Science.gov

Sample records for pavement design

  1. Porous pavement. Phase 1: Design and operational criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, E. V.

    1980-08-01

    Utilization concepts, benefits and disadvantages, as well as other characteristics of porous pavements are presented with emphasis on porous asphalt pavements, but the criteria and design approach are applicable to all other porous pavement types. Design considerations include siting problems, load bearing design and hydrologic design. The history of porous pavement development and previous experience with porous pavement by several designers, contractors and operators are described. A computer model for hydrologic performance evaluation of existing or proposed porous pavement systems is also examined. Load bearing design criteria are based on previous work conducted for porous asphalt pavements. Appendices include a sample set of specifications for porous asphalt construction and a list of soils and their permeability classes as prepared by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service.

  2. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  3. CBR-Beta Design Procedure for Aggregate-Surfaced Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    surfaced pavements . The performance of aggregate-surfaced pavements is greatly affected by climate conditions and the presence of water, especially in... pavements . The study was sponsored by the US Air Force. The work was performed by the Airfields and Pavements Branch (GM-A) of the Engineering...scenarios. The current flexible pavement design criteria require corrections that account for the different performance and degradation of aggregate

  4. Engineering and Design: Design and Construction Management Practices for Concrete Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Construction Division ETL 1110-3-488 1 Mar 98 APPENDIX A: REFERENCES 1. TM 5-822-5 ( AFM 88-7, Chap. 1), "Pavement Design for Roads, Streets, Walks, and Open...Storage Areas." 2. TM 5-822-7 ( AFM 88-6, Chap. 8), "Standard Practice for Concrete Pavements." 3. TM 5-825-1 (AFJMAN 32-8008, Vol. 1), "General...Provisions for Airfield/Heliport Pavement Design." 4. TM 5-825-3 ( AFM 88-6, Chap. 3), "Rigid Pavements for Airfields." 5. EM 1110-2-2000, “Standard

  5. Pressuremeter Moduli for Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering , Uni- versity of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Briaud, J.-L. & Garland, E., 1985, "Loading Rate Method for Pile...Response in Clay," Jour. of Geotechnical Engineering , ASCE, Vol. 111, No. 3, pp. 319-335. Briand, J.-L., Lytton, R.L. & Hung, J.T., 1982, "Using a...DOT/FAA/PM-87/10 Pressuremeter Moduli for Program Engineering Airport Pavement Design and Maintenance Service Washington, D.C. 20591 and Evaluation

  6. Pavement management and rehabilitation of portland cement concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeer, C. V.; Agent, K. R.; Rizenbergs, R. L.; Curtayne, P. C.; Scullion, T.; Pedigo, R. D.; Hudson, W. R.; Roberts, F. L.; Karan, M. A.; Haas, R.

    Pavement management and rehabilitation projects and techniques are discussed. The following topics are discussed: economic analyses and dynamic programming in resurfacing project selection; implementation of an urban pavement management system; pavement performance modeling for pavement management; illustration of pavement management: from data inventory to priority analysis; rehabilitation of concrete pavements by using portland cement concrete overlays; pavement management study: Illinois tollway pavement overlays; resurfacing of plain jointed-concrete pavements; design procedure for premium composite pavement; model study of anchored pavement; prestressed concrete overlay at O'Hare International Airport: in-service evaluation; and, bonded portland cement concrete resurfacing.

  7. Effect of Pavement Design on Cratering Damage from Penetrating Weapons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    data were to substantiate data from previous testing performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL). Conventionally jointed Portland cement concrete...involved. Portland cement concrete pavements with ACC and PCC overlays sustained more damage. Configurations II on the clay subgrade sustained a slight

  8. Guidelines for Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Airport Pavement Drainage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Cedergren et. al. (11) have indicated that subsurface drainage may not be needed in pavement systems where the average annual precipitation is less...contributes water flow to each crack or joint (2). These are several ways in which the surface infiltration rate can be determined. Cedergren (3,4) has...Calculation Modules The program performs the following calculations: 5.5.7.1 Water Sources Surface infiltration (user selectable) Ridgeway procedure Cedergren

  9. Effects on evaporation rates from different water-permeable pavement designs.

    PubMed

    Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

    2011-01-01

    The urban water balance can be attenuated to the natural by water-permeable pavements (WPPs). Furthermore, WPPs have a 16% higher evaporation rate than impermeable pavements, which can lead to a better urban climate. Evaporation rates from pavements are influenced by the pavement surface and by the deeper layers. By a compared evaporation measurement between different WPP designs, the grain size distribution of the sub-base shows no influence on the evaporation rates in a significant way. On the contrary, a sub-base made of a twin-layer decreases the evaporation by 16% compared to a homogeneous sub-base. By a change in the colour of the paving stone, 19% higher evaporation rates could be achieved. A further comparison shows that the transpiration-effect of the grass in grass pavers increases the evaporation rates more than threefold to pervious concrete pavements. These high evapotranspiration rates can not be achieved with a pervious concrete paving stone. In spite of this, the broad field of application of the pervious concrete paving stone increases the importance in regard to the urban climate.

  10. Re-Evaluation of the AASHTO-Flexible Pavement Design Equation with Neural Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Tiğdemir, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies) test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance. PMID:25397962

  11. Re-evaluation of the AASHTO-flexible pavement design equation with neural network modeling.

    PubMed

    Tiğdemir, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies) test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance.

  12. Pavement management practices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    This synthesis will be of interest to pavement designers, maintenance engineers, and others responsible for the management of highway pavements. Information is presented on pavement management systems - the established, documented procedures used to treat all activities involved in providing and sustaining pavements in an acceptable condition. As highway agencies focus more attention on maintenance and rehabilitation of highway networks, the use of some form of a pavement management system becomes increasingly important. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the features, applicability, and used of a pavement management system and recommends five general steps for implementing a new pavement management system or improving an existing system.

  13. Characterization of cementitiously stabilized subgrades for mechanistic-empirical pavement design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Pranshoo

    Pavements are vulnerable to subgrade layer performance because it acts as a foundation. Due to increase in the truck traffic, pavement engineers are challenged to build more strong and long-lasting pavements. To increase the load-bearing capacity of pavements, subgrade layer is often stabilized with cementitious additives. Thus, an overall characterization of stabilized subgrade layer is important for enhanced short- and long-term pavement performance. In this study, the effect of type and amount of additive on the short-term performance in terms of material properties recommended by the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) is examined. A total of four soils commonly encountered as subgrades in Oklahoma are utilized. Results show that the changes in the Mr, ME and UCS values stabilized specimens depend on the soil type and properties of additives. The long-term performance (or durability) of stabilized soil specimens is investigated by conducting freeze-thaw (F-T) cycling, vacuum saturation and tube suction tests on 7-day cured P-, K- and C-soil specimens stabilized with 6% lime, 10% CFA and 10% CKD. This study is motivated by the fact that during the service life of pavement stabilized layers are subjected to F-T cycles and moisture variations. It is found that that UCS value of all the stabilized specimens decreased with increase in the number of F-T cycles. A strong correlation was observed between UCS values retained after vacuum saturation and F-T cycles indicating that vacuum saturation could be used as a time-efficient and inexpensive method for evaluating durability of stabilized soils. In this study, short- and long-term observations from stabilization of sulfate bearing soil with locally available low (CFA), moderate (CKD) and high (lime) calcium-based stabilizers are determined to evaluate and compare the effect of additive type on the phenomenon of sulfate-induced heave. The impact of different factors on the development of the

  14. Pavement evaluation and rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, N.A.; Khosla, N.P.; Johnson, E.G.; Hicks, R.G.; Uzan, J.

    1987-01-01

    The 20 papers in this report deal with the following areas: determination of layer moduli using a falling weight deflectometer; evaluation of effect of uncrushed base layers on pavement performance; the effect of contact area shape and pressure distribution on multilayer systems response; sensitivity analysis of selected backcalculation procedures; performance of a full-scale pavement design experiment in Jamaica; subsealing and load-transfer restoration; development of a demonstration prototype expert system for concrete pavement evaluation; numerical assessment of pavement test sections; development of a distress index and rehabilitation criteria for continuously reinforced concrete pavements using discriminant analysis; a mechanistic model for thermally induced reflection cracking of portland cement concrete pavement with reinforced asphalt concrete overlay; New Mexico study of interlayers used in reflective crack control; status of the South Dakota profilometer; incorporating the effects of tread pattern in a dynamic tire excitation mechanism; external methods for evaluating shock absorbers for road-roughness measurements; factor analysis of pavement distresses for surface condition predictions; development of a utility evaluation for nondestructive-testing equipment used on asphalt-concrete pavements; estimating the life of asphalt overlays using long-term pavement performance data; present serviceability-roughness correlations using rating panel data; video image distress analysis technique for Idaho transportation department pavement-management system; acceptability of shock absorbers for road roughness-measuring trailers.

  15. Pavement base drain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of a highway drainage system design was revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill material. The specified backfill material is a coarser crushed aggregate (pea gravel). An evaluation of the effects of these changes on pavement performance is given and the new pavement base drain system is compared to the older pipe foundation underdrain system at the same site.

  16. General outlook of pavement and vehicle dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mamlouk, M.S.

    1997-11-01

    The interaction between vehicle and pavement is complex since pavement roughness excites the dynamic forces generated by vehicles, while these dynamic forces simultaneously increase the pavement roughness. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the results of recent research related to pavement and vehicle dynamics and their interaction and to evaluate their potential use in the design and management of pavements. Pavement dynamic models are capable of determining stresses, strains, and deflections in various directions when harmonic, pulse, or transient loads are applied. Vehicle dynamic models simulate the effect of pavement roughness on the inertia of various vehicle components. These models can predict the dynamic forces produced by different axles and wheels of traveling vehicles at different locations along the pavement. Pavement response computed using dynamic models matches field measurements closer than those computed using static models. The concept of vehicle-pavement interaction can be applied to weigh-in-motion, pavement design and performance, and vehicle regulations.

  17. Pavement management

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, F.R.; Connor, B.; Lytton, R.L.; Darter, M.I.; Shahin, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The 11 papers in this report deal with the following areas: effect of pavement roughness on vehicle fuel consumption; rational seasonal load restrictions and overload permits; state-level pavement monitoring program; data requirements for long-term monitoring of pavements as a basis for development of multiple regression relations; simplified pavement management at the network level; combined priority programming of maintenance and rehabilitation for pavement networks; Arizona pavement management system: Phase 2-verification of performance prediction models and development of data base; overview of paver pavement management system; economic analysis of field implementation of paver pavement management system; development of a statewide pavement maintenance management system; and, prediction of pavement maintenance expenditure by using a statistical cost function.

  18. Design, Construction and Performance of Resin Modified Pavement at Fort Campbell Army Airfield, Kentucky

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    similar to a PCC pavement that had been treated with muriatic acid . The shot blasting took approximately 3 days and cost $16,000. The unit cost was $2.75...October 1992. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Airfield pavement Open-graded asphalt 66 Cement grout Resin-modified pavement 16. PRICE CODE Fuel

  19. Airport Pavement Test Machine Design and Cost Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    3-3 Total Initial Costs ......................................... 3-4 First Year Operational...assist the FAA in determining the full-scale testing needed to develop and verify the new design procedures The first planning meeting of the working...Douglas Aircraft Company The major conclusion from the first meeting was that full-scale test data must be generated for development and verification

  20. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site: Initial Results from a Stormwater Control Designed for Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

  1. Unified Methodology for Airport Pavement Analysis and Design. Volume 1. State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    pavements with saturated bases and subgrades to well- drained pavements. The damage factors ranged from 10 to 70,000. Cedergren also demonstrated that...34Modulus of Asphalt Mixtures - An Unresolved Dilemma," Transportation Research Board, Research Record 1171, p. 193, Washington, DC 13. Cedergren , H.R

  2. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses.

  3. Development of Mechanistic Flexible Pavement Design Concepts for the Heavyweight F-15 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    greater) was noted at 1264 coverages. Test Point 9 - Subgrade shear cracks became visible on the surface of the test section at 40 coverages. Inability...Materials," Properties of Flexible Pavement Materials, ASTM STP 807, J.J. Emery, Ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 55-64, 1983

  4. High altitude premium pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, F.; Proctor, J.

    1980-02-01

    The effect on performance that various additives and, or compaction had on the performance of pavements was evaluated. The following additives were evaluated: Anti-stripping additives, ground scrap rubber and carbon black. Samples were also evaluated at approximately 0, 3, 10 and 15% voids to determine the effect compaction had on the performance of the pavement. The resilient modulus, effect of water on cohesion of compacted bituminous mixtures and an accelerated moisture damage test was performed on each design mix. Most of the additives did not show significant, if any, improvement in the laboratory test results. The best improvement in laboratory test results came from the anti-stripping asphalt additives, which is one of the least costly and simplest to include in the pavement mixture.

  5. Precast Concrete Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Gorsuch 1962, Kruse 1966, Jacoby 1967, and Hargett 1970). The final slab design used in construction is shown in Figure 2. These slabs were 6 ft wide, 24...Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Gorsuch , R. F. 1962. "Preliminary Investigation of Precast Prestressed Concrete Pavements," MS Thesis, South Dakota

  6. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  7. Pavement Evaluation and Overlay Design Using Vibratory Nondestructive Testing and Layered Elastic Theory. Volume II. Validation of Procedure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    8217 a’_. " " W-’-’-- "൒. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Geotechnical Laboratory / &.F7WI 7 P. 0. Box...PREFACE This study was conducted during the period October 1977 to December 1978 by personnel of the Geotechnical Laboratory (GL), U. S. Army Engineer ...overlay thickness required to upgrade a pavement is of much importance to pavement engineers . A simple method of pavement evaluation combining

  8. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site: Initial Results from a Stormwater Control Designed for Monitoring - Slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exist few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage condit...

  9. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site: Initial Results from a Stormwater Control Designed for Monitoring - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    There exist few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage condit...

  10. Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in asphalt pavement design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.; Coree, B.J.; Lovell, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    According to EPA reports (1991) of the over 242 million waste generated each year in the United State, 5% are exported, 6% recycled, 11% incinerated, and 78% are landfilled, stockpiled, or illegally dumped. A variety of uses for these tires are being studied. Among these is pyrolysis which produces 5 5% of oil, 25% of carbon black, 9% of steel, 5% of fiber and 6% of gas. Pyrolized carbon black contains 9 % of ash, 4% of sulfur, 12% of butadine copolymer and 75% of carbon black. The objective of this research is to investigate the viability of using PCB as an additive in hot mix asphalt. The use of PCB in asphalt pavement is expected not only to improve the performance of conventional asphalt, but also to provide a means for the mass disposal of waste fires.

  11. ACAA pavement manual. Recommended practice: Coal fly ash in pozzolanic stabilized mixtures for flexible pavement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to guide pavement design engineers, materials engineers, and construction managers in the design and construction of flexible pavement systems in which low- to high-strength Pozzolanic Stabilized Mixtures' ( PSMs') serve as base layers. A PSM incorporates coal fly ash in combination with activators, aggregates and water. Each of three design methods is useful for determining the thickness of a PSM base layer for a flexible pavement system: Method A - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) flexible pavement design procedures, using structural layer coefficients; Method B - Mechanistic pavement design procedures, using resilient modulus values for the pavement layers; and Method C - A combination of Method A and Method B, using mechanistic design concepts for determining pavement layer coefficients. PSMs offer several advantages: PSMs are strong, durable mixtures using locally available materials; PSMs are economically competitive with properly engineered full-depth asphalt or crushed stone base courses; PSMs are suited to stabilizing recycled base mixtures; and PSMs are placed and compacted with conventional construction equipment. To provide the needed guidance for capturing the long-term service and cost-saving features of a PSM design, this manual details the following: a procedure for proportioning PSMs; thickness design procedures which include base layer and asphalt wearing course; and proven techniques for PSM mixing and base layer construction.

  12. Effective flow resistivity of highway pavements.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Judith L; Read, David R

    2013-12-01

    In the case of highway traffic noise, propagating sound is influenced by the ground over which it travels, whether it is the pavement itself or the ground between the highway and nearby communities. Properly accounting for ground type in modeling can increase accuracy in noise impact determinations and noise abatement design. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values are being investigated for inclusion in the Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model, which uses these values in the sound propagation algorithms and currently applies a single effective flow resistivity value to all pavement. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values were obtained by applying a modified version of the American National Standards Institute S1.18 standard. The data analysis process was tailored to allow for increased sensitivity and extraction of effective flow resistivity values for a broad range of pavements (sound absorptive to reflective). For porous pavements (sound absorptive), it was determined that examination of the measured data can reveal influence from an underlying structure. Use of such techniques can aid in the design of quieter pavements.

  13. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Parking Lots and Driveways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The latest information for designing full-depth asphalt pavements for parking lots and driveways is covered in relationship to the continued increase in vehicle registration. It is based on The Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual, Series No. 1 (MS-1), Seventh Edition, which covers all aspects of asphalt pavement thickness design in detail,…

  14. Criteria for Polymer Concrete on Airport Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-27

    basins against corrosion and erosion due to sand and other abrasive materials carried by the flowing waters. Other examples of the Corps of Engineers...airport pavement involves the following 6 design parameters; 1. load specifications (magnitude, geometry , frequency etc.), 2. pavement and subgrade...specifications ( geometry , material properties) and 3. allowable stresses and deflections in the system. It is assumed that all the above parameters except

  15. Backcalculation of Composite Pavement Layer Moduli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    pavement system. Figure 1 illustrates some of the differences between a typical idealized model and a real pavement system. In general, the properties of...the real and idealized systems are not the same. Use of nondestructive test data to backcalculate layer properties implies that equivalent deflection...assumed idealized model. If layer properties from the idealized model are to be used in a 5 subsequent overlay design or remaining life prediction, it

  16. Pavement condition data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniewski, J.P.; Hudson, S.W.; Hudson, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes a computer methodology for analyzing pavement condition data to define inputs for pavement management systems. This system of programs was developed during a Federal Highway Administration research project. In the project, eight state highway departments were studied to determine the types of pavement condition data collected, procedures used for collecting data, the inputs to the states' pavement management systems, and computer programs used by the states to analyze raw pavement condition data. Several of the programs were assembled into the Method for Analyzing Pavement Condition, MAPCON, during a project performed at Pennsylvania State University. These and other existing or new programs (a total of 18) were identified, tested, modified, and incorporated onto a MS/DOS microcomputer system. MAPCON guides the user through selection of analysis method, raw data entry, and data analysis.

  17. Pavement recycling catching on

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, G.

    1980-11-01

    The soaring costs of asphalt, aggregates, energy, and labor have revived interest in the recycling of old pavements and road bases. Two types of techniqueshot mix recycling and cold mix recycling are described and compared. The experiences of Wisconsin and Texas with pavement recycling are reviewed. Wisconsin uses the hot mix recycling, while Texas refurbishes its roads with the cold mix recycling. One contractor's doubts about surface recycling of pavements are outlined. (13 photos)

  18. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  19. Concrete Block Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  20. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  1. A novel micromechanics based approach in modeling pavement response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Arun

    For maintaining a smooth flow of traffic in the nation's highway system, sections of pavements that are damaged need to be serviced frequently. Among the various types of damage, those caused by heavy trucks are a major concern. Based on a detailed and broad literature survey, it is apparent that no analytical model exists which could closely predict dynamic pavement response and progressive damage, even qualitatively, due to truck loading. It is such a model that is developed in this work. In order to predict pavement response and damage analytically, a model will have to be based on a theory that captures the essential features of the pavement material. The state-of-the-art Microplane Theory, which has never been applied before to pavement, is chosen to model the material behavior in this research. The theory is implemented in a finite element code to predict tri-axial pavement response. The pavement material damage due to traffic loading is also presented qualitatively. Furthermore, using Taguchi Methods, the critical parameters in a pavement design are determined. Finally, the response of pavement to various joint designs parameters is evaluated.

  2. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2015-02-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period.

  3. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  4. Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Poster for the SAB Review detailing the porous pavement parking lot project. The poster describes the design of the parking lot, the research components that were incorporated into the design, and the monitoring plan.

  5. Overview of the Arizona Quiet Pavement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donavan, Paul; Scofield, Larry

    2005-09-01

    The Arizona Quiet Pavement Pilot Program (QP3) was initially implemented to reduce highway related traffic noise by overlaying most of the Phoenix metropolitan area Portland cement concrete pavement with a one inch thick asphalt rubber friction coarse. With FHWA support, this program represents the first time that pavement surface type has been allowed as a noise mitigation strategy on federally funded projects. As a condition of using pavement type as a noise mitigation strategy, ADOT developed a ten-year, $3.8 million research program to evaluate the noise reduction performance over time. Historically, pavement surface type was not considered a permanent solution. As a result, the research program was designed to specifically address this issue. Noise performance is being evaluated through three means: (1) conventional roadside testing within the roadway corridor (e.g., far field measurements within the right-of-way) (2) the use of near field measurements, both close proximity (CPX) and sound intensity (SI); and (3) far field measurements obtained beyond the noise barriers within the surrounding neighborhoods. This paper provides an overview of the program development, presents the research conducted to support the decision to overlay the urban freeway, and the status of current research.

  6. Rigid and Flexible Pavement Aircraft Tie-Downs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    mechanisms designed to secure aircraft to the pavement surface. The objective of this project was to determine the pull-out capacity of existing tie...Anchoring systems, also referred to as tie-downs and mooring points, describe mechanisms designed to secure aircraft to the pavement surface...on anchoring systems specifically designed to physically secure the military airplane. Tie-down and mooring practices were intently examined after

  7. Permeable pavement research – Edison, New Jersey

    EPA Science Inventory

    These are the slides for the New York City Concrete Promotional Council Pervious Concrete Seminar presentation. The basis for the project, the monitoring design and some preliminary monitoring data from the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center are pre...

  8. Tactile pavement for guiding walking direction: An assessment of heading direction and gait stability.

    PubMed

    Pluijter, Nanda; de Wit, Lieke P W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Plaisier, Myrthe A

    2015-10-01

    For maintaining heading direction while walking we heavily rely on vision. Therefore, walking in the absence of vision or with visual attention directed elsewhere potentially leads to dangerous situations. Here we investigated whether tactile information from the feet can be used as a (partial) substitute for vision in maintaining a stable heading direction. If so, participants should be better able to keep a constant heading direction on tactile pavement that indicates directionality than on regular flat pavement. However, such a pavement may also be destabilizing. Thus we asked participants to walk straight ahead on regular pavement, and on tactile pavement (tiles with ridges along the walking direction) while varying the amount of vision. We assessed the effects of the type of pavement as well as the amount of vision on the variability of the heading direction as well as gait stability. Both of these measures were calculated from accelerations and angular velocities recorded from a smartphone attached to the participants trunk. Results showed that on tactile pavement participants had a less variations in their heading direction than on regular pavement. The drawback, however, was that the tactile pavement used in this study decreased gait stability. In sum, tactile pavement can be used as a partial substitute for vision in maintaining heading direction, but it can also decrease gait stability. Future work should focus on designing tactile pavement that does provided directional clues, but is less destabilizing.

  9. An advanced algorithm for highway pavement fissure detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bei; Cao, Wenlun; He, Yuyao

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents image detection method of pavement crack based on fractal dimension feature and designs self-adapting algorithm of fractal dimension interval of pavement region. Through image pretreatment, calculation of fractal dimension, self-adapting calculation of dimension interval, we obtain the location image of damage pavement. The experimental results of transverse crack, longitudinal crack, net-shaped crack, pit slot are contrast with that of Sobel operator. The results show that they have the similar capability on the representation of crack, but the proposed method is more flexible on the aspect of representation of crack size and calculation of damage ratio.

  10. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Edison, NJ, is evaluating concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pollutant removal of a bench-scale permeable interlo...

  11. The effect of loading time on flexible pavement dynamic response: a finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hao; Solaimanian, Mansour; Kumar, Tanmay; Stoffels, Shelley

    2007-12-01

    Dynamic response of asphalt concrete (AC) pavements under moving load is a key component for accurate prediction of flexible pavement performance. The time and temperature dependency of AC materials calls for utilizing advanced material characterization and mechanistic theories, such as viscoelasticity and stress/strain analysis. In layered elastic analysis, as implemented in the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG), the time dependency is accounted for by calculating the loading times at different AC layer depths. In this study, the time effect on pavement response was evaluated by means of the concept of “pseudo temperature.” With the pavement temperature measured from instrumented thermocouples, the time and temperature dependency of AC materials was integrated into one single factor, termed “effective temperature.” Via this effective temperature, pavement responses under a transient load were predicted through finite element analysis. In the finite element model, viscoelastic behavior of AC materials was characterized through relaxation moduli, while the layers with unbound granular material were assumed to be in an elastic mode. The analysis was conducted for two different AC mixtures in a simplified flexible pavement structure at two different seasons. Finite element analysis results reveal that the loading time has a more pronounced impact on pavement response in the summer for both asphalt types. The results indicate that for reasonable prediction of dynamic response in flexible pavements, the effect of the depth-dependent loading time on pavement temperature should be considered.

  12. Design and implementation of PAVEMON: A GIS web-based pavement monitoring system based on large amounts of heterogeneous sensors data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar

    A web-based PAVEment MONitoring system, PAVEMON, is a GIS oriented platform for accommodating, representing, and leveraging data from a multi-modal mobile sensor system. Stated sensor system consists of acoustic, optical, electromagnetic, and GPS sensors and is capable of producing as much as 1 Terabyte of data per day. Multi-channel raw sensor data (microphone, accelerometer, tire pressure sensor, video) and processed results (road profile, crack density, international roughness index, micro texture depth, etc.) are outputs of this sensor system. By correlating the sensor measurements and positioning data collected in tight time synchronization, PAVEMON attaches a spatial component to all the datasets. These spatially indexed outputs are placed into an Oracle database which integrates seamlessly with PAVEMON's web-based system. The web-based system of PAVEMON consists of two major modules: 1) a GIS module for visualizing and spatial analysis of pavement condition information layers, and 2) a decision-support module for managing maintenance and repair (Mℝ) activities and predicting future budget needs. PAVEMON weaves together sensor data with third-party climate and traffic information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) databases for an organized data driven approach to conduct pavement management activities. PAVEMON deals with heterogeneous and redundant observations by fusing them for jointly-derived higher-confidence results. A prominent example of the fusion algorithms developed within PAVEMON is a data fusion algorithm used for estimating the overall pavement conditions in terms of ASTM's Pavement Condition Index (PCI). PAVEMON predicts PCI by undertaking a statistical fusion approach and selecting a subset of all the sensor measurements. Other fusion algorithms include noise-removal algorithms to remove false negatives in the sensor data in addition to fusion algorithms developed for

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of load transfer at rigid airport pavement joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammons, Michael I.

    1995-07-01

    Current design criteria for rigid pavements for commercial and military airfields assume that 25% of the load applied to an edge of a slab is transferred through the joint to an adjacent unloaded slab. A nondestructive testing technique using a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to conduct field testing at a number of sites. A transfer function, developed from an analytical study, was used to estimate load transfer from the measured joint efficiency as a function of the loaded area and the radius of relative stiffness of the pavement. This procedure, although analytically sound, lacks actual field verification at an instrumented pavement site. This procedure was used to estimate load transfer at a number of commercial and military airfields for a variety of joint types, climate conditions, and pavement structures. The results of these tests indicate that the assumption of load transfer as a constant value of 25% appears to be unconservative, especially during the winter months.

  14. Asphalt pavement surfaces and asphalt mixtures. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The papers in this volume, which deal with asphalt pavement surfaces and asphalt mixtures, should be of interest to state and local construction, design, materials, and research engineers as well as contractors and material producers. The papers in Part 1 include discussions of pavement smoothness specifications and skidding characteristics. The first four papers in Part 2 were submitted in response to a call for papers for a session at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board on low-temperature properties of hot-mix asphalt. The next eight are on the influence of volumetric and strength properties on the performance of hot-mix asphalt. In the following three papers, the topics covered are the complex modulus of asphalt concrete, cold in-place asphalt recycling, and polymer modification of asphalt pavements in Ontario. The last two papers were presented in a session on relationship of materials characterization to accelerated pavement performance testing.

  15. Research on the characteristics of temperature field of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Jiangang; Liu, Weizheng

    2014-08-01

    The characteristics of climate in seasonal frozen area are low temperature and a large range of temperature variation between day and night in winter. These characteristics often lead to problems of asphalt pavement, especially transverse cracks. To reduce the problems of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the temperature range of asphalt pavement. A three-dimensional finite element model was used, taking the SMA asphalt pavement as an example with solid70 and plane55 unit features of ANSYS software. It can obtain the relationship between temperature gradient and time and the relationship between temperature gradient and depth. In addition, a function relation model of stress and time was also established. It can provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of problems of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen area. Moreover, it has an important significance for improving asphalt pavement design.

  16. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health.

  17. Geotextiles in Flexible Pavement Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alungbe, Gabriel D.

    2004-01-01

    People everywhere in the developed world regularly drive on paved roads. Learning about the construction techniques and materials used in paving benefits technology and construction students. This article discusses the use of geosynthetic textiles in pavement construction. It presents background on pavements and describes geotextiles and drainage…

  18. Numerical modeling of inelastic structures at loading of steady state rolling. Thermo-mechanical asphalt pavement computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, Ines; Hartung, Felix; Kaliske, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In order to gain a deeper knowledge of the interactions in the coupled tire-pavement-system, e.g. for the future design of durable pavement structures, the paper presents recent results of research in the field of theoretical-numerical asphalt pavement modeling at material and structural level, whereby the focus is on a realistic and numerically efficient computation of pavements under rolling tire load by using the finite element method based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Inelastic material descriptions are included into the ALE frame efficiently by a recently developed unsplit history update procedure. New is also the implementation of a viscoelastic cohesive zone model into the ALE pavement formulation to describe the interaction of the single pavement layers. The viscoelastic cohesive zone model is further extended to account for the normal pressure dependent shear behavior of the bonding layer. Another novelty is that thermo-mechanical effects are taken into account by a coupling of the mechanical ALE pavement computation to a transient thermal computation of the pavement cross-section to obtain the varying temperature distributions of the pavement due to climatic impact. Then, each ALE pavement simulation considers the temperature dependent asphalt material model that includes elastic, viscous and plastic behavior at finite strains and the temperature dependent viscoelastic cohesive zone formulation. The temperature dependent material parameters of the asphalt layers and the interfacial layers are fitted to experimental data. Results of coupled tire-pavement computations are presented to demonstrate potential fields of application.

  19. Pavement recycling. Executive summary and report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) initiated Demonstration Project 39 (DP 39) Recycling Asphalt Pavements in June 1976. The project showed that asphalt pavement recycling was a technically viable rehabitation technique, and it was estimated that the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) would amount to approximately 15 percent of the total hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production by the mid-1980s. It was expected that most of the asphalt pavement removed would be reused in new pavement construction or overlays.

  20. Performance of pervious pavement parking bays storing rainwater in the north of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ullate, E; Bayon, J R; Coupe, S; Castro-Fresno, D

    2010-01-01

    Pervious pavements are drainage techniques that improve urban water management in a sustainable manner. An experimental pervious pavement parking area has been constructed in the north of Spain (Santander), with the aim of harvesting good quality rainwater. Forty-five pervious pavement structures have been designed and constructed to measure stored water quantity and quality simultaneously. Ten of these structures are specifically constructed with different geotextile layers for improving water storage within the pavements. Following the confirmation in previous laboratory experiments that the geotextile influenced on water storage, two different geosynthetics (Inbitex and a One Way evaporation control membrane) and control pervious pavements with no geotextile layers were tested in the field. Weather conditions were monitored in order to find correlations with the water storage within the pervious pavement models tested. During one year of monitoring the three different pervious pavement types tested remained at their maximum storage capacity. The heavy rain events which occurred during the experimental period caused evaporation rates within the pervious pavements to be not significant, but allowed the researchers to observe certain trends in the water storage. Temperature was the most closely correlated weather factor with the level of the water stored within the pervious pavements tested.

  1. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has been monitoring an instrumented 110-space pervious pavement parking lot. The lot is used by EPA personnel and visitors to the Edison Environmental Center. The design includes 28-space rows of three permeable pavement types: asphal...

  2. Quantifying Evaporation and Evaluating Runoff Estimation Methods in a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable pavement in the parking lanes which were designed to receive run-on from the impervious hot-mix asphalt driving lanes. Twelve lined permeable pavement sec...

  3. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  4. Early-life study of the FA409 full-depth asphalt-concrete pavement sections

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) is currently implementing a mechanistic thickness-design procedure for full-depth asphalt-concrete pavements. This thesis is an early design-life investigation of full-depth asphalt-concrete pavements, constructed on FA409 near Carlyle, Illinois in 1986. Included in the study are: sampling and testing of paving and subgrade materials; extensive non-destructive testing (NDT) using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD); development of techniques for interpreting NDT data; determination of as-built structural characteristics of the various pavement sections; evaluation of subsurface drainage and lime-treated soil behavior; and examination of the validity of the ILLI-PAVE computer model. The simplicity of a full-depth asphalt-concrete pavement allows useful information regarding pavement structure to be determined from FWD surface-deflection data. The ILLI-PAVE model was used in conjunction with statistical methods to quantify, in the form of regression equations or algorithms, the relationship between pavement structure (Tac, Eac, and Eri) and pavement response to FWD loading. Testing of pavement and subgrade material samples as used to validate these algorithms.

  5. Pavement recycling guidelines for state and local governments: Participant`s reference book. Final report, September 1995--December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kandhal, P.S.; Mallick, R.B.

    1997-12-01

    Recycling or reuse of existing asphalt pavement materials to produce new pavement materials has the following advantages: (1) reduced costs of construction, (2) conservation of aggregate and binder, (3) preservation of the existing pavement geometrics, (4) preservation of the environment, and (5) conservation of energy. This document was prepared to provide the following information on recycling of asphalt pavements: (1) performance data, (2) legislation/specification limits, (3) selection of pavement for recycling and recycling strategies, (4) economics of recycling, and (5) structural design of recycled pavements. The following recycling methods have been included: hot-mix asphalt recycling (both batch and drum plants), asphalt surface recycling, hot-in-place recycling, cold-mix asphalt recycling, and full depth reclamation. Materials and mix design, construction methods and equipment, case histories and quality control/quality assurance have been discussed for all recycling methods.

  6. Resilient Modulus of Freeze-Thaw Affected Granular Soils for Pavement Design and Evaluation. Part 2. Field Validation Tests at Winchendon, Massachusetts, Test Sections,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    techniques to express the resil- on the riding qualities, integrity , and durability of ient modulus Mr as a function of density, soil pavements are...in the second series of tests in ciated instrumentation integrates the velocity sig- February 1979, when the test soils were frozen. As nal and reads...analysis of the six test sections are sum- Radius (m) •0 0 2 04 0 6 08 1 0 o E 400 Actual Basin - -- j/ / Calculoated Baosin 00 .. ~~~~~ ~~1200 1 1

  7. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

  8. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  9. A pavement Moisture Accelerated Distress (MAD) identification system, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, S. H.; Darter, M. I.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    A users manual is designed which provides the engineer with a rational method of examining a pavement and determining rehabilitation needs that are related to the causes of the existing distress, particularly moisture related distress. The key elements in this procedure are the MAD Index developed in Volume 1, the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and the Moisture Distress Index (MDI). Step by step procedures are presented for calculating each parameter. Complete distress identification manuals are included for asphalt surfaced highways and jointed reinforced concrete highways with pictures and descriptions of all major distress types. Descriptions of the role moisture plays in the development of each distress type are included.

  10. Degradation Modeling of Polyurea Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Jonathan D. Needham, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEM/ENV/11-M05 DEPARTMENT OF THE...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Management Graduates School of...DEGRADATION MODELING OF POLYUREA PAVEMENT MARKINGS Jonathan D. Needham, BS Captain, USAF Approved

  11. Monitoring Strategies in Permeable Pavement Systems to Optimize Maintenance Scheduling

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the surface in a permeable pavement system clogs and performance decreases, maintenance is required to preserve the design function. Currently, guidance is limited for scheduling maintenance on an as needed basis. Previous research has shown that surface clogging in a permea...

  12. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar at the FAA's National Airport Pavement Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Injun, Song

    2015-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States has used a ground-coupled Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) since 2005. One of the primary objectives of the testing at the facility is to provide full-scale pavement response and failure information for use in airplane landing gear design and configuration studies. During the traffic testing at the facility, a GSSI GPR system was used to develop new procedures for monitoring Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement density changes that is directly related to pavement failure. After reviewing current setups for data acquisition software and procedures for identifying different pavement layers, dielectric constant and pavement thickness were selected as dominant parameters controlling HMA properties provided by GPR. A new methodology showing HMA density changes in terms of dielectric constant variations, called dielectric sweep test, was developed and applied in full-scale pavement test. The dielectric constant changes were successfully monitored with increasing airplane traffic numbers. The changes were compared to pavement performance data (permanent deformation). The measured dielectric constants based on the known HMA thicknesses were also compared with computed dielectric constants using an equation from ASTM D4748-98 Standard Test Method for Determining the Thickness of Bound Pavement Layers Using Short-Pulse Radar. Six inches diameter cylindrical cores were taken after construction and traffic testing for the HMA layer bulk specific gravity. The measured bulk specific gravity was also compared to monitor HMA density changes caused by aircraft traffic conditions. Additionally this presentation will review the applications of the FAA's ground-coupled GPR on embedded rebar identification in concrete pavement, sewer pipes in soil, and gage identifications in 3D plots.

  13. Generating enhanced site topography data to improve permeable pavement performance assessment methods - presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable pavement surfaces are infiltration based stormwater control measures (SCM) commonly applied in parking lots to decrease impervious area and reduce runoff volume. Many are not optimally designed however, as little attention is given to draining a large enough contributin...

  14. Sea pavement using sulfur obtained from coal gasification. Research report for dec 80-jul 81

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinskas, M.M.; LaChance, H.C.; Nashold, F.G.

    1981-10-01

    A sulfur-extended asphalt (SEA) pavement using sulfur obtained from a coal gasification process was placed in a commuter parking lot. This report covers the design, mixing and placement of the SEA material and associated problems.

  15. An algorithm for pavement crack detection based on multiscale space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-long; Li, Qing-quan

    2006-10-01

    Conventional human-visual and manual field pavement crack detection method and approaches are very costly, time-consuming, dangerous, labor-intensive and subjective. They possess various drawbacks such as having a high degree of variability of the measure results, being unable to provide meaningful quantitative information and almost always leading to inconsistencies in crack details over space and across evaluation, and with long-periodic measurement. With the development of the public transportation and the growth of the Material Flow System, the conventional method can far from meet the demands of it, thereby, the automatic pavement state data gathering and data analyzing system come to the focus of the vocation's attention, and developments in computer technology, digital image acquisition, image processing and multi-sensors technology made the system possible, but the complexity of the image processing always made the data processing and data analyzing come to the bottle-neck of the whole system. According to the above description, a robust and high-efficient parallel pavement crack detection algorithm based on Multi-Scale Space is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the facts that: (1) the crack pixels in pavement images are darker than their surroundings and continuous; (2) the threshold values of gray-level pavement images are strongly related with the mean value and standard deviation of the pixel-grey intensities. The Multi-Scale Space method is used to improve the data processing speed and minimize the effectiveness caused by image noise. Experiment results demonstrate that the advantages are remarkable: (1) it can correctly discover tiny cracks, even from very noise pavement image; (2) the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are superior; (3) its application-dependent nature can simplify the design of the entire system.

  16. Pore-structure models of hydraulic conductivity for permeable pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, X.; Sansalone, J.; Ying, G.; Ranieri, V.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryPermeable pavement functions as a porous infrastructure interface allowing the infiltration and evaporation of rainfall-runoff while functioning as a relatively smooth load-bearing surface for vehicular transport. Hydraulic conductivity ( k) of permeable pavement is an important hydraulic property and is a function of the pore structure. This study examines k for a cementitious permeable pavement (CPP) through a series of pore-structure models. Measurements utilized include hydraulic head as well as total porosity, ( ϕ t), effective porosity ( ϕ e), tortuosity ( L e/ L) and pore size distribution (PSD) indices generated through X-ray tomography (XRT). XRT results indicate that the permeable pavement pore matrix is hetero-disperse, with high tortuosity and ϕ t ≠ ϕ e. Power law models of k- ϕ t and k- ϕ e relationships are developed for a CPP mix design. Results indicate that the Krüger, Fair-Hatch, Hazen, Slichter, Beyer and Terzaghi models based on simple pore-structure indices do not reproduce measured k values. The conventional Kozeny-Carman model (KCM), a more parameterized pore-structure model, did not reproduce measured k values. This study proposes a modified KCM utilizing ϕ e, specific surface area (SSA) pe and weighted tortuosity ( L e/ L) w. Results demonstrate that such permeable pavement pore-structure parameters with the modified KCM can predict k. The k results are combined with continuous simulation modeling using historical rainfall to provide nomographs examining permeable pavement as a low impact development (LID) infrastructure component.

  17. Mechanistic interpretation of nondestructive pavement testing deflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, M. S.

    1980-06-01

    A method is proposed for the backcalculation of material properties in flexible pavements based on the interpretation of surface deflection measurements. ILLI-PAVE, a stress dependent finite element pavement model, was used to generate data for developing algorithms and nomographs for deflection basin interpretation. Over 11,000 deflection measurements for 24 different flexible pavement sections were collected and analyzed. Deflections were measured using the Benkelman Beam, the IDOT Road Rater, the Falling Weight Deflectometer, and an accelerometer to measure deflections under moving trucks. Loading mode effects on pavement response were investigated using dynamic and viscous pavement models. The factors controlling the pavement response to different loading modes were explained and identified. Correlations between different devices were developed. The proposed evaluation procedure is illustrated for three different flexible pavements using deflection data collected on several testing dates.

