple and fast technique to classify different types of plastics could be used in many activities dealing with plastic materials such as packaging of food, sorting of used plastic materials, and also, if technique would be non-destructive, for conservation of plastic artifacts in museum collections, a relatively new field of interest since 1990. In our previous paper we introduced a non-destructive technique for fast identification of unknown plastics based on EDXRF spectrometry,1 using as a case study some plastic artifacts archived in the Museum in order to show the advantages of the nondestructive identification of plastic material. In order to validate our technique it was necessary to apply for this purpose the comparison of analyses with some of the analytical techniques, which are more suitable and so far rather widely applied in identifying some most common sorts of plastic materials.

  20. Whisker spot patterns: a noninvasive method of individual identification of Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea)

    PubMed Central

    Osterrieder, Sylvia K.; Salgado Kent, Chandra; Anderson, Carlos J. R.; Parnum, Iain M.; Robinson, Randall W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable methods for identification of individual animals are advantageous for ecological studies of population demographics and movement patterns. Photographic identification, based on distinguishable patterns, unique shapes, or scars, is an effective technique already used for many species. We tested whether photographs of whisker spot patterns could be used to discriminate among individual Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea). Based on images of 53 sea lions, we simulated 5,000 patterns before calculating the probability of duplication in a study population. A total of 99% (± 1.5 SD) of patterns were considered reliable for a population of 50, 98% (± 1.7 SD) for 100, 92% (± 4.7 SD) for 500, and 88% (± 5.7 SD) for 1,000. We tested a semiautomatic approach by matching 16 known individuals at 3 different angles (70°, 90°, and 110°), 2 distances (1 and 2 m), and 6 separate times over a 1-year period. A point-pattern matching algorithm for pairwise comparisons produced 90% correct matches of photographs taken on the same day at 90°. Images of individuals at 1 and 2 m resulted in 89% correct matches, those photographed at different angles and different times (at 90°) resulted in 48% and 73% correct matches, respectively. Our results show that the Chamfer distance transform can effectively be used for individual identification, but only if there is very little variation in photograph angle. This point-pattern recognition application may also work for other otariid species. PMID:26937048

  1. Exploring patterns of epigenetic information with data mining techniques.

    PubMed

    Aguiar-Pulido, Vanessa; Seoane, José A; Gestal, Marcos; Dorado, Julián

    2013-01-01

    Data mining, a part of the Knowledge Discovery in Databases process (KDD), is the process of extracting patterns from large data sets by combining methods from statistics and artificial intelligence with database management. Analyses of epigenetic data have evolved towards genome-wide and high-throughput approaches, thus generating great amounts of data for which data mining is essential. Part of these data may contain patterns of epigenetic information which are mitotically and/or meiotically heritable determining gene expression and cellular differentiation, as well as cellular fate. Epigenetic lesions and genetic mutations are acquired by individuals during their life and accumulate with ageing. Both defects, either together or individually, can result in losing control over cell growth and, thus, causing cancer development. Data mining techniques could be then used to extract the previous patterns. This work reviews some of the most important applications of data mining to epigenetics.

  2. Stalked protozoa identification by image analysis and multivariable statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Amaral, A L; Ginoris, Y P; Nicolau, A; Coelho, M A Z; Ferreira, E C

    2008-06-01

    Protozoa are considered good indicators of the treatment quality in activated sludge systems as they are sensitive to physical, chemical and operational processes. Therefore, it is possible to correlate the predominance of certain species or groups and several operational parameters of the plant. This work presents a semiautomatic image analysis procedure for the recognition of the stalked protozoa species most frequently found in wastewater treatment plants by determining the geometrical, morphological and signature data and subsequent processing by discriminant analysis and neural network techniques. Geometrical descriptors were found to be responsible for the best identification ability and the identification of the crucial Opercularia and Vorticella microstoma microorganisms provided some degree of confidence to establish their presence in wastewater treatment plants.

  3. Fuzzy pattern matching techniques for photomask layout data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kokoro; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishizawa, Kuninori

    2013-06-01

    Pattern matching seems to be promising technique to the mask industry. It can be used for many applications such as hot spot detection of post-OPC data, search of AIMS reference location or CDSEM measurement point extraction. In particular, fuzzy pattern matching is more needed for mask data processing because the mask layout has different derivatives generated by OPC and there are many similar "OPC brothers" that come from the same layout. However, application of fuzzy pattern matching to the mask layout is challenging due to the reasons related to the characteristics of photomask data. In this paper we introduce a novel method of fuzzy pattern matching to cope with the issues that comes from the characteristics of mask data. The rule specification is quite simple - we only need to specify a single tolerance value for each edge displacement. We will show the experimental results using the actual mask layout and prove that the calculation speed and quality of the proposed technique is satisfactory from the view point of realistic MDP processing.

  4. Double-Patterning Technique Using Plasma Treatment of Photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doo-Youl; Kang, Yool; Chae, Yun-Sook; Lee, Suk-Joo; Cho, Han-Ku; Moon, Joo-Tae

    2007-09-01

    The double-patterning process was investigated for line-and-space (L/S) patterns of 65 nm half pitch [k1=0.286, 0.85-numerical aperture (NA) ArF dry system] by plasma treatment of photoresist (PR). The sequence of this patterning is exposure-plasma treatment-exposure-etching. Si thin-film passivation and HBr plasma treatment (HPT) were applied, and Si thin-film passivation is preferred to HPT in terms of intermixing prevention and etch selectivity. For planarization of the topographic surface, a thick bottom PR was coated on the pattern after the first exposure. Si thin-film passivation and the thick bottom PR enabled the second exposure to be separated from the first exposure. After the etching process was completed down to the nitride hardmask material, the L/S patterns of 65 nm half pitch were achieved at the full-chip level by virtue of the Si thin-film passivation and thick bottom PR. In the meantime, considering the layout characteristic and process flexibility, layout decomposition and the optical proximity correction (OPC) process were performed. Even though the 65 nm half pitch is defined to be such that k1=0.286, it is believed that this double patterning scheme we suggested can be applied at the minimum pitch over the theoretical limit below 0.25. Consequently, it is expected that the double-patterning technique (DPT) process will have an important role in the extremely low k1 lithography beyond the 32 nm node.

  5. 3D surface real-time measurement using phase-shifted interference fringe technique for craniofacial identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gennady G.; Vishnyakov, Gennady N.; Naumov, Alexey V.; Abramov, Sergey

    1998-03-01

    We offer to use the 3D surface profile real-time measurement using phase-shifted interference fringe projection technique for the cranioficial identification. Our system realizes the profile measurement by projecting interference fringe pattern on the object surface and by observing the deformed fringe pattern at the direction different from the projection. Fringes are formed by a Michelson interferometer with one mirror mounted on a piezoelectric translator. Four steps self- calibration phase-shift method was used.

  6. A Simplified Pattern Match Algorithm for Star Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    A true pattern matching star algorithm similar in concept to the Van Bezooijen algorithm is implemented using an iterative approach. This approach allows for a more compact and simple implementation which can be easily adapted to be either an all-sky, no a priori algorithm or a follow on to a direct match algorithm to distinguish between ambiguous matches. Some simple analysis is shown to indicate the likelihood of mis-identifications. The performance of the algorithm for the all-sky, no a priori situation is detailed assuming he SKYMAP star catalog describes the true sky. The impact of errors and omissions in the SKYMAP catalog on performance are investigated. In addition, differing levels of noise in the star observations are assumed and results shown. The implications for possible implementation on-board spacecraft are discussed.

  7. Pattern of Smell Identification Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Velayudhan, Latha; Gasper, Amy; Pritchard, Megan; Baillon, Sarah; Messer, Charlotte; Proitsi, Petroula

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in general, and impaired odor identification in particular, have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Olfactory testing may be a useful diagnostic aid for AD, but the types of odor most commonly affected need to be identified. This study aimed to determine pattern and types of odor affected in AD with the goal of improving clinical applicability. 54 outpatients with mild to moderate AD and 40 age and gender-matched non-demented controls (NDC) were tested using British version of University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT; Sensonics, Inc., Haddon Heights, NJ) and data analyzed to identify an optimal subset of UPSIT to best differentiate AD patients from controls. AD subjects had significantly lower UPSIT total scores than NDC. Random Forest with backward elimination identified 12 UPSIT items which accurately differentiated AD patients compared to controls (sensitivity, 0.89 and specificity, 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.889, and negative predictive value of 0.833). The 12 smell items found to be most affected in AD subjects reflects important attributes such as safety and food, known to be affected in people with AD and that has the potential to impair activities of daily living. The 12 items of British UPSIT most affected in AD subjects provides a potential brief scale for early detection of AD in clinical settings. Independent replication is needed to validate these findings.

  8. CD-measurement technique for hole patterns on stencil mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Mikio; Yusa, Satoshi; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Fujita, Hiroshi; Sano, Hisatake; Hoga, Morihisa; Hayashi, Naoya

    2004-12-01

    EB lithography has a potential to successfully form hole patterns as small as 80 nm with a stencil mask. In a previous paper we proposed a technique using a HOLON dual-mode critical dimension (CD) SEM ESPA-75S in the transmission mode for CD measurement of line-and-space patterns on a stencil mask. In this paper we extend our effort of developing a CD measurement technique to contact hole features and determine it in comparison of measured values between features on mask and those printed on wafer. We have evaluated the width method and the area methods using designed 80-500 nm wide contact hole patterns on a large area membrane mask and their resist images on wafer printed by a LEEPL3000. We find that 1) the width method and the area methods show an excellent mask-wafer correlation for holes over 110 nm, and 2) the area methods show a better mask-wafer correlation than the width method does for holes below 110 nm. We conclude that the area calculated from the transmission SEM image is more suitable in defining the hole dimensions than the width for contact holes on a stencil mask.

  9. Maskless lithography using point array technique for fine patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ohta, Eiji; Nakagawa, Takashi; Tachikawa, Masahiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Nishimoto, Nirou

    2015-07-01

    We made a steady progress in designing a maskless exposure system using the point array technique. An epoch-making high-resolution maskless lithography system with resolution of less than 1 micron half-pitch has been developed. Exposure results indicated that patterns were resolved up to 0.8 microns half-pitch. Smooth edges of the photoresist for various directions were also confirmed. It is distinctive characteristics of the point array technique. Another merit is coexistence of high resolution and high throughput. 4 inches wafers used in this evaluation were exposed within 30 minutes. Therefore, we consider that tact time of manufacturing a photomask can be shortened drastically. Finally we have challenged to apply an annular stop to our new projection optics system in order to achieve further improvement of optical performance. However, we confirmed that a sidelobe of optical spots, which became stronger by using the annular stop, exerted an undesirable influence upon imaging for fine patterns. Consequently, it became clear that suppressing the sidelobe as well as narrowing the mainlobe of optical spots is important for microlithography using the point array technique.

  10. Pattern Recognition Software and Techniques for Biological Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Lior; Delaney, John D.; Orlov, Nikita; Eckley, D. Mark; Goldberg, Ilya G.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays. PMID:21124870

  11. Pattern recognition software and techniques for biological image analysis.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Lior; Delaney, John D; Orlov, Nikita; Eckley, D Mark; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2010-11-24

    The increasing prevalence of automated image acquisition systems is enabling new types of microscopy experiments that generate large image datasets. However, there is a perceived lack of robust image analysis systems required to process these diverse datasets. Most automated image analysis systems are tailored for specific types of microscopy, contrast methods, probes, and even cell types. This imposes significant constraints on experimental design, limiting their application to the narrow set of imaging methods for which they were designed. One of the approaches to address these limitations is pattern recognition, which was originally developed for remote sensing, and is increasingly being applied to the biology domain. This approach relies on training a computer to recognize patterns in images rather than developing algorithms or tuning parameters for specific image processing tasks. The generality of this approach promises to enable data mining in extensive image repositories, and provide objective and quantitative imaging assays for routine use. Here, we provide a brief overview of the technologies behind pattern recognition and its use in computer vision for biological and biomedical imaging. We list available software tools that can be used by biologists and suggest practical experimental considerations to make the best use of pattern recognition techniques for imaging assays.

  12. Line identification studies using traditional techniques and wavelength coincidence statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Adelman, Saul J.

    1990-01-01

    Traditional line identification techniques result in the assignment of individual lines to an atomic or ionic species. These methods may be supplemented by wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS). The strength and weakness of these methods are discussed using spectra of a number of normal and peculiar B and A stars that have been studied independently by both methods. The present results support the overall findings of some earlier studies. WCS would be most useful in a first survey, before traditional methods have been applied. WCS can quickly make a global search for all species and in this way may enable identifications of an unexpected spectrum that could easily be omitted entirely from a traditional study. This is illustrated by O I. WCS is a subject to well known weakness of any statistical technique, for example, a predictable number of spurious results are to be expected. The danger of small number statistics are illustrated. WCS is at its best relative to traditional methods in finding a line-rich atomic species that is only weakly present in a complicated stellar spectrum.

  13. Identification and interpretation of patterns in rocket engine data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. F.; Wu, K.; Whitehead, B. A.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype software system was constructed to detect anomalous Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) behavior in the early stages of fault development significantly earlier than the indication provided by either redline detection mechanism or human expert analysis. The major task of the research project is to analyze ground test data, to identify patterns associated with the anomalous engine behavior, and to develop a pattern identification and detection system on the basis of this analysis. A prototype expert system which was developed on both PC and Symbolics 3670 lisp machine for detecting anomalies in turbopump vibration data was checked with data from ground tests 902-473, 902-501, 902-519, and 904-097 of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The neural networks method was also applied to supplement the statistical method utilized in the prototype system to investigate the feasibility in detecting anomalies in turbopump vibration of SSME. In most cases the anomalies detected by the expert system agree with those reported by NASA. On the neural networks approach, the results are given the successful detection rate higher than 95 percent to identify either normal or abnormal running condition based on the experimental data as well as numerical simulation.

  14. Effective techniques for the identification and accommodation of disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    The successful control of dynamic systems such as space stations, or launch vehicles, requires a controller design methodology that acknowledges and addresses the disruptive effects caused by external and internal disturbances that inevitably act on such systems. These disturbances, technically defined as uncontrollable inputs, typically vary with time in an uncertain manner and usually cannot be directly measured in real time. A relatively new non-statistical technique for modeling, and (on-line) identification, of those complex uncertain disturbances that are not as erratic and capricious as random noise is described. This technique applies to multi-input cases and to many of the practical disturbances associated with the control of space stations, or launch vehicles. Then, a collection of smart controller design techniques that allow controlled dynamic systems, with possible multi-input controls, to accommodate (cope with) such disturbances with extraordinary effectiveness are associated. These new smart controllers are designed by non-statistical techniques and typically turn out to be unconventional forms of dynamic linear controllers (compensators) with constant coefficients. The simplicity and reliability of linear, constant coefficient controllers is well-known in the aerospace field.

  15. Evaluation of the use of fiber optic sensors in identification of fresco fracturing patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisic, Branko; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea; Dobkin, David P.

    2015-04-01

    Ageing of materials and extreme events tend to damage structures, and ancient historical monuments are particularly vulnerable due to their age and long-term exposure to adverse events and influences. As an example, the wall paintings (frescoes) from the seventeenth century BCE found at the archaeological site of Akrotiri (Santorini, Greece) were recovered from volcanic ash in fragments with dimensions ranging from a few centimeters to a few decimeters. Identification of the fracturing patterns is helpful to the process of piecing together the fragments of frescos. Previous work has involved looking at fracturing patterns in frescos that have been reassembled. Recent work has looked at the process by which fractures develop. Current identification techniques involve experimental study of fracture development on plaster molds using a high-speed camera combined with sophisticated algorithms for pattern recognition. However, the use of a high-speed camera is challenging due to very demanding data processing and analysis and some inaccuracies in identification of fracture initialization generated by light conditions. This paper aims to evaluate whether or not short-gauge fiber optic sensors (FOS) based on Fiber Brag-Gratings (FBG), can be used to help identify the fracturing patterns of falling frescoes as a complement to high-speed cameras. In total four tests were performed using surface and embedded sensors on various plaster molds. The data taken by sensors installed on the surface of the mold were more complex to analyze and interpret than the data taken by embedded sensors, since the former reflected combined influence from fracture and bending. While their practicality is challenged by cost, moderately dense arrays of embedded FOS are found to be a plausible complement to the high speed-camera in the experiments.

  16. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

  17. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) species using leaf architecture variations and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongfei; Jiang, Wu; Ghiassi, M; Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species.

  18. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Williams, Sophie R.; Martin, Andrew V.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used. PMID:27006776

  19. Space-object identification using spatial pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversmith, Paul E.

    The traditional method of determining spacecraft attitude with a star tracker is by comparing the angle measurements between stars within a certain field-of-view (FOV) with that of angle measurements in a catalog. This technique is known as the angle method. A new approach, the planar triangle method (PTM), uses the properties of planar triangles to compare stars in a FOV with stars in a catalog. Specifically, the area and polar moment of planar triangle combinations are the comparison parameters used in the method. The PTM has been shown to provide a more consistent success rate than that of the traditional angle method. The work herein presents a technique of data association through the use of the planar triangle method. Instead of comparing the properties of stars with that of a catalog, a comparison is made between the properties of resident space objects (RSOs) and a catalog comprised of Fengyun 1C debris data and simulated data. It is shown that the planar triangle method is effective in RSO identification and is robust to the presence of measurement and sensor error.

  20. Identification of Reliable Sulcal Patterns of the Human Rolandic Region

    PubMed Central

    Mellerio, Charles; Lapointe, Marie-Noël; Roca, Pauline; Charron, Sylvain; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Cachia, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three dimensional (3D) surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labeled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS]) and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono’s atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono’s atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: κ = 0.92 in left hemisphere/κ = 0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: κ = 0.91/κ = 0.93; PostCS: κ = 0.84/0.79). Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere/3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere). Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation

  1. Chemical Detection and Identification Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Sheverev, Valery A.; Khromov, Nikolai A.

    2002-01-01

    Exobiology flight experiments require highly sensitive instrumentation for in situ analysis of the volatile chemical species that occur in the atmospheres and surfaces of various bodies within the solar system. The complex mixtures encountered place a heavy burden on the analytical Instrumentation to detect and identify all species present. The minimal resources available onboard for such missions mandate that the instruments provide maximum analytical capabilities with minimal requirements of volume, weight and consumables. Advances in technology may be achieved by increasing the amount of information acquired by a given technique with greater analytical capabilities and miniaturization of proven terrestrial technology. We describe here methods to develop analytical instruments for the detection and identification of a wide range of chemical species using Gas Chromatography. These efforts to expand the analytical capabilities of GC technology are focused on the development of detectors for the GC which provide sample identification independent of the GC retention time data. A novel new approach employs Penning Ionization Electron Spectroscopy (PIES).

  2. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) Panel Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2007-07-01

    Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) is a systematic way of gathering information from experts on a specific subject and ranking the importance of the information. NRC, in collaboration with DOE and the working group, conducted the PIRT exercises to identify safety-relevant phenomena for NGNP, and to assess and rank the importance and knowledge base for each phenomenon. The overall objective was to provide NRC with an expert assessment of the safety-relevant NGNP phenomena, and an overall assessment of R and D needs for NGNP licensing. The PIRT process was applied to five major topical areas relevant to NGNP safety and licensing: (1) thermofluids and accident analysis (including neutronics), (2) fission product transport, (3) high temperature materials, (4) graphite, and (5) process heat for hydrogen cogeneration.

  3. An anatomical and photographic technique for forensic facial identification.

    PubMed

    Porter, G; Doran, G

    2000-11-13

    The increase in the use of photographs on individual identification credentials such as driving licences, credit cards, security passes and passports has led, for the purpose of criminal activities, to the falsification of genuine documents bearing photographs of the perpetrating criminal. These photographs may be used as valuable physical evidence when compared with known photographs of a suspect as they form somewhat of a signature of the suspect that is left behind on the evidence. The comparison of ID photographs requires the cooperation of two predominantly visual disciplines; forensic photography and morphological anatomy. This paper describes a photographic technique which allows accurate anatomical measurement and tracing of facial features, which allows direct physical comparison of ID document images.

  4. System identification and model reduction using modulating function techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yan

    1993-01-01

    Weighted least squares (WLS) and adaptive weighted least squares (AWLS) algorithms are initiated for continuous-time system identification using Fourier type modulating function techniques. Two stochastic signal models are examined using the mean square properties of the stochastic calculus: an equation error signal model with white noise residuals, and a more realistic white measurement noise signal model. The covariance matrices in each model are shown to be banded and sparse, and a joint likelihood cost function is developed which links the real and imaginary parts of the modulated quantities. The superior performance of above algorithms is demonstrated by comparing them with the LS/MFT and popular predicting error method (PEM) through 200 Monte Carlo simulations. A model reduction problem is formulated with the AWLS/MFT algorithm, and comparisons are made via six examples with a variety of model reduction techniques, including the well-known balanced realization method. Here the AWLS/MFT algorithm manifests higher accuracy in almost all cases, and exhibits its unique flexibility and versatility. Armed with this model reduction, the AWLS/MFT algorithm is extended into MIMO transfer function system identification problems. The impact due to the discrepancy in bandwidths and gains among subsystem is explored through five examples. Finally, as a comprehensive application, the stability derivatives of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of an F-18 aircraft are identified using physical flight data provided by NASA. A pole-constrained SIMO and MIMO AWLS/MFT algorithm is devised and analyzed. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate its high-noise rejecting properties. Utilizing the flight data, comparisons among different MFT algorithms are tabulated and the AWLS is found to be strongly favored in almost all facets.

  5. Behavioral pattern identification for structural health monitoring in complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shalabh

    Estimation of structural damage and quantification of structural integrity are critical for safe and reliable operation of human-engineered complex systems, such as electromechanical, thermofluid, and petrochemical systems. Damage due to fatigue crack is one of the most commonly encountered sources of structural degradation in mechanical systems. Early detection of fatigue damage is essential because the resulting structural degradation could potentially cause catastrophic failures, leading to loss of expensive equipment and human life. Therefore, for reliable operation and enhanced availability, it is necessary to develop capabilities for prognosis and estimation of impending failures, such as the onset of wide-spread fatigue crack damage in mechanical structures. This dissertation presents information-based online sensing of fatigue damage using the analytical tools of symbolic time series analysis ( STSA). Anomaly detection using STSA is a pattern recognition method that has been recently developed based upon a fixed-structure, fixed-order Markov chain. The analysis procedure is built upon the principles of Symbolic Dynamics, Information Theory and Statistical Pattern Recognition. The dissertation demonstrates real-time fatigue damage monitoring based on time series data of ultrasonic signals. Statistical pattern changes are measured using STSA to monitor the evolution of fatigue damage. Real-time anomaly detection is presented as a solution to the forward (analysis) problem and the inverse (synthesis) problem. (1) the forward problem - The primary objective of the forward problem is identification of the statistical changes in the time series data of ultrasonic signals due to gradual evolution of fatigue damage. (2) the inverse problem - The objective of the inverse problem is to infer the anomalies from the observed time series data in real time based on the statistical information generated during the forward problem. A computer-controlled special

  6. Novel Patterned Films by Free-Radical Polymerization Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer H.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2000-03-01

    We have developed novel techniques for the preparation of micropatterned structures by the block copolymerization of thin layers using UV free-radical polymerizations. The process involves polymerizing the first layer in the presence of an iniferter (initiator-transfer agent-terminator) with a dithiocarbamate group to make a photosensitive polymer. Upon application of a second monomer layer on the first polymer layer and irradiation, a copolymer is formed between the two layers. Patterns are created on the films by applying a mask and selectively irradiating the surface. Applications of this type of material are in biomaterials and biosensors for the selective adhesion of cells and proteins. We have successfully polymerized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) onto a layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in the presence of tetraethylthiuran disulfide. Cells will adhere to the exposed PMMA areas but not to the PEG surfaces. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation grant No. DGE-9972770.

  7. Wafer hot spot identification through advanced photomask characterization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yohan; Green, Michael; McMurran, Jeff; Ham, Young; Lin, Howard; Lan, Andy; Yang, Richer; Lung, Mike

    2016-10-01

    As device manufacturers progress through advanced technology nodes, limitations in standard 1-dimensional (1D) mask Critical Dimension (CD) metrics are becoming apparent. Historically, 1D metrics such as Mean to Target (MTT) and CD Uniformity (CDU) have been adequate for end users to evaluate and predict the mask impact on the wafer process. However, the wafer lithographer's process margin is shrinking at advanced nodes to a point that the classical mask CD metrics are no longer adequate to gauge the mask contribution to wafer process error. For example, wafer CDU error at advanced nodes is impacted by mask factors such as 3-dimensional (3D) effects and mask pattern fidelity on subresolution assist features (SRAFs) used in Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) models of ever-increasing complexity. These items are not quantifiable with the 1D metrology techniques of today. Likewise, the mask maker needs advanced characterization methods in order to optimize the mask process to meet the wafer lithographer's needs. These advanced characterization metrics are what is needed to harmonize mask and wafer processes for enhanced wafer hot spot analysis. In this paper, we study advanced mask pattern characterization techniques and their correlation with modeled wafer performance.

  8. Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, John W.; Wies, Richard; Trudnowski, Daniel

    2008-11-25

    Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing

  9. Rapid identification of chromosomal rearrangements by PRINS technique

    SciTech Connect

    Pellestor, F.; Giradet, A.; Andreo, B.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements contribute significantly to human reproductive failure, malformation/mental retardation syndromes and carcinogenesis. The variety of structural rearrangements is almost infinite and an identification by conventional cytogenetics is often labor intensive and may remain doubtful. Recent advances in molecular cytogenetics have provided new tools for detecting chromosomal abnormalities. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure is actually the most employed technique and has led to numerous clinical applications. However, techniques required to produce suitable probes are time consuming and not accessible to all cytogenetics laboratories. The PRimed In Situ labeling (PRINS) method provides an alternate way for in situ chromosome screening. In this procedure, the chromosomal detection is performed by in situ annealing of a specific primer and subsequent primer extension by a Taq DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides. Application of PRINS in clinical diagnosis is still limited. We have developed a semi-automatic PRINS protocol and used it to identify the origin of several chromosomal abnormalities. We report here the results of studies of three structural rearrangements: a translocation t(21;21), a supernumerary ring marker chromosome 18 and a complex chromosome 13 mosaicism involving a 13;13 Robertsonian translocation and a ring chromosome 13.

  10. Capillary and gel electromigration techniques and MALDI-TOF MS--suitable tools for identification of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Salplachta, Jiří; Zapletalová, Eva; Horký, Jaroslav; Slais, Karel

    2012-02-24

    Microbial strains are now spreading out of their original geographical areas of incidence and previously adequate morphological identification methods often must be accompanied by a phenotypic characterization for the successful microbial identification. The fungal genus Monilinia represents a suitable example. Monilinia species represent important fruit pathogens responsible for major losses in fruit production. Four closely related spp. of Monilinia: Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia fructicola and Monilia polystroma have been yet identified. However, the classical characterization methods are not sufficient for current requirements, especially for phytosanitary purposes. In this study, rapid and reproducible methods have been developed for the characterization of Monilinia spp. based on the utilization of five well-established analytical techniques: CZE, CIEF, gel IEF, SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS, respectively. The applicability of these techniques for the identification of unknown spores of Monilinia spp. collected from infected fruits was also evaluated. It was found that isoelectric points, migration velocities or the protein patterns can be used as the identification markers in the case of cultivated filamentous fungi. Moreover, the results obtained by capillary electromigration techniques are independent on the host origin of the spores. On the other hand, the host origin of the fungi can play an important role in the precise fungi identification by the other techniques.

  11. Observing Consistency in Online Communication Patterns for User Re-Identification

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Hein S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of the statistical and structural mechanisms governing human dynamics in online interaction plays a pivotal role in online user identification, online profile development, and recommender systems. However, building a characteristic model of human dynamics on the Internet involves a complete analysis of the variations in human activity patterns, which is a complex process. This complexity is inherent in human dynamics and has not been extensively studied to reveal the structural composition of human behavior. A typical method of anatomizing such a complex system is viewing all independent interconnectivity that constitutes the complexity. An examination of the various dimensions of human communication pattern in online interactions is presented in this paper. The study employed reliable server-side web data from 31 known users to explore characteristics of human-driven communications. Various machine-learning techniques were explored. The results revealed that each individual exhibited a relatively consistent, unique behavioral signature and that the logistic regression model and model tree can be used to accurately distinguish online users. These results are applicable to one-to-one online user identification processes, insider misuse investigation processes, and online profiling in various areas. PMID:27918593

  12. Observing Consistency in Online Communication Patterns for User Re-Identification.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Ikuesan Richard; Razak, Shukor Abd; Salleh, Mazleena; Venter, Hein S

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of the statistical and structural mechanisms governing human dynamics in online interaction plays a pivotal role in online user identification, online profile development, and recommender systems. However, building a characteristic model of human dynamics on the Internet involves a complete analysis of the variations in human activity patterns, which is a complex process. This complexity is inherent in human dynamics and has not been extensively studied to reveal the structural composition of human behavior. A typical method of anatomizing such a complex system is viewing all independent interconnectivity that constitutes the complexity. An examination of the various dimensions of human communication pattern in online interactions is presented in this paper. The study employed reliable server-side web data from 31 known users to explore characteristics of human-driven communications. Various machine-learning techniques were explored. The results revealed that each individual exhibited a relatively consistent, unique behavioral signature and that the logistic regression model and model tree can be used to accurately distinguish online users. These results are applicable to one-to-one online user identification processes, insider misuse investigation processes, and online profiling in various areas.

  13. Applications of pattern recognition techniques to online fault detection

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; King, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    A common problem to operators of complex industrial systems is the early detection of incipient degradation of sensors and components in order to avoid unplanned outages, to orderly plan for anticipated maintenance activities and to assure continued safe operation. In such systems, there usually are a large number of sensors (upwards of several thousand is not uncommon) serving many functions, ranging from input to control systems, monitoring of safety parameters and component performance limits, system environmental conditions, etc. Although sensors deemed to measure important process conditions are generally alarmed, the alarm set points usually are just high-low limits and the operator`s response to such alarms is based on written procedures and his or her experience and training. In many systems this approach has been successful, but in situations where the cost of a forced outage is high an improved method is needed. In such cases it is desirable, if not necessary, to detect disturbances in either sensors or the process prior to any actual failure that could either shut down the process or challenge any safety system that is present. Recent advances in various artificial intelligence techniques have provided the opportunity to perform such functions of early detection and diagnosis. In this paper, the experience gained through the application of several pattern-recognition techniques to the on-line monitoring and incipient disturbance detection of several coolant pumps and numerous sensors at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented.

  14. Ivory species identification using electrophoresis-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Kitpipit, Thitika; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol; Penchart, Kitichaya; Ouithavon, Kanita; Satasook, Chutamas; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    Despite continuous conservation efforts by national and international organizations, the populations of the three extant elephant species are still dramatically declining due to the illegal trade in ivory leading to the killing of elephants. A requirement to aid investigations and prosecutions is the accurate identification of the elephant species from which the ivory was removed. We report on the development of the first fully validated multiplex PCR-electrophoresis assay for ivory DNA analysis that can be used as a screening or confirmatory test. SNPs from the NADH dehydrogenase 5 and cytochrome b gene loci were identified and used in the development of the assay. The three extant elephant species could be identified based on three peaks/bands. Elephas maximus exhibited two distinct PCR fragments at approximate 129 and 381 bp; Loxodonta cyclotis showed two PCR fragments at 89 and 129 bp; and Loxodonta africana showed a single fragment of 129 bp. The assay correctly identified the elephant species using all 113 ivory and blood samples used in this report. We also report on the high sensitivity and specificity of the assay. All single-blinded samples were correctly classified, which demonstrated the assay's ability to be used for real casework. In addition, the assay could be used in conjunction with the technique of direct amplification. We propose that the test will benefit wildlife forensic laboratories and aid in the transition to the criminal justice system.

  15. Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation was an Air Force funded study to investigate and...apply system identification techniques to post-stall engine models in a manner which allowed AEDC personnel to become proficient in the use of these

  16. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the object; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  17. System and technique for retrieving depth information about a surface by projecting a composite image of modulated light patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G. (Inventor); Lau, Daniel L. (Inventor); Guan, Chun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A technique, associated system and program code, for retrieving depth information about at least one surface of an object, such as an anatomical feature. Core features include: projecting a composite image comprising a plurality of modulated structured light patterns, at the anatomical feature; capturing an image reflected from the surface; and recovering pattern information from the reflected image, for each of the modulated structured light patterns. Pattern information is preferably recovered for each modulated structured light pattern used to create the composite, by performing a demodulation of the reflected image. Reconstruction of the surface can be accomplished by using depth information from the recovered patterns to produce a depth map/mapping thereof. Each signal waveform used for the modulation of a respective structured light pattern, is distinct from each of the other signal waveforms used for the modulation of other structured light patterns of a composite image; these signal waveforms may be selected from suitable types in any combination of distinct signal waveforms, provided the waveforms used are uncorrelated with respect to each other. The depth map/mapping to be utilized in a host of applications, for example: displaying a 3-D view of the object; virtual reality user-interaction interface with a computerized device; face--or other animal feature or inanimate object--recognition and comparison techniques for security or identification purposes; and 3-D video teleconferencing/telecollaboration.

  18. E-Predict: a computational strategy for species identification based on observed DNA microarray hybridization patterns.

    PubMed

    Urisman, Anatoly; Fischer, Kael F; Chiu, Charles Y; Kistler, Amy L; Beck, Shoshannah; Wang, David; DeRisi, Joseph L

    2005-01-01

    DNA microarrays may be used to identify microbial species present in environmental and clinical samples. However, automated tools for reliable species identification based on observed microarray hybridization patterns are lacking. We present an algorithm, E-Predict, for microarray-based species identification. E-Predict compares observed hybridization patterns with theoretical energy profiles representing different species. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm to viral detection in a set of clinical samples and discuss its relevance to other metagenomic applications.

  19. Design space exploration for early identification of yield limiting patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Helen; Zou, Elain; Lee, Robben; Hong, Sid; Liu, Square; Wang, JinYan; Du, Chunshan; Zhang, Recco; Madkour, Kareem; Ali, Hussein; Hsu, Danny; Kabeel, Aliaa; ElManhawy, Wael; Kwan, Joe

    2016-03-01

    In order to resolve the causality dilemma of which comes first, accurate design rules or real designs, this paper presents a flow for exploration of the layout design space to early identify problematic patterns that will negatively affect the yield. A new random layout generating method called Layout Schema Generator (LSG) is reported in this paper, this method generates realistic design-like layouts without any design rule violation. Lithography simulation is then used on the generated layout to discover the potentially problematic patterns (hotspots). These hotspot patterns are further explored by randomly inducing feature and context variations to these identified hotspots through a flow called Hotspot variation Flow (HSV). Simulation is then performed on these expanded set of layout clips to further identify more problematic patterns. These patterns are then classified into design forbidden patterns that should be included in the design rule checker and legal patterns that need better handling in the RET recipes and processes.

  20. Quantitative identification and analysis of sub-seismic extensional structure system: technique schemes and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenghua, Ou; Chen, Wei; Ma, Zhonggao

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative characterization of complex sub-seismic extensional structure system that essentially controls petroleum exploitation is difficult to implement in seismic profile interpretation. This research, based on a case study in block M of Myanmar, established a set of quantitative treatment schemes and technique processes for the identification of sub-seismic low-displacement (SSLD) extensional faults or fractures upon structural deformation restoration and geometric inversion. Firstly, the master-subsidiary inheritance relations and configuration of the seismic-scale extensional fault systems are determined by analyzing the structural pattern. Besides, three-dimensional (3D) pattern and characteristics of the seismic-scale extensional structure have been illustrated by a 3D structure model built upon seismic sections. Moreover, according to the dilatancy obtained from structural restoration on the basis of inclined shear method, as well as the fracture-flow index, potential SSLD extensional faults or fractures have been quantitatively identified. Application of the technique processes to the sub-seismic low-displacement extensional structures in block M in Myanmar is instructive to quantitatively interpret those SSLD extensional structure systems in practice.

  1. Identification of Potential Fishing Grounds Using Geospatial Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Fishery resources surveys using actual sampling and data collection methods require extensive ship time and sampling time. Informative data from satellite plays a vital role in fisheries application. Satellite Remote Sensing techniques can be used to detect fish aggregation just like visual fish identification ultimately these techniques can be used to predict the potential fishing zones by measuring the parameters which affect the distribution of fishes. Remote sensing is a time saving technique to locate fishery resources along the coast. Pakistan has a continental shelf area of 50,270 km2 and coastline length of 1,120 km. The total maritime zone of Pakistan is over 30 percent of the land area. Fishery plays an important role in the national economy. The marine fisheries sector is the main component, contributing about 57 percent in terms of production. Fishery is the most important economic activity in the villages and towns along the coast, and in most of the coastal villages and settlements it is the sole source of employment and income generation. Fishing by fishermen is done on the sole basis of repeated experiments and collection of information from other fishermen. Often they are in doubt about the location of potential fishing zones. This leads to waste of time and money, adversely affecting fishermen incomes and over or under-exploitation of fishing zones. The main purpose of this study was to map potential fishing grounds by identifying various environmental parameters which impact fish aggregation along the Pakistan coastline. The primary reason of this study is the fact that the fishing communities of Pakistan's coastal regions are extremely poor and lack knowledge of the modern tools and techniques that may be incorporated to enhance their yield and thus, improve their livelihood. Using geospatial techniques in order to accurately map the potential fishing zones based on sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll -a content, in conjunction with

  2. Connecting Self-Esteem and Achievement: Diversity in Academic Identification and Dis-Identification Patterns among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Elan C.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a person-oriented approach, we explored patterns of self-esteem and achievement among 324 Black college students across the freshman college year and identified four academic identification profiles. Multivariate analyses revealed profile differences in academic and psychological outcomes at beginning and end of freshman year (academic…

  3. Estimation of longitudinal aircraft characteristics using parameter identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    This study compares the results from different parameter identification methods used to determine longitudinal aircraft characteristics from flight data. In general, these comparisons have found that the estimated short-period dynamics (natural frequency, damping, transfer functions) are only weakly affected by the type of identification method, however, the estimated aerodynamic coefficients may be strongly affected by the type of identification method. The estimated values for aerodynamic coefficients were found to depend upon the type of math model and type of test data used with each of the identification methods. The use of fairly complete math models and the use of long data lengths, combining both steady and nonsteady motion, are shown to provide aerodynamic coefficient values that compare favorably with the results from other testing methods such as steady-state flight and full-scale wind-tunnel experiments.

  4. Lexical Patterns in L2 Textual Gist Identification Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2009-01-01

    Gist identification or coherent situation model construction performance is an important criterion not only in L1 and L2 reading comprehension assessment but also in every aspect of discourse processing. Whereas most previous L2 research has investigated schematic knowledge of readers about relations within a text, more recent studies have used…

  5. Identification of Polygonal Patterns on Venus Using Mathematical Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreels, P.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a detection and recognition model to fully automatize the identification of polygonal faults present in many of the Magellan SAR images. Our segmentation model is based on a modified watershed algorithm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-07

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  7. Recurrence Methods for the Identification of Morphogenetic Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, Angelo; Mocenni, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying the parameters involved in the formation of spatial patterns in nonlinear two dimensional systems. To this aim, we perform numerical experiments on a prototypical model generating morphogenetic Turing patterns, by changing both the spatial frequency and shape of the patterns. The features of the patterns and their relationship with the model parameters are characterized by means of the Generalized Recurrence Quantification measures. We show that the recurrence measures Determinism and Recurrence Entropy, as well as the distribution of the line lengths, allow for a full characterization of the patterns in terms of power law decay with respect to the parameters involved in the determination of their spatial frequency and shape. A comparison with the standard two dimensional Fourier transform is performed and the results show a better performance of the recurrence indicators in identifying a reliable connection with the spatial frequency of the patterns. Finally, in order to evaluate the robustness of the estimation of the power low decay, extensive simulations have been performed by adding different levels of noise to the patterns. PMID:24066062

  8. Application of System Identification Techniques to Turbine Engine Post-Stall Test and Evaluation. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    System identification is valuable for the estimation of gas turbine engine models because high fidelity models of jet engines are very useful for...report is an overview of techniques for system identification of gas turbine engine models. The emphasis in this report is on an overview of the set of...the SCIDNT parameter estimation code, which was developed by Systems Control Technology, Inc., is included. Although system identification is often

  9. An exploratory statistical approach to depression pattern identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qing Yi; Griffiths, Frances; Parsons, Nick; Gunn, Jane

    2013-02-01

    Depression is a complex phenomenon thought to be due to the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors. Currently depression assessment uses self-reported depressive symptoms but this is limited in the degree to which it can characterise the different expressions of depression emerging from the complex causal pathways that are thought to underlie depression. In this study, we aimed to represent the different patterns of depression with pattern values unique to each individual, where each value combines all the available information about an individual’s depression. We considered the depressed individual as a subsystem of an open complex system, proposed Generalized Information Entropy (GIE) to represent the general characteristics of information entropy of the system, and then implemented Maximum Entropy Estimates to derive equations for depression patterns. We also introduced a numerical simulation method to process the depression related data obtained by the Diamond Cohort Study which has been underway in Australia since 2005 involving 789 people. Unlike traditional assessment, we obtained a unique value for each depressed individual which gives an overall assessment of the depression pattern. Our work provides a novel way to visualise and quantitatively measure the depression pattern of the depressed individual which could be used for pattern categorisation. This may have potential for tailoring health interventions to depressed individuals to maximize health benefit.

  10. Yangon River Geomorphology Identification and its Enviromental Imapacts Analsysi by Optical and Radar Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, A.; Khaing, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    The Yangon river, also known as the Rangoon river, is about 40 km long (25miles), and flows from southern Myanmar as an outlet of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) river into the Ayeyarwady delta. The Yangon river drains the Pegu Mountains; both the Yangon and the Pathein rivers enter the Ayeyarwady at the delta. Fluvial geomorphology is based primarily on rivers of manageable dimensions. The emphasis is on geomorphology, sedimentology of Yangon river and techniques for their identification and management. Present techniques such as remote sensing have made it easier to investigate and interpret in details analysis of river geomorphology. In this paper, attempt has been made the complicated issues of geomorphology, sedimentation patterns and management of river system and evolution studied. The analysis was carried out for the impact of land use/ land cover (LULC) changes on stream flow patterns. The hydrologic response to intense, flood producing rainfall events bears the signatures of the geomorphic structure of the channel network and of the characteristic slope lengths defining the drainage density of the basin. The interpretation of the hydrologic response as the travel time distribution of a water particle randomly injected in a distributed manner across the landscape inspired many geomorphic insights. In 2008, Cyclone Nargis was seriously damaged to mangrove area and its biodiversity system in and around of Yangon river terraces. A combination of digital image processing techniques was employed for enhancement and classification process. It is observed from the study that middle infra red band (0.77mm - 0.86mm) is highly suitable for mapping mangroves. Two major classes of mangroves, dense and open mangroves were delineated from the digital data.

  11. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  12. Techniques and Materials for Developing Positive Sex Role Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, E. Marcia

    The premise of this paper is that teacher behavior and attitudes which uphold traditional sex stereotypes of masculinity and femininity, in which the male is always aggressive and unfeeling and the female is always passive and sensitive, are harmful to the psychological development of children. A positive sex role identification would include a…

  13. Assessment of missile hazards: identification of reference fragmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-04-30

    Industrial accidents involving fragment projection were investigated. The analysis of fracture mechanics fundamentals allowed the exploration of the relations between the fracture characteristics and the final event leading to equipment collapse. Reference fragmentation patterns were defined on the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the categories of process vessels that are more frequently involved in fragmentation accidents. Primary scenarios leading to fragment projection were correlated to specific fragmentation patterns. A database reporting a detailed analysis of more than 140 vessel fragmentation events provided the data needed to support and validate the approach. The available data also allowed the calculation of the expected probability of fragment projection following vessel fragmentation, and the probability of the alternative fragmentation patterns with respect to the different accidental scenarios, based on the observed frequencies over the available data set.

  14. Microbial source tracking: a forensic technique for microbial source identification?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Carl M; Wyer, Mark D; Kay, David; Crowther, John; McDonald, Adrian T; Walters, Martin; Gawler, Andrew; Hindle, Terry

    2007-05-01

    As the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the US Clean Water Act (USCWA) for the maintenance of microbiological water quality in 'protected areas' highlight, there is a growing recognition that integrated management of point and diffuse sources of microbial pollution is essential. New information on catchment microbial dynamics and, in particular, the sources of faecal indicator bacteria found in bathing and shellfish harvesting waters is a pre-requisite for the design of any 'programme of measures' at the drainage basin scale to secure and maintain compliance with existing and new health-based microbiological standards. This paper reports on a catchment-scale microbial source tracking (MST) study in the Leven Estuary drainage basin, northwest England, an area for which quantitative faecal indicator source apportionment empirical data and land use information were also collected. Since previous MST studies have been based on laboratory trials using 'manufactured' samples or analyses of spot environmental samples without the contextual microbial flux data (under high and low flow conditions) and source information, such background data are needed to evaluate the utility of MST in USCWA total maximum daily load (TMDL) assessments or WFD 'Programmes of Measures'. Thus, the operational utility of MST remains in some doubt. The results of this investigation, using genotyping of Bacteroidetes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and male-specific ribonucleic acid coliphage (F + RNA coliphage) using hybridisation, suggest some discrimination is possible between livestock- and human-derived faecal indicator concentrations but, in inter-grade areas, the degree to which the tracer picture reflected the land use pattern and probable faecal indicator loading were less distinct. Interestingly, the MST data was more reliable on high flow samples when much of the faecal indicator flux from catchment systems occurs. Whilst a useful supplementary tool, the MST

  15. Development of Instrumental Techniques for Color Assessment of Camouflage Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Camouflage fabrics are produced on a large scale for use in the US military and other applications. One of the highest volume camouflage fabrics is known as the Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) which is produced for the US Department of Defense. At present, no standard measurement-based color quality control method exists for camouflage…

  16. The NLP Swish Pattern: An Innovative Visualizing Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Betsy J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes swish pattern, one of many innovative therapeutic interventions that developers of neurolinguistic programing (NLP) have contributed to counseling profession. Presents brief overview of NLP followed by an explanation of the basic theory and expected outcomes of the swish. Presents description of the intervention process and case studies…

  17. Real-time star identification using synthetic radial pattern and its hardware implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Wei, Xinguo; Wang, Gangyi; Li, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Star identification algorithm has always been the core strategy of star sensors. For the time being, the identification speed is becoming the bottleneck of satisfying real-time requirements (e.g. high-speed maneuvering applications, power breakdown and so on) on the premise of the robustness. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel lost-in-space star identification algorithm based on the synthetic radial pattern, which is dedicated to the pipelined parallel architecture of FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays). The synthetic radial pattern consists of two single radial patterns connected by their two respective polestars. In the algorithm, the polestar-pair is firstly matched and optimum identification results can be obtained after the follow-up radial pattern filtering. Then, the number of spurious matches can be reduced to a much less level and a mathematical model is also developed to demonstrate the efficiency compared with conventional radial algorithms. Simulations show that the approach is very robust towards various noise conditions and the quantified identification time is less than 1 ms at a low resource cost when it is implemented on FPGA platforms.

  18. Immobilization, stabilization and patterning techniques for enzyme based sensor systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Flounders, A.W.; Carichner, S.C.; Singh, A.K.; Volponi, J.V.; Schoeniger, J.S.; Wally, K.

    1997-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently opened the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL) in Livermore CA to address the detection needs of a variety of government agencies (e.g., Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Agriculture) as well as provide a fertile environment for the cooperative development of new industrial technologies. This laboratory consolidates a variety of existing chemical and radiation detection efforts and enables Sandia to expand into the novel area of biochemically based sensors. One aspect of this biosensor effort is further development and optimization of enzyme modified field effect transistors (EnFETs). Recent work has focused upon covalent attachment of enzymes to silicon dioxide and silicon nitride surfaces for EnFET fabrication. They are also investigating methods to pattern immobilized proteins; a critical component for development of array-based sensor systems. Novel enzyme stabilization procedures are key to patterning immobilized enzyme layers while maintaining enzyme activity. Results related to maximized enzyme loading, optimized enzyme activity and fluorescent imaging of patterned surfaces will be presented.

  19. A facial reconstruction and identification technique for seriously devastating head wounds.

    PubMed

    Joukal, Marek; Frišhons, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Many authors have focused on facial identification techniques, and facial reconstructions for cases when skulls have been found are especially well known. However, a standardized facial identification technique for an unknown body with seriously devastating head injuries has not yet been developed. A reconstruction and identification technique was used in 7 cases of accidents involving trains striking pedestrians. This identification technique is based on the removal of skull bone fragments, subsequent fixation of soft tissue onto a universal commercial polystyrene head model, precise suture of dermatomuscular flaps, and definitive adjustment using cosmetic treatments. After reconstruction, identifying marks such as scars, eyebrows, facial lines, facial hair and partly hairstyle become evident. It is then possible to present a modified picture of the reconstructed face to relatives. After comparing the results with photos of the person before death, this technique has proven to be very useful for identifying unknown bodies when other identification techniques are not available. This technique is useful for its being rather quick and especially for its results.

  20. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  1. Identification Of Natural Dyes On Archaeological Textile Objects Using Laser Induced Fluorescent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Eltokhy, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    This study aims to evaluate the use of Laser Fluorescent as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. In this study wool textile samples were dyed with 10 natural dyes such as cochineal, cutch, henna, indigo, Lac, madder, safflower, saffron, sumac and turmeric. These dyes common present on archaeological textile objects to be used as standard dyed textile samples. These selected natural dyes will be used as known references that can be used a guide to identify unknown archaeological dyes. The dyed textile samples were investigated with laser radiation in different wavelengths to detect the best wavelengths for identification each dye. This study confirms that Laser Florescent is very useful and a rapid technique can be used as a non-destructive technique for identification of natural dyes on archaeological textile objects. The results obtained with this study can be a guide for all conservators in identification of natural organic dyes on archaeological textile objects.

  2. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    DOEpatents

    Mor, Gil G.; Ward, David C.; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2010-02-23

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  3. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    DOEpatents

    Mor, Gil G.; Ward, David C.; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2016-10-18

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  4. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    DOEpatents

    Mor, Gil G; Ward, David C; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2015-03-10

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  5. Playing tag with ANN: boosted top identification with pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Leandro G.; Backović, Mihailo; Cliche, Mathieu; Lee, Seung J.; Perelstein, Maxim

    2015-07-01

    Many searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) rely on top tagging algorithms, which discriminate between boosted hadronic top quarks and the much more common jets initiated by light quarks and gluons. We note that the hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) effectively takes a "digital image" of each jet, with pixel intensities given by energy deposits in individual HCAL cells. Viewed in this way, top tagging becomes a canonical pattern recognition problem. With this motivation, we present a novel top tagging algorithm based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), one of the most popular approaches to pattern recognition. The ANN is trained on a large sample of boosted tops and light quark/gluon jets, and is then applied to independent test samples. The ANN tagger demonstrated excellent performance in a Monte Carlo study: for example, for jets with p T in the 1100-1200 GeV range, 60% top-tag efficiency can be achieved with a 4% mis-tag rate. We discuss the physical features of the jets identified by the ANN tagger as the most important for classification, as well as correlations between the ANN tagger and some of the familiar top-tagging observables and algorithms.

  6. Mass defect filter technique and its applications to drug metabolite identification by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Donglu; Ray, Kenneth; Zhu, Mingshe

    2009-07-01

    Identification of drug metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) involves metabolite detection in biological matrixes and structural characterization based on product ion spectra. Traditionally, metabolite detection is accomplished primarily on the basis of predicted molecular masses or fragmentation patterns of metabolites using triple-quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometers. Recently, a novel mass defect filter (MDF) technique has been developed, which enables high-resolution mass spectrometers to be utilized for detecting both predicted and unexpected drug metabolites based on narrow, well-defined mass defect ranges for these metabolites. This is a new approach that is completely different from, but complementary to, traditional molecular mass- or MS/MS fragmentation-based LC/MS approaches. This article reviews the mass defect patterns of various classes of drug metabolites and the basic principles of the MDF approach. Examples are given on the applications of the MDF technique to the detection of stable and chemically reactive metabolites in vitro and in vivo. Advantages, limitations, and future applications are also discussed on MDF and its combinations with other data mining techniques for the detection and identification of drug metabolites.

  7. A new computer-assisted technique to aid personal identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes a procedure aimed at identification from two-dimensional (2D) images (video-surveillance tapes, for example) by comparison with a three-dimensional (3D) facial model of a suspect. The application is intended to provide a tool which can help in analyzing compatibility or incompatibility between a criminal and a suspect's facial traits. The authors apply the concept of "geometrically compatible images". The idea is to use a scanner to reconstruct a 3D facial model of a suspect and to compare it to a frame extracted from the video-surveillance sequence which shows the face of the perpetrator. Repositioning and reorientation of the 3D model according to subject's face framed in the crime scene photo are manually accomplished, after automatic resizing. Repositioning and reorientation are performed in correspondence of anthropometric landmarks, distinctive for that person and detected both on the 2D face and on the 3D model. In this way, the superimposition between the original two-dimensional facial image and the three-dimensional one is obtained and a judgment is formulated by an expert on the basis of the fit between the anatomical facial districts of the two subjects. The procedure reduces the influence of face orientation and may be a useful tool in identification.

  8. Towards large-scale FAME-based bacterial species identification using machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Slabbinck, Bram; De Baets, Bernard; Dawyndt, Peter; De Vos, Paul

    2009-05-01

    In the last decade, bacterial taxonomy witnessed a huge expansion. The swift pace of bacterial species (re-)definitions has a serious impact on the accuracy and completeness of first-line identification methods. Consequently, back-end identification libraries need to be synchronized with the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. In this study, we focus on bacterial fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling as a broadly used first-line identification method. From the BAME@LMG database, we have selected FAME profiles of individual strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas. Only those profiles resulting from standard growth conditions have been retained. The corresponding data set covers 74, 44 and 95 validly published bacterial species, respectively, represented by 961, 378 and 1673 standard FAME profiles. Through the application of machine learning techniques in a supervised strategy, different computational models have been built for genus and species identification. Three techniques have been considered: artificial neural networks, random forests and support vector machines. Nearly perfect identification has been achieved at genus level. Notwithstanding the known limited discriminative power of FAME analysis for species identification, the computational models have resulted in good species identification results for the three genera. For Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, random forests have resulted in sensitivity values, respectively, 0.847, 0.901 and 0.708. The random forests models outperform those of the other machine learning techniques. Moreover, our machine learning approach also outperformed the Sherlock MIS (MIDI Inc., Newark, DE, USA). These results show that machine learning proves very useful for FAME-based bacterial species identification. Besides good bacterial identification at species level, speed and ease of taxonomic synchronization are major advantages of this computational species

  9. Laser-based techniques for living cell pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Béla; Smausz, Tomi; Papdi, Bence; Bor, Zsolt; Szabó, András; Kolozsvári, Lajos; Fotakis, Costas; Nógrádi, Antal

    2008-10-01

    In the production of biosensors or artificial tissues a basic step is the immobilization of living cells along the required pattern. In this paper the ability of some promising laser-based methods to influence the interaction between cells and various surfaces is presented. In the first set of experiments laser-induced patterned photochemical modification of polymer foils was used to achieve guided adherence and growth of cells to the modified areas: (a) Polytetrafluoroethylene was irradiated with ArF excimer laser ( λ=193 nm, FWHM=20 ns, F=9 mJ/cm2) in presence of triethylene tetramine liquid photoreagent; (b) a thin carbon layer was produced by KrF excimer laser ( λ=248 nm, FWHM=30 ns, F=35 mJ/cm2) irradiation on polyimide surface to influence the cell adherence. It was found that the incorporation of amine groups in the PTFE polymer chain instead of the fluorine atoms can both promote and prevent the adherence of living cells (depending on the applied cell types) on the treated surfaces, while the laser generated carbon layer on polyimide surface did not effectively improve adherence. Our attempts to influence the cell adherence by morphological modifications created by ArF laser irradiation onto polyethylene terephtalate surface showed a surface roughness dependence. This method was effective only when the Ra roughness parameter of the developed structure did not exceed the 0.1 micrometer value. Pulsed laser deposition with femtosecond KrF excimer lasers ( F=2.2 J/cm2) was effectively used to deposit structured thin films from biomaterials (endothelial cell growth supplement and collagen embedded in starch matrix) to promote the adherence and growth of cells. These results present evidence that some surface can be successfully altered to induce guided cell growth.

  10. Identification of Error Patterns in Terminal-Area ATC Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Cheryl; Walter, Kim E.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Advancing air traffic management technologies have enabled a greater number of aircraft to use the same airspace more effectively. As aircraft separations are reduced and final approaches are more finely timed, there is less room for error. The present study examined 122 terminal-area, loss-of-separation and procedure violation incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) by air traffic controllers. Narrative description codes were used for the incidents for type of violation, contributing factors, recovery strategies, and consequences. Usually multiple errors occurred prior to the violation. Error sequences were analyzed and common patterns of errors were identified. In half of the incidents, errors were noticed in time to correct mistakes. Of these, almost 43% committed additional errors during the recovery attempt. This analysis shows that redundancies in the present air traffic control system may not be sufficient to support large increases in traffic density. Error prevention and design considerations for air traffic management systems are discussed.

  11. Coordinated Parameter Identification Technique for the Inertial Parameters of Non-Cooperative Target

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xin; Zhang, Teng; Wu, Yaofa; Zhang, Pihui; Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Shuai; Yue, Xiaokui; Yuan, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Space operations will be the main space missions in the future. This paper focuses on the precise operations for non-cooperative target, and researches of coordinated parameter identification (CPI) which allows the motion of multi-joints. The contents of this paper are organized: (1) Summarize the inertial parameters identification techniques which have been conducted now, and the technique based on momentum conservation is selected for reliability and realizability; (2) Elaborate the basic principles and primary algorithm of coordinated parameter identification, and analyze some special problems in calculation (3) Numerical simulation of coordinated identification technique by an case study on non-cooperative target of spacecraft mounting dual-arm with six joints is done. The results show that the coordinated parameter identification technique could get all the inertial parameters of the target in 3D by one-time identification, and does not need special configuration or driven joints, moreover the results are highly precise and save much more time than traditional ones. PMID:27116187

  12. Pattern recognition analysis of in vivo enzyme-substrate fluorescence velocities in microorganism detection and identification.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, A P; Wang, T T; Greenberg, D B

    1986-01-01

    A spectrometric technique is presented that combines most of the important criteria necessary for efficient detection and identification of microorganisms. These criteria include simplicity of experimental design, various degrees of sensitivity and selectivity, convenience, and total reaction times of less than 15 min. The study takes advantage of the inherent extracellular enzymes present in living as opposed to dead, non-enzyme-producing organisms. Sequentially these are harnessed in in vivo reactions with a substrate containing a select organic functional group that is known to be cleaved or hydrolyzed by a certain enzyme. The substrate is tailored so that one of the products can be induced to fluoresce, and by using a conventional spectrofluorimeter the rate at which the fluorescence appears can be recorded. By subjecting the same bacterial sample to a number of different enzyme substrates, a pattern of fluorescence response rates emerges from a 7 by 7 microorganism-substrate matrix. Detection limits ranged from 3.6 X 10(2) to 3.5 X 10(8) cells per ml for the Bacillus globigii-indoxyl acetate and Escherichia coli-diacetylfluorescein pairs, respectively. The specificity and versatility of the method for bacterial determination is demonstrated in probing different bacterial enzymes through their spectrally active metabolic products. PMID:3089149

  13. Nurses' Behaviors and Visual Scanning Patterns May Reduce Patient Identification Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.; He, Ze; Jo, Junghee; Fisher, Donald L.; Henneman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Patient identification (ID) errors occurring during the medication administration process can be fatal. The aim of this study is to determine whether differences in nurses' behaviors and visual scanning patterns during the medication administration process influence their capacities to identify patient ID errors. Nurse participants (n = 20)…

  14. ArcAtlas in the Classroom: Pattern Identification, Description, and Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMers, Michael N.; Vincent, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of geographic information systems (GIS) in the classroom provides a robust and effective method of teaching the primary spatial skills of identification, description, and explanation of spatial pattern. A major handicap for the development of GIS-based learning experiences, especially for non-GIS specialist educators, is the availability…

  15. Combining pole and ramp-based techniques for target identification

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.K.; Clark, G.A.; Poe, G.D.; Cook, B.D.; Jackson, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    The problem of deducing the geometry and electrical characteristics of a radar target from its scattered fields is one of continuing interest. This general problem is one which may be decomposed into a sequence of problems of increasing difficulty, as: (1) detection; (2) classification; (3) identification; and (4) imaging or inversion. Generally speaking, the amount of data which is needed, and the amount of processing that data will require, can be expected to grow commensurately with the specificity and confidence in the answer being sought. The general inverse problem is by far the most difficult of those listed above. Fortunately, many problems of practical importance do not require the most general answer. For example, airborne radar targets naturally fall into one or more of a few sets, i.e., friend or foe, missile or aircraft, etc. In such circumstances, their classification and identification (C/I) can be based less on a rigorous inverse approach and more on whether their radar signatures match prestored information about the targets of potential interest. This prestored information is usually given as a set of parameters, or feature set. The success of such an approach will depend in part on the degree to which the features span the space of target-radar and target-geometry characteristics, individually and as a set. When the features chosen are target-radar characteristics, we observe that it is the data domain in which C/I is being attempted. On the other hand, when the features are derived from the radar signature to yield target-geometry characteristics, we see that C/I is being pursued in the target domain. Clearly, target-domain features would be more desirable, everything else being equal, because these are features closer to describing the target in ways which are recognizable to human observers. 59 references.

  16. A heuristic algorithm for pattern identification in large multivariate analysis of geophysical data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pereira, João Eduardo; Strieder, Adelir José; Amador, Janete Pereira; da Silva, José Luiz Silvério; Volcato Descovi Filho, Leônidas Luiz

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to present a heuristic algorithm with factor analysis and a local search optimization system for pattern identification problems as applied to large and multivariate aero-geophysical data. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB code using both multivariate and univariate methodologies. Two main analysis steps are detailed in the MATLAB code: the first deals with multivariate factor analysis to reduce the problem of dimension, and to orient the variables in an independent and orthogonal structure; and the second with the application of a novel local research optimization system based on univariate structure. The process of local search is simple and consistent because it solves a multivariate problem by summing up univariate and independent problems. Thus, it can reduce computational time and render the efficiency of estimates independent of the data bank. The aero-geophysical data include the results of the magnetometric and gammaspectrometric (TC, K, Th, and U channels) surveys for the Santa Maria region (RS, Brazil). After the classification, when the observations are superimposed on the regional map, one can see that data belonging to the same subspace appear closer to each other revealing some physical law governing area pattern distribution. The analysis of variance for the original variables as functions of the subspaces obtained results in different mean behaviors for all the variables. This result shows that the use of factor transformation captures the discriminative capacity of the original variables. The proposed algorithm for multivariate factor analysis and the local search system open up new challenges in aero-geophysical data handling and processing techniques.

  17. Documentation of procedures for textural/spatial pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.; Bryant, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A C-130 aircraft was flown over the Sam Houston National Forest on March 21, 1973 at 10,000 feet altitude to collect multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Existing textural and spatial automatic processing techniques were used to classify the MSS imagery into specified timber categories. Several classification experiments were performed on this data using features selected from the spectral bands and a textural transform band. The results indicate that (1) spatial post-processing a classified image can cut the classification error to 1/2 or 1/3 of its initial value, (2) spatial post-processing the classified image using combined spectral and textural features produces a resulting image with less error than post-processing a classified image using only spectral features and (3) classification without spatial post processing using the combined spectral textural features tends to produce about the same error rate as a classification without spatial post processing using only spectral features.

  18. Parameter uncertainty-based pattern identification and optimization for robust decision making on watershed load reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qingsong; Su, Han; Liu, Yong; Zou, Rui; Ye, Rui; Guo, Huaicheng

    2017-04-01

    Nutrients loading reduction in watershed is essential for lake restoration from eutrophication. The efficient and optimal decision-making on loading reduction is generally based on water quality modeling and the quantitative identification of nutrient sources at the watershed scale. The modeling process is influenced inevitably by inherent uncertainties, especially by uncertain parameters due to equifinality. Therefore, the emerging question is: if there is parameter uncertainty, how to ensure the robustness of the optimal decisions? Based on simulation-optimization models, an integrated approach of pattern identification and analysis of robustness was proposed in this study that focuses on the impact of parameter uncertainty in water quality modeling. Here the pattern represents the discernable regularity of solutions for load reduction under multiple parameter sets. Pattern identification is achieved by using a hybrid clustering analysis (i.e., Ward-Hierarchical and K-means), which was flexible and efficient in analyzing Lake Bali near the Yangtze River in China. The results demonstrated that urban domestic nutrient load is the most potential source that should be reduced, and there are two patterns for Total Nitrogen (TN) reduction and three patterns for Total Phosphorus (TP) reduction. The patterns indicated different total reduction of nutrient loads, which reflect diverse decision preferences. The robust solution was identified by the highest accomplishment with the water quality at monitoring stations that were improved uniformly with this solution. We conducted a process analysis of robust decision-making that was based on pattern identification and uncertainty, which provides effective support for decision-making with preference under uncertainty.

  19. Comparison of Three Statistical Classification Techniques for Maser Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Ellen M.; Holland, Barbara R.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Chen, Xi; Humphries, Melissa

    2016-04-01

    We applied three statistical classification techniques-linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression, and random forests-to three astronomical datasets associated with searches for interstellar masers. We compared the performance of these methods in identifying whether specific mid-infrared or millimetre continuum sources are likely to have associated interstellar masers. We also discuss the interpretability of the results of each classification technique. Non-parametric methods have the potential to make accurate predictions when there are complex relationships between critical parameters. We found that for the small datasets the parametric methods logistic regression and LDA performed best, for the largest dataset the non-parametric method of random forests performed with comparable accuracy to parametric techniques, rather than any significant improvement. This suggests that at least for the specific examples investigated here accuracy of the predictions obtained is not being limited by the use of parametric models. We also found that for LDA, transformation of the data to match a normal distribution led to a significant improvement in accuracy. The different classification techniques had significant overlap in their predictions; further astronomical observations will enable the accuracy of these predictions to be tested.

  20. A novel system identification technique for improved wearable hemodynamics assessment.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew D; Inan, Omer T

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances have led to renewed interest in ballistocardiography (BCG), a noninvasive measure of the small movements of the body due to cardiovascular events. A broad range of platforms have been developed and verified for BCG measurement including beds, chairs, and weighing scales: while the body is coupled to such a platform, the cardiogenic movements are measured. Wearable BCG, measured with an accelerometer affixed to the body, may enable continuous, or more regular, monitoring during the day; however, the signals from such wearable BCGs represent local or distal accelerations of skin and tissue rather than the whole body. In this paper, we propose a novel method to reconstruct the BCG measured with a weighing scale (WS BCG) from a wearable sensor via a training step to remove these local effects. Preliminary validation of this method was performed with 15 subjects: the wearable sensor was placed at three locations on the surface of the body while WS BCG measurements were recorded simultaneously. A regularized system identification approach was used to reconstruct the WS BCG from the wearable BCG. Preliminary results suggest that the relationship between local and central disturbances is highly dependent on both the individual and the location where the accelerometer is placed on the body and that these differences can be resolved via calibration to accurately measure changes in cardiac output and contractility from a wearable sensor. Such measurements could be highly effective, for example, for improved monitoring of heart failure patients at home.

  1. Pattern-recognition techniques applied to performance monitoring of the DSS 13 34-meter antenna control assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellstrom, J. A.; Smyth, P.

    1991-01-01

    The results of applying pattern recognition techniques to diagnose fault conditions in the pointing system of one of the Deep Space network's large antennas, the DSS 13 34-meter structure, are discussed. A previous article described an experiment whereby a neural network technique was used to identify fault classes by using data obtained from a simulation model of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-meter antenna system. Described here is the extension of these classification techniques to the analysis of real data from the field. The general architecture and philosophy of an autonomous monitoring paradigm is described and classification results are discussed and analyzed in this context. Key features of this approach include a probabilistic time-varying context model, the effective integration of signal processing and system identification techniques with pattern recognition algorithms, and the ability to calibrate the system given limited amounts of training data. Reported here are recognition accuracies in the 97 to 98 percent range for the particular fault classes included in the experiments.

  2. Performance comparison of five frequency domain system identification techniques for helicopter higher harmonic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a computer simulation comparing the performance of five system identification techniques currently proposed for use with helicopter, frequency domain, higher harmonic vibration control algorithms. The system identification techniques studied were: (1) the weighted least squares method in moving block format, (2) the classical Kalman filter, (3) a generalized Kalman filter, (4) the classical least mean square (LMS) filter, and (5) a generalized LMS filter. The generalized Kalman and LMS filters were derived by allowing for multistep operation, rather than the single-step update approach used by their classical versions. Both open-loop and closed-loop (vibration control mode) identification results are presented in the paper. The algorithms are evaluated in terms of their accuracy, stability, convergence properties, computation speeds, and the relative ease with which these techniques may be directly applied to the helicopter vibration control problem.

  3. Modeling XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft dynamics by frequency and time-domain identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Kaletka, Juergen

    1987-01-01

    Models of the open-loop hover dynamics of the XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Aircraft are extracted from flight data using two approaches: frequency domain and time-domain identification. Both approaches are reviewed and the identification results are presented and compared in detail. The extracted models are compared favorably, with the differences associated mostly with the inherent weighing of each technique. Step responses are used to show that the predictive capability of the models from both techniques is excellent. Based on the results of this study, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the frequency and time-domain techniques are summarized and a proposal for a coordinated parameter identification approach is presented.

  4. Modeling XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft dynamics by frequency and time-domain identification techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Kaletka, Juergen

    1986-01-01

    Models of the open-loop hover dynamics of the XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Aircraft are extracted from flight data using two approaches: frequency-domain and time-domain identification. Both approaches are reviewed and the identification results are presented and compared in detail. The extracted models compare favorable, with the differences associated mostly with the inherent weighting of each technique. Step responses are used to show that the predictive capability of the models from both techniques is excellent. Based on the results of this study, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the frequency- and time-domain techniques are summarized, and a proposal for a coordinated parameter identification approach is presented.

  5. Determination of pattern centre in EBSD using the moving-screen technique.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, D A; Pugh, J L; Richardson, G D; Mooney, L R

    2007-09-01

    The 'moving-screen' or 'pattern magnification' method of calibration for electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was reformulated to develop a high-precision technique requiring no crystallographic knowledge of the specimen and no initial estimates of the calibration parameters. The technique depends upon the accurate displacement of the screen and camera assembly. Corresponding points are selected, interactively, from EBSD patterns. It is suggested that, as an alternative, the selection of points from the Hough transform could lead to a completely automated routine.

  6. A Novel System Identification Technique for Improved Wearable Hemodynamics Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Andrew D.; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have led to renewed interest in ballistocardiography (BCG), a non-invasive measure of the small reaction forces on the body from cardiovascular events. A broad range of platforms have been developed and verified for BCG measurement including beds, chairs, and weighing scales: while the body is coupled to such a platform, the cardiogenic movements of the center-of-mass (COM) are measured. Wearable BCG, measured with an accelerometer affixed to the body, may enable continuous, or more regular, monitoring during the day; however, the signals from such wearable BCGs represent local or distal accelerations of skin and tissue rather than the displacement of the body's COM. In this paper we propose a novel method to reconstruct the COM BCG from a wearable sensor via a training step to remove these local effects. Preliminary validation of this method was performed with fifteen subjects: the wearable sensor was placed at three locations on the surface of the body while COM BCG measurements were recorded simultaneously with a modified weighing scale. A regularized system identification approach was used to reconstruct the COM BCG from the wearable signal. Preliminary results suggest that the relationship between local and central forces is highly dependent on both the individual and the location where the wearable sensor is placed on the body and that these differences can be resolved via calibration to accurately measure changes in cardiac output and contractility from a wearable sensor. Such measurements could be highly effective, for example, for improved monitoring of heart failure patients at home. PMID:25561589

  7. [THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUES OF IDENTIFICATION OF CORYNEBACTERIUM NON DIPHTHERIAE].

    PubMed

    Kharseeva, G G; Voronina, N A; Mironov, A Yu; Alutina, E L

    2015-12-01

    The comparative analysis was carried out concerning effectiveness of three techniques of identification of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae: bacteriological, molecular genetic (sequenation on 16SpRNA) andmass-spectrometric (MALDI-ToFMS). The analysis covered 49 strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae (C.pseudodiphheriticum, C.amycolatum, C.propinquum, C.falsenii) and 2 strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated under various pathology form urogenital tract and upper respiratory ways. The corinbacteria were identified using bacteriologic technique, sequenation on 16SpRNA and mass-spectrometric technique (MALDIToF MS). The full concordance of results of species' identification was marked in 26 (51%) of strains of Corynebacterium non diphtheriae at using three analysis techniques; in 43 (84.3%) strains--at comparison of bacteriologic technique with sequenation on 16S pRNA and in 29 (57%)--at mass-spectrometric analysis and sequenation on 16S pRNA. The bacteriologic technique is effective for identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The precise establishment of species belonging of corynebacteria with variable biochemical characteristics the molecular genetic technique of analysis is to be applied. The mass-spectrometric technique (MALDI-ToF MS) requires further renewal of data bases for identifying larger spectrum of representatives of genus Corynebacterium.

  8. Underwater DVI: Simple fingerprint technique for positive identification.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lay See; Hasmi, Ahmad Hafizam; Mahmood, Mohd Shah; Vanezis, Peter

    2016-09-01

    An underwater disaster can be declared when a maritime accident occurred or when an aircraft is plunged into water area, be it ocean, sea or river. Nevertheless, handling of human remains in an underwater recovery operation is often a difficult and demanding task as working conditions may be challenging with poor to no visibility, location of remains at considerable depths and associated hazards from surrounding water. A case of the recent helicopter crash, into a famous river in Sarawak, domiciled by huge crocodiles, is discussed in this paper. Search and recovery team as well as the combat divers from the Special Elite Troop Commando, known as VAT 69, were deployed to the scene to perform the underwater recovery to search for all the victims on board involving five Malaysians with a pilot of Philippines nationality. This paper highlights the limitations and challenges faced during the underwater search and recovery. All the bodies recovered were in moderate decomposition stage with crushed injuries and mutilated face and body. A simple and conventional fingerprint technique were used to record the fingerprint. The prints impressions were later photographed using a smartphone and transferred back to the RMP headquarters in Kuala Lumpur for fingerprint match by using WhatsApp Messenger, a phone application. All the first five victims were identified within an average of 10min. The last victim recovered was the pilot. For foreign nationals, the Immigration Department of Malaysia will record the prints of both index fingers only. The lifting of the fingerprint of the last victim was the most challenging in which only one index finger left that can be used for comparison. A few techniques were attempted using the black printer's ink, glass and tape techniques for the last victim. Subsequently, images of the prints impression were taken using the same smartphone with additional macro lens attached to it to enhance the resolution. The images were transferred to the RMP

  9. Improvement of sub-20nm pattern quality with dose modulation technique for NIL template production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagawa, Keisuke; Ugajin, Kunihiro; Suenaga, Machiko; Kanamitsu, Shingo; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Saito, Masato; Ito, Masamitsu

    2016-04-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technology is in the spotlight as a next-generation semiconductor manufacturing technique for integrated circuits at 22 nm and beyond. NIL is the unmagnified lithography technique using template which is replicated from master templates. On the other hand, master templates are currently fabricated by electron-beam (EB) lithography[1]. In near future, finer patterns less than 15nm will be required on master template and EB data volume increases exponentially. So, we confront with a difficult challenge. A higher resolution EB mask writer and a high performance fabrication process will be required. In our previous study, we investigated a potential of photomask fabrication process for finer patterning and achieved 15.5nm line and space (L/S) pattern on template by using VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) type EB mask writer and chemically amplified resist. In contrast, we found that a contrast loss by backscattering decreases the performance of finer patterning. For semiconductor devices manufacturing, we must fabricate complicated patterns which includes high and low density simultaneously except for consecutive L/S pattern. Then it's quite important to develop a technique to make various size or coverage patterns all at once. In this study, a small feature pattern was experimentally formed on master template with dose modulation technique. This technique makes it possible to apply the appropriate exposure dose for each pattern size. As a result, we succeed to improve the performance of finer patterning in bright field area. These results show that the performance of current EB lithography process have a potential to fabricate NIL template.

  10. Automated identification of cancerous smears using various competitive intelligent techniques.

    PubMed

    Dounias, G; Bjerregaard, B; Jantzen, J; Tsakonas, A; Ampazis, N; Panagi, G; Panourgias, E

    2006-01-01

    In this study the performance of various intelligent methodologies is compared in the task of pap-smear diagnosis. The selected intelligent methodologies are briefly described and explained, and then, the acquired results are presented and discussed for their comprehensibility and usefulness to medical staff, either for fault diagnosis tasks, or for the construction of automated computer-assisted classification of smears. The intelligent methodologies used for the construction of pap-smear classifiers, are different clustering approaches, feature selection, neuro-fuzzy systems, inductive machine learning, genetic programming, and second order neural networks. Acquired results reveal the power of most intelligent techniques to obtain high quality solutions in this difficult problem of medical diagnosis. Some of the methods obtain almost perfect diagnostic accuracy in test data, but the outcome lacks comprehensibility. On the other hand, results scoring high in terms of comprehensibility are acquired from some methods, but with the drawback of achieving lower diagnostic accuracy. The experimental data used in this study were collected at a previous stage, for the purpose of combining intelligent diagnostic methodologies with other existing computer imaging technologies towards the construction of an automated smear cell classification device.

  11. Comparison of modal identification techniques using a hybrid-data approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    Modal identification of seemingly simple structures, such as the generic truss is often surprisingly difficult in practice due to high modal density, nonlinearities, and other nonideal factors. Under these circumstances, different data analysis techniques can generate substantially different results. The initial application of a new hybrid-data method for studying the performance characteristics of various identification techniques with such data is summarized. This approach offers new pieces of information for the system identification researcher. First, it allows actual experimental data to be used in the studies, while maintaining the traditional advantage of using simulated data. That is, the identification technique under study is forced to cope with the complexities of real data, yet the performance can be measured unquestionably for the artificial modes because their true parameters are known. Secondly, the accuracy achieved for the true structural modes in the data can be estimated from the accuracy achieved for the artificial modes if the results show similar characteristics. This similarity occurred in the study, for example, for a weak structural mode near 56 Hz. It may even be possible--eventually--to use the error information from the artificial modes to improve the identification accuracy for the structural modes.

  12. A diagnostic technique used to obtain cross range radiation centers from antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. H.; Burnside, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A diagnostic technique to obtain cross range radiation centers based on antenna radiation patterns is presented. This method is similar to the synthetic aperture processing of scattered fields in the radar application. Coherent processing of the radiated fields is used to determine the various radiation centers associated with the far-zone pattern of an antenna for a given radiation direction. This technique can be used to identify an unexpected radiation center that creates an undesired effect in a pattern; on the other hand, it can improve a numerical simulation of the pattern by identifying other significant mechanisms. Cross range results for two 8' reflector antennas are presented to illustrate as well as validate that technique.

  13. Parameter identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads for smart grids using PDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott; Bendtsen, Jan; Ruiz, Victor

    2014-07-01

    This paper develops methods for model identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in smart grids, via partial differential equation (PDE) techniques. Control of aggregated TCLs provides a promising opportunity to mitigate the mismatch between power generation and demand, thus enhancing grid reliability and enabling renewable energy penetration. To this end, this paper focuses on developing parameter identification algorithms for a PDE-based model of aggregated TCLs. First, a two-state boundary-coupled hyperbolic PDE model for homogenous TCL populations is derived. This model is extended to heterogeneous populations by including a diffusive term, which provides an elegant control-oriented model. Next, a passive parameter identification scheme and a swapping-based identification scheme are derived for the PDE model structure. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of each method under various autonomous and non-autonomous scenarios. The proposed models can subsequently be employed to provide system critical information for power system monitoring and control.

  14. Computer-Assisted Generation of Patterns and Virtual Reality Techniques for Fashion Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, Mickael; Richard, Paul; Chapeau-Blondeau, François

    2009-03-01

    We present a methodology for the design of aesthetic patterns and their visualization on virtual clothes. Generated patterns are directly mapped on the dress of a virtual mannequin. Furthermore, patterns sets may be interactively mapped on the virtual dress using a specific 3D interaction technique called Back-and-Forth. Pattern generation involves different mathematical approaches such as iterated function systems (IFS) and nonlinear trajectory models. Both model parameters and color space exploration is performed through a simple user interface. This work contributes to promote both computer assistance in the context of mass customization for fashion design.

  15. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Daan; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2004-05-03

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe oxidation-based techniques are highly promising because of their relative ease and widespread availability. The latter of these is especially interesting because of the possibility of producing nanopatterns for a broad range of chemical and physical modification and functionalization processes; both the production of nanometer-sized electronic devices and the formation of devices involving (bio)molecular recognition and sensor applications is possible. This Review highlights the development of various scanning probe systems and the possibilities of local oxidation methods, as well as giving an overview of state-of-the-art nanometer-sized devices, and a view of future development.

  16. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine–carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing. PMID:27091238

  17. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  18. The application of a biometric identification technique for linking community and hospital data in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Odei-Lartey, Eliezer Ofori; Boateng, Dennis; Danso, Samuel; Kwarteng, Anthony; Abokyi, Livesy; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Gyaase, Stephaney; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Background The reliability of counts for estimating population dynamics and disease burdens in communities depends on the availability of a common unique identifier for matching general population data with health facility data. Biometric data has been explored as a feasible common identifier between the health data and sociocultural data of resident members in rural communities within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System located in the central part of Ghana. Objective Our goal was to assess the feasibility of using fingerprint identification to link community data and hospital data in a rural African setting. Design A combination of biometrics and other personal identification techniques were used to identify individual's resident within a surveillance population seeking care in two district hospitals. Visits from resident individuals were successfully recorded and categorized by the success of the techniques applied during identification. The successes of visits that involved identification by fingerprint were further examined by age. Results A total of 27,662 hospital visits were linked to resident individuals. Over 85% of those visits were successfully identified using at least one identification method. Over 65% were successfully identified and linked using their fingerprints. Supervisory support from the hospital administration was critical in integrating this identification system into its routine activities. No concerns were expressed by community members about the fingerprint registration and identification processes. Conclusions Fingerprint identification should be combined with other methods to be feasible in identifying community members in African rural settings. This can be enhanced in communities with some basic Demographic Surveillance System or census information. PMID:26993473

  19. Double-staining techniques allows electrophysiological identification of monoamine-containing neurons.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, T E; Audesirk, G J

    1985-08-01

    Electrophysiological recording provides important evidence for positive identification of many neurons in gastropods. We describe a technique which combines intracellular recording and injection of a persistent, non-fluorescent dye (Fast Green) with subsequent histofluorescence treatment using a modification of the wholemount glyoxylic acid procedure developed by Barber (1983) to establish the presence or absence of monoamine transmitters in positively identified single gastropod neurons.

  20. Shape identification technique for a two-dimensional elliptic system by boundary integral equation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Fumio

    1989-01-01

    The geometrical structure of the boundary shape for a two-dimensional boundary value problem is identified. The output least square identification method is considered for estimating partially unknown boundary shapes. A numerical parameter estimation technique using the spline collocation method is proposed.

  1. Mandrel-based patterning: density multiplication techniques for 15nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencher, Chris; Dai, Huixiong; Miao, Liyan; Chen, Yongmei; Xu, Ping; Chen, Yijian; Oemardani, Shiany; Sweis, Jason; Wiaux, Vincent; Hermans, Jan; Chang, Li-Wen; Bao, Xinyu; Yi, He; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2011-04-01

    In many ways, sidewall spacer double patterning has created a new paradigm for lithographic roadmaps. Instead of using lithography as the principal process for generating device features, the role of lithography becomes to generate a mandrel (a pre-pattern) off-of-which one will subsequently replicate patterns with various degrees of density multiplication. Under this new paradigm, the innovativeness of various density multiplication techniques is as critical to the scaling roadmap as the exposure tools themselves. Sidewall spacer double patterning was the first incarnation of mandrel based patterning; adopted quickly in NAND flash where layouts were simple and design space was focused. But today, the use of advanced automated decomposition tools are showing spacer based patterning solutions for very complex logic designs. Future incarnations can involve the use of laminated spacers to create quadruple patterning or by retaining the original mandrel as a method to obtain triple patterning. Directed self-assembly is yet another emerging embodiment of mandrel based patterning, where selfseparating polymers are registered and guided by the physical constraint of a mandrel or by chemical pre-pattern trails formed onto the substrate. In this summary of several bodies of work, we will review several wafer level demonstrations, all of which use various forms of mandrel or stencil based density multiplication including sidewall spacer based double, triple and quadruple patterning techniques for lines, SADP for via multiplication, and some directed self-assembly results all capable of addressing 15nm technology node requirements and below. To address concerns surrounding spacer double patterning design restrictions, we show collaboration results with an EDA partner to demonstrate SADP capability for BEOL routing layers. To show the ultimate realization of SADP, we partner with IMEC on multiple demonstrations of EUV+SADP.

  2. Multi technique amalgamation for enhanced information identification with content based image data.

    PubMed

    Das, Rik; Thepade, Sudeep; Ghosh, Saurav

    2015-01-01

    Image data has emerged as a resourceful foundation for information with proliferation of image capturing devices and social media. Diverse applications of images in areas including biomedicine, military, commerce, education have resulted in huge image repositories. Semantically analogous images can be fruitfully recognized by means of content based image identification. However, the success of the technique has been largely dependent on extraction of robust feature vectors from the image content. The paper has introduced three different techniques of content based feature extraction based on image binarization, image transform and morphological operator respectively. The techniques were tested with four public datasets namely, Wang Dataset, Oliva Torralba (OT Scene) Dataset, Corel Dataset and Caltech Dataset. The multi technique feature extraction process was further integrated for decision fusion of image identification to boost up the recognition rate. Classification result with the proposed technique has shown an average increase of 14.5 % in Precision compared to the existing techniques and the retrieval result with the introduced technique has shown an average increase of 6.54 % in Precision over state-of-the art techniques.

  3. Applications of integrated human error identification techniques on the chemical cylinder change task.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Min; Hwang, Sheue-Ling

    2015-03-01

    This paper outlines the human error identification (HEI) techniques that currently exist to assess latent human errors. Many formal error identification techniques have existed for years, but few have been validated to cover latent human error analysis in different domains. This study considers many possible error modes and influential factors, including external error modes, internal error modes, psychological error mechanisms, and performance shaping factors, and integrates several execution procedures and frameworks of HEI techniques. The case study in this research was the operational process of changing chemical cylinders in a factory. In addition, the integrated HEI method was used to assess the operational processes and the system's reliability. It was concluded that the integrated method is a valuable aid to develop much safer operational processes and can be used to predict human error rates on critical tasks in the plant.

  4. [Identification of varieties of textile fibers by using Vis/NIR infrared spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gui-Fang; He, Yong

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present paper was to provide new insight into Vis/NIR spectroscopic analysis of textile fibers. In order to achieve rapid identification of the varieties of fibers, the authors selected 5 kinds of fibers of cotton, flax, wool, silk and tencel to do a study with Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Firstly, the spectra of each kind of fiber were scanned by spectrometer, and principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to analyze the characteristics of the pattern of Vis/NIR spectra. Principal component scores scatter plot (PC1 x PC2 x PC3) of fiber indicated the classification effect of five varieties of fibers. The former 6 principal components (PCs) were selected according to the quantity and size of PCs. The PCA classification model was optimized by using the least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) method. The authors used the 6 PCs extracted by PCA as the inputs of LS-SVM, and PCA-LS-SVM model was built to achieve varieties validation as well as mathematical model building and optimization analysis. Two hundred samples (40 samples for each variety of fibers) of five varieties of fibers were used for calibration of PCA-LS-SVM model, and the other 50 samples (10 samples for each variety of fibers) were used for validation. The result of validation showed that Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique based on PCA-LS-SVM had a powerful classification capability. It provides a new method for identifying varieties of fibers rapidly and real time, so it has important significance for protecting the rights of consumers, ensuring the quality of textiles, and implementing rationalization production and transaction of textile materials and its production.

  5. Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Technique Using Periodic Patterns for Low RCS Patch Array Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Yeon-Gwan; Shin, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an electromagnetic wave absorbing technique to reduce a radar cross-section (RCS) of a patch array antenna without compromising their antenna performance. The technique is based on periodic patterns, which is made of resistive materials. The 2×2 patch array antenna with a resonance frequency of 3.0 GHz was designed and fabricated. To reduce the RCS of the patch array antenna, the periodic patterns using a square patch element were proposed and applied to the surface between the four antenna patches. The printed lossy periodic patterns have radar absorbing performance at 12.0 GHz frequency. The measured results show that the lossy periodic patterns have no significant effect on the antenna radiation performance. On the other hand, the RCS is reduced by more than 98% compared to the conventional antenna at the target frequency.

  6. Research on precision-calibration techniques for selected area electron diffraction patterns of pyrocarbon.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lehua; Li, Miaoling; Li, Hejun; Xu, Guozhong; Wang, Chuang

    2009-04-01

    The key techniques for determining orientation angle (OA) and interlayer space (d002) of pyrocarbon were investigated by analyzing selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. A series of algorithms, which mainly include the five-point center-determined technique, the integral factor for the ellipse detection, the background subtraction operation and the Gaussian multipeak fitting algorithm, were designed for intensity sampling, data correction, and data fitting. The contribution ratio of the reflection intensity to the average d002 was considered. The algorithms were programmed and applied to evaluate SAED patterns of pyrocarbon in C/C composites by chemical vapor infiltration. Results showed that the proposed techniques can be effectively used to measure various SAED patterns, with a beam stop image or not, of pyrocarbon. The azimuthal intensities along the (002) arcs essentially obey the Gaussian distribution, although this is not obvious for the lower textural pyrocarbon. It is necessary for accurate OA to use the Gaussian multipeak fitting algorithm.

  7. CODEHOP-mediated PCR – A powerful technique for the identification and characterization of viral genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Timothy M

    2005-01-01

    Consensus-Degenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primer (CODEHOP) PCR primers derived from amino acid sequence motifs which are highly conserved between members of a protein family have proven to be highly effective in the identification and characterization of distantly related family members. Here, the use of the CODEHOP strategy to identify novel viruses and obtain sequence information for phylogenetic characterization, gene structure determination and genome analysis is reviewed. While this review describes techniques for the identification of members of the herpesvirus family of DNA viruses, the same methodology and approach is applicable to other virus families. PMID:15769292

  8. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  9. Evaluation of palatal rugae pattern in establishing identification and sex determination in Nalgonda children

    PubMed Central

    Thabitha, Rani S.; Reddy, Rajendra E.; Manjula, M.; Sreelakshmi, N.; Rajesh, A.; Kumar, Vinay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing individual identification of a decedent only by dental means is a mammoth task in forensic odontology. Palatal rugae's uniqueness, its resistance to heat, and stability throughout life have been proved by its use as an alternative aid in individual identification where comparison of fingerprints and other records is difficult. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of palatal rugoscopy in personal identification and sex determination of Nalgonda pediatric population. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 children having mixed dentition within the age range of 8–11 years, residing in Nalgonda district. Palatal rugae pattern, shape of the incisive papillae, length of the median palatal raphae, and shape of the dental arches were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests between males and females. Results: Wavy and curved patterns appeared to be most prevalent in both males and females but with no significant difference. The number of primary rugae in females and secondary rugae in males, on left side of the palate, was significantly more than their counterparts (P < 0.05). When rugae unification was observed, diverging type was significantly more in males than in females. Parabolic dental arch form, elliptical type of incisive papilla, and medium length of median palatal raphae was observed in majority of the subjects. Conclusion: The present study hypothesizes the uniqueness of the rugae in personal identification as no two palates showed similar type of rugae in either of the genders. The rugae pattern also contributes minimally towards sex determination as there was no significant difference observed between the two variables. PMID:26816465

  10. Multi-expert and hybrid connectionist approach for pattern recognition: speaker identification task.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Y

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a modular/hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification. Modularity has emerged as a powerful technique for reducing the complexity of connectionist systems, allowing a priori knowledge to be incorporated into their design. In problems where training data are scarce, such modular systems are likely to generalize significantly better than a monolithic connectionist system. In addition, modules are not restricted to be connectionist: hybrid systems, with e.g. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), can be designed, combining the advantages of connectionist and non-connectionist approaches. Text independent speaker identification is an inherently complex task where the amount of training data is often limited. It thus provides an ideal domain to test the validity of the modular/hybrid connectionist approach. An architecture is developed in this paper which achieves this identification, based upon the cooperation of several connectionist modules, together with an HMM module. When tested on a population of 102 speakers extracted from the DARPA-TIMIT database, perfect identification was obtained. Overall, our recognition results are among the best for any text-independent speaker identification system handling this population size. In a specific comparison with a system based on multivariate auto-regressive models, the modular/hybrid connectionist approach was found to be significantly better in terms of both accuracy and speed. Our design also allows for easy incorporation of new speakers.

  11. A modified technique for fabricating a mirror image wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Gajdhar, Shaiq; Gajdhar, Sajda Khan; Salakalakonda, Srikanth Reddy; Vasthare, Abubakkar

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a technique for fabricating a wax pattern for an auricular prosthesis by tracing the shape of a sliced cast of the contralateral ear at an interval of 1-mm and transferring the shape of each 1-mm slice to a similar dimension modeling wax sheet. In this way, slices of modeling wax are obtained, which can be reversed and placed over the previous slice to produce a mirror image wax pattern of the contralateral ear.

  12. Application of a pattern recognition technique to the prediction of tire noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jinn-Tong; Tu, Fu-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Tire treads are one of the main sources of car noise. To meet the EU's tire noise regulation ECE-R117, a new method using a pattern recognition technique is adopted in this paper to predict noise from tire tread patterns, thus facilitating the design of low-noise tires. When tires come into contact with the road surface, air pumping may occur in the grooves of tire tread patterns. Using the image of a tread pattern, a matrix is constructed by setting the patterns of tire grooves and tread blocks. The length and width of the contact patch are multiplied by weight functions. The resulting sound pressure as a function of time is subjected to a Fourier transform to simulate a 1/3-octave-band sound pressure level. A particle swarm algorithm is adopted to optimize the weighting parameters for the sound pressure in the frequency domain so that simulated values approach the measured noise level. Two sets of optimal weighting parameters associated with the length and width of the contact patch are obtained. Finally, the weight function is used to predict the tread pattern noise of tires in the same series. A comparison of the prediction and experimental results reveals that, in the 1/3-octave band of frequency (800-2000 Hz), average errors in sound pressure are within 2.5 dB. The feasibility of the proposed application of the pattern recognition technique in predicting noise from tire treads is verified.

  13. On the design of acousto-ultrasonics-pattern recognition classifiers for the identification of material response states

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Y.M.; Molina, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper deals with the design procedure of computer-based Pattern Recognition (PR) Classifiers, when the Acousto-Ultrasonics (AU) technique is employed for the identification of material response states. For this purpose, material specimens presenting different mechanical response states are processed to retrieve AU signals in the form of digitalized records. The retrieved AU data are, then, grouped in distinct classes, each pertaining to a known response state of the material under consideration. These AU data are, subsequently, identified by pattern vectors, the components of which represent values of characteristic features in certain domains of description. PR-classifiers built from these pattern vectors are subsequently used to identify unknown response states of the material by classifying their pertaining AU signals as belonging to one of the predefined classes. In the paper, AU-experimental work in conjunction with PR-computational results are presented to illustrate the design procedure and testing of PR-classifiers for the purpose of identifying various low-energy repeated-impact states of a class of polymeric material; namely, Polyvinylchloride (PVC).

  14. Applicability of data mining algorithms in the identification of beach features/patterns on high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    The available beach classification algorithms and sediment budget models are mainly based on in situ parameters, usually unavailable for several coastal areas. A morphological analysis using remotely sensed data is a valid alternative. This study focuses on the application of data mining techniques, particularly decision trees (DTs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to an IKONOS-2 image in order to identify beach features/patterns in a stretch of the northwest coast of Portugal. Based on knowledge of the coastal features, five classes were defined. In the identification of beach features/patterns, the ANN algorithm presented an overall accuracy of 98.6% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The best DTs algorithm (with pruning) presents an overall accuracy of 98.2% and a kappa coefficient of 0.97. The results obtained through the ANN and DTs were in agreement. However, the ANN presented a classification more sensitive to rip currents. The use of ANNs and DTs for beach classification from remotely sensed data resulted in an increased classification accuracy when compared with traditional classification methods. The association of remotely sensed high-spatial resolution data and data mining algorithms is an effective methodology with which to identify beach features/patterns.

  15. Comparison of System Identification Techniques for the Hydraulic Manipulator Test Bed (HMTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis linear, dynamic, multivariable state-space models for three joints of the ground-based Hydraulic Manipulator Test Bed (HMTB) are identified. HMTB, housed at the NASA Langley Research Center, is a ground-based version of the Dexterous Orbital Servicing System (DOSS), a representative space station manipulator. The dynamic models of the HMTB manipulator will first be estimated by applying nonparametric identification methods to determine each joint's response characteristics using various input excitations. These excitations include sum of sinusoids, pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBS), bipolar ramping pulses, and chirp input signals. Next, two different parametric system identification techniques will be applied to identify the best dynamical description of the joints. The manipulator is localized about a representative space station orbital replacement unit (ORU) task allowing the use of linear system identification methods. Comparisons, observations, and results of both parametric system identification techniques are discussed. The thesis concludes by proposing a model reference control system to aid in astronaut ground tests. This approach would allow the identified models to mimic on-orbit dynamic characteristics of the actual flight manipulator thus providing astronauts with realistic on-orbit responses to perform space station tasks in a ground-based environment.

  16. Effect of attention on the detection and identification of masked spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Põder, Endel

    2005-01-01

    The effect of attention on the detection and identification of vertically and horizontally oriented Gabor patterns in the condition of simultaneous masking with obliquely oriented Gabors was studied. Attention was manipulated by varying the set size in a visual-search experiment. In the first experiment, small target Gabors were presented on the background of larger masking Gabors. In the detection task, the effect of set size was as predicted by unlimited-capacity signal detection theory. In the orientation identification task, increasing the set size from 1 to 8 resulted in a much larger decline in performance. The results of the additional experiments suggest that attention can reduce the crowding effect of maskers.

  17. Myoelectric pattern identification of stroke survivors using multivariate empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel feature extraction method for myoelectric pattern recognition using a multivariate extension of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), namely multivariate EMD (MEMD). The method processes multiple surface electromyogram (EMG) channels simultaneously rather than in a channel-by-channel manner. From mode-aligned intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, representing signal components over multiple scales) derived from the MEMD analysis, normalized amplitude distributions of the same-mode/scale IMFs across different channels were calculated as features, which serve to reveal the underlying relationship in the aligned intrinsic scales across multiple muscles. The proposed method was assessed for identification of 18 different functional movement patterns via 27-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the paretic forearm muscles of 12 subjects with hemiparetic stroke. With a linear discriminant classifier, the proposed MEMD based feature set resulted in an average error rate of 4.61 ± 4.70% for classification of all the different movements, significantly lower than that of the conventional time-domain feature set (7.14 ± 6.15%, p < 0.05). The results indicate that the MEMD based feature extraction of multi-channel surface EMG data provides a promising approach to modeling of muscle couplings and identification of different myoelectric patterns.

  18. Correlation techniques to determine model form in robust nonlinear system realization/identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stry, Greselda I.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental challenge in identification of nonlinear dynamic systems is determining the appropriate form of the model. A robust technique is presented which essentially eliminates this problem for many applications. The technique is based on the Minimum Model Error (MME) optimal estimation approach. A detailed literature review is included in which fundamental differences between the current approach and previous work is described. The most significant feature is the ability to identify nonlinear dynamic systems without prior assumption regarding the form of the nonlinearities, in contrast to existing nonlinear identification approaches which usually require detailed assumptions of the nonlinearities. Model form is determined via statistical correlation of the MME optimal state estimates with the MME optimal model error estimates. The example illustrations indicate that the method is robust with respect to prior ignorance of the model, and with respect to measurement noise, measurement frequency, and measurement record length.

  19. Modelling and disentangling physiological mechanisms: linear and nonlinear identification techniques for analysis of cardiovascular regulation

    PubMed Central

    Batzel, Jerry; Baselli, Giuseppe; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Chon, Ki H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) regulation is the result of a number of very complex control interactions. As computational power increases and new methods for collecting experimental data emerge, the potential for exploring these interactions through modelling increases as does the potential for clinical application of such models. Understanding these interactions requires the application of a diverse set of modelling techniques. Several recent mathematical modelling techniques will be described in this review paper. Starting from Granger's causality, the problem of closed-loop identification is recalled. The main aspects of linear identification and of grey-box modelling tailored to CV regulation analysis are summarized as well as basic concepts and trends for nonlinear extensions. Sensitivity analysis is presented and discussed as a potent tool for model validation and refinement. The integration of methods and models is fostered for a further physiological comprehension and for the development of more potent and robust diagnostic tools. PMID:19324714

  20. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  1. Simulation techniques for estimating error in the classification of normal patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitsitt, S. J.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of efficiently generating and classifying samples with specified multivariate normal distributions were discussed. Conservative confidence tables for sample sizes are given for selective sampling. Simulation results are compared with classified training data. Techniques for comparing error and separability measure for two normal patterns are investigated and used to display the relationship between the error and the Chernoff bound.