  18. Teaching Methodology of Flexible Pavement Materials and Pavement Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Yusuf; Najafi, Fazil

    2004-01-01

    Flexible pavement materials exhibit complex mechanical behavior, in the sense, that they not only show stress and temperature dependency but also are sensitive to moisture conditions. This complex behavior presents a great challenge to the faculty in bringing across the level of complexity and providing the concepts needed to understand them. The…

  19. Recycling of portland cement concrete pavement, Johnson County. Final report, 1986-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wojakowski, J.B.; Fager, G.A.; Catron, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in recycling construction materials. Surface courses of bituminous pavements are currently being actively recycled all over Kansas. The recycling of portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP) can help alleviate any material disposal problems during construction, especially in urban areas and reduce the consumption or importation of virgin aggregate into aggregate poor areas. Two test sections using the coarser fraction from the original crushed portland cement concrete pavement were placed on K-7 in 1985. One section incorporated a recycled base and standard PCCP construction, another section was designed as a recycled base and recycled PCCP. Two other sections were control sections constructed with regular aggregate.

  20. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  1. Nondestructive testing, evaluation, and rehabilitation for roadway pavement: Warren County, Mississippi, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Berkeley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, Richard H.; Alexander, Don R.

    1994-07-01

    This report documents the results of one FIS technology transfer initiative: the demonstration of nondestructive pavement evaluation technology (NDT) to cooperating Federal and non-federal partners. The demonstrations utilized Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) technology, a commercially available nondestructive procedure for determining the structural adequacy of a pavement system. Data obtained from FWD tests were combined with pavement material properties and estimated future traffic volumes to design rehabilitation strategies for the existing streets and roadways of three communities. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) Evaluate and develop improvements to the initial guide specification used for contracting FWD technology; (2) Evaluate the three analytical methods used by each contractor to develop the pavement repair strategies; (3) Document and explain the differences in the results of the pavement evaluation methods; (4) Document the benefits of FWD technology over other conventional techniques; and (5) Transfer nondestructive testing of pavements technology to non-federal partners, and demonstrate how analysis of the test results can be used to develop rehabilitation strategies for roadway pavements.

  2. Pavement response to vehicular loads: a mechanistic approach involving nondestructive evaluation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, James C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for effective design in the nation's highways is greater now, more than ever, due to shrinking funds for new construction and rehabilitation/maintenance practices and the need to preserve the lands that are not now part of the roadway system. Most of the nation's highways were constructed within the last 30 years and many of these are due for significant rehabilitation and even reconstruction. Thus, the need to infuse robust design methods into these rehabilitation and reconstruction strategies is paramount. Currently, methods for cost allocation for pavement rehabilitation/maintenance activities and pavement management estimations are based on empirical and semi- empirical founded predictions that come up short, particularly when the roadway i subjected to multi-axle, heavy weight vehicles. Additionally, materials currently used int he construction of the pavement structure do not always behave in an elastic manner and the ability to predict the pavement response in the presence of other than elastic material behavior is essential. Finally, prediction of pavement states of distress based on empirical methods and elastic material behavior are inadequate, particularly when heavy weight vehicular traffic is involved. This paper includes descriptions of the overall methodology for pavement design and the unique requirements for the design and implementation of the structural and environmental sensing elements. Description of the mechanistic aspects in the software for the structural and material models is discussed and comparison of predicted and field measured results are presented.

  3. An Approach for Nonlinear Fatigue Damage Evaluation in Asphalt Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Thongram, Sonika

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue due to vehicular loads is one of the primary distress mechanisms in asphalt pavements. It happens primarily due to deterioration in asphalt material with load repetitions. Degradation of asphalt material may be evaluated using different parameters. In view of degradation, the incremental damage in a given pavement section would be different for different repetitions, even with same loadings. Therefore, the damage progression becomes nonlinear with repetitions. Accounting such nonlinearity in damage accumulation, and based on different damage evaluation parameters, this paper presents an equivalent approach for fatigue damage evaluation in asphalt pavements. Traditional fatigue equation adopted in mechanistic-empirical pavement design has been used in the present work. Four different criteria, namely number of load repetitions, asphalt stiffness reduction, strain enhancement and fatigue life reduction with repetitions are considered for damage estimation. The proposed approach could estimate same value of nonlinear damage, irrespective of the criteria used. The simplest form of criterion i.e. the number of load repetitions can be used for fatigue performance evaluation. Probabilistically, the damage propagation is also correlated and assessed with the failure probability.

  4. Predicting physical clogging of porous and permeable pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, C. F.; McCarthy, D. T.; Deletic, A.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryPorous pavements are easily retrofitted, and effective in improving water quality and hydrology, but prone to clogging. Despite being a major determinant in the lifespan of porous pavements, there is limited information on the physical clogging processes through these systems. The aim of this study was to understand the main physical processes that govern physical clogging and develop a simple black-box model that predicts physical clogging. The key variables that were hypothesised to influence clogging were pavement design and climate characteristics. Two compressed time scale laboratory experiments were conducted over 3 years on three common porous pavement types; monolithic porous asphalt, modular Hydrapave and monolithic Permapave. Pavement design was found to be an important role in clogging. Permapave did not clog even after 26 years of operation in simulated sub-tropical Brisbane (Australia) climate while porous asphalt and Hydrapave clogged after just 12 years, from surface clogging and geotextile clogging, respectively. Each system was tested using two different dosing patterns: (1) continual wetting with no dry periods and (2) variable inflow rates with drying periods (i.e. representing more natural conditions). The latter dosing method approximately doubled the lifespan of all systems suggesting the influence of climate conditions on clogging. Clogging was found to be highly correlated with cumulative volume and flow rate. A simple black-box regression model that predicts physical clogging was developed as a function of cumulative volume and Brisbane climatic conditions. However it is very likely that the shape of this regression is general, and that it could be calibrated for different climates in the future.

  5. Improving the distribution and reducing the magnitude of pavement damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, W. R.; Chou, U. T.

    1980-08-01

    In the analysis of flexible pavement, the layered elastic theory was used to compute the pavement response. For the rigid pavement, finite difference, layered elastic theory, and Westergard procedures were used to compute tensile stresses in concrete that formed the basis for predicting allowable stress repetitions. For flexible pavement, the only effective means to reduce pavement damage was to modify the wheel assembly to reduce stress or strain at the critical locations in the pavement systems. The most effective modification would be to increase the spacing between duals. For rigid pavements, the edge effect was critical, thus suggesting that modifications to shift the loading away from the pavement edge would be effective.

  6. Generation mechanisms of tire-pavement noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, Tyler P.

    Tire-pavement noise is the dominant source of traffic noise at highway speeds. It is the result of a combination of several noise generation mechanisms, including tire carcass vibration and tread block vibration. Because multiple mechanisms are involved, it is difficult to predict the effects of changes in pavement parameters on tire-pavement noise. In this research, a set of experimental techniques were developed to decompose a measured tire-pavement noise spectrum into a set of constituent spectra relating to each generation mechanism. Three principal mechanisms were identified: treadband vibration, sidewall vibration, and tangential tread block vibration. By combining the constituent spectra associated with these mechanisms, it was possible to accurately predict the total tire-pavement noise spectrum. The constituent spectra were fit to tire-pavement noise data measured on asphalt and concrete pavements at highway speeds. It was found that the constituent spectra fit the measured data well, and a two-parameter model was developed to predict tire-pavement noise levels from pavement texture data.

  7. Performance of concrete pavements containing recycled concrete aggregate. Interim report, October 1993-October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.J.; Cuttell, G.D.; Vandenbossche, J.M.; Yu, H.T.; Smith, K.D.

    1997-03-01

    This interim report documents the field performance of nine concrete pavement projects that incorporate recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) in the construction of the pavement. Multiple sections were evaluated on many of the nine projects, due to perceived differences in performance levels or variations in pavement design (such as the use of virgin aggregate or the inclusion of dowel bars). All told, a total of 17 sections (of which 12 contain RCA) were subjected to an extensive field testing program, consisting of pavement condition surveys, drainage surveys, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) testing, coring, and serviceability assessments. A minimum of eight cores were retrieved from each section for laboratory evaluation of compressive strength, split tensile strength, dynamic elastic modulus, static elastic modulus, and thermal coefficient of expansion, as well as for volumetric surface testing and petrographic analyses.

  8. Time domain backcalculation of pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kunihito; Nishizawa, Tatsuo; Kikuta, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    Falling weight deflectometor (FWD) has been frequently used to evaluate structural integrity of pavement. The device applies an impulsive force on the surface of pavement and measure surface deflections at several locations including the place of loading. Although the test is dynamic, the data is regarded as pseudo-static data. According to common practice, using the peak load and the corresponding peak deflections, layer moduli are estimated in a static domain such that the measured peak deflections coincide with the corresponding calculated deflections based on the assumption of the theory of linear elasticity. This paper presents a method to back calculate layer moduli in dynamic domain such that the histories of both measured and calculated responses corresponding to the impulsive force coincide. Pavement is modeled by an axisymmetric linear elastic system. FEM is utilized coupled with Ritz vector to reduce a matrix and thus to improve computational efficiency. The backcalculation algorithm used is the Gauss-Newton method coupled with a truncated singular value decomposition.

  9. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  10. Development of a fiber optic pavement subgrade strain measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Craig Emerson

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a fiber optic sensing system to measure strains within the soil subgrade of highway pavements resulting from traffic loads. The motivation to develop such a device include improvements to: (1)all phases of pavement design, (2)theoretical models used to predict pavement performance, and (3)pavement rehabilitation. The design of the sensing system encompasses selecting an appropriate transducer design as well as the development of optimal optical and demodulation systems. The first is spring based, which attempts to match its spring stiffness to that of the soil-data indicate it is not an optimal transducer design. The second transducer implements anchoring plates attached to two telescoping tubes which allows the soil to be compacted to a desired density between the plates to dictate the transducer's behavior. Both transducers include an extrinsic Fabry- Perot cavity to impose the soil strains onto a phase change of the optical signal propagating through the cavity. The optical system includes a low coherence source and allows phase modulation via path length stretching by adding a second interferometer in series with the transducer, resulting in a path matched differential interferometer. A digitally implemented synthetic heterodyne demodulator based on a four step phase stepping algorithm is used to obtain unambiguous soil strain information from the displacement of the Fabry-Perot cavity. The demodulator is calibrated and characterized by illuminating the transducer with a second long coherence source of different wavelength. The transducer using anchoring plates is embedded within cylindrical soil specimens of varying soil types and soil moisture contents. Loads are applied to the specimen and resulting strains are measured using the embedded fiber optic gage and LVDTs attached to the surface of the specimen. This experimental verification is substantiated using a finite element analysis to predict any differences

  11. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability.

  12. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  13. Predicting pavement distress in oil field areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Scullion, T.; Stampley, B.E.

    1984-05-01

    A study on oil field traffic characteristics was performed and a procedure was developed for assessing current and future effects of oil field truck traffic on surface-treated (stage construction type) pavements. A computer program calculates several types of pavement distress and serviceability parameters to evaluate pavement performance under various axle load repetitions. Stepwise regression analysis of 132 surface-treated pavement sections led to the development of individual distress equations for rutting, raveling, flushing, alligator cracking, patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, and failures (potholes). The versatility of the program provides a means of anticipating early pavement failures due to increased axle load repetitions. The program also provides the basic framework for computing the effects of other ''special-use'' truck traffic demands.

  14. The use of reflective and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation and stormwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Harvey, J. T.; Holland, T. J.; Kayhanian, M.

    2013-03-01

    To help address the built environmental issues of both heat island and stormwater runoff, strategies that make pavements cooler and permeable have been investigated through measurements and modeling of a set of pavement test sections. The investigation included the hydraulic and thermal performance of the pavements. The permeability results showed that permeable interlocking concrete pavers have the highest permeability (or infiltration rate, ˜0.5 cm s-1). The two permeable asphalt pavements showed the lowest permeability, but still had an infiltration rate of ˜0.1 cm s-1, which is adequate to drain rainwater without generating surface runoff during most typical rain events in central California. An increase in albedo can significantly reduce the daytime high surface temperature in summer. Permeable pavements under wet conditions could give lower surface temperatures than impermeable pavements. The cooling effect highly depends on the availability of moisture near the surface layer and the evaporation rate. The peak cooling effect of watering for the test sections was approximately 15-35 °C on the pavement surface temperature in the early afternoon during summer in central California. The evaporative cooling effect on the pavement surface temperature at 4:00 pm on the third day (25 h after watering) was still 2-7 °C lower compared to that on the second day, without considering the higher air temperature on the third day. A separate and related simulation study performed by UCPRC showed that full depth permeable pavements, if designed properly, can carry both light-duty traffic and certain heavy-duty vehicles while retaining the runoff volume captured from an average California storm event. These preliminarily results indicated the technical feasibility of combined reflective and permeable pavements for addressing the built environment issues related to both heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff management.

  15. Improving Rutting Resistance of Pavement Structures Using Geosynthetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting). PMID:24526919

  16. INVESTIGATING PAVEMENT STRUCTURE DETERIORATION WITH A RELATIVE EVALUATION MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Eigo; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Takumi

    The deterioration of pavement structure is a complex phenomenon that follows the deterioration of both pavement surface and pavement sub-surface. In addition, the deterioration progress of pavement sub-surface affects the deterioration speed of pavement surface. The road pavement management is important to determine the optimal repair strategy which considers the deterioration of both pavement surface and sub-surface (hereafter call "pavement structure"). This study proposes pavement repair planning and strategies of 1) extraction of key management section of relative evaluation based on road inspection survey results, and 2) determination of decision-making repair methodologies based on pavement structural soundness survey by FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) in key management sections. In addition, the National Highway Route 9 is the target area as empirical study to verify the methodology proposed in this study.

  17. AN OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR AIRPORT CONCRETE PAVEMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Taizo; Fujimori, Yuji; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Obama, Kengo; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    In this paper, an optimal management model is formulated for the performance-based rehabilitation/maintenance contract for airport concrete pavement, whereby two types of life cycle cost risks, i.e., ground consolidation risk and concrete depreciation risk, are explicitly considered. The non-homogenous Markov chain model is formulated to represent the deterioration processes of concrete pavement which are conditional upon the ground consolidation processes. The optimal non-homogenous Markov decision model with multiple types of risk is presented to design the optimal rehabilitation/maintenance plans. And the methodology to revise the optimal rehabilitation/maintenance plans based upon the monitoring data by the Bayesian up-to-dating rules. The validity of the methodology presented in this paper is examined based upon the case studies carried out for the H airport.

  18. Permanent Deformation of Flexible Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    speeds actually used during testing are detailed in Chapters 3 and 4. Load range = 0-15 kN Tyre pressure = 530 kPa Contact area at 10 kN = 0.02 m 2...The difference between tyre pressure and contact stress is probably due to the stiffness of the side walls of the tyre . 2.2 PAVEMENT INSTRUMENTATION...of wet bricks in a waterproofed concrete lined pit 4.9 m long, 2.4 m wide and 1.5 m deep. A triple legged pneumatic tamper was used to compact each

  19. Pavement crack characteristic detection based on sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Huang, Jianping; Liu, Wanyu; Xu, Mantao

    2012-12-01

    Pavement crack detection plays an important role in pavement maintaining and management. The three-dimensional (3D) pavement crack detection technique based on laser is a recent trend due to its ability of discriminating dark areas, which are not caused by pavement distress such as tire marks, oil spills and shadows. In the field of 3D pavement crack detection, the most important thing is the accurate extraction of cracks in individual pavement profile without destroying pavement profile. So after analyzing the pavement profile signal characteristics and the changeability of pavement crack characteristics, a new method based on the sparse representation is developed to decompose pavement profile signal into a summation of the mainly pavement profile and cracks. Based on the characteristics of the pavement profile signal and crack, the mixed dictionary is constructed with an over-complete exponential function and an over-complete trapezoidal membership function, and the signal is separated by learning in this mixed dictionary with a matching pursuit algorithm. Some experiments were conducted and promising results were obtained, showing that we can detect the pavement crack efficiently and achieve a good separation of crack from pavement profile without destroying pavement profile.

  20. Recycling asphalt pavements. January 1975-January 1990 (a Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1975-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-containing pavement materials. Articles include examples of recycling asphalt pavements; performance testing of recycled paving; methods including cold in-place, cold off-site, and hot-mix recycling; additives in recycled pavement for better performance; use of scrap roofing asphalt in conjunction with recycled paving; economics of recycling; process design; and process variables. Recycling of other materials is considered in related bibliographies. (Contains 130 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  1. Pavement Evaluation Concepts Using Nondestructive Structural Evaluation and Pavement Condition Index.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    FILE COPY P~MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-87-5 PAVEMENT EVALUATION CONCEPTS USING * i NONDESTRUCTIVE STRUCTURAL EVALUATION AND PAVEMENT CONDITION INDEX by...Nondestructive Structural Evaluation and Pavement Condition Index 12, PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hall, Jim W., Jr. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF... index and results of nondestructive testing structural evaluation. A flowchart outlining the decision process of identifyinp appropriate alternatives

  2. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  3. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    This a presentation for a Community Outreach Event called "Chemistry Works and Celebration of International Year of Chemistry." It will review the permeable pavement research project at the Edison Environmental center.

  4. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  5. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  6. Recycled Materials - Applications to Air Force Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    an unlimited supply of natural materials. Since the embargo, the law of supply and demand had pushed the price of asphalt to $180 per ton* by early...are a number of reasons for planing the pae,.-%nt surface ( Lawing , 1976). The pavement surface over a bridge can be re- moved by planing before...Donald :. 979. "Recyc.in, Aschalt Pavements," Federal Highway Admistration Demonstration roject N-. 39, Sherburne, Vt., 38 pp. Ga-nnon, Charles R., et

  7. Open-Graded Bases for Airfield Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    pressure. 7. The rapid drainage of the bases is particularly important for rigid pavement to prevent pumping at the joints. Cedergren (1974) was a particu...filter cloth, collector trenches or perforated collector pipe, pipe outlets, and outlet markers. 11. From the studies by Cedergren , Rollings, and...paper No. 2516, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. Cedergren , H. R. 1974a. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons

  8. Aircraft-Pavement Compatibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    Hn -. lit" PCC EAA-Clti I960 12 E-7 Rc lit" PCC FAA-Cit-y 1961 6A E-7 RO -. - 1’t" PCC ## CAA-Cltj 1*7 7A E-7 RC • _ lit" PCC ♦* CAA- Cita 1959...line 190- 8 IRPORT PAVEMENT CHARACTERISTICS Table A2 (Continued) ]1 ’m, »73 OESION ALLOW. CONtTRUC »IC VEAR WFA- cita CAA-Clta~19U3 CM...8217 CA 7" Bit. T’ AC 51 apa 14 + 1»"AC 197^ R-2 El/fii Fa/Fl IV’CA 7" Bit. S Ac ^222. m FaTn ^n us: RX" MM 10" CA 7" Bit. 3" AC ?^7^ B=5_ R-6

  9. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    PubMed

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  10. Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions

    PubMed Central

    Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results. PMID:24027444

  11. Evaluation of Precast Panels for Airfield Pavement Repair. Phase 2: Results of Accelerated Pavement Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    pavement testing using a C-17 load cart to evaluate the performance of a precast portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement repair system. The system...Tables Figures Figure 1. Precast concrete panel types...tasked by Headquarters, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC), to develop and evaluate precast portland cement concrete (PCC) panels for

  12. Guidelines and specifications for the use of reclaimed aggregates in pavement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chini, S.A.; Kuo, S.S.; Duxbury, J.P.; Monteiro, F.M.B.R.; Mbwambo, W.J.

    1998-08-01

    The project focused on evaluating the performance of recycled concrete for use as a base material under hot mix asphalt pavements and as an aggregate in Portland cement concrete pavements. In order to meet this objective, several goals were established. First, published literature on RCA was reviewed and a survey of State Highway Agencies (SHA) was performed to determine the extent of use of RCA in highway projects. Second, the RCA was tested at the FDOT Material Lab in Gainesville, Florida, to determine the material properties. Third, by using the output from the falling weight deflectometer test along with the KENSLABS and KENLAYER computer programs (Huang, 1993), a theoretical analysis was performed to predict the number of repetitions before the pavements failed in both the fatigue and permanent deformation criteria. Lastly, nine design sections involving HMA and PCC pavements were constructed at the University of Central Florida`s Circular Accelerated Test Track (UCF-CATT) to evaluate the response of the pavement sections made with RCA under actual dual-wheel loading.

  13. Electrical resistance tomography for imaging the spatial distribution of moisture in pavement sections

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, M.; Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1995-11-08

    Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) was used to image spatial moisture distribution and movement in pavement sections during an infiltration test. ERT is a technique for determining the electrical resistivity distribution within a volume from measurement of injected currents and the resulting electrical potential distribution on the surface. The transfer resistance (ratio of potential to injected current) data are inverted using an algorithm based on a finite element forward solution which is iteratively adjusted in a least squares sense until the measured and calculated transfer resistances agree to within some predetermined value. Four arrays of ERT electrodes were installed in vertical drill holes 1.22 m (4 ft) placed at the comers of a square 61 cm (2 ft) on a side into a pavement section which is used for a truck scale ramp on U.S. Highway 99 just north of Sacramento, CA. Water was introduced slowly into the pavement through a shallow hole in the center of this pattern and ERT data were collected in various planes as the water infiltrated into the pavement and subgrade materials over a period of several hours. The ERT data were inverted, and the resulting images show (1) the basic structure of the pavement section and (2) the movement of water through the image planes as a function of time during infiltration. An interesting result is that the water does not appear to drain from the section toward the shoulder as had been expected based on the design.

  14. Development of Predictive Equations Based on Pavement Condition Index Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    solutions to eliminate existing problems. A Spavement management system not only evaluates the present condition of a pavement but predicts its future...structural performance [1]. Condition rating data collected periodically will track the performance of a pavement. Most airports presently utilize...three primary objectives of rating a pavement based on the PCI method: (1) Determine present condition of the pavement in terms of the apparent

  15. Implementation and Validation of the Viscoelastic Continuum Damage Theory for Asphalt Mixture and Pavement Analysis in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, Luis Alberto Herrmann do

    This dissertation presents the implementation and validation of the viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model for asphalt mixture and pavement analysis in Brazil. It proposes a simulated damage-to-fatigue cracked area transfer function for the layered viscoelastic continuum damage (LVECD) program framework and defines the model framework's fatigue cracking prediction error for asphalt pavement reliability-based design solutions in Brazil. The research is divided into three main steps: (i) implementation of the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model in Brazil (Petrobras) for asphalt mixture characterization, (ii) validation of the LVECD model approach for pavement analysis based on field performance observations, and defining a local simulated damage-to-cracked area transfer function for the Fundao Project's pavement test sections in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and (iii) validation of the Fundao project local transfer function to be used throughout Brazil for asphalt pavement fatigue cracking predictions, based on field performance observations of the National MEPDG Project's pavement test sections, thereby validating the proposed framework's prediction capability. For the first step, the S-VECD test protocol, which uses controlled-on-specimen strain mode-of-loading, was successfully implemented at the Petrobras and used to characterize Brazilian asphalt mixtures that are composed of a wide range of asphalt binders. This research verified that the S-VECD model coupled with the GR failure criterion is accurate for fatigue life predictions of Brazilian asphalt mixtures, even when very different asphalt binders are used. Also, the applicability of the load amplitude sweep (LAS) test for the fatigue characterization of the asphalt binders was checked, and the effects of different asphalt binders on the fatigue damage properties of the asphalt mixtures was investigated. The LAS test results, modeled according to VECD theory, presented a strong correlation with

  16. Criteria for Use of Seal Coats on Airport Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    coal-tar pitch conforming to the requirements of ASTM D 490, grade 11/12, has been extensively used by airports as a seal coat binder for pavements...Passing Sieves A B C D Sieve Designation(square openings) 1/2" 3/8" 3/8" #4 Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum 1/2 100 100 100 100 3/8 85-100 100 100 100... D , from Station 75+01 to Station 111+08 was seal coated according to FAA specifications P-631, using cationic emulsified asphalt binder. Both in the

  17. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several PAHs are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-PAH concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of PAHs from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of PAHs to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.

  18. Internal hydrological mechanism of permeable pavement and interaction with subsurface water - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary School on Fort Riley, Kansas was selected for this study. An 80-space parking lot was built behind the school as part of an EPA ORD collaboration with the U.S. Army under the Net Zero program. The parking lot design includ...

  19. Monitoring Strategies in Permeable Pavement Systems to Optimize Maintenance Scheduling - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the surface in a permeable pavement system clogs and performance decreases, maintenance is required to preserve the design function. Currently, guidance is limited for scheduling maintenance on an as needed basis. Previous research has shown that surface clogging in a permea...

  20. Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

  1. Design of Airport Pavements for Expansive Soils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    34 .’. . , . Vol. 57:437-444. Nunez, E., and Carrillo, A., (1977) " Suelos Especiales: Colapsibles, Expansivo , Preconsolidados por Desecacion...1975) "Las Arcillas Expansivas: Su Estudio y Trataniento," Laboratorio del Transporte y Mechanica del Suelo , i.,’. ". pp. 3-30. Russam, Kenneth

  2. Design of Overlays for Rigid Airport Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Renture, A., and Mindess , S. 1986. "The Effect of Concrete Strength on Crack Patterns," Cement and Concrete Research,_ Vol 16, Pergamon Press Ltd...34 Miscellaneous Paper S-74-30, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss. 22. Harr, M. E. 1977 . Mechanics of Particulate Media...of Civil -. Engineers, New York. 33. Hutchinson, R., and Vedros, P. 1977 . "Performance of Heavy-Load Port- land Cement Concrete (Rigid) Airfield

  3. Assessment of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes and rheological performance of asphalt binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowah-Kuma, David

    Government spends a lot of money on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road pavements in any given year due to various distresses and eventual failure. Low temperature (thermal) cracking, one of the main types of pavement distress, contributes partly to this economic loss, and comes about as a result of accumulated tensile strains exceeding the threshold tensile strain capacity of the pavement. This pavement distress leads to a drastic reduction of the pavement's service life and performance. In this study, the severity of low temperature (thermal) cracking on road pavements selected across the Province of Ontario and its predicted time to failure was assessed using the AASTHO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and AASHTOWARE(TM) software, with inputs such as creep compliance and tensile strength from laboratory test. Highway 400, K1, K2, Y1, Sasobit, Rediset LQ, and Rediset WMX were predicted to have a pavement in-service life above 15 years. Additionally, the rheological performance of the recovered asphalt binders was assessed using Superpave(TM) tests such as the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR). Further tests using modified standard protocols such as the extended bending beam rheometer (eBBR) (LS-308) test method and double-edge notched tension (DENT) test (LS-299) were employed to evaluate the failure properties associated with in service performance. The various rheological tests showed K1 to be the least susceptible to low temperature cracking compared to the remaining samples whiles Highway 24 will be highly susceptible to low temperature cracking. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed on the recovered asphalt binders to determine the presence of metals such as zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) believed to originate from waste engine oil, which is often added to asphalt binders. Finally, the severity of oxidative aging (hardening) of the recovered asphalt binders was also evaluated using the

  4. An Evaluation of the Pavement Condition Index Prediction Model for Flexible Airfield Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    NO. 3 . RECiPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER LSSR 11-83 LID,_ 13 -______9_ 4. TITLE (end Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED AN EVALUATION OF THE...Flexible Models. ......... 42 Current Model Development ...........54 Dronen Model................67 Conclusion ................... 71 iv CHAPTER Page 3 ...13 2-2 General Guide for Establishing Rigid Pavement Condition................16 2- 3 Types of Distress in Airfield Pavement

  5. Using ground-penetrating radar for assessing highway pavement thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenngren, Carl A.; Bergstrom, Joergen; Ersson, Benny M.

    2000-07-01

    Surface distress is a fairly good indicator of rehabilitation needs but it does not directly relate to remaining life estimates. Mechanistic pavement design requires that strains be calculated utilizing more or less complex modeling. Over the years many devices measuring surface deflections under a given load have been developed. The device by choice for assessing strains due to load is the falling weight deflectometer (FWD). It creates an impulse load on the pavement surface. The data are commonly used in models for backcalculation of elastic moduli and strains. More complex modeling would involve finite element or dynamic element methods. The FWD method has proven to be an excellent tool for overlay design. For this purpose its simplicity and straightforwardness are well documented. However, to successfully backcalculate layer stiffness adequate layer thickness is needed. Thus there is a strong need for assessing layer data at testing points. Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) it is possible to achieve data without coring. The present paper is a part of an ongoing bearing capacity study carried out by a regional road administration in central Sweden. Its objective is to optimize testing for equipment and methods used and presently available. In addition to evaluate the results from the study, the present paper discusses some other applications for GPR that may evolve from it.

  6. Assessment of porous asphalt pavement performance: hydraulics and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. F.; Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study is to focus on the water quality treatment and hydraulic performance of a porous asphalt pavement parking lot in Durham, New Hampshire. The site was constructed in October 2004 to assess the suitability of porous asphalt pavement for stormwater management in cold climates. The facility consists of a 4-inch asphalt open-graded friction course layer overlying a high porosity sand and gravel base. This base serves as a storage reservoir in-between storms that can slowly infiltrate groundwater. Details on the design, construction, and cost of the facility will be presented. The porous asphalt pavements is qualitatively monitored for signs of distress, especially those due to cold climate stresses like plowing, sanding, salting, and freeze-thaw cycles. Life cycle predictions are discussed. Surface infiltration rates are measured with a constant head device built specifically to test high infiltration capacity pavements. The test measures infiltration rates in a single 4-inch diameter column temporarily sealed to the pavement at its base. A surface inundation test, as described by Bean, is also conducted as a basis for comparison of results (Bean, 2004). These tests assess infiltration rates soon after installation, throughout the winter, during snowmelt, after a winter of salting, sanding, and plowing, and after vacuuming in the spring. Frost penetration into the subsurface reservoir is monitored with a frost gauge. Hydrologic effects of the system are evaluated. Water levels are monitored in the facility and in surrounding wells with continuously logging pressure transducers. The 6-inch underdrain pipe that conveys excess water in the subsurface reservoir to a riprap pad is also continuously monitored for flow. Since porous asphalt pavement systems infiltrate surface water into the subsurface, it is important to assess whether water quality treatment performance in the subsurface reservoir is adequate. The assumed influent water quality is

  7. Experimental pavement using household waste slag

    SciTech Connect

    Kouda, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    Municipal wastes used to be simply landfilled, but because of increasing difficulty in finding disposal sites, it became common practice to incinerate wastes and landfill the ash. In view of rapidly dwindling landfill sites, the author thought that the landfill site problem might be solved by finding a way to utilize slag made from incinerator ash. In this paper, a method for utilizing water-granulated slag as an asphalt pavement material is discussed. On the basis of laboratory test results, trial paving using base course materials consisting of crushed stone and 25 or 50% slag was carried out, paying attention primarily to bearing capacity. Marshall tests and fatigue resistance tests were conducted to determine the optimum content of water-granulated slag, and it was concluded that quality comparable to that of conventional asphalt concrete was attained at the slag content of 25% or less and that no problem would arise if the slag content was kept at 60% or less of the fine aggregate content. The mix proportions thus determined were also tested through experimental paving. A follow-up study to evaluate the durability of the experimental pavements confirmed that the experimental pavements were comparable in performance with conventional asphalt concrete pavements. This paper also reports on some problems encountered that need to be solved before utilizing water-granulated slag.

  8. Energy harvesting in pavement from passing vehicles with piezoelectric composite plate for ice melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, Farjana; Wu, Nan; Kapoor, Kartik

    2016-04-01

    An energy harvester in the road pavement made from a piezoelectric composite plate is designed and studied to collect energy from the passing vehicles for the ice melting aim. Piezoelectric material has the ability to produce electric charge on its surface when strain takes place due to any external loading. Based on this property, a rectangular composite plate harvester is developed consisting of piezoelectric material as the energy generation coating layer and A514 steel as the substrate layer to realize the energy harvesting process from the variable pressure generated in the road pavement by passing vehicles. Based on Westergaards stress model, a numerical model is developed to calculate the three dimensional stress distribution in the pavement. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the optimization of various parameters of the harvester, such as depth of the harvester in the pavement, length and width as well as thicknesses of piezoelectric layer and the substrate. By taking in to consideration the maximum stress that can be sustained by both of the piezoelectric material and also the substrate material, an optimum design of the piezoelectric couple composite plate energy harvester is suggested. It is seen that the maximum output power, which can be generated by a single patch of 0.2m*0.2m*0.0026m dimension with a vehicle passing at 22.2 m/s, can reach up to 23.36 W. With the well-designed pavement energy harvesters, it is feasible to collect enough energy to rise the temperature of the ice with the thickness of 1cm covering a 5m width road by 20 degree Celsius within 2.5 hours. This technique can be applied to melt the ice on the roads and bridges especially in cold countries.

  9. Pavement testing by integrated geophysical methods: Feasibility, resolution and diagnostic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cercato, Michele; De Donno, Giorgio; Di Giambattista, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the assessment of the diagnostic potential of several geophysical methods when applied to the investigation of a rigid airport pavement. The potential and limit of each technique are evaluated as well as the added value deriving from their integration. Firstly, we reconstruct a high-resolution image of the pavement by a large electromagnetic and georadar screening. An advanced processing of georadar data, implemented through the picking of the arrival times of reflections for each profile, provides a quantitative estimation of the deviation between the design and the as-built thickness of layers. Additionally, electrical tomography has been applied to unequivocally identify the anomalous zones, where higher values of resistivity would be associated to porous zones that are prone to degradation and failure. The seismic tomographic survey had the additional purpose to recover the mechanical properties of the pavement in terms of both P- and S-waves and consequently of elastic constants (Poisson's ratio), whose values were consistent with those recovered in literature. The anomalies detected by each technique are consistent in their indications and they can be correlated to failure phenomena occurring at layer interfaces within the pavement structure or to unexpected variations of the layer thicknesses. The cost-effective geophysical campaign has validated the four-layered system deduced from the original design and has been used to reconstruct a high-resolution map of the pavement in order to discriminate fractures, crack-prone areas or areas where the as-built differs from the original design.

  10. Pavement management and weigh-in-motion. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    Cation, K.A.; Shahin, M.Y.; Scullion, T.; Lytton, R.L.; Butt, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers in the report deal with the following areas: development of a preventive maintenance algorithm for use in pavement-management systems; pavement-performance prediction model using the Markov Process; roadway modeling and data conversion for a transportation-facilities information system; development of a methodology to estimate pavement maintenance and repair costs for different ranges of pavement-condition index; new techniques for modeling pavement deterioration; pavement management at the local government level; a comprehensive ranking system for local-agency pavement management; expert system as a part of pavement management; MAPCON: a pavement-evaluation data-analysis computer system; a microcomputer procedure to analyze axle load limits and pavement damage responsibility; selected results from the first three years of the Oregon automatic monitoring demonstration project; automated acquisition of truck-tire pressure data; calibration and accuracy testing of weigh-in-motion systems; accuracy and tolerances of weigh-in-motion systems; on-site calibration of weigh-in-motion systems.

  11. A comprehensive approach for the assessment of in-situ pavement density using GPR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Proper construction of the asphalt pavement is a prerequisite to developing a long lasting roadway that does not require extensive future maintenance. This goal is achieved by verifying that design specifications are met through the use of quality assurance (QA) practices. The in-situ density is regarded as one of the most important controls used to ensure that a pavement being placed is of high quality because it is a good indicator of future performance. In-situ density is frequently assessed utilizing one or more of the following three methods: cores, nuclear density gauge measurements or non-nuclear density gauge measurements. Each of the above mentioned methods, however, have their distinct disadvantages. Cores, for example, are generally considered to be the most accurate means of measuring in-situ density, however, they are a time consuming and destructive test that introduces a defect into asphalt pavements. Because of the destructive nature associated with coring, contractors and agencies have alternatively used non-destructive nuclear and non-nuclear density gauges for quality control purposes. These instruments allow for a more rapid assessment of the in-situ density, allowing measurements to be taken even during the pavement's construction. The disadvantage of these gauges are that they provide density readings only at discrete locations of the asphalt pavement mat, while no consensus exists among pavement researchers on the proper correlation between the gauges and core density. In recent years, numerous alternative methods have been introduced for the assessment of in-situ density, both during asphalt pavement construction and afterwards. These methods include, amongst others, intelligent compaction, thermal imaging and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Among these methods, GPR has been defined as both a technically feasible and promising method for the nondestructive, rapid, and continuous evaluation of in-situ asphalt pavement density based on

  12. Assessment of the performance of rigid pavement back-calculation through finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoukry, Samir N.; William, Gergis W.; Martinelli, David R.

    1999-02-01

    This study focuses on examining the behavior of rigid pavement layers during the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Factors affecting the design of a concrete slab, such as whether the joints are doweled or undoweled and the spacing between the transverse joints, were considered in this study. Explicit finite element analysis was employed to investigate pavement layers' responses to the action of the impulse of the FWD test. Models of various dimensions were developed to satisfy the factors under consideration. The accuracy of the finite element models developed in this investigation was verified by comparing the finite element- generated deflection basin with that experimentally measured during an actual test. The results showed that the measured deflection basin can be reproduced through finite element modeling of the pavement structure. The resulting deflection basins from the use FE modeling was processed in order to backcalculate pavement layer moduli. This approach provides a method for the evaluation of the performance of existing backcalculation programs which are based on static elastic layer analysis. Based upon the previous studies conducted for the selection of software, three different backcalculation programs were chosen for the evaluation: MODULUS5.0, EVERCALC4.0, and MODCOMP3. The results indicate that ignoring the dynamic nature of the load may lead to crude results, especially during backcalculation procedures.

  13. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  14. Investigation of Primary Causes of Load-Related Cracking in Asphalt Concrete Pavement in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hong Joon

    This dissertation presents causes of cracking in asphalt concrete pavement in North Carolina through field investigation and laboratory experiments with field extracted material. North Carolina is experiencing higher than anticipated rates of fatigue cracking compared to other state. These higher than expected rates could be reflective of the national trends in mix design practice or could be caused by structural pavement failures. The problems associated with premature cracking in North Carolina pavements point to the need to evaluate the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) mixes, processes, and measures to ensure that these factors properly balance the goals of preventing cracking and minimizing permanent deformation. Without solid data from in-service pavements, any conclusions regarding the causes of these failures might be pure conjecture. Accordingly, this research examines material properties through laboratory experiments using field-extracted materials and investigates in situ pavements and pavement structure. In order to assess condition of existing pavement, alligator cracking index (ACI) was developed. The asphalt content in the top layer that exhibits top-down cracking or bottom-up cracking has a proportional relationship to ACI values. The air void content in a bottom layer that exhibits top-down cracking or bottom-up cracking shows an inverse proportional relationship to ACI values. These observations reflect reasonable results. A comparison between ACI and asphalt film thickness values does not produce noteworthy findings, but somewhat reasonable results are evident once the range of comparison is narrowed down. Thicker film thicknesses show higher ACI values. From field core visual observations, road widening is identified as a major cause of longitudinal cracking. Regions with observed layer interface separation tend to have low ACI values. Through tensile strain simulation based on actual field conditions, it is observed that

  15. Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    values include the aircraft classification number ( ACN ), the pavement classification number (PCN), the ACN /PCN ratio, and the computed allowable load...representation of the allowable load for a specified number of repetitions over the life of a pavement, and the ACN is a representation of the load applied by...an aircraft using the pavement. For evaluation purposes the ACN /PCN ratio is computed and shown in the tables. An aircraft operating at an ACN

  16. Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M. A.; Abustan, I.; Hamzah, M. O.

    2013-06-01

    Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

  17. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S.; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout. PMID:24526911

  18. Expedient Repair Materials for Roadway Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    The overall cost of using the material within a theater of operations would include the purchase price plus the logistics cost of shipping the...accelerating admixtures. The admixtures commonly used include gypsum, calcium chloride , calcium nitrate, and various carbonates. These cements... US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center Expedient Repair Materials for Roadway Pavements James E. Shoenberger, Wayne D

  19. Multimodal approach to seismic pavement testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.; Ulriksen, P.; Miller, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    A multimodal approach to nondestructive seismic pavement testing is described. The presented approach is based on multichannel analysis of all types of seismic waves propagating along the surface of the pavement. The multichannel data acquisition method is replaced by multichannel simulation with one receiver. This method uses only one accelerometer-receiver and a light hammer-source, to generate a synthetic receiver array. This data acquisition technique is made possible through careful triggering of the source and results in such simplification of the technique that it is made generally available. Multiple dispersion curves are automatically and objectively extracted using the multichannel analysis of surface waves processing scheme, which is described. Resulting dispersion curves in the high frequency range match with theoretical Lamb waves in a free plate. At lower frequencies there are several branches of dispersion curves corresponding to the lower layers of different stiffness in the pavement system. The observed behavior of multimodal dispersion curves is in agreement with theory, which has been validated through both numerical modeling and the transfer matrix method, by solving for complex wave numbers. ?? ASCE / JUNE 2004.

  20. New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 2: Analysis of anchored pavements using ANSYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. K.; Militsopoulos, S. G.

    1980-08-01

    A set of procedures to evaluate the response of an anchored pavement subjected to vehicle static loads, moisture variation in the subgrade, and/or temperature variation through the surface of the pavement is presented. These procedures include two computer programs known as FEMESH and ANSYS. The FEMESH program generates rectangular meshes in either a two or three dimensional coordinate system for any prespecified number and spacing of nodes. The ANSYS program evaluates the stresses, strains, and the deflections at all elements in each material included in the analytical model.

  1. Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    software and Pavement Engineering Utility (PSEVEN) were used 50 ft 65 ft 130 ft 24 ft Item 3 Sasobit ® Item 4 Evotherm 3G Item 1 HMA... Evotherm 3G Air Top Mid-depth Bottom Target temperature = 109 ºF ERDC/GSL TR-14-3 25 The target pavement temperature for this study was 109 ºF, and it is...the locations of the I-buttons and their layout in relation to the vents. 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 HMA Foamed Asphalt Sasobit Evotherm 3G Av er ag e

  2. Mathematical model of frost heave and thaw settlement in pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guymon, Gary L.; Berg, Richard L.; Hromadka, Theodore V.