  2. Personality Patterns of Physicians in Person-Oriented and Technique-Oriented Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Nicole J.; Gibson, Denise D.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated differences in personality patterns between person-oriented and technique-oriented physicians. It tested an integrative framework by converting the scores on the Personality Research Form (PRF) to the Big-Five factors and built a predictive model of group membership in clinical specialty area. PRF scores from 238 physicians…

  3. Novel On-wafer Radiation Pattern Measurement Technique for MEMS Actuator Based Reconfigurable Patch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a novel on-wafer, antenna far field pattern measurement technique for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based reconfigurable patch antennas. The measurement technique significantly reduces the time and the cost associated with the characterization of printed antennas, fabricated on a semiconductor wafer or dielectric substrate. To measure the radiation patterns, the RF probe station is modified to accommodate an open-ended rectangular waveguide as the rotating linearly polarized sampling antenna. The open-ended waveguide is attached through a coaxial rotary joint to a Plexiglas(Trademark) arm and is driven along an arc by a stepper motor. Thus, the spinning open-ended waveguide can sample the relative field intensity of the patch as a function of the angle from bore sight. The experimental results include the measured linearly polarized and circularly polarized radiation patterns for MEMS-based frequency reconfigurable rectangular and polarization reconfigurable nearly square patch antennas, respectively.

  4. Developments in techniques for the isolation, enrichment, main culture conditions and identification of spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yanan; Chen, Xiaoli; Zhu, Huabin; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro culture system of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provides a basis for studies on spermatogenesis, and also contributes to the development of new methods for the preservation of livestock and animal genetic modification. In vitro culture systems have mainly been established for mouse SSCs, but are lacking for farm animals. We reviewed and analyzed the current progress in SSC techniques such as isolation, purification, cultivation and identification. Based on the published studies, we concluded that two-step enzyme digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting are fast becoming the main methods for isolation and enrichment of SSCs. With regard to the culture systems, serum and feeders were earlier thought to play an important role in the self-renewal and proliferation of SSCs, but serum- and feeder-free culture systems as a means of overcoming the limitations of SSC differentiation in long-term SSC culture are being explored. However, there is still a need to establish more efficient and ideal culture systems that can also be used for SSC culture in larger mammals. Although the lack of SSC-specific surface markers has seriously affected the efficiency of purification and identification, the transgenic study is helpful for our identification of SSCs. Therefore, future studies on SSC techniques should focus on improving serum- and feeder-free culture techniques, and discovering and identifying specific surface markers of SSCs, which will provide new ideas for the optimization of SSC culture systems for mice and promote related studies in farm animals.

  5. Cerenkov detectors for cosmic ray telescopes employing the Cerenkov x total energy technique of mass identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Kish, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made regarding the evolution of the 'Cerenkov x total energy technique' for mass identification of cosmic ray nuclei since the introduction of telescopes employing this technique by Webber et al. (1973). Thus, significant improvements in mass resolution have been made. These improvements are mainly related to the resolution of the Cerenkov counter. The present investigation is, therefore, concerned with the properties of various types of Cerenkov detectors. In addition, a description is provided of the characteristics of a large area (approximately 0.5 sq m-ster) cosmic ray isotope telescope, which is being developed for use on balloons or spacecraft.

  6. Identification of microfluidic two-phase flow patterns in lab-on-chip devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao; Halvorsen, Einar

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a capacitive sensor for identification of microfluidic two-phase flow in lab-on-chip devices. With interdigital electrodes and thin insulation layer utilized, this sensor is capable of being integrated with the microsystems easily. Transducing principle and design considerations are presented with respect to the microfluidic gas/liquid flow patterns. Numerical simulation results verify the operational principle. And the factors affecting the performance of the sensor are discussed. Besides, a feasible process flow for the fabrication is also proposed.

  7. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  8. Wearable strain sensors fabricated by silver nanowire patterning method based on parylene stencil technique.

    PubMed

    Namsun Chou; Sohee Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a fabrication method of the silver nanowire (AgNW) patterns on PDMS substrate using a parylene stencil technique. The AgNW electrodes with the straight line and serpentine line traces were fabricated and characterized in terms of electromechanical properties. The sensitivity of the AgNW patterns was measured using a custom-designed stretch test module, resulting in gauge factors from 55.2 to 2.7 at 2% strain for two different 100 um-wide AgNW patterns. The wearable sensor based on AgNW patterns was designed and fabricated to epidermally detect the respiration and heart rate from the abdomen and neck. The respiration was continuously recorded for 10 min successfully. The heart rate from the carotid artery was also recorded without applying external pressure.

  9. A novel jet-based nano-hydroxyapatite patterning technique for osteoblast guidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Koller, Garrit; Huang, Jie; Di Silvio, Lucy; Renton, Tara; Esat, Minoo; Bonfield, William; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Surface topography is well known to play a crucial role in influencing cellular responses to an implant material and is therefore important in bone tissue regeneration. A novel jet-based patterning technique, template-assisted electrohydrodynamic atomization spraying, was recently devised to control precisely the surface structure as well as its dimensions. In the present study, a detailed investigation of this patterning process was carried out. A range of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) line-shaped patterns <20 µm in width were successfully deposited on a commercially pure Ti surface by controlling the flow of an nHA suspension in an electric field. In vitro studies showed that the nHA patterns generated are capable of regulating the human osteoblast cell attachment and orientation. PMID:19493897

  10. Time-Resolved and Bolus-Chase MR Angiography of the Leg: Branching Pattern Analysis and Identification of Septocutaneous Perforators

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet S.; Rezaee, Rod P.; Wright, Katherine; Jesberger, John A.; Griswold, Mark A.; Gulani, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to compare time-resolved MR angiography (MRA) and bolus-chase MRA in the identification of peroneal artery septocutaneous perforators and for classification of the branching pattern of the arterial tree in the leg in a cohort of candidates for fibular free flap transfer operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective analysis was performed on imaging data from 53 legs of 27 patients (age range, 27–88 years) who underwent time-resolved MRA (FLASH; TR/TE, 2.5/1.0; flip angle, 22°; voxel dimensions, 1.54 × 1.25 × 1.5 mm; acquisition time, 2.27 s/frame) and bolus-chase MRA (FLASH; 3.2/1.2; flip angle, 25°; voxel dimensions, 0.94 × 0.89 × 1 mm) at 3 T with gadobenate dimeglumine administered at 0.05 and 0.10 mmol/kg, respectively. The branching pattern was analyzed; the total number of septocutaneous perforators for each leg was calculated from the time-resolved and bolus-chase MRA data; and the results were combined. The total and average number of septocutaneous perforators per leg and the frequency of various branching patterns were calculated. The techniques were compared in terms of branching pattern and number of visible septocutaneous perforators. RESULTS A total of 84 septocutaneous perforators (1.58 ± 1.05 [SD] per leg) were identified. Pattern 1A was found in 42 legs; 1B, two legs; 2A, one leg; 2B, one; 3A, four; 3B, one; and 3D, two legs. Classification with time-resolved MRA was successful for 53 legs and with bolus-chase MRA for 51 legs (Z = 0.713, p = 0.24, one-tailed, not significant). Twenty-two septocutaneous perforators were identified with time-resolved MRA and 82 with bolus-chase MRA. CONCLUSION MRA of the leg can be used to investigate the branching pattern and identify septocutaneous perforators in a single step. With the imaging parameters and contrast dose used in this study, septocutaneous perforators can be better identified with bolus-chase MRA, although this result may be partially related to the

  11. Identification of the neighborhood and CA rules from spatio-temporal CA patterns.

    PubMed

    Billings, S A; Yang, Yingxu

    2003-01-01

    Extracting the rules from spatio-temporal patterns generated by the evolution of cellular automata (CA) usually produces a CA rule table without providing a clear understanding of the structure of the neighborhood or the CA rule. In this paper, a new identification method based on using a modified orthogonal least squares or CA-OLS algorithm to detect the neighborhood structure and the underlying polynomial form of the CA rules is proposed. The Quine-McCluskey method is then applied to extract minimum Boolean expressions from the polynomials. Spatio-temporal patterns produced by the evolution of 1D, 2D, and higher dimensional binary CAs are used to illustrate the new algorithm, and simulation results show that the CA-OLS algorithm can quickly select both the correct neighborhood structure and the corresponding rule.

  12. Standardization and future directions in pattern identification research: International brainstorming session.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Bongki; Lee, Ju Ah; You, Sooseong; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Kim, Tae-Hun; Xu, Hao; Zaslawski, Chris; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-09-01

    An international brainstorming session on standardizing pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine on October 1, 2013 in Daejeon, South Korea. This brainstorming session was convened to gather insights from international traditional East Asian medicine specialists regarding PI standardization. With eight presentations and discussion sessions, the meeting allowed participants to discuss research methods and diagnostic systems used in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented a talk titled "The diagnostic criteria for blood stasis syndrome: implications for standardization of PI". Four speakers presented on future strategies and objective measurement tools that could be used in PI research. Later, participants shared information and methodology for accurate diagnosis and PI. They also discussed the necessity for standardizing PI and methods for international collaborations in pattern research.

  13. Identification of source of a marine oil-spill using geochemical and chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Lobão, Marcio M; Cardoso, Jari N; Mello, Marcio R; Brooks, Paul W; Lopes, Claudio C; Lopes, Rosangela S C

    2010-12-01

    The current work aimed to identify the source of an oil spill off the coast of Maranhão, Brazil, in September 2005 and effect a preliminary geochemical survey of this environment. A combination of bulk analytical parameters, such as carbon isotope (δ(13)C) and Ni/V ratios, and conventional fingerprinting methods (High Resolution Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry) were used. The use of bulk methods greatly speeded source identification for this relatively unaltered spill: identification of the likely source was possible at this stage. Subsequent fingerprinting of biomarker distributions supported source assignment, pointing to a non-Brazilian oil. Steranes proved the most useful biomarkers for sample correlation in this work. Distribution patterns of environmentally more resilient compound types, such as certain aromatic structures, proved inconclusive for correlation, probably in view of their presence in the background.

  14. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    PubMed

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-06

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research.

  15. Investigation on the application of DNA forensic human identification techniques to detect homologous blood transfusions in doping control.

    PubMed

    Donati, Francesco; Stampella, Alessandra; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2013-06-15

    Homologous blood transfusion is an illicit practice used by athletes to improve the delivery of oxygen to tissues and, as such, it is banned in sports. The current method of detection is based on the flow cytofluorimetric phenotypic identification of red blood cells mismatch of minor blood group antigens between the donor and the recipient. The selectivity of this method to clearly identify transfused samples is related to the number of blood group antigens tested. Despite the fact that several different antigens are investigated, two individuals sharing the expression of the same minor blood group antigens pattern cannot be distinguished. We tested the possibility to use a different approach based on DNA forensic human identification techniques. Analysis of the DNA short tandem repeats (STRs) demonstrated its suitability in detecting mixed whole blood samples simulating homologous blood transfusion in 100% of the samples tested, ensuring the capability of clearly detecting mixed blood cell populations also on samples where the fraction of the minoritary population is as low as 2.5%.

  16. Deriving frequency-dependent spatial patterns in MEG-derived resting state sensorimotor network: A novel multiband ICA technique.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allison C; Luber, Bruce; Carver, Frederick W; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies. This study analyzed MEG data from 18 healthy subjects to determine if the spatial patterns of RSNs differed between delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency bands. To validate our method, we focused on the sensorimotor network, which is well-characterized and robust in both MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state data. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to project signals into anatomical source space separately in each band before a group temporal ICA was performed over all subjects and bands. This method preserved the inherent correlation structure of the data and reflected connectivity derived from single-band ICA, but also allowed identification of spatial spectral modes that are consistent across subjects. The implications of these results on our understanding of sensorimotor function are discussed, as are the potential applications of this technique. Hum Brain Mapp 38:779-791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Flow uncertainty from hurricane rain forecasted patterns obtained using a modified multivariable radar tracking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corzo P, G. A.; Marquez, O.

    2012-04-01

    Different cities around Central and North American countries suffer from lack of spatial data as well as from hurricane induced floods. This paper extends a technique to project radar information into neighbor regions where the radar doesn't reach. To be able to use the precipitation patterns obtained from these projections in a flood forecasting system, it is required to know the uncertainty of such patterns. This is even more important when the region is prone to hurricanes. The hurricanes are highly dynamic and complex phenomena that commonly spread its influence in cyclic patterns. This work explores the use of projected spatial patterns of the hurricane Arlene (Category 2) from day 29 to 30 June in the basin of the Santa Catarina River in Mexico. The tracking is done by displacing the precipitation patterns in space using a data driven model (e.g. Neural Netwok). The decay of mass in the projection of hurricane event was calculated with a multivariable mixture of experts' model, using the cumulative change in mass of the whole radar information at previous time steps. A comparative analysis between the statistical distribution from a hydrological model and the built hurricane reconstructed patterns was performed. The HEC-HMS and HEC_RAS model was used for the analysis of the hydrology of the region and the uncertainty associated with the use of each possible projected result. Hourly simulations of the model during june 29th till july 1st were evaluated. The technique presented is very useful to identify possible sensitivity patterns from the hurricane behaviors as well as the most important ranges of flows expected in the hurricane event.

  18. Identification of piecewise affine systems based on fuzzy PCA-guided robust clustering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmirza, Esmaeel; Nazarahari, Milad; Mousavi, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid systems are a class of dynamical systems whose behaviors are based on the interaction between discrete and continuous dynamical behaviors. Since a general method for the analysis of hybrid systems is not available, some researchers have focused on specific types of hybrid systems. Piecewise affine (PWA) systems are one of the subsets of hybrid systems. The identification of PWA systems includes the estimation of the parameters of affine subsystems and the coefficients of the hyperplanes defining the partition of the state-input domain. In this paper, we have proposed a PWA identification approach based on a modified clustering technique. By using a fuzzy PCA-guided robust k-means clustering algorithm along with neighborhood outlier detection, the two main drawbacks of the well-known clustering algorithms, i.e., the poor initialization and the presence of outliers, are eliminated. Furthermore, this modified clustering technique enables us to determine the number of subsystems without any prior knowledge about system. In addition, applying the structure of the state-input domain, that is, considering the time sequence of input-output pairs, provides a more efficient clustering algorithm, which is the other novelty of this work. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been evaluated by parameter identification of an IGV servo actuator. Simulation together with experiment analysis has proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Advanced system identification techniques for wind turbine structures with special emphasis on modal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialasiewicz, J. T.

    1995-06-01

    The goal is to develop advanced system identification techniques that can be used to accurately measure the frequency response functions of a wind-turbine structure immersed in wind noise. To allow for accurate identification, the authors have developed a special test signal called the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). The Matlab program that generates this signal allows the user to interactively tailor its parameters for the frequency range of interest based on the response of the wind turbine under test. By controlling NREL's Mobile Hydraulic Shaker System, which is attached to the wind turbine structure, the PRBS signal produces the wide-band excitation necessary to perform system identification in the presence of wind noise. The techniques presented here will enable researchers to obtain modal parameters from an operating wind turbine, including frequencies, damping coefficients, and mode shapes. More importantly, the algorithms they have developed and tested (so far using input-output data from a simulated structure) permit state-space representation of the system under test, particularly the modal state space representation. This is the only system description that reveals the internal behavior of the system, such as the interaction between the physical parameters, and which, in contrast to transfer functions, is valid for non-zero initial conditions.

  20. Use of cluster counting technique for particle identification in a drift chamber with the cathode strip readout

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, Vladimir V.; Somov, S. V.; Pentchev, Lubomir P.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of using the clusters counting technique for particle identification in a drift chamber with the cathode strip readout is experimentally investigated. Results of counting of primary ionization clusters on a relativistic particle track, as well as results of computer simulation of pion, kaon, and proton identification in the momentum range of 1–8 GeV/c, are presented.

  1. A HISTORICAL SURVEY OF PATTERNS AND TECHNIQUES OF INSURGENCY CONFLICTS IN POST-1900 LATIN AMERICA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this report is to identify patterns and techniques of national and lower-scale insurgency conflicts in Latin America since 1900 in...order to derive data of assistance to U.S. planning for R+D requirements of military counterinsurgency operations in Latin America. Specific features of...insurgency in Latin America make it desirable that the report utilize the term insurgency in a broad sense and as inclusive of all types of violent

  2. X-Ray Diffraction Techniques for a Field Instrument: Patterns of Lithologic Provences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Keaten, R.

    1999-01-01

    Future exploration of Mars will attempt to shed light on the mineralogy of surface materials. Instruments deployed from remote platforms should have the capability to conduct both intensive analyses as well as rapid, reconnaissance surveys while they function in the martian environment as surrogate geologists. In order to accommodate the reconnaissance mode of analysis and to compensate for analytical limitations imposed by the space-flight conditions, data analysis methods are being developed that will permit interpretation of data by recognition of signatures or "fingerprints". Specifically, we are developing a technique which will allow interpretation of diffraction patterns by recognition of characteristic signatures of different lithologic provences. This technique allows a remote vehicle to function in a rapid-scan mode using the lithologic signature to determine where a more thorough analysis is needed. An x-ray diffraction pattern is characterized by the angular positions of diffracted x-rays, x-ray intensity levels and background radiation levels. These elements may be used to identify a generalized x-ray signature. Lithologic signatures are being developed in two ways. A signature is composed using the ideal powder diffraction indices from the mineral assembledge common to a specific lithologic provence. This is then confirmed using a laboratory diffraction pattern of a whole rock powder. Preliminary results comparing the diffraction signatures of the major mineral assembledges common to basalt, carbonate, and evaporite basin deposits indicate that lithologies are differentiable as a "fingerprint". Statistical analyses are being performed to establish the confidence levels of this technique.

  3. A Comparison of Direction Finding Results From an FFT Peak Identification Technique With Those From the Music Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    MUSIC ALGORITHM (U) by L.E. Montbrland go I July 1991 CRC REPORT NO. 1438 Ottawa I* Government of Canada Gouvsrnweient du Canada I o DParunnt of...FINDING RESULTS FROM AN FFT PEAK IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUE WITH THOSE FROM THE MUSIC ALGORITHM (U) by L.E. Montbhrand CRC REPORT NO. 1438 July 1991...Ottawa A Comparison of Direction Finding Results From an FFT Peak Identification Technique With Those From the Music Algorithm L.E. Montbriand Abstract A

  4. Neutron Detection With Ultra-Fast Digitizer and Pulse Identification Techniques on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Piglowski, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    A prototype system for neutron detection with an ultra-fast digitizer and pulse identification techniques has been implemented on the DIII-D tokamak. The system consists of a cylindrical neutron fission chamber, a charge sensitive amplifier, and a GaGe Octopus 12-bit CompuScope digitizer card installed in a Linux computer. Digital pulse identification techniques have been successfully performed at maximum data acquisition rate of 50 MSPS with on-board memory of 2 GS. Compared to the traditional approach with fast nuclear electronics for pulse counting, this straightforward digital solution has many advantages, including reduced expense, improved accuracy, higher counting rate, and easier maintenance. The system also provides the capability of neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination and pulse height analysis. Plans for the upgrade of the old DIII-D neutron counting system with these techniques will be presented. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under SC-G903402, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Pairwise alignment of interaction networks by fast identification of maximal conserved patterns.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenhong; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2009-01-01

    A number of tools for the alignment of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks have laid the foundation for PPI network analysis. They typically find conserved interaction patterns by various local or global search algorithms, and then validate the results using genome annotation. The improvement of the speed, scalability and accuracy of network alignment is still the target of ongoing research. In view of this, we introduce a connected-components based algorithm, called HopeMap for pairwise network alignment with the focus on fast identification of maximal conserved patterns across species. Observing that the number of true homologs across species is relatively small compared to the total number of proteins in all species, we start with highly homologous groups across species, find maximal conserved interaction patterns globally with a generic scoring system, and validate the results across multiple known functional annotations. The results are evaluated in terms of statistical enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG ortholog groups (KO) within conserved interaction patters. HopeMap is fast, with linear computational cost, accurate in terms of KO groups and GO terms specificity and sensitivity, and extensible to multiple network alignment.

  6. High-accuracy thickness measurement of a transparent plate with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wang-Tsung; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Yen-Liang; Su, Der-Chin

    2011-07-20

    In a modified Twyman-Green interferometer, the optical path variation is measured with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique, as the light beam is focused by a displaced microscopic objective on the front/rear surface of the test transparent plate. The optical path length variation is then measured similarly after the test plate is removed. The geometrical thickness of the test plate can be calculated under the consideration of dispersion effect. This method has a wide measurable range and a high accuracy in the measurable range.

  7. High-accuracy thickness measurement of a transparent plate with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wang-Tsung; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Yen-Liang; Su, Der-Chin

    2011-07-20

    In a modified Twyman-Green interferometer, the optical path variation is measured with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique, as the light beam is focused by a displaced microscopic objective on the front/rear surface of the test transparent plate. The optical path length variation is then measured similarly after the test plate is removed. The geometrical thickness of the test plate can be calculated under the consideration of dispersion effect. This method has a wide measurable range and a high accuracy in the measurable range.

  8. High-accuracy thickness measurement of a transparent plate with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wang-Tsung; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wei-Yao; Chen, Yen-Liang; Su, Der-Chin

    2011-07-01

    In a modified Twyman--Green interferometer, the optical path variation is measured with the heterodyne central fringe identification technique, as the light beam is focused by a displaced microscopic objective on the front/rear surface of the test transparent plate. The optical path length variation is then measured similarly after the test plate is removed. The geometrical thickness of the test plate can be calculated under the consideration of dispersion effect. This method has a wide measurable range and a high accuracy in the measurable range.

  9. A systematic examination of the bone destruction pattern of the two-shot technique

    PubMed Central

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Stoetzer, Carsten; Rana, Majeed; Zeller, Alexander; Hanke, Alexander; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The two-shot technique is an effective stopping power method. The precise mechanisms of action on the bone and soft-tissue structures of the skull; however, remain largely unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the terminal ballistics of the two-shot and single-shot techniques. Materials and Methods: 40 fresh pigs’ heads were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Either a single shot or two shots were fired at each head with a full metal jacket or a semi-jacketed bullet. Using thin-layer computed tomography and photography, the diameter of the destruction pattern and the fractures along the bullet path were then imaged and assessed. Results: A single shot fired with a full metal jacket bullet causes minor lateral destruction along the bullet path. With two shots fired with a full metal jacket bullet, however, the maximum diameter of the bullet path is significantly greater (P < 0.05) than it is with a single shot fired with a full metal jacket bullet. In contrast, the maximum diameter with a semi-jacketed bullet is similar with the single-shot and two-shot techniques. Conclusion: With the two-shot technique, a full metal jacket bullet causes a destruction pattern that is comparable to that of a single shot fired with a semi-jacketed bullet. PMID:24812454

  10. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  11. Identification and quantification of individual volatile organic compounds in a binary mixture by SAW multisensor array and pattern recognition analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penza, M.; Cassano, G.; Tortorella, F.

    2002-06-01

    We have developed a surface acoustic wave (SAW) multisensor array with five acoustic sensing elements configured as two-port resonator 433.92 MHz oscillators and a reference SAW element to recognize different individual components and determine their concentrations in a binary mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as methanol and acetone, in the ranges 15-130 and 50-250 ppm, respectively. The SAW sensors have been specifically coated by various sensing thin films such as arachidic acid, carbowax, behenic acid, triethanolamine or acrylated polysiloxane, operating at room temperature. By using the relative frequency change as the output signal of the SAW multisensor array with an artificial neural network (ANN), a recognition system has been realized for the identification and quantification of tested VOCs. The features of the SAW multisensor array exposed to a binary component organic mixture of methanol and acetone have been extracted from the output signals of five SAW sensors by pattern recognition (PARC) techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA). An organic vapour pattern classifier has been implemented by using a multilayer neural network with a backpropagation learning algorithm. The normalized responses of a reduced set of SAW sensors or selected principal components scores have been used as inputs for a feed-forward multilayer perceptron (MLP), resulting in a 70% correct recognition rate with the normalized responses of the four SAW sensors and in an enhanced 80% correct recognition rate with the first two principal components of the original data consisting of the normalized responses of the four SAW sensors. The prediction of the individual vapour concentrations has been tackled with PCA for features extraction and by using the first two principal components scores as inputs to a feed-forward MLP consisting of a gating network, which decides which of three specific subnets should be used to determine the output concentration: the

  12. Inferring Intra-Community Microbial Interaction Patterns from Metagenomic Datasets Using Associative Rule Mining Techniques.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Disha; Haque, Mohammed Monzoorul; Mande, Sharmila S

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-microbial metabolic interactions defines the stability of microbial communities residing in any ecological niche. Deciphering these interaction patterns is crucial for understanding the mode/mechanism(s) through which an individual microbial community transitions from one state to another (e.g. from a healthy to a diseased state). Statistical correlation techniques have been traditionally employed for mining microbial interaction patterns from taxonomic abundance data corresponding to a given microbial community. In spite of their efficiency, these correlation techniques can capture only 'pair-wise interactions'. Moreover, their emphasis on statistical significance can potentially result in missing out on several interactions that are relevant from a biological standpoint. This study explores the applicability of one of the earliest association rule mining algorithm i.e. the 'Apriori algorithm' for deriving 'microbial association rules' from the taxonomic profile of given microbial community. The classical Apriori approach derives association rules by analysing patterns of co-occurrence/co-exclusion between various '(subsets of) features/items' across various samples. Using real-world microbiome data, the efficiency/utility of this rule mining approach in deciphering multiple (biologically meaningful) association patterns between 'subsets/subgroups' of microbes (constituting microbiome samples) is demonstrated. As an example, association rules derived from publicly available gut microbiome datasets indicate an association between a group of microbes (Faecalibacterium, Dorea, and Blautia) that are known to have mutualistic metabolic associations among themselves. Application of the rule mining approach on gut microbiomes (sourced from the Human Microbiome Project) further indicated similar microbial association patterns in gut microbiomes irrespective of the gender of the subjects. A Linux implementation of the Association Rule Mining (ARM

  13. Inferring Intra-Community Microbial Interaction Patterns from Metagenomic Datasets Using Associative Rule Mining Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mande, Sharmila S.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-microbial metabolic interactions defines the stability of microbial communities residing in any ecological niche. Deciphering these interaction patterns is crucial for understanding the mode/mechanism(s) through which an individual microbial community transitions from one state to another (e.g. from a healthy to a diseased state). Statistical correlation techniques have been traditionally employed for mining microbial interaction patterns from taxonomic abundance data corresponding to a given microbial community. In spite of their efficiency, these correlation techniques can capture only 'pair-wise interactions'. Moreover, their emphasis on statistical significance can potentially result in missing out on several interactions that are relevant from a biological standpoint. This study explores the applicability of one of the earliest association rule mining algorithm i.e. the 'Apriori algorithm' for deriving 'microbial association rules' from the taxonomic profile of given microbial community. The classical Apriori approach derives association rules by analysing patterns of co-occurrence/co-exclusion between various '(subsets of) features/items' across various samples. Using real-world microbiome data, the efficiency/utility of this rule mining approach in deciphering multiple (biologically meaningful) association patterns between 'subsets/subgroups' of microbes (constituting microbiome samples) is demonstrated. As an example, association rules derived from publicly available gut microbiome datasets indicate an association between a group of microbes (Faecalibacterium, Dorea, and Blautia) that are known to have mutualistic metabolic associations among themselves. Application of the rule mining approach on gut microbiomes (sourced from the Human Microbiome Project) further indicated similar microbial association patterns in gut microbiomes irrespective of the gender of the subjects. A Linux implementation of the Association Rule Mining (ARM

  14. IEF pattern classification-derived criteria for the identification of epoetin-delta in urine.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Boccard, Julien; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Glatz, Nicolas; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Robinson, Neil; Saugy, Martial

    2010-06-01

    Epoetin-delta (Dynepo Shire Pharmaceuticals, Basing stoke, UK) is a synthetic form of erythropoietin (EPO) whose resemblance with endogenous EPO makes it hard to identify using the classical identification criteria. Urine samples collected from six healthy volunteers treated with epoetin-delta injections and from a control population were immuno-purified and analyzed with the usual IEF method. On the basis of the EPO profiles integration, a linear multivariate model was computed for discriminant analysis. For each sample, a pattern classification algorithm returned a bands distribution and intensity score (bands intensity score) saying how representative this sample is of one of the two classes, positive or negative. Effort profiles were also integrated in the model. The method yielded a good sensitivity versus specificity relation and was used to determine the detection window of the molecule following multiple injections. The bands intensity score, which can be generalized to epoetin-alpha and epoetin-beta, is proposed as an alternative criterion and a supplementary evidence for the identification of EPO abuse.

  15. Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles by Recognizing Patterns in Microscopic Images of Elytra Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Inn; Bisgin, Halil; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G.; Langley, Darryl A.; Tong, Weida

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. PMID:27341524

  16. Identification of Organic Binders in Ancient Chinese Paintings by Immunological Techniques.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Bingjian

    2015-10-01

    The identification and localization of organic binders in artworks are big challenges in archaeology and conservation science. Immunological techniques, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) have the potential to become powerful tools for the analysis of organic materials in ancient samples. In this study, ELISA and IFM techniques were combined to identify chicken ovalbumin, glue from several mammalian species, bovine milk, and fish glue in ancient Chinese painting samples. As binders, egg ovalbumin was found in two painting samples and animal glue was found in three samples, which were dated from the 4th to 8th centuries. The results clearly demonstrate that ELISA and IFM can be used to validate results from ancient samples.

  17. [Identification of mosquitoes' human food source by using the co-agglutination technique].

    PubMed

    Castex, M; Fachado, A; Fonte, L

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of a coagglutination technique for the identification of a human source for feeding mosquitoes is described. The dilution of ingested blood samples in filter paper was performed in 2 mL of a sodium chloride solution at 0.85%. It was used a suspension of sensibilized Staphylococcus aureus with rabbit's serum, human plasmatic anti-proteins, and human anti-IgG rabbit's serum discriminated well between human and non human blood. No agglutination was observed with the negative control. This technique proved to be sensitive to identify 100% of the human blood samples taken to the paper 24 hours after the mosquitoes completed their feeding at a temperature of 26 to 28 degrees C. Among mosquitoes fed and collected in the fields the test had a satisfactory result. Therefore, it may be used in routine work in the fields. The results showed the sensitivity and specificity of this method for identifying human blood ingested by mosquitoes.

  18. Identification of Scleractinian Coral Recruits Using Fluorescent Censusing and DNA Barcoding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Min; de Palmas, Stéphane; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Denis, Vianney; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of coral recruits has been problematic due to a lack of definitive morphological characters being available for higher taxonomic resolution. In this study, we tested whether fluorescent detection of coral recruits used in combinations of different DNA-barcoding markers (cytochrome oxidase I gene [COI], open reading frame [ORF], and nuclear Pax-C intron [PaxC]) could be useful for increasing the resolution of coral spat identification in ecological studies. One hundred and fifty settlement plates were emplaced at nine sites on the fringing reefs of Kenting National Park in southern Taiwan between April 2011 and September 2012. A total of 248 living coral spats and juveniles (with basal areas ranging from 0.21 to 134.57 mm2) were detected on the plates with the aid of fluorescent light and collected for molecular analyses. Using the COI DNA barcoding technique, 90.3% (224/248) of coral spats were successfully identified into six genera, including Acropora, Isopora, Montipora, Pocillopora, Porites, and Pavona. PaxC further separated I. cuneata and I. palifera of Isopora from Acropora, and ORF successfully identified the species of Pocillopora (except P. meandrina and P. eydouxi). Moreover, other cnidarian species such as actinarians, zoanthids, and Millepora species were visually found using fluorescence and identified by COI DNA barcoding. This combination of existing approaches greatly improved the taxonomic resolution of early coral life stages, which to date has been mainly limited to the family level based on skeletal identification. Overall, this study suggests important improvements for the identification of coral recruits in ecological studies. PMID:25211345

  19. Femtosecond Laser Assisted Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty Outcomes and Healing Patterns Compared to Manual Technique

    PubMed Central

    Alio, Jorge L.; Abdelghany, Ahmed A.; Barraquer, Rafael; Hammouda, Laila M.; Sabry, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to report the visual, refractive, and wound healing pattern outcomes of femtosecond assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) compared to the conventional manual technique. DALK was performed on 50 eyes of 47 advanced keratoconus patients. The patients were divided into two groups, 25 eyes each, depending on whether femtosecond assisted or manual DALK technique was performed for the side cut of the procedure only. Patients were followed up at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year for visual acuity, clinical refraction, corneal cylinder, date of suture removal, and side cut corneal healing pattern according to new grading classification of the side cut scar (Grade 0 = transparent scar, 1 = faint healing opacity, 2 = evident healing opacity, 3 = significant opacity with some cosmetic imbalance, and 4 = highly significant opacity with very significant cosmetic imbalance). Outcomes are reported at one year. In conclusion, femtosecond assisted and manual DALK show comparable visual and refractive outcomes but femtosecond assisted DALK shows more evident corneal wound healing patterns at the side cut. This observation may indicate that an activated cornea wound healing might allow earlier suture removal when femtosecond technology is used to perform the side cut for DALK. PMID:26557663

  20. Cell-material interactions revealed via material techniques of surface patterning.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiang; Peng, Rong; Ding, Jiandong

    2013-10-04

    Cell-material interactions constitute a key fundamental topic in biomaterials study. Various cell cues and matrix cues as well as soluble factors regulate cell behaviors on materials. These factors are coupled with each other as usual, and thus it is very difficult to unambiguously elucidate the role of each regulator. The recently developed material techniques of surface patterning afford unique ways to reveal the underlying science. This paper reviews the pertinent material techniques to fabricate patterns of microscale and nanoscale resolutions, and corresponding cell studies. Some issues are emphasized, such as cell localization on patterned surfaces of chemical contrast, and effects of cell shape, cell size, cell-cell contact, and seeding density on differentiation of stem cells. Material cues to regulate cell adhesion, cell differentiation and other cell events are further summed up. Effects of some physical properties, such as surface topography and matrix stiffness, on cell behaviors are also discussed; nanoscaled features of substrate surfaces to regulate cell fate are summarized as well. The pertinent work sheds new insight into the cell-material interactions, and is stimulating for biomaterial design in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and high-throughput detection, diagnosis, and drug screening.

  1. Quality control in hard disc drive manufacturing using pattern recognition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Ibrahim; Shyen, Victor Bee Ee

    2016-11-01

    Computerized monitoring-diagnosis is an efficient technique to identify the source of unnatural variation (UV) in manufacturing process. In this study, a pattern recognition scheme (PRS) for monitoring-diagnosis the UVs was developed based on control chart pattern recognition technique. This PRS integrates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart and artificial neural network (ANN) recognizer to perform two-stage monitoring-diagnosis. The first stage monitoring was performed using the MEWMA statistics, whereas the second stage monitoring-diagnosis was performed using an ANN. The PRS was designed based on bivariate process mean shifts between 0.75σ and 3.00σ, with cross correlation between ρ=0.1 and 0.9. The performance of the proposed PRS has been validated in quality control of hard disk drive component manufacturing. The validation proved that it is efficient in rapidly detecting UV and accurately classify the source of UV patterns. In a nutshell, the PRS will aid in realizing automated decision making system in manufacturing industry.

  2. Biochemical component identification by light scattering techniques in whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins (albumin, interferon, C reactive protein), microelements (Na+, Ca+), antibiotic of different generations, in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration are represented. Analysis has been performed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonance based sensor with dielectric microspheres from glass and PMMA as sensitive elements fixed by spin - coating techniques in adhesive layer on the surface of substrate or directly on the coupling element. Sensitive layer was integrated into developed fluidic cell with a digital syringe. Light from tuneable laser strict focusing on and scattered by the single microsphere was detected by a CMOS camera. The image was filtered for noise reduction and integrated on two coordinates for evaluation of integrated energy of a measured signal. As the entrance data following signal parameters were used: relative (to a free spectral range) spectral shift of frequency of WGM optical resonance in microsphere and relative efficiency of WGM excitation obtained within a free spectral range which depended on both type and concentration of investigated agents. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using spatial and spectral parameters of scattered by microsphere light with developed data processing. Biochemical component classification and identification of agents under investigation has been performed by network analysis techniques based on probabilistic network and multilayer perceptron. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis.

  3. Spatial and temporal air quality pattern recognition using environmetric techniques: a case study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syed Abdul Mutalib, Sharifah Norsukhairin; Juahir, Hafizan; Azid, Azman; Mohd Sharif, Sharifah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zain, Sharifuddin M; Dominick, Doreena

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify spatial and temporal patterns in the air quality at three selected Malaysian air monitoring stations based on an eleven-year database (January 2000-December 2010). Four statistical methods, Discriminant Analysis (DA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), were selected to analyze the datasets of five air quality parameters, namely: SO2, NO2, O3, CO and particulate matter with a diameter size of below 10 μm (PM10). The three selected air monitoring stations share the characteristic of being located in highly urbanized areas and are surrounded by a number of industries. The DA results show that spatial characterizations allow successful discrimination between the three stations, while HACA shows the temporal pattern from the monthly and yearly factor analysis which correlates with severe haze episodes that have happened in this country at certain periods of time. The PCA results show that the major source of air pollution is mostly due to the combustion of fossil fuel in motor vehicles and industrial activities. The spatial pattern recognition (S-ANN) results show a better prediction performance in discriminating between the regions, with an excellent percentage of correct classification compared to DA. This study presents the necessity and usefulness of environmetric techniques for the interpretation of large datasets aiming to obtain better information about air quality patterns based on spatial and temporal characterizations at the selected air monitoring stations.

  4. Detection of adulteration in acetonitrile using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Hu, Le-Qian; Yin, Chun-Ling; Zeng, Zhi-Peng

    2015-12-05

    In this paper, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in cooperation with the pattern recognition techniques were used to determine the type of neat acetonitrile and the adulteration in acetonitrile. NIR spectra were collected between 400 nm and 2498 nm. The experimental data were first subjected to analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) to reveal significant differences and potential patterns between samples. Then support vector machine (SVM) were applied to develop classification models and the best parameter combination was selected by grid search. Under the best parameter combination, the classification accuracy rates of three types of neat acetonitrile reached 87.5%, and 100% for the adulteration with different concentration levels. The results showed that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM could be utilized for determining the potential adulterants including water, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acrylonitrile, methanol, and by-products associated with the production of acetonitrile.

  5. Pattern Transformation of Heat-Shrinkable Polymer by Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response. PMID:25757881

  6. A bridging technique to analyze the influence of boundary conditions on instability patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Heng; Damil, Noureddine; Potier-Ferry, Michel

    2011-05-10

    In this paper, we present a new numerical technique that permits to analyse the effect of boundary conditions on the appearance of instability patterns. Envelope equations of Landau-Ginzburg type are classically used to predict pattern formation, but it is not easy to associate boundary conditions for these macroscopic models. Indeed, envelope equations ignore boundary layers that can be important, for instance in cases where the instability starts first near the boundary. In this work, the full model is considered close to the boundary, an envelope equation in the core and they are bridged by the Arlequin method . Simulation results are presented for the problem of buckling of long beams lying on a non-linear elastic foundation.

  7. Application of Isothermal Amplification Techniques for Identification of Madurella mycetomatis, the Prevalent Agent of Human Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sarah A.; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Mhmoud, Najwa A.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of eumycetoma may vary significantly depending on the causative agent. To date, the most common fungus causing mycetoma worldwide is Madurella mycetomatis. This species fails to express any recognizable morphological characteristics, and reliable identification can therefore only be achieved with the application of molecular techniques. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) are proposed as alternatives to phenotypic methods. Species-specific primers were developed to target the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of M. mycetomatis. Both isothermal amplification techniques showed high specificity and sufficient sensitivity to amplify fungal DNA and proved to be appropriate for detection of M. mycetomatis. Diagnostic performance of the techniques was assessed in comparison to conventional PCR using biopsy specimens from eumycetoma patients. RPA is reliable and easy to operate and has the potential to be implemented in areas where mycetoma is endemic. The techniques may be expanded to detect fungal DNA from environmental samples. PMID:26246484

  8. Automatic solar feature detection using image processing and pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Ming

    The objective of the research in this dissertation is to develop a software system to automatically detect and characterize solar flares, filaments and Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs), the core of so-called solar activity. These tools will assist us to predict space weather caused by violent solar activity. Image processing and pattern recognition techniques are applied to this system. For automatic flare detection, the advanced pattern recognition techniques such as Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used. By tracking the entire process of flares, the motion properties of two-ribbon flares are derived automatically. In the applications of the solar filament detection, the Stabilized Inverse Diffusion Equation (SIDE) is used to enhance and sharpen filaments; a new method for automatic threshold selection is proposed to extract filaments from background; an SVM classifier with nine input features is used to differentiate between sunspots and filaments. Once a filament is identified, morphological thinning, pruning, and adaptive edge linking methods are applied to determine filament properties. Furthermore, a filament matching method is proposed to detect filament disappearance. The automatic detection and characterization of flares and filaments have been successfully applied on Halpha full-disk images that are continuously obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). For automatically detecting and classifying CMEs, the image enhancement, segmentation, and pattern recognition techniques are applied to Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 and C3 images. The processed LASCO and BBSO images are saved to file archive, and the physical properties of detected solar features such as intensity and speed are recorded in our database. Researchers are able to access the solar feature database and analyze the solar data efficiently and effectively. The detection and characterization system greatly improves

  9. Identification and Separation of Geochemical Distribution Patterns using Fractal/Multifractal Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue; Cheng, Qiuming

    2015-04-01

    Identification and separation of anomalies from background for mineral exploration or environmental assessment is a fundamental issue in the field of exploration geochemistry. Traditionally, geochemical data are usually considered to follow normal or lognormal distributions, this scenario might lead to the extreme values cannot be detected by ordinary statistic methods, because the data of interest cannot meet the prerequisites of some typical statistic methods, and usually it is hard to separate geochemical anomalies from background, especially when weak anomalies are hidden in high background or the difference between anomaly and background is feeble. Cheng (2000) demonstrated that background values of geochemical data typically followed normal or lognormal distributions, and and anomalous values usually followed fractal/multifractal distributions. West and Shlesinger (1990) investigated the relationships of normal/lognormal distributions with Pareto distributions, the results indicated that the natural system was gradually tend to complexity from normal distributions to lognormal distributions, and then to Pareto distributions. Pareto distributions describe the most complex natural system, showing stronger fractal/multifractal characteristics. From the perspective of ore-forming processes, ore formation is the result of complex physical and chemical processes, there are considerable overlaps between igneous and hydrothermal and between sedimentary and hydrothermal, as a result, complex ore-forming processes might result in fractal/multifractal pattern. In the present study, a case study of anomaly identification of REE mineralization- related La and Y concentration values from 1617 stream sediment samples in the Nanling belt, South China, is used to demonstrate the application of two fractal/multifractal methods, singularity analysis and concentration-area (C-A) fractal method. First, singularity analysis is used to identify weak anomalies hidden within

  10. Pattern recognition techniques applied to acoustic detection of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor cooling defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, M.; Dubuisson, B.

    1983-08-01

    In the event of a partial or total blockage of a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor core subassembly, a boiling zone may be created. Acoustic signals from such a zone could provide a means of early detection of accident conditions. A three-step method, based on pattern recognition techniques, is described and used to analyze data from three experiments that simulate core cooling fault conditions. This method is shown to be capable of detecting the abnormal situation in each of the experiments analyzed.

  11. Content based image retrieval using local binary pattern operator and data mining techniques.

    PubMed

    Vatamanu, Oana Astrid; Frandeş, Mirela; Lungeanu, Diana; Mihalaş, Gheorghe-Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Content based image retrieval (CBIR) concerns the retrieval of similar images from image databases, using feature vectors extracted from images. These feature vectors globally define the visual content present in an image, defined by e.g., texture, colour, shape, and spatial relations between vectors. Herein, we propose the definition of feature vectors using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator. A study was performed in order to determine the optimum LBP variant for the general definition of image feature vectors. The chosen LBP variant is then subsequently used to build an ultrasound image database, and a database with images obtained from Wireless Capsule Endoscopy. The image indexing process is optimized using data clustering techniques for images belonging to the same class. Finally, the proposed indexing method is compared to the classical indexing technique, which is nowadays widely used.

  12. A pattern-recognition-based, fault-tolerant monitoring and diagnostic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; King, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    A properly designed monitoring and diagnostic system must be capable of detecting and distinguishing sensor and process malfunctions in the presence of signal noise, varying process states and multiple faults. The technique presented in this paper addresses these objectives through the implementation of a multivariate state estimation algorithm based upon pattern recognition methodology coupled with a statistically-based hypothesis test. Utilizing a residual signal vector generated from the difference between the estimated and measured current states of a process, disturbances are detected and identified with statistical hypothesis testing. Since the hypothesis testing utilizes the inherent noise on the signals to obtain a conclusion and the state estimation algorithm requires only a majority of the sensors to be functioning to ascertain the current state, this technique has proven to be quite robust and fault-tolerant. Several examples of its application are presented.

  13. Loss-pattern identification in near-real-time accounting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Argentesi, F.; Hafer, J.F.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize the benefits from an advanced safeguards technique such as near-real-time accounting (NRTA), sophisticated methods of analyzing sequential materials accounting data are necessary. The methods must be capable of controlling the overall false-alarm rate while assuring good power of detection against all possible diversion scenarios. A method drawn from the field of pattern recognition and related to the alarm-sequence chart appears to be promising. Power curves based on Monte Carlo calculations illustrate the improvements over more conventional methods. 3 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Three-dimensional electron diffraction as a complementary technique to powder X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution of powders.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Hovmöller, Sven; Wan, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Phase identification and structure determination are important and widely used techniques in chemistry, physics and materials science. Recently, two methods for automated three-dimensional electron diffraction (ED) data collection, namely automated diffraction tomography (ADT) and rotation electron diffraction (RED), have been developed. Compared with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and two-dimensional zonal ED, three-dimensional ED methods have many advantages in identifying phases and determining unknown structures. Almost complete three-dimensional ED data can be collected using the ADT and RED methods. Since each ED pattern is usually measured off the zone axes by three-dimensional ED methods, dynamic effects are much reduced compared with zonal ED patterns. Data collection is easy and fast, and can start at any arbitrary orientation of the crystal, which facilitates automation. Three-dimensional ED is a powerful technique for structure identification and structure solution from individual nano- or micron-sized particles, while powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) provides information from all phases present in a sample. ED suffers from dynamic scattering, while PXRD data are kinematic. Three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD are complementary and their combinations are promising for studying multiphase samples and complicated crystal structures. Here, two three-dimensional ED methods, ADT and RED, are described. Examples are given of combinations of three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD for phase identification and structure determination over a large number of different materials, from Ni-Se-O-Cl crystals, zeolites, germanates, metal-organic frameworks and organic compounds to intermetallics with modulated structures. It is shown that three-dimensional ED is now as feasible as X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution, but still needs further development in order to be as accurate as X-ray diffraction. It is expected that three-dimensional ED methods

  15. Three-dimensional electron diffraction as a complementary technique to powder X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution of powders

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Hovmöller, Sven; Wan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phase identification and structure determination are important and widely used techniques in chemistry, physics and materials science. Recently, two methods for automated three-dimensional electron diffraction (ED) data collection, namely automated diffraction tomography (ADT) and rotation electron diffraction (RED), have been developed. Compared with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and two-dimensional zonal ED, three-dimensional ED methods have many advantages in identifying phases and determining unknown structures. Almost complete three-dimensional ED data can be collected using the ADT and RED methods. Since each ED pattern is usually measured off the zone axes by three-dimensional ED methods, dynamic effects are much reduced compared with zonal ED patterns. Data collection is easy and fast, and can start at any arbitrary orientation of the crystal, which facilitates automation. Three-dimensional ED is a powerful technique for structure identification and structure solution from individual nano- or micron-sized particles, while powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) provides information from all phases present in a sample. ED suffers from dynamic scattering, while PXRD data are kinematic. Three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD are complementary and their combinations are promising for studying multiphase samples and complicated crystal structures. Here, two three-dimensional ED methods, ADT and RED, are described. Examples are given of combinations of three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD for phase identification and structure determination over a large number of different materials, from Ni–Se–O–Cl crystals, zeolites, germanates, metal–organic frameworks and organic compounds to intermetallics with modulated structures. It is shown that three-dimensional ED is now as feasible as X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution, but still needs further development in order to be as accurate as X-ray diffraction. It is expected that three-dimensional ED

  16. Voltage-Sensitive Dyes And Imaging Techniques Reveal New Patterns Of Electrical Activity In Heart Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Guy

    1988-04-01

    Voltage-sensitive dyes bind to the plasms membrane of excitable cells (ie., muscle or nerve cells) and exhibit fluorescence and/or absorption changes that vary linearly with changes in transmembrane electrical potential. These potentiometric optical probes can be used to measure local changes in transmembrane potential by monitoring optical signals from dye molecules bound to the surface membrane. Consequently, when excitable cells are stained with such a dye and are stimulated to fire an electrical impulse (ie., an action potential (AP)), the changes in dye fluorescence have the characteristic shape and time course of APs recorded with an intracellular micro-electrode. Potentiometric dyes in conjuction with imaging techniques can now be used to visualize complex patterns and propagation of electrical activity. With photodiode arrays on video imaging techniques, patterns of biological electrical activity can be obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution which could not be obtained by conventional micro-electrodes. These methods reveal new details and offer powerful approaches to study fundamental problem in cardiac electrophysiology, communication in nerve networks, and the organization of cortical neurons.

  17. Flow-pattern analysis of artificial heart valves using high-speed camera and PIV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hyuk; Seo, Soo W.; Min, Byong Goo

    1995-05-01

    Artificial heart valve is one of the most important artificial organs which have been implanted to many patients. The most serious problems related to the artificial heart valve prothesis are thrombosis and hemolysis. In vivo experiment to test against this problem is complex and hard work. Nowadays the request for in vitro artificial heart valve testing system is increasing. Several papers have announced us that the flow pattern of artificial heart valve is highly correlated with thrombosis and hemolysis. LDA is a usual method to get flow pattern, which is difficult to operate, is expensive and has narrow measure region. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) can solve these problems. Because the flow speed of valve is too high to catch particles by CCD camera and high-speed camera (Hyspeed; Holland-Photonics) was used. The estimated max flow speed was 5 m/sec and max trackable length is 0.5 cm, so the shutter speed was determined as 1000 frames per sec. Several image processing techniques (blurring, segmentation, morphology, etc.) were used for the preprocessing. Particle tracking algorithm and 2D interpolation technique which were necessary in making gridrized velocity profile, were applied to this PIV program. By using Single- Pulse Multi-Frame particle tracking algorithm, some problems of PIV can be solved. To eliminate particles which penetrate the sheeted plane and to determine the direction of particle paths are these. 1D relaxation formula is modified to interpolate 2D field. Parachute artificial heart valve which was developed by Scoul National University and Bjork-Shiely valve was testified. For each valve, different flow pattern, velocity profile, wall shear stress, turbulence intensity profile and mean velocity were obtained. Those parameters were compared with the result of in vivo experiment. In this experiment we can conclude wall shear stress is not high enough to generate hemolysis and higher turbulence intensity to make more hemolysis. For further

  18. Comparative evaluation of pattern recognition algorithms: statistical, neural, fuzzy, and neuro-fuzzy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Castellanos, Ramiro

    1998-10-01

    Pattern recognition by fuzzy, neural, and neuro-fuzzy approaches, has gained popularity partly because of intelligent decision processes involved in some of the above techniques, thus providing better classification and partly because of simplicity in computation required by these methods as opposed to traditional statistical approaches for complex data structures. However, the accuracy of pattern classification by various methods is often not considered. This paper considers the performance of major fuzzy, neural, and neuro-fuzzy pattern recognition algorithms and compares their performances with common statistical methods for the same data sets. For the specific data sets chosen namely the Iris data set, an the small Soybean data set, two neuro-fuzzy algorithms, AFLC and IAFC, outperform other well- known fuzzy, neural, and neuro-fuzzy algorithms in minimizing the classification error and equal the performance of the Bayesian classification. AFLC, and IAFC also demonstrate excellent learning vector quantization capability in generating optimal code books for coding and decoding of large color images at very low bit rates with exceptionally high visual fidelity.

  19. Research Techniques Made Simple: Identification and Characterization of Long Noncoding RNA in Dermatological Research.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Dario; Mollo, Maria Rosaria; Missero, Caterina

    2017-03-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a functionally heterogeneous and abundant class of RNAs acting in all cellular compartments that can form complexes with DNA, RNA, and proteins. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and techniques leading to the identification of DNA-RNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein complexes have allowed the functional characterization of a small set of lncRNAs. However, characterization of the full repertoire of lncRNAs playing essential roles in a number of normal and dysfunctional cellular processes remains an important goal for future studies. Here we describe the most commonly used techniques to identify lncRNAs, and to characterize their biological functions. In addition, we provide examples of these techniques applied to cutaneous research in healthy skin, that is, epidermal differentiation, and in diseases such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and psoriasis. As with protein-coding RNA transcripts, lncRNAs are differentially regulated in disease, and can serve as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of skin diseases.

  20. Robustness of Frequency Division Technique for Online Myoelectric Pattern Recognition against Contraction-Level Variation

    PubMed Central

    Tolooshams, Bahareh; Jiang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Contraction-level invariant surface electromyography pattern recognition introduces the decrease of training time and decreases the limitation of clinical prostheses. This study intended to examine whether a signal pre-processing method named frequency division technique (FDT) for online myoelectric pattern recognition classification is robust against contraction-level variation, and whether this pre-processing method has an advantage over traditional time-domain pattern recognition techniques even in the absence of muscle contraction-level variation. Eight healthy and naïve subjects performed wrist contractions during two degrees of freedom goal-oriented tasks, divided in three groups of type I, type II, and type III. The performance of these tasks, when the two different methods were used, was quantified by completion rate, completion time, throughput, efficiency, and overshoot. The traditional and the FDT method were compared in four runs, using combinations of normal or high muscle contraction level, and the traditional method or FDT. The results indicated that FDT had an advantage over traditional methods in the tested real-time myoelectric control tasks. FDT had a much better median completion rate of tasks (95%) compared to the traditional method (77.5%) among non-perfect runs, and the variability in FDT was strikingly smaller than the traditional method (p < 0.001). Moreover, the FDT method outperformed the traditional method in case of contraction-level variation between the training and online control phases (p = 0. 005 for throughput in type I tasks with normal contraction level, p = 0.006 for throughput in type II tasks, and p = 0.001 for efficiency with normal contraction level of all task types). This study shows that FDT provides advantages in online myoelectric control as it introduces robustness over contraction-level variations. PMID:28220147

  1. Clones identification of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile by using PCR-RAPDs technique.

    PubMed

    Toral Ibañez, Manuel; Caru, Margarita; Herrera, Miguel A; Gonzalez, Luis; Martin, Luis M; Miranda, Jorge; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M

    2009-02-01

    A protocol of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs (PCR-RAPDs) was established to analyse the gene diversity and genotype identification for clones of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile. Ten (out of 34) clones from introduction trial located in Voipir-Villarrica, Chile, were studied. The PCR-RAPDs technique and a modified hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used for genomic DNA extraction. The PCR tests were carried out employing 10-mer random primers. The amplification products were detected by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Forty nine polymorphic bands were obtained with the selected primers (BG04, BF07, BF12, BF13, and BF14) and were ordered according to their molecular size. The genetic similarity between samples was calculated by the Jaccard index and a dendrogram was constructed using a cluster analysis of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Of the primers tested, 5 (out of 60) RAPD primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. A total of 49 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 252 bands. The genetic similarity analysis demonstrates an extensive genetic variability between the tested clones and the dendrogram depicts the genetic relationships among the clones, suggesting a geographic relationship. The results indicate that the RAPD markers permitted the identification of the assayed clones, although they are derived from the same geographic origin.

  2. Clones identification of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile by using PCR-RAPDs technique*

    PubMed Central

    Toral Ibañez, Manuel; Caru, Margarita; Herrera, Miguel A.; Gonzalez, Luis; Martin, Luis M.; Miranda, Jorge; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2009-01-01

    A protocol of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs (PCR-RAPDs) was established to analyse the gene diversity and genotype identification for clones of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile. Ten (out of 34) clones from introduction trial located in Voipir-Villarrica, Chile, were studied. The PCR-RAPDs technique and a modified hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used for genomic DNA extraction. The PCR tests were carried out employing 10-mer random primers. The amplification products were detected by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Forty nine polymorphic bands were obtained with the selected primers (BG04, BF07, BF12, BF13, and BF14) and were ordered according to their molecular size. The genetic similarity between samples was calculated by the Jaccard index and a dendrogram was constructed using a cluster analysis of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Of the primers tested, 5 (out of 60) RAPD primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. A total of 49 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 252 bands. The genetic similarity analysis demonstrates an extensive genetic variability between the tested clones and the dendrogram depicts the genetic relationships among the clones, suggesting a geographic relationship. The results indicate that the RAPD markers permitted the identification of the assayed clones, although they are derived from the same geographic origin. PMID:19235269

  3. Use of system identification techniques for improving airframe finite element models using test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, Sathya V.; Zhou, Weiyu; Craig, James I.; Weston, Neil J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for using system identification techniques to improve airframe finite element models was developed and demonstrated. The method uses linear sensitivity matrices to relate changes in selected physical parameters to changes in total system matrices. The values for these physical parameters were determined using constrained optimization with singular value decomposition. The method was confirmed using both simple and complex finite element models for which pseudo-experimental data was synthesized directly from the finite element model. The method was then applied to a real airframe model which incorporated all the complexities and details of a large finite element model and for which extensive test data was available. The method was shown to work, and the differences between the identified model and the measured results were considered satisfactory.

  4. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques.

    PubMed

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  5. Use of system identification techniques for improving airframe finite element models using test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, Sathya V.; Zhou, Weiyu; Craig, James I.; Weston, Neil J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for using system identification techniques to improve airframe finite element models using test data was developed and demonstrated. The method uses linear sensitivity matrices to relate changes in selected physical parameters to changes in the total system matrices. The values for these physical parameters were determined using constrained optimization with singular value decomposition. The method was confirmed using both simple and complex finite element models for which pseudo-experimental data was synthesized directly from the finite element model. The method was then applied to a real airframe model which incorporated all of the complexities and details of a large finite element model and for which extensive test data was available. The method was shown to work, and the differences between the identified model and the measured results were considered satisfactory.

  6. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of One Degradation Product in Ambroxol by HPLC-Hyphenated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Thummala, Veera Raghava Raju; Ivaturi, Mrutyunjaya Rao; Nittala, Someswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    This study details the isolation, identification, and characterization of ambroxol’s unknown impurity. One unknown impurity of ambroxol was formed in the formulated drug under stress conditions [40°C /75% relative humidity (RH) for 6 months] with the relative retention time (RRT) 0.68 in RP-HPLC. The impurity was enriched by exposing it to heat and it was isolated by using preparative HPLC. The enriched impurity was purified and characterized using the following sophisticated techniques: 2D NMR (gDQ-COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC), FTIR, and LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the spectral data, the impurity was characterized as trans-4-(6,8-dibromoquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)cyclohexanol. PMID:24959402

  7. Development of advanced techniques for rotorcraft state estimation and parameter identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. E., Jr.; Bohn, J. G.; Vincent, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    An integrated methodology for rotorcraft system identification consists of rotorcraft mathematical modeling, three distinct data processing steps, and a technique for designing inputs to improve the identifiability of the data. These elements are as follows: (1) a Kalman filter smoother algorithm which estimates states and sensor errors from error corrupted data. Gust time histories and statistics may also be estimated; (2) a model structure estimation algorithm for isolating a model which adequately explains the data; (3) a maximum likelihood algorithm for estimating the parameters and estimates for the variance of these estimates; and (4) an input design algorithm, based on a maximum likelihood approach, which provides inputs to improve the accuracy of parameter estimates. Each step is discussed with examples to both flight and simulated data cases.

  8. Comparison of sonochemiluminescence images using image analysis techniques and identification of acoustic pressure fields via simulation.

    PubMed

    Tiong, T Joyce; Chandesa, Tissa; Yap, Yeow Hong

    2017-05-01

    One common method to determine the existence of cavitational activity in power ultrasonics systems is by capturing images of sonoluminescence (SL) or sonochemiluminescence (SCL) in a dark environment. Conventionally, the light emitted from SL or SCL was detected based on the number of photons. Though this method is effective, it could not identify the sonochemical zones of an ultrasonic systems. SL/SCL images, on the other hand, enable identification of 'active' sonochemical zones. However, these images often provide just qualitative data as the harvesting of light intensity data from the images is tedious and require high resolution images. In this work, we propose a new image analysis technique using pseudo-colouring images to quantify the SCL zones based on the intensities of the SCL images and followed by comparison of the active SCL zones with COMSOL simulated acoustic pressure zones.

  9. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a review on the pathogenesis, prevalence, and advance molecular identification techniques

    PubMed Central

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. V. parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked, or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, V. parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. V. parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2) to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the V. parahaemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques. PMID:25566219

  10. In situ identification of bacterial species in marine microfouling films by using an immunofluorescence technique.

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, J J; Huber, P S; Meyer, A E; Slots, J; Fornalik, M S; Baier, R E

    1984-01-01

    An immunofluorescence technique was developed for the in situ identification of specific bacteria in marine microfouling films. Microorganisms adherent to glass plates after 30 days of immersion in a synthetic seawater system were cultured and classified by biochemical tests, flagellar arrangement, and the API 20E system. All isolates were gram-negative aerobic or facultative motile rods, predominantly Pseudomonas spp. Rabbit antisera to the five dominant organisms including Achromobacter spp., Comamonas terrigena, P. putrefaciens, a yellow-pigmented Pseudomonas sp., and Vibrio alginolyticus were prepared. These antisera were shown to be species specific in indirect immunofluorescence assays against a battery of 26 marine isolates from 14 bacterial species, with the exception of antisera to the Pseudomonas spp, which cross-reacted with each other but not with test bacteria of other genera. These immunofluorescent reagents enabled the in situ identification of all five bacterial species in microfouling films. Low-surface-energy test plates had smaller numbers of adherent bacteria in microfouling films than medium-surface-energy test plates, suggesting that the degree of microfouling may be influenced by the surface energy. In addition, the reagents could identify up to 39% of the attached bacteria in microfouling films spontaneously formed on steel plates in flow cells deployed in different areas of the Atlantic Ocean. The microbial composition of the ocean-formed films varied with the geographical area of their formation. The present results indicate that immunofluorescence techniques may provide a rapid and reliable means to identify, in situ, specific bacteria in marine microfouling films. PMID:6393875

  11. Delamination identification of laminated composite plates using a continuum damage mechanics model and subset selection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shen; Yun, Gun Jin; Qiao, Pizhong

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a new model-based delamination detection methodology is presented for laminated composite plates and its performance is studied both numerically and experimentally. This methodology consists of two main parts: (1) modal analysis of an undamaged baseline finite element (FE) model and experimental modal testing of panels with delamination damage at single or multiple locations and (2) a sensitivity based subset selection technique for single or multiple delamination damage localizations. As an identification model, a higher-order finite element model is combined with a rational micromechanics-based CDM model which defines the delamination damage parameter as a ratio of delaminated area to entire area. The subset selection technique based on sensitivity of the dynamic residual force has been known to be capable of detecting multiple damage locations. However, there has been no experimental study specifically for the applications in laminated composite structures. To implement the methodology, a sensitivity matrix for the laminated composite plate model has been derived. Applications of the proposed methodology to an E-glass/epoxy symmetric composite panel composed of 16 plies [CSM/UM1208/3 layers of C1800]s = [CSM/0/(90/0)3]s with delamination damage are demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. A non-contact scanning laser vibrometer (SLV), a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor are used to conduct experimental modal testing. From the experimental example, capabilities of the proposed methodology for damage identification are successfully demonstrated for a 2D laminated composite panel. Furthermore, various damage scenarios are considered to show its performance and detailed results are discussed for future improvements.

  12. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique in Identification of Ancient Ceramics Bodies and Glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Khaled; Imam, Hisham; Madkour, Fatma; Meheina, Galila; Gamal, Yosr

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we report a study on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as a promising non-destructive technique for the identification of the colored glazes, and clay's bodies of Fatimid ceramics ancient artifacts. The scientific examination of ceramics may be helpful in unraveling the history of ancient shards, particularly as the process of its production such as firing condition and temperatures. The analysis of pottery, ceramic bodies and glazed coatings is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece. Revealing the technical skills of ancient potters has been one of the most important issues for gaining a deep insight of bygone culture and also it is required in order to structure the conservation or restoration of a piece of art. LIBS measurements were carried out by focusing a Nd-YAG laser at 1064 nm with pulse width of 10 ns and 50 mJ pulse energy on the surface of the sample by a 100-mm focal length lens. The plasma emission was collected by telescopic system and transferred through a fiber to Echelle spectrometer attached to an ICCD camera. The focal spot diameter is found to be in the range of 100-150 μm. which is small enough to consider this technique as a non-destructive technique. LIBS technique clarified that each piece of archaeological objects has its own finger print. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on these archaeological ceramic body samples to study raw materials such as clays, which allowed the investigation of the crystal structure and showed the changes in its structure through firing process. This provided information on the ceramic characteristic and composition of the ceramic bodies.

  13. Orthogonal projection (OP) technique applied to pattern recognition of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. and its final injection products.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhong-Da; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Zhang, Ting; Chau, Foo-Tim; Wang, Ya-Li

    2006-05-01

    It is a crucial issue to determine the origins of herbal medicinal materials and identify the quality grades and fakes of their final products collected from different pharmaceutical corporations. Pattern recognition technique may assist the manufacturers to achieve this purpose and effectively control the quality of their products. In this work, a widely used method in chemometrics, orthogonal projection (OP) technique, was applied to discrimination analysis and identification of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) and its final injection products. The advantages of the OP technique are clearly shown after comparing with the conventional methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis distance (MD), and similarity comparison method (SCM). Three different sources of medicinal material HCT and its final injection products from six different manufacturers were studied under 'sixfold', 'threefold' and 'threefold-bis' cross-validation procedures. The good performance of the proposed method in determination and identification of unknown samples shows it could be a powerful tool for quality control in herbal medicine production and other related research fields.

  14. Incorporating pattern identification of Chinese medicine into precision medicine: An integrative model for individualized medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-gen; Xu, Hao

    2015-11-01

    On 20 January, 2015, U.S. President Obama announced an ambitious plan called "Precision Medicine (PM) Initiative", aiming to deliver genetics-based medical treatments. PM has shown a promising prospect by tailoring disease treatments and preventions to individuals. However, a predominantly genetics-based method restricts its benefit and applicability in most chronic and complex diseases. Pattern identification (PI) is one of the representative characteristics of Chinese medicine implying the concept of holism and individualized treatment. It is another classification method taking environmental, psychosocial and other individual factors into account. Integrating PI with disease diagnosis of Western medicine will provide a strong complement to genetics-based PM, thus establish an integrative model for individualized medicine. PI provides new perspectives for PM, not only in clinical practice, but also in new drug development and clinical trial design. It is for sure that the integrative approach will ultimately lead to a safer, more convenient and effective patient-centered healthcare and most patients will benefit in the era of PM.

  15. Chemical enhancement techniques of bloodstain patterns and DNA recovery after fire exposure.

    PubMed

    Tontarski, Karolyn L; Hoskins, Kyle A; Watkins, Tani G; Brun-Conti, Leanora; Michaud, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    It is common in forensic casework to encounter situations where the suspect has set a fire to cover up or destroy possible evidence. While bloodstain pattern interpretation, chemical enhancement of blood, and recovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from bloodstains is well documented in the literature, very little information is known about the effects of heat or fire on these types of examinations. In this study, a variety of known types of bloodstain patterns were created in a four-room structure containing typical household objects and furnishings. The structure was allowed to burn to flashover and then it was extinguished by firefighters using water. Once the structure cooled over night, the interior was examined using a bright light. The bloodstains were evaluated to see if the heat or fire had caused any changes to the patterns that would inhibit interpretation. Bloodstain patterns remained visible and intact inside the structure and on furnishings unless the surface that held the blood was totally burned away. Additionally, a variety of chemical techniques were utilized to better visualize the patterns and determine the possible presence of blood after the fire. The soot from the fire formed a physical barrier that initially interfered with chemical enhancement of blood. However, when the soot was removed using water or alcohol, the chemicals used, fluorescein, luminol, Bluestar, and Hemastix, performed adequately in most of the tests. Prior to DNA testing, the combined phenolphthalein/tetramethyl benzidine presumptive test for the presence of blood was conducted in the laboratory on samples recovered from the structure in an effort to assess the effectiveness of using this type of testing as a screening tool. Test results demonstrated that reliance on obtaining a positive presumptive result for blood before proceeding with DNA testing could result in the failure to obtain useful typing results. Finally, two DNA recovery methods (swabbing the stain plus

  16. Primary plate identification of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci utilizing a two-disk technique.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, E J; Gates, J W

    1979-01-01

    A two-disk system is described which allows primary plate identification of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci could be visualized on primary throat culture plates by using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to inhibit normal flora. In the heavily inoculated area of Trypticase soy agar plates containing 5% sheep blood, a 25-microgram/ml trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk was placed contiguous to a 0.04-U bacitracin disk. A total of 259 throat specimens were examined with this two-disk system. The swabs from these throat specimens were incubated in Todd-Hewitt broth. The bacterial pellet from the broths was stained by fluorescent antibody as a control. Of the cultures that were determined to be positive on the plates, 75% could be read unequivocally after overnight incubation, whereas the remaining 25% required subculture. The plates recovered 91% of the cultures which were considered as true positives by the broth-fluorescent-antibody technique. This method provided a significant savings in time compared with standard plate methods and in cost of materials compared with broth-fluorescent-antibody methods. This technique is particularly valuable for producing rapid results in laboratories where fluorescence microscopy would not be cost-effective. Images PMID:387811

  17. Initial results on fault diagnosis of DSN antenna control assemblies using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, P.; Mellstrom, J.

    1990-01-01

    Initial results obtained from an investigation using pattern recognition techniques for identifying fault modes in the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antenna control loops are described. The overall background to the problem is described, the motivation and potential benefits of this approach are outlined. In particular, an experiment is described in which fault modes were introduced into a state-space simulation of the antenna control loops. By training a multilayer feed-forward neural network on the simulated sensor output, classification rates of over 95 percent were achieved with a false alarm rate of zero on unseen tests data. It concludes that although the neural classifier has certain practical limitations at present, it also has considerable potential for problems of this nature.

  18. Differentiation of tea varieties using UV-Vis spectra and pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios-Morillo, Ana; Alcázar, Ángela.; de Pablos, Fernando; Jurado, José Marcos

    2013-02-01

    Tea, one of the most consumed beverages all over the world, is of great importance in the economies of a number of countries. Several methods have been developed to classify tea varieties or origins based in pattern recognition techniques applied to chemical data, such as metal profile, amino acids, catechins and volatile compounds. Some of these analytical methods become tedious and expensive to be applied in routine works. The use of UV-Vis spectral data as discriminant variables, highly influenced by the chemical composition, can be an alternative to these methods. UV-Vis spectra of methanol-water extracts of tea have been obtained in the interval 250-800 nm. Absorbances have been used as input variables. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables and several pattern recognition methods, such as linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines and artificial neural networks, have been applied in order to differentiate the most common tea varieties. A successful classification model was built by combining principal component analysis and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, allowing the differentiation between tea varieties. This rapid and simple methodology can be applied to solve classification problems in food industry saving economic resources.

  19. Discrimination of olives according to fruit quality using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Muik, Barbara; Lendl, Bernhard; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Ortega-Calderón, Domingo; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2004-10-06

    Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition has been used to discriminate olives of different qualities. They included samples of sound olives, olives with frostbite, olives that have been collected from the ground, fermented olives, and olive samples with diseases. Milled olives were measured in a dedicated sample cup, which was rotated during spectrum acquisition. A preliminary study of the data set structure was performed using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Two supervised pattern recognition techniques, K-nearest neighbors and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), were tested using a "leave-a-fourth-out" cross-validation procedure. SIMCA provided the best results, with prediction abilities of 95% for sound, 93% for frostbite, 96% for ground, and 92% for fermented olives. The olive samples with diseases (too few to define a class) were included in the validation and recognized as not belonging to any class. None of the damaged olive samples was wrongly predicted to the class of sound olives. With this approach a selection of sound olives for the production of high-quality virgin olive oil can be achieved.

  20. Analysis of deformation patterns through advanced DINSAR techniques in Istanbul megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balik Sanli, F.; Calò, F.; Abdikan, S.; Pepe, A.; Gorum, T.

    2014-09-01

    As result of the Turkey's economic growth and heavy migration processes from rural areas, Istanbul has experienced a high urbanization rate, with severe impacts on the environment in terms of natural resources pressure, land-cover changes and uncontrolled sprawl. As a consequence, the city became extremely vulnerable to natural and man-made hazards, inducing ground deformation phenomena that threaten buildings and infrastructures and often cause significant socio-economic losses. Therefore, the detection and monitoring of such deformation patterns is of primary importance for hazard and risk assessment as well as for the design and implementation of effective mitigation strategies. Aim of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of deformations affecting the Istanbul metropolitan area, by exploiting advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. In particular, we apply the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach to a dataset of 43 TerraSAR-X images acquired, between November 2010 and June 2012, along descending orbits with an 11-day revisit time and a 3 m × 3 m spatial resolution. The SBAS processing allowed us to remotely detect and monitor subsidence patterns over all the urban area as well as to provide detailed information at the scale of the single building. Such SBAS measurements, effectively integrated with ground-based monitoring data and thematic maps, allows to explore the relationship between the detected deformation phenomena and urbanization, contributing to improve the urban planning and management.

  1. Imaging patterns predict patient survival and molecular subtype in glioblastoma via machine learning techniques

    PubMed Central

    Macyszyn, Luke; Akbari, Hamed; Pisapia, Jared M.; Da, Xiao; Attiah, Mark; Pigrish, Vadim; Bi, Yingtao; Pal, Sharmistha; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Roccograndi, Laura; Dahmane, Nadia; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Biros, George; Wolf, Ronald L.; Bilello, Michel; O'Rourke, Donald M.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background MRI characteristics of brain gliomas have been used to predict clinical outcome and molecular tumor characteristics. However, previously reported imaging biomarkers have not been sufficiently accurate or reproducible to enter routine clinical practice and often rely on relatively simple MRI measures. The current study leverages advanced image analysis and machine learning algorithms to identify complex and reproducible imaging patterns predictive of overall survival and molecular subtype in glioblastoma (GB). Methods One hundred five patients with GB were first used to extract approximately 60 diverse features from preoperative multiparametric MRIs. These imaging features were used by a machine learning algorithm to derive imaging predictors of patient survival and molecular subtype. Cross-validation ensured generalizability of these predictors to new patients. Subsequently, the predictors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 29 new patients. Results Survival curves yielded a hazard ratio of 10.64 for predicted long versus short survivors. The overall, 3-way (long/medium/short survival) accuracy in the prospective cohort approached 80%. Classification of patients into the 4 molecular subtypes of GB achieved 76% accuracy. Conclusions By employing machine learning techniques, we were able to demonstrate that imaging patterns are highly predictive of patient survival. Additionally, we found that GB subtypes have distinctive imaging phenotypes. These results reveal that when imaging markers related to infiltration, cell density, microvascularity, and blood–brain barrier compromise are integrated via advanced pattern analysis methods, they form very accurate predictive biomarkers. These predictive markers used solely preoperative images, hence they can significantly augment diagnosis and treatment of GB patients. PMID:26188015

  2. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococci in various clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Antibiotic resistance is a global problem and is more prevalent in developing countries. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are recognized as important pathogen for nosocomial infections. This study was carried out to identify CoNS in various clinical specimens and to determine its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Methods: A total of 2989 specimens of blood, pus and wound swab were collected from wards, casualty, ICU and OPD, out of these, staphylococci were isolated in 1000 specimens, of which 381 were identified as CoNS. Culture, gram stain, catalase, coagulase test and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were done according to clinical manual of microbiology. A total of fourteen antibiotics were used in this study. Susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Antimicrobial resistance of CoNS were Oxacillin (70.3%), Amoxicillin (74.8%), Amoxicillin+clavulanate (32.8%), Ciprofloxacin (35.2%), Ofloxacin (33.6%), Ceftriaxone (30.4%), Erythromycin (58.3%), Clindamycin (16.3%), Daptomycin (42.5%), Kanamycin (52.2%), Fusidic acid (41.7%), Doxycycline (24.7%), Vancomycin (2.6%) and Linezolid (0.8%). Maximum Oxacillin resistance was between 80 to 90 percent in a group of patients having age of 45 to 65 years and those suffering from cancer or admitted in ICU. Conclusion: The study concluded that CoNS showed significant level of resistance against most of the widely used therapeutic agents. PMID:24550966

  3. A Combined Texture-principal Component Image Classification Technique For Landslide Identification Using Airborne Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, M.; Giles, D.; Murphy, W.

    The Jurassic strata of the Cotswolds escarpment of southern central United Kingdom are associated with extensive mass movement activity, including mudslide systems, rotational and translational landslides. These mass movements can pose a significant engineering risk and have been the focus of research into the use of remote sensing techniques as a tool for landslide identification and delineation on clay slopes. The study has utilised a field site on the Cotswold escarpment above the village of Broad- way, Worcestershire, UK. Geomorphological investigation was initially undertaken at the site in order to establish ground control on landslides and other landforms present at the site. Subsequent to this, Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery and colour stereo photography were acquired by the UK Natural Environment Research Coun- cil (NERC) for further analysis and interpretation. This paper describes the textu- ral enhancement of the airborne imagery undertaken using both mean euclidean dis- tance (MEUC) and grey level co-occurrence matrix entropy (GLCM) together with a combined texture-principal component based supervised image classification that was adopted as the method for landslide identification. The study highlights the importance of image texture for discriminating mass movements within multispectral imagery and demonstrates that by adopting a combined texture-principal component image classi- fication we have been able to achieve classification accuracy of 84 % with a Kappa statistic of 0.838 for landslide classes. This paper also highlights the potential prob- lems that can be encountered when using high-resolution multispectral imagery, such as the presence of dense variable woodland present within the image, and presents a solution using principal component analysis.

  4. Dual redundant sensor FDI techniques applied to the NASA F8C DFBW aircraft. [Failure Detection and Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, M. N.; Deckert, J. C.; Deyst, J. J.; Willsky, A. S.; Chow, E. Y.

    1976-01-01

    An onboard failure detection and identification (FDI) technique for dual redundant sensors on the NASA F8C digital fly-by-wire (DFBW) aircraft is presented. The failure of one of a pair of sensors of the same type is detected by a direct redundancy trigger which observes the difference between the outputs of these two sensors. Identification of the failed sensor is accomplished utilizing the analytic redundancy that exists as kinematic and functional relationships among the variables being measured by dissimilar instruments. In addition, identification of generic failures, common to both instruments of a given type, is accomplished by using a time trigger to periodically initiate analytic redundancy failure identification tests for individual sensors. The basic form of these tests is the comparison of the measurement of a variable using the suspect instrument with another measurement of the same variable obtained using other instrument types.

  5. Root morphology and anatomical patterns in forensic dental identification: a comparison of computer-aided identification with traditional forensic dental identification.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Dirk T; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Dove, Stephen B; Senn, David R

    2010-11-01

    An online forensic dental identification exercise was conducted involving 24 antemortem-postmortem (AM-PM) dental radiograph pairs from actual forensic identification cases. Images had been digitally cropped to remove coronal tooth structure and dental restorations. Volunteer forensic odontologists were passively recruited to compare the AM-PM dental radiographs online and conclude identification status using the guidelines for identification from the American Board of Forensic Odontology. The mean accuracy rate for identification was 86.0% (standard deviation 9.2%). The same radiograph pairs were compared using a digital imaging software algorithm, which generated a normalized coefficient of similarity for each pair. Twenty of the radiograph pairs generated a mean accuracy of 85.0%. Four of the pairs could not be used to generate a coefficient of similarity. Receiver operator curve and area under the curve statistical analysis confirmed good discrimination abilities of both methods (online exercise = 0.978; UT-ID index = 0.923) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis (0.683) indicated good correlation between the results of both methods. Computer-aided dental identification allows for an objective comparison of AM-PM radiographs and can be a useful tool to support a forensic dental identification conclusion.

  6. Informational Masking in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners Measured in a Nonspeech Pattern Identification Task.

    PubMed

    Roverud, Elin; Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-04-08

    Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often experience more difficulty with listening in multisource environments than do normal-hearing (NH) listeners. While the peripheral effects of sensorineural hearing loss certainly contribute to this difficulty, differences in central processing of auditory information may also contribute. To explore this issue, it is important to account for peripheral differences between NH and these hearing-impaired (HI) listeners so that central effects in multisource listening can be examined. In the present study, NH and HI listeners performed a tonal pattern identification task at two distant center frequencies (CFs), 850 and 3500 Hz. In an attempt to control for differences in the peripheral representations of the stimuli, the patterns were presented at the same sensation level (15 dB SL), and the frequency deviation of the tones comprising the patterns was adjusted to obtain equal quiet pattern identification performance across all listeners at both CFs. Tonal sequences were then presented at both CFs simultaneously (informational masking conditions), and listeners were asked either to selectively attend to a source (CF) or to divide attention between CFs and identify the pattern at a CF designated after each trial. There were large differences between groups in the frequency deviations necessary to perform the pattern identification task. After compensating for these differences, there were small differences between NH and HI listeners in the informational masking conditions. HI listeners showed slightly greater performance asymmetry between the low and high CFs than did NH listeners, possibly due to central differences in frequency weighting between groups.

  7. Informational Masking in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners Measured in a Nonspeech Pattern Identification Task

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often experience more difficulty with listening in multisource environments than do normal-hearing (NH) listeners. While the peripheral effects of sensorineural hearing loss certainly contribute to this difficulty, differences in central processing of auditory information may also contribute. To explore this issue, it is important to account for peripheral differences between NH and these hearing-impaired (HI) listeners so that central effects in multisource listening can be examined. In the present study, NH and HI listeners performed a tonal pattern identification task at two distant center frequencies (CFs), 850 and 3500 Hz. In an attempt to control for differences in the peripheral representations of the stimuli, the patterns were presented at the same sensation level (15 dB SL), and the frequency deviation of the tones comprising the patterns was adjusted to obtain equal quiet pattern identification performance across all listeners at both CFs. Tonal sequences were then presented at both CFs simultaneously (informational masking conditions), and listeners were asked either to selectively attend to a source (CF) or to divide attention between CFs and identify the pattern at a CF designated after each trial. There were large differences between groups in the frequency deviations necessary to perform the pattern identification task. After compensating for these differences, there were small differences between NH and HI listeners in the informational masking conditions. HI listeners showed slightly greater performance asymmetry between the low and high CFs than did NH listeners, possibly due to central differences in frequency weighting between groups. PMID:27059627

  8. Algorithm-Independent Pattern Classification Techniques for Improved Broadband Chemometrics for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsin, Kehinde Samuel

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has seen significant attention in recent years, in part because of several unique characteristics that distinguish it from other techniques for atomic emission spectroscopy. As a technology capable of fielded, portable deployment, it is possible to take analytical chemistry to the field, which may serve in a variety of applications such as industrial monitoring, geological surveys and hazard detection. The use of LIBS in a variety of material applications has been on the rise in recent years, however, in order for LIBS to successfully transition into the field, the sensor must be paired with appropriate algorithm for accurate and robust processing. In this research dissertation, the result of testing two classification algorithms on eight LIBS datasets is reported. The results suggest that the standard cross validation techniques may not accurately estimate generalization performance and a proposed "Leave-One-Sample-Out (LOSO)" approach to experimental design for LIBS classifier validation may provide a more robust measure of performance. In another study focused on building a robust multi class classifier for LIBS, three modifications of the partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) classifier were used to test six distinct LIBS datasets with different number of classes. The results show that the pairwise PLSDA classification scheme performed better than the traditional M-ary PLSDA classification scheme and the One-against-all PLSDA classification scheme especially on datasets with large number of classes. The presence of contaminants in a LIBS spectral measurement can significantly degrade the generalization performance of classifier for LIBS. A proposed technique known as "Localized In-Sample Tunable Extreme-value Remover (LISTER)" is capable of removing these contaminants in a multivariate data, specifically LIBS spectral measurement. Removing the contaminated observations from the "contaminated" LIBS

  9. Application of chaos theory in identification of two-phase flow patterns and transitions in a small, horizontal, rectangular channel

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1996-02-01

    Various measurement tools of chaos theory were applied to analyze two-phase pressure signals with the objective to identify and interpret flow pattern transitions for two-phase flows in a small, horizontal rectangular channel. These measurement tools included power spectral density function, autocorrelation function, pseudo-phase-plane trajectory, Lyapunov exponents, and fractal dimensions. It was demonstrated that the randomlike pressure fluctuations characteristic of two-phase flow in small rectangular channels are chaotic in nature. As such, they are governed by a high-order deterministic system. The correlation dimension is potentially a new approach for identification of certain two-phase flow patterns and transitions.

  10. A Fabry-Perot interferometer-based long-wavelength infrared spectrometer utilizing a novel PDMS patterning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geon Jung, Dong; Kim, Ho Won; Baek, Sun Min; Bang, Soon Jae; Kong, Seong Ho

    2015-06-01

    We report a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI)-based infrared (IR) spectrometer designed for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) region. To fabricate the proposed FPI-based LWIR spectrometer, we developed a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning technique by combining photolithography and dry etching. The proposed PDMS patterning technique has advantages such as clear shape of PDMS pattern and no damage to the silicon (Si) substrate. Especially, the final height of PDMS pattern is easily adjusted by controlling the thickness of spin-coated photoresist. The proposed FPI-based IR spectrometer, which is composed of upper and lower substrate were fabricated separately utilizing newly proposed PDMS patterning technique. Experimental results show that maximum transmittance of filtered wavelength component by the proposed FPI-based IR spectrometer lies at the wavelength of 16 µm. The proposed IR spectrometer can detect a specific wavelength at LWIR region by controlling the air etalon gap that is adjusted by utilizing the proposed PDMS patterning technique.

  11. Patterning titania with the conventional and modified micromolding in capillaries technique from sol–gel and dispersion solutions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sajid Ullah; Elshof, Johan E ten

    2012-01-01

    We report TiO2 patterns obtained by a soft-lithographic technique called ‘micromolding in capillaries’ using sol–gel and dispersion solutions. A comparison between patterning with a sol–gel and dispersion solutions has been performed. The patterns obtained from sol–gel solutions showed good adhesion to the substrate and uniform shapes, but large shrinkage, whereas those obtained from dispersion solution had high solid content, but exhibited poor adhesion and non-uniform shapes. A fabrication method of a layer-by-layer structured pattern is also demonstrated. This type of pattern may find application in sensors, waveguides and other photonics elements. The occurrence of an undesirable residue layer, which hinders the fabrication of isolated patterns, is highlighted and a method of prevention is suggested. PMID:27877480

  12. Precise identification of <1 0 0> directions on Si{0 0 1} wafer using a novel self-aligning pre-etched technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. S.; Veerla, S.; Sharma, V.; Pandey, A. K.; Pal, P.

    2016-02-01

    Micromirrors with a tilt angle of 45° are widely used in optical switching and interconnect applications which require 90° out of plane reflection. Silicon wet bulk micromachining based on surfactant added TMAH is usually employed to fabricate 45° slanted walls at the < 1 0 0> direction on Si≤ft\\{0 0 1\\right\\} wafers. These slanted walls are used as 45° micromirrors. However, the appearance of a precise 45° ≤ft\\{0 1 1\\right\\} wall is subject to the accurate identification of the < 1 0 0> direction. In this paper, we present a simple technique based on pre-etched patterns for the identification of < 1 0 0> directions on the Si≤ft\\{0 0 1\\right\\} surface. The proposed pre-etched pattern self-aligns itself at the < 1 0 0> direction while becoming misaligned at other directions. The < 1 0 0> direction is determined by a simple visual inspection of pre-etched patterns and does not need any kind of measurement. To test the accuracy of the proposed method, we fabricated a 32 mm long rectangular opening with its sides aligned along the < 1 0 0> direction, which is determined using the proposed technique. Due to the finite etch rate of the ≤ft\\{1 1 0\\right\\} plane, undercutting occurred, which was measured at 12 different locations along the longer edge of the rectangular strip. The mean of these undercutting lengths, measured perpendicular to the mask edge, is found to be 13.41 μm with a sub-micron standard deviation of 0.38 μm. This level of uniform undercutting indicates that our method of identifying the < 1 0 0> direction is precise and accurate. The developed method will be extremely useful in fabricating arrays of 45° micromirrors.

  13. A novel star identification technique robust to high presence of false objects: The Multi-Poles Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiattarella, Vincenzo; Spiller, Dario; Curti, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    This work proposes a novel technique for the star pattern recognition for the Lost in Space, named Multi-Poles Algorithm. This technique is especially designed to ensure a reliable identification of stars when there is a large number of false objects in the image, such as Single Event Upsets, hot pixels or other celestial bodies. The algorithm identifies the stars using three phases: the acceptance phase, the verification phase and the confirmation phase. The acceptance phase uses a polar technique to yield a set of accepted stars. The verification phase performs a cross-check between two sets of accepted stars providing a new set of verified stars. Finally, the confirmation phase introduces an additional check to discard or to keep a verified star. As a result, this procedure guarantees a high robustness to false objects in the acquired images. A reliable simulator is developed to test the algorithm to obtain accurate numerical results. The star tracker is simulated as a 1024 × 1024 Active Pixel Sensor with a 20° Field of View. The sensor noises are added using suitable distribution models. The stars are simulated using the Hipparcos catalog with corrected magnitudes accordingly to the instrumental response of the sensor. The Single Event Upsets are modeled based on typical shapes detected from some missions. The tests are conducted through a Monte Carlo analysis covering the entire celestial sphere. The numerical results are obtained for both a fixed and a variable attitude configuration. In the first case, the angular velocity is zero and the simulations give a success rate of 100% considering a number of false objects up to six times the number of the cataloged stars in the image. The success rate decreases at 66% when the number of false objects is increased to fifteen times the number of cataloged stars. For moderate angular velocities, preliminary results are given for constant rate and direction. By increasing the angular rate, the performances of the

  14. pH fractionation and identification of proteins: comparing column chromatofocusing versus liquid isoelectric focusing techniques.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Nereus W; Paul, Moushumi; Nuñez, Alberto; Liu, Yanhong

    2012-06-01

    In proteomic investigations, a number of different separation techniques can be applied to fractionate whole cell proteomes into more manageable fractions for subsequent analysis. In this work, utilizing HPLC and mass spectrometry for protein identification, two different fractionation methods were compared and contrasted to determine the potential of each method for the simple and reproducible fractionation of a bacterial proteome. Column-based chromatofocusing and liquid-based isoelectric focusing both utilized pH gradients to produce similar results in terms of the numbers of proteins successfully identified (402 and 378 proteins) and the consistency of proteins identified from one experiment to the next (<10% change). However, there was limited overlap in the protein sets with <50% of the proteins identified as common between the sets of proteins identified by the different systems. In addition to the numbers of proteins identified and consistency of those identified, the reduced monetary costs of experimentation and increased assay flexibility produced by using isoelectric focusing was considered in order to adopt a system best suited for comparative proteomic projects.

  15. Species identification of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates by a variety of molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Beggs, M L; Stevanova, R; Eisenach, K D

    2000-02-01

    Organisms in the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; M. avium, M. intracellulare, and "nonspecific or X" MAC) are emerging pathogens among individual organisms of which significant genetic variability is displayed. The objective of the present study was to evaluate various molecular methods for the rapid and definitive identification of MAC species. Isolates were obtained from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and HIV-negative patients with and without known predisposing conditions. The isolates were initially hybridized with nucleic acid probes complementary to the rRNA of the respective mycobacterial species (AccuProbe Culture Confirmation kits for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MAC species; Gen-Probe). Isolates were also examined by PCR and in some cases by Southern blot hybridization for the insertion element IS1245. Two other techniques included a PCR assay that amplifies the mig gene, a putative virulence factor for MAC, and hsp65 gene amplification and sequencing. This study led to the following observations. Eighty-five percent of the isolates from HIV-positive patients were M. avium and 86% of the isolates from HIV-negative patients were M. intracellulare. Fifteen of the M. avium isolates did not contain IS1245 and 7% of the M. intracellulare isolates were found to carry IS1245. All of the M. avium strains were mig positive, and all of the M. intracellulare strains were mig negative.

  16. Airborne Fungi in Sahara Dust Aerosols Reaching the Eastern Caribbean: II. Species Identification Using Molecular Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Mota, A.; Betancourt, C.; Detres, Y.; Armstrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    Fungi samples from filters collected in Castle Bruce, Dominica from March through July 2002, were previously purified and identified to genus level using classic macroscopic and microscopic techniques. A total of 105 isolated colonies were cultured in liquid media and the mycelial mats used for DNA extraction. PCR was used to amplify the ITS region of the rDNA using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. Both strands of the amplified products were sequenced and the final identification to species level was completed by a GenBank search. Fourteen different species and one fungal endophyte were identified from genders Aspergillus,Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia and Phanerochaete. Some of these species such as A. fumigatus, A. japonicus, P. citrinum and C. cladosporoides are known to cause respiratory disorders in humans. A. fumigatus causes an aggressive pulmonary allergic response that might result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Other species such as F. equiseti and C. brachyspora are plant pathogens affecting economically important crops. Sahara dust is an important source of fungal spores of species that are not common in the Caribbean region.

  17. Multiple techniques for mineral identification of terrestrial evaporites relevant to Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stivaletta, N.; Dellisanti, F.; D'Elia, M.; Fonti, S.; Mancarella, F.

    2013-05-01

    Sulfates, commonly found in evaporite deposits, were observed on Mars surface during orbital remote sensing and surface exploration. In terrestrial environments, evaporite precipitation creates excellent microniches for microbial colonization, especially in desert areas. Deposits comprised of gypsum, calcite, quartz and silicate deposits (phyllosilicates, feldspars) from Sahara Desert in southern Tunisia contain endolithic colonies just below the rock surface. Previous optical observations verified the presence of microbial communities and, as described in this paper, spectral visible analyses have led to identification of chlorophylls belonging to photosynthetic bacteria. Spectral analyses in the infrared region have clearly detected the presence of gypsum and phyllosilicates (mainly illite and/or smectite), as well as traces of calcite, but not quartz. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has identified the dominant presence of gypsum as well as that of other secondary minerals such as quartz, feldspars and Mg-Al-rich phyllosilicates, such as chlorite, illite and smectite. The occurrence of a small quantity of calcite in all the samples was also highlighted by the loss of CO2 by thermal analysis (TG-DTA). A normative calculation using XRD, thermal data and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has permitted to obtain the mineralogical concentration of the minerals occurring in the samples. The combination of multiple techniques provides information about the mineralogy of rocks and hence indication of environments suitable for supporting microbial life on Mars surface.

  18. In situ mineral identification - Raman technique in future robotic explorations on planetary surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A.; Jolliff, B.L.; Haskin, L.A.

    1995-12-31

    Rover and lander missions are being continually planned for the characterization of planetary surface materials. With a series of simulated Raman measurements of lunar soils, rock chips and Martian analogues, we have demonstrated that mineral identification for the main phases in these planetary materials can be unambiguously achieved. We also obtained significant information on composition and structural features of important phases, such as the Mg/(Mg+Fe) ration in olivines, the dominant structural forms of pyroxenes, and the characteristics of hydrous components and cations in carbonates and sulfates, that are very important for Martian geology. Recent developments of Raman spectroscopic instrumentation make it possible to build a small, sensitive, and robust Raman system for rover and lander missions. Compared to other spectroscopic techniques (VIS-NIR, mid-IR and Moessbauer spectroscopy) that have been used or proposed for planetary application, Raman spectroscopy has many advantages, such as sharp, non-overlapping peaks in mineral spectra, no need for spectral deconvolution in order to identify the phases, and operation in visible spectral region. A rover Raman system could work nicely as a mineral indicator in future missions to Mars and Moon.

  19. Time-of-flight technique for particle identification at energies from 2 to 400 keV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    The time of flight technique for particle identification was extended to 2 keV/nucleon and the size of the start-time detector was reduced considerably by the use of carbon foils of few micrograms/cm square in thickness combined with microchannel plates for detecting secondary electrons. Time of flight telescopes incorporating this start-time device were used to measure the stopping power of a number of low energy heavy ions in thin carbon foils and the charge states of these ions emerging from such foils. Applications for the detection and identification of low energy interplanetary and magnetospheric particles are suggested.

  20. Use of the gas-filled-magnet technique for particle identification at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, K.K.; Jiang, C.L.; Paul, M.

    1995-08-01

    Reaction studies of interest to astrophysics with radioactive ion beams will be done mainly in inverse reaction kinematics, i.e., heavy particles bombarding a hydrogen target. The low energy of the outgoing heavy reaction products makes particle identification with respect to mass and nuclear charge a major challenge. For the planned {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}) experiment one expects five different types of particles in the outgoing channels: {sup 18}F and {sup 18}O (from elastic scattering of {sup 18}F and {sup 18}O on {sup 12}C), {sup 15}O and {sup 15}N (from the {sup 18}F and {sup 18}O induced (p,{alpha}) reactions) and {sup 12}C recoils from the polypropylene target. While mass determination can be achieved easily by time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a determination of the nuclear charge presents a challenge, especially if the energy of the particles is below 500 keV/u. We studied the gas-filled magnet technique for Z-identification of light ions between Z = 6-9. In a gas-filled magnet the particles move with an average charge state {bar q} which in one parameterization is given by {bar q} = Z ln(avZ{sup {alpha}})/ln(bZ{sup {beta}}) where Z is the nuclear charge of the ions and v their velocity. Introducing into the expression for the magnetic rigidity B{rho} = mv/{bar q} results in a Z dependence of B{rho} which is valid to very low velocities. As a magnet we used the Enge split-pole spectrograph which was filled with nitrogen gas at a pressure of 0.5 Torr. The particles were detected in the focal plane with a 50 x 10 cm{sup 2} parallel-grid-avalanche counter which measured TOF and magnetic rigidity. The mass and Z separation was tested with {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O beams at energies of about 600 keV/u and recoil particles ranging from {sup 12}C to {sup 19}F. The Z-separation obtained at these energies was {triangle}Z/Z = 0.28 which is sufficient to separate individual elements for Z < 10.

  1. Automatic Whole-Spectrum Matching Techniques for Identification of Pure and Mixed Minerals using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Carey, C. J.; Breitenfeld, L.; Tague, T.; Wang, P.

    2015-12-01

    In situuse of Raman spectroscopy on Mars is planned for three different instruments in the next decade. Although implementations differ, they share the potential to identify surface minerals and organics and inform Martian geology and geochemistry. Their success depends on the availability of appropriate databases and software for phase identification. For this project, we have consolidated all known publicly-accessible Raman data on minerals for which independent confirmation of phase identity is available, and added hundreds of additional spectra acquired using varying instruments and laser energies. Using these data, we have developed software tools to improve mineral identification accuracy. For pure minerals, whole-spectrum matching algorithms far outperform existing tools based on diagnostic peaks in individual phases. Optimal matching accuracy does depend on subjective end-user choices for data processing (such as baseline removal, intensity normalization, and intensity squashing), as well as specific dataset characteristics. So, to make this tuning process amenable to automated optimization methods, we developed a machine learning-based generalization of these choices within a preprocessing and matching framework. Our novel method dramatically reduces the burden on the user and results in improved matching accuracy. Moving beyond identifying pure phases into quantification of relative abundances is a complex problem because relationships between peak intensity and mineral abundance are obscured by complicating factors: exciting laser frequency, the Raman cross section of the mineral, crystal orientation, and long-range chemical and structural ordering in the crystal lattices. Solving this un-mixing problem requires adaptation of our whole-spectrum algorithms and a large number of test spectra of minerals in known volume proportions, which we are creating for this project. Key to this effort is acquisition of spectra from mixtures of pure minerals paired

  2. Telehealth streams reduction based on pattern recognition techniques for events detection and efficient storage in EHR.

    PubMed

    Henriques, J; Rocha, T; Paredes, S; de Carvalho, P

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a framework for telehealth streams analysis, founded on a pattern recognition technique that evaluates the similarity between multi-sensorial biosignals. The strategy combines the Haar wavelet with the Karhunen-Loève transforms to describe biosignals by means of a reduced set of parameters. These, that reflect the dynamic behavior of the biosignals, can support the detection of relevant clinical conditions. Moreover, the simplicity and fast execution of the proposed approach allow its application in real-time operation, as well as provide a practical way to manage historical electronic health records: i) common and uncommon behaviors can be distinguished; ii) the creation of different models, tailored to specific conditions can be efficiently stored. The efficiency of the methodology is assessed through its performance analysis, namely by computing the required number of operations and the compression rate. Its effectiveness is evaluated in the prediction of decompensation episodes using biosignals daily collected in the myHeart study (blood pressure, weight, respiration and heart rates).