    1993-04-01

    Since 1975 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration have been working cooperatively to develop a mathematical model to estimate frost heave and thaw weakening under various environmental conditions and for various pavement designs. A model has been developed. It is a one-dimensional representation of vertical heat and moisture flux. It is based on a numerical solution technique termed the nodal domain integration method, and it estimates frost heave and frost penetration reasonably well for a variety of situations. The model is now ready for additional field evaluation and implementation in appropriate cases. The main objectives of this report are: (1) to describe the model, FROST, including modeling uncertainties and errors; (2) to summarize recent comparisons between measured and computed values for frost heave and frost penetration; and (3) to describe parameters necessary for input into the model.

  3. Friction evaluation of concrete paver blocks for airport pavement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The development and use of concrete paver blocks is reviewed and some general specifications for application of this type of pavement surface at airport facilities are given. Two different shapes of interlocking concrete paver blocks installed in the track surface at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are described. Preliminary cornering performance results from testing of 40 x 14 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires are reviewed. These tire tests are part of a larger, ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction and Radial Tire (START) Program involving several different tire sizes. Both dry and wet surface conditions were evaluated on the two concrete paver block test surfaces and a conventional, nongrooved Portland cement concrete surface. Future test plans involving evaluation of other concrete paver block designs at the ALDF are indicated.

  4. Field Performance of Asphalt Pavements with New Technologies in Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faeth, Benjamin Michael

    The Regional Transportation Commission (RTC) of the Washoe Valley Area has been tasked to determine if three advanced asphalt pavement technologies and one modified aggregate gradation are suitable for implementation within Reno, Stead, and Sparks Nevada. This was accomplished through research and test roads and Intersections to determine if Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), Polymer-Modified Asphalt Binder, and the Type 2-R aggregate gradation were succeeding in their design plans. Over the course of several years the streets being used by RTC to test the technologies are succeeding within their design lifespans, and the Intersections being used to test the Type 2-R aggregate gradation are showing significant resistance to rutting. Due to the roads and Intersections not being more than 10 years old, these conclusions are subject to change over time.

  5. Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few studies of full-scale, outdoor, replicated, functioning pervious pavement systems. More studies of pervious pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes are nec...

  6. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used pervious pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of pervious pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions...

  7. Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center (Hartford, CT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, there is a lack of full-scale, outdoor, real-world porous pavement studies with system replicates. More studies of porous pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) with climatic events, regular use, and maintenance effects, are necessary. The...

  8. Permeable pavement monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center demonstration site

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used pervious pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of pervious pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions...

  9. Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center (Hartford)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, there is a lack of full-scale, outdoor, real-world porous pavement studies with system replicates. More studies of porous pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) with climatic events, regular use, and maintenance effects, are necessary. The...

  10. Effect of induced deformation on NDT pavement evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfiq, Kamal S.; Sobanjo, John O.; Ruiz, R.

    1999-02-01

    Three nondestructive testing techniques were used in this study to evaluate pavement layer properties. These techniques included deflection and seismic methods. In the deflection methods, measurable surface deformations were induced using falling weight deflectometer and Dynaflect tests. These two tests utilized different schemes of dynamic loading applications to produce deflection basins from which the pavement layer properties were back calculated. Pavement properties from seismic methods were obtained from the analysis of surface waves due to transient load applications. In this study the seismic pavement analyzer (SPA) was used to determine pavement moduli values. Although the same assumptions for linear elastic behavior of pavement properties are usually assumed in all the three methods, obtained moduli values from these techniques did not conform to each other. Commonly, pavement deflection from SPA is not considered when analyzing layer properties. To narrow the gap between the obtained results, however, time-history records and frequency response functions were used to determine surface deflections from the three methods. Deflection measurements correlated with the obtained moduli values. Using these correlations, moduli values at any pavement deflection levels could be evaluated, especially at levels produced by traffic loads.

  11. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has be...

  12. Permeable pavement demonstration site at Edison Environmental Center (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few studies of full-scale, outdoor, replicated, working pervious pavement systems. More studies of pervious pavement operating in its intended use (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes are necessa...

  13. Nutrient Infiltrate Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Types

    EPA Science Inventory

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha...

  14. Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used permeable pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of permeable pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditio...

  15. Pavement nondestructive evaluation using finite-element dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, W.; Hackett, R. M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the nondestructive evaluation devices, visual distress survey and coring used to investigate jointed concrete pavement performance in northern Mississippi. 3D finite-element models were developed to simulate in-service conditions and to characterize in-situ material properties. Reasonable good agreement is found between in-situ moduli backcalculated from the dynamic analysis of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflections measured on selected pavements and laboratory moduli. Effects of load pulse shape, cracking, and discontinuities on the surface deflection response of pavements subjected to FWD load wee also investigated. It is shown that 3D analysis of temperature distribution and resulting thermal stresses play a significant role int he performance of concrete pavements. The study results demonstrated the extensive usefulness of the finite-element dynamic analysis and limitations of the static multilayered analysis and other pavement analysis programs which do not allow for crack modeling and dynamic analysis.

  16. An Evaluation of the Pavement Condition Index Prediction Model for Rigid Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    AC Thickness) -- Inches B THICK (Base Thickness) -- Inches SB THICK (Subbase Thickness) -- Inches B CBR (Base CBR) -- Percent SB CBR (Subbase CBR...vertical stress on the base course, surface deflection and vertical strain on top of •he subgrade was computed for asphalt pavements, using the Bitumen

  17. Surface preparation of pavements prior to application of pavement markings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A brush assembly was designed, fabricated and installed on a Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation striping truck and run over a variety of roads. It was found that brushing did not significantly extend the service life of the traffic marking paint. There was not sufficient improvement to consider mounting brush assemblies ahead of the spray guns on striping trucks for use on a daily basis.

  18. Utilization of Advanced Diagnostic Methods for Texture and Rut Depth Analysis on a Testing Pavement Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabej, Martin; Grinč, Michal; Kotek, Peter; Kováč, Matúš; Decký, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Qualitative characteristics of pavement in wide range reflects the pavement serviceability, which is a summary of the characteristics of the pavement, providing a fast, smooth, economical and especially safe driving of motor-vehicles. The target factor of pavement serviceability and safety of roads represents the quality of their surface properties. In the framework of research activities performed in the Research Centre founded under the auspices of University of Žilina, individual parameters of pavement serviceability were monitored by pavement surface scanning. This paper describes the creation of a 3D - road surface model and its analysis and evaluation from the viewpoint of two pavement serviceability parameters - the rut depth and texture. Measurements were performed on an experimental pavement section used contemporary in an Accelerated Pavement Testing experiment. The long-term goal is to ascertain functions predicting degradation of these two pavement serviceability parameters.

  19. Wavelet-aided pavement distress image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Peisen S.; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2003-11-01

    A wavelet-based pavement distress detection and evaluation method is proposed. This method consists of two main parts, real-time processing for distress detection and offline processing for distress evaluation. The real-time processing part includes wavelet transform, distress detection and isolation, and image compression and noise reduction. When a pavement image is decomposed into different frequency subbands by wavelet transform, the distresses, which are usually irregular in shape, appear as high-amplitude wavelet coefficients in the high-frequency details subbands, while the background appears in the low-frequency approximation subband. Two statistical parameters, high-amplitude wavelet coefficient percentage (HAWCP) and high-frequency energy percentage (HFEP), are established and used as criteria for real-time distress detection and distress image isolation. For compression of isolated distress images, a modified EZW (Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelet coding) is developed, which can simultaneously compress the images and reduce the noise. The compressed data are saved to the hard drive for further analysis and evaluation. The offline processing includes distress classification, distress quantification, and reconstruction of the original image for distress segmentation, distress mapping, and maintenance decision-making. The compressed data are first loaded and decoded to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then Radon transform is then applied and the parameters related to the peaks in the Radon domain are used for distress classification. For distress quantification, a norm is defined that can be used as an index for evaluating the severity and extent of the distress. Compared to visual or manual inspection, the proposed method has the advantages of being objective, high-speed, safe, automated, and applicable to different types of pavements and distresses.

  20. Research on steel bridge deck pavement mechanical response of Urumqi express way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Qian, Z. D.; Xue, Y. C.; Huang, Q. B.

    2017-01-01

    The cold climate of Urumqi influences the pavement performance of steel bridge. Mechanical response and suitable pavement system of Urumqi express way steel bridge deck pavement were studied in this paper. ABAQUS was utilized to build a model of steel bridge deck pavement. Maximum tension stress, maximum tension strain, maximum vertical displacement and maximum inter-laminar shearing stress of “double EA” pavement structure and “lower EA+upper SMA” pavement structure under different pavement thicknesses and different ambient temperatures were calculated. Results indicate that when both the pavement materials of upper layer and lower layer of pavement structure are same, the maximum tension stress, the maximum tension strain, the maximum vertical displacement and the maximum inter-laminar shearing stress of “lower 3cm+upper 4cm” pavement structure are smaller than both “lower 2.5cm+upper 3.5cm” pavement structure and “lower 3cm+upper 3.5cm” pavement structure; at the range of -45°C ~ 70°C, when the pavement materials of upper layer and lower layer of pavement structure is different, the increase of temperature will lead to the decrease of maximum tension stress and maximum inter-laminar shearing stress and will also lead to the increase of the maximum tension strain and the maximum vertical displacement; the maximum tension stress of “double EA” pavement structure is larger than “lower EA+upper SMA” pavement structure; the maximum tension strain, the maximum vertical displacement and the maximum inter-laminar shearing stress of “double EA” pavement structure are close to “lower EA+upper SMA” pavement structure; the “lower 3cm EA+upper 4cm SMA” pavement structure is recommended for the steel bridge deck pavement of Urumqi expressway.

  1. Airfield Pavement Construction: Slipform Paving Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    3 4 6 540 Crushed syenite 1-12 -- 5 3 4 -- 520 Crushed limestone 1-12 -- 6 1 4 520 Natural gravel 1-1 4 65 7 -- -- -- Natural gravel 1-1 2 -- 8 12...l6-in.-thick pavement was formed in 25-ft-wide pours. Base Course 39. The base course consisted of 6 in. of cement-treated crushed syenite with...The crushed syenite aggregate had a maximum size of 1-12 in. Paving and Batch Equipment 41. An automatically controlled batch plant was used to batch

  2. Tire Footprint Affects Hydroplaning On Wet Pavement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent investigations of tire hydroplaning at highway speeds reveal, in addition to inflation pressure, tire-footprint aspect ratio (FAR), defined as width divided by length of tire surface in contact with pavement, significantly influences speed at which dynamic hydroplaning begins. Tire speeds and forces developed during tests of up to 65 mi/h (105 km/h) were monitored on flooded test surface to identify development of hydroplaning. Study focused on automotive tires because FAR's of automotive tires vary more than those of aircraft tires.

  3. The Efficiency Analysis of Low Impact Development Applied in Taiwan: A Case Study of Porous Pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Liu, H. J.; Hsu, N. S.; Chang, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) has been developed since the end of 1990s. Lots of successful experience based on this new technology have been made. Taiwan Executive Yuan is conducting a six-year (2014~2019) program "Integrated River Basin Management Plan" applying LID to build sponge cities. Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior is editing the manual of LID technology for Taiwan. However, since the hydrological environments, physiographic conditions, climates, the strength and frequency of disasters in Taiwan are different from that in America, this study takes the first laboratory experiment and model simulation to evaluate the efficiency of application of LID in Taiwan.LID Facilities includes porous pavement, rain garden, green roof, tree box filter facilities and so on, and in this study, porous pavement is taken as an example for discussion. In the part of laboratory experiments, the sand box experiments is designed to operate with the specified rainfall return period calculated by Horton formula and rainfall characteristics of Taipei. Then the outflow hydrograph in each designed rainfall of specified return period can be evaluated. As for model simulation, this study constructs LID simulation elements by SWMM model and tests the suitability for simulation of the outflow hydrograph obtained from experiments, and definitely quantifies the efficiency of water retention and flood reduction of porous pavement. The results fits well with the experimental observation data with less than 10% error of pick flow. It suggests that, with LID simulation elements constructed in this study, the efficiency of LID in actual on-site application can be evaluated.The results shows that porous pavement is able to delay arrival time of pick about 5% ~10% and reduce the pick flow about 5%~20%, and hold the ability of near 3~5% water retention. It proves that application of LID can retain water and reduce flood in Taiwan.

  4. Variability of pavement noise benefit by vehicle type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochat, Judith L.; Read, David R.

    2005-09-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), is participating in a long-term study to assess several types of pavement for the purpose of noise abatement. On a four-mile stretch of a two-lane highway in Southern California, several asphalt pavement overlays are being examined. Acoustical, meteorological, and traffic data are collected in each pavement overlay section, where microphones are deployed at multiple distances and heights. Single vehicle pass-by events are recorded primarily for three vehicle types: automobiles, medium trucks, and heavy trucks. Data are analyzed to determine the noise benefit of each pavement as compared to the reference dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC); this includes a modified Statistical Pass-By Index as well as average Lmax values for each vehicle type. In addition, 1/3-octave band data are examined. Automobiles and heavy trucks are the focus of this paper, where benefits due to pavement will be presented for three pavement types: open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC) of 75 mm thickness, open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC) of 30 mm thickness, and rubberized asphaltic concrete, Type O (open) (RAC) of 30 mm thickness. Average Lmax values and spectral data show that noise benefits due to pavement can vary by vehicle type.

  5. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, W.; Xu, B.

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel-1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s-1, allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions.

  6. Evaluation of base widening methods on flexible pavements in Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offei, Edward

    The surface transportation system forms the biggest infrastructure investment in the United States of which the roadway pavement is an integral part. Maintaining the roadways can involve rehabilitation in the form of widening, which requires a longitudinal joint between the existing and new pavement sections to accommodate wider travel lanes, additional travel lanes or modification to shoulder widths. Several methods are utilized for the joint construction between the existing and new pavement sections including vertical, tapered and stepped joints. The objective of this research is to develop a formal recommendation for the preferred joint construction method that provides the best base layer support for the state of Wyoming. Field collection of Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) data, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) data, base samples for gradation and moisture content were conducted on 28 existing and 4 newly constructed pavement widening projects. A survey of constructability issues on widening projects as experienced by WYDOT engineers was undertaken. Costs of each joint type were compared as well. Results of the analyses indicate that the tapered joint type showed relatively better pavement strength compared to the vertical joint type and could be the preferred joint construction method. The tapered joint type also showed significant base material savings than the vertical joint type. The vertical joint has an 18% increase in cost compared to the tapered joint. This research is intended to provide information and/or recommendation to state policy makers as to which of the base widening joint techniques (vertical, tapered, stepped) for flexible pavement provides better pavement performance.

  7. Automated management for pavement inspection system (AMPIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hung Chi; Girardello, Roberto; Soeller, Tony; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2003-08-01

    An automated in-situ road surface distress surveying and management system, AMPIS, has been developed on the basis of video images within the framework of GIS software. Video image processing techniques are introduced to acquire, process and analyze the road surface images obtained from a moving vehicle. ArcGIS platform is used to integrate the routines of image processing and spatial analysis in handling the full-scale metropolitan highway surface distress detection and data fusion/management. This makes it possible to present user-friendly interfaces in GIS and to provide efficient visualizations of surveyed results not only for the use of transportation engineers to manage road surveying documentations, data acquisition, analysis and management, but also for financial officials to plan maintenance and repair programs and further evaluate the socio-economic impacts of highway degradation and deterioration. A review performed in this study on fundamental principle of Pavement Management System (PMS) and its implementation indicates that the proposed approach of using GIS concept and its tools for PMS application will reshape PMS into a new information technology-based system providing a convenient and efficient pavement inspection and management.

  8. Morphological Algorithms For The Analysis Of Pavement Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grivas, Dimitri A.; Skolnick, Michael M.

    1989-11-01

    The applicability of morphological image processing techniques for the description of condition and analysis of pavement surfaces is examined. Morphological techniques can be used in the measurement of pavement media consisting of grain (aggregates) and binding substances (bituminous or Portland cement mixtures). Measurements of size and size distributions on surface features related to texture and distresses can be obtained via morphological opening and closing transformations and distributions. When correlated with actual physical measurements of such quantities, the presented morphological measures of size and size distributions may prove to be useful in characterizing the surface condition of both asphalt and concrete pavement structures.

  9. Research on pavement roughness based on the laser triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenxue; Ni, Zhibin; Hu, Xinhan; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    Pavement roughness is one of the most important factors for appraising highway construction. In this paper, we choose the laser triangulation to measure pavement roughness. The principle and configuration of laser triangulation are introduced. Based on this technology, the pavement roughness of a road surface is measured. The measurement results are given in this paper. The measurement range of this system is 50 μm. The measurement error of this technology is analyzed. This technology has an important significance to appraise the quality of highway after completion of the workload.

  10. A fiber-reinforced composite structure for the repair of thermally cracked bituminous pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzen, Jeffrey Alan

    1998-10-01

    The apparatus under development in this project is a structural component or beam fabricated from a fiber reinforced plastic composite (FRPC). The FRPC beam is a structural repair component intended to bridge a deteriorated thermal crack in full depth bituminous pavements or partial depth bituminous pavements over portland cement concrete. The bridging action provided by the FRPC beam is intended to minimize roughness through the repaired area for up to five years, eliminate reappearance of the deteriorated crack, and provide a controlled expansion crack that can be treated with standard sealing techniques. This apparatus is designed for maintenance use as a field expedient, semi-permanent repair using tools that are commonly available at the Area Maintenance level. Three FRPC beams were constructed for field trial in a thermally cracked, full depth bituminous pavement on US-36 east of Hiawatha, Kansas. Each of the beams were instrumented with bonded metal foil strain gages and field installation by KDOT Maintenance forces was done in August and September of 1997. The FRPC beams have been evaluated since installation and this evaluation will continue for up to five years. Evaluation of the beams has been accomplished through static load tests using the strain gage instrumentation and Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements. The FRPC beams have performed satisfactorily as of the date of writing.

  11. Temporal evolution modeling of hydraulic and water quality performance of permeable pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; He, Jianxun; Valeo, Caterina; Chu, Angus

    2016-02-01

    A mathematical model for predicting hydraulic and water quality performance in both the short- and long-term is proposed based on field measurements for three types of permeable pavements: porous asphalt (PA), porous concrete (PC), and permeable inter-locking concrete pavers (PICP). The model was applied to three field-scale test sites in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The model performance was assessed in terms of hydraulic parameters including time to peak, peak flow and water balance and a water quality variable (the removal rate of total suspended solids). A total of 20 simulated storm events were used for model calibration and verification processes. The proposed model can simulate the outflow hydrographs with a coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.762 to 0.907, and normalized root-mean-square deviation (NRMSD) ranging from 13.78% to 17.83%. Comparison of the time to peak flow, peak flow, runoff volume and TSS removal rates between the measured and modeled values in model verification phase had a maximum difference of 11%. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is capable of capturing the temporal dynamics of the pavement performance. Therefore, the model has great potential as a practical modeling tool for permeable pavement design and performance assessment.

  12. Optical fiber grating-based sensing system for use in pavement health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Neng; Tang, Jaw-Luen

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development and realization of a sensing system using a high-resolution temperature and strain sensor with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology and a simple and low-cost long-period grating (LPG) sensor for the water level measurement in pavement structures. The FBG sensor consists of a reference fiber grating and a grating pair scheme that could offer the potential of simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature for monitoring pavement structures. For FBG sensor, experimental results have shown that measurement errors of 6 micro strains and 0.13 Celsius for strain and temperature could be achieved, respectively. The LPG sensor was extremely sensitive to the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the sensing grating, thus allowing it to be used as an ambient index sensor. A LPG-type water level sensor with a resolution was of ~5 mm was demonstrated to distinguish between in the air and under water. This integrated FBG and LPG sensing system is expected to benefit the health monitoring of multi-layer pavement structures especially for the evaluation and application of new materials, mix design procedures or construction technology.

  13. Determination of the Remaining Life of Rigid Airfield Pavement Through Super-Accelerated Pavement Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Division of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), the University of Texas Austin, Department of Civil Engineering , Geotechnical Engineering ...1998, the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory at the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) located at the USACE WES accepted delivery of...generated by the need for a more comprehensive nondestructive testing method ( NDT ), for pavement evaluations. At the time, a large portion of the

  14. Performance of a movable flexible pipe-encapsulated FBG sensor developed for shape monitoring of multi-layered pavement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-03-01

    The large span and heterogeneous components of multi-layered pavement structure usually bring about stochastic damage, and many modern approaches, such as ground penetrating radar, integral imaging and optical fiber sensing technology, have been employed to detect the degeneration mechanism. Restricted by the cost and universality, novel elements for pavement monitoring are in high demand. Optical fiber sensing technology for high sensitivity, long stability, anti-corrosion and resistance to water erosion then is considered. Therefore, a movable FBG sensor located in flexible pipe is developed, which has long stroke inside inner wall of the hollow pipe, and a full-scale shape of the structure could be sketched just with one FBG. Theoretical and experimental methods about establishing the relationship between wavelength variable and curvature have been provided, and function about reconfiguring the coordinate is converted to a mathematic question. Move over, transfer error modification has been taken into account for modify related error. Multi-layered pavement model embedded with this sensor will be accomplished to inspect its performance in later work. The work in the paper affords a feasible method for shape monitoring and would be potentially valuable for the maintenance and inverse design of pavement structure.

  15. A HIERARCHICAL HIDDEN MARKOV DETERIORATION MODEL FOR PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kaito, Kiyoyuki; Eguchi, Toshiyuki; Ohi, Akira; Okizuka, Ryosuke

    The deterioration process of pavement is a complex process including the deterioration of road surface and the decrease in load bearing capacity of the entire pavement. The decrease in load bearing capacity influences the deterioration rate of road surface. The soundness of road surface can be observed by a road surface condition investigation. On the other hand, the decrease in load bearing capacity can be partially observed through the FWD testing, etc. In this study, such a deterioration process of road surface is described as a mixed Markov process that depends on the load bearing capacity of pavement. Then, the complex deterioration process, which is composed of the deterioration of road surface and the decrease in load bearing capacity of pavement, is expressed as a hierarchical hidden Markov deterioration model. Through a case study of the application into the expressway, a hierarchical hidden Markov deterioration model is estimated, and its applicability and effectiveness are empirically discussed.

  16. ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

  17. Fore and aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type 7, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., May 1973; [static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fore-and-aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type VII, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. The investigation consisted of static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility; statistical techniques which related the measured tire elastic characteristics to variations in the vertical load, inflation pressure, braking force and/or tire vertical deflection; and a semiempirical analysis which related the tire elastic behavior to measured wheel slippage during steady-state braking. The bias-belted tire developed the largest spring constant value for most loading conditions; the radial-belted tire, the smallest. The elastic response of the tire free periphery to static braking included both tread stretch and carcass torsional wind-up about the axle for the bias-ply and bias-belted tires and carcass wind-up alone for the radial-belted tire.

  18. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Pavements” ERDC/CRREL TR-16-7 ii Abstract This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to...consisted of an elastomeric polymer coated fiberglass grid with an open configuration. The reinforcing grid was installed in the asphalt layer during...Method of Test for Pavement De- flection Measurements (AASHTO 2005) or ASTM standards as applicable . 1.4 Technical approach We completed the initial site

  19. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains a minimum of 160 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  1. Relating pavement distress to serviceability and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finn, F. N.; Pedigo, R. D.; Roberts, F. L.

    1981-02-01

    Regression analyses, Markov processes, Bayesian analysis, and utility theory were examined as analytical tools useful in relating distress to performance. Several specific performance models of limited applicability are reported, along with some generally applicable techniques and recommended methods. It is shown that useful relationships can be obtained from existing data and are, in fact, being used in several states and other highway agencies. In each case, however, it is shown that significant improvements in the distress performance relationships are needed which can only be obtained through the conscientious observation of distress and performance of pavements under a variety of environmental and load conditions for a reasonable period of time, e.g., (approximately ten years).

  2. Softening agents for recycling asphalt pavement

    SciTech Connect

    Sawatzky, H.; Clelland, F.I.; Farnand, B.A.; Houde, J. Jr.

    1993-08-10

    An asphaltic composition is described consisting essentially of: comminuted aged asphaltic pavement material; an effective amount, from about 2% to about 15 % by weight of a blend of an agent selected from the group consisting of a soft asphalt cement, a conventional asphalt cement, and a cutback asphalt, with a nitrogen-containing, adhesion-improving, anti-stripping agent comprising a sewage sludge-derived oil, or a fraction thereof, said sewage sludge-derived oil comprising a mixture of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic hydrocarbons, diaromatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polar compounds and basic, pyridene-soluble compounds, having the following elemental chemical composition: nitrogen, about 3.4% to about 5% by weight; oxygen, about 5.8% to about 6.9% by weight; sulfur, about 0.3% to about 0.8% by weight; hydrogen, about 9.7% to about 10.4%, and carbon, about 76.9% to about 79.8%.

  3. Influence of pavement condition on horizontal curve safety.

    PubMed

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Banerjee, Ambarish; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2013-03-01

    Crash statistics suggest that horizontal curves are the most vulnerable sites for crash occurrence. These crashes are often severe and many involve at least some level of injury due to the nature of the collisions. Ensuring the desired pavement surface condition is one potentially effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of severe accidents on horizontal curves. This study sought to develop crash injury severity models by integrating crash and pavement surface condition databases. It focuses on developing a causal relationship between pavement condition indices and severity level of crashes occurring on two-lane horizontal curves in Texas. In addition, it examines the suitability of the existing Skid Index for safety maintenance of two-lane curves. Significant correlation is evident between pavement condition and crash injury severity on two-lane undivided horizontal curves in Texas. Probability of a crash becoming fatal is appreciably sensitive to certain pavement indices. Data suggested that road facilities providing a smoother and more comfortable ride are vulnerable to severe crashes on horizontal curves. In addition, the study found that longitudinal skid measurement barely correlates with injury severity of crashes occurring on curved portions. The study recommends exploring the option of incorporating lateral friction measurement into Pavement Management System (PMS) databases specifically at curved road segments.

  4. Urban pavement surface temperature. Comparison of numerical and statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrahmen; Bues, Michel; Bouilloud, Ludovic; Martin, Eric; Chancibaut, Katia

    2015-04-01

    The forecast of pavement surface temperature is very specific in the context of urban winter maintenance. to manage snow plowing and salting of roads. Such forecast mainly relies on numerical models based on a description of the energy balance between the atmosphere, the buildings and the pavement, with a canyon configuration. Nevertheless, there is a specific need in the physical description and the numerical implementation of the traffic in the energy flux balance. This traffic was originally considered as a constant. Many changes were performed in a numerical model to describe as accurately as possible the traffic effects on this urban energy balance, such as tires friction, pavement-air exchange coefficient, and infrared flux neat balance. Some experiments based on infrared thermography and radiometry were then conducted to quantify the effect fo traffic on urban pavement surface. Based on meteorological data, corresponding pavement temperature forecast were calculated and were compared with fiels measurements. Results indicated a good agreement between the forecast from the numerical model based on this energy balance approach. A complementary forecast approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square regression (PLS) was also developed, with data from thermal mapping usng infrared radiometry. The forecast of pavement surface temperature with air temperature was obtained in the specific case of urban configurtation, and considering traffic into measurements used for the statistical analysis. A comparison between results from the numerical model based on energy balance, and PCA/PLS was then conducted, indicating the advantages and limits of each approach.

  5. Environmental assessment of pavement infrastructure: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Inyim, Peeraya; Pereyra, Jose; Bienvenu, Michael; Mostafavi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Through a critical review and systematic analysis of pavement life cycle assessment (LCA) studies published over the past two decades, this study shows that the available information regarding the environmental impacts of pavement infrastructure is not sufficient to determine what pavement type is more environmentally sustainable. Limitations and uncertainties related to data, system boundary and functional unit definitions, consideration of use and maintenance phase impacts, are identified as the main reasons for inconsistency of reported results in pavement LCA studies. The study outcomes also highlight the need for advancement of knowledge pertaining to: (1) utilization of performance-adjusted functional units, (2) accurate estimation of use, maintenance, and end-of-life impacts, (3) incorporation of the dynamic and uncertain nature of pavement condition performance in impact assessment; (4) development of region-specific inventory data for impact estimation; and (5) consideration of a standard set of impact categories for comparison of environmental performance of different pavement types. Advancing the knowledge in these areas is critical in providing consistent and reliable results to inform decision-making toward more sustainable roadway infrastructure.

  6. A comprehensive numerical analysis of the hydraulic behavior of a permeable pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Giuseppe; Šimůnek, Jiří; Piro, Patrizia

    2016-09-01

    The increasing frequency of flooding events in urban catchments related to an increase in impervious surfaces highlights the inadequacy of traditional urban drainage systems. Low Impact Development (LID) techniques have proven to be a viable and effective alternative by reducing stormwater runoff and increasing the infiltration and evapotranspiration capacity of urban areas. However, the lack of adequate modeling tools represents a barrier in designing and constructing such systems. This paper investigates the suitability of a mechanistic model, HYDRUS-1D, to correctly describe the hydraulic behavior of permeable pavement installed at the University of Calabria. Two different scenarios of describing the hydraulic behavior of the permeable pavement system were analyzed: the first one uses a single-porosity model for all layers of the permeable pavement; the second one uses a dual-porosity model for the base and sub-base layers. Measured and modeled month-long hydrographs were compared using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) index. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) followed by a Monte Carlo filtering highlighted the influence of the wear layer on the hydraulic behavior of the pavement and identified the ranges of parameters generating behavioral solutions. Reduced ranges were then used in the calibration procedure conducted with the metaheuristic Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for the estimation of hydraulic parameters. The best fit value for the first scenario was NSE = 0.43; for the second scenario, it was NSE = 0.81, indicating that the dual-porosity approach is more appropriate for describing the variably-saturated flow in the base and sub-base layers. Estimated parameters were validated using an independent, month-long set of measurements, resulting in NSE values of 0.43 and 0.86 for the first and second scenarios, respectively. The improvement in correspondence between measured and modeled hydrographs confirmed the reliability of the

  7. Post-Glacial Ant Generated Desert Pavements in Southeastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, K. C.

    2001-12-01

    Desert pavements typically require thousands to tens of thousands of years to reach a high level of development. In a pluvial lake valley in Southeastern Oregon I have observed harvester ants creating desert pavement-like features in less than two months. The summer lake basin is a fairly simple sedimentary system. In the eastern half of the basin, the basaltic bedrock is buried under tens of meters of alluvial deposits which lie beneath an approximately ten meter thick dune sheet. The dune sands are noticably different in grainsize and chemistry than the fine component of the alluvial deposits. The dunes began to form at the end of the last pluvial interval (Allison 1980) and continue to be active today. Roughly one fourth of the total area of the dune sheet is mantled with desert pavement, consisting of very coarse sand and fine pebbles (1-8 mm diameter). The dune sand is very fine grained with a considerable amount of silt and minimal clay. It forms thin (2-20 cm thick) well developed Av horizons beneath the desert pavement. Owyhee harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) in the area use pebbles of the same size and petrology as the desert pavements to construct their hills. For the ants the closest source of these pebbles is often the alluvium, ten meters below the anthill, rather than in a desert pavement deposit at some distance away overland. An experiment conducted between June and August 1999 demonstrated that the ants rebuild their hills with newly excavated pebbles. When the colonies die off after 5-25 years, the pebbles are stranded at the surface. Processes such as those described by Haff and Werner (1996), where jackrabbits and birds were observed kicking desert pavement clasts aross the ground serve to redistribute the pebbles across the surface of the sand dunes. The sand dunes have been forming over an 8000 year period. Based on anthill-regrowth measurements, the lifespan of an individual colony of harvester ants leads to the excavation of only enough

  8. On-site inspections of pavement damages evolution using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro; Benedetto, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is being increasingly used for pavements maintenance due to the wide range of applications spanning from physical to geometrical inspections, thereby allowing for a reliable diagnosis of the main causes of road structural damages. In this work, an off-ground GPR system was used to investigate a large-scale rural road network. Two sets of surveys were carried out in different time periods, with the main goals to i) localize the most critical sections; ii) monitor the evolution of previous damages and localize newborn deep faults, although not revealed at the pavement surface level; iii) analyze the causes of both evolution and emergence of faults by considering environmental and human factors. A 1-GHz GPR air-launched antenna was linked to an instrumented van for collecting data at traffic speed. Other support techniques (e.g. GPS data logger, odometer, HD video camera) were used for cross-checking,. Such centre frequency of investigation along with a 25-ns time window allow for a signal penetration of 900 mm, consistent with the deepest layer interfaces. The bottom of the array was 400 mm over the surface, with a minimum distance of 1200 mm from the van body. Scan length of maximum 10 km were provided for avoiding heavy computational loads. The rural road network was located in the District of Rieti, 100 km north from Rome, Italy, and mostly develops in a hilly and mountainous landscape. In most of the investigated roads, the carriageway consists in two lanes of 3.75 meters wide and two shoulders of 0.50 meters wide. A typical road section includes a HMA layer (65 mm average thickness), a base layer (100 mm average thickness), and a subbase layer (300 mm average thickness), as described by pavement design charts. The first set of surveys was carried out in two days at the beginning of spring in moderately dry conditions. Overall, 320-km-long inspections were performed in both travel directions, thereby showing a productivity of

  9. STUDY ON FLOOD CONTROL PROPERTIES OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT USING SATURATED-UNSATURATED SEEPAGE ANALYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nakashima, Shinichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Wada, Minoru

    The rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement have been attracted attention as a control measure of flood and an environmental improvement measure in urban areas. However, rainfall infiltration of permeable pavement is unsteady flow and strongly dependent on the behavior of unsaturated zones in the pavement. Moreover, the wet condition of subbase course also has a great influence on the rainfall infiltration of the pavement. That's why previous studies have not made clear the precise the facility of permeable pavement as a flood control. In this paper, experimental studies and simulated analyses were performed to measure the overflow from the pavement under various conditions of rainfall intensities and estimate the rainfall infiltration of the pavement using the measurement data and unsaturated infiltration characteristics of porous asphalt materials. It is clear that this study shows the methods to have a quantitative estimation of the rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement.

  10. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  11. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  12. Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

  13. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - proceedings

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, p...

  14. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study.

  15. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  16. Nondestructive pavement evaluation technique using falling weight deflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nageim, H.; Al-Hakim, B.; Lesley, L.

    1996-11-01

    An analytical method to predict the mechanical properties of a multi-layer pavement structure is presented. The development of the model is based on a modified back calculation model, using a finite circular plate resting on an elastic layered system. The deflection of the pavement under the dynamic action of the falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is taken as a function of the load action and the characteristic strength of the layers comprising the system including the friction between the individual layers. The responses of the pavement during the impact loading of the falling weight are measured and analyzed to predict the stress, strain and coefficient of friction between the layers making the system. The results revealed that the model which incorporates the interface of friction coefficient in the back-analysis technique allows for a more accurate calculation of the mechanical properties of the pavements and thus can be used as a quality control to assess the state of adhesion between the pavement layer system.

  17. Urban evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements.

    PubMed

    Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

    2010-01-01

    In urban areas the natural water balance is disturbed. Infiltration and evaporation are reduced, resulting in a high surface runoff and a typical city climate, which can lead to floods and damages. Water-permeable pavements have a high infiltration rate that reduces surface runoff by increasing the groundwater recharge. The high water retention capacity of the street body of up to 51 l/m(2) and its connection via pores to the surface lead to higher evaporation rates than impermeable surfaces. A comparison of these two kinds of pavements shows a 16% increase in evaporation levels of water-permeable pavements. Furthermore, the evaporation from impermeable pavements is linked directly to rain events due to fast-drying surfaces. Water-permeable pavements show a more evenly distributed evaporation after a rain event. Cooling effects by evaporative heat loss can improve the city climate even several days after rain events. On a large scale use, uncomfortable weather like sultriness or dry heat can be prevented and the urban water balance can be attenuated towards the natural.

  18. Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.

    1983-03-01

    Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

  19. Criteria for Asphalt-Rubber Concrete in Civil Airport Pavements. Volume 2. Evaluation of Asphalt-Rubber Concrete.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    194 ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 1977 FAA Aggregate Grading Band for Bituminous Surface Course with 1/2" (12.5m) Maximum Particle Size* ...... 6 2...Asphalt Concrete and Asphalt-Rubber Concrete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 xi LIST OF FthJiJRf1 Figure Page 1 1977 FAA...were blended to meet the 1977 FAA aggregate grading specification for pavements with a bituminous surface course and designed to accommodate aircraft

  20. In-depth study of cold in-place recycled-pavement performance. Volume 1. Final report. Rept. for Dec 88-Oct 90

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, T.V.; Hicks, R.G.; Rogge, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    Oregon has developed a mix design procedure for cold in-place recycled (CIR) asphalt concrete pavements. The procedure involves estimation of an initial emulsion content based on gradation of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), asphalt content of RAP, and penetration and viscosity of recovered asphalt. When an estimated emulsion content is determined, Marshall-sized specimens are prepared for a range of emulsion contents with the range centered on the estimated emulsion content. Hveem and Marshall stability, resilient modulus, and index of retained modulus (IRM) tests are performed on the specimens and a design emulsion content is selected based upon these results. Because of variations in RAP properties, continual need for field adjustments, and the difficulty of interpreting mix property test results, only the estimation part of the procedure is currently implemented. The paper describes the mix design procedure and presents lab results demonstrating the difficulty of choosing emulsion content based on Hveem and Marshall stability, resilient modulus and IRM. Data comparing design emulsion content with actual emulsion contents used in the field are presented. Selection of water content is discussed. Test results of mix properties monitored over time are presented, demonstrating the curing of the emulsion. Performance data for CIR pavements constructed from 1984 through 1988 are presented as well as initial results of an attempt to use lime during recycling to correct a stripped pavement. A construction and inspection manual is presented as a separate document.

  1. Acoustical estimation of parameters of porous road pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyaev, V. Yu.; Shanin, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    In the simplest case, porous road pavement of a known thickness is described by such parameters as porosity, tortuosity, and flow resistance. The problem of estimating these parameters is investigated in this paper. An acoustic signal reflected by the pavement is used for this. It is shown that this problem can be solved by an experiment conducted in the time domain (i.e., the pulse response of the media is recorded). The incident sound wave is thrown at a grazing angle to the surface between the pavement and the air to improve penetration into the porous medium. The procedure of computing of the pulse response using the Morse-Ingard model is described in detail.

  2. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers; porous concrete; and permeable asphalt. The parking lot is instrumented with water content reflectometers and thermistors for continuous monitoring and has four lined sections for each surface to capture permeable pavement infiltrate for water quality analyses.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, and infiltration and evaporation rates. Thispresentation summarizes past findings and addresses current water quality efforts. This presentation summarizes past findings and addresses current water quality efforts.

  3. Rheo-mechanical model for self-healing asphalt pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gömze, A. L.; Gömze, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    Examining the rheological properties of different asphalt mixtures at different temperatures, pressures and deformation conditions on the combined rheo-tribometers the authors have found that the generally used Burgers-model doesn’t explain the deformation properties of asphalt mixtures and pavements under loading forces and loading pressures. To understand better the rheological and deformation properties of such complex materials like asphalt mixtures and pavements the authors used Malvern Mastersizer X laser granulometer, Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer, Hitachi TM 1000 Scanning Elektronmicroscope, Tristar 3000 specific surface tester and the combined rheo-tribometer developed and patented by the authors. After the complex investigation of different asphalt mixtures the authors have found a new, more complex rheological model for the asphalts including self-healing asphalt pavements.

  4. Thin, applied surfacing for improving skid resistance of concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholer, C. F.

    1980-12-01

    The use of select aggregate in a thin wearing surface of portland cement mortar to prolone or restore a concrete pavement's ability to develop high friction was accomplished. Two fine aggregates, blast furnace slag and lightweight expanded shale were found to exhibit skid resistance greater than the other aggregates evaluated. The British polishing wheel was used in the laboratory evaluation of aggregate to simulate wear. The need for a method of restoring friction to a worn, but otherwise sound concrete pavement led to a field evaluation of several different techniques for placing a very thin overlay. The successful method was a broomed, very thin layer of mortar, 3 mm thick.

  5. Evaluation of multilayered pavement structures from measurements of surface waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Lowe, M.J.S.; Cawley, P.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the thickness and stiffness of multilayered pavement structures from guided waves measured at the surface. Data is collected with a light hammer as the source and an accelerometer as receiver, generating a synthetic receiver array. The top layer properties are evaluated with a Lamb wave analysis. Multiple layers are evaluated by matching a theoretical phase velocity spectrum to the measured spectrum. So far the method has been applied to the testing of pavements, but it may also be applicable in other fields such as ultrasonic testing of coated materials. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Vibration of vehicle-pavement coupled system based on a Timoshenko beam on a nonlinear foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu; Yang, Yan; Chen, Li-Qun; Yang, Shao-Pu

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the coupled nonlinear vibration of vehicle-pavement system. The pavement is modeled as a Timoshenko beam resting on a six-parameter foundation. The vehicle is simplified as a spring-mass-damper oscillator. For the first time, the dynamic response of vehicle-pavement coupled system is studied by modeling the pavement as a Timoshenko beam resting on a nonlinear foundation. Consequently, the shear effects and the rotational inertia of the pavement are included in the modeling process. The pavement model is assumed to be a linear-plus-cubic Pasternak-type foundation. Furthermore, the convergent Galerkin truncation is used to obtain approximate solutions to the coupled vibratory response of the vehicle-pavement coupled system. The dynamic responses of the vehicle-pavement system with the asphalt pavement on soft soil foundation are investigated via the numerical examples. The numerical results show that the calculation for the coupled vibratory response needs high-order modes. Moreover, the coupling effects between the pavement and the vehicle are numerically examined by using the convergent modal truncation. The physical parameters of the vehicle-pavement system such as the shear modulus are compared for determining their influences on the coupled vibratory response.