  3. Use of pattern recognition techniques for early detection of morbidity in receiving feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; Silasi, R; McAllister, T A; Genswein, B; Crowe, T; Marti, S; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2015-07-01

    Two groups of cattle were used to develop (model data set: 384 heifers, 228 ± 22.7 kg BW, monitored over a 225-d feeding period) and to validate (naïve data set: 384 heifers, 322 ± 34.7 kg BW, monitored over a 142-d feeding period) the use of feeding behavior pattern recognition techniques to predict morbidity in newly arrived feedlot cattle. In the model data set, cattle were defined as morbid (MO) if they were removed from their pen to be treated due to visual observation of clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease and healthy (HL) if they remained within their pen and lacked lung lesions at slaughter. Individual feeding behavior parameters collected with a GrowSafe automated feeding behavior monitoring system were reduced via principal component analysis to 5 components that captured 99% of the variability in the data set. Combinations of clustering and cluster classification strategies applied to those components, along with pattern recognition techniques over different time windows, produced a total of 105 models from which precision, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated by comparing its predictions with the actual health status of individual cattle as determined by visual assessment. When the models with the best specificity (models 79 and 87), sensitivity (models 33 and 66), and accuracy (models 3 and 14) in the model data set were used in a naïve data set, models 79 and 87 were not able to predict any MO heifers (0%), with all animals (100%) being predicted as HL. Model 33 predicted 58.3% of the HL and 66.7% of the MO heifers, with MO heifers identified 3.1 ± 1.64 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 66 predicted 50.0% of the HL and 75.0% of the MO heifers, with MO heifers predicted 3.1 ± 1.76 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 3 predicted 100% of the HL and 50.0% of the MO cattle, with MO cattle predicted 1 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 14 predicted 83.3% of the HL and 58

  4. Non-Invasive Detection of CH-46 AFT Gearbox Faults Using Digital Pattern Recognition and Classification Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A TRIDENT SCHOLAR PROJECT REPORT NO. 266 NON-INVASIVE DETECTION OF CH-46 AFT GEARBOX FAULTS USING DIGITAL PATTERN RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION...NUMBERS Non-invasive detection of CH-46 AFT gearbox faults using digital pattern recognition and classification techniques 6. AUTHOR(S) Rex, Bryan D...helicopter gearboxes in order to d~iagnose end correct possible fault condi.itons (incipient faults ) which could eventually lead to gearbox failure. This

  5. A survey and proposed framework on the soft biometrics technique for human identification in intelligent video surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  6. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing. PMID:22919273

  7. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  8. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  9. The analysis of polar clouds from AVHRR satellite data using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Ebert, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The cloud cover in a set of summertime and wintertime AVHRR data from the Arctic and Antarctic regions was analyzed using a pattern recognition algorithm. The data were collected by the NOAA-7 satellite on 6 to 13 Jan. and 1 to 7 Jul. 1984 between 60 deg and 90 deg north and south latitude in 5 spectral channels, at the Global Area Coverage (GAC) resolution of approximately 4 km. This data embodied a Polar Cloud Pilot Data Set which was analyzed by a number of research groups as part of a polar cloud algorithm intercomparison study. This study was intended to determine whether the additional information contained in the AVHRR channels (beyond the standard visible and infrared bands on geostationary satellites) could be effectively utilized in cloud algorithms to resolve some of the cloud detection problems caused by low visible and thermal contrasts in the polar regions. The analysis described makes use of a pattern recognition algorithm which estimates the surface and cloud classification, cloud fraction, and surface and cloudy visible (channel 1) albedo and infrared (channel 4) brightness temperatures on a 2.5 x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude grid. In each grid box several spectral and textural features were computed from the calibrated pixel values in the multispectral imagery, then used to classify the region into one of eighteen surface and/or cloud types using the maximum likelihood decision rule. A slightly different version of the algorithm was used for each season and hemisphere because of differences in categories and because of the lack of visible imagery during winter. The classification of the scene is used to specify the optimal AVHRR channel for separating clear and cloudy pixels using a hybrid histogram-spatial coherence method. This method estimates values for cloud fraction, clear and cloudy albedos and brightness temperatures in each grid box. The choice of a class-dependent AVHRR channel allows for better separation of clear and cloudy pixels than

  10. Evaluation of three techniques for classifying urban land cover patterns using LANDSAT MSS data. [New Orleans, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Three computer quantitative techniques for determining urban land cover patterns are evaluated. The techniques examined deal with the selection of training samples by an automated process, the overlaying of two scenes from different seasons of the year, and the use of individual pixels as training points. Evaluation is based on the number and type of land cover classes generated and the marks obtained from an accuracy test. New Orleans, Louisiana and its environs form the study area.

  11. Multidirectional In Vivo Characterization of Skin Using Wiener Nonlinear Stochastic System Identification Techniques.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew D; Jones, Lynette A; Hunter, Ian W; Taberner, A J; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F

    2017-01-01

    A triaxial force-sensitive microrobot was developed to dynamically perturb skin in multiple deformation modes, in vivo. Wiener static nonlinear identification was used to extract the linear dynamics and static nonlinearity of the force-displacement behavior of skin. Stochastic input forces were applied to the volar forearm and thenar eminence of the hand, producing probe tip perturbations in indentation and tangential extension. Wiener static nonlinear approaches reproduced the resulting displacements with variances accounted for (VAF) ranging 94-97%, indicating a good fit to the data. These approaches provided VAF improvements of 0.1-3.4% over linear models. Thenar eminence stiffness measures were approximately twice those measured on the forearm. Damping was shown to be significantly higher on the palm, whereas the perturbed mass typically was lower. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for nonlinear parameters were assessed within and across individuals. Individual CVs ranged from 2% to 11% for indentation and from 2% to 19% for extension. Stochastic perturbations with incrementally increasing mean amplitudes were applied to the same test areas. Differences between full-scale and incremental reduced-scale perturbations were investigated. Different incremental preloading schemes were investigated. However, no significant difference in parameters was found between different incremental preloading schemes. Incremental schemes provided depth-dependent estimates of stiffness and damping, ranging from 300 N/m and 2 Ns/m, respectively, at the surface to 5 kN/m and 50 Ns/m at greater depths. The device and techniques used in this research have potential applications in areas, such as evaluating skincare products, assessing skin hydration, or analyzing wound healing.

  12. [Identification of Six Isomers of Dimethylbenzoic Acid by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Technique].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-wei; Shen, Jing-ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the absorption spectra of 6 isomers of dimethylbenzoic acid, which were widely used in chemical and pharmaceutical production as intermediate substance, were measured by using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the range 0.2-2.2 THz at room temperature. The experimental results show that the six measured isomers present apparent different spectral response. However, the results of using infrared spectroscopy indicates that different isomers show high similarity in absorption spectra in the range 1450-1700 cm⁻¹. The vibrational frequencies are calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT), and identification of vibrational modes are given. It is clear that the absorption peaks of the 6 isomers in the range 1450-1700 cm⁻¹ come from the stretching vibration of benzene ring and C==O, while the absorption peaks in the terahertz range are caused by the relative wagging of benzene ring and all the chains out of plane, which lead to the different absorption characteristics of the 6 isomers in the range 0.2-2.2 THz. The results suggest that the difference and similarity of the absorption spectra observed in the two different frequency range are resulted from the difference and similarity of the molecular structures of the six isomers. By using the different absorption characteristics, we can identify the six isomers of dimethylbenzoic acid effectively. Our study indicates that it is feasible to distinguish the isomers by using terahertz and infrared spectroscopy technique. It provides an effective way to identify different isomers and test the purity of the intermediate substance in the process of production quickly and accurately.

  13. Mortality patterns in the Russian Federation: indirect technique using widowhood data.

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek; Martikainen, Pekka; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2002-01-01

    are nevertheless consistent with the mortality pattern observed in official mortality data. The indirect technique thus appears to be a useful tool to study the determinants of mortality in the Russian Federation and other populations, where reliable or sufficiently extensive data are not available. PMID:12481209

  14. Satellite Image Edge Detection for Population Distribution Pattern Identification using Levelset with Morphological Filtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsiti; Munandar, T. A.; Suhendar, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Rohendi, D.

    2017-03-01

    Population distribution pattern is directly related with economic gap of a region. Analysis of population distribution pattern is usually performed by studying statistical data on population. This study aimed to analyze population distribution pattern using image analysis concept, i.e. using satellite images. Levelset and morphological image filtering methods were used to analyze images to see distribution pattern. The research result showed that Levelset and morphological image filtering could remove a lot of noises in analysis result images and form object edge contours very clearly. The detected object contours were used as references to recognize population distribution pattern based on satellite image analysis. The pattern made based on the research result didn’t show optimal result because Levelset performed image segmentation based on the contours of the analyzed objects. Other segmentation methods should be combined with it to produce clearer population distribution pattern.

  15. Oil species identification technique developed by Gabor wavelet analysis and support vector machine based on concentration-synchronous-matrix-fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyan; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Wendong; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Jinliang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi

    2016-03-15

    Concentration-synchronous-matrix-fluorescence (CSMF) spectroscopy was applied to discriminate the oil species by characterizing the concentration dependent fluorescence properties of petroleum related samples. Seven days weathering experiment of 3 crude oil samples from the Bohai Sea platforms of China was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions and showed that weathering had no significant effect on the CSMF spectra. While different feature extraction methods, such as PCA, PLS and Gabor wavelet analysis, were applied to extract discriminative patterns from CSMF spectra, classifications were made via SVM to compare their respective performance of oil species recognition. Ideal correct rates of oil species recognition of 100% for the different types of oil spill samples and 92% for the closely-related source oil samples were achieved by combining Gabor wavelet with SVM, which indicated its advantages to be developed to a rapid, cost-effective, and accurate forensic oil spill identification technique.

  16. Application of multi-resolution 3D techniques in crime scene documentation with bloodstain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Hołowko, Elwira; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Bolewicki, Paweł; Sitnik, Robert; Michoński, Jakub

    2016-10-01

    In forensic documentation with bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) it is highly desirable to obtain non-invasively overall documentation of a crime scene, but also register in high resolution single evidence objects, like bloodstains. In this study, we propose a hierarchical 3D scanning platform designed according to the top-down approach known from the traditional forensic photography. The overall 3D model of a scene is obtained via integration of laser scans registered from different positions. Some parts of a scene being particularly interesting are documented using midrange scanner, and the smallest details are added in the highest resolution as close-up scans. The scanning devices are controlled using developed software equipped with advanced algorithms for point cloud processing. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of multi-resolution 3D scanning in crime scene documentation, our platform was applied to document a murder scene simulated by the BPA experts from the Central Forensic Laboratory of the Police R&D, Warsaw, Poland. Applying the 3D scanning platform proved beneficial in the documentation of a crime scene combined with BPA. The multi-resolution 3D model enables virtual exploration of a scene in a three-dimensional environment, distance measurement, and gives a more realistic preservation of the evidences together with their surroundings. Moreover, high-resolution close-up scans aligned in a 3D model can be used to analyze bloodstains revealed at the crime scene. The result of BPA such as trajectories, and the area of origin are visualized and analyzed in an accurate model of a scene. At this stage, a simplified approach considering the trajectory of blood drop as a straight line is applied. Although the 3D scanning platform offers a new quality of crime scene documentation with BPA, some of the limitations of the technique are also mentioned.

  17. A novel pattern transfer technique for mounting glassy carbon microelectrodes on polymeric flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; van Niekerk, Pieter; Nguyen, Vivian; Gong, Nick; Hirabayashi, Mieko; Cinopri, Alessio; Logan, Kyle; Moghadasi, Ali; Varma, Priya; Kassegne, Sam

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel technology for transferring glassy carbon microstructures, originally fabricated on a silicon wafer through a high-temperature process, to a polymeric flexible substrate such as polyimide. This new transfer technique addresses a major barrier in Carbon-MEMS technology whose widespread use so has been hampered by the high-temperature pyrolysis process (⩾900 °C), which limits selection of substrates. In the new approach presented, patterning and pyrolysis of polymer precursor on silicon substrate is carried out first, followed by coating with a polymer layer that forms a hydrogen bond with glassy carbon and then releasing the ensuing glassy carbon structure; hence, transferring it to a flexible substrate. This enables the fabrication of a unique set of glassy carbon microstructures critical in applications that demand substrates that conform to the shape of the stimulated/actuated or sensed surface. Our findings based on Fourier transform infared spectroscopy on the complete electrode set demonstrate—for the first time—that carbonyl groups on polyimide substrate form a strong hydrogen bond with hydroxyl groups on glassy carbon resulting in carboxylic acid dimers (peaks at 2660 and 2585 cm-1). This strong bond is further confirmed by a tensile test that demonstrated an almost perfect bond between these materials that behave as an ideal composite material. Further, mechanical characterization shows that ultimate strain for such a structure is as high as 15% with yield stress of ~20 MPa. We propose that this novel technology not only offers a compelling case for the widespread use of carbon-MEMS, but also helps move the field in new and exciting directions.

  18. The Effect of Distance Education Applications Based on Smart Board on Students' Achievement and Skills in Pattern Preparation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikoz, Nadir; Gursoy, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the effect of distance education applications based on smart board in teaching pattern preparation techniques and its contribution to students' achievement and skills. An experimental model with a pretest-posttest experimental and control group was used with 34 students who attended the department of Ready-Made…

  19. Examining Online Learning Patterns with Data Mining Techniques in Peer-Moderated and Teacher-Moderated Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-Long; Crooks, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The student learning process is important in online learning environments. If instructors can "observe" online learning behaviors, they can provide adaptive feedback, adjust instructional strategies, and assist students in establishing patterns of successful learning activities. This study used data mining techniques to examine and…

  20. Forensic human identification in the United States and Canada: a review of the law, admissible techniques, and the legal implications of their application in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Holobinko, Anastasia

    2012-10-10

    Forensic human identification techniques are successful if they lead to positive personal identification. However, the strongest personal identification is of no use in the prosecution--or vindication--of an accused if the associated evidence and testimony is ruled inadmissible in a court of law. This review examines the U.S. and Canadian legal rulings regarding the admissibility of expert evidence and testimony, and subsequently explores four established methods of human identification (i.e., DNA profiling, forensic anthropology, forensic radiography, forensic odontology) and one complementary technique useful in determining identity, and the legal implications of their application in forensic cases.

  1. Pattern classification of Myo-Electrical signal during different Maximum Voluntary Contractions: A study using BSS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Ganesh R.; Kumar, Dinesh K.; Arjunan, Sridhar P.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when the level of muscle contraction is very low. Due to this the current applications of surface electromyogram (sEMG) are infeasible and unreliable in pattern classification. This research reports a new technique of sEMG using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The technique uses blind source separation (BSS) methods to classify the patterns of Myo-electrical signals during different Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVCs) at different low level finger movements. The results of the experiments indicate that patterns using ICA of sEMG is a reliable (p<0.001) measure of strength of muscle contraction even when muscle activity is only 20% MVC. The authors propose that ICA is a useful indicator of muscle properties and is a useful indicator of the level of muscle activity.

  2. Dynamical systems techniques reveal the sexual dimorphic nature of motor patterns in birdsong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J. M.; Alliende, J. A.; Amador, A.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2006-10-01

    In this work we analyze the pressure motor patterns used by canaries (Serinus canaria) during song, both in the cases of males and testosterone treated females. We found a qualitative difference between them which was not obvious from the acoustical features of the uttered songs. We also show the diversity of patterns, both for males and females, to be consistent with a recently proposed model for the dynamics of the oscine respiratory system. The model not only allows us to reproduce qualitative features of the different pressure patterns, but also to account for all the diversity of pressure patterns found in females.

  3. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR THE RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF ALPHA EMITTERS RELEASED DURING A RADIOLOGICAL INCIDENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no standard radioanalytical methods applicable to the initial phase of a radiological emergency, for the early identification and quantification of alpha emitting radionuclides. Of particular interest are determinations of the presence and concentration of is...

  4. Modal identification using the frequency-scale domain decomposition technique of ambient vibration responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thien-Phu; Argoul, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new modal identification method of ambient vibration responses. The application of the singular value decomposition to continuous wavelet transform of power spectral density matrix gives singular values and singular vectors in frequency-scale domain. Analytical development shows a direct relation between local maxima in frequency-scale representation of singular values and modal parameters. This relation is then carried on for the identification of modal parameters via a complete practical procedure. The main novelties of this work involve the new formulation in frequency-scale domain and the capacity for the identification of modal parameters without the step of ridges extraction in comparison with previous wavelet-based modal identification methods.

  5. Neural Networks and other Techniques for Fault Identification and Isolation of Aircraft Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    in this paper is based on the use of neural networks (NNs) as on-line learning non-linear approximators. The performances of two different neural...Fault identification, isolation. and accommodation have become critical issues in the overall performance of advanced aircraft systems. Neural ... Networks have shown to be a very attractive alternative to classic adaptation methods for identification and control of non-linear dynamic systems. The

  6. Portable Electronic Nose System for Identification of Synthesized Gasoline Using Metal Oxide Gas Sensor and Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Wung; Park, Hong Bae; Lee, In Soo; Cho, Jung Hwan

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for use in the identification of synthesized gasoline, comprised of a single semiconductor type of gas sensor and pattern recognition neural networks. The designed e-nose system consists of a one-chip microcontroller, a pre-concentrator, and a gas sensor. Two different neural networks, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network and a fuzzy ARTMAP neural network were applied to discriminate synthesized gasoline from normal gasoline. The results of the classification showed 100% and 85% recognition rates for the training data set and testing data set, respectively.

  7. Specific Learning Disability Identification: What Constitutes a Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Edward Karl; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Lynch, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) and subsequent regulations published in 2006 have significantly changed the identification process for students suspected of having specific learning disabilities. Rather than using a discrepancy model contrasting intellectual and achievement test results, assessment…

  8. Ionospheric parameter analysis techniques and anomaly identification in periods of ionospheric perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrikova, Oksana; Polozov, Yury; Fetisova Glushkova, Nadejda; Shevtsov, Boris

    In the present paper we suggest intellectual techniques intended for the analysis of ionospheric parameters. These techniques are directed at studying dynamic processes in the "magnetosphere-ionosphere" system during perturbations. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, the authors have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of ionospheric parameters. This technique allows us to make data predictions and detect anomalies in the ionosphere. Multiscale component approximations of the critical frequency of the ionosphere layer F2 were constructed. These approximations can be presented in the following form: begin{center} c_{l,k+m} (t) = varphi_m(3) Bigl (sum_i omega(3_{mi}) varphi_i(2) Bigl (sum_j omega(2_{ij}) varphi_j(1) Bigl (sum_k omega(1_{jk}) c_{l,k} (t) Bigr ) Bigr ) Bigr ) , where c_{l,k} = bigl < f , Psi_{l,k} bigr > ; Psi_{l,k} (t) = 2(l/2) Psi (2(l) t - k) is the wavelet basis; omega(1_{jk}) are the weighting coefficients of the neuron j of the network input layer; omega(2_{ij}) are the weighting coefficients of the neuron i of the network hidden layer; omega(3_{mi}) are the weighting coefficients of the neuron m of the network output layer; varphi(1_j) (z) = varphi(2_i) (z) = (1)/(1+exp(-z))) ; varphi(3_m) (z) = x*z+y . The coefficients c_{l,k} can be found as a result of transforming the original function f into the space with the scale l . In order to obtain the approximations of the time variation of data, neural networks can be united in groups. In the paper we have suggested a multicomponent time variation model of ionospheric parameters, which makes it possible to perform the analysis of the ionospheric dynamic mode, receive predictions about parameter variations, and detect anomalies in periods of perturbations. The multicomponent model also allows us to fill missing values in critical frequency data taking into account diurnal and seasonal variations. Identification of the model is based on combining

  9. The Effect of Achievement Test Selection on Identification of Learning Disabilities within a Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Framework

    PubMed Central

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability of LD classification decisions of the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) across different psychoeducational assessment batteries. Methods C/DM criteria were applied to assessment data from 177 second grade students based on two psychoeducational assessment batteries. The achievement tests were different, but were highly correlated and measured the same latent construct. Resulting LD identifications were then evaluated for agreement across batteries on LD status and the academic domain of eligibility. Results The two batteries identified a similar number of participants as having LD (80 and 74). However, indices of agreement for classification decisions were low (kappa = .29), especially for percent positive agreement (62%). The two batteries demonstrated agreement on the academic domain of eligibility for only 25 participants. Conclusions Cognitive discrepancy frameworks for LD identification are inherently unstable because of imperfect reliability and validity at the observed level. Methods premised on identifying a PSW profile may never achieve high reliability because of these underlying psychometric factors. An alternative is to directly assess academic skills to identify students in need of intervention. PMID:25243467

  10. [Classification of oils by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry combined with pattern recognition techniques].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Sun, Pei-Yan; Gao, Zhen-Hui; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xue-Guang

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, the combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and pattern recognition, including principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), is used as a fast and convenient analytical tool to classify oil samples. Twenty five samples including crude oils and fuel oils with different total contents of n-alkanes were analyzed. It was found that multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a pretreatment method could improve the classification results of pattern recognition. The classification results were proved to be in agreement with the origin of the oil samples. The oils with high content of n-alkanes and those with low content were classified clearly by this developed method, but it still had some constraint to differentiating oils with little difference. The present work provides a feasible method for quick classification of oils, which can be used for the initial identification of spill oils and afford useful information for the further identification of the oils.

  11. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4±2.3years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010

  12. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Patterns, and Functional Analysis of UDP Glycosyltransferase Family in Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Boping; Gao, Liuxiao; Gao, Jie; Xu, Yaying; Liu, Hongru; Cao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kunsong

    2017-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a commercial grown fruit trees, important because of its essential nutrients and flavor promoting secondary metabolites. The glycosylation processes mediated by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in regulating secondary metabolites availability. Identification and characterization of peach UGTs is therefore a research priority. A total of 168 peach UGT genes that distributed unevenly across chromosomes were identified based on their conserved PSPG motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes with plant UGTs clustered them into 16 groups (A–P). Comparison of the patterns of intron–extron and their positions within genes revealed one highly conserved intron insertion event in peach UGTs. Tissue specificity, temporal expression patterns in peach fruit during development and ripening, and in response to abiotic stress UV-B irradiation was investigated using RNA-seq strategy. The relationship between UGTs transcript levels and concentrations of glycosylated volatiles was examined to select candidates for functional analysis. Heterologous expressing these candidate genes in Escherichia coli identified UGTs that were involved in the in vitro volatile glycosylation. Our results provide an important source for the identification of functional UGT genes to potential manipulate secondary biosynthesis in peach. PMID:28382047

  14. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work. PMID:26225994

  15. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Probst, Yasmine; Nguyen, Duc Thanh; Tran, Minh Khoi; Li, Wanqing

    2015-07-27

    Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT), local binary patterns (LBP), and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW) model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  16. A review of techniques for the identification and measurement of fish in underwater stereo-video image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortis, Mark R.; Ravanbakskh, Mehdi; Shaifat, Faisal; Harvey, Euan S.; Mian, Ajmal; Seager, James W.; Culverhouse, Philip F.; Cline, Danelle E.; Edgington, Duane R.

    2013-04-01

    Underwater stereo-video measurement systems are used widely for counting and measuring fish in aquaculture, fisheries and conservation management. To determine population counts, spatial or temporal frequencies, and age or weight distributions, snout to fork length measurements are captured from the video sequences, most commonly using a point and click process by a human operator. Current research aims to automate the measurement and counting task in order to improve the efficiency of the process and expand the use of stereo-video systems within marine science. A fully automated process will require the detection and identification of candidates for measurement, followed by the snout to fork length measurement, as well as the counting and tracking of fish. This paper presents a review of the techniques used for the detection, identification, measurement, counting and tracking of fish in underwater stereo-video image sequences, including consideration of the changing body shape. The review will analyse the most commonly used approaches, leading to an evaluation of the techniques most likely to be a general solution to the complete process of detection, identification, measurement, counting and tracking.

  17. Rapid identification of the quality decoction pieces by partial least squares -based pattern recognition: grade classification of the decoction pieces of Saposhnikovia divaricata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Li; Xiao, Yongqing; Yao, Jiaqi; Li, Pengyuan; Chen, Liang; Yu, Dingrong; Ma, Yinlian

    2016-08-01

    Herbal medicines are commonly used in many countries after they undergo processing. Quality decoction pieces are a guarantee of the efficacy and safety of the herbal medical products. Here, a strategy based on chemical analysis combined with chemometric techniques was proposed for the classification and prediction of the different grades of the decoction pieces. Considering the necessity for a shared and simple method for the grade classification for the public, in this paper, the characterization of the chemical constituents was determined by utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detection. HPLC was first established for the characterization of the chemical constituents of the different grade decoction pieces. Furthermore, a simultaneous quantification of several of the marker compounds in these decoction pieces was obtained. Finally, a partial least squares-based pattern recognition method was utilized to obtain a predictive model for the grade classification of the decoction pieces. Saposhnikovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk was used as a case study. The partial least squares -based pattern recognition for the grade classification of the decoction pieces of S. divaricata demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and prediction performance, which may efficiently validate the identification results of appearance assessment. The proposed strategy is expected to provide a new insight for the grade classification and quality control of the decoction pieces. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Flow Interference between a Circular (Upstream) and a Square Cylinder: Flow Pattern Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Jayalakshmi; R, Ajith Kumar; Kumar, Nithin S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, flow interference between an upstream circular cylinder and a square cylinder of equal size is studied in tandem arrangement. The main objective of this invesigation is to identify the possible flow patterns at different spacing ratios, L/B where L is the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders and B is the characteristic dimension of the bodies. All the experiments are conducted in a water channel and the test Reynolds number is 2100 (based on B). L/B is varied from 1.0 to 5.0. The flow visualization experiments are videographed and then analyzed frame-by-frame to capture the finer details of the flow patterns. Flow over single square and circular cylinders is analyzed first. Then, flow interference between two circular cylinders is investigated. Subsequently, flow over a circular-square configuration is investigated. No such studies are reported so far. Different flow patterns are observed for the circular-square configuration. Additionally, the time of persistence of each flow pattern have been recorded over a sufficiently long period of time to see the most dominant flow pattern. The schedule of occurrence of flow patterns have also been studied during this investigation. This study is very much relevant in the context of possible interference effects occuring in engineering structures such as buildings, heat exchanger tubes etc.

  19. Flow Interference between a Square (Upstream) and a Circular Cylinder: Flow Pattern Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nithin S.; R, Ajith Kumar; Mohan, Jayalakshmi

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, flow interference between an upstream square cylinder and a circular cylinder of equal size is studied in tandem arrangement. The main objective of this invesigation is to identify the possible flow patterns at different spacing ratios, L/B where L is the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders and B is the characteristic dimension of the bodies. All the experiments are conducted in a water channel and the test Reynolds number is 2100 (based on B). L/B is varied from 1.0 to 5.0. The flow visualization experiments are videographed and then analyzed frame-by-frame to capture the finer details of the flow patterns. Flow over single square and circular cylinders is analyzed first. Then, flow interference between two square cylinders is investigated. Subsequently, flow over a square-circular configuration is investigated. No such systematic studies are reported so far. Different flow patterns are observed for the square-circular configuration. Additionally, the time of persistence of each flow pattern have been recorded over a sufficiently long period of time to see the most dominant flow pattern. The schedule of occurrence of flow patterns have also been studied during this investigation. This study bears considerable practical relevance in the context of possible interference effects occurring in engineering structures such as buildings, bridges etc.

  20. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B; Ahmad, Z

    2015-11-01

    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations.

  1. Detection and evaluation of droplet and bubble fringe patterns in images of planar interferometric measurement techniques using the wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Zarogoulidis, K.

    2014-08-01

    The acquired images of interferometric particle sizing techniques are characterized by intense fringe pattern overlapping in dense droplet and bubble areas, which hinders the image processing process and subsequent information extraction. Methods employed, such as thresholding and the Hough transform and template cross-correlation, exhibit weaknesses when processing such dense areas of interest. We investigate the viability of applying the wavelet transform (WT) for the detection of the fringe pattern centers and the evaluation of the particle size. We present the basics of the WT using the Mexican hat, which exhibits excellent localization properties and present two different alternatives routes in detecting the fringe patterns in the compressed and uncompressed fringe pattern cases. We found that in comparison to the most reported methods for image evaluation, such as intensity thresholding and plain cross-correlation, the WT is a very efficient tool for detecting the patterns, even in images with high-number fringe pattern areas. The usage of the WT for the sizing of the imaged droplets and bubbles is also examined, in comparison to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).

  2. Modelling the relationship between peripheral blood pressure and blood volume pulses using linear and neural network system identification techniques.

    PubMed

    Allen, J; Murray, A

    1999-08-01

    The relationships between peripheral blood pressure and blood volume pulse waveforms can provide valuable physiological data about the peripheral vascular system, and are the subject of this study. Blood pressure and volume pulse waveforms were collected from 12 normal male subjects using non-invasive optical techniques, finger arterial blood pressure (BP, Finapres: Datex-Ohmeda) and photoelectric plethysmography (PPG) respectively, and captured to computer for three equal (1 min) measurement phases: baseline, hand raising and hand elevated. This simple physiological challenge was designed to induce a significant drop in peripheral blood pressure. A simple first order lag transfer function was chosen to study the relationship between blood pressure (system input) and blood volume pulse waveforms (system output), with parameters describing the dynamics (time constant, tau) and input-output gain (K). Tau and K were estimated for each subject using two different system identification techniques: a recursive parameter estimation algorithm which calculated tau and K from a linear auto-regressive with exogenous variable (ARX) model, and an artificial neural network which was trained to learn the non-linear process input-output relationships and then derive a linearized ARX model of the system. The identification techniques allowed the relationship between the blood pressure and blood volume pulses to be described simply, with the neural network technique providing a better model fit overall (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon). The median falls in tau following the hand raise challenge were 26% and 31% for the linear and neural network based techniques respectively (both p < 0.05, Wilcoxon). This preliminary study has shown that the time constant and gain parameters obtained using these techniques can provide physiological data for the clinical assessment of the peripheral circulation.

  3. Using Torrance's Problem Identification Techniques To Increase Fluency and Flexibility in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtzberg, Richard L.; Reale, Amelia

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated whether it would be possible to increase creative output of 43 eight-graders by teaching a portion of the Future Problem Solving (FPS) process, the identification of problems, as part of a middle school curriculum. Results indicated that fluency and flexibility could be taught utilizing the FPS process. (Author/CR)

  4. Method and Apparatus for Reading Two Dimensional Identification Symbols Using Radar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Roxby, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for sensing two-dimensional identification marks provided on a substrate or embedded within a substrate below a surface of the substrate. Micropower impulse radar is used to transmit a high risetime, short duration pulse to a focussed radar target area of the substrate having the two dimensional identification marks. The method further includes the steps of listening for radar echoes returned from the identification marks during a short listening period window occurring a predetermined time after transmission of the radar pulse. If radar echoes are detected, an image processing step is carried out. If no radar echoes are detected, the method further includes sequentially transmitting further high risetime, short duration pulses, and listening for radar echoes from each of said further pulses after different elapsed times for each of the further pulses until radar echoes are detected. When radar echoes are detected, data based on the detected echoes is processed to produce an image of the identification marks.

  5. Advanced driver assistance system: Road sign identification using VIAPIX system and a correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.

    2017-02-01

    We present a three-step approach based on the commercial VIAPIX® module for road traffic sign recognition and identification. Firstly, detection in a scene of all objects having characteristics of traffic signs is performed. This is followed by a first-level recognition based on correlation which consists in making a comparison between each detected object with a set of reference images of a database. Finally, a second level of identification allows us to confirm or correct the previous identification. In this study, we perform a correlation-based analysis by combining and adapting the Vander Lugt correlator with the nonlinear joint transformation correlator (JTC). Of particular significance, this approach permits to make a reliable decision on road traffic sign identification. We further discuss a robust scheme allowing us to track a detected road traffic sign in a video sequence for the purpose of increasing the decision performance of our system. This approach can have broad practical applications in the maintenance and rehabilitation of transportation infrastructure, or for drive assistance.

  6. Application of microsatellite PCR techniques in the identification of mixed up tissue specimens in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Gras, E; Matias-Guiu, X; Catasus, L; Arguelles, R; Cardona, D; Prat, J

    2000-03-01

    A fragment of tumour was erroneously mixed up with an endometrial biopsy. Micro-satellite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clearly demonstrated the extraneous nature of the fragment. Micro-satellite PCR may be useful for the identification of mis-labelled or mismatched tissue fragments in surgical pathology specimens.

  7. Multiple techniques for mineral identification on Mars:. a study of hydrothermal rocks as potential analogues for astrobiology sites on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Murad, Enver; Lane, Melissa D.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2004-06-01

    Spectroscopic studies of Mars analog materials combining multiple spectral ranges and techniques are necessary in order to obtain ground truth information for interpretation of rocks and soils on Mars. Two hydrothermal rocks from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were characterized here because they contain minerals requiring water for formation and they provide a possible niche for some of the earliest organisms on Earth. If related rocks formed in hydrothermal sites on Mars, identification of these would be important for understanding the geology of the planet and potential habitability for life. XRD, thermal properties, VNIR, mid-IR, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to identify the mineralogy of the samples in this study. The rocks studied here include a travertine from Mammoth Formation that contains primarily calcite with some aragonite and gypsum and a siliceous sinter from Octopus Spring that contains a variety of poorly crystalline to amorphous silicate minerals. Calcite was detected readily in the travertine rock using any one of the techniques studied. The small amount of gypsum was uniquely identified using XRD, VNIR, and mid-IR, while the aragonite was uniquely identified using XRD and Raman. The siliceous sinter sample was more difficult to characterize using each of these techniques and a combination of all techniques was more useful than any single technique. Although XRD is the historical standard for mineral identification, it presents some challenges for remote investigations. Thermal properties are most useful for minerals with discrete thermal transitions. Raman spectroscopy is most effective for detecting polarized species such as CO 3, OH, and CH, and exhibits sharp bands for most highly crystalline minerals when abundant. Mid-IR spectroscopy is most useful in characterizing Si-O (and metal-O) bonds and also has the advantage that remote information about sample texture (e.g., particle size) can be determined. Mid-IR spectroscopy is also

  8. Laser-induced forward transfer technique for maskless patterning of amorphous V 2O 5 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sakata, H.; Yokoyama, E.; Wakaki, M.; Chakravorty, D.

    2007-11-01

    A laser-induced forward transfer technique has been applied for the maskless patterning of amorphous V 2O 5 thin films. A sheet beam of a frequency doubled (SHG) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was irradiated on a transparent glass substrate (donor), the rear surface of which was pre-coated with a vacuum-deposited V 2O 5 180 nm thick film was either in direct contact with a second glass substrate (receiver) or a 0.14 mm air-gap was maintained between the donor film and the receiving substrate. Clear, regular stripe pattern of the laser-induced transferred film was obtained on the receiver. The pattern was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc.

  9. Practical guidance for the use of a pattern-matching technique in case-study research: a case presentation.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Adel F; Gardner, Glenn E; McCarthy, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on a study that demonstrates how to apply pattern matching as an analytical method in case-study research. Case-study design is appropriate for the investigation of highly-contextualized phenomena that occur within the social world. Case-study design is considered a pragmatic approach that permits employment of multiple methods and data sources in order to attain a rich understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The findings from such multiple methods can be reconciled in case-study analysis, specifically through a pattern-matching technique. Although this technique is theoretically explained in the literature, there is scant guidance on how to apply the method practically when analyzing data. This paper demonstrates the steps taken during pattern matching in a completed case-study project that investigated the influence of cultural diversity in a multicultural nursing workforce on the quality and safety of patient care. The example highlighted in this paper contributes to the practical understanding of the pattern-matching process, and can also make a substantial contribution to case-study methods.

  10. Robust Identification of Alzheimer’s Disease subtypes based on cortical atrophy patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yun; Na, Han Kyu; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hee Jin; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L.; Han, Cheol E.; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Liu, Enchi; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Decarli, Charles; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Shen, Li; Kelley, Faber; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D’Agostino, Daniel, II; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Pogorelec, Dana M.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; de Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, Maryann; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc Adams Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin Cook, Kristen; Devous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Marie Hake, Ann; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; Macavoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Marsel Mesulam, Marek; Lipowski, Kristine; Kuo Wu, Chuang; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Scott Turner, Raymond; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Lynn Johnson, Patricia; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T. Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Finger, Elizabether; Pasternak, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Smith, Karen Elizabeth; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Raudin, Lisa; Smith, Amanda; Fargher, Kristin; Raj, Balebail Ashok

    2017-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is heterogenous and can be classified into several subtypes. Here, we propose a robust subtyping method for AD based on cortical atrophy patterns and graph theory. We calculated similarities between subjects in their atrophy patterns throughout the whole brain, and clustered subjects with similar atrophy patterns using the Louvain method for modular organization extraction. We applied our method to AD patients recruited at Samsung Medical Center and externally validated our method by using the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Our method categorized very mild AD into three clinically distinct subtypes with high reproducibility (>90%) the parietal-predominant (P), medial temporal-predominant (MT), and diffuse (D) atrophy subtype. The P subtype showed the worst clinical presentation throughout the cognitive domains, while the MT and D subtypes exhibited relatively mild presentation. The MT subtype revealed more impaired language and executive function compared to the D subtype.

  11. Robust Identification of Alzheimer’s Disease subtypes based on cortical atrophy patterns

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Yun; Na, Han Kyu; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hee Jin; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L.; Han, Cheol E.; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Weiner, Michael; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Liu, Enchi; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; DeCarli, Charles; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Shen, Li; Kelley, Faber; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Kachaturian, Zaven; Frank, Richard; Snyder, Peter J.; Molchan, Susan; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D’Agostino II, Daniel; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Pogorelec, Dana M.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc Adams Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Marie Hake, Ann; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Trost, Dick; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Marsel Mesulam, Marek; Lipowski, Kristine; Kuo Wu, Chuang; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Scott Turner, Raymond; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Yesavage, Jerome; Taylor, Joy L.; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Lynn Johnson, Patricia; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Wolday, Saba; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T. Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Finger, Elizabether; Pasternak, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Rogers, John; Kertesz, Andrew; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Smith, Karen Elizabeth; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Raudin, Lisa; Smith, Amanda; Fargher, Kristin; Raj, Balebail Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is heterogenous and can be classified into several subtypes. Here, we propose a robust subtyping method for AD based on cortical atrophy patterns and graph theory. We calculated similarities between subjects in their atrophy patterns throughout the whole brain, and clustered subjects with similar atrophy patterns using the Louvain method for modular organization extraction. We applied our method to AD patients recruited at Samsung Medical Center and externally validated our method by using the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Our method categorized very mild AD into three clinically distinct subtypes with high reproducibility (>90%); the parietal-predominant (P), medial temporal-predominant (MT), and diffuse (D) atrophy subtype. The P subtype showed the worst clinical presentation throughout the cognitive domains, while the MT and D subtypes exhibited relatively mild presentation. The MT subtype revealed more impaired language and executive function compared to the D subtype. PMID:28276464

  12. Robust Identification of Alzheimer's Disease subtypes based on cortical atrophy patterns.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Yun; Na, Han Kyu; Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hee Jin; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L; Han, Cheol E; Seong, Joon-Kyung

    2017-03-09

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heterogenous and can be classified into several subtypes. Here, we propose a robust subtyping method for AD based on cortical atrophy patterns and graph theory. We calculated similarities between subjects in their atrophy patterns throughout the whole brain, and clustered subjects with similar atrophy patterns using the Louvain method for modular organization extraction. We applied our method to AD patients recruited at Samsung Medical Center and externally validated our method by using the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Our method categorized very mild AD into three clinically distinct subtypes with high reproducibility (>90%); the parietal-predominant (P), medial temporal-predominant (MT), and diffuse (D) atrophy subtype. The P subtype showed the worst clinical presentation throughout the cognitive domains, while the MT and D subtypes exhibited relatively mild presentation. The MT subtype revealed more impaired language and executive function compared to the D subtype.

  13. Exploring patterns in resource utilization prior to the formal identification of homelessness in recently returned veterans.

    PubMed

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie E; Palmer, Miland; Peterson, Rachel; Samore, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data on resources utilized by US Veterans prior to their identification as being homeless. We performed visual analytics on longitudinal medical encounter data prior to the official recognition of homelessness in a large cohort of OEF/OIF Veterans. A statistically significant increase in numbers of several categories of visits in the immediate 30 days prior to the recognition of homelessness was noted as compared to an earlier period. This finding has the potential to inform prediction algorithms based on structured data with a view to intervention and mitigation of homelessness among Veterans.

  14. An Astronomical Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Automated Identification of Whale Sharks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Holmberg, J.; Norman, B.

    2005-01-01

    The largest shark species alive today, whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) are rare and poorly studied. Directed fisheries, high value in international trade, a highly migratory nature, and generally low abundance make this species vulnerable to exploitation. Mark- and-recapture studies have provided our current understanding of whale shark demographics and life history, but conventional tagging has met with limited success. To aid in conservation and management efforts, and to further our knowledge of whale shark biology, an identification technology that maximizes the scientific value of individual sighting is needed.

  15. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  16. Gelatin-Based Laser Direct-Write Technique for the Precise Spatial Patterning of Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Nathan R.; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell–cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research. PMID:20849381

  17. Effects of Modeling and Tempo Patterns as Practice Techniques on the Performance of High School Instrumentalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effect of modeling conditions and tempo patterns on high school instrumentalists' performance. Focuses on high school students (n=60) who play wind instruments. Reports that the with-model condition was superior in rhythm and tempo percentage gain when compared to the no-model condition. Includes references. (CMK)

  18. Step selection techniques uncover the environmental predictors of space use patterns in flocks of Amazonian birds

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R; Mokross, Karl; Stouffer, Philip C; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the behavioral decisions behind animal movement and space use patterns is a key challenge for behavioral ecology. Tools to quantify these patterns from movement and animal–habitat interactions are vital for transforming ecology into a predictive science. This is particularly important in environments undergoing rapid anthropogenic changes, such as the Amazon rainforest, where animals face novel landscapes. Insectivorous bird flocks are key elements of avian biodiversity in the Amazonian ecosystem. Therefore, disentangling and quantifying the drivers behind their movement and space use patterns is of great importance for Amazonian conservation. We use a step selection function (SSF) approach to uncover environmental drivers behind movement choices. This is used to construct a mechanistic model, from which we derive predicted utilization distributions (home ranges) of flocks. We show that movement decisions are significantly influenced by canopy height and topography, but depletion and renewal of resources do not appear to affect movement significantly. We quantify the magnitude of these effects and demonstrate that they are helpful for understanding various heterogeneous aspects of space use. We compare our results to recent analytic derivations of space use, demonstrating that the analytic approximation is only accurate when assuming that there is no persistence in the animals' movement. Our model can be translated into other environments or hypothetical scenarios, such as those given by proposed future anthropogenic actions, to make predictions of spatial patterns in bird flocks. Furthermore, our approach is quite general, so could potentially be used to understand the drivers of movement and spatial patterns for a wide variety of animal communities. PMID:25558353

  19. Flexible microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices using a low-cost wax patterning technique.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Wicaksono, Dedy H B; Gustiono, Dwi; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq

    2012-01-07

    This paper describes the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a simple wax patterning method on cotton cloth for performing colorimetric bioassays. Commercial cotton cloth fabric is proposed as a new inexpensive, lightweight, and flexible platform for fabricating two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic systems. We demonstrated that the wicking property of the cotton microfluidic channel can be improved by scouring in soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)) solution which will remove the natural surface wax and expose the underlying texture of the cellulose fiber. After this treatment, we fabricated narrow hydrophilic channels with hydrophobic barriers made from patterned wax to define the 2D microfluidic devices. The designed pattern is carved on wax-impregnated paper, and subsequently transferred to attached cotton cloth by heat treatment. To further obtain 3D microfluidic devices having multiple layers of pattern, a single layer of wax patterned cloth can be folded along a predefined folding line and subsequently pressed using mechanical force. All the fabrication steps are simple and low cost since no special equipment is required. Diagnostic application of cloth-based devices is shown by the development of simple devices that wick and distribute microvolumes of simulated body fluids along the hydrophilic channels into reaction zones to react with analytical reagents. Colorimetric detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in artificial urine is carried out by direct visual observation of bromophenol blue (BPB) colour change in the reaction zones. Finally, we show the flexibility of the novel microfluidic platform by conducting a similar reaction in a bent pinned μCAD.

  20. Use of Frontal Sinus and Nasal Septum Pattern as an Aid in Personal Identification and Determination of Gender: A Radiographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Prashant; Singh, Mohit Pal; Mathur, Hemant; Bhuvaneshwari, S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. Aim Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification. Materials and Methods A total of 80 individuals, 40 males and 40 females, between the age ranges of 18-30 years were selected. The selected individuals had their Posterio Anterior (PA) cephalogram performed after taking their informed consent. Right and left areas and the maximum height and width of the frontal sinus were determined and septum patterns were evaluated and both patterns were also combined and compared. The radiographs were taken on Xtropan 2000 OPG X-ray machine with cephalography attachment and KODAK CR 7400 digital radiography system. Mean and SD values of the greatest height and width of frontal sinus in male and female patients were thus evaluated. The mean values of the frontal sinus were greater in males and the left area was larger than the right area, based on student’s t-test at the 5% level of significance. Results The combination of Frontal Sinus Patterns and Nasal Septum Patterns (FP+NSP) were assessed and found that there were nine classifiable patterns in 26 (32.5%) individuals (12 males and 14 females), each of which had common representations in more than one individual. Besides these patterns, there were unique unclassifiable patterns in 54 (67.5%) individuals. Conclusion The present study supports the use of radiographic evaluation of frontal sinus dimensions, frontal sinus patterns, nasal septum deviations and the combination FP+NSP patterns for

  1. Identification of characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements and unsupervised machine learning analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    Edge localized mode (ELM) saturation mechanisms, filament dynamics, and multi-mode interactions require nonlinear models, and validation of nonlinear ELM models requires fast, localized measurements on Alfven timescales. Recently, we investigated characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements from the NSTX/NSTX-U beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system. We applied clustering algorithms from the machine learning domain to ELM time-series data. The algorithms identified two or three groups of ELM events with distinct evolution patterns. In addition, we found that the identified ELM groups correspond to distinct parameter regimes for plasma current, shape, magnetic balance, and density pedestal profile. The observed characteristic evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes suggest genuine variation in the underlying physical mechanisms that influence the evolution of ELM events and motivate nonlinear MHD simulations. Here, we review the previous results for characteristic ELM evolution patterns and parameter regimes, and we report on a new effort to explore the identified ELM groups with 2D BES measurements and nonlinear MHD simulations. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Award Numbers DE-SC0001288 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Identification of aqueous pollen extracts using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Stephan; Merk, Virginia; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous pollen extracts of varying taxonomic relations were analyzed with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by using gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions as SERS substrate. This enables a selective vibrational characterization of the pollen water soluble fraction (mostly cellular components) devoid of the spectral contributions from the insoluble sporopollenin outer layer. The spectra of the pollen extracts are species-specific, and the chemical fingerprints can be exploited to achieve a classification that can distinguish between different species of the same genus. In the simple experimental procedure, several thousands of spectra per species are generated. Using an artificial neural network (ANN), it is demonstrated that analysis of the intrinsic biochemical information of the pollen cells in the SERS data enables the identification of pollen from different plant species at high accuracy. The ANN extracts the taxonomically-relevant information from the data in spite of high intra-species spectral variation caused by signal fluctuations and preparation specifics. The results show that SERS can be used for the reliable characterization and identification of pollen samples. They have implications for improved investigation of pollen physiology and for allergy warning.

  3. Pattern classification of large-scale functional brain networks: identification of informative neuroimaging markers for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Wang, ZhengGe; Zhang, ZhiQiang; Lu, WenLian; Lu, GuangMing; Feng, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    The accurate prediction of general neuropsychiatric disorders, on an individual basis, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a challenging task of great clinical significance. Despite the progress to chart the differences between the healthy controls and patients at the group level, the pattern classification of functional brain networks across individuals is still less developed. In this paper we identify two novel neuroimaging measures that prove to be strongly predictive neuroimaging markers in pattern classification between healthy controls and general epileptic patients. These measures characterize two important aspects of the functional brain network in a quantitative manner: (i) coordinated operation among spatially distributed brain regions, and (ii) the asymmetry of bilaterally homologous brain regions, in terms of their global patterns of functional connectivity. This second measure offers a unique understanding of brain asymmetry at the network level, and, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously used in pattern classification of functional brain networks. Using modern pattern-recognition approaches like sparse regression and support vector machine, we have achieved a cross-validated classification accuracy of 83.9% (specificity: 82.5%; sensitivity: 85%) across individuals from a large dataset consisting of 180 healthy controls and epileptic patients. We identified significantly changed functional pathways and subnetworks in epileptic patients that underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of the impaired cognitive functions. Specifically, we find that the asymmetry of brain operation for epileptic patients is markedly enhanced in temporal lobe and limbic system, in comparison with healthy individuals. The present study indicates that with specifically designed informative neuroimaging markers, resting-state fMRI can serve as a most promising tool for clinical diagnosis, and also shed light onto the physiology

  4. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  5. Neural Networks and other Techniques for Fault Identification and Isolation of Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innocenti, M.; Napolitano, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fault identification, isolation, and accomodation have become critical issues in the overall performance of advanced aircraft systems. Neural Networks have shown to be a very attractive alternative to classic adaptation methods for identification and control of non-linear dynamic systems. The purpose of this paper is to show the improvements in neural network applications achievable through the use of learning algorithms more efficient than the classic Back-Propagation, and through the implementation of the neural schemes in parallel hardware. The results of the analysis of a scheme for Sensor Failure, Detection, Identification and Accommodation (SFDIA) using experimental flight data of a research aircraft model are presented. Conventional approaches to the problem are based on observers and Kalman Filters while more recent methods are based on neural approximators. The work described in this paper is based on the use of neural networks (NNs) as on-line learning non-linear approximators. The performances of two different neural architectures were compared. The first architecture is based on a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) NN trained with the Extended Back Propagation algorithm (EBPA). The second architecture is based on a Radial Basis Function (RBF) NN trained with the Extended-MRAN (EMRAN) algorithms. In addition, alternative methods for communications links fault detection and accomodation are presented, relative to multiple unmanned aircraft applications.

  6. NEW 3D TECHNIQUES FOR RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION OF CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    New three-dimensional quantitative structure activity (3-D QSAR) techniques for prioritizing chemical inventories for endocrine activity will be presented. The Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) approach permits identification of common steric and/or electronic patterns associate...

  7. Recognition of surface lithologic and topographic patterns in southwest Colorado with ADP techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhorn, W. N.; Sinnock, S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of ERTS-1 multispectral data by automatic pattern recognition procedures is applicable toward grappling with current and future resource stresses by providing a means for refining existing geologic maps. The procedures used in the current analysis already yield encouraging results toward the eventual machine recognition of extensive surface lithologic and topographic patterns. Automatic mapping of a series of hogbacks, strike valleys, and alluvial surfaces along the northwest flank of the San Juan Basin in Colorado can be obtained by minimal man-machine interaction. The determination of causes for separable spectral signatures is dependent upon extensive correlation of micro- and macro field based ground truth observations and aircraft underflight data with the satellite data.

  8. Interferometric, holographic techniques for Y-Ba-Cu-O film patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Blyablin, A.A.; Feoktistov, V.A.; Kovalev, A.S.; Korneev, V.V.; Okhrimenko, V.N.; Popov, A.M.; Seleznev, B.V. ); Snigirev, O.V. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a laser single-pulse heating process developed for the reversible patterning of the YBCO thin films. The lattice, consist of superconducting and non-superconducting lines was fabricated on area 4 {times} 4 mm{sup 2}. The period of lattice depends on optical scheme and ranged between 1.5 and 40 {mu}m. A 1.06 {mu}m YAG laser provided 0.2-0.3 J/cm{sup 2} power density at the film surface with pulse duration 10-15 ns and coherence length close to 15 cm was used for the patterning in the usual interferometric scheme with the splitted beams.

  9. Graphing evolutionary pattern and process: a history of techniques in archaeology and paleobiology.

    PubMed

    Lyman, R Lee

    2009-02-01

    Graphs displaying evolutionary patterns are common in paleontology and in United States archaeology. Both disciplines subscribed to a transformational theory of evolution and graphed evolution as a sequence of archetypes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. U.S. archaeologists in the second decade of the twentieth century, and paleontologists shortly thereafter, developed distinct graphic styles that reflected the Darwinian variational model of evolution. Paleobiologists adopted the view of a species as a set of phenotypically variant individuals and graphed those variations either as central tendencies or as histograms of frequencies of variants. Archaeologists presumed their artifact types reflected cultural norms of prehistoric artisans and the frequency of specimens in each type reflected human choice and type popularity. They graphed cultural evolution as shifts in frequencies of specimens representing each of several artifact types. Confusion of pattern and process is exemplified by a paleobiologist misinterpreting the process illustrated by an archaeological graph, and an archaeologist misinterpreting the process illustrated by a paleobiological graph. Each style of graph displays particular evolutionary patterns and implies particular evolutionary processes. Graphs of a multistratum collection of prehistoric mammal remains and a multistratum collection of artifacts demonstrate that many graph styles can be used for both kinds of collections.

  10. Immobilization, stabilization, and patterning techniques for enzyme-based sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flounders, A. William; Carichner, Scott C.; Singh, Anup K.; Volponi, Joanne V.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Wally, Karl

    1997-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently opened the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL) in Livermore, Calif. to address the detection needs of a variety of government agencies (e.g., Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Agriculture) as well as provide a fertile environment for the cooperative development of new industrial technologies. This laboratory consolidates a variety of existing chemical and radiation detection efforts and enables Sandia to expand into the novel area of biochemically based sensors. One aspect of our biosensor effort is further development and optimization of enzyme modified field effect transistors (EnFETs). Recent work has focused upon covalent attachment of enzymes to silicon dioxide and silicon nitride surfaces for EnFET fabrication. We are also investigating methods to pattern immobilized proteins; a critical component for development of array-based sensor systems. Novel enzyme stabilization procedures are key to patterning immobilized enzyme layers while maintaining enzyme activity. Results related to maximized enzyme loading, optimized enzyme activity and fluorescent imaging of patterned surfaces are presented.

  11. Identification of mongoose (genus: Herpestes) species from hair through band pattern studies using discriminate functional analysis (DFA) and microscopic examination.

    PubMed

    Sahajpal, Vivek; Goyal, S P; Raza, R; Jayapal, R

    2009-09-01

    India is home to seven species of mongoose (Herpestes sp). Mongooses are being poached primarily for their hair, which is used in the production of painting and shaving brushes. Prior to September 2002, mongooses were listed under Schedule-IV of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 (India). Indiscriminate poaching of the mongoose created an immediate threat to their survival and hence mongooses have now been placed under Schedule-II of the Wildlife (Protection) Act-1972 (India). In order to convict a person under this legislation, species identification of case related samples is necessary. Four species of mongoose i.e. H. edwardsii, H. smithii, H. palustris and H. urva were characterised by performing discriminate functional analysis (DFA) on measurements of their dorsal guard hair banding pattern and by microscopic hair characteristics (Cuticular, medullar and cross section). It was possible to distinguish between the four species studied, based on both these methods.

  12. Identification of wood between Phoebe zhennan and Machilus pingii using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry direct injection technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Zhu, Tao; Li, Jingya; Liu, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the technique of direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was employed to discriminate between two batches of wood (Phoebe zhennan and Machilus pingii) with characteristic smells. Based on the GC-MS fingerprints obtained, similarities between samples were evaluated via correlation coefficient, hierarchical clustering and characteristic constituents analysis. The results showed that distinct differences in total ion chromatograms existed between the two species of wood and their correlation coefficients were low; however, the relationship between the same species of different batches showed the opposite; meanwhile, the analysis of hierarchical clustering and characteristic constituents also demonstrated an interrelationship. All the analytical methods achieved the goal of identification between the two species of wood, which verified that the technique can be used to identify different species of wood with characteristic smells.

  13. Identification of Mobile Phones Using the Built-In Magnetometers Stimulated by Motion Patterns.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Dimc, Franc; Kamnik, Roman; Steri, Gary; Giuliani, Raimondo; Gentile, Claudio

    2017-04-06

    We investigate the identification of mobile phones through their built-in magnetometers. These electronic components have started to be widely deployed in mass market phones in recent years, and they can be exploited to uniquely identify mobile phones due their physical differences, which appear in the digital output generated by them. This is similar to approaches reported in the literature for other components of the mobile phone, including the digital camera, the microphones or their RF transmission components. In this paper, the identification is performed through an inexpensive device made up of a platform that rotates the mobile phone under test and a fixed magnet positioned on the edge of the rotating platform. When the mobile phone passes in front of the fixed magnet, the built-in magnetometer is stimulated, and its digital output is recorded and analyzed. For each mobile phone, the experiment is repeated over six different days to ensure consistency in the results. A total of 10 phones of different brands and models or of the same model were used in our experiment. The digital output from the magnetometers is synchronized and correlated, and statistical features are extracted to generate a fingerprint of the built-in magnetometer and, consequently, of the mobile phone. A SVM machine learning algorithm is used to classify the mobile phones on the basis of the extracted statistical features. Our results show that inter-model classification (i.e., different models and brands classification) is possible with great accuracy, but intra-model (i.e., phones with different serial numbers and same model) classification is more challenging, the resulting accuracy being just slightly above random choice.

  14. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  15. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-10-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years.

  16. Social Learning Network Analysis Model to Identify Learning Patterns Using Ontology Clustering Techniques and Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firdausiah Mansur, Andi Besse; Yusof, Norazah

    2013-01-01

    Clustering on Social Learning Network still not explored widely, especially when the network focuses on e-learning system. Any conventional methods are not really suitable for the e-learning data. SNA requires content analysis, which involves human intervention and need to be carried out manually. Some of the previous clustering techniques need…

  17. Identification and evaluation of facilitation techniques for decommissioning light water power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Risley, J.F.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to identify practical techniques to facilitate the decommissioning of nuclear power generating facilities. The objective of these ''facilitation techniques'' is to reduce the radioactive exposures and/or volumes of waste generated during the decommissioning process. The report presents the possible facilitation techniques identified during the study and discusses the corresponding facilitation of the decommissioning process. Techniques are categorized by their applicability of being implemented during the three stages of power reactor life: design/construction, operation, or decommissioning. Detailed cost-benefit analyses were performed for each technique to determine the anticipated exposure and/or radioactive waste reduction; the estimated costs for implementing each technique were then calculated. Finally, these techniques were ranked by their effectiveness in facilitating the decommissioning process. This study is a part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of decommissioning policy and its modification of regulations pertaining to the decommissioning process. The findings can be used by the utilities in the planning and establishment of activities to ensure that all objectives of decommissioning will be achieved.

  18. Semi-automated identification of white blood cell using active contour technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Nurhanis Izzati Binti Che; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Razak, Mohd Azhar Bin Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Manual and automated diagnosis can be used to identify the morphology of blood cells. However, the manual diagnosis of the blood cells is time consuming and need hematologist and pathologist experts in order to diagnose diseases. Recently, the automated diagnosis which is require image processing technique are often been used in this area. This paper focuses on image processing technique to do segmentation on the nucleus of white blood cells (WBC). To identify the nucleus region, there are several image processing techniques applied besides the active contour method. The results obtained show that the detection on the edge of the nucleus is almost same as the original image of the nucleus.

  19. Development of a Robust star identification technique for use in attitude determination of the ACE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Rohrbaugh, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is designed to fly in a spin-stabilized attitude. The spacecraft will carry two attitude sensors - a digital fine Sun sensor and a charge coupled device (CCD) star tracker - to allow ground-based determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate. Part of the processing that must be performed on the CCD star tracker data is the star identification. Star data received from the spacecraft must be matched with star information in the SKYMAP catalog to determine exactly which stars the sensor is tracking. This information, along with the Sun vector measured by the Sun sensor, is used to determine the spacecraft attitude. Several existing star identification (star ID) systems were examined to determine whether they could be modified for use on the ACE mission. Star ID systems which exist for three-axis stabilized spacecraft tend to be complex in nature and many require fairly good knowledge of the spacecraft attitude, making their use for ACE excessive. Star ID systems used for spinners carrying traditional slit star sensors would have to be modified to model the CCD star tracker. The ACE star ID algorithm must also be robust, in that it will be able to correctly identify stars even though the attitude is not known to a high degree of accuracy, and must be very efficient to allow real-time star identification. The paper presents the star ID algorithm that was developed for ACE. Results from prototype testing are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm.

  20. Advanced techniques for detection and identification of microbial agents of gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sherry A; Zhang, Hongwei; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Gastroenteritis persists as a worldwide problem, responsible for approximately 2 million deaths annually. Traditional diagnostic methods used in the clinical microbiology laboratory include a myriad of tests, such as culture, microscopy, and immunodiagnostics, which can be labor intensive and suffer from long turnaround times and, in some cases, poor sensitivity. [corrected]. This article reviews recent advances in genomic and proteomic technologies that have been applied to the detection and identification of gastrointestinal pathogens. These methods simplify and speed up the detection of pathogenic microorganisms, and their implementation in the clinical microbiology laboratory has potential to revolutionize the diagnosis of gastroenteritis.

  1. Rapid Identification and Characterization of Francisella by Molecular Biology and Other Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xin-He; Zhao, Long-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is the causative pathogen of tularemia and a Tier 1 bioterror agent on the CDC list. Considering the fact that some subpopulation of the F. tularensis strains is more virulent, more significantly associated with mortality, and therefore poses more threat to humans, rapid identification and characterization of this subpopulation strains is of invaluable importance. This review summarizes the up-to-date developments of assays for mainly detecting and characterizing F. tularensis and a touch of caveats of some of the assays. PMID:27335619

  2. Generation of Homogeneous and Patterned Electron Beams using a Microlens Array Laser-Shaping Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, Aliaksei; Edstrom, Dean; Gai, Wei; Ha, Gwanghui; Piot, Philippe; Power, John; Qiang, Gao; Ruan, Jinhao; Santucci, James; Wisniewski, Eric

    2016-06-01

    In photocathodes the achievable electron-beam parameters are controlled by the laser used to trigger the photoemission process. Non-ideal laser distribution hampers the final beam quality. Laser inhomogeneities, for instance, can be "amplified" by space-charge force and result in fragmented electron beams. To overcome this limitation laser shaping methods are routinely employed. In the present paper we demonstrate the use of simple microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity. We also show that this arrangement can be used to produce transversely-patterned electron beams. Our experiments are carried out at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility.

  3. Pattern matching techniques for correcting low-confidence OCR words in a known context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Glenn; Hauser, Susan E.; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    A commercial OCR system is a key component of a system developed at the National Library of Medicine for the automated extraction of bibliographic fields from biomedical journals. This 5-engine OCR system, while exhibiting high performance overall, does not reliably convert very small characters, especially those that are in italics. As a result, the 'affiliations' field that typically contains such characters in most journals, is not captured accurately, and requires a disproportionately high manual input. To correct this problem, dictionaries have been created from words occurring in this field (e.g., university, department, street addresses, names of cities, etc.) from 230,000 articles already processed. The OCR output corresponding to the affiliation field is then matched against these dictionary entries by approximate string-matching techniques, and the ranked matches are presented to operators for verification. This paper outlines the techniques employed and the results of a comparative evaluation.

  4. Whale Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    R:BASE for DOS, a computer program developed under NASA contract, has been adapted by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory and the College of the Atlantic to provide and advanced computerized photo matching technique for identification of humpback whales. The program compares photos with stored digitized descriptions, enabling researchers to track and determine distribution and migration patterns. R:BASE is a spinoff of RIM (Relational Information Manager), which was used to store data for analyzing heat shielding tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. It is now the world's second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software.

  5. Shortrange Forecasting through Extrapolation of Satellite Imagery Patterns. Part II. Testing Motion Vector Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-10

    AFGL CDC 6600. The first technique was developed by SRI 3 in 1971 as a means to track individual cloud "clusters" (or groups of high video count) and a...occurrence of 19 April 1970 in the midwest, Mo. Wea Rev. 103:217-226. 21 ...... MIECi FI NG BLG BL K . LCr FliJ References 1. Austin, G. L., and Bellon, A

  6. Powerful GC-TOF-MS Techniques for Screening, Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Natural Products.

    PubMed

    S Haglund, Peter; Löfstrand, Karin; Siek, Kevin; Asplund, Lillemor

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS) and gas chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRT) were used to detect and identify halogenated natural products (HNPs) in tissue homogenate, in this case brominated analytes present in a marine snail. Two classes of brominated anthropogenic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dibenzofurans, were analyzed for comparison. Following conventional preparation, the sample was analyzed using GC×GC-TOF-MS. Isotope ratio scripts were used to compile a list of putatively brominated analytes from amongst the thousands of features resolved in the two-dimensional chromatogram. The structured nature of the chromatogram was exploited to propose identifications for several classes of brominated compounds, and include additional candidates that fell marginally outside the script tolerances. The sample was subsequently analyzed by GC-HRT. The high-resolution mass spectral data confirmed many formula assignments, facilitated confident assignment of an alternate formula when an original proposal did not hold, and enabled unknown identification. Identified HNPs include hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDE analogs, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and hydroxyl-PBDDs, permitting the environmental occurrence and fate of such compounds to be studied.

  7. Flow Pattern Identification of Horizontal Two-Phase Refrigerant Flow Using Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-31

    812 × 500 × 546 ~ 2.2 x 108 data points ) to train a neural network. It was proposed that a combina- tion of spatial- and time- averaging together with...For each flow pattern test point (i.e., each heater power and volumetric flow rate combination), 500 tomograms were generated over a sampling period of...running average of εðtÞ was used to determine an acceptable number of data points to estimate hεðtÞi. When the fluctuations in the running average

  8. Most Frequent Errors in Judo Uki Goshi Technique and the Existing Relations among Them Analysed through T-Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Alfonso; Prieto, Iván; Cancela, José M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a tool, based on the knowledge of technical errors, which helps to improve the teaching and learning process of the Uki Goshi technique. With this aim, we set out to determine the most frequent errors made by 44 students when performing this technique and how these mistakes relate. In order to do so, an observational analysis was carried out using the OSJUDO-UKG instrument and the data were registered using Match Vision Studio (Castellano, Perea, Alday and Hernández, 2008). The results, analyzed through descriptive statistics, show that the absence of a correct initial unbalancing movement (45,5%), the lack of proper right-arm pull (56,8%), not blocking the faller’s body (Uke) against the thrower’s hip -Tori- (54,5%) and throwing the Uke through the Tori’s side are the most usual mistakes (72,7%). Through the sequencial analysis of T-Patterns obtained with the THÈME program (Magnusson, 1996, 2000) we have concluded that not blocking the body with the Tori’s hip provokes the Uke’s throw through the Tori’s side during the final phase of the technique (95,8%), and positioning the right arm on the dorsal region of the Uke’s back during the Tsukuri entails the absence of a subsequent pull of the Uke’s body (73,3%). Key Points In this study, the most frequent errors in the performance of the Uki Goshi technique have been determined and the existing relations among these mistakes have been shown through T-Patterns. The SOBJUDO-UKG is an observation instrument for detecting mistakes in the aforementioned technique. The results show that those mistakes related to the initial imbalancing movement and the main driving action of the technique are the most frequent. The use of T-Patterns turns out to be effective in order to obtain the most important relations among the observed errors. PMID:24474885

  9. [Application of Raman spectroscopic technique to the identification and investigation of Chinese ancient jades and jade artifacts].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Xia; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2009-11-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopic technique is one of the essential methods in scientific archaeological research, which belongs to the nondestructive analysis. As a very good nondestructive analysis approach, it has not been widely applied in the research of the Chinese ancient jade artifacts. First of all in the present paper the fundamentals of laser Raman spectroscopic technique and the new research progress in this field were reviewed. Secondly, the Raman spectra of five familiar jades including nephrite (mainly composed of tremolite), Xiuyan Jade (mainly composed of serpentine), Dushan Jade (mainly composed of anorthite and Zoisite), turquoise and lapis lazuli were summarized respectively. As for an example, the Raman spectra of the four Chinese ancient jade artifacts excavated from Liangzhu Site of Zhejiang Province and Yinxu Site of Anyang in Henan Province were compared with that of the nephrite sample in Hetian of Xinjiang Province. It was shown that the Raman spectroscopic technique is a good nondestructive approach to the identification and investigation of the structures and mineral composition of Chinese ancient jade artifacts. Finally, the limitations and the foreground of this technique were discussed.

  10. A data mining technique for discovering distinct patterns of hand signs: implications in user training and computer interface design.

    PubMed

    Ye, Nong; Li, Xiangyang; Farley, Toni

    2003-01-15

    Hand signs are considered as one of the important ways to enter information into computers for certain tasks. Computers receive sensor data of hand signs for recognition. When using hand signs as computer inputs, we need to (1) train computer users in the sign language so that their hand signs can be easily recognized by computers, and (2) design the computer interface to avoid the use of confusing signs for improving user input performance and user satisfaction. For user training and computer interface design, it is important to have a knowledge of which signs can be easily recognized by computers and which signs are not distinguishable by computers. This paper presents a data mining technique to discover distinct patterns of hand signs from sensor data. Based on these patterns, we derive a group of indistinguishable signs by computers. Such information can in turn assist in user training and computer interface design.

  11. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Otto M P; Migotto, Alvaro E

    2014-03-18

    Beroe forskalii Milne Edwards, 1841 is an oceanic ctenophore with a global distribution. The present study provides the first record of Beroe forskalii for the South American Atlantic coast, including a redescription of the species and a discussion on the utility of macrociliary patterns for the correct identification of at least some beroid species, exemplified by a comparison of the macrociliary patterns of Beroe forskalii and Beroe ovata (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821).

  12. Computed Tomography Image Origin Identification based on Original Sensor Pattern Noise and 3D Image Reconstruction Algorithm Footprints.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuping; Bouslimi, Dalel; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2016-06-08

    In this paper, we focus on the "blind" identification of the Computed Tomography (CT) scanner that has produced a CT image. To do so, we propose a set of noise features derived from the image chain acquisition and which can be used as CT-Scanner footprint. Basically, we propose two approaches. The first one aims at identifying a CT-Scanner based on an Original Sensor Pattern Noise (OSPN) that is intrinsic to the X-ray detectors. The second one identifies an acquisition system based on the way this noise is modified by its 3D image reconstruction algorithm. As these reconstruction algorithms are manufacturer dependent and kept secret, our features are used as input to train an SVM based classifier so as to discriminate acquisition systems. Experiments conducted on images issued from 15 different CT-Scanner models of 4 distinct manufacturers demonstrate that our system identifies the origin of one CT image with a detection rate of at least 94% and that it achieves better performance than Sensor Pattern Noise (SPN) based strategy proposed for general public camera devices.

  13. Spectral pattern classification in lidar data for rock identification in outcrops.

    PubMed

    Campos Inocencio, Leonardo; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Wohnrath Tognoli, Francisco Manoel; de Souza, Marcelo Kehl; da Silva, Reginaldo Macedônio; Gonzaga, Luiz; Blum Silveira, César Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop and implement a method for detection and classification of spectral signatures in point clouds obtained from terrestrial laser scanner in order to identify the presence of different rocks in outcrops and to generate a digital outcrop model. To achieve this objective, a software based on cluster analysis was created, named K-Clouds. This software was developed through a partnership between UNISINOS and the company V3D. This tool was designed to begin with an analysis and interpretation of a histogram from a point cloud of the outcrop and subsequently indication of a number of classes provided by the user, to process the intensity return values. This classified information can then be interpreted by geologists, to provide a better understanding and identification from the existing rocks in the outcrop. Beyond the detection of different rocks, this work was able to detect small changes in the physical-chemical characteristics of the rocks, as they were caused by weathering or compositional changes.

  14. Spectral Pattern Classification in Lidar Data for Rock Identification in Outcrops

    PubMed Central

    Campos Inocencio, Leonardo; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Wohnrath Tognoli, Francisco Manoel; de Souza, Marcelo Kehl; da Silva, Reginaldo Macedônio; Jr, Luiz Gonzaga; Blum Silveira, César Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop and implement a method for detection and classification of spectral signatures in point clouds obtained from terrestrial laser scanner in order to identify the presence of different rocks in outcrops and to generate a digital outcrop model. To achieve this objective, a software based on cluster analysis was created, named K-Clouds. This software was developed through a partnership between UNISINOS and the company V3D. This tool was designed to begin with an analysis and interpretation of a histogram from a point cloud of the outcrop and subsequently indication of a number of classes provided by the user, to process the intensity return values. This classified information can then be interpreted by geologists, to provide a better understanding and identification from the existing rocks in the outcrop. Beyond the detection of different rocks, this work was able to detect small changes in the physical-chemical characteristics of the rocks, as they were caused by weathering or compositional changes. PMID:24701176

  15. Successful medical management of recalcitrant Fusarium solani keratitis: molecular identification and susceptibility patterns.

    PubMed

    Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Erdem, Elif; Yagmur, Meltem; Gumral, Ramazan; Ersoz, Reha; Ilkit, Macit; Harbiyeli, Ibrahim Inan

    2012-09-01

    Fungal keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening infection of the cornea that may be caused by several fungal pathogens. A delay in diagnosis and inadequate treatment may even lead to loss of the affected eye. Fungal keratitis is often misdiagnosed as bacterial keratitis because isolation and identification of the fungal pathogen is difficult and requires experience, and fungal growth in culture requires time. In this report, a 14-year-old boy with recalcitrant Fusarium solani keratitis, unresponsive to initial therapy, is presented. CLSI M38-A2 in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that only amphotericin B (0.5 μg/ml) had potent activity against F. solani; however, fluconazole (>64 μg/ml), itraconazole (>16 μg/ml), voriconazole (8 μg/ml), and posaconazole (>16 μg/ml) had high minimum inhibitory concentrations. In addition, caspofungin (>16 μg/ml) and anidulafungin (>16 μg/ml) exhibited high minimum effective concentrations. Repeated intrastromal voriconazole injections, topical voriconazole, and caspofungin combined with systemic antifungal agents improved of the corneal lesion with a significant increase in visual acuity. Intrastromal voriconazole injection may be used as an adjunctive treatment method for recalcitrant fungal keratitis with no prominent complications. The intrastromal route could be an effective route of administration of antifungal agents, especially for F. solani keratitis, as in this case. A combination of various antifungal agents administered by different routes prevented loss of the eye.

  16. WE-G-204-08: Optimized Digital Radiographic Technique for Lost Surgical Devices/Needle Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, A; Seabrook, G; Brakken, A; Dubois, M; Marn, C; Wilson, C; Jacobson, D; Liu, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Small surgical devices and needles are used in many surgical procedures. Conventionally, an x-ray film is taken to identify missing devices/needles if post procedure count is incorrect. There is no data to indicate smallest surgical devices/needles that can be identified with digital radiography (DR), and its optimized acquisition technique. Methods: In this study, the DR equipment used is a Canon RadPro mobile with CXDI-70c wireless DR plate, and the same DR plate on a fixed Siemens Multix unit. Small surgical devices and needles tested include Rubber Shod, Bulldog, Fogarty Hydrogrip, and needles with sizes 3-0 C-T1 through 8-0 BV175-6. They are imaged with PMMA block phantoms with thickness of 2–8 inch, and an abdomen phantom. Various DR techniques are used. Images are reviewed on the portable x-ray acquisition display, a clinical workstation, and a diagnostic workstation. Results: all small surgical devices and needles are visible in portable DR images with 2–8 inch of PMMA. However, when they are imaged with the abdomen phantom plus 2 inch of PMMA, needles smaller than 9.3 mm length can not be visualized at the optimized technique of 81 kV and 16 mAs. There is no significant difference in visualization with various techniques, or between mobile and fixed radiography unit. However, there is noticeable difference in visualizing the smallest needle on a diagnostic reading workstation compared to the acquisition display on a portable x-ray unit. Conclusion: DR images should be reviewed on a diagnostic reading workstation. Using optimized DR techniques, the smallest needle that can be identified on all phantom studies is 9.3 mm. Sample DR images of various small surgical devices/needles available on diagnostic workstation for comparison may improve their identification. Further in vivo study is needed to confirm the optimized digital radiography technique for identification of lost small surgical devices and needles.

  17. Unconventional low-cost fabrication and patterning techniques for point of care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu; Nguyen, Diep; Chen, Aaron; Lew, Valerie; Khine, Michelle

    2011-04-01

    The potential of rapid, quantitative, and sensitive diagnosis has led to many innovative 'lab on chip' technologies for point of care diagnostic applications. Because these chips must be designed within strict cost constraints to be widely deployable, recent research in this area has produced extremely novel non-conventional micro- and nano-fabrication innovations. These advances can be leveraged for other biological assays as well, including for custom assay development and academic prototyping. The technologies reviewed here leverage extremely low-cost substrates and easily adoptable ways to pattern both structural and biological materials at high resolution in unprecedented ways. These new approaches offer the promise of more rapid prototyping with less investment in capital equipment as well as greater flexibility in design. Though still in their infancy, these technologies hold potential to improve upon the resolution, sensitivity, flexibility, and cost-savings over more traditional approaches.

  18. Discrimination of Beef Samples by Electronic Nose and Pattern Recognition Techniques Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper a study about the possibility of beef characterization with electronic nose is presented. Three beef classes were compared: Piemontese (PIE), Limousin (FRA) and meat from Argentine (ARG). 150 meat samples were put in glass vials and analysed with a commercial electronic nose instrument based on 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors. Sensors response of beef classes seemed to be different. Different supervised and unsupervised pattern recognition procedures were applied to sensors signal: principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Multivariate analysis pointed out promising classification and prediction results. Three clusters (according to the beef classes) can be clearly discriminated in PCA score plot. Statistical parameters from calibration, validation and prediction of PLS-DA model revealed themselves to be indices of a good model. These results demonstrate that electronic nose technology with multivariate analysis models is promising for the rapid determination of differences in meat aroma.

  19. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  20. Investigation of gunshot residue patterns using milli-XRF-techniques: first experiences in casework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin; Neimke, Dieter; Niewöhner, Ludwig

    2010-06-01

    The investigation of gunshot residue (GSR) patterns for shooting range estimation is usually based on visualizing the lead, copper, or nitrocellulose distributions on targets like fabric or adhesive tape by chemographic color tests. The method usually provides good results but has its drawbacks when it comes to the examination of ammunition containing lead-free primers or bloody clothing. A milli-X-ray fluorescence (m-XRF) spectrometer with a large motorized stage can help to circumvent these problems allowing the acquisition of XRF mappings of relatively large areas (up to 20 x 20 cm) in millimeter resolution within reasonable time (2-10 hours) for almost all elements. First experiences in GSR casework at the Forensic Science Institute of the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) have shown, that m-XRF is a useful supplementation for conventional methods in shooting ranges estimation, which helps if there are problems in transferring a GSR pattern to secondary targets (e.g. bloody or stained garments) or if there is no suitable color test available for the element of interest. The resulting elemental distributions are a good estimate for the shooting range and can be evaluated by calculating radial distributions or integrated count rates of irregular shaped regions like pieces of human skin which are too small to be investigated with a conventional WD-XRF spectrometer. Beside a mapping mode the milli-XRF offers also point and line scan modes which can also be utilized in gunshot crime investigations as a quick survey tool to identify bullet holes based on the elements present in the wipe ring.

  1. Fusing modeling techniques to support domain analysis for reuse opportunities identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Susan Main; Mcguire, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Functional modeling techniques or object-oriented graphical representations, which are more useful to someone trying to understand the general design or high level requirements of a system? For a recent domain analysis effort, the answer was a fusion of popular modeling techniques of both types. By using both functional and object-oriented techniques, the analysts involved were able to lean on their experience in function oriented software development, while taking advantage of the descriptive power available in object oriented models. In addition, a base of familiar modeling methods permitted the group of mostly new domain analysts to learn the details of the domain analysis process while producing a quality product. This paper describes the background of this project and then provides a high level definition of domain analysis. The majority of this paper focuses on the modeling method developed and utilized during this analysis effort.

  2. Multidetection Of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Using Immunoarrays and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Salvador, J. P.; Tort, N.; Centi, F.; Marco, M. P.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    A first step towards the multidetection of anabolic androgenic steroids by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) has been performed in this study. This proposal combines an array of classical ELISA assays with different selectivities and multivariate data analysis techniques. Data has been analyzed by principal component analysis in conjunction with a k-nearest line classifier has been used. This proposal allows to detect simultaneously four different compounds in the range of concentration from 10-1.5 to 103 mM with a total rate of 90.6% of correct detection.

  3. Remote spectral identification of surface aggregates by thermal imaging techniques - Progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholen, Douglas E.; Clerke, William H.; Burns, Gregory S.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) has been successfully used for the remote identification of a variety of soil and aggregate deposits in vegetated areas of two states. Over three million cubic meters of gravel deposits were identified from the imagery during a two year period. Verification was accomplished by ground reconnaissance using drilling machinery and by ground instrumentation. The method has been used to differentiate between fine and coarse grained soils, and gravel deposits. The deposits were found to have been naturally sorted according to grain size by depositional processes, providing each deposit with distinct spectral qualities. It was found that the masking effects of relatively dense vegetation were largely overcome by using imagery acquired at higher altitudes above terrain than 9000 meters, due to loss of resolution of the finer detail. The mechanics of image resolution are discussed, a method of data analysis used is described, and sample spectral signatures are illustrated.

  4. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Southwest Caspian Coast, Iran using fingerprinting techniques.

    PubMed

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2016-10-15

    In 2012, a significant number of tar balls occurred along the Southwest coasts of the Caspian Sea (Iran). Several oil fields of Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran might be sources of oil spills and lead to the formation of these tar balls. For source identification, 6 tar ball samples were collected from the Southwest beaches of the Caspian Sea and subjected to fingerprint analysis based on the distribution of the source-specific biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and steranes. Comparing the diagenic ratios revealed that the tar balls were chemically similar and originated from the same source. Results of double ratio plots (e.g., C29/C30 versus ∑C31-C35/C30 and C28 αββ/(C27 αββ+C29 αββ) versus C29 αββ/(C27 αββ+C28 αββ)) in the tar balls and oils from Iran, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan indicated that the tar balls might be the result of spills from Turkmenistan oil. Moreover, principle component analysis (PCA) using biomarker ratios on the tar balls and 20 crude oil samples from different wells of Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkmenistan oils showed that the tar balls collected at the Southwest beaches are highly similar to the Turkmenistan oil but one of the Azerbaijan oils (from Bahar field oils) was found to be also slightly close to the tar balls. The weathering characterizations based on the presence of UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and low/high molecular weight ratios (L/H) of alkanes and PAHs indicated the tar ball samples have been significantly influenced by natural weathering processes such as evaporation, photo-degradation and biodegradation. This is the first study of its kind in Iran to use fingerprinting for source identification of tar balls.

  5. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Theodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modern three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  6. Identification of Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses Using Digital Filter Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the mathematical existence and the numerically-correct identification of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse response functions. Differences between continuous-time and discrete-time system theories, which permit the identification and efficient use of these functions, will be detailed. Important input/output definitions and the concept of linear and nonlinear systems with memory will also be discussed. It will be shown that indicial (step or steady) responses (such as Wagner's function), forced harmonic responses (such as Tbeodorsen's function or those from doublet lattice theory), and responses to random inputs (such as gusts) can all be obtained from an aerodynamic impulse response function. This paper establishes the aerodynamic impulse response function as the most fundamental, and, therefore, the most computationally efficient, aerodynamic function that can be extracted from any given discrete-time, aerodynamic system. The results presented in this paper help to unify the understanding of classical two-dimensional continuous-time theories with modem three-dimensional, discrete-time theories. First, the method is applied to the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation as an example. Next the method is applied to a three-dimensional aeroelastic model using the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code and then to a two-dimensional model using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes code. Comparisons of accuracy and computational cost savings are presented. Because of its mathematical generality, an important attribute of this methodology is that it is applicable to a wide range of nonlinear, discrete-time problems.

  7. Thin-film growth and patterning techniques for small molecular organic compounds used in optoelectronic device applications.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shaurjo; Shalev, Olga; Shtein, Max

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in research and development in organic electronics have resulted in many exciting discoveries and applications, including organic light-emitting devices for information display and illumination, solar cells, photodetectors, chemosensors, and logic. Organic optoelectronic materials are broadly classified as polymeric or small molecular. For the latter category, solvent-free deposition techniques are generally preferred to form well-defined interfaces and improve device performance. This article reviews several deposition and patterning methods for small molecular thin films and devices, including organic molecular beam deposition, vacuum thermal evaporation, organic vapor phase deposition, and organic vapor jet printing, and compares them to several other methods that have been proposed recently. We hope this review provides a compact but informative summary of the state of the art in organic device processing and addresses the various techniques' governing physical principles.

  8. Analyzing ChIP-seq data: preprocessing, normalization, differential identification, and binding pattern characterization.

    PubMed

    Taslim, Cenny; Huang, Kun; Huang, Tim; Lin, Shili

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a high-throughput antibody-based method to study genome-wide protein-DNA binding interactions. ChIP-seq technology allows scientist to obtain more accurate data providing genome-wide coverage with less starting material and in shorter time compared to older ChIP-chip experiments. Herein we describe a step-by-step guideline in analyzing ChIP-seq data including data preprocessing, nonlinear normalization to enable comparison between different samples and experiments, statistical-based method to identify differential binding sites using mixture modeling and local false discovery rates (fdrs), and binding pattern characterization. In addition, we provide a sample analysis of ChIP-seq data using the steps provided in the guideline.

  9. Identification and expression pattern of the chemosensory protein gene family in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gong, Da-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Ping; Lin, Ying; Xia, Qing-You; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

    2007-03-01

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) as well as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been supposed to transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. Compared with OBPs, CSPs are expressed more broadly in various insect tissues. We performed a genome-wide analysis of the candidate CSP gene family in the silkworm. A total of 20 candidate CSPs, including 3 gene fragments and 2 pseudogenes, were characterized based on their conserved cysteine residues and their similarity to CSPs in other insects. Some of these genes were clustered in the silkworm genome. The gene expression pattern of these candidates was investigated using RT-PCR and microarray, and the results showed that these genes were expressed primarily in mature larvae and the adult moth, suggesting silkworm CSPs may be involved in development. The majority of silkworm CSP genes are expressed broadly in tissues including the antennae, head, thorax, legs, wings, epithelium, testes, ovaries, pheromone glands, wing disks, and compound eyes.

  10. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.

  11. Identification of Ind transcription activation and repression domains required for dorsoventral patterning of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Von Ohlen, Tonia L.; Moses, Cade

    2009-01-01

    Specification of cell fates across the dorsoventral axis of the central nervous system in Drosophila involves the subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three domains that give rise to three columns of neural precursor cells called neuroblasts. Ventral nervous system defective (Vnd), Intermediate neuroblasts defective (Ind) and Muscle segment homeobox (Msh) are expressed in the three columns from ventral to dorsal, respectively. The products of these genes play multiple important roles in formation and specification of the embryonic nervous system. Ind for example is known to play roles in two important processes. First, Ind is essential for formation of neuroblasts conjunction with SoxB class transcription factors. Sox class transcription factors are known to specify neural stem cells in vertebrates. Second, Ind plays an important role in patterning the CNS in conjunction with, vnd and msh, which is also similar to how vertebrates pattern their neural tube. This work focuses two important aspects of Ind function. First, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize specific domains within the protein that confer repressor or activator ability. Currently, little is known about the presence of activation or repression domains within Ind. Here we show that transcriptional repression by Ind requires multiple conserved domains within the protein, and that Ind has a transcriptional activation domain. Specifically, we have identified a novel domain, the Pst domain, that has transcriptional repression ability and appears to act independent of interaction with the co-repressor Groucho. This domain is highly conserved among insect species, but is not found in vertebrate Gsh class homeodomain proteins. Second, we show that Ind can and does repress vnd expression, but does so in a stage specific manner. We conclude from this that the function of Ind in regulating vnd expression is one of refinement and maintenance of the dorsal border. PMID:19348939

  12. Pattern of Neurogenesis and Identification of Neuronal Progenitor Subtypes during Pallial Development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of the pallium during evolution has increased dramatically in many different respects. The highest level of complexity is found in mammals, where most of the pallium (cortex) shows a layered organization and neurons are generated during development following an inside-out order, a sequence not observed in other amniotes (birds and reptiles). Species-differences may be related to major neurogenetic events, from the neural progenitors that divide and produce all pallial cells. In mammals, two main types of precursors have been described, primary precursor cells in the ventricular zone (vz; also called radial glial cells or apical progenitors) and secondary precursor cells (called basal or intermediate progenitors) separated from the ventricle surface. Previous studies suggested that pallial neurogenetic cells, and especially the intermediate progenitors, evolved independently in mammalian and sauropsid lineages. In the present study, we examined pallial neurogenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, a representative species of the only group of tetrapods that are anamniotes. The pattern of pallial proliferation during embryonic and larval development was studied, together with a multiple immunohistochemical analysis of putative progenitor cells. We found that there are two phases of progenitor divisions in the developing pallium that, following the radial unit concept from the ventricle to the mantle, finally result in an outside-in order of mature neurons, what seems to be the primitive condition of vertebrates. Gene expressions of key transcription factors that characterize radial glial cells in the vz were demonstrated in Xenopus. In addition, although mitotic cells were corroborated outside the vz, the expression pattern of markers for intermediate progenitors differed from mammals.

  13. Evolutionary characterization of Tembusu virus infection through identification of codon usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Yan, Bing; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-10-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. As reported, TMUV infection has resulted in significant poultry losses, and the virus may also pose a threat to public health. To characterize TMUV evolutionarily and to understand the factors accounting for codon usage properties, we performed, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of codon usage bias for the genomes of 60 TMUV strains. The most recently published TMUV strains were found to be widely distributed in coastal cities of southeastern China. Codon preference among TMUV genomes exhibits a low bias (effective number of codons (ENC)=53.287) and is maintained at a stable level. ENC-GC3 plots and the high correlation between composition constraints and principal component factor analysis of codon usage demonstrated that mutation pressure dominates over natural selection pressure in shaping the TMUV coding sequence composition. The high correlation between the major components of the codon usage pattern and hydrophobicity (Gravy) or aromaticity (Aromo) was obvious, indicating that properties of viral proteins also account for the observed variation in TMUV codon usage. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that CQW1 isolated from Chongqing may have evolved from GX2013H or GX2013G isolated from Guangxi, thus indicating that TMUV likely disseminated from southeastern China to the mainland. Moreover, the preferred codons encoding eight amino acids were consistent with the optimal codons for human cells, indicating that TMUV may pose a threat to public health due to possible cross-species transmission (birds to birds or birds to humans). The results of this study not only have theoretical value for uncovering the characteristics of synonymous codon usage patterns in TMUV genomes but also have significant meaning with regard to the molecular evolutionary tendencies of TMUV.

  14. Identification of lncRNA-associated competing triplets reveals global patterns and prognostic markers for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ning, Shangwei; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Ronghong; Ye, Jingrun; Zhao, Zuxianglan; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Tingting; Guo, Zheng; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can interact with microRNAs (miRNAs) and indirectly regulate miRNA targets though competing interactions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions are still largely unknown. In this study, these lncRNA–miRNA–gene interactions were defined as lncRNA-associated competing triplets (LncACTs), and an integrated pipeline was developed to identify lncACTs that are active in cancer. Competing lncRNAs had sponge features distinct from non-competing lncRNAs. In the lncACT cross-talk network, disease-associated lncRNAs, miRNAs and coding-genes showed specific topological patterns indicative of their competence and control of communication within the network. The construction of global competing activity profiles revealed that lncACTs had high activity specific to cancers. Analyses of clustered lncACTs revealed that they were enriched in various cancer-related biological processes. Based on the global cross-talk network and cluster analyses, nine cancer-specific sub-networks were constructed. H19- and BRCA1/2-associated lncACTs were able to discriminate between two groups of patients with different clinical outcomes. Disease-associated lncACTs also showed variable competing patterns across normal and cancer patient samples. In summary, this study uncovered and systematically characterized global properties of human lncACTs that may have prognostic value for predicting clinical outcome in cancer patients. PMID:25800746

  15. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  16. System and Method of Animal Identification and Animal Transaction Authorization Using Iris Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Current U.S. Class: 382/117; 382/116 Intern’l Class: G06K 009/00 Field of Search: 382/110,117,115,116 348/78 351/206,209,218,221 4641349 Feb., 1987 Flom ...purposes. In this regard, reference is made to U.S. Pat. No. 4,641,349, "Iris Recognition System", issued to Flom et al., and U.S. Pat. No. 5,291,560...Wildes et al. and the techniques described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,641,349, "Iris Recognition System", issued to Flom et al., both of which are

  17. Synopsis of supervised and unsupervised pattern classification techniques applied to volcanic tremor data at Mt Etna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, H.; Falsaperla, S.; Masotti, M.; Campanini, R.; Spampinato, S.; Messina, A.

    2009-08-01

    States of volcanic activity at Mt Etna develop in well-defined regimes with variable duration from a few hours to several months. Changes in the regimes are usually concurrent with variations of the characteristics of volcanic tremor, which is continuously recorded as background seismic radiation. This strict relationship is useful for monitoring volcanic activity in any moment and in whatever condition. We investigated the development of tremor features and its relation to regimes of volcanic activity applying pattern classification techniques. We present results from supervised and unsupervised classification methods applied to 425 patterns of volcanic tremor recorded between 2001 July and August, when a volcano unrest occurred. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) were used as pattern classifiers with supervised learning. For the SVM and MLP training, we considered four target classes, that is, pre-eruptive, lava fountains, eruptive and post-eruptive. Using a leave one out testing scheme, SVM reached a score of 94.8 per cent of patterns matching the actual class membership, whereas MLP achieved 81.9 per cent of matching patterns. The excellent results, in particular those obtained with SVM, confirmed the reproducibility of the a priori classification. Unsupervised classification was carried out using cluster analysis (CA) and self-organizing maps (SOM). The clusters identified in unsupervised classification formed well-defined regimes, which can be easily related to the four a priori classes aforementioned. Besides, CA found a further cluster concurrent with the climax of eruptive activity. Applying a proper colour-coding to the microclusters (the so-called best matching units) identified by SOM, it was visually possible to follow the development of the characteristics of the tremor data with time, highlighting transitional stages from a regime of volcanic activity to another one. We conclude that supervised and unsupervised

  18. Rapid Screening and Species Identification of E. Coli, Listeria, and Salmonella by SERS Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Techniques for routine and rapid screening of the presence of foodborne bacteria are needed, and this study reports the feasibility of citrate-reduced silver colloidal SERS for identifying E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of SERS spectra from silver colloidal susp...

  19. Modal shape identification of large structure exposed to wind excitation by operational modal analysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vivo, A.; Brutti, C.; Leofanti, J. L.

    2013-08-01

    Research efforts during recent decades qualify Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) as an interesting tool that is able to identify the modal characteristic parameters of structures excited randomly by environmental loads, eliminating the problem of measuring the external exciting forces. In this paper, an existing OMA technique, the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) was studied and implemented in order to achieve, from the wind force, the modal parameters of Vega Launcher, the new European launcher vehicle for small and medium satellites. Following a brief summary of the fundamental equations of the method, the modal parameters of Vega are calculated using the OMA technique; the results are then compared with those achieved using a traditional Experimental Modal Analysis under excitation induced by shakers. The comparison shows there is a very good agreement between the results obtained by the two different methods, OMA and the traditional experimental analysis, proving that OMA is a reliable tool to analyse the dynamic behaviour of large structures. Finally, this approach can be used for any type of large structure in civil and mechanical fields and the technique appears to be very promising for further applications.

  20. Automated identification of peristaltic pressure waves in oesophageal manometry investigations using the rolling correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Perring, S; Jones, E

    2009-11-01

    We have implemented the technique of rolling correlation coefficient as proposed by Buttfield and Bolton (2005 Real time measurement of RR intervals using a digital signal processor J. Med. Eng. Technol. 29 8-13) for ECG R-wave detection in the detection and timing of oesophageal peristalsis. 43 sequential patients attending for oesophageal manometry were retrospectively reviewed. Two expert reviewers visually assessed each swallow for normality of peristaltic amplitude and propagation speed. Automatic assessment was performed using rolling correlation, maximum amplitude, threshold and maximum gradient techniques of identifying onset of peristalsis. Rolling correlation was comparable with the maximum amplitude technique at identifying peristaltic pressure waves visually identified as present. Rolling correlation was most effective at correctly identifying propagation velocity as normal (698 out of 845 normally propagating waves) and highest correlation with expert visual assessment of percentage abnormal propagation for each patient (R value 0.918). In a sub-group of 11 studies assessed as displaying normal motility, rolling correlation gave lowest variation of propagation speed and highest consistency with visual assessment. The rolling correlation technique is effective and accurate at identifying oesophageal peristalsis and characterizing peristaltic propagation in manometric studies even in the presence of abnormally weak peristalsis and other confounding pressure perturbations.

  1. Detecting Patterns of Land Use Disturbance at a Watershed Scale: A Study of the Navarro River Watershed using Hyperspectral Data Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viers, J. H.; Florsheim, J.; Ramirez, C. M.; Quinn, J. F.; Johnson, M. L.; Kozlowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    Analysis of hyperspectral data is a particularly novel approach to investigation of the relation between anthropogenic and natural disturbances, geomorphic responses, and ecosystem patterns at the watershed scale. During July 2000, hyperspectral imagery was collected for the Navarro basin (820km2) using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). This NASA sensor covers the spectral wavelength range from 400nm - 2500nm, with spectral sampling of 10nm in 224 contiguous channels, and spatial resolution of 5m. These data are being analyzed for a variety of applications; however, their use for detecting patterns of disturbance within the watershed is intriguing, especially for the identification and delineation of mass wasting sites that deliver sediment to salmon bearing streams. Mass wasting sites were extracted from AVIRIS imagery using image processing techniques such as Minimum Noise Fraction and Tasseled Cap transformations, image segmentation and masking. These geospatial and spectral data were analyzed for the North Fork of the Navarro River, a sub-basin where spawning habitat for threatened coho salmon is effected by accelerated sediment delivery. Additionally, fieldwork verified the spatial position and dimensions of mass-wasting sites identified from aerial photography. A subset of 1066 identified sites was used for assessing feature extraction error from the AVIRIS imagery; the remaining sites were used for model verification. Augmenting these data within GIS, a multivariate analysis incorporated: proximity to salmon bearing streams; hillslope gradient; landslide position; and timber harvesting to identify patterns of disturbance. Preliminary results indicate that AVIRIS imagery can be segmented to identify exposed soil; furthermore, these identified areas are typically lower elevation, moderately steep hillslopes in constricted river valleys and correspond with mapped delivery sites. Hyperspectral data provide a means for the detection of

  2. Cerebral blood flow studied by Xenon-133 inhalation technique in parkinsonism: loss of hyperfrontal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Bes, A.; Gueell, A.; Fabre, N.; Dupui, P.; Victor, G.; Geraud, G.

    1983-03-01

    Cerebral blood flow (grey matter flow) in parkinsonism requires further investigation. The noninvasive method of /sup 133/Xe inhalation permits study of larger numbers of subjects than previously used invasive techniques such as the intracarotid /sup 133/Xe injection method. Measurements were made in this laboratory in 30 subjects having Parkinson's disease. Mean hemispheric blood flow (F1) values were 70.4 +/- 9.3 ml/100 g/min, compared to 76.3 for a group of age-matched normal subjects, which is a decrease of -7.8%. The most striking difference was the loss of the hyperfrontal distribution in parkinsonism. The prefrontal F1 values were only 1.8% greater than the hemisphere grey matter flow, compared with 8.5% in controls of a similar age group.

  3. Influence of Radiotherapy Technique and Dose on Patterns of Failure for Mesothelioma Patients After Extrapleural Pneumonectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Aaron M. . E-mail: aallen@lroc.harvard.edu; Den, Robert; Wong, Julia S.; Zurakowski, David; Soto, Ricardo; Jaenne, Pasi A.; Zellos, Lambros; Bueno, Raphael; Sugarbaker, David J.; Baldini, Elizabeth H.

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is an effective treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. We compared the outcomes after moderate-dose hemithoracic radiotherapy (MDRT) and high-dose hemithoracic RT (HDRT) after EPP for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods and Materials: Between July 1994 and April 2004, 39 patients underwent EPP and adjuvant RT at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital. Between 1994 and 2002, MDRT, including 30 Gy to the hemithorax, 40 Gy to the mediastinum, and boosts to positive margins or nodes to 54 Gy, was given, generally with concurrent chemotherapy. In 2003, HDRT to 54 Gy with a matched photon/electron technique was given, with sequential chemotherapy. Results: A total of 39 patients underwent RT after EPP. The median age was 59 years (range, 44-77). The histologic type was epithelial in 25 patients (64%) and mixed or sarcomatoid in 14 patients (36%). Of the 39 patients, 24 underwent MDRT and 15 (39%) HDRT. The median follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-71). The median overall survival was 19 months (95% confidence interval, 14-24). The median time to distant failure (DF) and local failure (LF) was 20 months (95% confidence interval, 14-26) and 26 months (95% confidence interval, 16-36), respectively. On univariate and multivariate analyses, only a mixed histologic type was predictive of inferior DF (p <0.006) and overall survival (p <0.004). The RT technique was not predictive of LF, DF, or overall survival. The LF rate was 50% (12 of 24) after MDRT and 27% (4 of 15) after HDRT (p = NS). Four patients who had undergone HDRT were alive and without evidence of disease at the last follow-up. Conclusions: High-dose hemithoracic RT appears to limit in-field LF compared with MDRT. However, DF remains a significant challenge, with one-half of our patients experiencing DF.