  7. Deterioration modeling for condition assessment of flexible pavements considering extreme weather events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi Tari, Yasamin; Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Accurate pavement management systems are essential for states' Department Of Transportation and roadway agencies to plan for cost-effective maintenance and repair (M and R) strategies. Pavement deterioration model is an imperative component of any pavement management system since the future budget and M and R plans would be developed based on the predicted pavement performance measures. It is crucial for the pavement deterioration models to consider the factors that significantly aggravate the pavement condition. While many studies have highlighted the impact of different environmental, load, and pavement's structure on the life cycle of the pavement, effect of extreme weather events such as Floods and Snow Storms have often been overlooked. In this study, a pavement deterioration model is proposed which would consider the effect of traffic loads, climate conditions, and extreme weather events. Climate, load and performance data has been compiled for over twenty years and for eight states using the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) databases. A stepwise regression approach is undertaken to quantify the effect of the extreme weather events, along with other influential factors on pavement performance in terms of International Roughness Index (IRI). Final results rendered more than 90% correlation with the quantified impact values of extreme weather events.

  8. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements. PMID:24854060

  9. Assessment of secondary materials for pavement construction: Technical and environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, M.C.M. |; Bridges, M.G.; Dawson, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Current research at the University of Nottingham to enable the use of secondary materials in road construction covers technical aspects, mechanical properties of waste materials and the environmental implications of their use. Materials studied are minestone, china clay sand, slate waste, pulverized fuel ash and furnace bottom ash. The laboratory program set up for this research and the methodologies suggested for the study of the properties of these materials are presented. The test methods currently used to select pavement aggregates are presented along with current methods for the assessment of the environmental impact of secondary aggregates. The potential of the secondary aggregates is assessed within the current technical and environmental procedures previously presented. Two new methodologies are presented, one for the mechanical examination of secondary aggregates and one for the environmental assessment. The mechanical assessment encompasses conventional characterization and classification tests on both unbound and lightly treated pavement materials, and fundamental tests such as repeated load triaxial tests (RLTT) and repeated load indirect tensile tests (RLITT). Some sample results are presented, suggesting the feasibility and adequacy of this methodology for material discrimination, and evaluation of mechanical properties for design purposes. The environmental assessment indicates how the leaching concentration of contaminants from intensive testing can be used as the first step in assessing the environmental acceptability of a secondary material, and the means of determining a more realistic measure of in situ performance is discussed. The advantages and advancements of the presented methodologies over the basic and inappropriate techniques currently used to assess the suitability of secondary aggregates for use as pavement construction materials are discussed.

  10. Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Duane R; Shulman, Stanley A; Echt, Alan S

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement milling machines use a rotating cutter drum to remove the deteriorated road surface for recycling. The removal of the road surface has the potential to release respirable crystalline silica, to which workers can be exposed. This article describes an evaluation of respirable crystalline silica exposures to the operator and ground worker from two different half-lane and larger asphalt pavement milling machines that had ventilation dust controls and water-sprays designed and installed by the manufacturers. Manufacturer A completed milling for 11 days at 4 highway construction sites in Wisconsin, and Manufacturer B completed milling for 10 days at 7 highway construction sites in Indiana. To evaluate the dust controls, full-shift personal breathing zone air samples were collected from an operator and ground worker during the course of normal employee work activities of asphalt pavement milling at 11 different sites. Forty-two personal breathing zone air samples were collected over 21 days (sampling on an operator and ground worker each day). All samples were below 50 µg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 6.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 6.1 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer A milling machine. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 4.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 9.0 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer B milling machine. In addition, upper 95% confidence limits for the mean exposure for each occupation were well below 50 µg/m(3) for both studies. The silica content in the bulk asphalt material being milled ranged from 7-23% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer A and from 5-12% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer B. The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are

  11. Evaluating Pavement Cracks with Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayenu-Prah, Albert; Attoh-Okine, Nii

    2008-12-01

    Crack evaluation is essential for effective classification of pavement cracks. Digital images of pavement cracks have been analyzed using techniques such as fuzzy set theory and neural networks. Bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD), a new image analysis method recently developed, can potentially be used for pavement crack evaluation. BEMD is an extension of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which can decompose nonlinear and nonstationary signals into basis functions called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). IMFs are monocomponent functions that have well-defined instantaneous frequencies. EMD is a sifting process that is nonparametric and data driven; it does not depend on an a priori basis set. It is able to remove noise from signals without complicated convolution processes. BEMD decomposes an image into two-dimensional IMFs. The present paper explores pavement crack detection using BEMD together with the Sobel edge detector. A number of images are filtered with BEMD to remove noise, and the residual image analyzed with the Sobel edge detector for crack detection. The results are compared with results from the Canny edge detector, which uses a Gaussian filter for image smoothing before performing edge detection. The objective is to qualitatively explore how well BEMD is able to smooth an image for more effective edge detection with the Sobel method.

  12. Measuring Clogging with Pressure Transducers in Permeable Pavement Strips

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two issues that have a negative affect on the long term hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems are surface clogging and clogging at the interface with the underlying soil. Surface clogging limits infiltration capacity and results in bypass if runoff rate exceeds in...

  13. Monitoring pavement response and performance using in-situ instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.H.; Bilyeu, J.; Hugo, F.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of in-situ instrumentation on diagnosing the pavement layer conditions under full-scale accelerated traffic loading. The test section is an in-service pavement (US281) in Jacksboro, Texas. Multi-Depth Deflectometers (MDDs) are used to measure both permanent deformations and transient deflections, caused by accelerated traffic loading and Falling Weight Deflectometers (MDDs) are used to measure both permanent deformations and transient deflections, caused by accelerated traffic loading and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests. Four different FWD loads of 25, 40, 52, and 67 kN were applied in close proximity to the MDDs at various traffic loading intervals to determine pavement conditions. It was found that the majority of rutting occurred in the newly recycled asphalt mix. The aged ({gt}40 years) underlying base and subgrade layers contributed less than 30% to overall rutting. Only the top recycled Asphalt layer underwent notable deterioration due to traffic loading. Up to 1.5 million axle repetitions, the test pad responded to FWD load almost linearly, not only over the whole pavement system but also within individual layers. However, under higher FWD loads, the percentage of total deflection contributed by the subgrade increased.

  14. The Edison Environmental Center Permeable Pavement Site - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for a second Community Outreach Event called "Chemistry Works!" at West Windsor Public Library on Saturday, November 5th. It will review the permeable pavement research project at the Edison Environmental center. Besides slide persentation, two demo units w...

  15. Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic performance of a permeable pavement system has been developed in this study. The developed model can continuously simulate infiltration through the permeable pavement surface, exfiltration from the storage to the surrounding in situ soils, and clogging impacts on infiltration/exfiltration capacity at the pavement surface and the bottom of the subsurface storage unit. The exfiltration modeling component simulates vertical and horizontal exfiltration independently based on Darcy’s formula with the Green-Ampt approximation. The developed model can be arranged with physically-based modeling parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity, Manning’s friction flow parameters, saturated and field capacity volumetric water contents, porosity, density, etc. The developed model was calibrated using high-frequency observed data. The modeled water depths are well matched with the observed values (R2 = 0.90). The modeling results show that horizontal exfiltration through the side walls of the subsurface storage unit is a prevailing factor in determining the hydrologic performance of the system, especially where the storage unit is developed in a long, narrow shape; or with a high risk of bottom compaction and clogging. This paper presents unit

  16. Nitrogen Transformations in Three Types of Permeable Pavement

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, USEPA constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types - permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). The driving lanes...

  17. Time series trends of the safety effects of pavement resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Jung-Han

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety performance of pavement resurfacing projects on urban arterials in Florida using the observational before and after approaches. The safety effects of pavement resurfacing were quantified in the crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimated based on different ranges of heavy vehicle traffic volume and time changes for different severity levels. In order to evaluate the variation of CMFs over time, crash modification functions (CMFunctions) were developed using nonlinear regression and time series models. The results showed that pavement resurfacing projects decrease crash frequency and are found to be more safety effective to reduce severe crashes in general. Moreover, the results of the general relationship between the safety effects and time changes indicated that the CMFs increase over time after the resurfacing treatment. It was also found that pavement resurfacing projects for the urban roadways with higher heavy vehicle volume rate are more safety effective than the roadways with lower heavy vehicle volume rate. Based on the exploration and comparison of the developed CMFucntions, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and exponential functional form of the nonlinear regression models can be utilized to identify the trend of CMFs over time.

  18. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  19. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    PubMed

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off.

  20. Grout Impregnation of Pre-Placed Recycled Concrete Pavement (RCP) for Rapid Repair of Deteriorated Portland Cement Concrete Airfield Pavement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    aggregates in the repair hole, and the voids are filled with a rapid-setting, flowable grout. The results of this study will be used to provide...the repair of spalls involve filling the damaged area with some type of flowable substance which hardens to provide a material that has comparable... filled with Recycled Concrete Pavement (RCP)........................................................................ 53 7 Mixing Pavemend™ material

  1. Feasibility of using 100% Recycled Asphalt Pavement mixtures for road construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Russell Edgar, IV

    Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is the largest recycled good in the United States and 80 million tons are recycled yearly, saving taxpayers about $1.5 billion dollars. This paper explores the possibility of utilizing 100% RAP materials in asphalt pavement. Asphalt mixtures are produced at 135°C in a typical asphalt plant. However, at 135°C, not all binder from RAP materials may not become effective for coating aggregates. The main objective of the study is to determine the amount of effective binder available from RAP in the asphalt plant. The 100% RAP mixes have aged binder that can alter mix designs and interaction with virgin binder. In this study, to determine low temperature cracking resistance and fatigue performance, samples were prepared using a 100% RAP mix with no virgin binder and a 100% RAP mix with virgin asphalt binder to achieve the optimum binder content of the mix. Second, to determine the effectiveness of binder from RAP materials, compaction tests were performed by heating RAP materials at various temperatures. It was found that 100% RAP mixes cannot be feasible for field use if additional virgin binder is added to reach the optimum asphalt content. Based on limited test results, the low temperature grade was not within proper limits but the beam fatigue testing results were acceptable. Based on compaction test results, additional heating is needed to increase the effectiveness of asphalt binder from RAP materials.

  2. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    PubMed

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  3. Seismic monitoring of roadbeds for traffic flow, vehicle characterization, and pavement deterioration

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.; Ormesher, R.C.; Holcomb, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A road-side seismic monitoring system has been developed that includes not only instrumentation and fielding methods, but also data analysis methods and codes. The system can be used as either a passive or active monitoring system. In the passive mode, seismic signals generated by passing vehicles are recorded. Analysis of these signals provides information on the location, speed, length, and weight of the vehicle. In the active mode, designed for monitoring pavement degradation, a vibrating magnetostrictive source is coupled to the shoulder of the road and signals generated are recorded on the opposite side of the road. Analysis of the variation in surface wave velocity at various frequencies (dispersion) is used in an attempt to develop models of the near-surface pavement velocity structure. The monitoring system was tested at two sites in New Mexico, an older two-lane road and a newly-paved section of interstate highway. At the older site, the system was able to determine information about vehicle velocity, wheel-base length and weight. The sites showed significant differences in response and the results indicate the need for further development of the method to extract the most information possible for each site investigated.

  4. Strain transfer analysis of optical fiber based sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaping; Xiang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is vulnerable to random damage, such as cracking and rutting, which can be proactively identified by distributed optical fiber sensing technology. However, due to the material nature of optical fibers, a bare fiber is apt to be damaged during the construction process of pavements. Thus, a protective layer is needed for this application. Unfortunately, part of the strain of the host material is absorbed by the protective layer when transferring the strain to the sensing fiber. To account for the strain transfer error, in this paper a theoretical analysis of the strain transfer of a three-layered general model has been carried out by introducing Goodman’s hypothesis to describe the interfacial shear stress relationship. The model considers the viscoelastic behavior of the host material and protective layer. The effects of one crack in the host material and the sensing length on strain transfer relationship are been discussed. To validate the effectiveness of the strain transfer analysis, a flexible asphalt-mastic packaged distributed optical fiber sensor was designed and tested in a laboratory environment to monitor the distributed strain and appearance of cracks in an asphalt concrete beam at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicated that the developed strain transfer formula can significantly reduce the strain transfer error, and that the asphalt-mastic packaged optical fiber sensor can successfully monitor the distributed strain and identify local cracks.

  5. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements, January 1980-June 1991 (citations from the NTIS database). Rept. for Jan 80-Jun 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (The bibliography contains 75 citations.) (Also includes title list and subject index.)

  6. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems.

    PubMed

    Brattebo, Benjamin O; Booth, Derek B

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the long-term effectiveness of permeable pavement as an alternative to traditional impervious asphalt pavement in a parking area. Four commercially available permeable pavement systems were evaluated after 6 years of daily parking usage for structural durability, ability to infiltrate precipitation, and impacts on infiltrate water quality. All four permeable pavement systems showed no major signs of wear. Virtually all rainwater infiltrated through the permeable pavements, with almost no surface runoff. The infiltrated water had significantly lower levels of copper and zinc than the direct surface runoff from the asphalt area. Motor oil was detected in 89% of samples from the asphalt runoff but not in any water sample infiltrated through the permeable pavement. Neither lead nor diesel fuel were detected in any sample. Infiltrate measured 5 years earlier displayed significantly higher concentrations of zinc and significantly lower concentrations of copper and lead.

  7. A Research on the Association of Pavement Surface Damages Using Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Tsung; Chang, Jia-Ray; Chen, Jian-Da; Chou, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Huang

    The association of pavement surface damages used to rely on the judgments of the experts. However, with the accumulation of data in the pavement surface maintenance database and the improvement of Data Mining, there are more and more methods available to explore the association of pavement surface damages. This research adopts Apriori algorithm to conduct association analysis on pavement surface damages. From the experience of experts, it has been believed that the association of road damages is complicated. However, through case studies, it has been found that pavement surface damages are caused among longitudinal cracking, alligator cracking and pen-holes, and they are unidirectional influence. In addition, with the help of association rules, it has been learned that, in pavement surface preventative maintenance, the top priority should be the repair of longitudinal cracking and alligator cracking, which can greatly reduce the occurrence of pen-holes and the risk of state compensations.

  8. Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhan, Khaled

    This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard

  9. Stormwater quality performance of a macro-pervious pavement car park installation equipped with channel drain based oil and silt retention devices.

    PubMed

    Newman, Alan Paul; Aitken, Douglas; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2013-12-15

    This paper reports the results of a two year field monitoring exercise intended to investigate the pollution abatement capabilities of a novel system which offers an alternative to the, now well established, pervious pavement system as a source control device for stormwater management. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a live installation of a macro-pervious pavement system (MPPS) (operated as a visitors' car park at a prison in Central Scotland) in retaining and treating a range of pollutants which originate from automobile use or become concentrated on the parking surface from the wider environment. The MPPS is a sub-class of pervious pavement system where the vast majority of the surface is impermeable. It directs stormwater into a pervious sub surface storage/attenuation zone through a series of distinct infiltration points fast enough to prevent flooding during the design storm. In the particular system studied here the infiltration points consist of a network of oil/silt separation devices with extensive further pollutant retention/degradation provided during the passage of stormwater through the sub surface zone. Approximately 12 months after the car park was completed a sampling regime was instigated in which grab samples were collected at intervals from each of the three sub catchments whilst, simultaneously, samples were collected directly from the, pollutant retaining, infiltration devices. Through investigation of samples collected at the upstream end of the system, the retention of significant amounts of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the initial collection devices has been illustrated and the analysis of effluent samples collected at the outlet points indicate that the system is capable of producing effluent which is of a standard comparable to that expected from a traditional pervious pavement system and is acceptable for direct release into a surface water receptor. The system offers the opportunity to accrue the benefits

  10. Analysis of engineering characteristics of pavement deflection trends

    SciTech Connect

    Kerali, H.R.; Lawrance, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes analysis of pavement deflection data collected by the Transport Research Laboratory at two experimental road sites in England during 1960--1985. Measurements of Benkelman beam deflections together with records of traffic loading were taken at 6 to 12 month intervals. The analysis investigates the deflection trend as a function of road base material and thickness. The deflection trend was represented by a negative exponential curve form. Engineering aspects of the curve form were extracted and statistically analyzed. The results obtained focus on the dependency of deflection progression on both road base material and thickness, which are shown to act either jointly or singly, depending on the engineering characteristic of the pavement deflection trend.

  11. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  12. Evaluation of Nondestructive Methods for Determining Pavement Thickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Road ...................................................................... 20 Figure 15. The flowable fill section is shown here on the right and...section constructed for testing flowable fill pavement repairs. The last site recycled a previously tested Air Force PCC test section constructed for a...limestone N/A 31 Forest Service Road Unknown AC2 Unknown N/A 32 Forest Service Road, Flowable Fill 6-in. PCC 30-in. flowable fill N/A 33 Forest Service

  13. Infiltration Through Desert Pavements, Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. H.; McDonald, E. V.; Caldwell, T. C.; Benner, S. G.

    2003-04-01

    Desert pavements consist of a surface layer of closely packed gravel that overlies thin, gravel-poor vesicular A (Av) soil horizon. Pavements are prominent features in arid and semi-arid environments and can be found on a variety of landforms of significantly diverse ages ranging from Holocene to Tertiary. Well-developed Av profiles form distinct and highly structured prismatic peds. These fine-grained, structured soils can exhibit drastically reduced infiltration rates, rendering some localized areas nearly impermeable and greatly impacting soil development, plant and biota diversity, and groundwater recharge. We sought to study how desert pavement development can impact the hydraulic conductivity characteristics in localized areas (order of 10s of cm). Field sites were chosen at the Mojave Natural Preserve, near Kelso Dunes, CA, USA, which has been the location of considerable prior research by the second author. The sites vary by parent material, clay and silt content, surface age, and variable degree of surface clast cover. Transects were chosen that traversed pavement surfaces of variable development (well developed to poorly developed). Hydraulic conductivity was determined with a tension infiltrometer conducted at different tensions and initial water contents (to better estimate the potential for preferential flow). Sites with dry initial conditions were first analyzed at zero tensions to promote inter-ped flow. After allowing soil peds to hydrate and expand, the tests were run again at a range of soil tensions to promote matrix flow. Differences in saturated conductivities (measured and fitted) were attributed to preferential flow around desiccated peds. Soil texture and structure were measured and described, respectively, allowing for the correlation of conductivity functions to soil surface age and physical characteristics.

  14. Use of scrap rubber in asphalt pavement surfaces. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.A.; Roberts, R.J.; Blackburn, R.R.

    1991-12-01

    Scrap tire rubber was mixed into an asphalt concrete wearing course to study the effect of ice disbonding from the pavement surface under traffic. Rubber contents of 0, 3, 6, and 12% by weight were studied. Initial laboratory ice disbonding test results led to the development of a new paving material, Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC), that uses larger pieces of rubber in a much denser asphalt concrete mix. Strength values doubled and ice disbonding performance was enhanced.

  15. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

  16. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullová, Daša; Đurčanská, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  17. Neuromodulation of Nestmate Recognition Decisions by Pavement Ants

    PubMed Central

    Bubak, Andrew N.; Yaeger, Jazmine D. W.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Swallow, John G.; Greene, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Ant colonies are distributed systems that are regulated in a non-hierarchical manner. Without a central authority, individuals inform their decisions by comparing information in local cues to a set of inherent behavioral rules. Individual behavioral decisions collectively change colony behavior and lead to self-organization capable of solving complex problems such as the decision to engage in aggressive societal conflicts with neighbors. Despite the relevance to colony fitness, the mechanisms that drive individual decisions leading to cooperative behavior are not well understood. Here we show how sensory information, both tactile and chemical, and social context—isolation, nestmate interaction, or fighting non-nestmates—affects brain monoamine levels in pavement ants (Tetramorium caespitum). Our results provide evidence that changes in octopamine and serotonin in the brains of individuals are sufficient to alter the decision by pavement ants to be aggressive towards non-nestmate ants whereas increased brain levels of dopamine correlate to physical fighting. We propose a model in which the changes in brain states of many workers collectively lead to the self-organization of societal aggression between neighboring colonies of pavement ants. PMID:27846261

  18. Path planning for machine vision assisted, teleoperated pavement crack sealer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.S.; Haas, C.T.; Greer, R.

    1998-03-01

    During the last few years, several teleoperated and machine-vision-assisted systems have been developed in construction and maintenance areas such as pavement crack sealing, sewer pipe rehabilitation, excavation, surface finishing, and materials handling. This paper presents a path-planning algorithm used for a machine-vision-assisted automatic pavement crack sealing system. In general, path planning is an important task for optimal motion of a robot whether its environment is structured or unstructured. Manual path planning is not always possible or desirable. A simple greedy path algorithm is utilized for optimal motion of the automated pavement crack sealer. Some unique and broadly applicable computational tools and data structures are required to implement the algorithm in a digital image domain. These components are described, then the performance of the algorithm is compared with the implicit manual path plans of system operators. The comparison is based on computational cost versus overall gains in crack-sealing-process efficiency. Applications of this work in teleoperation, graphical control, and other infrastructure maintenance areas are also suggested.

  19. Environmental and Other Criteria and Methods for Pavement Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    presented relating the relevant parameters of the till to dry density and moisture content. The effect of stress history is studied. The results...stiffness of the soil. A recently developed low cost pneumatic repeated loading test apparatus is described. Skempton’s A and B pore para- meters have been...presented relating the relevant parameters of the till to dry density and moisture content. The effect of stress history is studied. The results

  20. Origin of Developments for Structural Design of Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Curing Compounds .......................................... 6-6 Alkali -Aggregate Problem .................................. 6-6 Pozzolans ...increased the coverages for the passes experienced. But the primary factor was the ease of preparing the B-47 for flight. Preflight activities could be...100 Bituminous binder and surface CBR-100 courses, central plant, hot mix (employed as base) Limerock CBR-80 Mechanically stabilized aggregate CBR-80

  1. Pavement performance monitoring using Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Geogauge during construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Ahmed Nawal

    Proper design life of road network system requires adequate quality control measures during the construction process to ensure proper material quality and sufficient strength in between the materials. Laboratory tests are often time consuming and sometimes, are not practical while the construction work is going on, in-situ techniques can efficiently evaluate the material properties through simple and less time consuming procedures. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Geogauge can play a vital role as an in-situ testing equipment because both have the potential to measure the change in material properties through field tests being performed in the field. Both in-situ techniques was not extensively used in North Texas area. Frequent use of these two equipment during the construction process can expedite the whole construction process because both are hand-held devices and can be conducted within a short amount of time, often in minutes. For this study, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Geogauge was used to assess the material properties from the tests performed on five construction sites of Horseshoe Project around Dallas, TX. Several points across the width of the pavement have been considered to perform these in-situ tests along with Nuclear Density Gauge test in two of these sites. A thorough analysis has been conducted for the material properties to be determined. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer and Geogauge both were consistent to measure the change in in-place material characteristics of the pavement materials. The design thickness of cement treated base layer where the tests were being performed was 6". DCP was efficient enough to detect the layer thickness up to a proximity of 0.5 inch and was also able to distinguish layer anomalies between the pavement layers. Cement stabilized base layer provided with a DCPI value which ranges from 0.5 mm/blow to 8 mm/blow whereas, DCPI values were observed to remain within a range of 2 mm/blow to 22 mm/ blow. For the top 6" cement

  2. GPR used in combination with other NDT methods for assessing pavements in PPP projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizos, Andreas; Plati, Christina

    2014-05-01

    In the recent decades, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) has been adopted for highway infrastructure procurement in many countries. PPP projects typically take the form of a section of highway and connecting roadways which are to be construction and managed for a given concession period. Over the course of the highway concession period, the private agency takes over the pavement maintenance and rehabilitation duties. On this purpose, it is critical to find the most cost effective way to maintain the infrastructure in compliance with the agreed upon performance measures and a Pavement Management Systems (PMS) is critical to the success of this process. For the prosperous operation of a PMS it is necessary to have appropriate procedures for pavement monitoring and evaluation, which is important in many areas of pavement engineering. Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has played a major role in pavement condition monitoring, assessments and evaluation accomplishing continuous and quick collection of pavement data. The analysis of this data can lead to indicators related to trigger values (criteria) that define the pavement condition based on which the pavement "health" is perceived helping decide whether there is the need or not to intervene in the pavement. The accomplished perception appoints required management activities for preserving pavements in favor not only of the involved highway/road agencies but also of users' service. Amongst NDT methods Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) seems to be a very powerful toll, as it provides a range of condition and construction pavement information. It can support effectively the implementation of PMS activities in the framework of pavement monitoring and evaluation. Given that, the present work aims to the development and adaptation of a protocol for the use of GPR in combination with other NDT methods, such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD), for assessing pavements in PPP projects. It is based on the experience of Laboratory of

  3. Investigation of mechanical properties of pavement through electromagnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio; D'Amico, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is considered as one of the most flexible geophysical tools that can be effectively and efficiently used in many different applications. In the field of pavement engineering, GPR can cover a wide range of uses, spanning from physical to geometrical inspections of pavements. Traditionally, such inferred information are integrated with mechanical measurements from other traditional (e.g. plate bearing test) or non-destructive (e.g. falling weight deflectometer) techniques, thereby resulting, respectively, in time-consuming and low-significant measurements, or in a high use of technological resources. In this regard, the new challenge of retrieving mechanical properties of road pavements and materials from electromagnetic measurements could represent a further step towards a greater saving of economic resources. As far as concerns unpaved and bound layers it is well-known that strength and deformation properties are mostly affected, respectively, by inter-particle friction and cohesion of soil particles and aggregates, and by bitumen adhesion, whose variability is expressed by the Young modulus of elasticity. In that respect, by assuming a relationship between electromagnetic response (e.g. signal amplitudes) and bulk density of materials, a reasonable correlation between mechanical and electric properties of substructure is therefore expected. In such framework, a pulse GPR system with ground-coupled antennae, 600 MHz and 1600 MHz centre frequencies was used over a 4-m×30-m test site composed by a flexible pavement structure. The horizontal sampling resolution amounted to 2.4×10-2 m. A square regular grid mesh of 836 nodes with a 0.40-m spacing between the GPR acquisition tracks was surveyed. Accordingly, a light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) was used for measuring the elastic modulus of pavement at each node. The setup of such instrument consisted of a 10-kg falling mass and a 100-mm loading plate so that the influence domain

  4. Research on a novel low modulus OFBG strain sensor for pavement monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Hu, Qingli; Lu, Qiyu

    2012-01-01

    Because of the fatigue and deflection damage of asphalt pavement, it is very important for researchers to monitor the strain response of asphalt layers in service under vehicle loads, so in this paper a novel polypropylene based OFBG (Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings) strain sensor with low modulus and large strain sensing scale was designed and fabricated. PP with MA-G-PP is used to package OFBG. The fabrication techniques, the physical properties and the sensing properties were tested. The experimental results show that this kind of new OFBG strain sensor is a wonderful sensor with low modulus (about 1 GPa) and good sensitivity, which would meet the needs for monitoring some low modulus materials or structures.

  5. Research on a Novel Low Modulus OFBG Strain Sensor for Pavement Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Hu, Qingli; Lu, Qiyu

    2012-01-01

    Because of the fatigue and deflection damage of asphalt pavement, it is very important for researchers to monitor the strain response of asphalt layers in service under vehicle loads, so in this paper a novel polypropylene based OFBG (Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings) strain sensor with low modulus and large strain sensing scale was designed and fabricated. PP with MA-G-PP is used to package OFBG. The fabrication techniques, the physical properties and the sensing properties were tested. The experimental results show that this kind of new OFBG strain sensor is a wonderful sensor with low modulus (about 1 GPa) and good sensitivity, which would meet the needs for monitoring some low modulus materials or structures. PMID:23112584

  6. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

  7. GPR in Nondestructive Quality Assurance of New Asphalt Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikajärvi, J.; Peisa, K.; Narbro, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mara Nord is an international cooperation project financed by Interreg IVA Nord funding program with partners from Finland, Sweden and Norway. One of the objectives in Mara Nord project has been to research the quality assurance of new asphalt pavement. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey is used as an alternative method for coring in quality assurance. There exist numerous advantages for the use of GPR. For example, the fluent measuring arrangements without closing the traffic on the road and the extensive continuous profile that can be constructed from the measuring data. Within the framework of Mara Nord Project field tests were organized in Seinäjoki region in Finland on August 2011. The tests were done by four consulting companies from Finland and Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. The aim of these tests was to compare the measured dielectric value profiles and the calculated void content profiles of the equipment. The tested equipment was GSSI manufactured SIR-20 and 1 GHz horn antennas. Void content values were calculated using the model presented by Mr. Roimela (1997). All core samples were taken from the right wheel path. The same reference core samples were used when analyzing the data of each GPR equipment. Some samples were taken right after the pavement work was completed with the rest three weeks after during the test measurements. The tests indicated that GPRs have very good repeatability in measuring dielectric changes on top surface layers of asphalt pavements. Furthermore, different GPRs locate the same detectable longitudinal dielectric changes with high accuracy. Some differences were found in the dielectric value levels, yet reproducibility of the calculated void content values was quite good. The test data was also used to evaluate the reliability of the regression model between the dielectric values measured through GPR and the void content of the pavement determined from reference cores. Test data indicated that accurate regression

  8. The development of geotextiles incorporating slow-release phosphate beads for the maintenance of oil degrading bacteria in permeable pavements.

    PubMed

    Spicer, G E; Lynch, D E; Coupe, S J

    2006-01-01

    The development of a self-fertilising geotextile mat designed to provide a sustained slow-release of required inorganic nutrients for the growth of oil degrading microorganisms in porous pavement systems (PPS) is reported. The system comprises a geotextile spun from polymer fibres containing spherical phosphated polymer beads that release phosphate upon contact with water at a desirable level for microbial growth. Initial results using model PPS have shown that the self-fertilising geotextile system works extremely effectively as increased microbial activity has been observed throughout the experiment, illustrating that the oil-degrading bacteria can effectively utilise this polymer composite as a suitable nutrient source.

  9. Permeable pavement monitoring at the EPA's Edison Environmental Center demonstration site

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are few detailed studies of full-scale, replicated, actively-used pervious pavement systems. Practitioners need additional studies of pervious pavement systems in its intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) during a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions...

  10. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  11. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  12. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  13. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  14. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  15. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  16. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  17. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  18. 23 CFR 970.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 970.208... HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems § 970.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 970.204,...

  19. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  20. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  1. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 972.208... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  2. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  3. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands pavement management system (PMS). 973.208... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.208 Indian lands pavement management system...

  4. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). 971.208... HIGHWAYS FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Forest Highway Program Management Systems § 971.208 Federal lands pavement management system (PMS). In addition to the requirements provided in § 971.204, the...

  5. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  6. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt pavement materials for road construction. Citations discuss asphalt concrete mixtures and recycling, recycled materials testing and evaluation, and pavement bases. Engineering and environmental aspects of recycled materials are examined. (Contains a minimum of 78 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Permeable Pavement Monitoring at the Edison Environmental Center Demonstration Site - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) is monitoring an instrumented, working, 110-space pervious pavement parking at EPA’s Edison Environmental Center (EEC). Permeable pavement systems are classified as stormwater best management practices (BMPs) which reduce runo...

  8. Evaluation of Surface and Subsurface Processes in Permeable Pavement Infiltration Trenches

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems can be affected by clogging of the pavement surface and/or clogging at the interface where the subsurface storage layer meets the underlying soil. As infiltration and exfiltration are the primary functional mechanisms for ...

  9. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... data from three pavement types: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete (OGAC), and Portland cement concrete (PCC). Prediction of future noise levels is based on the ``average... to consider a wider range of asphaltic concrete and PCC pavements within the agency's traffic...

  10. 76 FR 67018 - Notice to Manufacturers of Airport In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Information Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of In-Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the... Active or Passive In- Pavement Stationary Runway Weather Information Systems that meet the...

  11. Definition of Research Needs to Address Airport Pavement Distress in Cold Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Pavement distress and condition rating ..................................................................... 8 Surveys of airport pavement distress...11 10. Selection of minimum number of sample units ................................................ 11 11. Condition survey data sheets...14 13. Distribution of survey questionnaire response with respect to FAA and AAA E boundaries

  12. EVALUATION OF THE DYNAFLECT FOR THE NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents the results obtained from portland cement concrete pavement testing with the Dynaflect, an apparatus developed for the deflection...correlated with deflection measurements from static loadings, and thereby relate to allowable loadings on portland cement concrete pavement. Also of

  13. Evaluation of the Soniscope for Nondestructive Testing of Portland-Cement Concrete Pavements,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents the results obtained from the soniscope instrument for use in the nondestructive testing of portland - cement concrete pavements...on the prestressed, reinforced, and plain concrete pavements. Also, of interest during the investigation was the maximum distance through portland ... cement concrete for which consistent velocity measurements could be obtained. (Author)

  14. GPR Image and Signal Processing for Pavement and Road Monitoring on Android Smartphones and Tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Francesco; Benedetto, Andrea; Tedeschi, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. This non-destructive method uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. It can detect objects, changes in material, and voids and cracks. GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the field of civil engineering one of the most advanced technologies used for road pavement monitoring is based on the deployment of advanced GPR systems. One of the most relevant causes of road pavement damage is often referable to water intrusion in structural layers. In this context, GPR has been recently proposed as a method to estimate moisture content in a porous medium without preventive calibration. Hence, the development of methods to obtain an estimate of the moisture content is a crucial research field involving economic, social and strategic aspects in road safety for a great number of public and private Agencies. In particular, a recent new approach was proposed to estimate moisture content in a porous medium basing on the theory of Rayleigh scattering, showing a shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum towards lower frequencies as the moisture content increases in the soil. Addressing some of these issues, this work proposes a mobile application, for smartphones and tablets, for GPR image and signal processing. Our application has been designed for the Android mobile operating system, since it is open source and android mobile platforms are selling the most smartphones in the world (2013). The GPR map can be displayed in black/white or color and the user can zoom and navigate into the image. The map can be loaded in two different ways: from the local memory of the portable device or from a remote server. This latter possibility can be very useful for real-time and mobile monitoring of road and pavement inspection. In addition, the application allows analyzing the GPR data also in the frequency domain. It is

  15. Impact of the variation in dynamic vehicle load on flexible pavement responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsanuzzaman, Md

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dynamic variation in asphalt pavement critical responses due to dynamic tire load variations. An attempt was also made to develop generalized regression equations to predict the dynamic response variation in flexible pavement under various dynamic load conditions. The study used an extensive database of computed pavement response histories for five different types of sites (smooth, rough, medium rough, very rough and severely rough), two different asphalt pavement structures (thin and thick) at two temperatures (70 °F and 104 °F), subjected to a tandem axle dual tire at three speeds 25, 37 and 50 mph (40, 60 and 80 km/h). All pavement responses were determined using the 3D-Move Analysis program (Version 1.2) developed by University of Nevada, Reno. A new term called Dynamic Response Coefficient (DRC) was introduced in this study to address the variation in critical pavement responses due to dynamic loads as traditionally measured by the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC). While DLC represents the additional varying component of the tire load, DRC represents the additional varying component of the response value (standard deviation divided by mean response). In this study, DRC was compared with DLC for five different sites based on the roughness condition of the sites. Previous studies showed that DLC varies with vehicle speed and suspension types, and assumes a constant value for the whole pavement structure (lateral and vertical directions). On the other hand, in this study, DRC was found to be significantly varied with the asphalt pavement and function of pavement structure, road roughness conditions, temperatures, vehicle speeds, suspension types, and locations of the point of interest in the pavement. A major contribution of the study is that the variation of pavement responses due to dynamic load in a flexible pavement system can be predicted with generalized regression equations. Fitting parameters (R2) in the

  16. Contemporary biogenic formation of clay pavements by eucalypts: further support for the phytotarium concept

    PubMed Central

    Pate, John S.; Verboom, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Clayey (sodosolic) pavements were studied in lateral root catchments of eucalypts where mixed myrtaceous:proteaceous vegetation was colonizing a dune of quartzitic sand blown out from a playa lake during late Pleistocene times. The site at Chillinup in south-west Western Australia provided an opportunity to examine these signature pavements in an unequivocally recent setting, and to assess their effects on competing non-eucalypt vegetation. Methods Pavements were located, and their extents and depths assessed by probing with steel rods, followed by corings and pit excavations using an air spade. Listings of plant species, growth forms and root morphologies were assembled for different vegetation zones in a representative transect across the dune. A deep cutting through the dune provided details on pavement morphology and modifications to the sand deposit bioengineered by eucalypt and heath vegetation. Key Results Clay pavements comprised closely spaced, round-topped columns whose mean diameters and depths varied between eucalypt species. Incipient pavement formation was characterized by clumps of clay deposited around fine root material. Pavements appeared to have been synthesized in situ from locally accessed and imported constituents. Understoreys on superficial pavements of a tree eucalypt were considerably less dense and biodiverse than on the deeper pavements of two mallee species, whilst most profuse vegetation cover was encountered in heath on unmodified (non-pavemented) sand. Certain species were restricted to superficially located pavements, whilst other ‘generalist’ species occurred widely across the dune. Relict pavements formed by earlier generations of eucalypts were present in certain areas of the transect and in soil profiles of the cutting. Some relict pavements colonized by proteaceous shrubs were overprinted with ferricrete. Conclusions Clay pavements formed by eucalypts have pronounced effects on understorey vegetation and

  17. Evaluation of pavement layers` interface bonding conditions using a falling weight deflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nageim, H.; Al-Hakim, B.; Lesley, L.

    1997-07-01

    The paper describes advanced analysis procedures to evaluate pavement layers` interface bonding conditions using non-destructive techniques and Falling Weight Deflectometer surveys. The pavement mechanical properties in terms of the layers` moduli were evaluated under the impact of a dynamic loading by using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) surveys. The results revealed that the use of the advanced analysis procedures allows for more accurate calculation of the pavement mechanical properties and thus more accurate analysis of the pavement`s structure life. This is one of the advantages of the advanced analysis procedure since the restriction imposed on the conventional back calculation methods that full bonding between the individual layers exist, has been relaxed.

  18. Influence of pavement macrotexture on PM10 emissions from paved roads: A controlled study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    China, Swarup; James, David E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates influence of pavement macrotexture on paved road PM10 emissions. This study was conducted on different paved roadway types (local, collector and minor arterial) in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. Pavement macrotexture was measured using the ASTM E 965 sand patch method and the Digital Surface Roughness Meter™ (DSRM™). A controlled constant soil loading with known PM10 fraction was applied to cleaned road surfaces. The Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Mini-PI-SWERL™ (Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab) was used to estimate PM10 mass emissions and cumulative mass emitted from pavement surfaces. PM10 mass emissions using controlled applied soil loadings generally declined with increasing pavement macrotexture at all applied shear levels. The relationships were statistically significant, and indicate that pavement macrotexture may need to be included in future development of revised paved road PM10 emissions factors. A change in the slope of emitted PM10 mass and pavement macrotexture occurred between 0.8 and 0.9 mm mean texture depth (MTD). Anomalies in PM10 mass emissions were observed at MTDs exceeding 1.2 mm. Two-way frequency distributions of pavement surface features obtained from DSRM measurements were analyzed to explain the observed anomalies. Results showed that pavement surface feature size distributions may influence on PM10 emissions from paved roads at similar MTDs. PM10 mass emissions were found to linearly depend on adjusted mode size of the pavement surface aggregate. A sharp decrease in friction velocities, computed from wind erosion theory, at MTDs above 0.9 mm matched an observed sharp decrease in PM10 emissions rates at MTDs above 0.9 mm, indicating that classical wind erosion theory could be adapted for non-erodible pavement surfaces and linearly relate PM10 emissions rates to applied shear stress at an aerodynamic roughness height of 0.075 mm.

  19. Capacitance sounding: a new geophysical method for asphalt pavement quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashevsky, Yu. A.; Dashevsky, O. Yu.; Filkovsky, M. I.; Synakh, V. S.

    2005-02-01

    A capacitance sounding method has been proposed and developed for evaluation of the actual thickness and dielectric permittivity of asphalt pavement. The method is based on the continuous measurements of the electrical capacitance between two electrodes in real time. One of them is grounded within the soil immediately adjacent to the side of the road. Another one (sensing electrode) is mounted on a motor-driven positioner to obtain the capacitance measurements at multiple locations along the direction perpendicular to asphalt surface. The principle of the method is to vary the clearance of the sensing electrode to sound the 1D structure of the pavement beneath that electrode. A distinguished feature of the proposed technology is that the measured signal depends only on the thickness and the permittivity of the asphalt layer. All underlying layers do not affect the capacitance readings. A set of capacitance values versus sensing electrode positions is considered as a sounding curve. Software tools were created for solving forward and inverse problems of the capacitance sounding. An unknown thickness and permittivity are derived from a real-time inversion of the data obtained. Upon completing the inversion, an operator can move the assembling with the second electrode across the asphalt surface to the next sounding site. The capacitance sounding method proved to have a good lateral resolution: the dielectric permittivity values and the asphalt layer thickness are accurately detected over distances of 40 cm from a measuring point. An extensive feasibility study of capacitance sounding using both mathematical modeling and field measurements has been carried out. As a result, portable, low-frequency equipment has been designed and created. Asphalt layer thickness and the dielectric permittivity measurements were carried out on a high-traffic highway. The comparison of field trial results with core sampling analysis demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  1. Investigating the Effects of "Cool" Solar Reflective Pavements on California Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohegh, M.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Levinson, R.; Rosado, P.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing "Cool pavement" is a local mitigation strategy that can reduce urban heat islands. We investigated the climate impacts of widespread deployment of cool pavements by increasing the albedo of the pavements from 0.1 to 0.5 to understand the efficiency of cool pavements in reducing the temperature in California's urban areas. A validated parameterization of WRF model coupled with Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) is employed to simulate the effects of pavements at the bottom of canopy on urban heat islands. The results show local surface air temperature reductions, peaking at late morning and late evening which coincides with the lowest boundary layer height in the day time. Summer time temperature reductions up to 0.62 K in the evening (20:00 local) and 0.32 K in afternoon (14:00) in California are predicted. The cooling effects of 15 cities in California are sampled and analyzed. The average temperature reductions for the cities in California show 0.32 K temperature reduction per 0.1 total albedo reduction in the afternoon (14:00) which is consistent with the previous works. The linear relation between temperature reductions and the albedo increase is used to estimate the effect of cool pavements in "No Canopy" state, which can be used as an upper bound of the effects of cool pavements.

  2. Decision model in the laser scanning system for pavement crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Huang, Jianping; Liu, Wanyu

    2011-12-01

    Pavement crack detection plays an important role in the pavement maintaining and management. Recently, the laser scanning technique for pavement crack detection becomes more and more popular due to its ability of discriminating dark areas, which are not caused by pavement distress such as tire marks, oil spills, and shadows. However, this technique still bears some errors for pavement crack recognition errors, thus in the present work, the factors contributed to these errors in laser scanning system are first analyzed, and then a decision model for the laser scanning pavement crack detection system based on the hypothesis test is proposed. Experimental analyses and results show that this model not only allows us to build the relationship between the contribution factors and crack detection accuracy and to provide the criteria to compare the detection accuracy for the different roads, but also can be used to judge whether the crack exists with a reasonable number of deformed light stripes. Therefore, the proposed decision model can provide guidance on the pavement crack detection and has a practical value.

  3. Dynamic considerations in pavement layers moduli evaluation using falling weight deflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoukry, Samir N.; Martinelli, David R.; Selezneva, Olga I.

    1996-11-01

    Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) test is employed by many state highway agencies for the nondestructive evaluation of pavement layers moduli. The accuracy of test results changes significantly for different pavement systems and may results in misleading conclusions. In this study, explicit finite element analysis was used to investigate the behavior of pavement layers under the action of an impact load. The time dependent dynamic responses of origin and flexible pavements were compared and significant differences in behavior were observed. Analysis of the time-histories of vertical deformations propagating through the pavement depth reveals that the displacements measured on the surface layer at standard FWD sensors' positions may not be indicative of the displacements of underlying layers. Computer results are provided for the extreme cases of fully bonded and unbonded pavement layers' interfaces. The results of the analysis reveal that the dynamic displacement patterns are much more complicated than the static ones. Animation of the model results indicates that near-surface pavement layers may behave as a set of composite plates resting on an elastic foundation in absence of bonds between the layers interfaces. If there are strong bonds, the near surface layers behave as a single composite solid resting on elastic foundation.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase. PMID:27011196

  6. Layer coefficients for NHDOT pavement materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoo, Vincent C.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the New Hampshire Department of Transportation (NHDOT) experimented with the use of reclaimed asphalt concrete as a base course material, identified by NHDOT as reclaimed stabilized base (RSB). The RSB and a control test section were placed on Interstate 93 between exits 18 and 19. The RSB test section was designed to the same structural number (SN) as the control. To evaluate the structural capacity of these test sections, the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) conducted deflection tests using a Dynatest 8000 falling weight deflectometer (FWD). Preliminary analysis of the results by NHDOT personnel showed higher deflection in the reclaimed asphalt concrete test sections. The explanation was that the layer coefficient used for the RSB layer in the design was probably incorrect. A total of 10 test sections constituting the base course materials used by NHDOT were built near Bow, New Hampshire. CRREL evaluated and estimated the layer coefficients of the base course materials. The test program was developed to characterize the material in more than one way. Tests were conducted with the heavy weight deflectometer (HWD), dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the Clegg hammer. In situ California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were also conducted. The deflection from the HWD were used with the WESDEF back calculation program to determine the layer moduli. The moduli were than used with the AASHTO Design Guide to calculate the layer coefficients. The layer coefficients were also determined with the method proposed by Rohde. The CBR values from the Clegg hammer, in situ CBR and DCP tests were also used in the relationships in the HDM model to determine the layer coefficients.

  7. Potential applicability of stress wave velocity method on pavement base materials as a non-destructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahedi, Masrur

    Aggregates derived from natural sources have been used traditionally as the pavement base materials. But in recent times, the extraction of these natural aggregates has become more labor intensive and costly due to resource depletion and environmental concerns. Thus, the uses of recycled aggregates as the supplementary of natural aggregates are increasing considerably in pavement construction. Use of recycled aggregates such as recycled crushed concrete (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) reduces the rate of natural resource depletion, construction debris and cost. Although recycled aggregates could be used as a viable alternative of conventional base materials, strength characteristics and product variability limit their utility to a great extent. Hence, their applicability is needed to be evaluated extensively based on strength, stiffness and cost factors. But for extensive evaluation, traditionally practiced test methods are proven to be unreasonable in terms of time, cost, reliability and applicability. On the other hand, rapid non-destructive methods have the potential to be less time consuming and inexpensive along with the low variability of test results; therefore improving the reliability of estimated performance of the pavement. In this research work, the experimental program was designed to assess the potential application of stress wave velocity method as a non-destructive test in evaluating recycled base materials. Different combinations of cement treated recycled concrete aggregate (RAP) and recycled crushed concrete (RCA) were used to evaluate the applicability of stress wave velocity method. It was found that, stress wave velocity method is excellent in characterizing the strength and stiffness properties of cement treated base materials. Statistical models, based on P-wave velocity were derived for predicting the modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of different combinations of cement treated RAP, Grade-1 and Grade-2 materials. Two

  8. Evaluation Model for Pavement Surface Distress on 3d Point Clouds from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS). The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments' specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  9. An Overview Of Pavement Management System For Industrial Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokam, Vivek S.

    2012-03-01

    ACT With the current surge in national economy the industrial traffic has increased many folds in terms of quantity of load and traffic volume. This results in early deterioration of the roads. Also the serviceability reduces hampering the industry's supply of raw material and transport of finished goods. An efficient road transportation system is of vitally important for smooth operations of industrial units. Construction of new roads needs an enormous investment. However, once constructed the road network system requires huge resources to maintain serviceability and to ensure safe passage at an appropriate speed and with low VOC (Vehicle Operating Cost). Road maintenance is therefore an essential function and should be carried out on a timely basis. The cost of providing and maintaining the roads for the industrial areas at an acceptable serviceability level is quite high. It is therefore essential for a transportation engineer to attempt establishing an acceptable pavement condition level from economic, safety and environmental point of view. In today's economic environment of constrained budgets, as the existing road infrastructure has aged, a more systematic approach towards determining maintenance and rehabilitation needs is necessary. The efficient pavement management system shall provide objective information and useful analysis to ensure consistent and cost effective decisions related to preservation of existing industrial road network in healthy condition.

  10. Locating voids beneath pavement using pulsed electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinway, W. J.; Echard, J. D.; Luke, C. M.

    1981-11-01

    The feasibility of using pulsed electromagnetic wave technology for locating and sizing voids beneath reinforced and nonreinforced portland cement concrete pavements is determined. The data processing techniques developed can be implemented to provide information for void depth and sizing to + or - 1/2 in. and spatial location within + or - 6 in. A very short pulse radar directly connected to a microcomputer was chosen as the equipment necessary to obtain measurements. This equipment has the required accuracy and reliability, and is a cost effective solution for the void locating problem. The radar provides a signal return from voids that has unique characteristics that can be examined to provide information regarding the location, depth, and shape of the void. The microcomputer provides a means of real time processing to extract the information from the radar signal return and record the results. Theoretical modeling of signal returns from voids led to suitable techniques for locating and sizing voids beneath the pavement. Analysis and application of these techniques to radar measurements verified the theoretical predictions that radar can be used to determine the location, size, and shape of actual voids.

  11. Permeable pavement and stormwater management systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Imran, H M; Akib, Shatirah; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration.

  12. Wavelet-based pavement image compression and noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Peisen S.; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2005-08-01

    For any automated distress inspection system, typically a huge number of pavement images are collected. Use of an appropriate image compression algorithm can save disk space, reduce the saving time, increase the inspection distance, and increase the processing speed. In this research, a modified EZW (Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet) coding method, which is an improved version of the widely used EZW coding method, is proposed. This method, unlike the two-pass approach used in the original EZW method, uses only one pass to encode both the coordinates and magnitudes of wavelet coefficients. An adaptive arithmetic encoding method is also implemented to encode four symbols assigned by the modified EZW into binary bits. By applying a thresholding technique to terminate the coding process, the modified EZW coding method can compress the image and reduce noise simultaneously. The new method is much simpler and faster. Experimental results also show that the compression ratio was increased one and one-half times compared to the EZW coding method. The compressed and de-noised data can be used to reconstruct wavelet coefficients for off-line pavement image processing such as distress classification and quantification.

  13. Detection of asphalt pavement cracks using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettas, Christodoulos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of asphalt road pavements is inevitable throughout its life cycle. There are several types of deterioration that take place on these surfaces, like surface defects and deformations. One of the most common asphalt defects is cracking. Fatigue, transverse, longitudinal, reflective, edge, block and slippage are types of cracking that can be observed anywhere in the world. Monitoring and preventative/periodic maintenance of these types of wears are two very important actions that have to take place to avoid "costly" solutions. This paper aims to introduce the spectral characteristics of uncracked (healthy) and cracked asphalt surfaces which can give a new asphalt crack index. This is performed through remote sensing applications in the area of asphalt pavements. Multispectral images can be elaborated using the index to enhance crack marks on asphalt surfaces. Ground spectral signatures were acquired from both uncracked and cracked asphalted areas of Cyprus (Limassol). Evaluation separability indices can be used to identify the optimum wavelength regions that can distinguish better the uncracked and cracked asphalt surfaces. The results revealed that the spectral sensitivity for the enhancement of cracked asphalt was detected using the Euclidean, Mahalanobis and Cosine Distance Indices in the Vis range (approximately at 450 nm) and in the SWIR 1 range (approximately at 1750 nm).

  14. Pavement-management system for concrete roadways in Virginia. Phase 1. Condition ratings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report traces the development of a rating system for evaluating the service condition of Virginia's portland-cement concrete pavements. The service condition is assessed in terms of distress roughness, i.e., that portion of a pavement's poor-ride characteristics directly attributable to the occurrence of certain key distress types. Field surveys of the occurrence of these distresses provide the necessary data for estimating distress roughness through the use of prediction equations that have been established from the standard statistical analysis of pavement-section distress data and roughness measurements. Distress measurements and their corresponding ratings and a condition survey rating procedure are appended.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  16. Medway Tunnel Road Pavement Survey Using Different Frequency GPR Antenna Systems - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Morteza Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    This presentation reports on an extensive survey carried out on a section (just outside the westbound end of the tunnel portal) of the Medway Tunnel in North Kent, UK. The Medway Tunnel provides a dual carriageway road crossing under the River Medway between Chatham and Strood. It is 725 metres long from portal to portal and consists of three sections. The appearance of repeated cracking of the road surface in this particular section of the tunnel suggested either a steady movement of the ground or possible undermining due to an underground watercourse. Ironically, the design and construction of the road had been realised to prevent any form of structural movement. It was deemed necessary to perform a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey in order to confirm underground construction details of the road in this section of the tunnel. This presentation reports on the detailed survey and the challenges encountered during the operation, which utilised four different frequency GPR systems including 2GHz, 900MHz, 600MHz and 200MHz antennas. The presentation will also describe how decisions were made to carry out supplementary surveys based on results obtained on-site (via primary data processing) and observations made during the survey. A summary of results will be presented individually for each antenna system used, as well as comparisons between each antenna system. Results will then be mapped against the design drawings available for confirmation of construction configurations. In conclusion, the presentation will demonstrate that the tunnel road pavement is not constructed as per the information provided (design drawings). Results will clearly indicate that there is no second reinforced concrete layer present in this particular section of the road pavement (contrary to what was originally believed) and will present the actual road construction in comparison with the design drawings. The results will confirm that there is no underground watercourse present in this

  17. Techniques to Determine Maintenace Frequency of Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the surface clogs in permeable pavement systems, they lose effectiveness and require maintenance. There is limited direct guidance for determining when maintenance is needed to prevent surface runoff bypass. Research is being conducted using multiple time domain reflectomete...

  18. Relating tensile, bending, and shear test data of asphalt binders to pavement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.S.; Tsai, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Eight different asphalt binders representing a wide range of applications for pavement construction were tested in uniaxial tension, bending, and shear stresses. Theoretical analyses were performed in this study to covert the data from the three engineering tests to stiffness moduli for predicting pavement performance. At low temperatures, high asphalt stiffness may induce pavement thermal cracking; thus, the allowable maximum stiffness was set at 1,000 MPa. At high temperatures, low asphalt stiffness may lead to pavement rutting (ruts in the road); master curves were constructed to rank the potential for rutting in the asphalts. All three viscoelastic functions were shown to be interchangeable within the linear viscoelastic region. When subjected to large deformation in the direct tension test, asphalt binders behaved nonlinear viscoelastic in which the data under bending, shear and tension modes were not comparable. The asphalts were, however, found toe exhibit linear viscoelasticity up to the failure point in the steady-state strain region.

  19. Contributions of performance-graded asphalt to low temperature cracking resistance of pavements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, S.W.; Olek, J.

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to study and evaluate the role that asphalt cracking. As part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) new specifications for asphalt binders were developed that are based on the performance of the material. The asphalt binder graded and specified according to these new performance-based specifications is called PG binder. These new specifications are commonly referred to as Superpave (Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement) binder specifications. A section of Interstate 64 in southern Indiana was experiencing severe low temperature cracking before it was reconstructed over the summers of 1995 and 1996. The binder used in the new pavement mixes was PG material. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) tests, Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) tests, and viscosity tests were performed on this binder. Comparisons were made between test results obtained from the binders in the old pavement and the new pavement. All tests and comparisons were based on the Superpave binder specifications.

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR PAVEMENT HEALTH MONITORING BASED ON SURFACE RIDE QUALITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akira; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ishida, Tateki

    Pavement ride quality testing has traditionally been based on subjective questionnaire ratings. The questionnaire survey has ability to directly measure the sense of road users' ride quality. However, it is difficult to quantify the evaluation results based on the questionnaire due to its lack of objectivity. This study examines pavement health monitoring method using physiological information such as heart rate variability (HRV) for detecting mental stress of road users toward pavement ride quality. First, a results of a driving simulator experiment shows that potential mental stress caused by road roughness can be observed in high-frequency oscillations in 0.15-0.4Hz of HRV processed by continuous wavelet transform. Then, the high-frequency oscillations of HRV is summarized as an index related to the mental stress that makes objective ride quality evaluation possible. Finally, this study indicates that the index contributes to improve the accuracy of pavement health monitoring based on surface ride quality.

  1. Monitoring of the Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster on the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center. The monitoring scheme for the project is discussed in-depth with graphics explaining the instrumentation installed at the site.

  2. Assessment of Clogging Dynamics in Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infiltration is a primary functional mechanism in green infrastructure stormwater controls. This study used time domain reflectometers (TDRs) to measure spatial infiltration and assess clogging dynamics of permeable pavement systems in Edison, NJ, and Louisville, KY. In 2009, t...

  3. Permeable Pavement Research at NRMRL’s Urban Watershed Research Facility (Poster 2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assess pollutant removal efficiency of porous pavement systems with regard to parking lot runoff. Bench-scale study will examine: Discharge volume Flow rate Total suspended solids (TSS) of influent vs. effluent Use of a geotextile permeable filter fabric...

  4. Reinforcement of asphalt concrete pavement by segments of exhausted fiber used for sorption of oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashevich, V. N.; Efanov, I. N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is aimed at construction of the experimental road pavement made of dispersed reinforced asphalt concrete. Electronic paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and fluorescent bitumen studies were used to prove that disperse reinforcement of asphalt concrete mixtures with fibers of exhausted sorbents reduce the selective filtration of low polymeric fractions of petroleum bitumen and improve its properties in the adsorption layer. Sesquioxides are neutralized as catalysts aging asphalt binder. This leads to improvement in the elasticity of bitumen films at low temperatures and provide better crack resistance of coatings to reduce the intensity of the aging of asphalt binder, and, therefore, to increase the durability of road pavements. The experimental road pavement made of dispersed reinforced asphalt concrete operated during 4 years and demonstrated better transport- performance properties in comparison with the analogue pavements.

  5. Assessing the potential for restoration of surface permeability for permeable pavements through maintenance.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Permeable pavements (PPs) have been in use as stormwater management systems in Canada and the United States for over 20 years. After years of exposure to sediment and debris build-up, surface clogging reduces the infiltration of stormwater and inhibits the hydraulic and environmental functions of the pavement. Removal of surface material has been shown to restore infiltration but the majority of studies have been limited to small-scale testing. This paper presents the results of small- and full-sized equipment testing aimed at restoring surface permeability, including the first testing of regenerative-air and vacuum-sweeping streetsweepers in Ontario. Maintenance achieved partial restoration of PP surface permeability. Post-treatment surface infiltration rates displayed large spatial variability, highlighting that localized conditions throughout the pavement have a confounding influence on the overall effectiveness of maintenance. The impact of maintenance may be improved by establishing regular cleaning intervals and developing instructional guidelines for pavement owners and equipment operators.

  6. Use of Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs) in Permeable Pavement Systems to Predict Maintenance Needs and Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the surface in permeable pavement systems clogs, infiltration capacity decreases, so maintenance is required to maintain hydrologic performance. There is limited direct guidance for determining when maintenance is needed to prevent surface runoff bypass. Research is being co...

  7. Performance Prediction of the NCAT Test Track Pavements Using Mechanistic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCroix, Andrew Thomas

    In the pavement industry in the United States of America, there is an increasing desire to improve the pavement construction quality and life for new and rehabilitated pavements. In order to improve the quality of the pavements, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has pursued a performance-related specification (PRS) for over 20 years. The goal of PRS is to provide material and construction (M/C) properties that correlate well with pavement performance. In order to improve upon the PRS projects developed in WesTrack (NCHRP 9-20) and the MEPDG-based PRS (NCHRP 9-22), a set of PRS tests and models are proposed to provide a critical link between pavement performance and M/C properties. The PRS testing is done using the asphalt mixture performance tester (AMPT). The proposed PRS focuses on rutting and fatigue cracking of asphalt mixtures. The mixtures are characterized for their stiffness, fatigue behavior, and rutting resistance using a dynamic modulus (|E*|) test, a fatigue test, and a triaxial stress sweep (TSS) test, respectively. Information from the fatigue test characterizes the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model. Once the stiffness is reduced to a certain level, the material develops macro-cracks and fails. The TSS test is used to characterize a viscoplastic (VP) model. The VP model allows the prediction of the rut depth beneath the center of the wheel. The VECD and VP models are used within a layered viscoelastic (LVE) pavement model to predict fatigue and rutting performance of pavements. The PRS is evaluated by comparing the predictions to the field performance at the NCAT pavement test track in Opelika, Alabama. The test track sections evaluated are part of the 2009 test cycle group experiment, which focused on WMA, high RAP (50%), and a combination of both. The fatigue evaluation shows that all sections would last at least 18 years at the same traffic rate. The sections do not show any cracking, suggesting the sections are well

  8. Cooler reflective pavements give benefits beyond energy savings: durability and illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Akbari, Hashem; Harvey, John T.

    2000-06-01

    City streets are usually paved with asphalt concrete because this material gives good service and is relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain. We show that making asphalt pavements cooler, by increasing their reflection of sunlight, may lead to longer lifetime of the pavement, lower initial costs of the asphalt binder, and savings on street lighting and signs. Excessive glare due to the whiter surface is not likely to be a problem.

  9. User’s Guide: Cracking and Seating of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Concrete Pavements 6. AUTHOR(S) Randy C. Ahlrich 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER USAE...OF PAGES Asphalt concrete Maintenance 29 Concrete Repair 16. PRICE CODE Cracking Seating OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE d OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified...Seated Concrete ," Transportation Research Record 1215, Washington, DC. Ahlrich, R. C. and Godwin, L. N. 1991. "Cracking and Seating of PCC Pavements

  10. Study of Asphaltic Concrete Produced in Dryer Drum Mixers for Airport Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    STWDARDS-163- w S 4 -- , ,a, i I Report No-c FAA-RD-76-165 STUDY OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE PRODUCED IN DRYER DRUM MIXERS FOR AIRPORT PAVEMENTS 0 E. T...PREFACE This study was supported by the Systems Research and Development Service of the Federal Aviation Administration. This is a final report presenting...the asphaltic concrete . In September, 1976 the Alaskan Region of FAA reported that the runway pavement had transverse thermal cracks approximately 200

  11. Subsurface Drainage of Pavement Structures: Current Corps of Engineers and Industry Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    few decades. General material on drainage an emphasis on subsurface drainage. The topics dis- issues can be found in the work of Cedergren (1974, cussed...the sides of the United States. bottom of the pavement layers. The assumptions made Cedergren (1974) bases his infiltration estimates on about these...temperature, but also whetheror all water falling on the pavement area will infiltrate. I Alternatively. Cedergren (1974) assumes that bitu- The FHWA

  12. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  13. Hot in-place recycling of asphalt pavements. Final report, 1988-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shoenberger, J.E.; Vollor, T.W.

    1990-09-01

    This report contains the results of a literature search concerning hot in-place asphalt pavement recycling. Current methods and procedures for hot in-place recycling were reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of each presented. Four construction sites were visited. Each site used a different procedure to recycle the pavement. These procedures along with the equipment used are discussed in regard to selecting a recycling method, material controls, and available cost data.

  14. Investigation of the Inter-Relationship between Base Pavement Stiffness and Asphalt Overlay Compaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Airport Engineering , Environmental Protection Requirements and Aircraft Disaster Conference, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 1982. 49 APPENDIX A NDT RESULTS c r...FILE CUP)Ci DOT/ FM/ ES-881 Investigation of the Inter-relationship Systems Engineering Between Base Pavement Stiffness Washington, D.C. 20591 and...collected on three paving projects in FAA’s Eastern Region. Nondestructive testing ( NDT ) was used to quantify the stiffness of base pavements prior to

  15. Recycled materials in asphalt pavements. October 1973-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for October 1973-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of asphalt-pavement materials, and the use of other recycled materials to manufacture asphalt pavement. Articles discuss methods used for recycling bituminous pavement including hot-mix and cold-mix. Materials used to improve recycled pavement, and recycled materials used in asphalt pavement include latexes, rubber scrap such as tires, glass shards, concretes, dusts, waste oils, roofing wastes, sulfur, and metal refining sludges. Testing and evaluation of recycled pavements both in laboratories and in test cases are considered. (Contains 110 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  16. Thermal Behavior of an Asphalt Pavement in the Laboratory and in the Parking Lot

    PubMed Central

    Martinkauppi, J. B.; Mäkiranta, A.; Kiijärvi, J.; Hiltunen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5′45′′ N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection. PMID:25861679

  17. Thermal behavior of an asphalt pavement in the laboratory and in the parking lot.

    PubMed

    Martinkauppi, J B; Mäkiranta, A; Kiijärvi, J; Hiltunen, E

    2015-01-01

    The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5'45'' N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  18. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  19. Environmental history recorded in aeolian deposits under stone pavements, Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Fuchs, Markus; Kleber, Arno; Wells, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature - stone pavement - traps aeolian fines and forms a special accretionary archive. Seven stone pavement-covered sections on basalt flows in the eastern Mojave Desert are condensed into a composite section, comprising five sedimentological units supported by an OSL-based chronology. Three of the units are of accretionary nature and each is covered by a stone pavement. They were deposited > 50.9-36.6 ka, < 36.6-14.2 ka and < 14.2 ka, and they are intimately coupled with the history of nearby Lake Mojave, which advances the current understanding of regional aeolian activity. End-member modeling analysis of grain-size distributions yielded seven sediment transport regimes. The accretionary system operates in two modes: A) episodic formation of a stone pavement by lateral processes once a vesicular horizon has formed on a barren surface; and B) accretion of dust and eventual burial of the clast layer. These findings improve current concepts about stone pavement evolution and their environmental proxy function in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  20. Using ground-penetrating radar for assessing the structural needs of asphalt pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plati, C.; Loizos, A.

    2012-09-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a nondestructive testing (NDT) approach for pavement investigation that has been developed and improved upon over the past 30 years. This paper aimed to document how the GPR technique could be incorporated successfully into the process of assessing the structural needs of asphalt pavements. Background information is provided regarding the usage of GPR for the evaluation of asphalt road pavements. After outlining the GPR usage, a framework is developed, which is associated primarily with the efficient use of GPR for pavement inspection along a highway and secondarily with the supply of computational tools for GPR data to execute the complex processes to define the structural needs of the pavement. The effectiveness of the suggested framework for pavement preservation is demonstrated through a case study to estimate the required overlay thickness along a highway, which is part of a public private partnership project. The related results produce evidence in support of the statement that through GPR implementation, the intervention works can be optimised to benefit both the road users and the road operators.

  1. A test of porous pavement effectiveness on clay soils during natural storm events.

    PubMed

    Dreelin, Erin A; Fowler, Laurie; Ronald Carroll, C

    2006-02-01

    Porous pavements allow precipitation to infiltrate through the pavement to the soil, reducing the volume of stormwater runoff produced at a site. However, porous pavements are not widely used on fine-grained soils due to concerns about their performance. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of porous pavements in controlling stormwater runoff on clay soils. We compared the performance of an asphalt parking lot and a porous pavement parking lot of grass pavers in Athens, Georgia, USA, over relatively small and low-intensity rain events. The porous lot produced 93% less runoff than the asphalt lot. The total volume of runoff at the porous lot was significantly less than the asphalt lot (t = 2.96, p = 0.009). Turbidity was significantly greater at the asphalt lot (t = 6.18, p < 0.001) whereas conductivity was significantly higher at the porous lot (t = 2.31, p = 0.03). Metal and nutrient concentrations were below detection limits at both lots during seven of nine small storm events. During events in which we could detect pollutants, calcium, zinc, silica, and total phosphorus concentrations were higher at the asphalt lot whereas total nitrogen concentrations were greater at the porous lot. Our results suggest porous pavements are a viable option for reducing stormwater runoff and some pollutants from small storms or the first flush from large storms on clay soils.

  2. Striated boulder pavements within glaciomarine diamicts of the Yakataga Formation, Middleton Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of striated boulder pavements in glacial sequences is often cited as evidence of transport and deposition by grounded glacier ice. However, recent reports show that striated pavements also form in non-glacial environments by the abrasion of boulder lag surfaces by floating glacier and seasonal ice. Several striated boulder pavements are identified within Early Pleistocene upper Yakataga Formation sediments exposed on Middleton Island close to the southern edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. The sequence is dominated by thick stratiform units of massive and stratified diamict formed by the settling of fine-grained sands and muds from suspension together with ice-rafted debris. Boulder pavements outcrop as extensive planar horizons within the diamicts, can be traced for several kilometers along strike and consist of single lines of clasts with faceted upper surfaces showing consistently oriented striation directions. Clasts are not preferentially aligned, however, and do not have the characteristic bullet shape of boulders transported at a glacier base and deposited by lodgement processes. Striated boulder pavements on Middleton Island appear to have formed as boulder lag surfaces generated by wave and tidal current reworking of diamict on relatively shallow banks. Lags were then overridden and abraded by a grounding ice shelf. The glacially-abraded boulder pavements on Middleton Island record the repeated expansion of a continuous ice shelf to the edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf during the Early Pleistocene.

  3. Field validation of road roughness evaluation using in-pavement strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Deng, F.; Huang, Y.; Bridgelall, R.

    2016-04-01

    Most transportation agencies now collect pavement roughness data using the inertial profilers, which requires instrumented vehicles and technicians with specialized training to interpret the results. The extensive labor requirements of the profiling activities limit data collection for portions of the national highway system to at most once per year, resulting in outdated roughness data for decision making of maintenance needs. In this paper, a real-time roughness evaluation method was developed by linking the output of durable in-pavement strain sensors to road roughness level. The durable in-pavement sensors will continuously provide information of road roughness in real time after they are installed and calibrated during the road construction until the service life of the associated pavement. Field tests validated the developed strain method by comparison with standard inertial profiling method and the connected-vehicle method. The comparison of the results from the field tests approves the effectiveness of the developed road roughness evaluation method using in-pavement strain sensors, which can be further applied practically for needed concrete pavements.

  4. Crumb rubber modifier (CRM) in asphalt pavement: Summary of practices in Arizona, California, and Florida. Interim report, 1 February-30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.G.; Lundy, J.R.; Leahy, R.B.; Hanson, D.; Epps, J.

    1995-09-01

    Highway agencies have been evaluating crumb rubber modifier (CRM) in hot mix asphalt (HMA) since the 1970`s. Three agencies, Arizona, California, and Florida, currently use CRM in HMA at levels that would approach or exceed the mandate in Section 1038 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. This report documents the use of CRM in HMA in these three States. In particular, it addresses issues including thickness design, materials and mix design, construction procedure, including control, and pavement performance. The report also addresses the following questions: (1) What processes are used, (2) Why are they used, (3) How are they performing.

  5. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement. PMID:22163717

  6. Adaptive road crack detection system by pavement classification.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  7. DESERT PAVEMENTS AND SOILS ON BASALTIC PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS AT LATHROP WELLS AND RED CONE VOLCANOES, SOUTHERN NEVADA ABSTRACT

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Valentine; C.D. Harrington

    2005-08-26

    Formation of desert pavement and accretionary soils are intimately linked in arid environments such as the Mojave Desert. Well-sorted fallout scoria lapilli at Lathrop Wells (75-80 ky) and Red Cone ({approx}1 Ma) volcanoes (southern Nevada) formed an excellent starting material for pavement, allowing infiltration of eolian silt and fine sand that first clogs the pore space of underlying tephra and then aggrades and develops vesicular A (Av) horizons. Variations in original pyroclast sizes provide insight into minimum and maximum clast sizes that promote pavement and soil formation: pavement becomes ineffective when clasts can saltate under the strongest winds, while clasts larger than coarse lapilli are unable to form an interlocking pavement that promotes silt accumulation (necessary for Av development). Contrary to predictions that all pavements above altitudes of {approx}400 m would have been ''reset'' in their development after late Pleistocene vegetation advances (about 15 ka), the soils and pavements show clear differences in maturity between the two volcanoes. This indicates that either the pavements/soils develop slowly over many 10,000's of years and then are very stable, or that, if they are disrupted by vegetation advances, subsequent pavements are reestablished with successively more mature characteristics.

  8. DESERT PAVEMENTS AND SOILS ON BASALTIC PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS AT LATHROP WELLS AND RED CONE VOLCANOES, SOUTHERN NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Valentine; C.D. Harrington

    2005-08-10

    Formation of desert pavement and accretionary soils are intimately linked in arid environments such as the Mojave Desert. Well-sorted fallout scoria lapilli at Lathrop Wells (75-80 ky) and Red Cone ({approx}1 Ma) volcanoes (southern Nevada) formed an excellent starting material for pavement, allowing infiltration of eolian silt and fine sand that first clogs the pore space of underlying tephra and then aggrades and develops vesicular A (Av) horizons. Variations in original pyroclast sizes provide insight into minimum and maximum clast sizes that promote pavement and soil formation: pavement becomes ineffective when clasts can saltate under the strongest winds, while clasts larger than coarse lapilli are unable to form an interlocking pavement that promotes silt accumulation (necessary for Av development). Contrary to predictions that all pavements above altitudes of {approx}400 m would have been ''reset'' in their development after late Pleistocene vegetation advances (about 15 ka), the soils and pavements show clear differences in maturity between the two volcanoes. This indicates that either the pavement soils develop slowly over many 10,000's of years and then are very stable, or that, if they are disrupted by vegetation advances, subsequent pavements are reestablished with successively more mature characteristics.

  9. Effects of impervious pavements on reducing runoff in an arid urban catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epshtein, O.; Turnbull, L.; Earl, S.

    2011-12-01

    The progressive urbanization of US arid and semi-arid southwestern territories has transformed undeveloped aridlands into dynamic, radially expanding metropolitan centers. As these mature, infill development further reduces undeveloped area, inversely coupling surface imperviousness to infiltration rates, with a subsequent increase in runoff generation. Intensified runoff carries undesirable environmental consequences, magnifying urban flooding events and concentrations, transport, and propagation of contaminants. Pervious pavements offer one potential solution for decreased urban infiltration. At present, the application potential of pervious pavements as an effective urban infiltration management tool exceeds its exploitation. While entirely eliminating urban Total Impervious Area is not a feasible solution, pervious pavements significantly reduce Effective Impervious Area at costs competitive with traditional Best Management Practices. Previous research into pervious pavements has largely consisted of laboratory prototypes or small-scale field experiments, with a heavy bias towards parking lots. In this study we explore the effectiveness of pervious pavements in increasing infiltration, thus decreasing runoff volume during summer monsoonal and winter convective rainfall events in an 8 ha residential catchment in Scottsdale, Arizona. Analysis focuses on the interaction dynamics between surface area of pervious pavement application and its net effect on runoff response at the catchment level. Hydrological response was modeled using MAHLERAN (Model for Assessing Hillslope-Landscape Erosion, Runoff and Nutrients), a spatially explicit, event-based model, parameterized at a spatial resolution of 0.25 sq m. Data for model parameterization was obtained from analysis of aerial imagery and field-based monitoring of surface properties. The model was tested against measurements of flow at the catchment outlet for multiple rainfall events with total event rainfall ranging

  10. Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

  11. Quantifying mobile and immobile zones during simulated stormwater infiltration through a new permeable pavement material.

    PubMed

    Bentarzi, Y; Ghenaim, A; Terfous, A; Wanko, A; Poulet, J B

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a new eco-material for use in permeable pavements in view to ensuring the sustainable management of stormwater in urban areas. The specific characteristic of this material is that it allows the infiltration of rainfall, storing the infiltrated water and trapping the pollutants carried by runoff such as engine oil and heavy metals. This new material is composed of a mixture of crushed concrete , resulting from inert construction waste, and organic material (compost). We performed tracing experiments in view to monitor the flow of the water within this material in order to study its hydrodynamics under heavy rainfall (rain with a return period of 10 years). The experimental results revealed preferential flows due to the heterogeneity of the material and liable to act as a major vector for the mobility of the pollutants transported within the material by stormwater. The work presented in this article consists in quantifying these preferential flows by determining their water contents in mobile (θm) and immobile (θim) water during infiltration. To do this, we used the (NON-EQUILIBRIUM Convection-Dispersion Equation) model, in order to evaluate mobile and stagnant zones in the framework of tracing experiments.

  12. Laboratory analysis of a system for catchment, pre-treatment and treatment (SCPT) of runoff from impervious pavements.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Barrera, A H; Rodriguez-Hernandez, J; Castro-Fresno, D; Vega-Zamanillo, A

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the development and construction of a 1:1 scale laboratory prototype of a System for Catchment, Pre-treatment and Treatment (SCPT) of runoff polluted by contaminants washed from impervious pavements. The concept of the SCPT is an online system with an up-flow filter. The filter is composed of geotextile layers and limestone. The laboratory tests carried out were focused on determining the SCPT prototype behaviour under different working conditions. The variables studied were: inflow, pollutant loads and filtration system configuration. The results show that the system designed has a high capacity for treatment of solids and oil, with an average efficiency of 85% and 97% respectively. Moreover, the regression equations of the treatment efficiency were determined for each of the pollutants studied, for different inflow conditions and pollution loads.

  13. Hydraulic design of pervious concrete highway shoulders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahl, Nathan Andrew

    Stormwater drainage has been a factor in roadway design for years. Now stormwater quantity and quality are also becoming regulated for roadways. As regulations of stormwater management continue to increase so does the need for more viable and effect management practices. The research presented and discussed in this thesis presents the option of using pervious concrete in highway shoulders as a best management practice for stormwater management. Research focused on the hydraulic response of pervious concrete pavements exposed to sheet flowing water. Pervious concrete samples were placed in a hydraulic flume to determine capture discharges, infiltration rates, and by-pass flowrates for a broad range of void contents, across a broad range of pavement cross slopes. The results demonstrate that the capture discharge and infiltration rates are inversely related to the cross slope of the pavement. Results also showed the infiltration rate of the permeable pavement exposed to sheet flowing water, in the model, is significantly lower than the measured infiltration rate. Pervious concrete samples were also tested to determine hydraulic response when exposed to clogging associated with sand used in roadway de-icing. The results of the clogging of the permeable pavements followed similar trends as the unclogged samples, with the only difference being a more significant reduction in infiltration rates at higher applications of sand. Preliminary discussion of a design methodology is included with a design example.

  14. Indirect diagnosis of pavement structural damages using surface GPR reflection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, A.; Pensa, S.

    2007-06-01

    The safety and operability of road networks is, in part, dependent on the quality of the pavement. It is known that pavements suffer from many different structural problems which can lead to damage to the pavement surface. To minimize the effect of these problems programmed policies for pavement management are required. Additionally a given local anomaly on the road surface can affect the safety of the road to various degrees according to the category of the road, so it is possible to set up different programmes of repair according to the different standards of road. Programmed policies for pavement management are required because of the wide structural damage which occurs to pavements during their normal operating life. This has consequences for the safety and operability of road networks. During the last decade, road networks suffered from great structural damage. The damage occurs for different reasons, such as the increasing traffic or the lack of means for routine maintenance. Many forms of damage, originating in the bottom layers are invisible until the pavement cracks. They depend on the infiltration of water and the presence of cohesive soil greatly reduces the bearing capacity of the sub-asphalt layers and underlying soils. On the basis of an in-depth literature review, an experimental survey with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was carried out to calibrate the geophysical parameters and to validate the reliability of an indirect diagnostic method of pavement damage. The experiments were set on a pavement under which water was injected over a period of several hours. GPR travel time data were used to estimate the dielectric constant and the water content in the unbound aggregate layer, the variations in water content with time and particular areas where rate of infiltration decreases. A new methodology has been proposed to extract the hydraulic permittivity fields in sub-asphalt structural layers and soils from the moisture maps observed with GPR. It is

  15. The effect of cracking on the deflection basin of flexible pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Hadi Mohamed

    Because of the rapid development of hardware and software during the past decade, it is now possible to use an analytical-empirical (or mechanistic) method of structural pavement evaluation on a routine basis. One reason for using this approach is the increased need for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation. To make the right choice from many potentially feasible maintenance and rehabilitation measures, the engineer must base his decision on a rational evaluation of the mechanical properties of the materials in the existing pavement structure. One of the parameters in terms of pavement response are the deflections; these are of interest to this particular study. The Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) has been developed specifically for the purpose of obtaining deflection measurements in order to determine the in-situ elastic moduli. The profile of the deflection at the surface of the pavement is known as the deflection basin, because it resembles a bowl-shaped depression. The magnitude of the deflections and the basin shape are functions of the number of layers making up the pavement cross section, their thicknesses, and their moduli values. A variety of multi-layered linear elastic pavement models are available for use at this present time. A general-purpose finite-element program called ANSYS developed by Swanson Analysis System is very powerful and is capable of solving a layered system such as the pavement. A finite element model was developed to study the effect of the crack on the predicted deflection bowls. A general-purpose finite-element program was used in this study due to its ability to solve this problem and because of the availability of the program. A hypothetical crack problem was assumed and modeled in different ways. The crack depth, crack width, and distance of the crack from the loading point were among the many parameters that were investigated. Considering the shape of the deflection basin, it is very important to study the effect of the

  16. A DESIGN METHOD FOR TRACKS AND ROADBEDS OF RAILROAD-CROSSING UNDER FREIGHT TRAIN LOADS AND FORKLIFT LOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Kazuki; Momoya, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Etsuo

    In the current design method of asphalt pavement in freight container yard, a theoretical design method based on multilayered elastic analysis is applied. However, in a design of railroad-crossing existing in the yard, heavy wheel loads of forklift and viscosity of asphalt pavement is not considered. In this study, the method of identifying the stiffness coefficient of asphalt pavement with consideration on its viscoelasticity under the heavy loading, and the design of the railroad crossing corresponding to the heavy loading of the forklift are shown. The method of the new design of railroad-crossing by FEM using the stiffness coefficient set in consideration of viscoelasticity of the asphalt pavement and track structure corres ponding to traffic volume are shown.

  17. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson

    2009-01-15

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2010-03-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  19. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2009-12-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  20. Framework for incorporating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) into pavement and bridge management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobanjo, John O.; Tawfiq, Kamal S.

    1999-02-01

    One of the major components of an infrastructure management system is the condition assessment or deterioration modeling. With application to highway pavements and bridges, this paper presents conceptually how nondestructive evaluation (NDE) results can be utilized to provide a quantitative assessment of the infrastructure condition in a format usable for network-level pavement management systems and bridge management systems. NDE techniques typically applied to pavements include Visual Rating, Falling Weight Deflectometer, Dynaflect, Seismic Pavement Analyzer, and the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Bridges can also be evaluated using the GPR. NDE is particularly useful at the network level of infrastructure management because of the mobility of conducting the tests. Detailed mechanistic methods have been suggested for NDE interpretation but this method may not be practical at network level. Interpretation of NDE results, through knowledge-based systems and intelligent databases indicate the defects and residual capacity of infrastructures. Measured physical properties and defects in the infrastructure component materials can be correlated to existing scales of condition assessment such as in the NBI and PONTIS formats for bridge management and also to an index or rating such as the PSI in highway pavements.