  4. Extending applicability of cluster based pattern recognition with efficient approximation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.F.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1997-03-01

    The fundamental goal of this research has been to improve computational efficiency of the Visually Empirical Region of Influence (VERI) based clustering and pattern recognition (PR) algorithms we developed in previous work. The original clustering algorithm, when applied to data sets with N points, ran in time proportional to N{sup 3} (denoted with the notation O (N{sup 3})), which limited the size of data sets it could find solutions for. Results generated from our original clustering algorithm were superior to commercial clustering packages. These results warranted our efforts to improve the runtimes of our algorithms. This report describes the new algorithms, advances and obstacles met in their development. The report gives qualitative and quantitative analysis of the improved algorithms performances. With the information in this report, an interested user can determine which algorithm is best for a given problem in clustering (2-D) or PR (K-D), and can estimate how long it will run using the runtime plots of the algorithms before using any software.

  5. Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

  6. Pattern recognition techniques for visualizing the biotropic waveform of air temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozheredov, V. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that long periods of adverse weather have a negative effect on the human cardiovascular system. A number of studies have set a lower limit of around 5 days for the duration of these periods. However, the specific features of the negative dynamics of the main weather characteristics—air temperature and atmospheric pressure—remained open. To address this problem, the present paper proposes a conjunctive method of the theory of pattern recognition. It is shown that this method approaches a globally optimal (in the sense of recognition errors) Neumann critical region and can be used to solve various problems in heliobiology. To illustrate the efficiency of this method, we show that some quickly relaxing short sequences of temperature and pressure time series (the so-called temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes) increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and can lead to serious organic lesions (particularly myocardial infarction). It is established that the temperature waves and waves of atmospheric pressure changes increase the average morbidity rate of myocardial infarction by 90% and 110%, respectively. Atmospheric pressure turned out to be a more biotropic factor than air temperature.

  7. Comparison of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for detecting additive methamidophos in rotenone preparation by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guo; Tian, Kuangda; Song, Xiangzhong; Xiong, Yanmei; Min, Shungeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, different supervised pattern recognition methods have been applied to detect the manually additive methamidophos in rotenone preparation. The aim of this paper was to examine the performances of different supervised pattern recognition techniques: soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), artificial neutral networks (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM). The results obtained show that SVM is the most effective techniques with 100.0% classification accuracy followed by ANN, PLS-DA and with the accuracy of 97.5% and 93.3% respectively while SIMCA yields the poorest result of 85.8%. We hope that the results obtained in this study will help both further chemometric investigations and investigations in the sphere of applied vibrational spectroscopy of sophisticated multicomponent systems. Furthermore, the use of portable instrument and satisfactory classification also indicated the possibility of detecting illicit-addition at scene by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy which makes a great sense in pesticide quality control.

  8. Identification and expression pattern analysis of Piwi genes during the spermiogenesis of Portunus trituberculatus.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dong-Fang; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Hou, Cong-Cong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2014-01-25

    The Piwi genes have an important role in stem cell development, gametogenesis and RNA interference in diverse organisms. So far, most of the studies have focused on the function of Piwis in vertebrates, but their function during spermiogenesis in invertebrates still remains largely unclear. In order to investigate the function of Piwis during spermiogenesis in the crab Portunus trituberculatus, we use RT-PCR and RACE to identify three Piwi complete cDNA sequences from the total RNA of the testis in P. trituberculatus. The deduced amino acid sequences of P. trituberculatus Piwi-1, Piwi-2 and Piwi-3 showed that each contains a well-conserved PAZ domain and PIWI domain. RT-PCR analyzed the tissue expression pattern of P. trituberculatus Piwi-1, Piwi-2 and Piwi-3 in the testis, heart, muscle, hepatopancreas and gill. All of the Piwis are found in germ cells of adult testis in P. trituberculatus by in situ hybridization, suggesting that these genes may play function during spermiogenesis in this species.

  9. Identification of Intellectual Disability Genes in Female Patients with a Skewed X-Inactivation Pattern.

    PubMed

    Fieremans, Nathalie; Van Esch, Hilde; Holvoet, Maureen; Van Goethem, Gert; Devriendt, Koenraad; Rosello, Monica; Mayo, Sonia; Martinez, Francisco; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Vermeesch, Joris R; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous disorder with an unknown molecular etiology in many cases. Previously, X-linked ID (XLID) studies focused on males because of the hemizygous state of their X chromosome. Carrier females are generally unaffected because of the presence of a second normal allele, or inactivation of the mutant X chromosome in most of their cells (skewing). However, in female ID patients, we hypothesized that the presence of skewing of X-inactivation would be an indicator for an X chromosomal ID cause. We analyzed the X-inactivation patterns of 288 females with ID, and found that 22 (7.6%) had extreme skewing (>90%), which is significantly higher than observed in the general population (3.6%; P = 0.029). Whole-exome sequencing of 19 females with extreme skewing revealed causal variants in six females in the XLID genes DDX3X, NHS, WDR45, MECP2, and SMC1A. Interestingly, variants in genes escaping X-inactivation presumably cause both XLID and skewing of X-inactivation in three of these patients. Moreover, variants likely accounting for skewing only were detected in MED12, HDAC8, and TAF9B. All tested candidate causative variants were de novo events. Hence, extreme skewing is a good indicator for the presence of X-linked variants in female patients.

  10. Systematic identification of genes with a cancer-testis expression pattern in 19 cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Gu, Yayun; Zhang, Kai; Xie, Kaipeng; Zhu, Meng; Dai, Ningbin; Jiang, Yue; Guo, Xuejiang; Liu, Mingxi; Dai, Juncheng; Wu, Linxiang; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Jiang, Tao; Yin, Rong; Xia, Yankai; Liu, Li; Wang, Shouyu; Shen, Bin; Huo, Ran; Wang, Qianghu; Xu, Lin; Yang, Liuqing; Huang, Xingxu; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Hu, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) genes represent the similarity between the processes of spermatogenesis and tumorigenesis. It is possible that their selective expression pattern can help identify driver genes in cancer. In this study, we integrate transcriptomics data from multiple databases and systematically identify 876 new CT genes in 19 cancer types. We explore their relationship with testis-specific regulatory elements. We propose that extremely highly expressed CT genes (EECTGs) are potential drivers activated through epigenetic mechanisms. We find mutually exclusive associations between EECTGs and somatic mutations in mutated genes, such as PIK3CA in breast cancer. We also provide evidence that promoter demethylation and close non-coding RNAs (namely, CT-ncRNAs) may be two mechanisms to reactivate EECTG gene expression. We show that the meiosis-related EECTG (MEIOB) and its nearby CT-ncRNA have a role in tumorigenesis in lung adenocarcinoma. Our findings provide methods for identifying epigenetic-driver genes of cancer, which could serve as targets of future cancer therapies. PMID:26813108

  11. Identification and expression pattern of candidate olfactory genes in Chrysoperla sinica by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Si-Bao; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2015-09-01

    Chrysoperla sinica is one of the most prominent natural enemies of many agricultural pests. Host seeking in insects is strongly mediated by olfaction. Understanding the sophisticated olfactory system of insect antennae is crucial for studying the physiological bases of olfaction and could also help enhance the effectiveness of C. sinica in biological control. Obtaining olfactory genes is a research priority for investigating the olfactory system in this species. However, no olfaction sequence information is available for C. sinica. Consequently, we sequenced female- and male-antennae transcriptome of C. sinica. Many candidate chemosensory genes were identified, including 12 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 19 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 37 odorant receptors (ORs), and 64 ionotropic receptors from C. sinica. The expression patterns of 12 OBPs, 19 CSPs and 37 ORs were determined by RT-PCR, and demonstrated antennae-dominantly expression of most OBP and OR genes. Our finding provided large scale genes for further investigation on the olfactory system of C. sinica at the molecular level.

  12. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  13. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    PubMed

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  14. Analytical techniques for identification and study of organic matter in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The results of geochemical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the contribution of mass spectrometric data to the solution of specific structural problems. Information on the mass spectrometric behavior of compounds of geochemical interest is reviewed and currently available techniques of particular importance to geochemistry, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer coupling, modern sample introduction methods, and computer application in high resolution mass spectrometry, receive particular attention.

  15. Environmental Hazard Identification Technique Developing of Territorial Administrations Strategy as Exemplified in Siberian Federal District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Garmishev, V. V.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This work, on the example of the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation, presents a method for determining mass airbursts of combustion gaseous eco-toxicants, as a technique for assessing the contributory environmental load on the atmosphere. Potential environmental hazards are analyzed by mass of contaminated airbursts. A comparison of specific gross toxicants’ emissions in territorial entities of the Russian Federation is made.

  16. FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Scully, M O; Kattawar, G W; Lucht, R P; Opatrny, T; Pilloff, H; Rebane, A; Sokolov, A V; Zubairy, M S

    2002-08-20

    Airborne contaminants, e.g., bacterial spores, are usually analyzed by time-consuming microscopic, chemical, and biological assays. Current research into real-time laser spectroscopic detectors of such contaminants is based on e.g., resonance fluorescence. The present approach derives from recent experiments in which atoms and molecules are prepared by one (or more) coherent laser(s) and probed by another set of lasers. However, generating and using maximally coherent oscillation in macromolecules having an enormous number of degrees of freedom is challenging. In particular, the short dephasing times and rapid internal conversion rates are major obstacles. However, adiabatic fast passage techniques and the ability to generate combs of phase-coherent femtosecond pulses provide tools for the generation and utilization of maximal quantum coherence in large molecules and biopolymers. We call this technique FAST CARS (femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy), and the present article proposes and analyses ways in which it could be used to rapidly identify preselected molecules in real time.

  17. FAST CARS: Engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores

    PubMed Central

    Scully, M. O.; Kattawar, G. W.; Lucht, R. P.; Opatrný, T.; Pilloff, H.; Rebane, A.; Sokolov, A. V.; Zubairy, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne contaminants, e.g., bacterial spores, are usually analyzed by time-consuming microscopic, chemical, and biological assays. Current research into real-time laser spectroscopic detectors of such contaminants is based on e.g., resonance fluorescence. The present approach derives from recent experiments in which atoms and molecules are prepared by one (or more) coherent laser(s) and probed by another set of lasers. However, generating and using maximally coherent oscillation in macromolecules having an enormous number of degrees of freedom is challenging. In particular, the short dephasing times and rapid internal conversion rates are major obstacles. However, adiabatic fast passage techniques and the ability to generate combs of phase-coherent femtosecond pulses provide tools for the generation and utilization of maximal quantum coherence in large molecules and biopolymers. We call this technique FAST CARS (femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy), and the present article proposes and analyses ways in which it could be used to rapidly identify preselected molecules in real time. PMID:12177405

  18. Bolt-loosening identification of bolt connections by vision image-based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong; Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Ryu, Joo-Young; Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an algorithm using image processing techniques is proposed to identify bolt-loosening in bolted connections of steel structures. Its basic concept is to identify rotation angles of nuts from a pictured image, and is mainly consisted of the following 3 steps: (1) taking a picture for a bolt joint, (2) segmenting the images for each nut by image processing techniques, and (3) identifying rotation angle of each nut and detecting bolt-loosening. By using the concept, an algorithm is designed for continuous monitoring and inspection of the bolt connections. As a key imageprocessing technique, Hough transform is used to identify rotation angles of nuts, and then bolt-loosening is detected by comparing the angles before and after bolt-loosening. Then the applicability of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by experimental tests for two lab-scaled models. A bolted joint model which consists of a splice plate and 8 sets of bolts and nuts with 2×4 array is used to simulate inspection of bridge connections, and a model which is consisted of a ring flange and 32 sets of bolt and nut is used to simulate continuous monitoring of bolted connections in wind turbine towers.

  19. A Waveform Library Technique for Multi-Site Identification with the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buuck, Micah; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a low-background array of 44.8 kg of germanium detectors searching for neutrinoless double-beta (0 νββ) decay in germanium-76, deployed 4,850 feet underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, USA. We aim to demonstrate background levels low enough to justify construction of a ton-scale experiment which will be able to fully probe the inverted-hierarchy region of the 0 νββ decay phase-space. In addition to reducing background through materials selection and experimental design, we are developing a range of analysis-based background-suppression techniques. One example is a waveform-library-based technique to reject background multi-site interactions. Here we present an overview of the technique and its current status. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  20. Intelligent feature selection techniques for pattern classification of Lamb wave signals

    SciTech Connect

    Hinders, Mark K.; Miller, Corey A.

    2014-02-18

    Lamb wave interaction with flaws is a complex, three-dimensional phenomenon, which often frustrates signal interpretation schemes based on mode arrival time shifts predicted by dispersion curves. As the flaw severity increases, scattering and mode conversion effects will often dominate the time-domain signals, obscuring available information about flaws because multiple modes may arrive on top of each other. Even for idealized flaw geometries the scattering and mode conversion behavior of Lamb waves is very complex. Here, multi-mode Lamb waves in a metal plate are propagated across a rectangular flat-bottom hole in a sequence of pitch-catch measurements corresponding to the double crosshole tomography geometry. The flaw is sequentially deepened, with the Lamb wave measurements repeated at each flaw depth. Lamb wave tomography reconstructions are used to identify which waveforms have interacted with the flaw and thereby carry information about its depth. Multiple features are extracted from each of the Lamb wave signals using wavelets, which are then fed to statistical pattern classification algorithms that identify flaw severity. In order to achieve the highest classification accuracy, an optimal feature space is required but it’s never known a priori which features are going to be best. For structural health monitoring we make use of the fact that physical flaws, such as corrosion, will only increase over time. This allows us to identify feature vectors which are topologically well-behaved by requiring that sequential classes “line up” in feature vector space. An intelligent feature selection routine is illustrated that identifies favorable class distributions in multi-dimensional feature spaces using computational homology theory. Betti numbers and formal classification accuracies are calculated for each feature space subset to establish a correlation between the topology of the class distribution and the corresponding classification accuracy.

  1. Intelligent feature selection techniques for pattern classification of Lamb wave signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinders, Mark K.; Miller, Corey A.

    2014-02-01

    Lamb wave interaction with flaws is a complex, three-dimensional phenomenon, which often frustrates signal interpretation schemes based on mode arrival time shifts predicted by dispersion curves. As the flaw severity increases, scattering and mode conversion effects will often dominate the time-domain signals, obscuring available information about flaws because multiple modes may arrive on top of each other. Even for idealized flaw geometries the scattering and mode conversion behavior of Lamb waves is very complex. Here, multi-mode Lamb waves in a metal plate are propagated across a rectangular flat-bottom hole in a sequence of pitch-catch measurements corresponding to the double crosshole tomography geometry. The flaw is sequentially deepened, with the Lamb wave measurements repeated at each flaw depth. Lamb wave tomography reconstructions are used to identify which waveforms have interacted with the flaw and thereby carry information about its depth. Multiple features are extracted from each of the Lamb wave signals using wavelets, which are then fed to statistical pattern classification algorithms that identify flaw severity. In order to achieve the highest classification accuracy, an optimal feature space is required but it's never known a priori which features are going to be best. For structural health monitoring we make use of the fact that physical flaws, such as corrosion, will only increase over time. This allows us to identify feature vectors which are topologically well-behaved by requiring that sequential classes "line up" in feature vector space. An intelligent feature selection routine is illustrated that identifies favorable class distributions in multi-dimensional feature spaces using computational homology theory. Betti numbers and formal classification accuracies are calculated for each feature space subset to establish a correlation between the topology of the class distribution and the corresponding classification accuracy.

  2. Determination and identification of synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites in different matrices by modern analytical techniques - a review.

    PubMed

    Znaleziona, Joanna; Ginterová, Pavlína; Petr, Jan; Ondra, Peter; Válka, Ivo; Ševčík, Juraj; Chrastina, Jan; Maier, Vítězslav

    2015-05-18

    Synthetic cannabinoids have gained popularity due to their easy accessibility and psychoactive effects. Furthermore, they cannot be detected in urine by routine drug monitoring. The wide range of active ingredients in analyzed matrices hinders the development of a standard analytical method for their determination. Moreover, their possible side effects are not well known which increases the danger. This review is focused on the sample preparation and the determination of synthetic cannabinoids in different matrices (serum, urine, herbal blends, oral fluid, hair) published since 2004. The review includes separation and identification techniques, such as thin layer chromatography, gas and liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, mostly coupled with mass spectrometry. The review also includes results by spectral methods like infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance or direct-injection mass spectrometry.

  3. Simultaneous virus identification and characterization of severe unexplained pneumonia cases using a metagenomics sequencing technique.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Tang, Guangpeng; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Yan; Chen, Tao; Lei, Mingyu; Chen, Wenbing; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenfei; Zhuang, Li; Yang, Jing; Feng, Zhaomin; Wang, Dayan; Wang, Dingming; Shu, Yuelong

    2017-03-01

    Many viruses can cause respiratory diseases in humans. Although great advances have been achieved in methods of diagnosis, it remains challenging to identify pathogens in unexplained pneumonia (UP) cases. In this study, we applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and a metagenomic approach to detect and characterize respiratory viruses in UP cases from Guizhou Province, China. A total of 33 oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from hospitalized UP patients and subjected to NGS. An unbiased metagenomic analysis pipeline identified 13 virus species in 16 samples. Human rhinovirus C was the virus most frequently detected and was identified in seven samples. Human measles virus, adenovirus B 55 and coxsackievirus A10 were also identified. Metagenomic sequencing also provided virus genomic sequences, which enabled genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis. For cases of multiple infection, metagenomic sequencing afforded information regarding the quantity of each virus in the sample, which could be used to evaluate each viruses' role in the disease. Our study highlights the potential of metagenomic sequencing for pathogen identification in UP cases.

  4. Identification of immunoglobulins using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition with feature selection technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hua; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Immunoglobulins, also called antibodies, are a group of cell surface proteins which are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance (called antigen). They play key roles in many medical, diagnostic and biotechnological applications. Correct identification of immunoglobulins is crucial to the comprehension of humoral immune function. With the avalanche of protein sequences identified in postgenomic age, it is highly desirable to develop computational methods to timely identify immunoglobulins. In view of this, we designed a predictor called "IGPred" by formulating protein sequences with the pseudo amino acid composition into which nine physiochemical properties of amino acids were incorporated. Jackknife cross-validated results showed that 96.3% of immunoglobulins and 97.5% of non-immunoglobulins can be correctly predicted, indicating that IGPred holds very high potential to become a useful tool for antibody analysis. For the convenience of most experimental scientists, a web-server for IGPred was established at http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/IGPred. We believe that the web-server will become a powerful tool to study immunoglobulins and to guide related experimental validations.

  5. Identification of active root zone by data assimilation techniques: monitoring and modelling of irrigation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busato, Laura; Vanella, Daniela; Boaga, Jacopo; Manoli, Gabriele; Marani, Marco; Putti, Mario; Consoli, Simona; Binley, Andrew M.; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The identification of active root distribution and the quantification of relevant water fluxes (root water uptake-RWU) are key elements in understanding the exchanges of mass and energy in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. In this contribution we present the assimilation of 3D time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data, acquired around an orange tree during irrigation experiments, in a soil-plant model that accounts for soil moisture dynamics and root water uptake (RWU), whole plant transpiration, and leaf-level photosynthesis. The model is based on a numerical solution to the 3D Richards equation modified to account for a 3D RWU, trunk xylem, and stomatal conductances. The data assimilation procedure, assisted also by independent information concerning the soil properties, aims specifically at identifying the distribution and strength of active roots modelled as sinks in the unsaturated flow model. In addition the flow model is enhanced by a forward electrical current model in order to predict the electrical response measured by ERT in dependence of the soil water content distribution. Strengths and weaknesses of the proposed approach are discussed.

  6. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013.

  7. [Raman spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods for rapid identification of crude soybean oil adulteration].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Ning; Wu, Yan-Wen; Wang, Yu; Zu, Wen-Chuan; Chen, Shun-Cong

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, a non-destructive, simple and rapid analytical method was proposed based on Raman spectroscopy (Raman) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM) as pattern recognition methods for adulteration of crude soybean oil (CSO). Based on fingerprint characteristics of Raman, the spectra of 28 CSOs, 46 refined edible oils (REOs) and 110 adulterated oil samples were analyzed and used for discrimination model establishment. The preprocessing methods include choosing spectral band of 780-1,800 cm(-1), Y-axis intensity correction, baseline correction and normalization in succession. After those series of spectral pretreatment, PCA was usually employed for extracting characteristic variables of all Raman spectral data and 7 principal components which were the highest contributions of all data were used as var- iables for SVM model. The SVM discrimination model was established by randomly picking 20 CSOs and 95 adulterated oils as calibration set, and 8 CSOs and 35 adulterated oils as validation set. There were 4 kinds of kernel function algorithm (linear, polynomial, RBF, sigmoid) respectively used for establishing SVM models and grid-search for optimization of parameters of all the SVM models. The classification results of 4 models were compared by their discrimination performances and the optimal SVM model was based on linear kernel classification algorithm with 100% accuracy rate of calibration set recognition, a zero misjudgment rate and the lowest detection limit of 2.5%. The above results showed that Raman combined PCA-SVM could discriminate CSO adulteration with refined edible oils. Since Raman spectroscopy is simple, rapid, non-destructive, environment friendly, and suitable for field testing, it will provide an alternative method for edible oil adulteration analysis.

  8. Identification of tissue-specific cell death using methylation patterns of circulating DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Werman, Roni; Neiman, Daniel; Zemmour, Hai; Moss, Joshua; Magenheim, Judith; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi; Rubertsson, Sten; Nellgård, Bengt; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty; Haller, Michael J.; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Schatz, Desmond A.; Greenbaum, Carla J.; Dorrell, Craig; Grompe, Markus; Zick, Aviad; Hubert, Ayala; Maoz, Myriam; Fendrich, Volker; Bartsch, Detlef K.; Golan, Talia; Ben Sasson, Shmuel A.; Zamir, Gideon; Razin, Aharon; Cedar, Howard; Shapiro, A. M. James; Glaser, Benjamin; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive detection of cell death could prove an invaluable resource in many physiologic and pathologic situations. Cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from dying cells is emerging as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cancer dynamics and graft failure. However, existing methods rely on differences in DNA sequences in source tissues, so that cell death cannot be identified in tissues with a normal genome. We developed a method of detecting tissue-specific cell death in humans based on tissue-specific methylation patterns in cfDNA. We interrogated tissue-specific methylome databases to identify cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures and developed a method to detect these signatures in mixed DNA samples. We isolated cfDNA from plasma or serum of donors, treated the cfDNA with bisulfite, PCR-amplified the cfDNA, and sequenced it to quantify cfDNA carrying the methylation markers of the cell type of interest. Pancreatic β-cell DNA was identified in the circulation of patients with recently diagnosed type-1 diabetes and islet-graft recipients; oligodendrocyte DNA was identified in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis; neuronal/glial DNA was identified in patients after traumatic brain injury or cardiac arrest; and exocrine pancreas DNA was identified in patients with pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the tissue origins of cfDNA and thus the rate of death of specific cell types can be determined in humans. The approach can be adapted to identify cfDNA derived from any cell type in the body, offering a minimally invasive window for diagnosing and monitoring a broad spectrum of human pathologies as well as providing a better understanding of normal tissue dynamics. PMID:26976580

  9. Identification of airborne radioactive spatial patterns in Europe - Feasibility study using Beryllium-7.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Cinelli, G; Tollefsen, T; Marín-Ferrer, M

    2016-05-01

    The present study proposes a methodology to identify spatial patterns in airborne radioactive particles in Europe. The methodology is based on transforming the activity concentrations in the set of stations for each month (monthly index), due to the tightly spaced sampling intervals (daily to monthly), in combination with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering approaches, due to the lack of a priori knowledge of the number of clusters to be created. Three different hierarchical cluster methodologies are explored to set the optimal number of clusters necessary to initialize the non-hierarchical one (k-means). To evaluate this methodology, cosmogenic beryllium-7 ((7)Be) data, collected between 2007 and 2010 at 19 sampling stations in European Union (EU) countries and stored in the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database, are used. This methodology yields a solution with three distinguishable clusters (south, central and north), each with a different evolution of the (7)Be monthly index. Clear differences between monthly indices are shown in both intensity and time trends, following a latitudinal distribution of the sampling stations. This cluster result is evaluated performing ANOVA analysis, considering the original (7)Be activity concentrations grouped in each cluster. The statistical results (among clusters and sampling stations within clusters) confirm the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe, and, hence, reinforce the use of this methodology. Finally, the impact of tropopause height on this grouping is successfully tested, suggesting its influence on the spatial distribution of (7)Be in Europe. For airborne radioactive particles the analysis gave valuable results that improve knowledge of these atmospheric compounds in Europe. Hence, this work addresses a methodology to a grouping of airborne sampling stations, 1) allowing a better understanding of the distribution of (7)Be activity concentrations in the EU, and 2) serving as a basis for

  10. Identification of metal elements by time-resolved LIBS technique in sediments lake the “Cisne”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, P.; Arregui, E.; Álvarez, J.; Rangel, N.; Sarmiento, R.

    2017-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), is a kind of spectral method of atomic emission that uses pulses of radiation high energy laser as excitation source. One of the advantages of technical LIBS lies in the possibility of analyse the substances in any State of aggregation, already is solid, liquid or gaseous, even in colloids as aerosols, gels and others. Another advantage over other conventional techniques is the simultaneous analysis of elements present in a sample of multielement. This work is made in the use of this technique for the identification of metal pollutants in the Swan Lake sediment samples, collected by drilling cores. Plasmas were generated by focusing the radiation of Nd: YAG laser with an energy per pulse 13mJ and 4ns duration, wavelength of 532nm. The spectra of radiation from the plasmas of sediment were recorded with an Echelle spectrograph type coupled to an ICCD camera. The delay times were between 0.5μs and 7μs, while the gate width was of 2μs. To ensure the homogeneity of the plasmas, the sediment sample was placed in a positioning system of linear and rotary adjustment of smooth step synchronized with the trigger of the laser pulse. The registration of the spectra of the sediment to different times of delay, allowed to identify the lines prominent of the different elements present in the sample. The analysis of the Spectra allowed the identification of some elements in the sample as if, Ca, Na, Mg, and Al through the measurement of wavelengths of the prominent peaks.

  11. Identification and interpretation of patterns in rocket engine data: Artificial intelligence and neural network approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Moonis; Whitehead, Bruce; Gupta, Uday K.; Ferber, Harry

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system which is designed to perform automatic data analysis, identify anomalous events, and determine the characteristic features of these events. We have employed both artificial intelligence and neural net approaches in the design of this expert system. The artificial intelligence approach is useful because it provides (1) the use of human experts' knowledge of sensor behavior and faulty engine conditions in interpreting data; (2) the use of engine design knowledge and physical sensor locations in establishing relationships among the events of multiple sensors; (3) the use of stored analysis of past data of faulty engine conditions; and (4) the use of knowledge-based reasoning in distinguishing sensor failure from actual faults. The neural network approach appears promising because neural nets (1) can be trained on extremely noisy data and produce classifications which are more robust under noisy conditions than other classification techniques; (2) avoid the necessity of noise removal by digital filtering and therefore avoid the need to make assumptions about frequency bands or other signal characteristics of anomalous behavior; (3) can, in effect, generate their own feature detectors based on the characteristics of the sensor data used in training; and (4) are inherently parallel and therefore are potentially implementable in special-purpose parallel hardware.

  12. Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques for Rapid Identification of Arabidopsis Mutants with Altered Leaf Pigment Status

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Osamu; Tanaka, Ayako; Fujita, Takao; Iba, Koh

    2012-01-01

    The spectral reflectance signature of living organisms provides information that closely reflects their physiological status. Because of its high potential for the estimation of geomorphic biological parameters, particularly of gross photosynthesis of plants, two-dimensional spectroscopy, via the use of hyperspectral instruments, has been widely used in remote sensing applications. In genetics research, in contrast, the reflectance phenotype has rarely been the subject of quantitative analysis; its potential for illuminating the pathway leading from the gene to phenotype remains largely unexplored. In this study, we employed hyperspectral imaging techniques to identify Arabidopsis mutants with altered leaf pigment status. The techniques are comprised of two modes; the first is referred to as the ‘targeted mode’ and the second as the ‘non-targeted mode’. The ‘targeted’ mode is aimed at visualizing individual concentrations and compositional parameters of leaf pigments based on reflectance indices (RIs) developed for Chls a and b, carotenoids and anthocyanins. The ‘non-targeted’ mode highlights differences in reflectance spectra of leaf samples relative to reference spectra from the wild-type leaves. Through the latter approach, three mutant lines with weak irregular reflectance phenotypes, that are hardly identifiable by simple observation, were isolated. Analysis of these and other mutants revealed that the RI-based targeted pigment estimation was robust at least against changes in trichome density, but was confounded by genetic defects in chloroplast photorelocation movement. Notwithstanding such a limitation, the techniques presented here provide rapid and high-sensitive means to identify genetic mechanisms that coordinate leaf pigment status with developmental stages and/or environmental stress conditions. PMID:22470059

  13. Rapid identification of multiple supernumerary ring chromosomes with a new FISH technique.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie-Ogilvie, C; Waddle, K; Mandeville, J; Seller, M J; Docherty, Z

    1997-01-01

    Multiple supernumerary ring chromosomes are a rare cytogenetic finding which is poorly understood. With the introduction of FISH techniques, their chromosomal origin can now be defined clearly. The techniques described previously are complicated and time consuming. We report a new rapid technique which has been used to investigate two new cases. Multiple probes were hybridised to a single slide by means of marking the underside with a diamond pen to form a grid of squares, pipetting fixed cell suspension into the centre of each square, forming a rubber solution grid on the denatured, dehydrated slide following the lines on the underside, adding a mixture of probes into each square, and sealing the slide with a silicone rubber rim and a covering slide. The type of probe and the size, dimensions, and number of squares in the grid can be tailored to individual cases. The two new cases examined here are mosaic for three (case 1) and four (case 2) supernumerary ring chromosomes derived from different chromosomes. Normal cell lines were also present. The karyotypes were established as 47,XY,+r(4)/47,XY,+r(17)/.../48,XY,+r(17),+r(20)/ 49,XY,+r(4),+r(17),+r(20)/46,XY for case 1 and 47,XX,+r(4)/47,XX,+r(8)/47,XX,+r (10)/48,XX,+r(X),+r(4)/... /49,XX,+r(X),+r (8),+r(10)/46,XX for case 2. Our findings suggest that the ring chromosomes were formed during meiosis, perhaps involving complex rearrangements, resulting in a germ cell containing all markers, with subsequent loss of markers during cell division. Our second case also shows that the outcome is not invariably mental or physical handicap. Images PMID:9391885

  14. Sensing and identification of carbon monoxide using carbon films fabricated by methane arc discharge decomposition technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials have recently received attention in electronic applications and measurement systems. In this work, we demonstrate the electrical behavior of carbon films fabricated by methane arc discharge decomposition technique. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon films are investigated in the presence and absence of gas. The experiment reveals that the current passing through the carbon films increases when the concentration of CO2 gas is increased from 200 to 800 ppm. This phenomenon which is a result of conductance changes can be employed in sensing applications such as gas sensors. PMID:25177219

  15. Identification of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Using Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis-Assisted Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Delgado, F.; Marín, E.; Calderón, A.

    2013-09-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis against bacteria that are dangerous for human health has been investigated in the past, suggesting the possibility of using a specific behavior for each microorganism during this process for its discrimination. In this study, the behavior of some plants’ growth promoting bacteria ( Burkholderia unamae (Strain MTI 641), Acetobacter diazotrophicus (Strain PAl 5T), A. diazotrophicus (Strain CFN-Cf 52), and B. unamae (Strain TATl-371)) interacting with light and bactericidal titanium dioxide films have been analyzed using the photoacoustic technique. The monitoring of these interactions shows particular characteristics that could serve for identifying these species.

  16. Novelty detection technique with SLV for identification of core properties in honeycombs and cellular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Fabrizio; Manson, Graeme; Ruzzene, M.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a Novelty-based detection technique to identify core material properties of honeycombs and cellular structures. A numerical model (FE) representing full scale and/or reduced size of the cellular solid is used to generate transmissibilities between topological points at cells in different locations, with a statistical Gaussian distribution of the core material property target variable. The numerical set of transmissibilities is then used in a Novelty detection framework to find Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances from analogous data from a point excitation experimental test carried out with SLV.

  17. A Combination of Receptor-Based Pharmacophore Modeling & QM Techniques for Identification of Human Chymase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Arooj, Mahreen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Kim, Songmi; Arulalapperumal, Venkatesh; Lee, Keun Woo

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of chymase is likely to divulge therapeutic ways for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, and fibrotic disorders. To find novel and potent chymase inhibitors and to provide a new idea for drug design, we used both ligand-based and structure-based methods to perform the virtual screening(VS) of commercially available databases. Different pharmacophore models generated from various crystal structures of enzyme may depict diverse inhibitor binding modes. Therefore, multiple pharmacophore-based approach is applied in this study. X-ray crystallographic data of chymase in complex with different inhibitors were used to generate four structure–based pharmacophore models. One ligand–based pharmacophore model was also developed from experimentally known inhibitors. After successful validation, all pharmacophore models were employed in database screening to retrieve hits with novel chemical scaffolds. Drug-like hit compounds were subjected to molecular docking using GOLD and AutoDock. Finally four structurally diverse compounds with high GOLD score and binding affinity for several crystal structures of chymase were selected as final hits. Identification of final hits by three different pharmacophore models necessitates the use of multiple pharmacophore-based approach in VS process. Quantum mechanical calculation is also conducted for analysis of electrostatic characteristics of compounds which illustrates their significant role in driving the inhibitor to adopt a suitable bioactive conformation oriented in the active site of enzyme. In general, this study is used as example to illustrate how multiple pharmacophore approach can be useful in identifying structurally diverse hits which may bind to all possible bioactive conformations available in the active site of enzyme. The strategy used in the current study could be appropriate to design drugs for other enzymes as well. PMID:23658661

  18. An empirical comparison of stock identification techniques applied to striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldman, John R.; Richards, R. Anne; Schill, W. Bane; Wirgin, Isaac; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1997-01-01

    Managers of migratory striped bass stocks that mix along the Atlantic coast of the USA require periodic estimates of the relative contributions of the individual stocks to coastal mixed- stock fisheries; however, to date, a standard approach has not been adopted. We compared the performances of alternative stock identification approaches, using samples taken from the same sets of fish. Reference (known) samples were collected from three Atlantic coast spawning systems: the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, and the Roanoke River. Striped bass of mixed-stock origin were collected from eastern Long Island, New York, and were used as test (unknown) samples. The approaches applied were discriminant analysis of morphometric data and of meristic data, logistic regression analysis of combined meristic and morphometric data, discriminant analysis of scale-shape features, discriminant analysis of immunoassay data, and mixed-stock analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data. Overall correct classification rates of reference samples ranged from 94% to 66% when just the Hudson and Chesapeake stocks were considered and were comparable when the Chesapeake and Roanoke stocks were grouped as the ''southern'' stock. When all three stocks were treated independently, correct classification rates ranged from 82% to 49%. Despite the moderate range in correct classification rates, bias due to misallocation was relatively low for all methods, suggesting that resulting stock composition estimates should be fairly accurate. However, relative contribution estimates for the mixed-stock sample varied widely (e.g., from 81% to 47% for the Hudson River stock, when only the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay stocks were considered). Discrepancies may be related to the reliance by all of these approaches (except mtDNA) on phenotypic features. Our results support future use of either a morphometrics-based approach (among the phenotypic methods) or a genotypic approach based on mtDNA analysis. We further

  19. Classification-based data mining for identification of risk patterns associated with hypertension in Middle Eastern population

    PubMed Central

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Kabir, Ali; Pournik, Omid; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a critical public health concern worldwide. Identification of risk factors using traditional multivariable models has been a field of active research. The present study was undertaken to identify risk patterns associated with hypertension incidence using data mining methods in a cohort of Iranian adult population. Data on 6205 participants (44% men) age > 20 years, free from hypertension at baseline with no history of cardiovascular disease, were used to develop a series of prediction models by 3 types of decision tree (DT) algorithms. The performances of all classifiers were evaluated on the testing data set. The Quick Unbiased Efficient Statistical Tree algorithm among men and women and Classification and Regression Tree among the total population had the best performance. The C-statistic and sensitivity for the prediction models were (0.70 and 71%) in men, (0.79 and 71%) in women, and (0.78 and 72%) in total population, respectively. In DT models, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, age, and waist circumference significantly contributed to the risk of incident hypertension in both genders and total population, wrist circumference and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose among women and fasting plasma glucose among men. In men, the highest hypertension risk was seen in those with SBP > 115 mm Hg and age > 30 years. In women those with SBP > 114 mm Hg and age > 33 years had the highest risk for hypertension. For the total population, higher risk was observed in those with SBP > 114 mm Hg and age > 38 years. Our study emphasizes the utility of DTs for prediction of hypertension and exploring interaction between predictors. DT models used the easily available variables to identify homogeneous subgroups with different risk pattern for the hypertension. PMID:27583845

  20. Identification of novel antibacterial peptides isolated from a commercially available casein hydrolysate by autofocusing technique.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Hend A; Abdou, Adham M; Nakamura, Yasushi; Park, Eun Young; Mohamed, Hamdi A; Sato, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Autofocusing, as a simple and safe technique, was used to fractionate casein hydrolysate based on the amphoteric nature of its peptides. The antibacterial activity of casein hydrolysate and its autofocusing fractions (A1-10) was examined against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The basic fraction A9 exhibited the highest activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 150 μg/mL, whereas casein hydrolysate showed MIC values ranging from 2000 to 8000 μg/mL. The antibacterial peptides in A9 were purified by using a series of size exclusion and reversed phase chromatographies. Three peptides exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 100 μg/mL. These peptides were generated from α(s2)-casein, α(s1)-casein, and κ-casein and identified as K165 KISQRYQKFALPQYLKTVYQHQK188, I6KHQGLPQEV15, and T136EAVESTVATL146, respectively. Therefore, the results revealed that casein hydrolysate had potent antibacterial peptides that could be isolated by autofocusing technique.

  1. Comparative analysis of system identification techniques for nonlinear modeling of the neuron-microelectrode junction.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saad Ahmad; Thakore, Vaibhav; Behal, Aman; Bölöni, Ladislau; Hickman, James J

    2013-03-01

    Applications of non-invasive neuroelectronic interfacing in the fields of whole-cell biosensing, biological computation and neural prosthetic devices depend critically on an efficient decoding and processing of information retrieved from a neuron-electrode junction. This necessitates development of mathematical models of the neuron-electrode interface that realistically represent the extracellular signals recorded at the neuroelectronic junction without being computationally expensive. Extracellular signals recorded using planar microelectrode or field effect transistor arrays have, until now, primarily been represented using linear equivalent circuit models that fail to reproduce the correct amplitude and shape of the signals recorded at the neuron-microelectrode interface. In this paper, to explore viable alternatives for a computationally inexpensive and efficient modeling of the neuron-electrode junction, input-output data from the neuron-electrode junction is modeled using a parametric Wiener model and a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive network with eXogenous input trained using a dynamic Neural Network model (NARX-NN model). Results corresponding to a validation dataset from these models are then employed to compare and contrast the computational complexity and efficiency of the aforementioned modeling techniques with the Lee-Schetzen technique of cross-correlation for estimating a nonlinear dynamic model of the neuroelectronic junction.

  2. Statistical signal processing technique for identification of different infected sites of the diseased lungs.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Accurate Diagnosis of lung disease depends on understanding the sounds emanating from lung and its location. Lung sounds are of significance as they supply precise and important information on the health of the respiratory system. In addition, correct interpretation of breath sounds depends on a systematic approach to auscultation; it also requires the ability to describe the location of abnormal finding in relation to bony structures and anatomic landmark lines. Lungs consist of number of lobes; each lung lobe is further subdivided into smaller segments. These segments are attached to each other. Knowledge of the position of the lung segments is useful and important during the auscultation and diagnosis of the lung diseases. Usually the medical doctors give the location of the infection a segmental position reference. Breath sounds are auscultated over the anterior chest wall surface, the lateral chest wall surfaces, and posterior chest wall surface. Adventitious sounds from different location can be detected. It is common to seek confirmation of the sound detection and its location using invasive and potentially harmful imaging diagnosis techniques like x-rays. To overcome this limitation and for fast, reliable, accurate, and inexpensive diagnose a technique is developed in this research for identifying the location of infection through a computerized auscultation system.

  3. Comparative analysis of system identification techniques for nonlinear modeling of the neuron-microelectrode junction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saad Ahmad; Thakore, Vaibhav; Behal, Aman; Bölöni, Ladislau; Hickman, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Applications of non-invasive neuroelectronic interfacing in the fields of whole-cell biosensing, biological computation and neural prosthetic devices depend critically on an efficient decoding and processing of information retrieved from a neuron-electrode junction. This necessitates development of mathematical models of the neuron-electrode interface that realistically represent the extracellular signals recorded at the neuroelectronic junction without being computationally expensive. Extracellular signals recorded using planar microelectrode or field effect transistor arrays have, until now, primarily been represented using linear equivalent circuit models that fail to reproduce the correct amplitude and shape of the signals recorded at the neuron-microelectrode interface. In this paper, to explore viable alternatives for a computationally inexpensive and efficient modeling of the neuron-electrode junction, input-output data from the neuron-electrode junction is modeled using a parametric Wiener model and a Nonlinear Auto-Regressive network with eXogenous input trained using a dynamic Neural Network model (NARX-NN model). Results corresponding to a validation dataset from these models are then employed to compare and contrast the computational complexity and efficiency of the aforementioned modeling techniques with the Lee-Schetzen technique of cross-correlation for estimating a nonlinear dynamic model of the neuroelectronic junction.

  4. Rapid screening and species identification of E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella by SERS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongliang; Chao, Kuanglin; Kim, Moon S.; Nou, Xiangwu

    2008-04-01

    Techniques for routine and rapid screening of the presence of foodborne bacteria are needed, and this study reports the feasibility of citrate-reduced silver colloidal SERS for identifying E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of SERS spectra from silver colloidal suspensions and ratios of P-O SERS peaks from small molecule (K3PO4) were used to assess the reproducibility, stability, and binding effectiveness of citrate-reduced silver colloids over batch and storage process. The results suggested the reproducibility of silver colloids over batch process and also stability and consistent binding effectiveness over 60-day storage period. Notably, although silver colloidal nanoparticles were stable for at least 90 days, their binding effectiveness began to decrease slightly after 60-day storage, with a binding reduction of about 12% at 90th day. Colloidal silver SERS, as demonstrated here, could be an important alternative technique in the rapid and simultaneous screening of the presence of three most outbreak bacteria due to the exclusive biomarkers, label-free and easy sampling attribute.

  5. Structural and geomechanical pattern recognition using terrestrial and airborne laser scanner techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, A.; Galgaro, A.; Oppikofer, T.; Metzger, R.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2009-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and aerial laser scanner (ALS) techniques are nowadays fundamental tools in rock instability assessment, since they provide detailed, homogeneous and accurate data in a remote way, allowing fast and safe surveys. As demonstrated in this study, the combination of TLS- and ALS-based data provides a multi-scale picture which enables an analysis of the tectonic influence on local rock instability phenomena. The study site is the Cinque Torri group placed in Eastern Dolomites (Italy), an internationally well known touristic place with an extension of 41.000 m square, constituted by 12 pinnacles (a 13th pinnacle collapsed in 2004) characterized by frequent rock falls mainly induced by deep ground deformation and rock weathering. TLS and ALS data were combined in order to obtain a complete information, respectively on steep and planar surfaces. In particular, an area of about 3.5 km square was considered in ALS acquisition. The calcareous lithology constituting the Cinque Torri group is broken up by different systems of sub-vertical conjugated faults or fractures related to Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonics. Since the discontinuities strongly influence the behaviour of a rock mass, their recognition and characterization are necessary in hazard assessment of rock cliffs instabilities and in numerical stability analysis. In order to obtain spatial distribution of discontinuities, Coltop-3D software was applied. Such a recently developed package is able to perform a detailed structural analysis starting from the original point cloud. Basically, the spatial orientation of each 3D point and its neighbours is computed through the automatic processing of dip angle and dip direction of the associated fitted plane. The poles of the recognized planes are then plotted in common stereo plots and grouped into joint sets to allow the comparison between regional and local tectonic. In this study a common trend among the specific joint sets was found, even if

  6. A new material identification pattern for the fractional Kelvin-Zener model describing biomaterials and human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasic, Dragan T.; Kovincic, Nemanja I.; Dankuc, Dragan V.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe several biomaterials and tissues using a simple material identification pattern applied to the fractional Kelvin-Zener model of viscoelastic body and standard mechanical tests. Each of the descriptions comprises the order of fractional derivative of stress and strain, modulus of elasticity, and stress and strain relaxation constants that obey restrictions imposed by the Clausius-Duhem inequality. These four parameters are obtained by use of the Laplace transform, Post's inversion formula and Newton's method. The suggested approach can serve as an alternative to quasilinear viscoelasticity providing a physically uniform quantitative measure for biomaterials/tissues comparison and can be applied to real data. It works for nonsmooth inputs too. Regarding biomaterials the comparison between an etched poly lactic-co-glycolic acid membrane and the corresponding composite scaffold was made. With respect to human tissues the tympanic membrane, the stapedial tendon, and the stapedial annular ligament were described. The obtained mechanical response for examined cases is in agreement with the experimentally recorded one.

  7. An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: Harmonising techniques for high quality data.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kahru, Anne; Potthoff, Annegret; Drobne, Damjana; Heinlaan, Margit; Böhme, Steffi; Geppert, Mark; Novak, Sara; Schirmer, Kristin; Rekulapally, Rohit; Singh, Shashi; Aruoja, Villem; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Juganson, Katre; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kühnel, Dana

    2016-02-01

    metal ions species in each toxicity test medium at a range of concentrations, and (ii) including soluble metal salt control both in toxicity testing as well as in Ag(+)-species measurements. The present study is among the first nanomaterial interlaboratory comparison studies with the aim to improve the hazard identification testing protocols.

  8. A noise source identification technique using an inverse Helmholtz integral equation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, B. K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is developed which utilizes numerical models and field pressure information to characterize acoustic fields and identify acoustic sources. The numerical models are based on boundary element numerical procedures. Either pressure, velocity, or passive boundary conditions, in the form of impedance boundary conditions, may be imposed on the numerical model. Alternatively, if no boundary information is known, a boundary condition can be left unspecified. Field pressure data may be specified to overdetermine the numerical problem. The problem is solved numerically for the complete sound field from which the acoustic sources may be determined. The model can then be used to idenfify acoustic intensity paths in the field. The solution can be modified and the model used to evaluate design alternatives. In this investigation the method is tested analytically and verified. In addition, the sensitivity of the method to random and bias error in the input data is demonstrated.

  9. Identification techniques for highly boosted W bosons that decay into hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-12-02

    In searches for new physics in the energy regime of the LHC, it is becoming increasingly important to distinguish single-jet objects that originate from the merging of the decay products of W bosons produced with high transverse momenta from jets initiated by single partons. Algorithms are defined to identify such W jets for different signals of interest, using techniques that are also applicable to other decays of bosons to hadrons that result in a single jet, such as those from highly boosted Z and Higgs bosons. The efficiency for tagging W jets is measured in data collected with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The performance of W tagging in data is compared with predictions from several Monte Carlo simulators.

  10. Identification techniques for highly boosted W bosons that decay into hadrons

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-12-02

    In searches for new physics in the energy regime of the LHC, it is becoming increasingly important to distinguish single-jet objects that originate from the merging of the decay products of W bosons produced with high transverse momenta from jets initiated by single partons. Algorithms are defined to identify such W jets for different signals of interest, using techniques that are also applicable to other decays of bosons to hadrons that result in a single jet, such as those from highly boosted Z and Higgs bosons. The efficiency for tagging W jets is measured in data collected with the CMSmore » detector at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The performance of W tagging in data is compared with predictions from several Monte Carlo simulators.« less

  11. TL and ESR based identification of gamma-irradiated frozen fish using different hydrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Frozen fish fillets (walleye Pollack and Japanese Spanish mackerel) were selected as samples for irradiation (0-10 kGy) detection trials using different hydrolysis methods. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL)-based screening analysis for gamma-irradiated frozen fillets showed low sensitivity due to limited silicate mineral contents on the samples. Same limitations were found in the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis on mineral samples isolated by density separation method. However, acid (HCl) and alkali (KOH) hydrolysis methods were effective in getting enough minerals to carry out TL analysis, which was reconfirmed through the normalization step by calculating the TL ratios (TL1/TL2). For improved electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis, alkali and enzyme (alcalase) hydrolysis methods were compared in separating minute-bone fractions. The enzymatic method provided more clear radiation-specific hydroxyapatite radicals than that of the alkaline method. Different hydrolysis methods could extend the application of TL and ESR techniques in identifying the irradiation history of frozen fish fillets.

  12. The value of the Lugol's iodine staining technique for the identification of vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, R; Pregler, C; Schellmann, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the specificity of the Lugol's iodine staining technique for the detection of vaginal epithelial cells on penile swabs. Air-dried swabs taken from the glans of the penis of 153 hospital patients and from 50 healthy volunteers, whose last sexual intercourse had taken place at least 5 days previously, were stained with Lugol's solution. Glycogenated cells were found in more than 50% of the cases studied, even in healthy volunteers without urethritis. In almost all of these cases the smear contained at least a few polygonal nucleated epithelial cells showing an unequivocal positive Lugol reaction. These cells cannot be distinguished from superficial or intermediate vaginal cells, by cytomorphology or staining. Urinary tract infections had no influence on the glycogen content of male squamous epithelial cells. On the basis of these results the Lugol's method can no longer be assumed to prove the presence of vaginal cells in penile swabs.

  13. Identification criteria of the rare multi-flagellate Lophomonas blattarum: comparison of different staining techniques.