  1. Road Asphalt Pavements Analyzed by Airborne Thermal Remote Sensing: Preliminary Results of the Venice Highway

    PubMed Central

    Pascucci, Simone; Bassani, Cristiana; Palombo, Angelo; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Cavalli, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a fast procedure for evaluating asphalt pavement surface defects using airborne emissivity data. To develop this procedure, we used airborne multispectral emissivity data covering an urban test area close to Venice (Italy).For this study, we first identify and select the roads' asphalt pavements on Multispectral Infrared Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) imagery using a segmentation procedure. Next, since in asphalt pavements the surface defects are strictly related to the decrease of oily components that cause an increase of the abundance of surfacing limestone, the diagnostic absorption emissivity peak at 11.2μm of the limestone was used for retrieving from MIVIS emissivity data the areas exhibiting defects on asphalt pavements surface.The results showed that MIVIS emissivity allows establishing a threshold that points out those asphalt road sites on which a check for a maintenance intervention is required. Therefore, this technique can supply local government authorities an efficient, rapid and repeatable road mapping procedure providing the location of the asphalt pavements to be checked. PMID:27879765

  2. The Greenhouse Gas Emission from Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Yang, Panpan; Huang, Yue

    2016-06-24

    This study proposes an inventory analysis method to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Portland cement concrete pavement construction, based on a case project in the west of China. The concrete pavement construction process was divided into three phases, namely raw material production, concrete manufacture and pavement onsite construction. The GHG emissions of the three phases are analyzed by a life cycle inventory method. The CO₂e is used to indicate the GHG emissions. The results show that for 1 km Portland cement concrete pavement construction, the total CO₂e is 8215.31 tons. Based on the evaluation results, the CO₂e of the raw material production phase is 7617.27 tons, accounting for 92.7% of the total GHG emissions; the CO₂e of the concrete manufacture phase is 598,033.10 kg, accounting for 7.2% of the total GHG emissions. Lastly, the CO₂e of the pavement onsite construction phase is 8396.59 kg, accounting for only 0.1% of the total GHG emissions. The main greenhouse gas is CO₂ in each phase, which accounts for more than 98% of total emissions. N₂O and CH₄ emissions are relatively insignificant.

  3. The Greenhouse Gas Emission from Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Yang, Panpan; Huang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes an inventory analysis method to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Portland cement concrete pavement construction, based on a case project in the west of China. The concrete pavement construction process was divided into three phases, namely raw material production, concrete manufacture and pavement onsite construction. The GHG emissions of the three phases are analyzed by a life cycle inventory method. The CO2e is used to indicate the GHG emissions. The results show that for 1 km Portland cement concrete pavement construction, the total CO2e is 8215.31 tons. Based on the evaluation results, the CO2e of the raw material production phase is 7617.27 tons, accounting for 92.7% of the total GHG emissions; the CO2e of the concrete manufacture phase is 598,033.10 kg, accounting for 7.2% of the total GHG emissions. Lastly, the CO2e of the pavement onsite construction phase is 8396.59 kg, accounting for only 0.1% of the total GHG emissions. The main greenhouse gas is CO2 in each phase, which accounts for more than 98% of total emissions. N2O and CH4 emissions are relatively insignificant. PMID:27347987

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    SciTech Connect

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  5. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  6. Research on construction technology for orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y. C.; Qian, Z. D.; Zhang, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the good service quality of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge in Tianjin, and to reduce the occurrence of pavement diseases like lateral and longitudinal cracks, the key working procedures such as steel deck cleaning, anticorrosive coating, bonding layer spraying, seam cutting, epoxy asphalt concrete’s mixing, transportation, paving and compaction were studied. The study was based on the main features of epoxy asphalt concrete which is the pavement materials of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, and combined with the basic characteristics and construction conditions of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge. Furthermore, some processing measures like controlling time and temperature, continuous paving with two pavers, lateral feeding, and improving the compaction method were proposed. The project example shows that the processing measures can effectively solve the technical difficulties in the construction of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, can greatly improve the construction speed and quality, and can provide reference for the same kinds of orthotropic steel deck pavement construction.

  7. State-of-the-art review of the applications of nanotechnology in pavement materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Luis, Jr.

    The use of nanotechnology in pavement materials is one main area that shows great promise and has the potential to change commonly used materials. This will develop more effective solutions to achieve the desired performance. The overall objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review of nano-science-based principles to improve the performance and, ultimately, the life cycle of transportation construction materials. This work will be organized into two different parts. The first part will consist of six sections: applications of nanotechnology in concrete pavements, applications of nanotechnology in asphalt pavement, application of nanotechnology in general soils, cost-benefit analysis, challenges, and trends to the future. In addition, a current practice review was performed from a literature review that included a questionnaire of the knowledge and opinion about nanotechnology, which included students, general contractors, teachers, engineers, and architects. The second part will deal with the advancement of the application of nanotechnology in pavement materials for different developed countries. Because nanotechnology is relatively a young field in pavement materials, limited research has been conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia. A comparison of the advancement of nano-science-based principles, as applied to the performance and life cycle of transportation materials, for the three continents will be carried out in a summarized manner.

  8. Mechanics based model for predicting structure-induced rolling resistance (SRR) of the tire-pavement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakiba, Maryam; Ozer, Hasan; Ziyadi, Mojtaba; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-11-01

    The structure-induced rolling resistance of pavements, and its impact on vehicle fuel consumption, is investigated in this study. The structural response of pavement causes additional rolling resistance and fuel consumption of vehicles through deformation of pavement and various dissipation mechanisms associated with inelastic material properties and damping. Accurate and computationally efficient models are required to capture these mechanisms and obtain realistic estimates of changes in vehicle fuel consumption. Two mechanistic-based approaches are currently used to calculate vehicle fuel consumption as related to structural rolling resistance: dissipation-induced and deflection-induced methods. The deflection-induced approach is adopted in this study, and realistic representation of pavement-vehicle interactions (PVIs) is incorporated. In addition to considering viscoelastic behavior of asphalt concrete layers, the realistic representation of PVIs in this study includes non-uniform three-dimensional tire contact stresses and dynamic analysis in pavement simulations. The effects of analysis type, tire contact stresses, pavement viscoelastic properties, pavement damping coefficients, vehicle speed, and pavement temperature are then investigated.

  9. Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies and Recycled Asphalt Pavements in Truckee Meadows, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Montecino, Cristian

    This study evaluated the properties and laboratory-performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures with different levels of Recycled Asphalt Pavements (RAP) content: none for control mixtures, around 15% by dry weight of aggregates, and more than 30% by dry weight of aggregates. The rheological properties were evaluated for virgin and recovered RAP asphalt binders. The target amount of RAP in the mixtures was determined by using Blending Charts and Mortar Experiments. The mixtures are design through the guidelines established in Marshall Mix Design Method considering additional modifications for RAP and WMA from Superpave Mix Design. The mixtures are evaluated for their resistance to moisture damage by means of measuring the Dynamic Modulus |E*| after three freeze/thaw cycles and the indirect tensile strength after one and three freeze/thaw cycles. The resistance of the mixtures to permanent deformation was also evaluated by using the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tester (AMPT) to measure the flow number (FN). For this study, it was determined that the resistance to moisture damage decreases as the number of freeze/thaw cycles increases for most of the evaluated mixtures. Mixtures exhibited an increase in dynamic modulus as the RAP percentage increased. A decrease in the resistance to moisture damage was detected with the increase in RAP content for most of the mixtures. HMA mixtures exhibited a better performance in rutting than the WMA mixtures. An increase in rutting resistance was observed with the increase in RAP percentage for HMA mixtures whereas an inconsistent trend was observed for WMA mixtures. Further study is needed to validate the use of the high percentage of RAP in Washoe County.

  10. Recycled asphalt pavement - fly ash geopolymers as a sustainable pavement base material: Strength and toxic leaching investigations.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Menglim; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Rachan, Runglawan; Chinkulkijniwat, Avirut; Arulrajah, Arul

    2016-12-15

    In this research, a low-carbon stabilization method was studied using Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and Fly Ash (FA) geopolymers as a sustainable pavement material. The liquid alkaline activator (L) is a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and high calcium FA is used as a precursor to synthesize the FA-RAP geopolymers. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of RAP-FA blend and RAP-FA geopolymer are investigated and compared with the requirement of the national road authorities of Thailand. The leachability of the heavy metals is measured by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compared with international standards. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of RAP-FA blend indicates the Calcium Aluminate (Silicate) Hydrate (C-A-S-H) formation, which is due to a reaction between the high calcium in RAP and high silica and alumina in FA. The low geopolymerization products (N-A-S-H) of RAP-FA geopolymer at NaOH/Na2SiO3=100:0 are detected at the early 7days of curing, hence its UCS is lower than that of RAP-FA blend. The 28-day UCS of RAP-FA geopolymers at various NaOH/Na2SiO3 ratios are significantly higher than that of the RAP-FA blend, which can be attributed to the development of geopolymerization reactions. With the input of Na2SiO3, the highly soluble silica from Na2SiO3 reacted with leached silica and alumina from FA and RAP and with free calcium from FA and RAP; hence the coexistence of N-A-S-H gel and C-A-S-H products. Therefore, the 7-day UCS values of RAP-FA geopolymers increase with decreasing NaOH/Na2SiO3 ratio. TCLP results demonstrated that there is no environmental risk for both RAP-FA blends and RAP-FA geopolymers in road construction. The geopolymer binder reduces the leaching of heavy metal in RAP-FA mixture. The outcomes from this research will promote the move toward increased applications of recycled materials in a sustainable manner in road construction.

  11. GPR abilities in investigation of the pavement transversal cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysiński, Lech; Sudyka, Jacek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the capabilities of the GPR technique within the field of pavement crack diagnostics. Initially, laboratory tests were performed on prototypes simulating idealized cracks. Next, long-term visual observation and repeated GPR scanning were performed, on three roads of semi-rigid construction, several hundreds of meters long and subjected to heavy traffic. Furthermore, a road of rigid construction was tested, having a more than 70-year history of use. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings, in order to recognize structures responsible for signal generation, or to explain reasons of signal lacking. The main result of this work is a list of GPR indications of cracks, which can be noticed on echograms. It was created through a correlation of the visually-observed cracks with the corresponding echograms, with decimeter accuracy. Several types of GPR responses were classified and linked to possible categories of crack structures, or to processes associated with the presence of cracks (as crumbling, erosion, and lithological alterations). The poor visibility of cracks was also studied, due to small crack size, or to the blurred character of the damaged area, or else to masking effects related to coarse grains in the asphalt mixture. The efficiency of the proposed method for the identification and localization of cracks is higher when a long-term GPR observation is performed.

  12. Reducing conflicts between motor vehicles and pedestrians: the separate and combined effects of pavement markings and a sign prompt.

    PubMed Central

    Huybers, Sherry; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J E Louis

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a symbolic "yield here to pedestrians" sign and advance yield pavement markings on pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts, motorists' yielding behavior, and the distance motorists' yield in advance of crosswalks were evaluated at multilane crosswalks at uncontrolled T intersections. In Experiment 1, the sign, when used alone, reduced pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts and increased motorist yielding distance. The use of fluorescent yellow-green sheeting as the background of the sign did not increase the effectiveness of the sign. Further reductions in pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts and further increases in yielding distance were associated with the addition of advance yield pavement markings. In Experiment 2, advance yield pavement markings, when used alone, were as effective in reducing pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts and increasing yielding distance as the sign combined with pavement markings. These data suggest that the pavement markings were the essential component for reducing conflicts and increasing yielding distance. PMID:15669404

  13. Establishing optimal project-level strategies for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation - A framework and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Bilal Khurshid, Muhammad; Bai, Qiang; Labi, Samuel; Morin, Thomas L.

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a framework and an illustrative example for identifying the optimal pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) strategy using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The objective function is to maximize the cost-effectiveness expressed as the ratio of the effectiveness to the cost. The constraints for the optimization problem are related to performance, budget, and choice. Two different formulations of effectiveness are derived using treatment-specific performance models for each constituent treatment of the strategy; and cost is expressed in terms of the agency and user costs over the life cycle. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study. Probability distributions are established for the optimization input variables and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to yield optimal solutions. Using the results of these simulations, M&R strategy contours are developed as a novel tool that can help pavement managers quickly identify the optimal M&R strategy for a given pavement section.

  14. Impact of traffic intensity and pavement aggregate size on road dust particles loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Lozano, A.; Contreras González, J.; Querol, X.

    2013-10-01

    Road dust emissions severely hamper PM10 urban air quality and their burden is expected to increase relatively to primary motor exhaust emissions. Beside the large influence of climate and meteorology, the emission potential varies widely also from one road to another due to numerous factors such as traffic conditions, pavement type and external sources. Nevertheless none of these factors is sufficiently known for a reliable description in emission modelling and for decision making in air quality management. In this study we carried out intensive road dust measurement campaigns in South Spain, with the aim of investigating the relationship between emission potential (i.e. road dust load) and traffic intensity, pavement aggregate size and distance from braking zones. Results indicate that, while no impact from braking activity can be drawn on the bulk road dust mass, an increase in traffic intensity or mean pavement aggregate size clearly reduce the single vehicle emission potential.

  15. Structural evaluation of pavement using surface wave and portable FWD tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Q.; Kubodera, T.; Himeno, K.; Matsui, K.

    2006-03-01

    SASW has been well known as one of nondestructive testing methods for pavements. This method makes use of the dispersion characteristics to estimate the thickness and modulus of pavement layers. It is difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves even if the analytical surface wave fields are used, where only the stiffness proportional damping is considered. However, the good agreement of dispersion curves has been found for the analytical surface wave fields if Rayleigh damping is adopted in the numerical simulation. In this paper, a dynamic general FEM software was developed to inverse the layer moduli and Rayleigh damping coefficient of the tested pavement structure using the portable FWD data. It shows that the predicted dispersion curves are well approximately to ones obtained from experimental SASW.

  16. Improved Crack Type Classification Neural Network based on Square Sub-images of Pavement Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung Jik; Lee, Hosin “David”

    The previous neural network based on the proximity values was developed using rectangular pavement images. However, the proximity value derived from the rectangular image was biased towards transverse cracking. By sectioning the rectangular image into a set of square sub-images, the neural network based on the proximity value became more robust and consistent in determining a crack type. This paper presents an improved neural network to determine a crack type from a pavement surface image based on square sub-images over the neural network trained using rectangular pavement images. The advantage of using square sub-image is demonstrated by using sample images of transverse cracking, longitudinal cracking and alligator cracking.

  17. Monitoring the performance of geosynthetic materials within pavement systems using MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh-Okine, Nii O.; Ayenu-Prah, Albert Y.; Mensah, Stephen A.

    2005-05-01

    Geosynthetic materials have found useful applications when unbound aggregates have been placed on cohesive soil with very weak subgrade. They have also been successfully used in retarding reflective cracking in both flexible and composite pavements. There are many applications of geosynthetics in pavement engineering yet there is considerable lack of understanding in the behavior of the material. Geosynthetic materials exhibit very peculiar properties in the area of tensile strength and reinforcement. MEMS are miniature sensing or actuating devices that can interact with other environments (provided no adverse reaction occurs) to either obtain information or alter it. With remote query capability, it appears such devices can be embedded in pavement systems as testing and monitoring tools. The aim of this paper is to propose both field and laboratory methods for monitoring geotextile performance using MEMS.

  18. Recycling seal-coat pavements with self-cementing fly ash. Phase 2, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, E.G.

    1989-09-05

    The study evaluated the feasibility of recycling existing chip-seal pavements through stabilization with self-cementing fly ash. It was proposed that an existing pavement could be pulverized in place, sufficient quantities of Class C fly ash added, and the resulting mixture be compacted, providing a stabilized base having greater support capacity than the original pavement section. The Phase II program expanded the Phase I laboratory evaluation of stabilized, recycled material, with the focus of the testing being directed at three field projects. The field test sections were selected in regions having different sources of Class C fly ash; the three sources selected were conventional fossil fuel plants using subbituminous, low sulfur coal. The amount of gravel and asphaltic bound particles in the recycled material influenced the degree of stabilization achieved but to a lesser degree than the condition and amount of fines.

  19. Road pavement condition mapping and assessment using remote sensing data based on MESMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Rao, J.; Tian, S.; Luo, L.; Li, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can be used to monitor changes of asphalt pavement condition because of the spectral change of aged asphalt material. However, owing to coarse spatial resolution of images and the limited width of roads ambient land cover types (e.g. vegetation, buildings, and soil) affect the spectral signal and add significant variability and uncertainty to analysis of road conditions. To overcome this problem, Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was tested to map asphalt pavement condition using WorldView-2 satellite imagery with eight bands spanning from visible to near infrared. Results indicated that MESMA run in a three-endmember model models mixed-pavement pixels well with a low average RMSE (0.01).

  20. PERFORMANCE-BASED CONTRACTING IN CONSTRUCTION PHASE AND MAINTENANCE PHASE OF PAVEMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takeshi

    Performance-based contracting for pavement in Japan started as performance warranties in construction phase, in 1999. Recently, road agencies have recognized the applicability of this type of contracting in outsourcing of maintenance activities. The objectives of this study are to clarify the issues of performance specifying in construction phase and maintenance phase of pavement, and to propose measures to be taken. This paper, with the recognition that the life of each pavement depends on performance standards for various attributes, reviews domestic and foreign examples of performance-based contracting. A performance standard based on the average of current practices can enhance product quality and service life with a warranty contract. Repair thresholds and response time for each deficiency should be considered as performance standards in maintenance phase.

  1. Oxygen demand of aircraft and airfield pavement deicers and alternative freezing point depressants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Mericas, Dean; Bowman, George

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft and pavement deicing formulations and other potential freezing point depressants were tested for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Propylene glycol-based aircraft deicers exhibited greater BOD5 than ethylene glycol-based aircraft deicers, and ethylene glycol-based products had lower degradation rates than propylene glycol-based products. Sodium formate pavement deicers had lower COD than acetate-based pavement deicers. The BOD and COD results for acetate-based pavement deicers (PDMs) were consistently lower than those for aircraft deicers, but degradation rates were greater in the acetate-based PDM than in aircraft deicers. In a 40-day testing of aircraft and pavement deicers, BOD results at 20°C (standard) were consistently greater than the results from 5°C (low) tests. The degree of difference between standard and low temperature BOD results varied among tested products. Freshwater BOD test results were not substantially different from marine water tests at 20°C, but glycols degraded slower in marine water than in fresh water for low temperature tests. Acetate-based products had greater percentage degradation than glycols at both temperatures. An additive component of the sodium formate pavement deicer exhibited toxicity to the microorganisms, so BOD testing did not work properly for this formulation. BOD testing of alternative freezing point depressants worked well for some, there was little response for some, and for others there was a lag in response while microorganisms acclimated to the freezing point depressant as a food source. Where the traditional BOD5 test performed adequately, values ranged from 251 to 1,580 g/kg. Where the modified test performed adequately, values of BOD28 ranged from 242 to 1,540 g/kg.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Pavement Crack Detection Using Kernel-Based Techniques in Asphalt Road Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraliakbari, A.; Sok, S.; Ouma, Y. O.; Hahn, M.

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing demand for the digital survey and acquisition of road pavement conditions, there is also the parallel growing need for the development of automated techniques for the analysis and evaluation of the actual road conditions. This is due in part to the resulting large volumes of road pavement data captured through digital surveys, and also to the requirements for rapid data processing and evaluations. In this study, the Canon 5D Mark II RGB camera with a resolution of 21 megapixels is used for the road pavement condition mapping. Even though many imaging and mapping sensors are available, the development of automated pavement distress detection, recognition and extraction systems for pavement condition is still a challenge. In order to detect and extract pavement cracks, a comparative evaluation of kernel-based segmentation methods comprising line filtering (LF), local binary pattern (LBP) and high-pass filtering (HPF) is carried out. While the LF and LBP methods are based on the principle of rotation-invariance for pattern matching, the HPF applies the same principle for filtering, but with a rotational invariant matrix. With respect to the processing speeds, HPF is fastest due to the fact that it is based on a single kernel, as compared to LF and LBP which are based on several kernels. Experiments with 20 sample images which contain linear, block and alligator cracks are carried out. On an average a completeness of distress extraction with values of 81.2%, 76.2% and 81.1% have been found for LF, HPF and LBP respectively.

  3. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  4. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat—Potential concerns for human health and aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Woodside, Michael D.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2016-04-20

    Aquatic Life Concerns—Runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement, even runoff collected more than 3 months after sealcoat application, is acutely toxic to fathead minnows and water fleas, two species commonly used to assess toxicity to aquatic life. Exposure to even highly diluted runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement can cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair. These findings demonstrate that coal-tar-sealcoat runoff can remain a risk to aquatic life for months after application.

  5. Shrinkage-Compensating Cement for Airport Pavement. Phase 3. Fibrous Concretes. Addendum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-A62 945 CIVIL ENGINEERING LAS (NAVY) PORT HUENEME CA F/G 11/2SHRINKAGECOMPENSATING CEMENT FOR AIRPORT PAVEMENT. PHASE 3 . FI--ETC(U) SEP 80 J R...CEMENT FOR AIRPORT PAVEMENT Phase 3 - Fibrous Concretes John R. Keeton ,,If TRt4%SEb DTICS" ELECTE ,\\ "hI- i OEC 1 S1O D F September 1980 Document is...volume basis, e.g., 1.5% volume means 0.015 x 27 ft3 = 0.40 ft3/yd3 . Concrete Mixes Concrete mixes used in Phase 3 are listed in Table 2. In terms of

  6. Polymer concrete for precast repair of continuously reinforced concrete pavement on IH 30, near Mt. Pleasant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, A. M.; McCullough, B. F.; Fowler, D. W.

    1981-08-01

    Two punchout repairs made in a continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) using precast portland cement panels are described. The two repairs, one 1.44 sq. ft., the other 36 sq. ft., were completed and opened to traffic in one afternoon. This technique provides a rapid method of repair that produces a repair that is structurally as good or better than the surrounding pavement. With a trained crew, the repair time can be reduced and thus reducing lane closure time. Since lane closure time is a critical consideration in high volume highways, this method is cost effective in those areas.

  7. User's guide: Cold-mix recycling of asphalt concrete pavements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shoenberger, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    This guide provides the technical information required to implement the application of cold-mix recycling of asphalt concrete pavements. Included are details on areas on application, benefits/advantages, limitations/disadvantages, and costs associated with this technology. Information is provided on two demonstration sites at Fort Gillem, Georgia, and Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Also provided is information concerning funding, procurement, maintenance, and performance monitoring. A fact sheet on recycling, contract specification example, and references are provided in the appendixes.... Asphalt pavement recycling, Emulsified asphalt cement, Cold milling, In-place cold-mix asphalt recycling, Cold-mix asphalt recycling, Recycling of asphalt.

  8. Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Sasobit SonneWarmix Wax Sonneborn Products Terex Warm Mix Asphalt Foaming system Terex Roadbuilding Thipoave Sulfur Shell TLA-X Trinidad Lake...ER D C/ G SL T R -1 2 -3 Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u ct...default. ERDC/GSL TR-12-3 February 2012 (Revised December 2013) Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

  9. Runoff and infiltration characteristics of pavement structures--review of an extensive monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Illgen, M; Harting, K; Schmitt, T G; Welker, A

    2007-01-01

    The stormwater runoff and infiltration performance of permeable pavements has been systematically evaluated within an intensive monitoring program. The primary objective of the investigation was to generate a broad database, which enables the development of an advanced simulation module for urban drainage modelling. Over 160 field and lab scale experiments have been completed and analyzed for surface runoff and infiltration characteristics. The test series include several pavement types under various boundary conditions such as diverse precipitation impacts, varying surface slope and layer construction as well as different stages of surface clogging and several base and subgrade layer characteristics. The results represent a reliable and comprehensive database that allows profound conclusions and substantial recommendations.

  10. Design and construction of an experimental pervious paved parking area to harvest reusable rainwater.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ullate, E; Novo, A V; Bayon, J R; Hernandez, Jorge R; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Pervious pavements are sustainable urban drainage systems already known as rainwater infiltration techniques which reduce runoff formation and diffuse pollution in cities. The present research is focused on the design and construction of an experimental parking area, composed of 45 pervious pavement parking bays. Every pervious pavement was experimentally designed to store rainwater and measure the levels of the stored water and its quality over time. Six different pervious surfaces are combined with four different geotextiles in order to test which materials respond better to the good quality of rainwater storage over time and under the specific weather conditions of the north of Spain. The aim of this research was to obtain a good performance of pervious pavements that offered simultaneously a positive urban service and helped to harvest rainwater with a good quality to be used for non potable demands.

  11. Enhancing the resolution of gpr spectra for pavement engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, F.; Benedetto, A.

    2012-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface. This non-destructive method uses electromagnetic radiation and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. It can detect objects, changes in material, and voids and cracks. GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the field of civil engineering one of the most advanced technologies used for road pavement monitoring is based on the deployment of advanced GPR systems. One of the most relevant causes of road pavement damage is often referable to water intrusion in structural layers. In this context, GPR has been recently proposed as a method to estimate moisture content in a porous medium without preventive calibration. Hence, the development of methods to obtain an estimate of the moisture content is a crucial research field involving economic, social and strategic aspects in road safety for a great number of public and private Agencies. In particular, a recent new approach was proposed to estimate moisture content in a porous medium basing on the theory of Rayleigh scattering, showing a shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum towards lower frequencies as the moisture content increases in the soil. The weakness characterizing this approach is represented by the needs of high resolution signals, whereas GPR spectra are affected by low resolution. Hence, the rising requirement for high resolution leads to specific demands for improved prediction methods. Recently, a new technique combining the response of the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT, well known for its high-precision receiving signal level) with that of the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, well known for its super-resolution capacity has been proposed. This combined method has been proved to obtain a high precision level in quantifying the shift of the frequency peak of the GPR spectrum. This combined method can perform a reliable coarse estimate of

  12. Millimeter-wave nondestructive evaluation of pavement conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vines-Cavanau, David; Busuioc, Dan; Birken, Ralf; Wang, Ming

    2012-04-01

    The United States is suffering from an aging civil infrastructure crisis. Key to recovery are rapid inspection technologies like that being investigated by the VOTERS project (Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors), which aims to outfit ordinary road vehicles with compact low-cost hardware that enables them to rapidly assess and report the condition of roadways and bridge decks free of driver interaction. A key piece of hardware, and the focus of this paper, is a 24 GHz millimeter-wave radar system that measures the reflectivity of pavement surfaces. To account for the variability of real-world driving, such as changes in height, angle, speed, and temperature, a sensor fusion approach is used that corrects MWR measurements based on data from four additional sensors. The corrected MWR measurements are expected to be useful for various characterization applications, including: material type; deterioration such as cracks and potholes; and surface coverage conditions such as dry, wet, oil, water, and ice. Success at each of these applications is an important step towards achieving the VOTERS objective, however, this paper focuses on surface coverage, as whatever covers the driving surface will be most apparent to the MWR sensor and if not accounted for could significantly limit the accuracy of other applications. Contributions of the paper include findings from static lab tests, which validate the approach and show the effects of height and angle. Further contributions come from lab and in-field dynamic tests, which show the effects of speed and demonstrate that the MWR approach is accurate under city driving conditions.

  13. Cosmogenic {sup 3}He surface-exposure dating of stone pavements. Implications for landscape evolution in deserts

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Poths, J.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    The formation of stone pavements, a ubiquitous gravel armor mantling landforms in arid regions of the world, has been previously attributed to erosion by wind and water or alternating shrinking and swelling of soil horizons, implying that gravel is concentrated at the land surface in a time-transgressive manner. A newly proposed model for pavement evolution differs from these models in that pavement clasts are continuously maintained at the land surface in response to deposition and pedogenic modification of windblown dust. In-situ cosmogenic {sup 3}He surface-exposure ages on volcanic and alluvial landforms in the Mojave Desert of California are used to understand pavement evolution over geologic time scales and to test this new model. These exposure ages are stratigraphically consistent, show internal consistency at each site, and, for stone pavements adjacent to pristine, continuously exposed volcanic bedrock, are indistinguishable at the 1{sigma} level. We conclude that stone pavements are born at the surface and that pavements may provide one of the longest-term records of geologic, hydrologic, and climatic processes operating on desert surfaces. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A systematic florula of a disturbed urban habitat: Pavements of Sheffield, England

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Human settlements are of increasing interest to ecologists, a fact demonstrated by the recent cluster of book-length treatments of the topic (Forman 2008, McDonnell et al. 2009, Gaston 2010, Niemelä et al. 2011, Wilson 2011, Forman 2014). The natural world as a fascinating feature of towns and cities has a much longer history (e.g. Fitter 1945), and has also played a strong part in local biological conservation in some countries over the late 20th Century (Goode 2014​). Despite much existing information on urban plant and animal communities resulting from these trends, very little, easily accessible, systematic data on urban biodiversity is currently available. New information Few systematic, randomised surveys at fine spatial grain exist for urban habitats, and even fewer of these surveys are in the public domain. This study was designed as a systematic florula (i.e. a small flora) of a relatively discrete urban habitat in order to provide a baseline that would enable robust insights into future environmental change. In addition, the dataset is likely to be useful for comparative studies of plant traits, particularly those of highly disturbed habitats (Williams et al. 2009​). The survey is an occupancy study of the vascular plants of pavements (i.e. sidewalks) within 16 500 x 500 m (0.25 km2) urban grid cells, stratified by quadrant at the scale of the focal city (Sheffield, England) in order to provide more even coverage. The final dataset comprises 862 records of 183 taxa. PMID:27932929

  15. Monitoring of the permeable pavement demonstration site at Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch has installed an instrumented, working full-scale 110-space pervious pavement parking lot and has been monitoring several environmental stressors and runoff. This parking lot demonstration site has allowed the investigation of differenc...

  16. 23 CFR 972.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., as a basic framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program for the collection and... PMS database shall include: (i) An inventory of the physical pavement features including the number of... preservation or reconstruction work is performed; (iii) A condition survey that includes ride,...

  17. 23 CFR 971.208 - Federal lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... components, at a minimum, as a basic framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program for the... PMS. The minimum PMS database shall include: (i) An inventory of the physical pavement features... collected when preservation or reconstruction work is performed; (iii) A condition survey that includes...

  18. 23 CFR 973.208 - Indian lands pavement management system (PMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following components, at a minimum, as a basic framework for a PMS: (1) A database and an ongoing program... support the PMS. The minimum PMS database shall include: (i) An inventory of the physical pavement..., it may be collected when preservation or reconstruction work is performed; (iii) A condition...

  19. Comparative study of nondestructive pavement testing, WES (Waterways Experiment Station) NDT (nondestructive tests) methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.; Alelxander, D. R.

    1985-09-01

    A demonstration of nondestructive airfield pavement evaluation procedures conducted by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) using both the WES 16-kip vibrator and a Dynatest falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is described. The nondestructive tests (NDT) were conducted at MacDill Air Force Base on five pavement test areas consisting of asphaltic concrete, portland cement concrete, and composite pavements. Two methods of data analysis were used. The dynamic stiffness modulus (DMS) method used dynamic deflection data from the WES 16-kip vibrator with a correlation analysis developed a number of years ago by WES. This method uses a correlation between the DSM (a load-deflection ratio) and the allowable load on a single wheel as derived from traditional test pit methods. The second analysis scheme used measured deflection basins at the pavement surface and layered elastic theory. Elastic moduli are computed by matching measured deflection basins with computed basins. Limiting stress/strain is then used to compute allowable aircraft loadings. This method was used with data from both the WES 16-kip vibrator and the FWD. Also demonstrated was a method of determining joint load transfer and of making appropriate adjustments to the allowable load to account for lack of load transfer.

  20. Internal hydrological mechanism of permeable pavement and interaction with subsurface water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many communities are implementing green infrastructure stormwater control measures (SCMs) in urban environments across the U.S. to mimic pre-urban, natural hydrology more closely. Permeable pavement is one SCM infrastructure that has been commonly selected for both new and retro...

  1. Beyond the Beaten Track: Resettlement Initiatives of Pavement Dwellers and Slum Dwellers in Bombay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sheela

    1988-01-01

    The Society for Promotion of Adult Resource Centres was created to alleviate the problem of railway settlement families and pavement dwellers in Bombay, India. The area resource center provides information, analysis of available resources, discussion of problems, and sharing of experiences. (JOW)

  2. Environmental Effects of Pervious Pavement as a Low Impact Development Installation in Urban Regions - Chapter 13

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervious pavement systems can be used to reduce stormwater runoff volume and are efficient at removing solids from runoff; however, the pollutant removal efficiency for nutrients, metals, and organic contaminants is yet to be determined due to either a lack of data or inconsisten...

  3. A Physically-based Model for Surface and Subsurface Drainage from Porous Pavement Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, B. J.; Barrett, M.; Charbeneau, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    A thin layer of porous asphalt is commonly overlain on regular impermeable pavement to reduce splash and spray and improve visibility in wet weather. The porous layer often has a large hydraulic conductivity (>1cm/s) to encourage infiltration and drainage and therefore contains runoff when the rainfall intensity is low. However, under high rainfall intensity, the layer’s capacity is exceeded and drainage occurs both within and on top of the porous pavement. The problem is analogous to hill-slope hydrology of a thin aquifer where infiltration occurs rapidly and sheet flow is generated only when the aquifer is full. Common roadway features such as slope transitions and curvature make the drainage two-dimensional. A computer model was developed to study this coupled, unsteady process. The porous layer is modeled using the Boussinesq equation. The diffusion wave model is used for sheet flow over the pavement surface. This presentation summarizes the model’s development, shows that model results compare favorably to field measurements, and gives a case study in which the porous layer reduces the maximum sheet flow depth by 25% compared to conventional pavement.

  4. Pre-Cast Concrete Panels for Contingency Rigid Airfield Pavement Damage Repairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Figure 16. Swift-Lift Installation into Precast Concrete Panel ..................................................... 14 Figure 17. Wall -Saw Cutting... Wall -saw and walk-behind concrete saw). Table 6 is a precast concrete panel fabrication timeline and Table 7 is precast panel placement timeline...AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2010-0095 PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS FOR CONTINGENCY RIGID AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DAMAGE REPAIRS Reza S. Ashtiani, Christopher J

  5. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  6. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  7. Technical Note: Outlays on Construction of Airport Runways with Prestressed and Dowelled Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Więckowski, Andrzej; Sznurawa, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    For two variants of runways with abrasive concrete pavements in the prestressed and dowelled technologies, analyses have been presented regarding labour, materials, use of machinery, and financial outlays, together with the necessary technological-organisational analyses and assessment of work execution cycles, by the example of construction of a runway at the Katowice Airport.

  8. Permeable Pavement Research at NRMRL’s Urban Watershed Research Facility

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of a bench-scale study of a porous pavement parking lot. Flow rates and total suspended solids (TSS) removal are discussed for systems with a geotextile filter fabric liner in place and those without. The systems with a liner have ~20% better TSS removal performance a...

  9. Contributing to the sustainable use of stormwater: the role of pervious pavements.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, L N N; Kadurupokune, N; Othman, M; Jesse, K

    2007-01-01

    The city of Melbourne, Australia is experiencing a water crisis with potable water storage reservoirs at an all time low. With increasing urbanisation there is an ever increasing need to research and explore sustainable water management initiatives. There is potential to minimise the negative impacts of stormwater runoff and augment dwindling supplies of potable water through adoption of pervious paving technology. The traditional approach to stormwater management has focused on constructing drainage networks to carry stormwater away from developed areas as quickly as possible to avoid the risk of flooding. The main aim of this research project was to establish relationships between rainfall intensity, infiltration rate and pervious pavement runoff and to examine the improvement to stormwater quality after infiltrating through pervious pavements. This paper describes the laboratory experiment set-up to determine the infiltration patterns and stormwater quality improvement for simulated storms precipitating on pervious pavements. Next, the scaling-up of the experimental rig to a field-based trial is explained. Preliminary results from this work are presented to demonstrate the potential benefits of pervious pavements in the Australian landscape.

  10. Water Quality Performance of Three Side-by-Side Permeable Pavement Surface Materials: Three Year Update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communities are increasingly installing structural low impact development (LID) practices to mange stormwater and reduce pollutant loads associated with stormwater runoff. Permeable pavement is a LID practice that has limited research on working-scale, side-by-side performance o...

  11. Methods to Use Surface Infiltration Tests in Permeable Pavement Systems to Determine Maintenance Frequency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is limited guidance on selecting test sites to measure surface infiltration rates in permeable pavement systems to determine maintenance frequency. The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete suggest to either (1) p...

  12. Fast segmentation of industrial quality pavement images using Laws texture energy measures and k -means clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathavan, Senthan; Kumar, Akash; Kamal, Khurram; Nieminen, Michael; Shah, Hitesh; Rahman, Mujib

    2016-09-01

    Thousands of pavement images are collected by road authorities daily for condition monitoring surveys. These images typically have intensity variations and texture nonuniformities that make their segmentation challenging. The automated segmentation of such pavement images is crucial for accurate, thorough, and expedited health monitoring of roads. In the pavement monitoring area, well-known texture descriptors, such as gray-level co-occurrence matrices and local binary patterns, are often used for surface segmentation and identification. These, despite being the established methods for texture discrimination, are inherently slow. This work evaluates Laws texture energy measures as a viable alternative for pavement images for the first time. k-means clustering is used to partition the feature space, limiting the human subjectivity in the process. Data classification, hence image segmentation, is performed by the k-nearest neighbor method. Laws texture energy masks are shown to perform well with resulting accuracy and precision values of more than 80%. The implementations of the algorithm, in both MATLAB® and OpenCV/C++, are extensively compared against the state of the art for execution speed, clearly showing the advantages of the proposed method. Furthermore, the OpenCV-based segmentation shows a 100% increase in processing speed when compared to the fastest algorithm available in literature.

  13. Environmental Monitoring and Performance Evaluation of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement: Conley Terminal, Boston, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) is a construction material that combines the features of the cement-treated aggregate base, portland cement concrete...PCC) and asphalt pavement technologies. RCC is constructed by placing a zero-slump portland cement concrete mixture by means of a heavy asphalt paver

  14. Quantifying Evaporation and Evaluating Runoff Estimation Methods in a Permeable Pavement System - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies on quantifying evaporation in permeable pavement systems are limited to few laboratory studies that used a scale to weigh evaporative losses and a field application with a tunnel-evaporation gauge. A primary objective of this research was to quantify evaporation for a la...

  15. Structural analyses of a rigid pavement overlaying a sub-surface void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Fatih Alperen

    Pavement failures are very hazardous for public safety and serviceability. These failures in pavements are mainly caused by subsurface voids, cracks, and undulation at the slab-base interface. On the other hand, current structural analysis procedures for rigid pavement assume that the slab-base interface is perfectly planar and no imperfections exist in the sub-surface soil. This assumption would be violated if severe erosion were to occur due to inadequate drainage, thermal movements, and/or mechanical loading. Until now, the effect of erosion was only considered in the faulting performance model, but not with regards to transverse cracking at the mid-slab edge. In this research, the bottom up fatigue cracking potential, caused by the combined effects of wheel loading and a localized imperfection in the form of a void below the mid-slab edge, is studied. A robust stress and surface deflection analysis was also conducted to evaluate the influence of a sub-surface void on layer moduli back-calculation. Rehabilitative measures were considered, which included a study on overlay and fill remediation. A series regression of equations was proposed that provides a relationship between void size, layer moduli stiffness, and the overlay thickness required to reduce the stress to its original pre-void level. The effect of the void on 3D pavement crack propagation was also studied under a single axle load. The amplifications to the stress intensity was shown to be high but could be mitigated substantially if stiff material is used to fill the void and impede crack growth. The pavement system was modeled using the commercial finite element modeling program Abaqus RTM. More than 10,000 runs were executed to do the following analysis: stress analysis of subsurface voids, E-moduli back-calculation of base layer, pavement damage calculations of Beaumont, TX, overlay thickness estimations, and mode I crack analysis. The results indicate that the stress and stress intensity are, on

  16. GPR-based evaluation of strength properties of unbound pavement material from electrical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that inter-particle friction and cohesion of soil particles and aggregates deeply affect the strength and deformation properties of soils, exerting critical effects on the bearing capacity of unbound pavement materials. In that respect, considering that strength characteristics of soil are highly dependent on particle interactions, and assuming a relationship between electric properties (e.g. electric permittivity) and bulk density of materials, a good correlation between mechanical and electric characteristics of soil is expected. In this work, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques are used to investigate this topic. Two GPR equipment with same electronic characteristics and different survey configurations are used. Each radar operates with two ground-coupled antennae at 600 MHz and 1600 MHz central frequencies. Measurements are developed using 4 channels, 2 mono-static and 2 bi-static. The received signal is sampled in the time domain at dt = 7.8125 × 10-2 ns, and in the space domain every 2.4 × 10-2 m. A semi-empirical model is proposed for predicting the resilient modulus of sub-asphalt layers from GPR-derived data. Basically, the method requires to follow two steps. Firstly, laboratory tests are carried out for calibration, with the main focus to provide consistent empirical relationships between physical (e.g. bulk density) and electric properties. The second step is focused on the in-situ validation of results through soil strength measurements retrieved by CBR tests and Light Falling Weight Deflectometer (LFWD). On the basis of traditional empirical equations used for flexible pavement design, the following expression is proposed: -m Ei = αj?hj,i j=1 where Ei [MPa] is the ith expected resilient modulus of the surveyed soil under the line of scan, hj,i [m] is the ith thickness referred to the jth layer, and αj is a dielectric parameter calibrated as a function of the relative electric permittivity. The experimental setting requires

  17. Hydraulic and treatment performance of pervious pavements under variable drying and wetting regimes.

    PubMed

    Yong, C F; Deletic, A; Fletcher, T D; Grace, M R

    2011-01-01

    Pervious pavements are an effective stormwater treatment technology. However, their performance under variable drying and wetting conditions have yet to be tested, particularly under a continuous time scale. This paper reports on the clogging behaviour and pollutant removal efficiency of three pervious pavement types over 26 accelerated years. These pavements were monolithic porous asphalt (PA), Permapave (PP) and modular Hydrapave (HP). Over a cycle of 13 days, the period of which was equivalent to the average annual Brisbane, Australia rainfall (1,200 mm), the pavements were randomly dosed with four different flows. Drying events of 3 h duration were simulated during each flow. Inflow and outflow samples were collected and analysed for Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN). To evaluate the rate of clogging, a 1 in 5 year Brisbane storm event was simulated in the 6th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th and 24th week. Under normal dosing conditions, none of the pavements showed signs of clogging even after 15 years. However, under storm conditions, both PA and HP started to clog after 12 years, while PP showed no signs of clogging after 26 years. The drying and various flow events showed no effects in TSS removal, with all systems achieving a removal of approximately 100%. The average TP removal was 20% for all flows except for low flow, which had a significant amount of leaching over time. Leaching from TN was also observed during all flows except high flow. The TSS, TP and TN results observed during storm events were similar to that of high flow.

  18. Orientation patterns of stone pavements as a result of modern geomorphologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Kleber, Arno

    2010-05-01

    Stone pavements are typical surface features of climate-sensitive, arid environments. They form a tightly interlocking mosaic of clasts, covering virtually stone-free aeolian material. However, this mosaic does not generally exhibit random orientation of its constituents. Rather, there are systematic unimodal to bimodal distributions of stone length axes present. These orientation patterns may be the result of active geomorphologic processes, implying the unstable and fragile nature of this landform as well as a dominant lateral geomorphologic component, not considered in existing models of stone pavement formation. Responsible processes should be controlled by relief properties and may thus be described by topographic attributes. From three study areas (Laguna Salada, Mexico, eastern Mojave Desert and southern Sevier Basin, USA) we present measurements of pavement stone orientations and their relationship to landscape parameters. From 1 by 1 m sized plots azimuthal digital images were taken, corrected, georeferenced and length as well as orientation angle of the a- and b-axes of at least 100 stones were digitised. Subsequently, statistical parameters of circular data were calculated. From a digital elevation model relief attributes were derived to test their influence on pavement patterns. Three general types of orientation patterns were identified from all study areas: unimodal, bimodal and unoriented. These types are clustered together and may change within small lateral distance. The type of pattern is not influenced by stone dimensions or the formation character of the site (i.e. basalt flow vs. alluvial fan). Relief properties (e.g. slope length, specific catchment, inclination), controlling lateral geomorphologic processes appear to play a major role in generating orientation patterns in stone pavement surfaces. Hence, from pattern analysis the dynamic nature of these features can be drawn.

  19. Volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, are a potential source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. An initial assessment of volatilization of PAHs from coal-tar-sealed pavement is presented here in which we measured summertime gas-phase PAH concentrations 0.03 m and 1.28 m above the pavement surface of seven sealed (six with coal-tar-based sealant and one with asphalt-based sealant) and three unsealed (two asphalt and one concrete) parking lots in central Texas. PAHs also were measured in parking lot dust. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m samples above sealed lots (1320 ng m-3) during the hottest part of the day was 20 times greater than that above unsealed lots (66.5 ng m-3). The geometric mean concentration in the 1.28-m samples above sealed lots (138 ng m-3) was five times greater than above unsealed lots (26.0 ng m-3). Estimated PAH flux from the sealed lots was 60 times greater than that from unsealed lots (geometric means of 88 and 1.4 μg m-2 h-1, respectively). Although the data set presented here is small, the much higher estimated fluxes from sealed pavement than from unsealed pavement indicate that coal-tar-based sealants are emitting PAHs to urban air at high rates compared to other paved surfaces.

  20. Environmental history recorded in eolian deposits under stone pavements, eastern Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Stephen; Fuchs, Markus; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Kleber, Arno; Dietze, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by the limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature of arid landscapes - stone pavement - traps eolian fines and can form an accretionary archive, growing with time and thereby recording essential information about the conditions under which it evolves. Based on a regional example in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA, seven stone pavement-covered soil-sediment sections on 560 and 270 ka old basalt flows are condensed to a correlation framework, comprising five distinct, successive sedimentological units. An OSL-based chronology enables correlation of this new sediment archive with other environmental archives from the region. Three of the stratigraphic units are of accretionary nature and the top of each unit is mantled by a new generation of stone pavement. These stratigraphic units were deposited between >32.3-20.4 ka, 20.4-16.5 ka and younger than 16.5 ka, appearing to be strongly coupled with the history of the nearby ancient Lake Mojave and enhancing our knowledge of the eolian activity in this area. End-member modelling analysis of sampled grain-size distributions allows identification of a local detritus component, four separate eolian components and two distinct clay enrichment components, contributing different quantities of sediment sources to the five stratigraphic units. These findings improve current concepts about the evolution of stone pavements and their role as conveyers of information about environmental conditions in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary sediment deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  1. Relation Between PAHs and Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealant in Urban Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; van Metre, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    Since 2003, coal-tar-based sealant products have come under increased scrutiny as a source of PAHs in urban environments. Sealant (or sealcoat) is the black, shiny substance often applied to asphalt pavement, in particular parking lots and driveways, for esthetic and maintenance purposes. Coal-tar-based sealant, one of the two primary pavement sealant types on the market, typically is 20-35 percent coal-tar pitch, a known carcinogen that is more than 50 percent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The PAH content of the coal-tar-based sealant product is about 1,000 times that of a similar, asphalt-based product, on average. This difference is reflected in regional differences in sealant use and PAH concentrations in pavement dust. In the central and eastern U.S., where the coal-tar-based formulation is prevalent, ΣPAH in mobile particles from sealed pavement have been shown to be about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S., where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent (the median ΣPAH concentrations are 2,200 mg/kg in the central and eastern U.S. and 2.1 mg/kg in the western U.S.). Source apportionment modeling indicates that, in the central and eastern U.S., particles from sealed pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs in recently deposited (post-1990) lake sediment, with implications for ecological health, and that coal-tar-based sealant is the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in U.S. urban lakes. From the standpoint of human health, research indicates that mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. Coal-tar-based sealcoat being applied to an asphalt parking lot at the University of Texas Pickle Research Center.

  2. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  3. Implications of Use of Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat on Urban Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and improve the appearance of asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central and eastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35% crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—median total PAH concentrations in dust from CT-sealcoated pavement are 2,200 mg/kg compared to a median concentration of 11 mg/kg for dust from unsealed pavement. Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, often resulting in sediment concentrations above toxicity thresholds based on effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Acute 2-day laboratory toxicity testing of simulated runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) demonstrated that toxicity continues for samples collected for weeks or months following sealcoat application and that toxicity is enhanced by exposure to UV light. Using the fish-liver cell line RTL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  4. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  5. United States Air Force Research on Airfield Pavement Repairs Using Precast Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Slabs (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2008-4582 POSTPRINT UNITED STATES AIR FORCE RESEARCH ON AIRFIELD PAVEMENT REPAIRS USING PRECAST PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE ...pavement Portland cement concrete (PCC) slab repairs using precast PCC slab panels. AFRL is leading the technology development by critically reviewing the...technology transfer activities including, but not limited to, training, reports and preparation of ETLs. 2 The use of precast concrete slabs for repair of

  6. Development of a Pavement Maintenance Management System. Volume VI. M&R Guidelines -- Validation and Field Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    values over 5n, poixnts O TDV:~b 100 200 TOTAL DEDUCT VALUE STEP 6. COMPUTE PAVEMENT CONDITION INDEX (PCI)IOO-CWV FOR EACH SAMPLE UNIT INSPECTED. STEP...approximately 5000 square feet. 2. The sample units are inspected and distress types and their severity levels and densities are recorded . It is...Service Springfield, VA 22151 IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on revrerse @id if nececer y md identify by block number) Airfield Pavement Condition Index

  7. Analysis of ESAL factor on flexible pavement at Weleri Ring Road, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, Untoro; Kusumawardani, Rini; Yuniarti, Woro; Hilmi, Akhris Sufri

    2017-03-01

    Damage caused to the structure of flexible pavements on Ring Road area, Weleri; Kendal was caused by overloaded vehicles traffic. This paper presents the calculation of the acting load on the assumption repetitive dynamic loads. One of the observed facts was the changes in the ESAL value on flexible pavement planning. Based on previous studies, road damage can be minimized using ESAL value on planning. However, the fact on the field shows that there still a lot of damage because of the load which passes through these roads. This study utilized a Seismic Monitoring tool. Seismic monitoring tool was utilized to detect ground vibration acceleration caused by the passing vehicles. Therefore, several functions can be obtained: vehicle frequency, natural frequency, damping ratio, spring constant and others - others. Those Functions were critical components in the calculation of dynamic ESAL factor.

  8. Comparison of the falling weight deflectometer and the dynaflect for pavement evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagleson, B.; Heisey, S.; Hudson, W. R.; Meyer, A. H.; Stokoe, K. H.

    1982-11-01

    A literature search was made for the purpose of comparing deflection measuring devices. The Dynaflect, Road Rater, and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) ranked highest when compared, using the criteria of cost, operational characteristics, and suitability. Field testing proved the Dynaflect and FWD were nearly equal in overall ability except in operational speed. Here the Dynaflect was superior primarily due to the automated sensor placement. The correlation coefficients obtained showed good agreement between the deflections measured by the two devices on all pavements tested except overlaid CRCP. This study indicates that there may be pavements and conditions for which the Dynaflect does not provide useful information or where present methods of data interpretation do not appear to be adequate.

  9. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  10. Work flow of signal processing data of ground penetrating radar case of rigid pavement measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-16

    The signal processing of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) requires a certain work flow to obtain good results. Even though the Ground Penetrating Radar data looks similar with seismic reflection data, but the GPR data has particular signatures that the seismic reflection data does not have. This is something to do with coupling between antennae and the ground surface. Because of this, the GPR data should be treated differently from the seismic signal data processing work flow. Even though most of the processing steps still follow the same work flow of seismic reflection data such as: filtering, predictive deconvolution etc. This paper presents the work flow of GPR processing data on rigid pavement measurements. The processing steps start from raw data, de-Wow process, remove DC and continue with the standard process to get rid of noises i.e. filtering process. Some radargram particular features of rigid pavement along with pile foundations are presented.

  11. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  12. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    PubMed Central

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  13. GPU accelerated Foreign Object Debris Detection on Airfield Pavement with visual saliency algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jun; Gong, Guoping; Cao, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    We present a GPU-based implementation of visual saliency algorithm to detect foreign object debris(FOD) on airfield pavement with effectiveness and efficiency. Visual saliency algorithm is introduced in FOD detection for the first time. We improve the image signature algorithm to target at FOD detection in complex background of pavement. First, we make pooling operations in obtaining saliency map to improve recall rate. Then, connected component analysis is applied to filter candidate regions in saliency map to get the final targets in original image. Besides, we map the algorithm to GPU-based kernels and data structures. The parallel version of the algorithm is able to get the results with 23.5 times speedup. Experimental results elucidate that the proposed method is effective to detect FOD real-time.

  14. Pavement snow melting in Klamath Falls - rehabilitation of the ODOT Well

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, R.E.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This paper discusses the use of geothermal energy in pavement de-icing in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Due to a change in traffic routing in 1948, U.S. Highway 97 was routed with a new bridge and roadway through downtown Klamath Falls with an adverse 8 percent grade. Problems with traffic in winter led to the incorporation of a geothermal experiment in de-icing into the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) construction project. The geothermal well was originally artesian, but the static water level has dropped over the years of usage, and the water temperatures at various depths have also dropped. Changes in city environmental regulations in 1985 have called for the elimination of all surface and sewer discharge from geothermal wells. Modifications to the existing pavement de-icing system which would bring it into compliance with the city ordinances are discussed in this paper.

  15. Full-scale accelerated pavement testing of Texas Mobile Load Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.H.; Hugo, F.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents the test results from full-scale accelerated pavement testing with the Texas Mobile Load Simulator. Data from in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive testing were collected and analyzed at different loading stages to assess material property changes under accelerated loading. Forensic studies were made to study material characteristics in the longitudinal and transverse directions. It was found that at the early stage of trafficking the test pad responded to falling weight deflectometer (FWD) load linearly, not only over the whole pavement system but also within individual layers. Before mobile load simulator testing, FWD data indicated the weakest area exists at the left wheel path (LWP) of 7.5-m line (7.5L). Later, this weak area was confirmed to have the highest rutting and the most intensive cracking. The dynamic cone penetration results showed that the base at this location was at its weakest. Also, at 7.5L the dry density was lowest, {approximately}7% lower with a moisture content {approximately}8% higher than the adjacent area. The LWP had higher FWD deflections than the right wheel path (RWP), and consequently the LWP manifested more rutting. This proved to be primarily due to differences in moisture content. This was probably because more water infiltrated in the area during rain due to manifestation of more extensive cracking during early phases of trafficking. The maximum surface deflection values increased as trafficking increased in the left and right wheel paths due to pavement deterioration, while deflection for the center remained constant because of the lack of traffic loading. The LWP had more rutting than the RWP and this correlated with the measured FWL deflections prior to trafficking. The WI values increased as trafficking increased for the LWP and RWP due to pavement deterioration. The majority (>60%) of rutting was from the 300-mm uncrushed river gravel base.

  16. Evaluation of a highway pavement using non destructive tests: Falling Weight Deflectometer and Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marecos, Vania; Fontul, Simona; de Lurdes Antunes, Maria

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the application of Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to assess the bearing capacity of a rehabilitated flexible highway pavement that began to show the occurrence of cracks in the surface layer, about one year after the improvement works. A visual inspection of the surface of the pavement was performed to identify and characterize the cracks. Several core drills were done to analyse the cracks propagation in depth, these cores were also used for GPR data calibration. From the visual inspection it was concluded that the development of the cracks were top-down and that the cracks were located predominantly in the wheel paths. To determine the thickness of the bituminous and granular layers GPR tests were carried out using two horn antennas of 1,0 GHz and 1,8 GHz and a radar control unit SIR-20, both from GSSI. FWD load tests were performed on the wheel paths and structural models were established, based on the deflections measured, through back calculation. The deformation modulus of the layers was calculated and the bearing capacity of the pavement was determined. Summing up, within this study the GPR was used to continuously detect the layer thickness and the GPR survey data was calibrated with core drills. The results showed variations in the bituminous layer thickness in comparison to project data. From the load tests it was concluded that the deformation modulus of the bituminous layers were also vary variable. Limitations on the pavement bearing capacity were detected in the areas with the lower deformation modulus. This abstract is of interest for COST Action TU1208 Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  17. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    BUILDING STRONG® Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass- ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel Principal Investigator... ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Vitreous- Ceramic Coating  Ease of Application to Reinforcement Steel  Bond Strength and Corrosion-Resistance  Field Demonstration Program  Testing in

  18. Clogging evaluation of open graded friction course pavements tested under rainfall and heavy vehicle simulators.

    PubMed

    Coleri, Erdem; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M

    2013-11-15

    In this study a new procedure is developed to obtain core samples from field sections to assess clogging mechanisms of open graded friction course (OGFC) pavements using X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. The approach compared X-ray computed tomography (CT) images taken before and after: (1) rainfall simulations without trafficking to investigate particle-related clogging and (2) full-scale accelerated pavement rutting tests (APT) to investigate deformation related clogging of OGFC layers. Rainfall simulations were performed with runoff water of known total suspended solids (TSS) and particle size distributions (PSDs). Full-scale accelerated rutting tests were performed under controlled temperature and loads. Both investigations were performed for three different OGFC pavements with different layer thicknesses and mix types. The clogging of rutting test sections were also evaluated by comparing the surface permeability measurements performed before and after APT testing. The results of X-ray CT image processing revealed a significant reduction in air-void content of core samples after APT rutting tests. The highest air-void reduction was concentrated at the bottom of the OGFC layers. Permeability measurements also showed a 40%-90% reduction in permeability after APT trafficking. X-ray CT image processing of core samples tested under simulated rainfall showed that air void content reduction is concentrated in the lower part (2-6 mm from the bottom) of the OGFC layers as a result of particle accumulation. Small changes in air void contents were observed in the upper part of the OGFC layers (10-15 mm) while these reductions in air void contents were not significant to cause surface overflow and hence it is expected that the tested OGFC pavements will have sufficient permeability to infiltrate water during most average storm events.

  19. Minimum Thickness Requirements for Asphalt Surface Course and Base Layer in Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    e.g., Donovan and Tutumluer 2008, 2009; Tao et al. 2010), a waterproof surface, protection from foreign object damage (FOD), and a durable surface...mechanisms for premature deterioration, and quantify the service life of thin asphalt concrete pavements. Six sections with different layer...32,500 7,794 The full-scale test data analysis led to a conclusion that the Department of Defense’s (DoD) minimum asphalt concrete thickness

  20. A Comparative Field Study of Permastripe(Trademark) Polymer Concrete and Waterborne Airfield Pavement Markings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Engineering Technical Letter for Permastripe™ Polymer Concrete Pavement Markings ...........45 Report Documentation Page ERDC/GSL TR-07-20 iv Figures...22 ERDC/GSL TR-07-20 vi Preface The research reported herein was sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Civil...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Engineer Research

  1. Further developments in self-fertilising geotextiles for use in pervious pavements.

    PubMed

    Newman, A P; Nnadi, E O; Duckers, L J; Cobley, A J

    2011-01-01

    Geotextiles incorporating inorganic nutrients (particularly phosphorous) to enhance the growth of oil degrading microoganisms when geotextiles are used in pervious pavement applications have been shown to be effective in the past. However the cost and manufacturing difficulties have been a barrier to their use. A polypropylene random mat geotextile incorporating an alternative polymer additive as a source of phosphorus has been investigated as a potential self-fertilising geotextile. Experiments are reported which investigate nutrient leach rates, biofilm formation and biodegradation activity.

  2. Lime or lime:fly ash pretreated pavement construction material and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gnaedinger, J.P.

    1985-01-29

    A composition for use as a base course in a pavement construction is prepared by prereacting uncompacted incinerator ash with 2-10% by weight lime or 2-10% by weight of a 2:3 lime:fly ash mixture for several days and then adding 2-10% by weight lime and 20-25% by weight water to the composition before compaction.

  3. Wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory reactions in mouse macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2007-06-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. These health risks are of increasing concern in society, and to protect public health, a clarification of the toxic properties of particles from different sources is of importance. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized as a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries where studded tires are used. The aim of this study was to further investigate and compare the ability to induce inflammatory mediators of different traffic-related wear particles collected from an urban street, a subway station, and studded tire-pavement wear. Inflammatory effects were measured as induction of nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, TNF-alpha, arachidonic acid (AA), and lipid peroxidation after exposure of the murine macrophage like cell line RAW 264.7. In addition, the redox potential of the particles was measured in a cell-free system. The results show that all particles tested induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and NO, and those from the urban street were the most potent ones. In contrast, particles collected from a subway station were most potent to induce lipid peroxidation, AA release, and formation of ROS. Particles from studded tire-pavement wear, generated using a road simulator, were able to induce inflammatory cytokines, NO, lipid peroxidation, and ROS formation. Interestingly, particles generated from pavement containing granite as the main stone material were more potent than those generated from pavement containing quartzite as the main stone material.

  4. Concepts for the Development of a Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation System for Rigid Airfield Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Pavements 4. PERFORMiNG OG. rEPORT NuMBER S U 7. AuTmOR(e) I8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Paul Thomas Foxworthy I 9 . PERFORMIIG ORGANOZATION NAME AN...213 9 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND NEEDED RESEARCH ................... 225 9.1 Summary of the Research .............................. 225 9.2... 9 . FWD LOAD AND DEFLECTION MEASUREMENT REPEATABILITY AT CONSTANT TEMPERATURE FOR SHEPPARD FEATURE A05B, SLAB NO. 4, AT THE TRANSVERSE JOINT

  5. Comparative Study of Nondestructive Pavement Testing, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    analyses. Six private firms each with a different nondestructive testing ( NDT ) evaluation method provided evaluation results in terms of allowable aircraft... methods characterize the pavement structural layers based on the response measured with the NDT devices. Most procedures produce moduli values for the...of agreement between the allowable load ratings and overlay thickness predictions of the NDT evaluation methods to the standard test pit rating, and a

  6. A Hessian-based methodology for automatic surface crack detection and classification from pavement images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanta, Sindhu; Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar; Dy, Jennifer; Wang, Ming; Birken, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Around 3,000,000 million vehicle miles are annually traveled utilizing the US transportation systems alone. In addition to the road traffic safety, maintaining the road infrastructure in a sound condition promotes a more productive and competitive economy. Due to the significant amounts of financial and human resources required to detect surface cracks by visual inspection, detection of these surface defects are often delayed resulting in deferred maintenance operations. This paper introduces an automatic system for acquisition, detection, classification, and evaluation of pavement surface cracks by unsupervised analysis of images collected from a camera mounted on the rear of a moving vehicle. A Hessian-based multi-scale filter has been utilized to detect ridges in these images at various scales. Post-processing on the extracted features has been implemented to produce statistics of length, width, and area covered by cracks, which are crucial for roadway agencies to assess pavement quality. This process has been realized on three sets of roads with different pavement conditions in the city of Brockton, MA. A ground truth dataset labeled manually is made available to evaluate this algorithm and results rendered more than 90% segmentation accuracy demonstrating the feasibility of employing this approach at a larger scale.

  7. Characterization of nanoparticles released during construction of photocatalytic pavements using engineered nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylla, Heather; Hassan, Marwa M.

    2012-03-01

    With the increasing use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in self-cleaning materials such as photocatalytic concrete pavements, the release of nanoparticles into the environment is inevitable. Nanoparticle concentration, particle size, surface area, elemental composition, and surface morphology are pertinent to determine the associated risks. In this study, the potential of exposure to synthetic nanoparticles released during construction activities for application of photocatalytic pavements was measured during laboratory-simulated construction activities of photocatalytic mortar overlays and in an actual field application of photocatalytic spray coat. A scanning mobility particle sizer system measured the size distribution of nanoparticles released during laboratory and field activities. Since incidental nanoparticles are released during construction activities, nanoparticle emissions were compared to those from similar activities without nano-TiO2. Nanoparticle counts and size distribution suggest that synthetic nanoparticles are released during application of photocatalytic pavements. In order to identify the nanoparticle source, nanoparticles were also collected for offline characterization using transmission electron microscopy. However, positive identification of synthetic nanoparticles was not possible due to difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images. As a result, further research is recommended to identify nanoparticle composition and sources.

  8. How Dutch drinking water production is affected by the use of herbicides on pavements.

    PubMed

    Bannink, A D

    2004-01-01

    About forty per cent of drinking water in The Netherlands is produced from surface water. Dutch water companies, that have to rely on this source, are dealing with major water quality problems due to the use of herbicides on pavements. Voluntary measures and bans have had only limited effect on the reduction of emissions of herbicides that runoff from pavements into surface water in The Netherlands. The effects on the production of drinking water from surface water should play a role in the authorisation of pesticides. Stricter regulations, including mandatory emission reduction measures and certification, are necessary. The enforcement of existing Dutch surface water pollution laws should solve part of the problem. Due to the international nature of most of the surface water used for drinking water supply, it is necessary that other countries take measures as well. European legislation brings a solution closer if implemented well and seriously enforced. The threat of strict legislation keeps pressure on the transition towards decreasing the dependence on chemicals for weed control on pavements.

  9. Predicting the behavior of asphalt concrete pavements in seasonal frost areas using nondestructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoo, Vincent C.; Berg, Richard L.

    1990-11-01

    Four different pavement test sections were subjected to freeze-thaw cycling in the Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF). The test sections, each 610 cm in length, consisted of 15.2 cm of asphalt concrete pavement over a clay subgrade; 15.2 cm of asphalt concrete over 10.2 cm of crushed gravel over a clay subgrade; 5.1 cm of asphalt over 17.8 cm of crushed gravel over 20.3 cm of clean sand over a clay subgrade; and 5.1 cm of asphalt concrete over 25.4 cm of crushed gravel over 12.7 cm of clean sand over clay subgrade. Thermocouples were imbedded throughout the pavement structure and subgrade. During the thawing periods, deflection measurements were made at four locations in each test section using a Dynatest Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). The results of the deflection measurement are presented here. An analysis was done to qualify the subgrade strength based solely on FDW measurements. It was also shown that a relationship existed between thaw depth and FWD measurement in the subgrade.

  10. Leaching of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Legret, M; Odie, L; Demare, D; Jullien, A

    2005-09-01

    The work presented herein displays the results of a study addressing environmental concerns related to the possible leaching of pollutants from reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples from an experimental site were tested in both static batch tests and column leaching tests. Selected heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in leachates. The results have allowed us to consider the leaching of pollutants to be rather weak for most of the parameters studied. Concentrations in solutions from batch leaching tests were generally below the EC limit values for drinking water. Pollutant concentrations from column experiments were higher in solutions as of the initial leaching stages, but then decreased rapidly and wound up at values below the detection limits. The factors influencing results proved to be the material grain size and the percolation water flow rate. Results from leaching experiments performed on core samples taken on two rebuilt road section pavements, containing 10% and 20% of reclaimed asphalt pavement, respectively, confirmed the results obtained from the batch and column experiments.

  11. Pavement thickness and stabilised foundation layer assessment using ground-coupled GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinhui; Vennapusa, Pavana K. R.; White, David J.; Beresnev, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Experimental results from field and laboratory investigations using a ground-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR), dielectric measurement, magnetic imaging tomography (MIT) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests are presented. Dielectric properties of asphalt pavement and stabilised and unstabilised pavement foundation materials were evaluated in the laboratory in frozen and unfrozen conditions. Laboratory test results showed that dielectric properties of materials back-calculated from GPR in comparison to dielectric gauge measurements are strongly correlated and repeatable. For chemically stabilised materials, curing time affected the dielectric properties of the materials. Field tests were conducted on asphalt pavement test sections with different foundation materials (stabilised and unstabilised layers), drainage conditions and layer thicknesses. GPR and MIT results were used to determine asphalt layer thicknesses and were compared with measured core thicknesses, while GPR and DCP were used to assess foundation layer profiles. Asphalt thicknesses estimated from GPR showed an average error of about 11% using the dielectric gauge values as input. The average error reduced to about 4% when calibrated with cores thicknesses. MIT results showed thicknesses that are about 9% higher than estimated using GPR. Foundation layer thicknesses could not be measured using GPR due to variations in moisture conditions between the test sections, which is partly attributed to variations in gradation and drainage characteristics of the subbase layer.

  12. Heat island mitigation using water retentive pavement sprinkled with reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, H; Nasu, M; Yoshizawa, M; Miyamoto, A; Minamiyama, M

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, reclaimed wastewater has been recycled widely for non-potable urban applications and it is to be used for sprinkling roads to mitigate heat island in urban areas. To assess the heat island mitigation effects of the sprinkling reclaimed wastewater on water retentive pavement, we carried out a survey at Shiodome-District, Tokyo. The temperatures of air and roads, humidity, and WBGT (Wet-bulb globe temperature) were measured and heat flux was estimated to compare the condition of the areas with/without sprinkling. The following results were obtained. 1) Sprinkling reclaimed wastewater decreased the road surface temperature by 8 degrees during the daytime and by 3 degrees at night: temperatures equal to those on planting zones. Nevertheless sprinkling was done only in the daytime, the temperature decrease effect was not only obtained during the daytime: it continued through the night, due to the water retentive pavement. 2) Sprinkling reclaimed wastewater reduced the amount of sensible heat flux and increased that of latent heat flux. These results suggest that sprinkling reclaimed wastewater on water retentive pavement can effectively mitigate the heat island phenomenon.

  13. Depletion of E. coli in permeable pavement mineral aggregate storage and reuse systems.

    PubMed

    Myers, B R; Beecham, S; van Leeuwen, J A; Keegan, A

    2009-01-01

    Permeable pavement reservoirs provide an important opportunity for the harvesting and storage of stormwater for reuse. This research aims to determine whether storage in dolomite, calcite and quartzite mineral aggregates in the base course of a permeable pavement impacts on the survival of the pathogen indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) in storage. The reasons for depletion were also investigated. Twelve model permeable pavement storage reservoirs were filled, in triplicate, with dolomite, calcite and quartzite. Three reservoirs contained no aggregate. After filling with pathogen spiked rainwater, the concentration of E. coli was examined for 22 days in the reservoirs. The reservoirs were then agitated to determine if there was E. coli present which was not in aqueous suspension. The results of the experiments show that there is no significant difference in the depletion of E. coli found in reservoirs without aggregate, and those filled with dolomite or calcite. The rate of depletion was found to be significantly lower in the quartzite filled reservoirs. Agitation of the reservoirs yielded increases in the aqueous concentration of E. coli in all reservoir types, suggesting that the bacteria are adhering to the surface of the mineral aggregate and to the reservoir walls.

  14. Laser scanning on road pavements: a new approach for characterizing surface texture.

    PubMed

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Simone, Andrea; Girardi, Fabrizio; Lantieri, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The surface layer of road pavement has a particular importance in relation to the satisfaction of the primary demands of locomotion, such as security and eco-compatibility. Among those pavement surface characteristics, the "texture" appears to be one of the most interesting with regard to the attainment of skid resistance. Specifications and regulations, providing a wide range of functional indicators, act as guidelines to satisfy the performance requirements. This paper describes an experiment on the use of laser scanner techniques on various types of asphalt for texture characterization. The use of high precision laser scanners, such as the triangulation types, is proposed to expand the analysis of road pavement from the commonly and currently used two-dimensional method to a three-dimensional one, with the aim of extending the range of the most important parameters for these kinds of applications. Laser scanners can be used in an innovative way to obtain information on areal surface layer through a single measurement, with data homogeneity and representativeness. The described experience highlights how the laser scanner is used for both laboratory experiments and tests in situ, with a particular attention paid to factors that could potentially affect the survey.

  15. Pavement macrotexture estimation using principal component analysis of tire/road noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiying; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-04-01

    An investigation on the prediction of macrotexture Mean Texture Depth (MTD) of pavement from a moving vehicle is conducted. The MTD was predicted by using the tire/road noise measured from a microphone mounted underneath a moving vehicle. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to filter noise from microphone data prioer to estimating its energy over an optimally selected bandwidth. Energy obtained using this method is named PCA energy, hence the developed method for MTD estimation is termed as PCA Energy Method. The acoustic energy is assumed to have positive linear correlation with MTD of pavement. Moreover, PCA was used to differentiate important information about the road surface from noisy data while vehicle is moving, yielding a set of principal component vectors representing the conditions of each road section. This principal component vector was used to compute the PCA energy that is to be used for MTD prediction. The frequency band most relative to pavement macrotexture was determined to be 140 to 700 Hz through theoretical and statistical research. Then, a MTD prediction model was built based on a Taylor series expansion with two variables, PCA energy and the driving speed of the vehicle. The model parameters were obtained from an engineered track (interstate highway) with known MTD, and then applied to urban roads for the feasibility test. The accuracy of the model is 83.61% for the engineered track, which is 10% higher than the previous energy-based methods without PCA treatment. Moreover, applicability of the model is increased by the extended MTD prediction range between 0.2 and 3 mm compared to that of the engineered track having 0.4 to 1.5 mm. In addition, the MTD could be predicted every 7.8 meters and with good repeatability in the urban road test, which proves the feasibility of the proposed approach. Therefore, the PCA Energy Method is a reliable, efficient, and cost effective way to predict MTD for engineering applications as an important

  16. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  17. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Crane, Judy L; Watts, Alison W; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E Spencer

    2012-03-20

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments-including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air-contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  18. Construction Productivity Advancement Research (CPAR) Program: Improved Materials and Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements - Field Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    compositions of material- are currently used for scaling portland cement concrete (PCC) joints . These materials vary widely in chemi- cal complexity...PRODUCTIVITY ADVANCEMENT RESEARCH (CPAR) PROGRAM Improved Materials and Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements...Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements-Field Evaluation by Larry N. Lynch, Dewey W. White Accesion

  19. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  20. MaNIAC-UAV - a methodology for automatic pavement defects detection using images obtained by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Castelo Branco, Luiz; César Lima Segantine, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems - ITS is a set of integrated technologies (Remote Sensing, Image Processing, Communications Systems and others) that aim to offer services and advanced traffic management for the several transportation modes (road, air and rail). Collect data on the characteristics and conditions of the road surface and keep them update is an important and difficult task that needs to be currently managed in order to reduce accidents and vehicle maintenance costs. Nowadays several roads and highways are paved, but usually there is insufficient updated data about current condition and status. There are different types of pavement defects on the roads and to keep them in good condition they should be constantly monitored and maintained according to pavement management strategy. This paper presents a methodology to obtain, automatically, information about the conditions of the highway asphalt pavement. Data collection was done through remote sensing using an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and the image processing and pattern recognition techniques through Geographic Information System.

  1. Example of using small falling weight deflectomer (FWD) for Earth structures and low cost road pavement in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yasutomo; Ono, Isamu; Okano, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) is an instrument which makes the weight fall freely on its loading plate to apply impact load and measures the displacement caused by the fall at the center of impact load and also at the points in radial direction from the center of impact load. A kind of instrument which is mounted on or drawn by a vehicle used for construction of concrete pavement or asphalt pavement of a runway is usually called FWD. The impact load of FWD is 49KN to 196kN and it can obtain the modulus of elasticity of each pavement layer by back analysis based on the theory of multi-layer elasticity using 6 to 8 of extemal displacement sensors. On the other hand, the small FWD is an FWD which is constructed small and easy and is applicable for hand carry. It makes the weight fall freely on the loading plate to apply impact load and measures the load and displacement caused by the fall. It was developed for mainly assessing the rigidity and bearing capacity of the subgrade easily and promptly. It can measure many points in short term and obtain coefficient of subgrade reaction and modulus of subgrade elasticity without using reaction facilities like as plate bearing test or CBR test. It has also been tried to apply the small FWD to low cost asphalt road pavement (later called as low cost road pavement). Application examples of small FWD test for earth structure and low cost load pavement in Japan are shown and the methods and test results are stated in this report.

  2. Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.

    PubMed

    Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    2013-04-15

    The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale.

  3. Effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speed and safety of pedestrian crosswalks on urban roads in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyong; Liu, Pan; Liang, Qiyu; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speed and crashes in the vicinity of urban pedestrian crosswalks. The research team measured speed data at twelve sites, and crash data at eleven sites. Observational cross-sectional studies were conducted to identify if the effects of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings on vehicle speeds and speed violations were statistically significant. The results showed that parallelogram-shaped pavement markings significantly reduced vehicle speeds and speed violations in the vicinity of pedestrian crosswalks. More specifically, the speed reduction effects varied from 1.89km/h to 4.41km/h with an average of 3.79km/h. The reduction in the 85th percentile speed varied from 0.81km/h to 5.34km/h with an average of 4.19km/h. Odds ratios (OR) showed that the parallelogram-shaped pavement markings had effects of a 7.1% reduction in the mean speed and a 6.9% reduction in the 85th percentile speed at the pedestrian crosswalks. The reduction of proportion of drivers exceeding the speed limit varied from 8.64% to 14.15% with an average of 11.03%. The results of the crash data analysis suggested that the use of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings reduced both the frequency and severity of crashes at pedestrian crosswalks. The parallelogram-shaped pavement markings had a significant effect on reducing the vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Two crash prediction models were developed for vehicle-pedestrian crashes and rear-end crashes. According to the crash models, the presence of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings reduced vehicle-pedestrian crashes at pedestrian crosswalks by 24.87% with a 95% confidence interval of [10.06-30.78%]. However, the model results also showed that the presence of parallelogram-shaped pavement markings increased rear-end crashes at pedestrian crosswalks by 5.4% with a 95% confidence interval of [0-11.2%].

  4. Condition assessment of concrete pavements using both ground penetrating radar and stress-wave based techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengxing; Anderson, Neil; Sneed, Lesley; Torgashov, Evgeniy

    2016-12-01

    Two stress-wave based techniques, ultrasonic surface wave (USW) and impact echo (IE), as well as ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used to assess the condition of a segment of concrete pavement that includes a layer of concrete, a granular base and their interface. Core specimens retrieved at multiple locations were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of each non-destructive testing (NDT) result. Results from this study demonstrate that the GPR method is accurate for estimating the pavement thickness and locating separations (air voids) between the concrete and granular base layers. The USW method is a rapid way to estimate the in-situ elastic modulus (dynamic elastic modulus) of the concrete, however, the existence of air voids at the interface could potentially affect the accuracy and reliability of the USW test results. The estimation of the dynamic modulus and the P-wave velocity of concrete was improved when a shorter wavelength range (3 in. to 8.5 in.) corresponding to the concrete layer thickness was applied instead of the full wavelength rage (3 in. to 11 in.) based on the standard spacing of the receiver transducers. The IE method is proved to be fairly accurate in estimating the thickness of concrete pavements. However, the flexural mode vibration could affect the accuracy and reliability of the test results. Furthermore, the existence of air voids between the concrete and granular base layers could affect the estimation of the compression wave velocity of concrete when the full wavelength range was applied (3 in. to 11 in.). Future work is needed in order to improve the accuracy and reliability of both USW and IE test results.

  5. Artificial intelligence modeling to evaluate field performance of photocatalytic asphalt pavement for ambient air purification.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Somayeh; Hassan, Marwa; Nadiri, Ataallah; Dylla, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in asphalt pavement has received considerable attention for purifying ambient air from traffic-emitted pollutants via photocatalytic processes. In order to control the increasing deterioration of ambient air quality, urgent and proper risk assessment tools are deemed necessary. However, in practice, monitoring all process parameters for various operating conditions is difficult due to the complex and non-linear nature of air pollution-based problems. Therefore, the development of models to predict air pollutant concentrations is very useful because it can provide early warnings to the population and also reduce the number of measuring sites. This study used artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy (NF) models to predict NOx concentration in the air as a function of traffic count (Tr) and climatic conditions including humidity (H), temperature (T), solar radiation (S), and wind speed (W) before and after the application of TiO₂ on the pavement surface. These models are useful for modeling because of their ability to be trained using historical data and because of their capability for modeling highly non-linear relationships. To build these models, data were collected from a field study where an aqueous nano TiO₂ solution was sprayed on a 0.2-mile of asphalt pavement in Baton Rouge, LA. Results of this study showed that the NF model provided a better fitting to NOx measurements than the ANN model in the training, validation, and test steps. Results of a parametric study indicated that traffic level, relative humidity, and solar radiation had the most influence on photocatalytic efficiency.

  6. Waxing and waning of dreissenid pavements as a possible result of astronomical forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kern, Andrea K.; Piller, Werner E.; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Human induced range expansions of invasive dreissenid bivalves are of great concern. However, the underlying biological processes are only poorly understood, partly due to the lack of information on natural expansion events. Here we use the extinct bivalve species Sinucongeria primiformis as a model organism for testing natural (i.e. pre-Anthropocene) blooms of dreissenid species in a lacustrine system of Lake Pannon during the Tortonian (~10.5 Myr; Late Miocene). 600 samples from a consecutive core were evaluated for the relative abundance of this pavement-forming mollusc, which cover about 8 millennia of Late Miocene time with a decadal resolution. The formation of these pavements occurred in repetitive cycles, which were also documented for carious other geophysical and geochemical and biotic proxies. The investigated bivalve was among the most successful species settling in offshore environments of Lake Pannon, where it formed vast pavements. The tolerance for poorly oxygenated lake bottoms close to the epilimnion/hypolimnion boundary was probably the key adaptation to outcompete other species in this lacustrine offshore environment. We document that solar forcing might have played an important role for lake hydrology, which in turn allowed population blooms during phases of improved ecological conditions. The repeated establishment of dysoxic conditions was lethal for the populations and is reflected by pyrite incrustations in the shell cavities. The cyclicities might be expressions of the Gleissberg cycles and the 500 yr cycle, indicating that bottom water oxygenation was strongly influenced by these solar cycles. This example shows that dreissenid bivalves may be pioneers, which quickly dominate aquatic ecosystems even in pre-Anthropocene records. The surprisingly strong influence of solar forcing on the success of the Miocene dreissenids is an overlooked aspect for predicting the population dynamics of extant dreissenids. This study was supported by the

  7. Evaluation of Nontraditional Airfield Pavement Surfaces for Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Figure 6. Double bituminous surface-treated runway in New Zealand ............................................ 13  Figure 7. Loose aggregate on a...is the prevalence of using thin surface treatments over strong base construction in Australia, New Zealand , and surrounding territories. According...and other countries, including Australia and New Zealand . Because of the availability of design standards and documentation in these two countries, it

  8. Recycled asphalt pavement as a base and sub-base material

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, M.H.; Gucunski, N.; Papp, W.J. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to evaluate the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in roadway base and sub-base applications. The laboratory resilient modulus test results showed RAP has comparable strength with dense graded aggregate base and sub-base material used in the state of New Jersey. Using the spectral-analysis-of-the-surface-waves method (SASW), the field testing program evaluated the elastic modulus of the RAP base in the field and verified the laboratory results. The field test results showed higher modulus and stiffness for RAP than the dense graded aggregate base normally used in state of New Jersey.

  9. Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

  10. STUDY ON PROPERTIES OF SKID RESISTANCE ON FREEZING PAVEMENTS AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION METHOD OF ANTIFREEZING EFFECTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Kiyoshi; Masuyama, Yukiei; Takahashi, Naoto

    Snow and ice control in winter roads trends to be controlled by the skid friction coefficients in North America and North European countries at present, but the measurements are not necessarily easy. We studied on a simplified measurement method based on the relationship between skid friction coefficients and the bare pavement ratio (BPR) in the laboratory tests and field tests. The factors of BPR, surface textures and antifreezing materials which affect the skid friction coefficient are reviewed by a multiple linear regression analysis and a spectrum analysis, considering different freezing surfaces. These studies indicate that conclusions induced by laboratory tests could be applied to roads in service.