    PubMed

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Abdulaziz, Amany Mamdouh

    2015-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary lophomoniasis (BPL) is an emerging disease of potential importance. BPL is presented by non-specific clinical picture and is usually accompanied by immunosuppression. Culture of Lophomonas blattarum is difficult and its molecular diagnosis has not yet been developed. Therefore, microscopic examination of respiratory samples, e.g., bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or sputum, is the mainstay of BPL diagnosis. Creola bodies and ciliocytophthoria are two forms of bronchial cells which occur in chest diseases with non-specific clinical picture like that of BPL. Both forms could be misrecognized as multi-flagellates because of their motile cilia in the wet mounts and due to shape variability of L. blattarum in stained smears. The aim of the study is to compare different staining techniques for visualizing L. blattarum to improve the recognition and diagnosis of BPL, to distinguish respiratory epithelial cells from L. blattarum and to decide which stain is recommended in suspected cases of BPL. BAL samples from patients which contain L. blattarum, creola bodies, and ciliocytophthoria were collected then wet mounts were examined. The BAL samples were also stained by Papanicolaou (PAP), Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin (H & E), trichrome, Gram, and Diff-Quik (DQ) stains. The different staining techniques were compared regarding the stain quality. In wet mounts, the ciliary movement was coordinate and synchronous while the flagellar movement was wavy and leaded to active swimming of L. blattarum. In stained slides, bronchial cells were characterized by the presence of basal nucleus and the terminal bar from which the cilia arise. Trichrome was the best stain in demonstration of cellular details of L. blattarum. H & E, PAP, and Giemsa stains showed good quality of stains. Gram and DQ stains showed only pale hues of L. blattarum. We recommended adding Wheatley's trichrome staining to the differential diagnosis workup of cases of non-specific chest infections

  14. Analysis of culture-dependent versus culture-independent techniques for identification of bacteria in clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P; Erb-Downward, John R; Prescott, Hallie C; Martinez, Fernando J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Lama, Vibha N; Huffnagle, Gary B

    2014-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of pneumonia are limited by the use of culture-based techniques of microbial identification, which may fail to identify unculturable, fastidious, and metabolically active viable but unculturable bacteria. Novel high-throughput culture-independent techniques hold promise but have not been systematically compared to conventional culture. We analyzed 46 clinically obtained bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic lung transplant recipients both by culture (using a clinical microbiology laboratory protocol) and by bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacteria were identified in 44 of 46 (95.7%) BAL fluid specimens by culture-independent sequencing, significantly more than the number of specimens in which bacteria were detected (37 of 46, 80.4%, P ≤ 0.05) or "pathogen" species reported (18 of 46, 39.1%, P ≤ 0.0001) via culture. Identification of bacteria by culture was positively associated with culture-independent indices of infection (total bacterial DNA burden and low bacterial community diversity) (P ≤ 0.01). In BAL fluid specimens with no culture growth, the amount of bacterial DNA was greater than that in reagent and rinse controls, and communities were markedly dominated by select Gammaproteobacteria, notably Escherichia species and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Culture growth above the threshold of 10(4) CFU/ml was correlated with increased bacterial DNA burden (P < 0.01), decreased community diversity (P < 0.05), and increased relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.001). We present two case studies in which culture-independent techniques identified a respiratory pathogen missed by culture and clarified whether a cultured "oral flora" species represented a state of acute infection. In summary, we found that bacterial culture of BAL fluid is largely effective in discriminating acute infection from its absence and identified some specific limitations of BAL fluid culture in the

  15. Feature extraction techniques using multivariate analysis for identification of lung cancer volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thriumani, Reena; Zakaria, Ammar; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Helmy, Khaled Mohamed; Omar, Mohammad Iqbal; Jeffree, Amanina; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, three different cell cultures (A549, WI38VA13 and MCF7) and blank medium (without cells) as a control were used. The electronic nose (E-Nose) was used to sniff the headspace of cultured cells and the data were recorded. After data pre-processing, two different features were extracted by taking into consideration of both steady state and the transient information. The extracted data are then being processed by multivariate analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to provide visualization of the clustering vector information in multi-sensor space. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier was used to test the performance of the E-Nose on determining the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of lung cancer cell line. The LDA data projection was able to differentiate between the lung cancer cell samples and other samples (breast cancer, normal cell and blank medium) effectively. The features extracted from the steady state response reached 100% of classification rate while the transient response with the aid of LDA dimension reduction methods produced 100% classification performance using PNN classifier with a spread value of 0.1. The results also show that E-Nose application is a promising technique to be applied to real patients in further work and the aid of Multivariate Analysis; it is able to be the alternative to the current lung cancer diagnostic methods.

  16. A model identification technique to characterize the low frequency behaviour of surrogate explosive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paripovic, Jelena; Davies, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    The mechanical response of energetic materials, especially those used in improvised explosive devices, is of great interest to improve understanding of how mechanical excitations may lead to improved detection or detonation. The materials are comprised of crystals embedded into a binder. Microstructural modelling can give insight into the interactions between the binder and the crystals and thus the mechanisms that may lead to material heating and but there needs to be validation of these models and they also require estimates of constituent material properties. Addressing these issues, nonlinear viscoelastic models of the low frequency behavior of a surrogate material-mass system undergoing base excitation have been constructed, and experimental data have been collected and used to estimate the order of components in the system model and the parameters in the model. The estimation technique is described and examples of its application to both simulated and experimental data are given. From the estimated system model the material properties are extracted. Material properties are estimated for a variety of materials and the effect of aging on the estimated material properties is shown.

  17. Simple and rapid molecular techniques for identification of amylose levels in rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Acga; Ismail, Ismanizan; Osman, Mohamad; Hashim, Habibuddin

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphisms of Waxy (Wx) microsatellite and G-T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Wx gene region were analyzed using simplified techniques in fifteen rice varieties. A rapid and reliable electrophoresis method, MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis (MAGE), was effectively employed as an alternative to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for separating Wx microsatellite alleles. The amplified products containing the Wx microsatellite ranged from 100 to 130 bp in length. Five Wx microsatellite alleles, namely (CT)(10), (CT)(11), (CT)(16), (CT)(17), and (CT)(18) were identified. Of these, (CT)(11) and (CT)(17) were the predominant classes among the tested varieties. All varieties with an apparent amylose content higher than 24% were associated with the shorter repeat alleles; (CT)(10) and (CT)(11), while varieties with 24% or less amylose were associated with the longer repeat alleles. All varieties with intermediate and high amylose content had the sequence AGGTATA at the 5'-leader intron splice site, while varieties with low amylose content had the sequence AGTTATA. The G-T polymorphism was further verified by the PCR-AccI cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) method, in which only genotypes containing the AGGTATA sequence were cleaved by AccI. Hence, varieties with desirable amylose levels can be developed rapidly using the Wx microsatellite and G-T SNP, along with MAGE.

  18. Identification of Tools and Techniques to Enhance Interdisciplinary Collaboration During Design and Construction Projects.

    PubMed

    Keys, Yolanda; Silverman, Susan R; Evans, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect the perceptions of design professionals and clinicians regarding design process success strategies and elements of interprofessional engagement and communication during healthcare design and construction projects. Additional objectives were to gather best practices to maximize clinician engagement and provide tools and techniques to improve interdisciplinary collaboration for future projects. Strategies are needed to enhance the design and construction process and create interactions that benefit not only the project but the individuals working to see its completion. Meaningful interprofessional collaboration is essential to any healthcare design project and making sure the various players communicate is a critical element. This was a qualitative study conducted via an online survey. Respondents included architects, construction managers, interior designers, and healthcare personnel who had recently been involved in a building renovation or new construction project for a healthcare facility. Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed for themes, and descriptive statistics were used to provide insight into participant demographics. Information on the impressions, perceptions, and opportunities related to clinician involvement in design projects was collected from nurses, architects, interior designers, and construction managers. Qualitative analysis revealed themes of clinician input, organizational dynamics, and a variety of communication strategies to be the most frequently mentioned elements of successful interprofessional collaboration. This study validates the need to include clinician input in the design process, to consider the importance of organizational dynamics on design team functioning, and to incorporate effective communication strategies during design and construction projects.

  19. Identification of Tengfu Jiangya Tablet Target Biomarkers with Quantitative Proteomic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingwen; Zhang, Shijun; Jiang, Haiqiang; Wang, Nan; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Tengfu Jiangya Tablet (TJT) is a well accepted antihypertension drug in China and its major active components were Uncaria total alkaloids and Semen Raphani soluble alkaloid. To further explore treatment effects mechanism of TJT on essential hypertension, a serum proteomic study was performed. Potential biomarkers were quantified in serum of hypertension individuals before and after taking TJT with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled two-dimensional liquid chromatography followed electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) proteomics technique. Among 391 identified proteins with high confidence, 70 proteins were differentially expressed (fold variation criteria, >1.2 or <0.83) between two groups (39 upregulated and 31 downregulated). Combining with Gene Ontology annotation, KEGG pathway analysis, and literature retrieval, 5 proteins were chosen as key target biomarkers during TJT therapeutic process. And the alteration profiles of these 5 proteins were verified by ELISA and Western Blot. Proteins Kininogen 1 and Keratin 1 are members of Kallikrein system, while Myeloperoxidase, Serum Amyloid protein A, and Retinol binding protein 4 had been reported closely related to vascular endothelial injury. Our study discovered 5 target biomarkers of the compound Chinese medicine TJT. Secondly, this research initially revealed the antihypertension therapeutic mechanism of this drug from a brand-new aspect.

  20. Modeling the tagged-neutron UXO identification technique using the Geant4 toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Y.; Mitra S.; Zhu X.; Wang Y.

    2011-10-16

    It is proposed to use 14 MeV neutrons tagged by the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique (APnTOF) to identify the fillers of unexploded ordnances (UXO) by characterizing their carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contents. To facilitate the design and construction of a prototype system, a preliminary simulation model was developed, using the Geant4 toolkit. This work established the toolkit environment for (a) generating tagged neutrons, (b) their transport and interactions within a sample to induce emission and detection of characteristic gamma-rays, and (c) 2D and 3D-image reconstruction of the interrogated object using the neutron and gamma-ray time-of-flight information. Using the modeling, this article demonstrates the novelty of the tagged-neutron approach for extracting useful signals with high signal-to-background discrimination of an object-of-interest from that of its environment. Simulations indicated that an UXO filled with the RDX explosive, hexogen (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 6}N{sub 6}), can be identified to a depth of 20 cm when buried in soil.

  1. Fault identification using multidisciplinary techniques at the Mars/Uranus Station antenna sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santo, D. S.; Schluter, M. B.; Shlemon, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A fault investigation was performed at the Mars and Uranus antenna sites at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in the Mojave desert. The Mars/Uranus Station consists of two large-diameter reflector antennas used for communication and control of deep-space probes and other missions. The investigation included interpretation of Landsat thematic mapper scenes, side-looking airborne radar transparencies, and both color-infrared and black-and-white aerial photography. Four photolineaments suggestive of previously undocumented faults were identified. Three generally discrete morphostratigraphic alluvial-fan deposits were also recognized and dated using geomorphic and soil stratigraphic techniques. Fourteen trenches were excavated across the four lineaments; the trenches show that three of the photolineaments coincide with faults. The last displacement of two of the faults occurred between about 12,000 and 35,000 years ago. The third fault was judged to be older than 12,000 years before present (ybp), although uncertainty remains. None of the surface traces of the three faults crosses under existing antennas or structures; however, their potential activity necessitates appropriate seismic retrofit designs and loss-prevention measures to mitigate potential earthquake damage to facilities and structures.

  2. Development of advanced techniques for identification of flow stress and friction parameters for metal forming analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyunjoong

    The accuracy of process simulation in metal forming by finite element method depends on the accuracy of flow stress data and friction value that are input to FEM programs. Therefore, it is essential that these input values are determined using reliable tests and evaluation methods. This study presents the development of inverse analysis methodology and its application to determine flow stress data of bulk and sheet materials at room and elevated temperatures. The inverse problem is defined as the minimization of the differences between the experimental measurements and the corresponding FEM predictions. Rigid-viscoplastic FEM is used to analyze the metal flow while a numerical optimization algorithm adjusts the material parameters used in the simulation until the calculated response matches the measured data within a specified tolerance. The use of the developed inverse analysis methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to the selected reference rheological tests; cylinder compression test, ring compression test, instrumented indentation test, modified limiting dome height test, and sheet hydraulic bulge test. Furthermore, using the determined material property data, full 3-D finite element simulation models, as examples of industrial applications for orbital forming and thermoforming processes have been developed for reliable process simulation. As results of this study, it was shown that the developed inverse analysis methodology could identify both the material parameters and friction factors from one set of tests, simultaneously. Therefore, this technique can offer a systematic and cost effective way for determining material property data for simulation of metal forming processes.

  3. Identification of nuclear proteins in soybean under flooding stress using proteomic technique.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-05-01

    Flooding stress restricts soybean growth, it results in decrease the production. In this report, to understand how nuclear proteins in soybean affected by flooding, abundance changes of those proteins was analyzed. Nuclear proteins were extracted from the root tips of soybean treated with or without flooding stress. The extracted proteins were analyzed using a label-free quantitative proteomic technique. Of a total of 94 nuclear proteins that were found to be responsive to flooding, the 19 and 75 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively. The identified flooding-responsive proteins were functionally classified, revealing that 8 increased proteins changed in protein synthesis, posttranslational modification, and protein degradation, while 34 decreased proteins were involved in transcription, RNA processing, DNA synthesis, and chromatin structure maintenance. Among these proteins, those whose levels changed more than 10 fold included two poly ADP-ribose polymerases and a novel G-domain-containing protein that might be involved in RNA binding. The mRNA expression levels of these three proteins indicated a similar tendency to their protein abundance changes. These results suggest that acceleration of protein poly-ADP-ribosylation and suppression of RNA metabolism may be involved in root tip of soybean under flooding stress.

  4. Creating biological membranes on the micron scale: forming patterned lipid bilayers using a polymer lift-off technique.

    PubMed

    Orth, R N; Kameoka, J; Zipfel, W R; Ilic, B; Webb, W W; Clark, T G; Craighead, H G

    2003-11-01

    We present a new method for creating patches of fluid lipid bilayers with conjugated biotin and other compounds down to 1 microm resolution using a photolithographically patterned polymer lift-off technique. The patterns are realized as the polymer is mechanically peeled away in one contiguous piece in solution. The functionality of these surfaces is verified with binding of antibodies and avidin on these uniform micron-scale platforms. The biomaterial patches, measuring 1 micro m-76 microm on edge, provide a synthetic biological substrate for biochemical analysis that is approximately 100x smaller in width than commercial printing technologies. 100 nm unilamellar lipid vesicles spread to form a supported fluid lipid bilayer on oxidized silicon surface as confirmed by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements of DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC(18)(3))) stained bilayer patches yielded an average diffusion coefficient of 7.54 +/- 1.25 microm(2) s(-1), equal to or slightly faster than typically found in DiI stained cells. This diffusion rate is approximately 3x faster than previous values for bilayers on glass. This method provides a new means to form functionalized fluid lipid bilayers as micron-scale platforms to immobilize biomaterials, capture antibodies and biotinylated reagents from solution, and form antigenic stimuli for cell stimulation.

  5. OPC optimization techniques for enabling the reduction of mismatch between overlay metrology and the device pattern cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Shinyoung; Park, Chanha; Jun, Jinhyuck; Hwang, Jaehee; Yang, Hyunjo; Oh, Nang-Lyeom; Park, Sean; Park, Chris; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Zhang, Youping; Tuffy, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Aberration sensitivity matching between overlay metrology targets and the device cell pattern has become a common requirement on the latest DRAM process nodes. While the extreme illumination modes used demand that the delta in aberration sensitivity must be optimized, it is effectively limited by the ability to print an optimum target that will meet detectability and accuracy requirements. Therefore, advanced OPC techniques are required to ensure printability and have optimal detectability performance while maintaining sufficient process window to avoid patterning or defectivity issues. In this paper, we have compared various mark designs with real cell in terms of aberration sensitivity under the specific illumination condition. The specific illumination model was used for aberration sensitivity simulation while varying mask tones and target designs. Then, diffraction based simulation was conducted to analyze the effect of aberration sensitivity on the actual overlay values. The simulation results were confirmed by comparing the OL results obtained by diffraction based metrology with the cell level OL values obtained using Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope.

  6. Low-Cost Gas Sensors Produced by the Graphite Line-Patterning Technique Applied to Monitoring Banana Ripeness

    PubMed Central

    Manzoli, Alexandra; Steffens, Clarice; Paschoalin, Rafaella T.; Correa, Alessandra A.; Alves, William F.; Leite, Fábio L.; Herrmann, Paulo S. P.

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost sensor array system for banana ripeness monitoring is presented. The sensors are constructed by employing a graphite line-patterning technique (LPT) to print interdigitated graphite electrodes on tracing paper and then coating the printed area with a thin film of polyaniline (PANI) by in-situ polymerization as the gas-sensitive layer. The PANI layers were used for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including ethylene, emitted during ripening. The influence of the various acid dopants, hydrochloric acid (HCl), methanesulfonic acid (MSA), p-toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA), on the electrical properties of the thin film of PANI adsorbed on the electrodes was also studied. The extent of doping of the films was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and tests showed that the type of dopant plays an important role in the performance of these low-cost sensors. The array of three sensors, without the PANI-HCl sensor, was able to produce a distinct pattern of signals, taken as a signature (fingerprint) that can be used to characterize bananas ripeness. PMID:22163963

  7. Low-cost, high-throughput fabrication of cloth-based microfluidic devices using a photolithographical patterning technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peijing; Zhang, Chunsun

    2015-03-21

    In this work, we first report a facile, low-cost and high-throughput method for photolithographical fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) by simply using a cotton cloth as a substrate material and employing an inexpensive hydrophobic photoresist laboratory-formulated from commercially available reagents, which allows patterning of reproducible hydrophilic-hydrophobic features in the cloth with well-defined and uniform boundaries. Firstly, we evaluated the wicking properties of cotton cloths by testing the wicking rate in the cloth channel, in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. It is demonstrated that the wicking properties of the cloth microfluidic channel can be improved by soaking the cloth substrate in 20 wt% NaOH solution and by washing the cloth-based microfluidic patterns with 3 wt% SDS solution. Next, we studied the minimum dimensions achievable for the width of the hydrophobic barriers and hydrophilic channels. The results indicate that the smallest width for a desired hydrophobic barrier is designed to be 100 μm and that for a desired hydrophilic channel is designed to be 500 μm. Finally, the high-throughput μCADs prepared using the developed fabrication technique were demonstrated for colorimetric assays of glucose and protein in artificial urine samples. It has been shown that the photolithographically patterned μCADs have potential for a simple, quantitative colorimetric urine test. The combination of cheap cloth and inexpensive high-throughput photolithography enables the development of new types of low-cost cloth-based microfluidic devices, such as "microzone plates" and "gate arrays", which provide new methods to perform biochemical assays or control fluid flow.

  8. Salivary bacterial fingerprints of established oral disease revealed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Paster, Bruce J.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Bardow, Allan; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective The composition of the salivary microbiota, as determined using various molecular methods, has been reported to differentiate oral health from diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to utilize the newly developed molecular technique HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing) for comparison of the salivary microbiota in patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that this method could add on to the existing knowledge on salivary bacterial profiles in oral health and disease. Design Stimulated saliva samples (n=30) were collected from 10 patients with untreated periodontitis, 10 patients with untreated dental caries, and 10 orally healthy individuals. Salivary microbiota was analyzed using HOMINGS and statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction. Results From a total of 30 saliva samples, a mean number of probe targets of 205 (range 120–353) were identified, and a statistically significant higher mean number of targets was registered in samples from patients with periodontitis (mean 220, range 143–306) and dental caries (mean 221, range 165–353) as compared to orally healthy individuals (mean 174, range 120–260) (p=0.04 and p=0.04). Nine probe targets were identified with a different relative abundance between groups (p<0.05). Conclusions Cross-sectional comparison of salivary bacterial profiles by means of HOMINGS analysis showed that different salivary bacterial profiles were associated with oral health and disease. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to evaluate if saliva-based screening for disease-associated oral bacterial profiles may be used for identification of patients at risk of acquiring periodontitis and dental caries. PMID:26782357

  9. Single and Dual Drug Release Patterns from Shellac Wax-Lutrol Matrix Tablets Fabricated with Fusion and Molding Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, T.; Choncheewa, C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to prepare the shellac wax matrix tablets by fusion and molding technique incorporated with Lutrol in different ratios to modify the hydrophobicity of matrix tablet. The matrix tablets with single drug were loaded either with propranolol hydrochloride or hydrochlorothiazide as hydrophilic and hydrophobic model drugs, and a dual drug formula was also prepared. The single and dual drug release patterns were studied in a dissolution apparatus using distilled water as medium. Propranolol hydrochloride released from matrix was easier than hydrochlorothiazide. Drug release from shellac wax matrix could be enhanced by incorporation of Lutrol. However retardation of drug release from some matrix tablets was evident for the systems that could form dispersion in the dissolution medium. The gel network from high content of Lutrol was hexagonal which was a dense and more compact structure than the other structures found when low amounts of Lutrol were present in the formula. Therefore, the formulae with high content of Lutrol could prolong drug release more efficiently than those containing low content of Lutrol. Hence shellac wax matrix could modulate the drug release with the addition of Lutrol. Sustainable dual drug release was also obtained from these developed matrix tablets. Thus shellac wax-Lutrol component could be used as a potential matrix tablet prepared with fusion and molding technique with excellent controlled drug release. PMID:25767320

  10. Correlating the light scattering pattern of a biological cell to its mitochondrial properties using a Gabor filter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Marina; Hu, Xin-Hua; Lu, Jun Q.

    2012-03-01

    Traditional light scattering analysis of cells relies mostly on the one-dimensional distribution of the light scattering intensity, where only the cell size and some limited information regarding the internal structure can be obtained. More recent studies have attempted to analyze the two-dimensional diffraction images of cells using standard texture analysis techniques to extract additional intracellular information. We recently compared the effectiveness of several major methods that are often used in image texture analysis and found that the Gabor filter approach is more effective than most methods and is capable of providing information regarding the major structural features and mitochondrial properties of the cell. In this report we further our investigation by utilizing a Gabor filter technique to analyze light scattering patterns of cells and to correlate their changes to that of the mitochondrial properties of the cells. Numerical simulations of light scattering are performed using the discrete dipole approximation on analytically generated biological cell models with various mitochondrial characteristics. A set of two-dimensional scattering images is produced corresponding to systematic variations in the size, shape, and distribution of mitochondria and is processed with a bank of Gabor filters. Selected mean values of the Gabor-filtered images are displayed in scatter plots, providing a novel approach to grouping the cell models according to mitochondria size, shape, and distribution.

  11. Multivariate data-driven modelling and pattern recognition for damage detection and identification for acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Tibaduiza, D.-A.; McGugan, M.; Toftegaard, H.; Borum, K.-K.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    2013-10-01

    Different methods are commonly used for non-destructive testing in structures; among others, acoustic emission and ultrasonic inspections are widely used to assess structures. The research presented in this paper is motivated by the need to improve the inspection capabilities and reliability of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems based on ultrasonic guided waves with focus on the acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonics techniques. The use of a guided wave based approach is driven by the fact that these waves are able to propagate over relatively long distances, and interact sensitively and uniquely with different types of defect. Special attention is paid here to the development of efficient SHM methodologies. This requires robust signal processing techniques for the correct interpretation of the complex ultrasonic waves. Therefore, a variety of existing algorithms for signal processing and pattern recognition are evaluated and integrated into the different proposed methodologies. As a contribution to solve the problem, this paper presents results in damage detection and classification using a methodology based on hierarchical nonlinear principal component analysis, square prediction measurements and self-organizing maps, which are applied to data from acoustic emission tests and acousto-ultrasonic inspections. At the end, the efficiency of these methodologies is experimentally evaluated in diverse anisotropic composite structures.

  12. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement.

  13. Assessment of Multi-Joint Coordination and Adaptation in Standing Balance: A Novel Device and System Identification Technique.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Denise; Schouten, Alfred C; Aarts, Ronald G K M; van der Kooij, Herman

    2015-11-01

    The ankles and hips play an important role in maintaining standing balance and the coordination between joints adapts with task and conditions, like the disturbance magnitude and type, and changes with age. Assessment of multi-joint coordination requires the application of multiple continuous and independent disturbances and closed loop system identification techniques (CLSIT). This paper presents a novel device, the double inverted pendulum perturbator (DIPP), which can apply disturbing forces at the hip level and between the shoulder blades. In addition to the disturbances, the device can provide force fields to study adaptation of multi-joint coordination. The performance of the DIPP and a novel CLSIT was assessed by identifying a system with known mechanical properties and model simulations. A double inverted pendulum was successfully identified, while force fields were able to keep the pendulum upright. The estimated dynamics were similar as the theoretical derived dynamics. The DIPP has a sufficient bandwidth of 7 Hz to identify multi-joint coordination dynamics. An experiment with human subjects where a stabilizing force field was rendered at the hip (1500 N/m), showed that subjects adapt by lowering their control actions around the ankles. The stiffness from upper and lower segment motion to ankle torque dropped with 30% and 48%, respectively. Our methods allow to study (pathological) changes in multi-joint coordination as well as adaptive capacity to maintain standing balance.

  14. Optimal placement of sensors for structural system identification and health monitoring using a hybrid swarm intelligence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rama Mohan Rao, A.; Anandakumar, Ganesh

    2007-12-01

    Setting up a health monitoring system for large-scale civil engineering structures requires a large number of sensors and the placement of these sensors is of great significance for such spatially separated large structures. In this paper, we present an optimal sensor placement (OSP) algorithm by treating OSP as a combinatorial optimization problem which is solved using a swarm intelligence technique called particle swarm optimization (PSO). We propose a new hybrid PSO algorithm by combining a self-configurable PSO with the Nelder-Mead algorithm to solve this rather difficult combinatorial problem of OSP. The proposed algorithm aims precisely to achieve the best identification of modal frequencies and mode shapes. Numerical experiments have been carried out by considering civil engineering structures to evaluate the performance of the proposed swarm-intelligence-based OSP algorithm. Numerical studies indicate that the proposed hybrid PSO algorithm generates sensor configurations superior to the conventional iterative information-based approaches which have been popularly used for large structures. Further, the proposed hybrid PSO algorithm exhibits superior convergence characteristics when compared to other PSO counterparts.

  15. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement. PMID:28190997

  16. Identification of acetic acid bacteria in traditionally produced vinegar and mother of vinegar by using different molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Yetiman, Ahmet E; Kesmen, Zülal

    2015-07-02

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were combined for the investigation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations in traditionally produced vinegars and mother of vinegar samples obtained from apple and grape. The culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, which targeted the V7-V8 regions of the 16S rRNA gene, showed that Komagataeibacter hansenii and Komagataeibacter europaeus/Komagataeibacter xylinus were the most dominant species in almost all of the samples analyzed directly. The culture-independent GTG5-rep PCR fingerprinting was used in the preliminary characterization of AAB isolates and species-level identification was carried out by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S rDNA internally transcribed to the spacer (ITS) region and tuf gene. Acetobacter okinawensis was frequently isolated from samples obtained from apple while K. europaeus was identified as the dominant species, followed by Acetobacter indonesiensis in the samples originating from grape. In addition to common molecular techniques, real-time PCR intercalating dye assays, including DNA melting temperature (Tm) and high resolution melting analysis (HRM), were applied to acetic acid bacterial isolates for the first time. The target sequence of ITS region generated species-specific HRM profiles and Tm values allowed discrimination at species level.

  17. Thermoluminescence of Antarctic meteorites: A rapid screening technique for terrestrial age estimation, pairing studies and identification of specimens with unusual prefall histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is a promising technique for rapid screening of the large numbers of Antarctic meteorites, permitting identification of interesting specimens that can then be studied in detail by other, more definite techniques. Specifically, TL permits determination of rough terrestrial age, identification of potential paired groups and location of specimens with unusual pre-fall histories. Meteorites with long terrestrial ages are particularly valuable for studying transport and weathering mechanisms. Pairing studies are possible because TL variations among meteorites are large compared to variations within individual objects, especially for natural TL. Available TL data for several L3 fragments, three of which were paired by other techniques, are presented as an example of the use of TL parameters in pairing studies. Additional TL measurements, specifically a blind test, are recommended to satisfactorily establish the reliability of this pairing property. The TL measurements also identify fragments with unusual pre-fall histories, such an near-Sun orbits.

  18. Comments on Frequency Swept Rotating Input Perturbation Techniques and Identification of the Fluid Force Models in Rotor/bearing/seal Systems and Fluid Handling Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, Agnes; Bently, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Perturbation techniques used for identification of rotating system dynamic characteristics are described. A comparison between two periodic frequency-swept perturbation methods applied in identification of fluid forces of rotating machines is presented. The description of the fluid force model identified by inputting circular periodic frequency-swept force is given. This model is based on the existence and strength of the circumferential flow, most often generated by the shaft rotation. The application of the fluid force model in rotor dynamic analysis is presented. It is shown that the rotor stability is an entire rotating system property. Some areas for further research are discussed.

  19. Microarray-based long oligonucleotides probe designed for Brucella Spp. detection and identification of antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Zahra; Najafi, Ali; Piranfar, Vahhab; Mirnejad, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Brucella spp. is a common zoonotic infection referred to as Brucellosis, and it is a serious public health problem around the world. There are currently six classical species (pathogenic species in both animals and humans) within the genus Brucella. The ability and practicality facilitated by a microarray experiment help us to recognize Brucella spp. and its antibiotic resistant gene. Rapid phenotypic determination of antibiotic resistance is not possible by disk diffusion methods. Thus, evaluating antibiotics pattern and Brucella detection appear necessary technique by molecular methods in brucellosis. So, the aim of this study was to design a microarray long oligonucleotides probe and primer for the complete diagnosis of Brucella spp. and obtaining genetic profiles for antibiotic resistance in bacteria at the same time. In this study, we designed 16 antibiotic-resistant gene solid-phase primers with similar melting temperatures of 60 °C and 16 long oligonucleotide probes. These primers and probes can identify tetracycline-, chloramphenicol-, and aminoglycoside-resistant genes, respectively. The design of microarray probes is a versatile process that be done in a wide range of selections. Since the long oligo microarray probes are the best choices for specific diagnosis and definite treatment, this group of probes was designed in the present survey.

  20. Microarray-based long oligonucleotides probe designed for Brucella Spp. detection and identification of antibiotic susceptibility pattern

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Zahra; Najafi, Ali; Piranfar, Vahhab; Mirnejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Brucella spp. is a common zoonotic infection referred to as Brucellosis, and it is a serious public health problem around the world. There are currently six classical species (pathogenic species in both animals and humans) within the genus Brucella. The ability and practicality facilitated by a microarray experiment help us to recognize Brucella spp. and its antibiotic resistant gene. Rapid phenotypic determination of antibiotic resistance is not possible by disk diffusion methods. Thus, evaluating antibiotics pattern and Brucella detection appear necessary technique by molecular methods in brucellosis. So, the aim of this study was to design a microarray long oligonucleotides probe and primer for the complete diagnosis of Brucella spp. and obtaining genetic profiles for antibiotic resistance in bacteria at the same time. In this study, we designed 16 antibiotic-resistant gene solid-phase primers with similar melting temperatures of 60 °C and 16 long oligonucleotide probes. These primers and probes can identify tetracycline-, chloramphenicol-, and aminoglycoside-resistant genes, respectively. The design of microarray probes is a versatile process that be done in a wide range of selections. Since the long oligo microarray probes are the best choices for specific diagnosis and definite treatment, this group of probes was designed in the present survey. PMID:27280008

  1. Apparatus and method for identification and recognition of an item with ultrasonic patterns from item subsurface micro-features

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, R.W.; Fuller, J.L.; Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Skorpik, J.R.; Hansen, N.H.

    1995-09-26

    The present invention is a means and method for identification and recognition of an item by ultrasonic imaging of material microfeatures and/or macrofeatures within the bulk volume of a material. The invention is based upon ultrasonic interrogation and imaging of material microfeatures within the body of material by accepting only reflected ultrasonic energy from a preselected plane or volume within the material. An initial interrogation produces an identification reference. Subsequent new scans are statistically compared to the identification reference for making a match/non-match decision. 15 figs.

  2. Apparatus and method for identification and recognition of an item with ultrasonic patterns from item subsurface micro-features

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, Richard W.; Fuller, James L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Good, Morris S.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Skorpik, James R.; Hansen, Norman H.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a means and method for identification and recognition of an item by ultrasonic imaging of material microfeatures and/or macrofeatures within the bulk volume of a material. The invention is based upon ultrasonic interrogation and imaging of material microfeatures within the body of material by accepting only reflected ultrasonic energy from a preselected plane or volume within the material. An initial interrogation produces an identification reference. Subsequent new scans are statistically compared to the identification reference for making a match/non-match decision.

  3. Stretchable and transparent electrodes based on patterned silver nanowires by laser-induced forward transfer for non-contacted printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Teppei; Mandamparambil, Rajesh; Martinus Peterus van Bragt, Dirk; Jiu, Jinting; Koga, Hirotaka; van den Brand, Jeroen; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; den Toonder, Jaap M. J.; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are excellent candidate electrode materials in next-generation wearable devices due to their high flexibility and high conductivity. In particular, patterning techniques for AgNWs electrode manufacture are very important in the roll-to-roll printing process to achieve high throughput and special performance production. It is also essential to realize a non-contact mode patterning for devices in order to keep the pre-patterned components away from mechanical damages. Here, we report a successful non-contact patterning of AgNWs-based stretchable and transparent electrodes by laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) technique. The technique was used to fabricate a 100% stretchable electrode with a width of 200 μm and electrical resistivity 10-4 Ωcm. Experiments conducted integrating the stretchable electrode on rubber substrate in which LED was pre-fabricated showed design flexibility resulting from non-contact printing. Further, a patterned transparent electrode showed over 80% in optical transmittance and less than 100 Ω sq-1 in sheet resistance by the optimized LIFT technique.

  4. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique for identification of combinations of allelic variants underlying complex diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Favorov, Alexander V; Andreewski, Timophey V; Sudomoina, Marina A; Favorova, Olga O; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Ochs, Michael F

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, the number of studies focusing on the genetic basis of common disorders with a complex mode of inheritance, in which multiple genes of small effect are involved, has been steadily increasing. An improved methodology to identify the cumulative contribution of several polymorphous genes would accelerate our understanding of their importance in disease susceptibility and our ability to develop new treatments. A critical bottleneck is the inability of standard statistical approaches, developed for relatively modest predictor sets, to achieve power in the face of the enormous growth in our knowledge of genomics. The inability is due to the combinatorial complexity arising in searches for multiple interacting genes. Similar "curse of dimensionality" problems have arisen in other fields, and Bayesian statistical approaches coupled to Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have led to significant improvements in understanding. We present here an algorithm, APSampler, for the exploration of potential combinations of allelic variations positively or negatively associated with a disease or with a phenotype. The algorithm relies on the rank comparison of phenotype for individuals with and without specific patterns (i.e., combinations of allelic variants) isolated in genetic backgrounds matched for the remaining significant patterns. It constructs a Markov chain to sample only potentially significant variants, minimizing the potential of large data sets to overwhelm the search. We tested APSampler on a simulated data set and on a case-control MS (multiple sclerosis) study for ethnic Russians. For the simulated data, the algorithm identified all the phenotype-associated allele combinations coded into the data and, for the MS data, it replicated the previously known findings.

  5. Studies on a novel mask technique with high selectivity and aspect-ratio patterns for HgCdTe trenches ICP etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z. H.; Hu, W. D.; Li, Y.; Huang, J.; Yin, W. T.; Lin, C.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; Chen, X. S.; Lu, W.; He, L.

    2012-06-01

    A novel mask technique, combining high selectivity silicon dioxide patterns over high aspect-ratio photoresist (PR) patterns has been exploited to perform mesa etching for device delineation and electrical isolation of HgCdTe third-generation infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs). High-density silicon dioxide film covering high aspect-ratio PR patterns was deposited at the temperature of 80°C and silicon dioxide film patterns over high aspect-ratio PR patterns of HgCdTe etching samples was developed by standard photolithography and wet chemical etch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the surfaces of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etched samples are quite clean and smooth. The etching selectivity between the novel mask and HgCdTe of the samples is increased to above 32: 1 while the side-wall impact of etching plasma is suppressed by the high aspect ratio patterns. These results show that the combined patterning of silicon dioxide film and thick PR film is a readily available and promising masking technique for HgCdTe mesa etching.

  6. Precise material identification method based on a photon counting technique with correction of the beam hardening effect in X-ray spectra.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Natsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Asahara, Takashi; Mihara, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Yuki; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Yamasaki, Masashi; Okada, Masahiro

    2017-03-09

    The aim of our study is to develop a novel material identification method based on a photon counting technique, in which the incident and penetrating X-ray spectra are analyzed. Dividing a 40 kV X-ray spectra into two energy regions, the corresponding linear attenuation coefficients are derived. We can identify the materials precisely using the relationship between atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient through the correction of the beam hardening effect of the X-ray spectra.

  7. Pattern recognition analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Crocus sativus L. secondary metabolites towards source identification and quality control.

    PubMed

    Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sereshti, Hassan; Parastar, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic fingerprinting is an effective methodology for authentication and quality control of herbal products. In the presented study, a chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) and multivariate pattern recognition methods was used to establish a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) fingerprint of saffron. For this purpose, the volatile metabolites of 17 Iranian saffron samples, collected from different geographical regions, were determined using the combined method of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (UASE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), coupled with GC-MS. The resolved elution profiles and the related mass spectra obtained by an extended MCR-ALS algorithm were then used to estimate the relative concentrations and to identify the saffron volatile metabolites, respectively. Consequently, 77 compounds with high reversed match factors (RMFs > 850) were successfully determined. The relative concentrations of these compounds were used to generate a new data set which was analyzed by multivariate data analysis methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means. Accordingly, the saffron samples were categorized into five classes using these techniques. The results revealed that 11 compounds, as biomarkers of saffron, contributed to the class discrimination and characterization. Eleven biomarkers including nine secondary metabolites of saffron (safranal, α- and β-isophorone, phenylethyl alcohol, ketoisophorone, 2,2,6-trimethyl-1,4-cyclohexanedione, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-2-cyclohexen-1-carbaldehyde, 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-carboxaldehyde-5-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, and 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-hydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (HTCC)), a primary metabolite (linoleic acid), and a long chain fatty alcohol (nanocosanol) were distinguished as the saffron fingerprint. Finally, the individual contribution of each biomarker to the classes was determined by the

  8. Volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas. Ph.D. Thesis; [prediction analysis techniques for antenna radiation patterns of microwave antennas on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A volumetric pattern analysis of fuselage-mounted airborne antennas at high frequencies was investigated. The primary goal of the investigation was to develop a numerical solution for predicting radiation patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. An analytical study of airborne antenna pattern problems is presented in which the antenna is mounted on the fuselage near the top or bottom. Since this is a study of general-type commercial aircraft, the aircraft was modeled in its most basic form. The fuselage was assumed to be an infinitely long perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder in its cross-section and a composite elliptic cylinder in its elevation profile. The wing, cockpit, stabilizers (horizontal and vertical) and landing gear are modeled by "N" sided bent or flat plates which can be arbitrarily attached to the fuselage. The volumetric solution developed utilizes two elliptic cylinders, namely, the roll plane and elevation plane models to approximate the principal surface profile (longitudinal and transverse) at the antenna location. With the belt concept and the aid of appropriate coordinate system transformations the solution can be used to predict the volumetric patterns of airborne antennas in an accurate and efficient manner. Applications of this solution to various airborne antenna problems show good agreement with scale model measurements. Extensive data are presented for a microwave landing antenna system.

  9. First identification of sub- and supercritical convection patterns from ‘GeoFlow’, the geophysical flow simulation experiment integrated in Fluid Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futterer, B.; Egbers, C.; Dahley, N.; Koch, S.; Jehring, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of thermally driven rotating fluids are important for a large number of geophysical problems, e.g. to explain the convection of the Earth's liquid outer core. Objective of the 'GeoFlow' experiment is to study stability, pattern formation, and transition to chaos of thermal convection in fluid-filled concentric, co-axially rotating spheres. This experiment is integrated in the Fluid Science Laboratory of the European COLUMBUS module on International Space Station. Fluid dynamics of the experiment was predicted with numerical simulations by means of a spectral code. In the non-rotating case the onset of convection bifurcated into steady fluid flow. Here patterns of convection showed co-existing states with axisymmetric, cubic and pentagonal modes. Transition to chaos was in the form of sudden onset. For the thermal convection in rotating spheres the onset of first instability showed an increase of modes for higher parameter regime. Transition was from steady via periodic to chaotic behaviour. Convection patterns of the experiment are observed with the Wollaston shearing interferometry. Images are in terms of interferograms with fringe patterns corresponding to special convective flows. A first glance at the images showed the classification of sub- and supercritical flow regimes. Aligned with numerical data a shift between experiment and numerical simulation was identified. Identification of convection patterns in interferograms was demonstrated for the example of a supercritical flow.

  10. Improvement of the technique of identification of electrons and positrons with use of electromagnetic calorimeter of the CLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgyan, N. E.; Dashyan, N. B.; Paremuzyan, R. G.; Stepanyan, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    We study the dependence of the sensitivity of response of the electromagnetic calorimeter of CLAS plant on the momenta of electrons and positrons. We made calculation of this dependence and elaborated a method for its employment in identification of e- and e+. We have shown that the new method of selection of e- and e+ improves the quality of identification by about 10%. We used the experimental data obtained with the plant CLAS of linear accelerator at Jefferson laboratory (USA).

  11. Using non-negative matrix factorization for the identification of daily patterns of particulate air pollution in Beijing during 2004-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiem, A.; Schlink, U.; Pan, X.-C.; Hu, M.; Peters, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Breitner, S.; Cyrys, J.; Wehner, B.; Rösch, C.; Franck, U.

    2012-05-01

    Increasing traffic density and a changing car fleet on the one hand as well as various reduction measures on the other hand may influence the composition of the particle population and, hence, the health risks for residents of megacities like Beijing. A suitable tool for identification and quantification of source group-related particle exposure compositions is desirable in order to derive optimal adaptation and reduction strategies and therefore, is presented in this paper. Particle number concentrations have been measured in high time- and space-resolution at an urban background monitoring site in Beijing, China, during 2004-2008. In this study a new pattern recognition procedure based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) was introduced to extract characteristic diurnal air pollution patterns of particle number and volume size distributions for the study period. Initialization and weighting strategies for NMF applications were carefully considered and a scaling procedure for ranking of obtained patterns was implemented. In order to account for varying particle sizes in the full diameter range [3 nm; 10 μm] two separate NMF applications (a) for diurnal particle number concentration data (NMF-N) and (b) volume concentration data (NMF-V) have been performed. Five particle number concentration-related NMF-N factors were assigned to patterns mainly describing the development of ultrafine (particle diameter Dp < 100 nm instead of DP) as well as fine particles (Dp < 2.5 μm), since absolute number concentrations are highest in these diameter ranges. The factors are classified into primary and secondary sources. Primary sources mostly involved anthropogenic emission sources such as traffic emissions or emissions of nearby industrial plants, whereas secondary sources involved new particle formation and accumulation (particle growth) processes. For the NMF-V application the five extracted factors mainly described coarse particle (2.5 μm < Dp < 10 μm) variations

  12. MALDI-TOF MS identification of anaerobic bacteria: assessment of pre-analytical variables and specimen preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yen-Michael S; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2014-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a tool for identifying clinically relevant anaerobes. We evaluated the analytical performance characteristics of the Bruker Microflex with Biotyper 3.0 software system for identification of anaerobes and examined the impact of direct formic acid (FA) treatment and other pre-analytical factors on MALDI-TOF MS performance. A collection of 101 anaerobic bacteria were evaluated, including Clostridium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., and other anaerobic bacterial of clinical relevance. The results of our study indicate that an on-target extraction with 100% FA improves the rate of accurate identification without introducing misidentification (P<0.05). In addition, we modify the reporting cutoffs for the Biotyper "score" yielding acceptable identification. We found that a score of ≥1.700 can maximize the rate of identification. Of interest, MALDI-TOF MS can correctly identify anaerobes grown in suboptimal conditions, such as on selective culture media and following oxygen exposure. In conclusion, we report on a number of simple and cost-effective pre- and post-analytical modifications could enhance MALDI-TOF MS identification for anaerobic bacteria.

  13. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six Tribolium pests of stored products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yi-Jiao; Guo, Wei; Luo, Dan; Wu, Yi; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2016-06-29

    Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are important stored product pests in China and worldwide. They are often found or are intercepted in grain depots, flour mills, and entry-exit ports, etc. Traditionally, Tribolium species are identified according to the morphological characteristics of the adult. However, it is almost impossible to rapidly identify adult fragments and non-adult stages based on external morphological characteristics. Molecular techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of Tribolium species are required, particularly for pest monitoring and the quarantine of stored products pests. Here, we establish DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR, and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six stored-product pest Tribolium species including T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis. We detected the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes for Tribolium from 18 geographic populations and 101 individuals, built a Tribolium DNA barcode library, and designed species-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the above six Tribolium species. The three techniques were applied to identify Tribolium collected from stored samples and samples captured from quarantine ports. The results demonstrated that three techniques were all able to identify the six species of Tribolium both rapidly and accurately.

  14. DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six Tribolium pests of stored products

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yi-Jiao; Guo, Wei; Luo, Dan; Wu, Yi; Kučerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Cao, Yang; Li, Fu-Jun; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Flour beetles of the genus Tribolium Macleay (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are important stored product pests in China and worldwide. They are often found or are intercepted in grain depots, flour mills, and entry-exit ports, etc. Traditionally, Tribolium species are identified according to the morphological characteristics of the adult. However, it is almost impossible to rapidly identify adult fragments and non-adult stages based on external morphological characteristics. Molecular techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of Tribolium species are required, particularly for pest monitoring and the quarantine of stored products pests. Here, we establish DNA barcoding, species-specific PCR, and real-time PCR techniques for the identification of six stored-product pest Tribolium species including T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. destructor, T. madens, T. freemani and T. brevicornis. We detected the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes for Tribolium from 18 geographic populations and 101 individuals, built a Tribolium DNA barcode library, and designed species-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the above six Tribolium species. The three techniques were applied to identify Tribolium collected from stored samples and samples captured from quarantine ports. The results demonstrated that three techniques were all able to identify the six species of Tribolium both rapidly and accurately. PMID:27352804

  15. Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

    2013-02-21

    The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of <4% and <6%, respectively, for A + 1 and A + 2 peaks. Deconvolution of interfering isotope clusters (e.g., M(+) and [M - H](+)) was required for accurate determination of the A + 1 isotope in halogenated compounds. Integrating the isotope data greatly improved the speed and accuracy of the database identifications. The database accurately identified unknowns from isobutane CI spectra in 100% of cases where as many as 40 candidates satisfied the mass tolerance. The paper describes the development and basic operation of the new MTS Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds.

  16. [application of the analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques for detection, identification and visualization of localization of nanoparticles of titanium and cerium oxides in mammalian cells].

    PubMed

    Shebanova, A S; Bogdanov, A G; Ismagulova, T T; Feofanov, A V; Semenyuk, P I; Muronets, V I; Erokhina, M V; Onishchenko, G E; Kirpichnikov, M P; Shaitan, K V

    2014-01-01

    This work represents the results of the study on applicability of the modern methods of analytical transmission electron microscopy for detection, identification and visualization of localization of nanoparticles of titanium and cerium oxides in A549 cell, human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A comparative analysis of images of the nanoparticles in the cells obtained in the bright field mode of transmission electron microscopy, under dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron was performed. For identification of nanoparticles in the cells the analytical techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, were compared when used in the mode of obtaining energy spectrum from different particles and element mapping. It was shown that the method for electron tomography is applicable to confirm that nanoparticles are localized in the sample but not coated by contamination. The possibilities and fields of utilizing different techniques for analytical transmission electron microscopy for detection, visualization and identification of nanoparticles in the biological samples are discussed.

  17. Rapid identification of filamentous actinomycetes to the genus level using genus-specific 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment patterns.

    PubMed

    Cook, Andrew E; Meyers, Paul R

    2003-11-01

    A rapid method for identifying filamentous actinomycete genera was developed based on 16S rRNA gene restriction fragment patterns. The patterns were generated by using specific restriction endonucleases to perform in silico digestions on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of all validly published filamentous actinomycete species. The method was applied to identifying actinomycete isolates from soil. Amplified 16S rDNA of soil actinomycetes was restricted with selected endonucleases and electrophoresed on agarose gels. The restriction fragment patterns of the unknown isolates were easily compared to the established patterns. Significantly, the genus Streptomyces could be differentiated from all other actinomycete genera by using only four restriction endonucleases, Sau3AI, AsnI, KpnI and SphI. This could be achieved in a time period of as little as a week, following PCR-template DNA isolation by a simple method. The identification method allowed unknown, non-Streptomyces soil isolates to be identified to a genus or small subgroup of genera. The genera in these subgroups could, in some cases, be distinguished by virtue of colony-morphology differences.

  18. Identification of polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolites based on calculated boiling points from COSMO-RS, experimental retention times, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott; Gross, Michael S; Olson, James R; Zurek, Eva; Aga, Diana S

    2015-02-17

    The COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used to predict the boiling points of several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methylated derivatives (MeO-BDEs) of monohydroxylated BDE (OH-BDE) metabolites. The linear correlation obtained by plotting theoretical boiling points calculated by COSMO-RS against experimentally determined retention times from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of PBDEs and OH-BDEs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of COSMO-RS in identifying unknown PBDE metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100). Metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-100 were formed through individual incubations of each PBDE with recombinant cytochrome P450 2B6. Using calculated boiling points and characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the MeO-BDE positional isomers, the identities of the unknown monohydroxylated metabolites were proposed to be 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-66) from BDE-47, and 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-119) and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-91) from BDE-100. The collective use of boiling points predicted with COSMO-RS, and characteristic mass spectral fragmentation patterns provided a valuable tool toward the identification of isobaric compounds.

  19. Techniques for determining pressure in the hydrothermal diamond- anvil cell: behavior and identification of ice polymorphs (I, III, V, VI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; I-Ming, Chou; Shen, A.H.; Bassett, William A.

    1995-01-01

    For H2O densities > 1.0 g/cm3, a determination of the ice melting temperature provides the density information required to calculate the P-T path that the sample in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell follows when the sample is heated isochorically. The principal difficulty is the identification of the polymorph because of metastable behavior of ices in the H2O system. Usually, an accurate identification of the liquidus ice phase can be made without analytical instrumentation and requires only careful observations. -Authors

  20. Prediction model of earthquake with the identification of earthquake source polarity mechanism through the focal classification using ANFIS and PCA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyonegoro, W.

    2016-05-01

    Incidence of earthquake disaster has caused casualties and material in considerable amounts. This research has purposes to predictability the return period of earthquake with the identification of the mechanism of earthquake which in case study area in Sumatra. To predict earthquakes which training data of the historical earthquake is using ANFIS technique. In this technique the historical data set compiled into intervals of earthquake occurrence daily average in a year. Output to be obtained is a model return period earthquake events daily average in a year. Return period earthquake occurrence models that have been learning by ANFIS, then performed the polarity recognition through image recognition techniques on the focal sphere using principal component analysis PCA method. The results, model predicted a return period earthquake events for the average monthly return period showed a correlation coefficient 0.014562.