  11. Boulder, Pavement, Pit; Sample Selection for Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating on Alluvial Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perg, L. A.; Oskin, M. E.; Blumentritt, D.; Strane, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2005-12-01

    Selecting sample targets and methods that minimize the effects of erosion, inheritance, and material movement is one of the largest issues facing cosmogenic isotope dating. Since sample material availability often sharply limits methods, establishing error estimates in less-than-ideal sampling situations is also important. Our study of alluvial fan offsets in the Eastern California Shear Zone (Mojave Desert) takes advantage of multiple sample targets to develop method inter-comparisons. Alluvial fans along the Calico fault had abundant large basalt and quartz monzonite boulders, targets for 3He and 10Be respectively. In addition to the boulders, the incipient desert pavement on the youngest alluvial fan surface was sampled. The basalt boulders had higher relative cosmogenic nuclide concentrations, and a much higher scatter, due to very high inheritance and also likely boulder recycling into younger terraces. The quartz monzonite had lower, consistent concentrations on the youngest terrace, but presented erosional concerns due to the spalling and grussification common to granitic material. The incipient desert pavement had a comparable 10Be concentration to the quartz monzonite boulders; the highest concentration in each was the same, and the average pavement concentration lagged the boulders only slightly. The Lenwood fault alluvial fans had two targets. Small clasts formed weakly developed to mature pavement on the surfaces. The fan deposits were also thick enough to dig pits (1.5m). On the younger fan surface, both sediment and clasts (gravel to cobble) were collected in the pit; concentrations were comparable between the two. The profiles indicated high inheritance (comparable to modern wash samples), and some mixing at the near surface. Due to high inheritance, the surface sample alone would far overestimate the age. Using wash samples to estimate inheritance slightly overcorrects, due to mixing in the near-surface. Two types of clasts were sampled in the older

  12. Passive pavement-mounted acoustical linguistic drive alert system and method

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Anderson, Richard L.; Carnal, Charles L.; Hylton, James O.; Stevens, Samuel S.

    2001-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for passive pavement-mounted acoustical alert of the occupants of a vehicle. A method of notifying a vehicle occupant includes providing a driving medium upon which a vehicle is to be driven; and texturing a portion of the driving medium such that the textured portion interacts with the vehicle to produce audible signals, the textured portion pattern such that a linguistic message is encoded into the audible signals. The systems and methods provide advantages because information can be conveyed to the occupants of the vehicle based on the location of the vehicle relative to the textured surface.

  13. Theoretical Solution for Temperature Profile in Multi-layered Pavement Systems Subjected to Transient Thermal Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    kcal/mm s ◦C) Geopolymer paste 2.0x10−7 PCC slab 5.1x10−7 Thermal diffusivity, α (mm2/s) Geopolymer 0.2 PCC slab 1.3 for the surface layer of airfield...concrete pavements. Geopolymer materials have desirable properties for serving as an alternative binder to traditional Portland cement in producing...high thermal stability. Thus it is possible to construct paving concrete made from a geopolymer binder on top of the ordinary concrete slab to limit

  14. Cancer risk from incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs associated with coal-tar-sealed pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent (2009-10) studies documented significantly higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in settled house dust in living spaces and soil adjacent to parking lots sealed with coal-tar-based products. To date, no studies have examined the potential human health effects of PAHs from these products in dust and soil. Here we present the results of an analysis of potential cancer risk associated with incidental ingestion exposures to PAHs in settings near coal-tar-sealed pavement. Exposures to benzo[a]pyrene equivalents were characterized across five scenarios. The central tendency estimate of excess cancer risk resulting from lifetime exposures to soil and dust from nondietary ingestion in these settings exceeded 1 × 10–4, as determined using deterministic and probabilistic methods. Soil was the primary driver of risk, but according to probabilistic calculations, reasonable maximum exposure to affected house dust in the first 6 years of life was sufficient to generate an estimated excess lifetime cancer risk of 6 × 10–5. Our results indicate that the presence of coal-tar-based pavement sealants is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk for nearby residents. Much of this calculated excess risk arises from exposures to PAHs in early childhood (i.e., 0–6 years of age).

  15. Acute toxicity of runoff from sealcoated pavement to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Runoff from coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoated pavement is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and N-heterocycles to surface waters. We investigated acute toxicity of simulated runoff collected from 5 h to 111 days after application of CT sealcoat and from 4 h to 36 days after application of asphalt-based sealcoat containing about 7% CT sealcoat (AS/CT-blend). Ceriodaphnia dubia (cladocerans) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows) were exposed in the laboratory to undiluted and 1:10 diluted runoff for 48 h, then transferred to control water and exposed to 4 h of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Mortality following exposure to undiluted runoff from unsealed asphalt pavement and UVR was ≤10% in all treatments. Test organisms exposed to undiluted CT runoff samples collected during the 3 days (C. dubia) or 36 days (P. promelas) following sealcoat application experienced 100% mortality prior to UVR exposure; with UVR exposure, mortality was 100% for runoff collected across the entire sampling period. Phototoxic-equivalent PAH concentrations and mortality demonstrated an exposure-response relation. The results indicate that runoff remains acutely toxic for weeks to months after CT sealcoat application.

  16. Electrical resistance tomography for monitoring the infiltration of water into a pavement section

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, M.; Daily, B.; Ramirez, A.

    1997-07-03

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to follow the infiltration of water into pavement section at the UC Berkeley Richmond Field Station. A volume of pavement 1m square and 1.29 m deep was sampled by an ERT array consisting of electrodes in 9 drilled holes plus 8 surface electrodes. The data were collected using a computer controlled data acquisition system capable of collecting a full data set in under 1 hour, allowing for nearly real time sampling of the infiltration. The infiltration was conducted in two phases. During the first phase, water was introduced into the asphalt-concrete (AC) layers at a slow rate of about 8 ml per hour for a period of about 6 days. In the second phase, water was introduced into the asphalt-treated-permeable base (ATPB) layer at a more rapid rate of about 100 ml/h for about 2 days. The ERT images show that water introduced into the upper AC layers shows up as a decrease in resistivity which grows with time. The images also appear to show that when water moves into the layers below the ATPB, the resistivity increases; an unexpected result. There are some indications that the water moved laterally as well as down into the deeper ATPB and the aggregate base. The images also show that when water is introduced directly into the ATPB and aggregate layer, the water moves into the the underlying materials much more quickly.

  17. Assessment of the aging level of rejuvenated hot mixed asphalt concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Megan; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of asphalt rejuvenator on restoring the properties of oxidatively aged asphalt was tested via a non-collinear ultrasonic subsurface wave mixing technique modified for field use. Longitudinal transducers were mounted on angle wedges to generate subsurface dilatational waves to allow for pavement evaluation when there is only access to one side. Because in the field the asphalt concrete (AC) pavement properties (i.e., ultrasonic velocities and attenuations) are unknown, a pre-determined fixed incident angle (based on the AC mixture type) was used, which allows for practical implementation in the field. Oxidative aged AC specimens were coated with rejuvenator (10% by weight of the binder) and left to dwell for varying amounts of time. Once the dwell time reached the desired amount, the specimen was immediately ultrasonically tested. The frequency ratio, f2/f1, at which the interaction took place and the normalized nonlinear wave generation parameter, β/β0, were recorded and compared against a reference plot. It was observed that the rejuvenator had the effect of restoring the nonlinear properties to those corresponding to a virgin sample after a sufficient amount of dwell time. The ability of the rejuvenator to fully penetrate and act on the binder was observed to be dependent on the porosity and aggregate structure, and thus varied for each specimen. As a result, some portions of the binder were restored to a greater extent than others. This non-uniform nature was captured via the nonlinear ultrasonic technique.

  18. Laboratory analysis of the infiltration capacity of interlocking concrete block pavements in car parks.

    PubMed

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge; Vega-Zamanillo, Angel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Interlocking concrete block pavements (ICBPs) have been widely used in car parks to reduce runoff. Researches have demonstrated that clogging is the most influential factor in the reduction of the infiltration capacity of this type of permeable pavement. Nevertheless, there is no laboratory study of the infiltration performance of ICBPs that combines clogging levels with variables related with the topography of car parks such as runoff surface length (R(SL)) and surface slope (S(S)). This paper studies the infiltration behaviour of ICBP during their operational life in a car park using an improved version of the Cantabrian Fixed (CF) Infiltrometer. This laboratory device simulates direct rainfall and runoff from adjacent impervious areas over an ICBPs surface of 0.25 m(2) for different slopes (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) and three scenarios of clogging (surface newly built, surface clogged and surface clogged with maintenance). This paper presents the results of the tests and a statistical analysis based on three regression models (corresponding to each clogging scenario) depending on the R(SL) and S(S) variables. All models passed a confidence level of 95%, presenting high R(2) values and showing that R(SL) is a more influential variable than the S(S) for all clogging scenarios.

  19. Use of crushed concrete products in Minnesota pavement foundations. Final report, 1987-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Synder, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    The report reviews eleven field and laboratory studies that have been performed to address concerns about the use of recycled concrete aggregate in pavement foundations. Performance concerns have centered on the possible impairment of drainage systems by deposits of calcium carbonate precipitate and other fines derived from the recycled concrete base materials. Environmental concerns have focused on the relatively high pH of the effluent produced by drainage systems that remove water from ungreated recycled concrete aggregate foundation layers. The studies considered in the report demonstrate that all recycled concrete aggregates are capable of producing various amounts of precipitate, with the precipitate potential being directly related to the amount of freshly exposed cement mortar surface. It appears that selective grading and blending with virgin aggregates are techniques that should significantly reduce precipitate potential. One study suggests that washing recycled concrete products will reduce accumulations of crusher dust and other fines in and around the pavement drains. Others indicate that the use of filter fabrics with sufficiently high initial permittivity will allow the accumulation of precipitate and other fines without significant impairing drainage function. The report discusses study results related to environmental concerns and provides recommendations for revisions to current specifications.

  20. Performance of an enhanced pervious pavement system loaded with large volumes of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Newman, Alan P; Puehmeier, Tim; Shuttleworth, Andy; Pratt, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Five litres of lubricating oil and two 8.5 litre batches of diesel were deposited on each of two hydraulically isolated experimental enhanced pervious pavement parking bays. The 50 mm aggregate subbases of the two bays were of either recycled concrete or crushed limestone. The bays were constructed in such a way that a near-surface gravity separator was created by the arranging of the outlet pipes such that a permanent pool of water was maintained in the system and water could only enter from below the level of any floating oil. Dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons were measured at acceptable concentrations when monitoring was carried out over a period of approximately 5 months. The maximum concentration was 7.2 mg/l and of all the samples collected only 3% exceeded the 5 mg/l limit applied in the UK for a class 1 interceptor, and the majority of samples had hydrocarbon concentrations of less than 2 mg/l. Much more significant is the fact that no free product was discharged from either system up to the time the experiment was dismantled 2 years from the first oil application despite the fact that sufficient hydrocarbon had been added to each pavement to produce a film on a water surface of over 500 hectares.

  1. The synergy of permeable pavements and geothermal heat pumps for stormwater treatment and reuse.

    PubMed

    Tota-Maharaj, K; Scholz, M; Ahmed, T; French, C; Pagaling, E

    2010-12-14

    The use of permeable pavement systems with integrated geothermal heat pumps for the treatment and recycling of urban runoff is novel and timely. This study assesses the efficiency of the combined technology for controlled indoor and uncontrolled outdoor experimental rigs. Water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand, nutrients, total viable heterotrophic bacteria and total coliforms were tested before and after treatment in both rigs. The water borne bacterial community genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and was further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Despite the relatively high temperatures in the indirectly heated sub-base of the pavement, potentially pathogenic organisms such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, faecal Streptococci and Legionella were not detected. Moreover, mean removal rates of 99% for biochemical oxygen demand, 97% for ammonia-nitrogen and 95% for orthophosphate-phosphates were recorded. This research also supports decision-makers in assessing public health risks based on qualitative molecular microbiological data associated with the recycling of treated urban runoff.

  2. Assessment of an action against environmental noise: Acoustic durability of a pavement surface with crumb rubber.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, V F; Luong, J; Bueno, M; Terán, F; Paje, S E

    2016-01-15

    Environmental noise is a worldwide problem that has an adverse effect in the quality of life of urban population. Some work has shown that there is a correlation between environmental noise and health issues as sleep disturbance or annoyance. This study presents the time evolution of a test track fabricated with an asphalt mixture with 20% of crumb rubber by weight of bitumen, added by the wet process. A complete surface characterization has been performed by determining tire/pavement sound levels, road texture profiles, in-situ dynamic stiffness and sound absorption of compacted and extracted sample cores. Two measurement campaigns were performed: just after mixture laying and after 3 years in service. This study confirms that the use of crumb rubber as a modifier of bituminous binders (CRMB) can improve the pavement characteristics: gap-graded mixtures with crumb rubber can be used in the action plans as urban rehabilitation measure to fight noise pollution. However, this noise reduction seems to decrease with age at a rate of approximately 0.15 dB(A) per year.

  3. Energy harvesting from pavements via PVDF: hybrid piezo-pyroelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Junliang; Hu, Jie; Wu, Guangxi

    2016-04-01

    In the U.S., there are over 4 million miles (6 million km) of roadways and more than 250 million registered vehicles. The energy lost in the pavement system due to traffic-induced vibration and deformation is enormous. If effectively harvested, such energy can serve as an alternative sustainable energy source that can be easily integrated to the transportation system. The potential of PVDF, which is a piezoelectric polymer material, is investigated as a potential energy harvester integrated in pavement systems. The uniqueness of this study lies in that the electrical response of PVDF under coupled mechanical and thermal stimulations are studied. It is well known that most piezoelectric materials are also pyroelectric materials, which convert temperature change into electricity. However, the potential of PVDF as a hybrid piezo-pyroelectric energy harvester has been seldom studied. Through series of well controlled experiments, it is found that there exists interesting coupling phenomenon between piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects of PVDF: the voltage generated by simultaneous mechanical and thermal stimulations is the sum of voltages generated by separate stimulations. In addition, an estimation of power generation through piezoelectric and pyroelectric effect is conducted. Finally, the overall effects of temperature on hybrid piezo-pyroelectric energy harvesting are discussed.

  4. Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Reducing Conflicts between Motor Vehicles and Pedestrians: The Separate and Combined Effects of Pavement Markings and a Sign Prompt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huybers, Sherry; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J.E. Louis

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a symbolic "yield here to pedestrians" sign and advance yield pavement markings on pedestrian/motor vehicle conflicts, motorists' yielding behavior, and the distance motorists' yield in advance of crosswalks were evaluated at multilane crosswalks at uncontrolled T intersections. In Experiment 1, the sign, when used alone, reduced…

  6. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  7. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  8. Evaluation of Bituminous Materials Used in Pavement Recycling Projects at Tyndall, Macdill, and Hurlburt Air Force Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    viscosity timpprature susceptihility, asphaltenes plus saturates, asphaltene state of peptization, viscosity aging index, recycled pavement performance...35 12 Tyndall AFB 50:50 RAC Resilient Modulus ................... 35 Al Modified State of Peptization versus Percent Asphaltenes + Saturates...Inverse of Dilution Ratio ....... 180 C2 Asphaltene Solubility Test Results ........................ 181 C3 Heithaus Test Method Flow Chart

  9. Cosmogenic 3He exposure ages of Pleistocene debris flows and desert pavements in Capitol Reef National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, David W.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2005-04-01

    The Quaternary history of the Capitol Reef area, Utah, is closely linked to the basaltic-andesite boulder deposits that cover much of the landscape. Understanding the age and mode of emplacement of these deposits is crucial to deciphering the Quaternary evolution of this part of the Colorado Plateau. Using cosmogenic 3He exposure age dating, we obtained apparent exposure ages for several key deposits in the Capitol Reef area. Coarse boulder diamicts capping the Johnson Mesa and Carcass Creek Terraces are not associated with the Bull Lake glaciation as previously thought, but were deposited 180±15 to 205±17 ka (minimum age) and are the result of debris flow deposition. Desert pavements on the Johnson Mesa surface give exposure ranging from 97±8 to 159±14 ka and are 34-96 kyears younger than the boulder exposure ages. The offset between the boulder and pavement exposure ages appears to be related to a delay in pavement formation until the penultimate glacial/interglacial transition or periodic burial and exposure of pavement clasts since debris flow deposition. Incision rates for the Capitol Reef reach of the Fremont River calculated from the boulder exposure ages range from 0.40 to 0.43 m kyear -1 (maximum rates) and are some of the highest on the Colorado Plateau.

  10. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  11. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  12. You're standing on it! Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and environmental and human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a new study by researchers from Baylor University and the USGS indicate that living adjacent to a coal-tar-sealed pavement is associated with significant increases in estimated excess lifetime cancer risk, and that much of the increased risk occurs during early childhood.

  13. Noise abatement and traffic safety: The trade-off of quieter engines and pavements on vehicle detection.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, C; Freitas, E; Ferreira, J P; Raimundo, I D; Santos, J A

    2013-03-01

    Road traffic sounds are a major source of noise pollution in urban areas. But recent developments such as low noise pavements and hybrid/electric engine vehicles cast an optimistic outlook over such an environmental problem. However, it can be argued that engine, tire, and road noise could be relevant sources of information to avoid road traffic conflicts and accidents. In this paper, we analyze the potential trade-offs of traffic-noise abatement approaches in an experimental study, focusing for the first time on the impact and interaction of relevant factors such as pavement type, vehicle type, listener's age, and background noise, on vehicle detection levels. Results reveal that vehicle and pavement type significantly affect vehicle detection. Age is a significant factor, as both younger and older people exhibit lower detection levels of incoming vehicles. Low noise pavements combined with all-electric and hybrid vehicles might pose a severe threat to the safety of vulnerable road users. All factors interact simultaneously, and vehicle detection is best predicted by the loudness signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot - paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    To meet the need for long-term, full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  15. Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, John; Gustafsson, Mats; Blomqvist, Göran; Dahl, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Anders; Swietlicki, Erik; Ljungman, Anders G

    2006-04-01

    Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution

  16. Design/Construction of a Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (EEC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide a scientifically defensible estimate of the performance of the three permeable surfaces: porous concrete, porous asphalt, and interlocking concrete pavers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can provide the results to municipalities enabling...

  17. Investigation on the Use of Equivalency Factors for the Design and Evaluation of Flexible Airfield Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Operations on Alternate Launch and Recovery Surfaces (No. ESL -TR-83-46). Tyndall Air Force Base, FL: Air Force Engineering and Services Center. U.S...Little, D. N., Thompson, M. R., Terrell, R. L., Epps, J. A., & Barenberg, E. J. (1987). Soil Stabilization for Roadways and Airfields (No. ESL -TR...Alternate Launch and Recovery Surfaces (No. ESL -TR-83-46). Tyndall Air Force Base, FL: Air Force Engineering and Services Center. U.S. Army Corps of

  18. Evaluating exposure of pedestrians to airborne contaminants associated with non-potable water use for pavement cleaning.

    PubMed

    Seidl, M; Da, G; Ausset, P; Haenn, S; Géhin, E; Moulin, L

    2016-04-01

    Climate change and increasing demography press local authorities to look after affordable water resources and replacement of drinking water for city necessities like street and pavement cleaning by more available raw water. Though, the substitution of drinking by non-drinking resources demands the evaluation of sanitary hazards. This article aims therefore to evaluate the contribution of cleaning water to the overall exposure of city dwellers in case of wet pavement cleaning using crossed physical, chemical and biological approaches. The result of tracer experiments with fluorescein show that liquid water content of the cleaning aerosol produced is about 0.24 g m(-3), rending possible a fast estimation of exposure levels. In situ analysis of the aerosol particles indicates a significant increase in particle number concentration and particle diameter, though without change in particle composition. The conventional bacterial analysis using total coliforms as tracer suggests that an important part of the contamination is issued from the pavement. The qPCR results show a more than 20-fold increase of background genome concentration for Escherichia coli and 10-fold increase for Enterococcus but a negligible contribution of the cleaning water. The fluorescence analysis of the cleaning aerosol confirms the above findings identifying pavement surface as the major contributor to aerosol organic load. The physical, chemical and microbiological approaches used make it possible to describe accurately the cleaning bioaerosol and to identify the existence of significantly higher levels of all parameters studied during the wet pavement cleaning. Though, the low level of contamination and the very short time of passage of pedestrian in the zone do not suggest a significant risk for the city dwellers. As the cleaning workers remain much longer in the impacted area, more attention should be paid to their chronic exposure.

  19. The use of marine sediments as a pavement base material.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vincent; Abriak, Nor Edine; Zentar, Rachid; Ballivy, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    The management of marine sediments after dredging has become increasingly complex. In the context of sustainable development, traditional solutions such as immersion will be increasingly regulated. More than ever, with the shortage of aggregates from quarries, dredged material could constitute a new source of materials. In this study of the potential of using dredged marine sediments in road construction, the first objective is to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of fine sediments dredged from a harbour in the north of France. The impacts of these materials on the environment are also explored. In the second stage, the characteristics of the fine sediment are enhanced for use as a road material. At this stage, the treatment used is compatible with industrial constraints. To decrease the water content of the fine sediments, natural decantation is employed; in addition, dredged sand is added to enhance the granular distribution and to reinforce the granular skeleton. Finally, the characteristics of the mix are enhanced by incorporating binders (cement and/or lime). The mechanical characteristics measured on the mixes are compatible with their use as a base course material. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of lime in the mixes. In terms of environmental impacts, on the basis of leaching tests and according to available thresholds developed for the use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction, the designed dredged mixes satisfy the prescribed thresholds.

  20. Evaluating Cool Impervious Surfaces: Application to an Energy-Efficient Residential Roof and to City Pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, Pablo Javier

    Summer urban heat island (UHI) refers to the phenomenon of having higher urban temperatures compared to the those in surrounding suburban and rural areas. Higher urban air temperatures lead to increased cooling demand, accelerates the formation of smog, and contributes to the generation of greenhouse gas emissions. Dark-colored impervious surfaces cover a significant fraction of an urban fabric, and as hot and dry surfaces, are a major contributor to the UHI effect. Adopting solar-reflective ("cool") roofs and cool pavements, and increasing the urban vegetation, are strategies proven to mitigate urban heat islands. These strategies often have an "indirect" effect (ambient cooling) and "direct" effect (change in solar energy flux entering the conditioned space) on the energy use of buildings. This work investigates some elements of the UHI mitigation strategies, specifically the annual direct effect of a cool roof, and the direct and indirect effects of cool pavements. The first topic researched in this paper consists in an experimental assessment of the direct effects from replacing a conventional dark roof with a highly energy-efficient cool roof. The study measures and calculates the annual benefits of the cool roof on the cooling and heating energy uses, and the associated emission reductions. The energy savings attributed to the cool roof are validated by measuring the difference between the homes in the heat loads that entered the conditioned space through the ceiling and HVAC ducts. Fractional annual cooling energy savings (26%) were 2.6 times the 10% daily cooling energy savings measured in a previous study that used a white coating to increase the albedo of an asphalt shingle roof by the same amount (0.44). The improved cooling energy savings (26% vs. 10%) may be attributed to the cool tile's above-sheathing ventilation, rather than to its high thermal mass. The roof also provided energy savings during the heating season, yielding fractional annual gas

  1. Assessment of an Impulse GPR Antenna Abilities in Investigation of Transversal Cracks of the Bituminous Pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysiński, L.; Sudyka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is commonly used for detection of internal singularities of construction structure. The method is particularly efficient in the case of linear horizontal objects when profile scanning is being performed in the direction perpendicular to object elongation and polarization of the electric field is parallel to the elongation. Then the singular object manifests itself in the echogram as a scattering hyperbola. Similar response is generated by an object having shape close to a vertical half plane with horizontal edge, when the edge acts like the scattering linear object. The use of GPR technique for investigation of transversal cracks in the bituminous pavement would seem to be promising, but numerous paradoxes occur just at the beginning tests. Even well visible cracks of more than ten millimeters thickness doesn't generate noticeable GPR response, while thinner ones sometimes can produce strong response but in the deeper interior of the pavement. Thus arise a more general question: what the GPR technique can tell us about the cracks? Trying to study this problem some laboratory tests were performed to estimate efficiency of signal generation by structures simulating idealized cracks' shapes. Next long-term (several years) visual observation and repeated GPR scanning was performed on the three road sections (each one of several hundred meters length) with heavy traffic, where ongoing cracking process occurs. The preliminary measurements were directed to obtain the proper way of scanning. The main aim of the analysis was to find GPR characteristics of cracks that can be noticed on echograms. It was performed by detailed correlation of the visually observed cracks position with echograms using decimeter precision. These efforts provided a list of diagnostic GPR characteristics of cracks and some provisional scale of their intensity. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings to recognize structures responsible for signal

  2. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (ΣPAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 μg m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 μg m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ΣPAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ΣPAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  3. Rapid decision support tool based on novel ecosystem service variables for retrofitting of permeable pavement systems in the presence of trees.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas; Uzomah, Vincent C

    2013-08-01

    The retrofitting of sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) such as permeable pavements is currently undertaken ad hoc using expert experience supported by minimal guidance based predominantly on hard engineering variables. There is a lack of practical decision support tools useful for a rapid assessment of the potential of ecosystem services when retrofitting permeable pavements in urban areas that either feature existing trees or should be planted with trees in the near future. Thus the aim of this paper is to develop an innovative rapid decision support tool based on novel ecosystem service variables for retrofitting of permeable pavement systems close to trees. This unique tool proposes the retrofitting of permeable pavements that obtained the highest ecosystem service score for a specific urban site enhanced by the presence of trees. This approach is based on a novel ecosystem service philosophy adapted to permeable pavements rather than on traditional engineering judgement associated with variables based on quick community and environment assessments. For an example case study area such as Greater Manchester, which was dominated by Sycamore and Common Lime, a comparison with the traditional approach of determining community and environment variables indicates that permeable pavements are generally a preferred SuDS option. Permeable pavements combined with urban trees received relatively high scores, because of their great potential impact in terms of water and air quality improvement, and flood control, respectively. The outcomes of this paper are likely to lead to more combined permeable pavement and tree systems in the urban landscape, which are beneficial for humans and the environment.

  4. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  5. Construction and testing of crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt pavement. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Albritton, G.E.; Gatlin, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    This study was structured towards addressing that portion of ISTEA which directs the individual states to conduct studies on the recyclability of crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt (CRMHMA), and the technical performance of CRMHMA pavement by monitoring the construction and evaluating the performance of highway test sections in which CRMHA is removed by cold milling and recycled into new HMA through a hot mix asphalt plant. This project is to be constructed in two phases, the CRMHMA will be built in the first phase and approximately one year later it will be recycled. This report deals with the first phase in which the objective was to further document the construction, engineering characteristics, and performace of CRMHMA.

  6. Hypolithic microbial community of quartz pavement in the high-altitude tundra of central Tibet.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fiona K Y; Lacap, Donnabella C; Lau, Maggie C Y; Aitchison, J C; Cowan, Donald A; Pointing, Stephen B

    2010-11-01

    The hypolithic microbial community associated with quartz pavement at a high-altitude tundra location in central Tibet is described. A small-scale ecological survey indicated that 36% of quartz rocks were colonized. Community profiling using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed no significant difference in community structure among a number of colonized rocks. Real-time quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis of environmental phylotypes obtained from clone libraries were used to elucidate community structure across all domains. The hypolithon was dominated by cyanobacterial phylotypes (73%) with relatively low frequencies of other bacterial phylotypes, largely represented by the chloroflexi, actinobacteria, and bacteriodetes. Unidentified crenarchaeal phylotypes accounted for 4% of recoverable phylotypes, while algae, fungi, and mosses were indicated by a small fraction of recoverable phylotypes.

  7. Contribution of rheological characteristics of pavement structure with addition of brick waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senisna, Zoubida; Bentebba, Med Tahar

    2017-02-01

    The construction and demolition waste at the end of the cycle are often a threat for the environment due to their congestion and biodegradability. The presented research work aims to develop these wastes such as the waste of pavements structure brick. It refers to the behavior of modified asphalt mixture (bituminous grave) by adding the waste of the grinding yellow brick, which is used in the construction of buildings. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate and compare the physical and mechanical performance roadway structure (modified bituminous Gravel (GB 0/20)) by replacing natural sand partly mix (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% or completely by brick waste sand) and determine the optimal composition. Mechanical and rheological performance give the best results. The results show that the use of brick waste sand leads to a reduction of the physical and mechanical properties of GB 0/20.

  8. Hypolithic Microbial Community of Quartz Pavement in the High-Altitude Tundra of Central Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fiona K. Y.; Lacap, Donnabella C.; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Aitchison, J. C.; Cowan, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    The hypolithic microbial community associated with quartz pavement at a high-altitude tundra location in central Tibet is described. A small-scale ecological survey indicated that 36% of quartz rocks were colonized. Community profiling using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed no significant difference in community structure among a number of colonized rocks. Real-time quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis of environmental phylotypes obtained from clone libraries were used to elucidate community structure across all domains. The hypolithon was dominated by cyanobacterial phylotypes (73%) with relatively low frequencies of other bacterial phylotypes, largely represented by the chloroflexi, actinobacteria, and bacteriodetes. Unidentified crenarchaeal phylotypes accounted for 4% of recoverable phylotypes, while algae, fungi, and mosses were indicated by a small fraction of recoverable phylotypes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9653-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20336290

  9. Assessing cost-effectiveness of specific LID practice designs in response to large storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Wenting

    2016-02-01

    Low impact development (LID) practices have become more important in urban stormwater management worldwide. However, most research on design optimization focuses on relatively large scale, and there is very limited information or guideline regarding individual LID practice designs (i.e., optimal depth, width and length). The objective of this study is to identify the optimal design by assessing the hydrological performance and the cost-effectiveness of different designs of LID practices at a household or business scale, and to analyze the sensitivity of the hydrological performance and the cost of the optimal design to different model and design parameters. First, EPA SWMM, automatically controlled by MATLAB, is used to obtain the peak runoff of different designs of three specific LID practices (i.e., green roof, bioretention and porous pavement) under different design storms (i.e., 2 yr and 50 yr design storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, U.S.). Then, life cycle cost is estimated for the different designs, and the optimal design, defined as the design with the lowest cost and at least 20% peak runoff reduction, is identified. Finally, sensitivity of the optimal design to the different design parameters is examined. The optimal design of green roof tends to be larger in area but thinner, while the optimal designs of bioretention and porous pavement tend to be smaller in area. To handle larger storms, however, it is more effective to increase the green roof depth, and to increase the area of the bioretention and porous pavement. Porous pavement is the most cost-effective for peak flow reduction, followed by bioretention and then green roof. The cost-effectiveness, measured as the peak runoff reduction/thousand Dollars of LID practices in Hong Kong (e.g., 0.02 L/103 US s, 0.15 L/103 US s and 0.93 L/103 US s for green roof, bioretention and porous pavement for 2 yr storm) is lower than that in Seattle (e.g., 0.03 L/103 US s, 0.29 L/103 US s and 1.58 L/103 US s for

  10. Possible environmental impacts of recycled glass used as a pavement base material.

    PubMed

    Imteaz, Monzur Alam; Ali, M M Younus; Arulrajah, Arul

    2012-09-01

    In theory, glass diverted or recovered from the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream can be used as feedstock (glass cullet) in the production of new glass containers. However, post-consumer glass typically contains a mixture of clear and coloured material and is often contaminated with other wastes; characteristics that are impediments to the production of new containers. Sorting and cleaning of glass diverted from MSW to make it feasible for use in bottle industries are also time consuming and costly tasks. There is, however, the potential to use recycled glass as a sub-base material for road pavement construction. Geotechnical investigations to date suggest that use of recycled glass as a roadway sub-base could be cost-effective, and thus preclude the need for expensive sorting. There is, however, the necessessity to further investigate the potential short- and long-term toxicity, health hazards, and/or environmental pollution associated with use of mixed glass cullet as an aggregate, considering conditions during stockpiled storage and after placement. The results of laboratory tests on recycled glass regarding its potential to release pollutants to the environment via leaching are presented herein. Five random samples of crushed glasses were collected from a recycling company in Melbourne, Australia. The parameters tested for each sample were total organic matter, heavy metals, sulfates, chlorides, conductivity, pH and surfactant levels. It wais found that in most cases, the contamination levels were within the State of Victoria's Environmental Protection Agency-specified limits for manual handling, thus indicating that recycled glass could probably be safely used in pavement sub-bases.

  11. Evaluation of western and eastern shale oil residua as asphalt pavement recycling agents

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the utility of residual materials prepared from Green River Formation (western) and New Albany Shale (eastern) shale oils as recycling agents for aged asphalt pavement. Four petroleum asphalts were first aged by a thin-film accelerated-aging test, which simulates long service life of asphalt in pavement. The aged asphalts were mixed (recycled) with Green River Formation shale oil distillation residua to restore the original viscosities. Separately, for comparison, a commercial recycling agent was used to recycle the aged asphalts under the same circumstances. The recycled asphalts were reaged and the properties of both binder and asphalt-aggregate mixtures studied. Originally, the same study was intended for an eastern shale residua. However, the eastern shale oil distillation residua with the required flash point specification also had the properties of a viscosity builder; therefore, it was studied as such with asphalts that do not achieve sufficient viscosity during processing to serve as usable binders. Results show that Green River Formation shale oil residuum can be used to restore the original asphalt properties with favorable rheological properties, the shale oil residuum has a beneficial effect on resistance to moisture damage, the low-temperature properties of the shale oil residuum recycled asphalts are not adversely affected, and the low-temperature properties of the shale oil residuum recycled asphalts are dependent upon the chemistry of the mixture. The eastern shale oil residua was blended with soft petroleum asphalts. Results show the products have higher viscosities than the starting materials, the rheological properties of the soft asphalt-eastern shale oil residue blends are acceptable, and the eastern shale oil residue has dispersant properties despite its high viscosity. 11 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment.

  13. Permeability measurement and scan imaging to assess clogging of pervious concrete pavements in parking lots.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, Masoud; Anderson, Dane; Harvey, John T; Jones, David; Muhunthan, Balasingam

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a study that used permeability measurement along with physical and hydrological characteristics of 20 pervious concrete pavements in parking lots throughout California. The permeability was measured at five locations: the main entrance, an area with no traffic, and three separate measurements within a parking space at each parking lot. Hydrological and physical site characteristics such as traffic flow, erosion, vegetation cover, sediments accumulation, maintenance practice, presence of cracking, rainfall, and temperature data were also collected for each parking lot. These data were used to perform detailed statistical analysis to determine factors influencing changes in permeability and hence assessing possible cause of clogging. In addition, seven representative core samples were obtained from four different parking lots with permeability ranging from very low to very high. Porosity profiles produced from CT scanning were used to assess the possible nature and extent of clogging. Results showed that there is a large variation in permeability within each parking lot and between different parking lots. In general, the age of the parking lot is the predominant factor influencing the permeability. Statistical analysis revealed that fine sediment (particles less than 38 μm) mass is also an important influencing factor. Other influencing factors with lower significance included number of days with a temperature greater than 30°C and the amount of vegetation next to the parking lot. The combined scanned image analysis and porosity profile of the cores showed that most clogging occurs near the surface of the pavement. While lower porosity generally appeared to be limited to the upper 25 mm, in some core samples evidence of lower porosity was found up to 100mm below the surface.

  14. Development of an evaporation-optimized and water-permeable pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, P.; Göbel, P.; Coldewey, W. G.

    2009-04-01

    During recent decades, urban areas have been threatened more frequently by flood events. Furthermore, the potential for damage from these events has increased on average. The construction of houses, streets and parking lots has caused this trend by sealing the ground surface, i.e. these water-impermeable areas reduce the natural infiltration and evaporation-rates, and in some cases it is even completely stopped. The consequence is the so called "urban water cycle". Water from precipitation cannot be stored anywhere and so there is an immediate and very high surface run-off effect. Especially after intense rain events, canalisations and sewage-treatment plants are overloaded and this leads to higher costs for water treatment and to environmental damage. A practical solution to this problem is the use of water-permeable pavements. Here higher infiltration rates lead to a groundwater recharge that is greater than that of natural soils. The consequences from using these surfaces are already noticeable in many places through increasing groundwater levels. These increases cause damage to buildings. A second difference from a natural-soil water-balance is a lower evapotranspiration rate. Up to now the evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements has not been established accurately. The aim of the applied research project at the University of Muenster, which is sponsored by the DBU (The German Federal Environmental Foundation), is to gain knowledge of urban evaporation rates and of water-permeable surfaces, especially water-permeable pavements. Water-permeable pavements consist of the paving stone surface and the two sub-base layers below. Pre-investigations show that evaporation can be influenced by the complete sub-base. Therefore, the first step was to investigate which materials are used for sub-base construction. All in all, 27 materials were collected from throughout Germany and these materials were then tested (in terms of physical and hydraulic attributes) in

  15. Using Value-Focused Thinking to Evaluate the Practicality of Porous Pavement Parking Areas on Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Public Works, 28-32. 103 Stotz, G., & Krauth , K . (1994). The pollution of effluents from pervious pavements of an experimental highway section...Sq Ft/Year) 1 0 3.e-002 7.e-002 Figure 35: Maintenance Cost SDVF. Required Equipment Cost was set in terms of thousands of dollars ($ K ) and...Required Equipment Cost ( K Dollars) 1 0 0. 200. Figure 36: Required Equipment Cost SDVF. 3.5.2. Contract Concerns Contractor Experience was

  16. Evaluation of clay content in soils for pavement engineering applications using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Patriarca, Claudio; Benedetto, Andrea; Slob, Evert C.; Lambot, Sébastien

    2013-04-01

    Clay content significantly influences the mechanical behavior of soils, thereby playing an important role in many fields of applications such as civil engineering, geology and agriculture. In the area of pavement engineering, clay content in structural bearing courses of pavement frequently causes damages and defects, such as transversal and longitudinal cracks, or other faults. The main consequence is a lowering of both the road safety and operability, with the number of expected accidents increasing. In this study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) laboratory tests were carried out to predict the clay amount in pavement structural layers under different clay and moisture conditions. GPR data processing is performed using two different methods. The first method is based on the Fresnel theory and focuses on the Rayleigh scattering of the radar waves. The approach is based on a different scattering of the various components of the frequency spectrum, mostly depending on both the soil texture and variation in soil moisture content. For the application of this method, we used a pulse radar with ground-coupled, 500 MHz centre-frequency antennas in a common offset, bistatic configuration. The transmitter and receiver were linked by optic fiber electronic modules. The second method is based on full-waveform inversion of the ultra wideband radar data. In particular, a specific radar-antenna electromagnetic model is used to filter out antenna effects and antenna-medium interactions from the raw radar data and retrieve the response of the soil only, expressed in terms of a layered medium Green's function. To estimate the medium geometrical and electrical values, an optimization inverse problem is formulated. For the application of that second method, we used a vector network analyzer (VNA) as continuous-wave stepped-frequency radar system to acquire data in the 500-3000 MHz frequency range. A doubled-ridged broadband horn antenna operating in far-field conditions was used as

  17. Effectiveness of Pavement Management System and its Effects to the Closing of Final Account in Construction Project in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zarabizan; Ismail, Syuhaida; Yusof, Aminah Md

    2013-04-01

    Federal roads maintenance needs a systematic and effective mechanism to ensure that the roads are in good condition and provide comfort to the road user. In implementing effective maintenance, budget is main the factor limiting this endeavor. Thus Public Works Department (PWD) Malaysia used Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) System to help the management of PWD Malaysia in determining the location and length of the road to be repaired according to the priority based on its analysis. For that purpose, PWD Malaysia has applied Pavement Management System (PMS) which utilizes HDM-4 as the analysis engine to conduct technical and economic analysis in generating annual work programs for pavement maintenance. As a result, a lot of feedback and comment have been received from Supervisory and Roads Maintenance Unit (UPPJ) Zonal on the accuracy of the system output and problems that arise in the closing of final account. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to evaluate current system accuracy in terms of generating the annual work program for periodic pavement maintenance, to identify factors contributing to the system inaccuracy in selecting the location and length of roads that require for treatment and to propose improvement measures for the system accuracy. The factors affecting the closing of final account caused by result received from the pavement management system are also defined. The scope of this paper is on the existing HDM-4 System which cover four states specifically Perlis, Selangor, Kelantan and Johor which is analysed via the work program output data for the purpose of evaluating the system accuracy. The method used in this paper includes case study, interview, discussion and analysis of the HDM-4 System output data. This paper has identified work history not updated and the analysis is not using the current data as factors contributing to the system accuracy. From the result of this paper, it is found that HDM-4's system accuracy used by PWD

  18. Analysis, testing and verification of the behavior of composite pavements under Florida conditions using a heavy vehicle simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia Gutierrez, Patricio Enrique

    Whitetopping (WT) is a rehabilitation method to resurface deteriorated asphalt pavements. While some of these composite pavements have performed very well carrying heavy load, other have shown poor performance with early cracking. With the objective of analyzing the applicability of WT pavements under Florida conditions, a total of nine full-scale WT test sections were constructed and tested using a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) in the APT facility at the FDOT Material Research Park. The test sections were instrumented to monitor both strain and temperature. A 3-D finite element model was developed to analyze the WT test sections. The model was calibrated and verified using measured FWD deflections and HVS load-induced strains from the test sections. The model was then used to evaluate the potential performance of these test sections under critical temperature-load condition in Florida. Six of the WT pavement test sections had a bonded concrete-asphalt interface by milling, cleaning and spraying with water the asphalt surface. This method produced excellent bonding at the interface, with shear strength of 195 to 220 psi. Three of the test sections were intended to have an unbonded concrete-asphalt interface by applying a debonding agent in the asphalt surface. However, shear strengths between 119 and 135 psi and a careful analysis of the strain and the temperature data indicated a partial bond condition. The computer model was able to satisfactorily model the behavior of the composite pavement by mainly considering material properties from standard laboratory tests and calibrating the spring elements used to model the interface. Reasonable matches between the measured and the calculated strains were achieved when a temperature-dependent AC elastic modulus was included in the analytical model. The expected numbers of repetitions of the 24-kip single axle loads at critical thermal condition were computed for the nine test sections based on maximum tensile stresses

  19. Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of resources on this month's theme "Design" for K-8 language arts, art and architecture, music and dance, science, math, social studies, health, and physical education. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audiotapes, magazines, professional resources and classroom activities.…

  20. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…